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Sample records for 3d perspective view

  1. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three-dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x

  2. 3-D Perspective View, Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image shows Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands, along with five smaller islands, are a self-governing territory of France. North is in the top right corner of the image. The island of Miquelon, in the background, is divided by a thin barrier beach into Petite Miquelon on the left, and Grande Miquelon on the right. Saint Pierre Island is seen in the foreground. The maximum elevation of this land is 240 meters (787 feet). The land mass of the islands is about 242square kilometers (94 square miles) or 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC.

    This three-dimensional perspective view is one of several still photographs taken from a simulated flyover of the islands. It shows how elevation data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image taken on September 7, 1999. The Landsat image was draped over the SRTM data. Terrain perspective and shading are from SRTM. The vertical scale has been increased six times to make it easier to see the small features. This also makes the sea cliffs around the edges of the islands look larger. In this view the capital city of Saint Pierre is seen as the bright area in the foreground of the island. The thin bright line seen in the water is a breakwater that offers some walled protection for the coastal city.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and

  3. Venus - 3D Perspective View of Maat Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Maat Mons is displayed in this three-dimensional perspective view of the surface of Venus. The viewpoint is located 560 kilometers (347 miles) north of Maat Mons at an elevation of 1.7 kilometers (1 mile) above the terrain. Lava flows extend for hundreds of kilometers across the fractured plains shown in the foreground, to the base of Maat Mons. The view is to the south with Maat Mons appearing at the center of the image on the horizon. Maat Mons, an 8-kilometer (5 mile) high volcano, is located at approximately 0.9 degrees north latitude, 194.5 degrees east longitude. Maat Mons is named for an Egyptian goddess of truth and justice. Magellan synthetic aperture radar data is combined with radar altimetry to develop a three-dimensional map of the surface. The vertical scale in this perspective has been exaggerated 22.5 times. Rays cast in a computer intersect the surface to create a three-dimensional perspective view. Simulated color and a digital elevation map developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, are used to enhance small-scale structure. The simulated hues are based on color images recorded by the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft. The image was produced at the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory.

  4. Venus - 3D Perspective View of Maat Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Maat Mons is displayed in this computer generated three-dimensional perspective of the surface of Venus. The viewpoint is located 634 kilometers (393 miles) north of Maat Mons at an elevation of 3 kilometers (2 miles) above the terrain. Lava flows extend for hundreds of kilometers across the fractured plains shown in the foreground, to the base of Maat Mons. The view is to the south with the volcano Maat Mons appearing at the center of the image on the horizon and rising to almost 5 kilometers (3 miles) above the surrounding terrain. Maat Mons is located at approximately 0.9 degrees north latitude, 194.5 degrees east longitude with a peak that ascends to 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the mean surface. Maat Mons is named for an Egyptian Goddess of truth and justice. Magellan synthetic aperture radar data is combined with radar altimetry to develop a three-dimensional map of the surface. The vertical scale in this perspective has been exaggerated 10 times. Rays cast in a computer intersect the surface to crate a three-dimensional perspective view. Simulated color and a digital elevation map developed by the U.S. Geological Survey are used to enhance small-scale structure. The simulated hues are based on color images recorded by the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft. The image was produced by the Solar System Visualization project and the Magellan Science team at the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory and is a single frame from a video released at the April 22, 1992 news conference.

  5. Integration of a 3D perspective view in the navigation display: featuring pilot's mental model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrecht, L.; Schmerwitz, S.

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic vision systems (SVS) appear as spreading technology in the avionic domain. Several studies prove enhanced situational awareness when using synthetic vision. Since the introduction of synthetic vision a steady change and evolution started concerning the primary flight display (PFD) and the navigation display (ND). The main improvements of the ND comprise the representation of colored ground proximity warning systems (EGPWS), weather radar, and TCAS information. Synthetic vision seems to offer high potential to further enhance cockpit display systems. Especially, concerning the current trend having a 3D perspective view in a SVS-PFD while leaving the navigational content as well as methods of interaction unchanged the question arouses if and how the gap between both displays might evolve to a serious problem. This issue becomes important in relation to the transition and combination of strategic and tactical flight guidance. Hence, pros and cons of 2D and 3D views generally as well as the gap between the egocentric perspective 3D view of the PFD and the exocentric 2D top and side view of the ND will be discussed. Further a concept for the integration of a 3D perspective view, i.e., bird's eye view, in synthetic vision ND will be presented. The combination of 2D and 3D views in the ND enables a better correlation of the ND and the PFD. Additionally, this supports the building of pilot's mental model. The authors believe it will improve the situational and spatial awareness. It might prove to further raise the safety margin when operating in mountainous areas.

  6. Venus - 3D Perspective View of Latona Corona and Dali Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This computer-generated perspective view of Latona Corona and Dali Chasma on Venus shows Magellan radar data superimposed on topography. The view is from the northeast and vertical exaggeration is 10 times. Exaggeration of relief is a common tool scientists use to detect relationships between structure (i.e. faults and fractures) and topography. Latona Corona, a circular feature approximately 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) in diameter whose eastern half is shown at the left of the image, has a relatively smooth, radar-bright raised rim. Bright lines or fractures within the corona appear to radiate away from its center toward the rim. The rest of the bright fractures in the area are associated with the relatively deep (approximately 3 kilometers or 1.9 miles) troughs of Dali Chasma. The Dali and Diana Chasma system consist of deep troughs that extend for 7,400 kilometers (4,588 miles) and are very distinct features on Venus. Those chasma connect the Ovda and Thetis highlands with the large volcanoes at Atla Regio and thus are considered to be the 'Scorpion Tail' of Aphrodite Terra. The broad, curving scarp resembles some of Earth's subduction zones where crustal plates are pushed over each other. The radar-bright surface at the highest elevation along the scarp is similar to surfaces in other elevated regions where some metallic mineral such as pyrite (fool's gold) may occur on the surface.

  7. Reconstruction of quadratic curves in 3D using two or more perspective views: simulation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Sukavanam, N.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2006-01-01

    The shapes of many natural and man-made objects have planar and curvilinear surfaces. The images of such curves usually do not have sufficient distinctive features to apply conventional feature-based reconstruction algorithms. In this paper, we describe a method of reconstruction of a quadratic curve in 3-D space as an intersection of two cones containing the respective projected curve images. The correspondence between this pair of projections of the curve is assumed to be established in this work. Using least-square curve fitting, the parameters of a curve in 2-D space are found. From this we are reconstructing the 3-D quadratic curve. Relevant mathematical formulations and analytical solutions for obtaining the equation of reconstructed curve are given. The result of the described reconstruction methodology are studied by simulation studies. This reconstruction methodology is applicable to LBW decision in cricket, path of the missile, Robotic Vision, path lanning etc.

  8. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  9. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  10. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  11. 3D object retrieval using salient views.

    PubMed

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati; Shapiro, Linda G

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a method for selecting salient 2D views to describe 3D objects for the purpose of retrieval. The views are obtained by first identifying salient points via a learning approach that uses shape characteristics of the 3D points (Atmosukarto and Shapiro in International workshop on structural, syntactic, and statistical pattern recognition, 2008; Atmosukarto and Shapiro in ACM multimedia information retrieval, 2008). The salient views are selected by choosing views with multiple salient points on the silhouette of the object. Silhouette-based similarity measures from Chen et al. (Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223-232, 2003) are then used to calculate the similarity between two 3D objects. Retrieval experiments were performed on three datasets: the Heads dataset, the SHREC2008 dataset, and the Princeton dataset. Experimental results show that the retrieval results using the salient views are comparable to the existing light field descriptor method (Chen et al. in Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223-232, 2003), and our method achieves a 15-fold speedup in the feature extraction computation time. PMID:23833704

  12. 3D object retrieval using salient views

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Linda G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for selecting salient 2D views to describe 3D objects for the purpose of retrieval. The views are obtained by first identifying salient points via a learning approach that uses shape characteristics of the 3D points (Atmosukarto and Shapiro in International workshop on structural, syntactic, and statistical pattern recognition, 2008; Atmosukarto and Shapiro in ACM multimedia information retrieval, 2008). The salient views are selected by choosing views with multiple salient points on the silhouette of the object. Silhouette-based similarity measures from Chen et al. (Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223–232, 2003) are then used to calculate the similarity between two 3D objects. Retrieval experiments were performed on three datasets: the Heads dataset, the SHREC2008 dataset, and the Princeton dataset. Experimental results show that the retrieval results using the salient views are comparable to the existing light field descriptor method (Chen et al. in Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223–232, 2003), and our method achieves a 15-fold speedup in the feature extraction computation time. PMID:23833704

  13. First 3D view of solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    loops, rather than a bubble or rope-like structure. Although this technique had been independently developed previously to study relatively static structures in the solar atmosphere during eclipses, this is the first time that it is applied to fast moving CMEs. Moran and Davila believe that their method will complement data from the upcoming NASA’s Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission, scheduled for launch in February 2006. STEREO will use two widely separated spacecraft to construct 3D views of CMEs by combining images from the different vantage points of the twin spacecraft. Commenting on this result, Bernhard Fleck, SOHO Project Scientist at ESA, said: "These are really amazing images. Once again scientists have come up with a clever idea for analysing SOHO data in ways that were not even dreamt of when the mission was designed." Movie: http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702.mpg 3 stills from the movie http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702c.tiff http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702d.tiff http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702e.tiff This movie shows a 3D rendering of the data in Figure 2. It starts out viewing the Sun from SOHO's perspective, then rotates the scene to view the data from the side, and finally from the top. Note that one distinct feature shown at about 11 o'clock in Figure 2 panel a has been left out of the movie, because it is a static structure and not a part of the CME. Notes to Editors: This new result by T. Moran and J. Davila is published in today’s issue of the magazine Science. More about SOHO SOHO is a project of international co-operation between ESA and NASA to study the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, and the solar wind. Fourteen European countries, led by the European Space Agency and prime contractor Astrium (formerly Matra-Marconi), built the SOHO spacecraft. It carries twelve instruments (nine European-led and three

  14. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  15. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER

  16. Wide-viewing-angle floating 3D display system with no 3D glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgoff, Eugene

    1998-04-01

    Previously, the author has described a new 3D imaging technology entitled 'real depth' with several different configurations and methods of implantation. Included were several methods to 'float' images in free space. Viewers can pass their hands through the image or appear to hold it in their hands. Most implementations provide an angle of view of approximately 45 degrees. The technology produces images at different depths from any display, such as CRT and LCD, for television, computer, projection, and other formats. Unlike stereoscopic 3D imaging, no glasses, headgear or other viewing aids are used. In addition to providing traditional depth cues, such as perspective and background images occlusion, the technology also provides both horizontal and vertical binocular parallax producing visual accommodation and convergence which coincide. Consequently, viewing these images do not produce headaches, fatigue, or eyestrain, regardless of how long they are viewed. A method was also proposed to provide a floating image display system with a wide angle of view. Implementation of this design proved problematic, producing various image distortions. In this paper the author discloses new methods to produce aerial images with a wide angel of view and improved image quality.

  17. 3-D Perspective Kamchatka Peninsula Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions. This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60- meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline. Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees

  18. 3D Viewing: Odd Perception - Illusion? reality? or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisimoto, K.; Iizasa, K.

    2008-12-01

    We live in the three dimensional space, don't we? It could be at least four dimensions, but that is another story. In either way our perceptual capability of 3D-Viewing is constrained by our 2D-perception (our intrinsic tools of perception). I carried out a few visual experiments using topographic data to show our intrinsic (or biological) disability (or shortcoming) in 3D-recognition of our world. Results of the experiments suggest: (1) 3D-surface model displayed on a 2D-computer screen (or paper) always has two interpretations of the 3D- surface geometry, if we choose one of the interpretation (in other word, if we are hooked by one perception of the two), we maintain its perception even if the 3D-model changes its viewing perspective in time shown on the screen, (2) more interesting is that 3D-real solid object (e.g.,made of clay) also gives above mentioned two interpretations of the geometry of the object, if we observe the object with one-eye. Most famous example of this viewing illusion is exemplified by a magician, who died in 2007, Jerry Andrus who made a super-cool paper crafted dragon which causes visual illusion to one-eyed viewer. I, by the experiments, confirmed this phenomenon in another perceptually persuasive (deceptive?) way. My conclusion is that this illusion is intrinsic, i.e. reality for human, because, even if we live in 3D-space, our perceptional tool (eyes) is composed of 2D sensors whose information is reconstructed or processed to 3D by our experience-based brain. So, (3) when we observe the 3D-surface-model on the computer screen, we are always one eye short even if we use both eyes. One last suggestion from my experiments is that recent highly sophisticated 3D- models might include too many information that human perceptions cannot handle properly, i.e. we might not be understanding the 3D world (geospace) at all, just illusioned.

  19. First 3D view of solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    arrival times and impact angles at the Earth," says Dr Thomas Moran of the Catholic University, Washington, USA. In collaboration with Dr Joseph Davila, of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA, Moran has analysed two-dimensional images from the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) in a new way to yield 3D images. Their technique is able to reveal the complex and distorted magnetic fields that travel with the CME cloud and sometimes interact with Earth's own magnetic field, pouring tremendous amounts of energy into the space near Earth. "These magnetic fields are invisible," Moran explains, "but since the CME gas is electrified, it spirals around the magnetic fields, tracing out their shapes." Therefore, a 3D view of the CME electrified gas (called a plasma) gives scientists valuable information on the structure and behaviour of the magnetic fields powering the CME. The new analysis technique for SOHO data determines the three-dimensional structure of a CME by taking a sequence of three SOHO Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) images through various polarisers, at different angles. Whilst the light emitted by the Sun is not polarised, once it is scattered off electrons in the CME plasma it takes up some polarisation. This means that the electric fields of some of the scattered light are forced to oscillate in certain directions, whereas the electric field in the light emitted by the Sun is free to oscillate in all directions. Moran and Davila knew that light from CME structures closer to the plane of the Sun (as seen on the LASCO images) had to be more polarised than light from structures farther from that plane. Thus, by computing the ratio of polarised to unpolarised light for each CME structure, they could measure its distance from the plane. This provided the missing third dimension to the LASCO images. With this technique, the team has confirmed that the structure of CMEs directed towards Earth is an expanding arcade of

  20. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).

    The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land

  1. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  2. User experience while viewing stereoscopic 3D television

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C.A.; Bohr, Iwo

    2014-01-01

    3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the ‘nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D. Practitioner Summary: Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) has been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. Viewers watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (between-subjects design). Around 14% reported effects such as headache and eyestrain linked to S3D itself, while 8% report adverse effects attributable to 3D glasses or negative expectations. PMID:24874550

  3. NASA's 3D View of Celestial Lightsabers

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie envisions a three-dimensional perspective on the Hubble Space Telescope's striking image of the Herbig-Haro object known as HH 24. The central star is hidden by gas and dust, but its pro...

  4. View synthesis techniques for 3D video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Dong; Lai, Po-Lin; Lopez, Patrick; Gomila, Cristina

    2009-08-01

    To facilitate new video applications such as three-dimensional video (3DV) and free-viewpoint video (FVV), multiple view plus depth format (MVD), which consists of both video views and the corresponding per-pixel depth images, is being investigated. Virtual views can be generated using depth image based rendering (DIBR), which takes video and the corresponding depth images as input. This paper discusses view synthesis techniques based on DIBR, which includes forward warping, blending and hole filling. Especially, we will emphasize on the techniques brought to the MPEG view synthesis reference software (VSRS). Unlike the case in the field of computer graphics, the ground truth depth images for nature content are very difficult to obtain. The estimated depth images used for view synthesis typically contain different types of noises. Some robust synthesis modes to combat against the depth errors are also presented in this paper. In addition, we briefly discuss how to use synthesis techniques with minor modifications to generate the occlusion layer information for layered depth video (LDV) data, which is another potential format for 3DV applications.

  5. Multi-view and 3D deformable part models.

    PubMed

    Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt

    2015-11-01

    As objects are inherently 3D, they have been modeled in 3D in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to 3D models, 3D object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based models are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such models have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about 3D shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of 3D and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of 3D object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part model [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information, resulting in several different models with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a 3D object model, consisting of multiple object parts represented in 3D and a continuous appearance model. We experimentally verify that our models, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object models, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , 3D object classes [3] , Pascal3D+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ). PMID:26440264

  6. World Wind 3D Earth Viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Patrick; Maxwell, Christopher; Kim, Randolph; Gaskins, Tom

    2007-01-01

    World Wind allows users to zoom from satellite altitude down to any place on Earth, leveraging high-resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D. In addition to Earth, World Wind can also visualize other planets, and there are already comprehensive data sets for Mars and the Earth's moon, which are as easily accessible as those of Earth. There have been more than 20 million downloads to date, and the software is being used heavily by the Department of Defense due to the code s ability to be extended and the evolution of the code courtesy of NASA and the user community. Primary features include the dynamic access to public domain imagery and its ease of use. All one needs to control World Wind is a two-button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed through a simplified menu. A JAVA version will be available soon. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse, or by typing in any location to automatically zoom in to see it. The World Wind install package contains the necessary requirements such as the .NET runtime and managed DirectX library. World Wind can display combinations of data from a variety of sources, including Blue Marble, LandSat 7, SRTM, NASA Scientific Visualization Studio, GLOBE, and much more. A thorough list of features, the user manual, a key chart, and screen shots are available at http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov.

  7. 3D View of Mars Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a 3D representation of the pits seen in the first Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM, images sent back from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Red represents the highest point and purple represents the lowest point.

    The particle in the upper left corner shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a rounded particle about one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across. It is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The particle was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress' delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The AFM is part of Phoenix's microscopic station called MECA, or the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. User experience while viewing stereoscopic 3D television.

    PubMed

    Read, Jenny C A; Bohr, Iwo

    2014-01-01

    3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the 'nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D. PMID:24874550

  9. Balance and coordination after viewing stereoscopic 3D television.

    PubMed

    Read, Jenny C A; Simonotto, Jennifer; Bohr, Iwo; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn; Smulders, Tom V

    2015-07-01

    Manufacturers and the media have raised the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3D television (S3D TV) may cause temporary disruption to balance and visuomotor coordination. We looked for evidence of such effects in a laboratory-based study. Four hundred and thirty-three people aged 4-82 years old carried out tests of balance and coordination before and after viewing an 80 min movie in either conventional 2D or stereoscopic 3D, while wearing two triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometry produced little evidence of any change in body motion associated with S3D TV. We found no evidence that viewing the movie in S3D causes a detectable impairment in balance or in visuomotor coordination. PMID:26587261

  10. Balance and coordination after viewing stereoscopic 3D television

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Simonotto, Jennifer; Bohr, Iwo; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn; Smulders, Tom V.

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers and the media have raised the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3D television (S3D TV) may cause temporary disruption to balance and visuomotor coordination. We looked for evidence of such effects in a laboratory-based study. Four hundred and thirty-three people aged 4–82 years old carried out tests of balance and coordination before and after viewing an 80 min movie in either conventional 2D or stereoscopic 3D, while wearing two triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometry produced little evidence of any change in body motion associated with S3D TV. We found no evidence that viewing the movie in S3D causes a detectable impairment in balance or in visuomotor coordination. PMID:26587261

  11. Evaluation of viewing experiences induced by curved 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2015-05-01

    As advanced display technology has been developed, much attention has been given to flexible panels. On top of that, with the momentum of the 3D era, stereoscopic 3D technique has been combined with the curved displays. However, despite the increased needs for 3D function in the curved displays, comparisons between curved and flat panel displays with 3D views have rarely been tested. Most of the previous studies have investigated their basic ergonomic aspects such as viewing posture and distance with only 2D views. It has generally been known that curved displays are more effective in enhancing involvement in specific content stories because field of views and distance from the eyes of viewers to both edges of the screen are more natural in curved displays than in flat panel ones. For flat panel displays, ocular torsions may occur when viewers try to move their eyes from the center to the edges of the screen to continuously capture rapidly moving 3D objects. This is due in part to differences in viewing distances from the center of the screen to eyes of viewers and from the edges of the screen to the eyes. Thus, this study compared S3D viewing experiences induced by a curved display with those of a flat panel display by evaluating significant subjective and objective measures.

  12. 3D scene modeling from multiple range views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Ribeiro, M. Isabel

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a new 3D scene analysis system that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometric model of real-world scenes from multiple range images acquired by a laser range finder on board of a mobile robot. The reconstruction is achieved through an integrated procedure including range data acquisition, geometrical feature extraction, registration, and integration of multiple views. Different descriptions of the final 3D scene model are obtained: a polygonal triangular mesh, a surface description in terms of planar and biquadratics surfaces, and a 3D boundary representation. Relevant experimental results from the complete 3D scene modeling are presented. Direct applications of this technique include 3D reconstruction and/or update of architectual or industrial plans into a CAD model, design verification of buildings, navigation of autonomous robots, and input to virtual reality systems.

  13. Virtual view adaptation for 3D multiview video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, Goran; Do, Luat; Zinger, Sveta; de With, Peter H. N.

    2010-02-01

    Virtual views in 3D-TV and multi-view video systems are reconstructed images of the scene generated synthetically from the original views. In this paper, we analyze the performance of streaming virtual views over IP-networks with a limited and time-varying available bandwidth. We show that the average video quality perceived by the user can be improved with an adaptive streaming strategy aiming at maximizing the average video quality. Our adaptive 3D multi-view streaming can provide a quality improvement of 2 dB on the average - over non-adaptive streaming. We demonstrate that an optimized virtual view adaptation algorithm needs to be view-dependent and achieve an improvement of up to 0.7 dB. We analyze our adaptation strategies under dynamic available bandwidth in the network.

  14. 3-D object recognition using 2-D views.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Bebis, George; Bourbakis, Nikolaos G

    2008-11-01

    We consider the problem of recognizing 3-D objects from 2-D images using geometric models and assuming different viewing angles and positions. Our goal is to recognize and localize instances of specific objects (i.e., model-based) in a scene. This is in contrast to category-based object recognition methods where the goal is to search for instances of objects that belong to a certain visual category (e.g., faces or cars). The key contribution of our work is improving 3-D object recognition by integrating Algebraic Functions of Views (AFoVs), a powerful framework for predicting the geometric appearance of an object due to viewpoint changes, with indexing and learning. During training, we compute the space of views that groups of object features can produce under the assumption of 3-D linear transformations, by combining a small number of reference views that contain the object features using AFoVs. Unrealistic views (e.g., due to the assumption of 3-D linear transformations) are eliminated by imposing a pair of rigidity constraints based on knowledge of the transformation between the reference views of the object. To represent the space of views that an object can produce compactly while allowing efficient hypothesis generation during recognition, we propose combining indexing with learning in two stages. In the first stage, we sample the space of views of an object sparsely and represent information about the samples using indexing. In the second stage, we build probabilistic models of shape appearance by sampling the space of views of the object densely and learning the manifold formed by the samples. Learning employs the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and takes place in a "universal," lower-dimensional, space computed through Random Projection (RP). During recognition, we extract groups of point features from the scene and we use indexing to retrieve the most feasible model groups that might have produced them (i.e., hypothesis generation). The likelihood

  15. View-dependent streamlines for 3D vector fields.

    PubMed

    Marchesin, Stéphane; Chen, Cheng-Kai; Ho, Chris; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new streamline placement and selection algorithm for 3D vector fields. Instead of considering the problem as a simple feature search in data space, we base our work on the observation that most streamline fields generate a lot of self-occlusion which prevents proper visualization. In order to avoid this issue, we approach the problem in a view-dependent fashion and dynamically determine a set of streamlines which contributes to data understanding without cluttering the view. Since our technique couples flow characteristic criteria and view-dependent streamline selection we are able achieve the best of both worlds: relevant flow description and intelligible, uncluttered pictures. We detail an efficient GPU implementation of our algorithm, show comprehensive visual results on multiple datasets and compare our method with existing flow depiction techniques. Our results show that our technique greatly improves the readability of streamline visualizations on different datasets without requiring user intervention. PMID:20975200

  16. A procedure for generating quantitative 3-D camera views of tokamak divertors

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, P.H.; Medley, S.S.

    1996-05-01

    A procedure is described for precision modeling of the views for imaging diagnostics monitoring tokamak internal components, particularly high heat flux divertor components. These models are required to enable predictions of resolution and viewing angle for the available viewing locations. Because of the oblique views expected for slot divertors, fully 3-D perspective imaging is required. A suite of matched 3-D CAD, graphics and animation applications are used to provide a fast and flexible technique for reproducing these views. An analytic calculation of the resolution and viewing incidence angle is developed to validate the results of the modeling procedures. The calculation is applicable to any viewed surface describable with a coordinate array. The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) diagnostics for infrared viewing are used as an example to demonstrate the implementation of the tools. For the TPX experiment the available locations are severely constrained by access limitations at the end resulting images are marginal in both resolution and viewing incidence angle. Full coverage of the divertor is possible if an array of cameras is installed at 45 degree toroidal intervals. Two poloidal locations are required in order to view both the upper and lower divertors. The procedures described here provide a complete design tool for in-vessel viewing, both for camera location and for identification of viewed surfaces. Additionally these same tools can be used for the interpretation of the actual images obtained by the actual diagnostic.

  17. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  18. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409 (3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  19. A method of multi-view intraoral 3D measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijie; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Hongzhi; Xu, Yang; Lv, Peijun; Sun, Yunchun

    2015-02-01

    In dental restoration, its important to achieve a high-accuracy digital impression. Most of the existing intraoral measurement systems can only measure the tooth from a single view. Therfore - if we are wilng to acquire the whole data of a tooth, the scans of the tooth from multi-direction ad the data stitching based on the features of the surface are needed, which increases the measurement duration and influence the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we introduce a fringe-projection based on multi-view intraoral measurement system. It can acquire 3D data of the occlusal surface, the buccal surface and the lingual surface of a tooth synchronously, by using a senor with three mirrors, which aim at the three surfaces respectively and thus expand the measuring area. The constant relationship of the three mirrors is calibrated before measurement and can help stitch the data clouds acquired through different mirrors accurately. Therefore the system can obtain the 3D data of a tooth without the need to measure it from different directions for many times. Experiments proved the availability and reliability of this miniaturized measurement system.

  20. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 3-D Perspective with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view, looking up the Tigil River, shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The image shows that the Tigil River has eroded down from a higher and differing landscape and now flows through, rather than around the large green-colored bedrock ridge in the foreground. The older surface was likely composed of volcanic ash and debris from eruptions of nearby volcanoes. The green tones indicate that denser vegetation grows on south facing sunlit slopes at the northern latitudes. High resolution SRTM elevation data will be used by geologists to study how rivers shape the landscape, and by ecologists to study the influence of topography on ecosystems.

    This image shows how data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image acquired on January 31, 2000. Terrain perspective and shading were derived from SRTM elevation data acquired on February 12, 2000. Topography is exaggerated by about six times vertically. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  1. A 3D view of the SN 1987A Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransson, Claes

    2013-10-01

    SN 1987A represents the most important source of information about the explosion physics of any SN. For this the morphology of the ejecta is together with the radioactive isotopes the best diagnostics. From HST imaging in H-alpha and NIR AO imaging in Si/Fe at 1.64 mu one finds completely different morphologies, with the 1.64 mu image dominated by the processed core and H-alpha by the surrounding H envelope. Besides Cas A (Type IIb), this is the only core collapse SN where we have this information. We propose to use STIS to map the debris in SN 1987A in 3D with the best possible angular resolution. There has been no such STIS map since 2004, while the physics of the emission has undergone some profound changes. From being powered by radioactivity the energy input is now dominated by X-rays from the collision with the circumstellar ring. Compared to 2004 the 3D structure can be determined with a factor of 3 better spatial resolution and also better spectral resolution. The 3D structure in H-alpha can also give independent clues to where the large mass of dust detected by Herschel is located as well as its properties. It also gives a complementary view of the ejecta to the future ALMA imaging in CO which will have similar spatial resolution. Besides the debris we will be able to probe the 10,000 km/s reverse shock close to the ring in H-alpha. By observing this also in Ly-alpha one may test different emission processes which have been proposed, as well as probing the region producing the synchrotron emission observed by ALMA. The opportunity to observe the SN in this stage will never come back

  2. Single-camera fixed perspective 360-deg 3D method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin G.; Fergan, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    The use of 3D methods for such applications as feature locations within a wide field-of-view, such as for automated guided vehicles or large assembly work, offers some distinct challenges. The use of stereo viewing has often been the method of choice due to the wide area coverage and hardware simplicity. However, stereo based methods suffer from a loss of spatial position resolution for more distant object as compared to close objects due to the high demagnification needed to cover large fields-of-view. A long depth-of-field in such systems may also degrade the general ability to perform correlations due to poor focus. In addition, stereo looses distance resolution for features nearing the line of the two cameras, typically requiring movement of the cameras. The paper presents a novel method of obtaining 3D scene information as seen from the center of a cylindrical field. The method described uses a single camera with a view that is rotated through 360 degrees by means of a continuously rotating mirror. The viewing systems uses a constant field of view optical system that provides a constant X-Y resolution of features in the scene over depths of several meters. Comparing successive images with the readout from an encoder on the rotating mirror generates all locations of objects within a limited height cylinder. This paper will discuss the sources of errors and typical capabilities of this approach in light of a real-time part location tracking application useful in assembly systems.

  3. Multi-view indoor human behavior recognition based on 3D skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ling; Lu, Tongwei; Min, Feng

    2015-12-01

    For the problems caused by viewpoint changes in activity recognition, a multi-view interior human behavior recognition method based on 3D framework is presented. First, Microsoft's Kinect device is used to obtain body motion video in the positive perspective, the oblique angle and the side perspective. Second, it extracts bone joints and get global human features and the local features of arms and legs at the same time to form 3D skeletal features set. Third, online dictionary learning on feature set is used to reduce the dimension of feature. Finally, linear support vector machine (LSVM) is used to obtain the results of behavior recognition. The experimental results show that this method has better recognition rate.

  4. Alzheimer’s in 3D culture: Challenges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    D'Avanzo, Carla; Aronson, Jenna; Kim, Young Hye; Choi, Se Hoon; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and there is currently no cure. The “β-amyloid cascade hypothesis” of AD is the basis of current understanding of AD pathogenesis and drug discovery. However, no AD models have fully validated this hypothesis. We recently developed a human stem cell culture model of AD by cultivating genetically modified human neural stem cells in a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system. These cells were able to recapitulate key events of AD pathology including β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this review, we will discuss the progress and current limitations of AD mouse models and human stem cell models as well as explore the breakthroughs of 3D cell culture systems. We will also share our perspective on the potential of dish models of neurodegenerative diseases for studying pathogenic cascades and therapeutic drug discovery. PMID:26252541

  5. Alzheimer's in 3D culture: challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    D'Avanzo, Carla; Aronson, Jenna; Kim, Young Hye; Choi, Se Hoon; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and there is currently no cure. The "β-amyloid cascade hypothesis" of AD is the basis of current understanding of AD pathogenesis and drug discovery. However, no AD models have fully validated this hypothesis. We recently developed a human stem cell culture model of AD by cultivating genetically modified human neural stem cells in a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system. These cells were able to recapitulate key events of AD pathology including β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this review, we will discuss the progress and current limitations of AD mouse models and human stem cell models as well as explore the breakthroughs of 3D cell culture systems. We will also share our perspective on the potential of dish models of neurodegenerative diseases for studying pathogenic cascades and therapeutic drug discovery. PMID:26252541

  6. A closer view of prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Shark, Half-Dome, Pumpkin, Flat Top and Frog are at center. Little Flat Top is at right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  7. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  8. Detection and 3D reconstruction of traffic signs from multiple view color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheilian, Bahman; Paparoditis, Nicolas; Vallet, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    3D reconstruction of traffic signs is of great interest in many applications such as image-based localization and navigation. In order to reflect the reality, the reconstruction process should meet both accuracy and precision. In order to reach such a valid reconstruction from calibrated multi-view images, accurate and precise extraction of signs in every individual view is a must. This paper presents first an automatic pipeline for identifying and extracting the silhouette of signs in every individual image. Then, a multi-view constrained 3D reconstruction algorithm provides an optimum 3D silhouette for the detected signs. The first step called detection, tackles with a color-based segmentation to generate ROIs (Region of Interests) in image. The shape of every ROI is estimated by fitting an ellipse, a quadrilateral or a triangle to edge points. A ROI is rejected if none of the three shapes can be fitted sufficiently precisely. Thanks to the estimated shape the remained candidates ROIs are rectified to remove the perspective distortion and then matched with a set of reference signs using textural information. Poor matches are rejected and the types of remained ones are identified. The output of the detection algorithm is a set of identified road signs whose silhouette in image plane is represented by and ellipse, a quadrilateral or a triangle. The 3D reconstruction process is based on a hypothesis generation and verification. Hypotheses are generated by a stereo matching approach taking into account epipolar geometry and also the similarity of the categories. The hypotheses that are plausibly correspond to the same 3D road sign are identified and grouped during this process. Finally, all the hypotheses of the same group are merged to generate a unique 3D road sign by a multi-view algorithm integrating a priori knowledges about 3D shape of road signs as constraints. The algorithm is assessed on real and synthetic images and reached and average accuracy of 3.5cm for

  9. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California - 3D view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C image on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process by which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle and, which then, are compared to obtain elevation information. The data were acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR radar instrument. The color composite radar image was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the image are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is off the image to the left. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  10. 2D quantum double models from a 3D perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé Ferreira, Miguel Jorge; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Teotonio-Sobrinho, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we look at three dimensional (3D) lattice models that are generalizations of the state sum model used to define the Kuperberg invariant of 3-manifolds. The partition function is a scalar constructed as a tensor network where the building blocks are tensors given by the structure constants of an involutory Hopf algebra A. These models are very general and are hard to solve in its entire parameter space. One can obtain familiar models, such as ordinary gauge theories, by letting A be the group algebra {C}(G) of a discrete group G and staying on a certain region of the parameter space. We consider the transfer matrix of the model and show that quantum double Hamiltonians are derived from a particular choice of the parameters. Such a construction naturally leads to the star and plaquette operators of the quantum double Hamiltonians, of which the toric code is a special case when A={C}({{{Z}}_{2}}). This formulation is convenient to study ground states of these generalized quantum double models where they can naturally be interpreted as tensor network states. For a surface Σ, the ground state degeneracy is determined by the Kuperberg 3-manifold invariant of \\Sigma \\times {{S}^{1}}. It is also possible to obtain extra models by simply enlarging the allowed parameter space but keeping the solubility of the model. While some of these extra models have appeared before in the literature, our 3D perspective allows for an uniform description of them.

  11. 3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christnacher, F.; Laurenzis, M.; Monnin, D.; Schmitt, G.; Metzger, Nicolas; Schertzer, Stéphane; Scholtz, T.

    2014-10-01

    Range-gated active imaging is a prominent technique for night vision, remote sensing or vision through obstacles (fog, smoke, camouflage netting…). Furthermore, range-gated imaging not only informs on the scene reflectance but also on the range for each pixel. In this paper, we discuss 3D imaging methods for underwater imaging applications. In this situation, it is particularly difficult to stabilize the imaging platform and these 3D reconstruction algorithms suffer from the motion between the different images in the recorded sequence. To overcome this drawback, we investigated a new method based on a combination between image registration by homography and 3D scene reconstruction through tomography or two-image technique. After stabilisation, the 3D reconstruction is achieved by using the two upper-mentioned techniques. In the different experimental examples given in this paper, a centimetric resolution could be achieved.

  12. Automated 3D reconstruction of interiors with multiple scan views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Ng, Kia C.; Wolfart, Erik; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Hogg, David C.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents two integrated solutions for realistic 3D model acquisition and reconstruction; an early prototype, in the form of a push trolley, and a later prototype in the form of an autonomous robot. The systems encompass all hardware and software required, from laser and video data acquisition, processing and output of texture-mapped 3D models in VRML format, to batteries for power supply and wireless network communications. The autonomous version is also equipped with a mobile platform and other sensors for the purpose of automatic navigation. The applications for such a system range from real estate and tourism (e.g., showing a 3D computer model of a property to a potential buyer or tenant) or as tool for content creation (e.g., creating 3D models of heritage buildings or producing broadcast quality virtual studios). The system can also be used in industrial environments as a reverse engineering tool to update the design of a plant, or as a 3D photo-archive for insurance purposes. The system is Internet compatible: the photo-realistic models can be accessed via the Internet and manipulated interactively in 3D using a common Web browser with a VRML plug-in. Further information and example reconstructed models are available on- line via the RESOLV web-page at http://www.scs.leeds.ac.uk/resolv/.

  13. LiveView3D: Real Time Data Visualization for the Aerospace Testing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses LiveView3D, a software package and associated data visualization system for use in the aerospace testing environment. The LiveView3D system allows researchers to graphically view data from numerous wind tunnel instruments in real time in an interactive virtual environment. The graphical nature of the LiveView3D display provides researchers with an intuitive view of the measurement data, making it easier to interpret the aerodynamic phenomenon under investigation. LiveView3D has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center and has been applied in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). This paper discusses the capabilities of the LiveView3D system, provides example results from its application in the UPWT, and outlines features planned for future implementation.

  14. Multi sky-view 3D aerosol distribution recovery.

    PubMed

    Aides, Amit; Schechner, Yoav Y; Holodovsky, Vadim; Garay, Michael J; Davis, Anthony B

    2013-11-01

    Aerosols affect climate, health and aviation. Currently, their retrieval assumes a plane-parallel atmosphere and solely vertical radiative transfer. We propose a principle to estimate the aerosol distribution as it really is: a three dimensional (3D) volume. The principle is a type of tomography. The process involves wide angle integral imaging of the sky on a very large scale. The imaging can use an array of cameras in visible light. We formulate an image formation model based on 3D radiative transfer. Model inversion is done using optimization methods, exploiting a closed-form gradient which we derive for the model-fit cost function. The tomography model is distinct, as the radiation source is unidirectional and uncontrolled, while off-axis scattering dominates the images. PMID:24216808

  15. Computer-generated hologram for 3D scene from multi-view images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Young; Kang, Yun-Suk; Moon, KyungAe; Ho, Yo-Sung; Kim, Jinwoong

    2013-05-01

    Recently, the computer generated hologram (CGH) calculated from real existing objects is more actively investigated to support holographic video and TV applications. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a hologram of the natural 3-D scene from multi-view images in order to provide motion parallax viewing with a suitable navigation range. After a unified 3-D point source set describing the captured 3-D scene is obtained from multi-view images, a hologram pattern supporting motion-parallax is calculated from the set using a point-based CGH method. We confirmed that 3-D scenes are faithfully reconstructed using numerical reconstruction.

  16. Color and 3D views of the Sierra Nevada mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A stereo 'anaglyph' created using the nadir and 45.6-degree forward-viewing cameras provides a three-dimensional view of the scene when viewed with red/blue glasses. The red filter should be placed over your left eye. To facilitate the stereo viewing, the images have been oriented with north toward the left. Some prominent features are Mono Lake, in the center of the image; Walker Lake, to its left; and Lake Tahoe, near the lower left. This view of the Sierra Nevadas includes Yosemite, Kings Canyon, and Sequoia National Parks. Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the contiguous 48 states (elev. 14,495 feet), is visible near the righthand edge. Above it (to the east), the Owens Valley shows up prominently between the Sierra Nevada and Inyo ranges. Precipitation falling as rain or snow on the Sierras feeds numerous rivers flowing southwestward into the San Joaquin Valley. The abundant fields of this productive agricultural area can be seen along the lower right; a large number of reservoirs that supply water for crop irrigation are apparent in the western foothills of the Sierras. Urban areas in the valley appear as gray patches; among the California cities that are visible are Fresno, Merced, and Modesto.

  17. Recognition by Humans and Pigeons of Novel Views of 3-D Objects and Their Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alinda; Spetch, Marcia L.; Ferrey, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Humans and pigeons were trained to discriminate between 2 views of actual 3-D objects or their photographs. They were tested on novel views that were either within the closest rotational distance between the training views (interpolated) or outside of that range (extrapolated). When training views were 60? apart, pigeons, but not humans,…

  18. ISM abundances and history: a 3D, solar neighborhood view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallement, R.; Vergely, J.-L.; Puspitarini, L.

    For observational reasons, the solar neighborhood is particularly suitable for the study of the multi-phase interstellar (IS) medium and the search for traces of its temporal evolution. On the other hand, by a number of aspects it seems to be a peculiar region. We use recent 3D maps of the IS dust based on color excess data as well as former maps of the gas to illustrate how such maps can be used to shed additional light on the specificity of the local medium, its history and abundance pattern. 3D maps reveal a gigantic cavity located in the third quadrant and connected to the Local Bubble, the latter itself running into an elongated cavity toward l≃ 70°. Most nearby cloud complexes of the so-called Gould belt but also more distant clouds seem to border a large fraction of this entire structure. The IS medium with the large cavity appears ionized and dust-poor, as deduced from ionized calcium and neutral sodium to dust ratios. The geometry favors the proposed scenario of Gould belt-Local Arm formation through the braking of a supercloud by interaction with a spiral density wave \\citep{olano01}. The highly variable D/H ratio in the nearby IS gas may also be spatially related to the global structure. We speculate about potential consequences of the supercloud encounter and dust-gas decoupling during its braking, in particular the formation of strong inhomogeneities in both the dust to gas abundance ratio and the dust characteristics: (i) during the ≃ 500 Myrs prior to the collision, dust within the supercloud may have been gradually, strongly enriched in D due to an absence of strong stellar formation and preferential adsorption of D \\citep{jura82,draine03} ; (ii) during its interaction with the Plane and the braking dust-rich and dust-poor regions may have formed due to differential gas drag, the dust being more concentrated in the dense areas; strong radiation pressure from OB associations at the boundary of the left-behind giant cavity may have also helped

  19. Registration of multi-view apical 3D echocardiography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, H. W.; van Stralen, M.; van der Zwaan, H. B.; Leung, K. Y. E.; Bosch, J. G.; Pluim, J. P. W.

    2011-03-01

    Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is a non-invasive method to visualize the heart. Disadvantageously, it suffers from non-uniform image quality and a limited field of view. Image quality can be improved by fusion of multiple echocardiography images. Successful registration of the images is essential for prosperous fusion. Therefore, this study examines the performance of different methods for intrasubject registration of multi-view apical RT3DE images. A total of 14 data sets was annotated by two observers who indicated the position of the apex and four points on the mitral valve ring. These annotations were used to evaluate registration. Multi-view end-diastolic (ED) as well as end-systolic (ES) images were rigidly registered in a multi-resolution strategy. The performance of single-frame and multi-frame registration was examined. Multi-frame registration optimizes the metric for several time frames simultaneously. Furthermore, the suitability of mutual information (MI) as similarity measure was compared to normalized cross-correlation (NCC). For initialization of the registration, a transformation that describes the probe movement was obtained by manually registering five representative data sets. It was found that multi-frame registration can improve registration results with respect to single-frame registration. Additionally, NCC outperformed MI as similarity measure. If NCC was optimized in a multi-frame registration strategy including ED and ES time frames, the performance of the automatic method was comparable to that of manual registration. In conclusion, automatic registration of RT3DE images performs as good as manual registration. As registration precedes image fusion, this method can contribute to improved quality of echocardiography images.

  20. Color and 3D views of the Sierra Nevada mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These true-color images covering north-central New Mexico capture the bluish-white smoke plume of the Los Alamos fire, just west of the Rio Grande river. The middle image is a downward-looking (nadir) view, taken by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. As MISR flew from north to south, it viewed the scene from nine different angles. The top image was taken by the MISR camera looking 60 degrees forward along the orbit, whereas the bottom image looks 60 degrees aft. The plume stands out more dramatically in the steep-angle views. Its color and brightness also change with angle. By comparison, a thin, white, water cloud appears in the upper right portion of the scene, and is most easily detected in the top image. MISR uses these angle-to-angle differences to monitor particulate pollution and to identify different types of haze. Such observations allow scientists to study how airborne particles interact with sunlight, a measure of their impact on Earth's climate system. The images are about 400 km (250 miles) wide. The spatial resolution of the nadir image is 275 meters (300 yards); it is 1.1 kilometers (1,200 yards) for the off-nadir images. North is toward the top. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. For more information, see the MISR web site Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Science Team

  1. 3-D perspective of Saint Pierre and Miquelon Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image shows two islands, Miquelon and Saint Pierre, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands, along with five smaller islands, are a self-governing territory of France. A thin barrier beach divides Miquelon, with Grande Miquelon to the north and Petite Miquelon to the south. Saint Pierre Island is located to the lower right. With the islands' location in the north Atlantic Ocean and their deep water ports, fishing is the major part of the economy. The maximum elevation of the island is 240 meters (787 feet). The land mass of the islands is about 242 square kilometers, or 1.5 times the size of Washington DC.

    This image shows how data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image acquired on September 1, 1999. Terrain perspective and shading were derived from SRTM elevation data acquired on February 12, 2000. Topography is exaggerated by about six times vertically. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies

  2. Spatial Sense and Perspective: A 3-D Model of the Orion Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, I.; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2012-08-01

    Building a scale model of the Orion constellation provides spatial perspective for students studying astronomy. For this activity, students read a passage from literature that refers to stars being strange when seen from a different point of view. From a data set of the seven major stars of Orion they construct a 3-D distance scale model. This involves the subject areas of astronomy, mathematics, literature and art, as well as the skill areas of perspective, relative distances, line-of-sight, and basic algebra. This model will appear from one side exactly the way we see it from Earth. But when looking at it from any other angle the familiar constellation will look very alien. Students are encouraged to come up with their own names and stories to go with these new constellations. This activity has been used for K-12 teacher professional development classes, and would be most suitable for grades 6-12.

  3. Large viewing angle projection type electro-holography using new type mist 3D screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Koki; Zhao, Hongming; Takano, Kunihiko

    2008-02-01

    Recently, many type of 3-D displays are now being developed. We want to see 3-D moving image with comfortably and more expanded depth, Holography is different from the other 3-D display because natural stereoscopic image can be obtained. We have once developed a electro-holographic display using virtual image. But the viewing area is so small because the pixcel size of LCD is not so small. This time we developed the projection type electro-holographic display system. In the case of projection type holography [1], it needs to use the 3-D screen in order to project the reconstructed image clearly and viewing angle becomes wide. We developed the electro-holographic display system using mist 3-D screen. However, a reconstructed image with mist 3-D screen was flickered by gravity and flow of air. Then we considered to reduce the flicker of the image and we found that flicker could be reduced using flow controlled nozzle. Hence, at first we considered the most suitable shape of 3-D screen and then we constructed the array of flow controlled mist 3D screen. By the results of experiment we could get considerably high contrast 3-D moving image and get the viewing area more than 30°by this flow controlled nozzle attached new type mist 3-D screen and make clear the efficiency of this method.

  4. Efficient fabrication method of nano-grating for 3D holographic display with full parallax views.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wenqiang; Qiao, Wen; Huang, Wenbin; Zhu, Ming; Fang, Zongbao; Pu, Donglin; Ye, Yan; Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Linsen

    2016-03-21

    Without any special glasses, multiview 3D displays based on the diffractive optics can present high resolution, full-parallax 3D images in an ultra-wide viewing angle. The enabling optical component, namely the phase plate, can produce arbitrarily distributed view zones by carefully designing the orientation and the period of each nano-grating pixel. However, such 3D display screen is restricted to a limited size due to the time-consuming fabricating process of nano-gratings on the phase plate. In this paper, we proposed and developed a lithography system that can fabricate the phase plate efficiently. Here we made two phase plates with full nano-grating pixel coverage at a speed of 20 mm2/mins, a 500 fold increment in the efficiency when compared to the method of E-beam lithography. One 2.5-inch phase plate generated 9-view 3D images with horizontal-parallax, while the other 6-inch phase plate produced 64-view 3D images with full-parallax. The angular divergence in horizontal axis and vertical axis was 1.5 degrees, and 1.25 degrees, respectively, slightly larger than the simulated value of 1.2 degrees by Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD). The intensity variation was less than 10% for each viewpoint, in consistency with the simulation results. On top of each phase plate, a high-resolution binary masking pattern containing amplitude information of all viewing zone was well aligned. We achieved a resolution of 400 pixels/inch and a viewing angle of 40 degrees for 9-view 3D images with horizontal parallax. In another prototype, the resolution of each view was 160 pixels/inch and the view angle was 50 degrees for 64-view 3D images with full parallax. As demonstrated in the experiments, the homemade lithography system provided the key fabricating technology for multiview 3D holographic display. PMID:27136814

  5. 3-D Mixed Mode Delamination Fracture Criteria - An Experimentalist's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Many delamination failure criteria based on fracture toughness have been suggested over the past few decades, but most only covered the region containing mode I and mode II components of loading because that is where toughness data existed. With new analysis tools, more 3D analyses are being conducted that capture a mode III component of loading. This has increased the need for a fracture criterion that incorporates mode III loading. The introduction of a pure mode III fracture toughness test has also produced data on which to base a full 3D fracture criterion. In this paper, a new framework for visualizing 3D fracture criteria is introduced. The common 2D power law fracture criterion was evaluated to produce unexpected predictions with the introduction of mode III and did not perform well in the critical high mode I region. Another 2D criterion that has been shown to model a wide range of materials well was used as the basis for a new 3D criterion. The new criterion is based on assumptions that the relationship between mode I and mode III toughness is similar to the relation between mode I and mode II and that a linear interpolation can be used between mode II and mode III. Until mixed-mode data exists with a mode III component of loading, 3D fracture criteria cannot be properly evaluated, but these assumptions seem reasonable.

  6. A 3-D perspective of dynamic behaviour of heterogeneous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yong; Zhou, Rongxin

    2015-09-01

    The dynamic behaviour of concrete-like materials under high strain rates has been a subject of continuous scrutiny over the years. A prevailing explanation attributes much of the dynamic increase of strength, especially under compression, to the macroscopic inertia confinement. Studies conducted by the authors' group using meso-scale computational models suggest that the heterogeneity of the material composition, in particular the involvement of the aggregates, also plays a sensible part in the process of damage evolution and the increase of the bulk strength under high strain rates, and a detailed investigation into this effect would benefit if a realistic representation of the heterogeneity in 3D can be achieved. This paper presents some recent progress in the development of a 3-D meso-scale computational model incorporating randomly-shaped 3-D aggregate particles, including the general validation of the model, and application in the simulation of the dynamic response of concrete under high strain rate compression.

  7. Advanced Visualization of Experimental Data in Real Time Using LiveView3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    LiveView3D is a software application that imports and displays a variety of wind tunnel derived data in an interactive virtual environment in real time. LiveView3D combines the use of streaming video fed into a three-dimensional virtual representation of the test configuration with networked communications to the test facility Data Acquisition System (DAS). This unified approach to real time data visualization provides a unique opportunity to comprehend very large sets of diverse forms of data in a real time situation, as well as in post-test analysis. This paper describes how LiveView3D has been implemented to visualize diverse forms of aerodynamic data gathered during wind tunnel experiments, most notably at the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). Planned future developments of the LiveView3D system are also addressed.

  8. 3D Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.

    2015-08-01

    In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on 3D modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a 3D laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the 3D scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the 3D models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for 3D modeling. In our experiments, 3D models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of 3D models will be represented by using standard formats of 3D point clouds and triangulated surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient 3D models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed 3D models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate 3D models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.

  9. Sweeping View of the 'Columbia Hills' and Gusev Crater (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Mars.

    It took seven days, from sols 591 to 597 (Sept. 1 to Sept. 7, 2005) of its exploration of Mars, for Spirit's panoramic camera to acquire all the images combined into this mosaic. This panorama covers a field of view just under 180 degrees from left to right. This stereo view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The stereo image may be viewed with standard blue and red 3-D glasses.

  10. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use. PMID:27184494

  11. From pixel to voxel: a deeper view of biological tissue by 3D mass spectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Greer, Tyler; Li, Lingjun

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensional mass spectral imaging (3D MSI) is an exciting field that grants the ability to study a broad mass range of molecular species ranging from small molecules to large proteins by creating lateral and vertical distribution maps of select compounds. Although the general premise behind 3D MSI is simple, factors such as choice of ionization method, sample handling, software considerations and many others must be taken into account for the successful design of a 3D MSI experiment. This review provides a brief overview of ionization methods, sample preparation, software types and technological advancements driving 3D MSI research of a wide range of low- to high-mass analytes. Future perspectives in this field are also provided to conclude that the positive and promises ever-growing applications in the biomedical field with continuous developments of this powerful analytical tool. PMID:21320052

  12. A stereo matching model observer for stereoscopic viewing of 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Muralidlhar, Gautam S.

    2014-03-01

    Stereoscopic viewing of 3D medical imaging data has the potential to increase the detection of abnormalities. We present a new stereo model observer inspired by the characteristics of stereopsis in human vision. Given a stereo pair of images of an object (i.e., left and right images separated by a small displacement), the model observer rst nds the corresponding points between the two views, and then fuses them together to create a 2D cyclopean view. Assuming that the cyclopean view has extracted most of the 3D information presented in the stereo pair, a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) can be utilized to make decisions. We conduct a simulation study that attempts to mimic the detection of breast lesions on stereoscopic viewing of breast tomosynthesis projection images. We render voxel datasets that contain random 3D power-law noise to model normal breast tissues with various breast densities. 3D Gaussian signal is added to some of the datasets to model the presence of a breast lesion. By changing the separation angle between the two views, multiple stereo pairs of projection images are generated for each voxel dataset. The performance of the model is evaluated in terms of the accuracy of binary decisions on the presence of the simulated lesions.

  13. Constructing 3-D Models Of A Scene From Planned Multiple Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shun-en; Calvert, Thomas W.

    1987-03-01

    Whether in an office, a warehouse or a home, the mobile robot must often work in a cluttered environment; although the basic layout of the environment may be known in advance, the nature and placement of objects within the environment will generally be unknown. Thus the intelligent mobile robot must be able to sense its environment with a vision system and it must be able to analyse multiple views to construct 3-d models of the objects it encounters. Since this analysis results in a heavy computational load, it is important to minimize the number of views and to use a planner to dynamically select a minimal set of vantage viewpoints. This paper discusses an approach to this general problem and describes a prototype system for a mobile intelligent robot which can construct 3-d models from planned sequential views. The principal components of this system are: (1) decomposition of a framed view into its components and the construction of partial 3-d descriptions of the view, (2) matching of the known environment to the partial 3-d descriptions of the view, (3) matching of partial descriptions of bodies derived from the current view with partial models constructed from previous views, (4) identification of new information in the current view and use of the information to update the models, (5) identification of unknown parts of partially constructed body models so that further viewpoints can be planned, (6) construction of a partial map of the scene and updating with each successive view, (7) selection of new viewpoints to maximize the information returned by a planner, (8) use of an expert system to convert the original boundary representations of the bodies to a new Constructive Solid Geometry-Extended Enhanced Spherical Image (CSG-EESI) representation to facilitate the recovery of structural information. Although the complete prototype system has not been implemented, its key components have been implemented and tested.

  14. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  15. Four-view stereoscopic imaging and display system for web-based 3D image communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Park, Young-Gyoo; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, a new software-oriented autostereoscopic 4-view imaging & display system for web-based 3D image communication is implemented by using 4 digital cameras, Intel Xeon server computer system, graphic card having four outputs, projection-type 4-view 3D display system and Microsoft' DirectShow programming library. And its performance is also analyzed in terms of image-grabbing frame rates, displayed image resolution, possible color depth and number of views. From some experimental results, it is found that the proposed system can display 4-view VGA images with a full color of 16bits and a frame rate of 15fps in real-time. But the image resolution, color depth, frame rate and number of views are mutually interrelated and can be easily controlled in the proposed system by using the developed software program so that, a lot of flexibility in design and implementation of the proposed multiview 3D imaging and display system are expected in the practical application of web-based 3D image communication.

  16. A 3D photographic capsule endoscope system with full field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, Mang; Jeng, Wei-De; Lai, Chien-Cheng; Kung, Yi-Chinn; Tao, Kuan-Heng

    2013-09-01

    Current capsule endoscope uses one camera to capture the surface image in the intestine. It can only observe the abnormal point, but cannot know the exact information of this abnormal point. Using two cameras can generate 3D images, but the visual plane changes while capsule endoscope rotates. It causes that two cameras can't capture the images information completely. To solve this question, this research provides a new kind of capsule endoscope to capture 3D images, which is 'A 3D photographic capsule endoscope system'. The system uses three cameras to capture images in real time. The advantage is increasing the viewing range up to 2.99 times respect to the two camera system. The system can accompany 3D monitor provides the exact information of symptom points, helping doctors diagnose the disease.

  17. Are 3-D coronal mass ejection parameters from single-view observations consistent with multiview ones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harim; Moon, Y.-J.; Na, Hyeonock; Jang, Soojeong; Lee, Jae-Ok

    2015-12-01

    To prepare for when only single-view observations are available, we have made a test whether the 3-D parameters (radial velocity, angular width, and source location) of halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) from single-view observations are consistent with those from multiview observations. For this test, we select 44 HCMEs from December 2010 to June 2011 with the following conditions: partial and full HCMEs by SOHO and limb CMEs by twin STEREO spacecraft when they were approximately in quadrature. In this study, we compare the 3-D parameters of the HCMEs from three different methods: (1) a geometrical triangulation method, the STEREO CAT tool developed by NASA/CCMC, for multiview observations using STEREO/SECCHI and SOHO/LASCO data, (2) the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) flux rope model for multiview observations using STEREO/SECCHI data, and (3) an ice cream cone model for single-view observations using SOHO/LASCO data. We find that the radial velocities and the source locations of the HCMEs from three methods are well consistent with one another with high correlation coefficients (≥0.9). However, the angular widths by the ice cream cone model are noticeably underestimated for broad CMEs larger than 100° and several partial HCMEs. A comparison between the 3-D CME parameters directly measured from twin STEREO spacecraft and the above 3-D parameters shows that the parameters from multiview are more consistent with the STEREO measurements than those from single view.

  18. Adaptive image warping for hole prevention in 3D view synthesis.

    PubMed

    Plath, Nils; Knorr, Sebastian; Goldmann, Lutz; Sikora, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Increasing popularity of 3D videos calls for new methods to ease the conversion process of existing monocular video to stereoscopic or multi-view video. A popular way to convert video is given by depth image-based rendering methods, in which a depth map that is associated with an image frame is used to generate a virtual view. Because of the lack of knowledge about the 3D structure of a scene and its corresponding texture, the conversion of 2D video, inevitably, however, leads to holes in the resulting 3D image as a result of newly-exposed areas. The conversion process can be altered such that no holes become visible in the resulting 3D view by superimposing a regular grid over the depth map and deforming it. In this paper, an adaptive image warping approach as an improvement to the regular approach is proposed. The new algorithm exploits the smoothness of a typical depth map to reduce the complexity of the underlying optimization problem that is necessary to find the deformation, which is required to prevent holes. This is achieved by splitting a depth map into blocks of homogeneous depth using quadtrees and running the optimization on the resulting adaptive grid. The results show that this approach leads to a considerable reduction of the computational complexity while maintaining the visual quality of the synthesized views. PMID:23782807

  19. Multi-Modal Clique-Graph Matching for View-Based 3D Model Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-An; Nie, Wei-Zhi; Gao, Yue; Su, Yu-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Multi-view matching is an important but a challenging task in view-based 3D model retrieval. To address this challenge, we propose an original multi-modal clique graph (MCG) matching method in this paper. We systematically present a method for MCG generation that is composed of cliques, which consist of neighbor nodes in multi-modal feature space and hyper-edges that link pairwise cliques. Moreover, we propose an image set-based clique/edgewise similarity measure to address the issue of the set-to-set distance measure, which is the core problem in MCG matching. The proposed MCG provides the following benefits: 1) preserves the local and global attributes of a graph with the designed structure; 2) eliminates redundant and noisy information by strengthening inliers while suppressing outliers; and 3) avoids the difficulty of defining high-order attributes and solving hyper-graph matching. We validate the MCG-based 3D model retrieval using three popular single-modal data sets and one novel multi-modal data set. Extensive experiments show the superiority of the proposed method through comparisons. Moreover, we contribute a novel real-world 3D object data set, the multi-view RGB-D object data set. To the best of our knowledge, it is the largest real-world 3D object data set containing multi-modal and multi-view information. PMID:26978821

  20. Effect of mental fatigue caused by mobile 3D viewing on selective attention: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sungchul; Kim, Eun-Soo; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated behavioral responses to and auditory event-related potential (ERP) correlates of mental fatigue caused by mobile three-dimensional (3D) viewing. Twenty-six participants (14 women) performed a selective attention task in which they were asked to respond to the sounds presented at the attended side while ignoring sounds at the ignored side before and after mobile 3D viewing. Considering different individual susceptibilities to 3D, participants' subjective fatigue data were used to categorize them into two groups: fatigued and unfatigued. The amplitudes of d-ERP components were defined as differences in amplitudes between time-locked brain oscillations of the attended and ignored sounds, and these values were used to calculate the degree to which spatial selective attention was impaired by 3D mental fatigue. The fatigued group showed significantly longer response times after mobile 3D viewing compared to before the viewing. However, response accuracy did not significantly change between the two conditions, implying that the participants used a behavioral strategy to cope with their performance accuracy decrement by increasing their response times. No significant differences were observed for the unfatigued group. Analysis of covariance revealed group differences with significant and trends toward significant decreases in the d-P200 and d-late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes at the occipital electrodes of the fatigued and unfatigued groups. Our findings indicate that mentally fatigued participants did not effectively block out distractors in their information processing mechanism, providing support for the hypothesis that 3D mental fatigue impairs spatial selective attention and is characterized by changes in d-P200 and d-LPP amplitudes. PMID:25194505

  1. A geoscience perspective on immersive 3D gridded data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, Magali I.; Kreylos, Oliver; Hamann, Bernd; Jadamec, Margarete A.; Kellogg, Louise H.; Staadt, Oliver; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2008-09-01

    We describe visualization software, Visualizer, that was developed specifically for interactive, visual exploration in immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Visualizer uses carefully optimized algorithms and data structures to support the high frame rates required for immersion and the real-time feedback required for interactivity. As an application developed for VR from the ground up, Visualizer realizes benefits that usually cannot be achieved by software initially developed for the desktop and later ported to VR. However, Visualizer can also be used on desktop systems (unix/linux-based operating systems including Mac OS X) with a similar level of real-time interactivity, bridging the "software gap" between desktop and VR that has been an obstacle for the adoption of VR methods in the Geosciences. While many of the capabilities of Visualizer are already available in other software packages used in a desktop environment, the features that distinguish Visualizer are: (1) Visualizer can be used in any VR environment including the desktop, GeoWall, or CAVE, (2) in non-desktop environments the user interacts with the data set directly using a wand or other input devices instead of working indirectly via dialog boxes or text input, (3) on the desktop, Visualizer provides real-time interaction with very large data sets that cannot easily be viewed or manipulated in other software packages. Three case studies are presented that illustrate the direct scientific benefits realized by analyzing data or simulation results with Visualizer in a VR environment. We also address some of the main obstacles to widespread use of VR environments in scientific research with a user study that shows Visualizer is easy to learn and to use in a VR environment and can be as effective on desktop systems as native desktop applications.

  2. Web-based intermediate view reconstruction for multiview stereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Won-Kyung; Ko, Jung-Hwan; Bae, Kyung-hoon; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, web-based intermediate view reconstruction for multiview stereoscopic 3D display system is proposed by using stereo cameras and disparity maps, Intel Xeon server computer system and Microsoft's DirectShow programming library and its performance is analyzed in terms of image-grabbing frame rate and number of views. In the proposed system, stereo images are initially captured by using stereo digital cameras and then, these are processed in the Intel Xeon server computer system. And then, the captured two-view image data is compressed by extraction of disparity data between them and transmitted to another client system through the information network, in which the received stereo data is displayed on the 16-view stereoscopic 3D display system by using intermediate view reconstruction. The program for controlling the overall system is developed based on the Microsoft DirectShow SDK. From some experimental results, it is found that the proposed system can display 16-view 3D images with a gray of 8bits and a frame rate of 15fps in real-time.

  3. JAtlasView: a Java atlas-viewer for browsing biomedical 3D images and atlases

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guangjie; Burton, Nick; Hill, Bill; Davidson, Duncan; Kerwin, Janet; Scott, Mark; Lindsay, Susan; Baldock, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Background Many three-dimensional (3D) images are routinely collected in biomedical research and a number of digital atlases with associated anatomical and other information have been published. A number of tools are available for viewing this data ranging from commercial visualization packages to freely available, typically system architecture dependent, solutions. Here we discuss an atlas viewer implemented to run on any workstation using the architecture neutral Java programming language. Results We report the development of a freely available Java based viewer for 3D image data, descibe the structure and functionality of the viewer and how automated tools can be developed to manage the Java Native Interface code. The viewer allows arbitrary re-sectioning of the data and interactive browsing through the volume. With appropriately formatted data, for example as provided for the Electronic Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, a 3D surface view and anatomical browsing is available. The interface is developed in Java with Java3D providing the 3D rendering. For efficiency the image data is manipulated using the Woolz image-processing library provided as a dynamically linked module for each machine architecture. Conclusion We conclude that Java provides an appropriate environment for efficient development of these tools and techniques exist to allow computationally efficient image-processing libraries to be integrated relatively easily. PMID:15757508

  4. Determination of the optimum viewing distance for a multi-view auto-stereoscopic 3D display.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ki-Hyuk; Ju, Heongkyu; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2014-09-22

    We present methodologies for determining the optimum viewing distance (OVD) for a multi-view auto-stereoscopic 3D display system with a parallax barrier. The OVD can be efficiently determined as the viewing distance where statistical deviation of centers of quasi-linear distributions of illuminance at central viewing zones is minimized using local areas of a display panel. This method can offer reduced computation time because it does not use the entire area of the display panel during a simulation, but still secures considerable accuracy. The method is verified in experiments, showing its applicability for efficient optical characterization. PMID:25321731

  5. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: Varies in a perspective view Location: 34.70 deg. North lat., 118.57 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking Northwest Original Data Resolution: SRTM and Landsat: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  6. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    . SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: Varies in a perspective view Location: 34.78 deg. North lat., 118.75 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking Northwest Original Data Resolution: SRTM and Landsat: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  7. Human factors guidelines for applications of 3D perspectives: a literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Sharon; Fitzhugh, Elisabeth; Aleva, Denise

    2009-05-01

    Once considered too processing-intense for general utility, application of the third dimension to convey complex information is facilitated by the recent proliferation of technological advancements in computer processing, 3D displays, and 3D perspective (2.5D) renderings within a 2D medium. The profusion of complex and rapidly-changing dynamic information being conveyed in operational environments has elevated interest in possible military applications of 3D technologies. 3D can be a powerful mechanism for clearer information portrayal, facilitating rapid and accurate identification of key elements essential to mission performance and operator safety. However, implementation of 3D within legacy systems can be costly, making integration prohibitive. Therefore, identifying which tasks may benefit from 3D or 2.5D versus simple 2D visualizations is critical. Unfortunately, there is no "bible" of human factors guidelines for usability optimization of 2D, 2.5D, or 3D visualizations nor for determining which display best serves a particular application. Establishing such guidelines would provide an invaluable tool for designers and operators. Defining issues common to each will enhance design effectiveness. This paper presents the results of an extensive review of open source literature addressing 3D information displays, with particular emphasis on comparison of true 3D with 2D and 2.5D representations and their utility for military tasks. Seventy-five papers are summarized, highlighting militarily relevant applications of 3D visualizations and 2.5D perspective renderings. Based on these findings, human factors guidelines for when and how to use these visualizations, along with recommendations for further research are discussed.

  8. Viewing zone duplication of multi-projection 3D display system using uniaxial crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Kun; Park, Soon-Gi; Moon, Seokil; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    We propose a novel multiplexing technique for increasing the viewing zone of a multi-view based multi-projection 3D display system by employing double refraction in uniaxial crystal. When linearly polarized images from projector pass through the uniaxial crystal, two possible optical paths exist according to the polarization states of image. Therefore, the optical paths of the image could be changed, and the viewing zone is shifted in a lateral direction. The polarization modulation of the image from a single projection unit enables us to generate two viewing zones at different positions. For realizing full-color images at each viewing zone, a polarization-based temporal multiplexing technique is adopted with a conventional polarization switching device of liquid crystal (LC) display. Through experiments, a prototype of a ten-view multi-projection 3D display system presenting full-colored view images is implemented by combining five laser scanning projectors, an optically clear calcite (CaCO3) crystal, and an LC polarization rotator. For each time sequence of temporal multiplexing, the luminance distribution of the proposed system is measured and analyzed. PMID:27137284

  9. Reconstructing White Walls: Multi-View Multi-Shot 3d Reconstruction of Textureless Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Andreas; Hänsch, Ronny; Hellwich, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    The reconstruction of the 3D geometry of a scene based on image sequences has been a very active field of research for decades. Nevertheless, there are still existing challenges in particular for homogeneous parts of objects. This paper proposes a solution to enhance the 3D reconstruction of weakly-textured surfaces by using standard cameras as well as a standard multi-view stereo pipeline. The underlying idea of the proposed method is based on improving the signal-to-noise ratio in weakly-textured regions while adaptively amplifying the local contrast to make better use of the limited numerical range in 8-bit images. Based on this premise, multiple shots per viewpoint are used to suppress statistically uncorrelated noise and enhance low-contrast texture. By only changing the image acquisition and adding a preprocessing step, a tremendous increase of up to 300% in completeness of the 3D reconstruction is achieved.

  10. 3D-2D registration for surgical guidance: effect of projection view angles on registration accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Wang, A. S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm for intensity-based 3D-2D registration of CT and x-ray projections is evaluated, specifically using single- or dual-projection views to provide 3D localization. The registration framework employs the gradient information similarity metric and covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy to solve for the patient pose in six degrees of freedom. Registration performance was evaluated in an anthropomorphic phantom and cadaver, using C-arm projection views acquired at angular separation, Δθ, ranging from ˜0°-180° at variable C-arm magnification. Registration accuracy was assessed in terms of 2D projection distance error and 3D target registration error (TRE) and compared to that of an electromagnetic (EM) tracker. The results indicate that angular separation as small as Δθ ˜10°-20° achieved TRE <2 mm with 95% confidence, comparable or superior to that of the EM tracker. The method allows direct registration of preoperative CT and planning data to intraoperative fluoroscopy, providing 3D localization free from conventional limitations associated with external fiducial markers, stereotactic frames, trackers and manual registration.

  11. Integration of multiple view plus depth data for free viewpoint 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Yuko; Kawamoto, Tetsuya; Fujii, Toshiaki; Mase, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a method for constructing a reasonable scale of end-to-end free-viewpoint video system that captures multiple view and depth data, reconstructs three-dimensional polygon models of objects, and display them on virtual 3D CG spaces. This system consists of a desktop PC and four Kinect sensors. First, multiple view plus depth data at four viewpoints are captured by Kinect sensors simultaneously. Then, the captured data are integrated to point cloud data by using camera parameters. The obtained point cloud data are sampled to volume data that consists of voxels. Since volume data that are generated from point cloud data are sparse, those data are made dense by using global optimization algorithm. Final step is to reconstruct surfaces on dense volume data by discrete marching cubes method. Since accuracy of depth maps affects to the quality of 3D polygon model, a simple inpainting method for improving depth maps is also presented.

  12. Modeling of multi-view 3D freehand radio frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Klein, T; Hansson, M; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays ultrasound (US) examinations are typically performed with conventional machines providing two dimensional imagery. However, there exist a multitude of applications where doctors could benefit from three dimensional ultrasound providing better judgment, due to the extended spatial view. 3D freehand US allows acquisition of images by means of a tracking device attached to the ultrasound transducer. Unfortunately, view dependency makes the 3D representation of ultrasound a non-trivial task. To address this we model speckle statistics, in envelope-detected radio frequency (RF) data, using a finite mixture model (FMM), assuming a parametric representation of data, in which the multiple views are treated as components of the FMM. The proposed model is show-cased with registration, using an ultrasound specific distribution based pseudo-distance, and reconstruction tasks, performed on the manifold of Gamma model parameters. Example field of application is neurology using transcranial US, as this domain requires high accuracy and data systematically features low SNR, making intensity based registration difficult. In particular, 3D US can be specifically used to improve differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to conventional approaches and is therefore of high relevance for future application. PMID:23285579

  13. Learning the 3-D structure of objects from 2-D views depends on shape, not format

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Moqian; Yamins, Daniel; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2016-01-01

    Humans can learn to recognize new objects just from observing example views. However, it is unknown what structural information enables this learning. To address this question, we manipulated the amount of structural information given to subjects during unsupervised learning by varying the format of the trained views. We then tested how format affected participants' ability to discriminate similar objects across views that were rotated 90° apart. We found that, after training, participants' performance increased and generalized to new views in the same format. Surprisingly, the improvement was similar across line drawings, shape from shading, and shape from shading + stereo even though the latter two formats provide richer depth information compared to line drawings. In contrast, participants' improvement was significantly lower when training used silhouettes, suggesting that silhouettes do not have enough information to generate a robust 3-D structure. To test whether the learned object representations were format-specific or format-invariant, we examined if learning novel objects from example views transfers across formats. We found that learning objects from example line drawings transferred to shape from shading and vice versa. These results have important implications for theories of object recognition because they suggest that (a) learning the 3-D structure of objects does not require rich structural cues during training as long as shape information of internal and external features is provided and (b) learning generates shape-based object representations independent of the training format. PMID:27153196

  14. Learning the 3-D structure of objects from 2-D views depends on shape, not format.

    PubMed

    Tian, Moqian; Yamins, Daniel; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2016-05-01

    Humans can learn to recognize new objects just from observing example views. However, it is unknown what structural information enables this learning. To address this question, we manipulated the amount of structural information given to subjects during unsupervised learning by varying the format of the trained views. We then tested how format affected participants' ability to discriminate similar objects across views that were rotated 90° apart. We found that, after training, participants' performance increased and generalized to new views in the same format. Surprisingly, the improvement was similar across line drawings, shape from shading, and shape from shading + stereo even though the latter two formats provide richer depth information compared to line drawings. In contrast, participants' improvement was significantly lower when training used silhouettes, suggesting that silhouettes do not have enough information to generate a robust 3-D structure. To test whether the learned object representations were format-specific or format-invariant, we examined if learning novel objects from example views transfers across formats. We found that learning objects from example line drawings transferred to shape from shading and vice versa. These results have important implications for theories of object recognition because they suggest that (a) learning the 3-D structure of objects does not require rich structural cues during training as long as shape information of internal and external features is provided and (b) learning generates shape-based object representations independent of the training format. PMID:27153196

  15. State of the art of current 3-D scoliosis classifications: a systematic review from a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Donzelli, Sabrina; Poma, Salvatore; Balzarini, Luca; Borboni, Alberto; Respizzi, Stefano; Villafane, Jorge Hugo; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Scoliosis is a complex three dimensional (3D) deformity: the current lack of a 3D classification could hide something fundamental for scoliosis prognosis and treatment. A clear picture of the actually existing 3D classifications lacks. The aim of this systematic review was to identify all the 3D classification systems proposed until now in the literature with the aim to identify similarities and differences mainly in a clinical perspective.After a MEDLINE Data Base review, done in November 2013 using the search terms "Scoliosis/classification" [Mesh] and "scoliosis/classification and Imaging, three dimensional" [Mesh], 8 papers were included with a total of 1164 scoliosis patients, 23 hyperkyphosis and 25 controls, aged between 8 and 20 years, with curves from 10° to 81° Cobb, and various curve patterns. Six studies looked at the whole 3D spine and found classificatory parameters according to planes, angles and rotations, including: Plane of Maximal Curvature (PMC), Best Fit Plane, Cobb angles in bodily plane and PMC, Axial rotation of the apical vertebra and of the PMC, and geometric 3D torsion. Two studies used the regional (spinal) Top View of the spine and found classificatory parameters according to its geometrical properties (area, direction and barycenter) including: Ratio of the frontal and the sagittal size, Phase, Directions (total, thoracic and lumbar), and Shift. It was possible to find similarities among 10 out of the 16 the sub-groups identified by different authors with different methods in different populations.In summation, the state of the art of 3D classification systems include 8 studies which showed some comparability, even though of low level. The most useful one in clinical everyday practice, is far from being defined. More than 20 years passed since the definition of the third dimension of the scoliosis deformity, now the time has come for clinicians and bioengineers to start some real clinical application, and develop means to make this

  16. Image selection in photogrammetric multi-view stereo methods for metric and complete 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseininaveh Ahmadabadian, Ali; Robson, Stuart; Boehm, Jan; Shortis, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Multi-View Stereo (MVS) as a low cost technique for precise 3D reconstruction can be a rival for laser scanners if the scale of the model is resolved. A fusion of stereo imaging equipment with photogrammetric bundle adjustment and MVS methods, known as photogrammetric MVS, can generate correctly scaled 3D models without using any known object distances. Although a huge number of stereo images (e.g. 200 high resolution images from a small object) captured of the object contains redundant data that allows detailed and accurate 3D reconstruction, the capture and processing time is increased when a vast amount of high resolution images are employed. Moreover, some parts of the object are often missing due to the lack of coverage of all areas. These problems demand a logical selection of the most suitable stereo camera views from the large image dataset. This paper presents a method for clustering and choosing optimal stereo or optionally single images from a large image dataset. The approach focusses on the two key steps of image clustering and iterative image selection. The method is developed within a software application called Imaging Network Designer (IND) and tested by the 3D recording of a gearbox and three metric reference objects. A comparison is made between IND and CMVS, which is a free package for selecting vantage images. The final 3D models obtained from the IND and CMVS approaches are compared with datasets generated with an MMDx Nikon Laser scanner. Results demonstrate that IND can provide a better image selection for MVS than CMVS in terms of surface coordinate uncertainty and completeness.

  17. View-independent Contour Culling of 3D Density Maps for Far-field Viewing of Iso-surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Powei; Ju, Tao; Warren, Joe

    2011-01-01

    In many applications, iso-surface is the primary method for visualizing the structure of 3D density maps. We consider a common scenario where the user views the iso-surfaces from a distance and varies the level associated with the iso-surface as well as the view direction to gain a sense of the general 3D structure of the density map. For many types of density data, the iso-surfaces associated with a particular threshold may be nested and never visible during this type of viewing. In this paper, we discuss a simple, conservative culling method that avoids the generation of interior portions of iso-surfaces at the contouring stage. Unlike existing methods that perform culling based on the current view direction, our culling is performed once for all views and requires no additional computation as the view changes. By pre-computing a single visibility map, culling is done at any iso-value with little overhead in contouring. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm on a range of bio-medical data and discuss a practical application in online visualization. PMID:21673830

  18. Single DMD time-multiplexed 64-views autostereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreti, Luigi

    2013-03-01

    Based on previous prototype of the Real time 3D holographic display developed last year, we developed a new concept of auto-stereoscopic multiview display (64 views), wide angle (90°) 3D full color display. The display is based on a RGB laser light source illuminating a DMD (Discovery 4100 0,7") at 24.000 fps, an image deflection system made with an AOD (Acoustic Optic Deflector) driven by a piezo-electric transducer generating a variable standing acoustic wave on the crystal that acts as a phase grating. The DMD projects in fast sequence 64 point of view of the image on the crystal cube. Depending on the frequency of the standing wave, the input picture sent by the DMD is deflected in different angle of view. An holographic screen at a proper distance diffuse the rays in vertical direction (60°) and horizontally select (1°) only the rays directed to the observer. A telescope optical system will enlarge the image to the right dimension. A VHDL firmware to render in real-time (16 ms) 64 views (16 bit 4:2:2) of a CAD model (obj, dxf or 3Ds) and depth-map encoded video images was developed into the resident Virtex5 FPGA of the Discovery 4100 SDK, thus eliminating the needs of image transfer and high speed links

  19. Determining canonical views of 3D object using minimum description length criterion and compressive sensing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping-Feng; Krim, Hamid

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we propose using two methods to determine the canonical views of 3D objects: minimum description length (MDL) criterion and compressive sensing method. MDL criterion searches for the description length that achieves the balance between model accuracy and parsimony. It takes the form of the sum of a likelihood and a penalizing term, where the likelihood is in favor of model accuracy such that more views assists the description of an object, while the second term penalizes lengthy description to prevent overfitting of the model. In order to devise the likelihood term, we propose a model to represent a 3D object as the weighted sum of multiple range images, which is used in the second method to determine the canonical views as well. In compressive sensing method, an intelligent way of parsimoniously sampling an object is presented. We make direct inference from Donoho1 and Candes'2 work, and adapt it to our model. Each range image is viewed as a projection, or a sample, of a 3D model, and by using compressive sensing theory, we are able to reconstruct the object with an overwhelming probability by scarcely sensing the object in a random manner. Compressive sensing is different from traditional compressing method in the sense that the former compress things in the sampling stage while the later collects a large number of samples and then compressing mechanism is carried out thereafter. Compressive sensing scheme is particularly useful when the number of sensors are limited or the sampling machinery cost much resource or time.

  20. In vivo bioluminescence tomography based on multi-view projection and 3D surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Kun; Leng, Chengcai; Deng, Kexin; Hu, Yifang; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is a powerful optical molecular imaging modality, which enables non-invasive realtime in vivo imaging as well as 3D quantitative analysis in preclinical studies. In order to solve the inverse problem and reconstruct inner light sources accurately, the prior structural information is commonly necessary and obtained from computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. This strategy requires expensive hybrid imaging system, complicated operation protocol and possible involvement of ionizing radiation. The overall robustness highly depends on the fusion accuracy between the optical and structural information. In this study we present a pure optical bioluminescence tomographic system (POBTS) and a novel BLT method based on multi-view projection acquisition and 3D surface reconstruction. The POBTS acquired a sparse set of white light surface images and bioluminescent images of a mouse. Then the white light images were applied to an approximate surface model to generate a high quality textured 3D surface reconstruction of the mouse. After that we integrated multi-view luminescent images based on the previous reconstruction, and applied an algorithm to calibrate and quantify the surface luminescent flux in 3D.Finally, the internal bioluminescence source reconstruction was achieved with this prior information. A BALB/C mouse with breast tumor of 4T1-fLuc cells mouse model were used to evaluate the performance of the new system and technique. Compared with the conventional hybrid optical-CT approach using the same inverse reconstruction method, the reconstruction accuracy of this technique was improved. The distance error between the actual and reconstructed internal source was decreased by 0.184 mm.

  1. Bird's Eye View - A 3-D Situational Awareness Tool for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dershowitz, Adam; Chamitoff, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    Even as space-qualified computer hardware lags well behind the latest home computers, the possibility of using high-fidelity interactive 3-D graphics for displaying important on board information has finally arrived, and is being used on board the International Space Station (ISS). With the quantity and complexity of space-flight telemetry, 3-D displays can greatly enhance the ability of users, both onboard and on the ground, to interpret data quickly and accurately. This is particularly true for data related to vehicle attitude, position, configuration, and relation to other objects on the ground or in-orbit Bird's Eye View (BEV) is a 3-D real-time application that provides a high degree of Situational Awareness for the crew. Its purpose is to instantly convey important motion-related parameters to the crew and mission controllers by presenting 3-D simulated camera views of the International Space Station (ISS) in its actual environment Driven by actual telemetry, and running on board, as well as on the ground, the user can visualize the Space Station relative to the Earth, Sun, stars, various reference frames, and selected targets, such as ground-sites or communication satellites. Since the actual ISS configuration (geometry) is also modeled accurately, everything from the alignment of the solar panels to the expected view from a selected window can be visualized accurately. A virtual representation of the Space Station in real time has many useful applications. By selecting different cameras, the crew or mission control can monitor the station's orientation in space, position over the Earth, transition from day to night, direction to the Sun, the view from a particular window, or the motion of the robotic arm. By viewing the vehicle attitude and solar panel orientations relative to the Sun, the power status of the ISS can be easily visualized and understood. Similarly, the thermal impacts of vehicle attitude can be analyzed and visually confirmed. Communication

  2. Controlled Experimental Study Depicting Moving Objects in View-Shared Time-Resolved 3D MRA

    PubMed Central

    Mostardi, Petrice M.; Haider, Clifton R.; Rossman, Phillip J.; Borisch, Eric A.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Various methods have been used for time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA), many involving view sharing. However, the extent to which the resultant image time series represents the actual dynamic behavior of the contrast bolus is not always clear. Although numerical simulations can be used to estimate performance, an experimental study can allow more realistic characterization. The purpose of this work was to use a computer-controlled motion phantom for study of the temporal fidelity of 3D time-resolved sequences in depicting a contrast bolus. It is hypothesized that the view order of the acquisition and the selection of views in the reconstruction can affect the positional accuracy and sharpness of the leading edge of the bolus and artifactual signal preceding the edge. Phantom studies were performed using dilute gadolinium-filled vials that were moved along tabletop tracks by a computer-controlled motor. Several view orders were tested, which use view-sharing and Cartesian sampling. Compactness of measuring the k-space center, consistency of view ordering within each reconstruction frame, and sampling the k-space center near the end of the temporal footprint were shown to be important in accurate portrayal of the leading edge of the bolus. A number of findings were confirmed in an in vivo CE-MRA study. PMID:19319897

  3. Controlled experimental study depicting moving objects in view-shared time-resolved 3D MRA.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, Petrice M; Haider, Clifton R; Rossman, Phillip J; Borisch, Eric A; Riederer, Stephen J

    2009-07-01

    Various methods have been used for time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA), many involving view sharing. However, the extent to which the resultant image time series represents the actual dynamic behavior of the contrast bolus is not always clear. Although numerical simulations can be used to estimate performance, an experimental study can allow more realistic characterization. The purpose of this work was to use a computer-controlled motion phantom for study of the temporal fidelity of three-dimensional (3D) time-resolved sequences in depicting a contrast bolus. It is hypothesized that the view order of the acquisition and the selection of views in the reconstruction can affect the positional accuracy and sharpness of the leading edge of the bolus and artifactual signal preceding the edge. Phantom studies were performed using dilute gadolinium-filled vials that were moved along tabletop tracks by a computer-controlled motor. Several view orders were tested using view-sharing and Cartesian sampling. Compactness of measuring the k-space center, consistency of view ordering within each reconstruction frame, and sampling the k-space center near the end of the temporal footprint were shown to be important in accurate portrayal of the leading edge of the bolus. A number of findings were confirmed in an in vivo CE-MRA study. PMID:19319897

  4. 3D Cryo-Imaging: A Very High-Resolution View of the Whole Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant J.; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith E.; Wilson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We developed the Case Cryo-imaging system that provides information rich, very high-resolution, color brightfield, and molecular fluorescence images of a whole mouse using a section-and-image block-face imaging technology. The system consists of a mouse-sized, motorized cryo-microtome with special features for imaging, a modified, brightfield/ fluorescence microscope, and a robotic xyz imaging system positioner, all of which is fully automated by a control system. Using the robotic system, we acquired microscopic tiled images at a pixel size of 15.6 µm over the block face of a whole mouse sectioned at 40 µm, with a total data volume of 55 GB. Viewing 2D images at multiple resolutions, we identified small structures such as cardiac vessels, muscle layers, villi of the small intestine, the optic nerve, and layers of the eye. Cryo-imaging was also suitable for imaging embryo mutants in 3D. A mouse, in which enhanced green fluorescent protein was expressed under gamma actin promoter in smooth muscle cells, gave clear 3D views of smooth muscle in the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. With cryo-imaging, we could obtain 3D vasculature down to 10 µm, over very large regions of mouse brain. Software is fully automated with fully programmable imaging/sectioning protocols, email notifications, and automatic volume visualization. With a unique combination of field-of-view, depth of field, contrast, and resolution, the Case Cryo-imaging system fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology. PMID:19248166

  5. An Image-Based Technique for 3d Building Reconstruction Using Multi-View Uav Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidoost, F.; Arefi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, with the development of the urban areas, the automatic reconstruction of the buildings, as an important objects of the city complex structures, became a challenging topic in computer vision and photogrammetric researches. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) images is examined to provide a 3D model of complex building façades using an efficient image-based modelling workflow. The main steps of this work include: pose estimation, point cloud generation, and 3D modelling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM) is applied on UAV images and a dense point cloud is generated. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using Delaunay 2.5D triangulation and refined to obtain an accurate model of building. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough details of building based on visual assessment.

  6. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Sacramento, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    California's state capitol, Sacramento, can be seen clustered along the American and Sacramento Rivers in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the west. Folsom Lake is in the center and the Sierra Nevada is above, with the edge of Lake Tahoe just visible at top center.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 38.6 deg. North lat., 121.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: looking east Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  7. 3D view weighted cone-beam backprojection reconstruction for digital tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baojun; Avinash, Gopal; Claus, Bernhard; Metz, Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Cone-beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) is one of the major reconstruction algorithms for digital tomosynthesis. In conventional FBP, the photon fluxes in projections are evenly distributed along the X-ray beam. Due to the limited view angles and finite detector dimensions, this uniform weighting causes non-uniformity in the recon images and leads to cone-beam artifact. In this paper, we propose a 3-D view weighting technique in combination with FBP to combat this artifact. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was placed at supine position to enable the imaging of chest PA view. During a linear sweep of X-ray source, 41 X-ray images at different projection angles were acquired with the following protocol: 120kVp, 160mA, and 0.64mAs/exposure. To create the worst scenario for testing, we chose 60 degrees as the sweep angle in this exam. The data set was reconstructed with conventional CB-FBP and proposed algorithm under the same parameters: FOV = 40x40 cm^2, and slice thickness = 4mm. 3 recon slices were randomly selected for review with slice height = 10.5/14.5/17.5cm. Results were assessed qualitatively by human observers and quantitatively through ROI measurement. In each slice, three pre-defined ROIs (50x50 pixels)--ROI A and B are in artifact more pronounced area, and ROI C is in relatively artifact-free area--are extracted and measured. The non-uniformity error was defined as the ratio of MEAN(AVG(C-A), AVG(C-B)) / AVG(C). The average non-uniformity error over the three test images was 0.428 for without view weighting and only 0.041 for with view weighting.

  8. Assessment of next-best-view algorithms performance with various 3D scanners and manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaszewski, M.; Adamczyk, M.; Sitnik, R.

    2016-09-01

    The problem of calculating three dimensional (3D) sensor position (and orientation) during the digitization of real-world objects (called next best view planning or NBV) has been an active topic of research for over 20 years. While many solutions have been developed, it is hard to compare their quality based only on the exemplary results presented in papers. We implemented 13 of the most popular NBV algorithms and evaluated their performance by digitizing five objects of various properties, using three measurement heads with different working volumes mounted on a 6-axis robot with a rotating table for placing objects. The results obtained for the 13 algorithms were then compared based on four criteria: the number of directional measurements, digitization time, total positioning distance, and surface coverage required to digitize test objects with available measurement heads.

  9. General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view looking east along Five Rivers Road. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  10. General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view looking southwest from Five Rivers Road. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  11. General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view looking southwest - Grande Ronde River Bridge, Sprnning Grande Ronde River on Old Oregon Trail Highway (Oregon Route 6), La Grande, Union County, OR

  12. General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view looking southeast - Grande Ronde River Bridge, Sprnning Grande Ronde River on Old Oregon Trail Highway (Oregon Route 6), La Grande, Union County, OR

  13. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  14. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  15. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  16. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking southeast, north side of structure - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  17. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  18. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking northwest - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  19. Perspective view of Polar Bear Restaurant, 25 G Street, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Polar Bear Restaurant, 25 G Street, view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  20. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE, VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE, VIEW TO SOUTH ON EAST SIDE. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  1. General perspective view of the Elliot Lane Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Elliot Lane Bridge, view looking northwest - Crooked River Bridge, Spanning Crooked River on Elliot Lane (County Road 124) at Milepoint 1.38, Prineville, Crook County, OR

  2. General perspective view of the Elliot Lane Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Elliot Lane Bridge, view looking southwest - Crooked River Bridge, Spanning Crooked River on Elliot Lane (County Road 124) at Milepoint 1.38, Prineville, Crook County, OR

  3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE, VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE, VIEW TO NORTH ON EAST SIDE. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  4. General perspective view of the Elliot Lane bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Elliot Lane bridge, view looking northeast - Crooked River Bridge, Spanning Crooked River on Elliot Lane (County Road 124) at Milepoint 1.38, Prineville, Crook County, OR

  5. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING EAST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE FOREST PROTECTION BUILDING, THE MOTORPOOL, AND THE AUTOMOTIVE SHOP (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT). - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  6. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING WEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE MOTORPOOL, AUTOMOTIVE SHOP AND FOREST PROTECTION BUILDING (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT). - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  7. 3D multi-view system using electro-wetting liquid lenticular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong Hyub; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheoljoong; Shin, Dooseub; Lee, Junsik; Koo, Gyohyun

    2016-06-01

    Lenticular multi-view system has great potential of three dimensional image realization. This paper introduces a fabrication of liquid lenticular lens array and an idea of increasing view points with a same resolution. Tunable liquid lens array can produce three dimensional images by using electro-wetting principle that changes surface tensions by applying voltage. The liquid lenticular device consists of a chamber, two different liquids and a sealing plate. To fabricate the chamber, an <100> silicon wafer is wet-etched by KOH solution and a trapezoid shaped chamber can be made after a certain time. The chamber having slanted walls is advantageous for electro-wetting achieving high diopter. Electroplating is done to make a nikel mold and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) chamber is fabricated through an embossing process. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is sputtered and parylene C and Teflon AF1600 is deposited for dielectric and hydrophobic layer respectively. Two immiscible liquids are injected and a glass plate as a sealing plate is covered with polycarbonates (PC) gaskets and sealed by UV adhesive. Two immiscible liquids are D.I water and a mixture of 1-chloronaphthalene and dodecane. The completed lenticular lens shows 2D and 3D images by applying certain voltages. Dioptric power and operation speed of the lenticular lens array are measured. A novel idea that an increment of viewpoints by electrode separation process is also proposed. The left and right electrodes of lenticular lens can be induced by different voltages and resulted in tilted optical axis. By switching the optical axis quickly, two times of view-points can be achieved with a same pixel resolution.

  8. Characterizing the effects of droplines on target acquisition performance on a 3-D perspective display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Min-Ju; Johnson, Walter W.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of droplines on target acquisition performance on a 3-D perspective display in which participants were required to move a cursor into a target cube as quickly as possible. Participants' performance and coordination strategies were characterized using both Fitts' law and acquisition patterns of the 3 viewer-centered target display dimensions (azimuth, elevation, and range). Participants' movement trajectories were recorded and used to determine movement times for acquisitions of the entire target and of each of its display dimensions. The goodness of fit of the data to a modified Fitts function varied widely among participants, and the presence of droplines did not have observable impacts on the goodness of fit. However, droplines helped participants navigate via straighter paths and particularly benefited range dimension acquisition. A general preference for visually overlapping the target with the cursor prior to capturing the target was found. Potential applications of this research include the design of interactive 3-D perspective displays in which fast and accurate selection and manipulation of content residing at multiple ranges may be a challenge.

  9. A 3D view of the outflow in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, H. D.; Cunningham, N. J.; Gustafsson, M.; Bally, J.; Lemaire, J.-L.; Favre, C.; Field, D.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Stars whose mass is an order of magnitude greater than the Sun play a prominent role in the evolution of galaxies, exploding as supernovae, triggering bursts of star formation and spreading heavy elements about their host galaxies. A fundamental aspect of star formation is the creation of an outflow. The fast outflow emerging from a region associated with massive star formation in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1), located behind the Orion Nebula, appears to have been set in motion by an explosive event. Aims: We study the structure and dynamics of outflows in OMC-1. We combine radial velocity and proper motion data for near-IR emission of molecular hydrogen to obtain the first 3-dimensional (3D) structure of the OMC-1 outflow. Our work illustrates a new diagnostic tool for studies of star formation that will be exploited in the near future with the advent of high spatial resolution spectro-imaging in particular with data from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). Methods: We used published radial and proper motion velocities obtained from the shock-excited vibrational emission in the H2 v = 1-0 S(1) line at 2.122 μm obtained with the GriF instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the Apache Point Observatory, the Anglo-Australian Observatory, and the Subaru Telescope. Results: These data give the 3D velocity of ejecta yielding a 3D reconstruction of the outflows. This allows one to view the material from different vantage points in space giving considerable insight into the geometry. Our analysis indicates that the ejection occurred ≲720 years ago from a distorted ring-like structure of ~15″ (6000 AU) in diameter centered on the proposed point of close encounter of the stars BN, source I and maybe also source n. We propose a simple model involving curvature of shock trajectories in magnetic fields through which the origin of the explosion and the center defined by extrapolated proper motions of BN, I and n may be brought into spatial

  10. Toward the establishment of design guidelines for effective 3D perspective interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzhugh, Elisabeth; Dixon, Sharon; Aleva, Denise; Smith, Eric; Ghrayeb, Joseph; Douglas, Lisa

    2009-05-01

    The propagation of information operation technologies, with correspondingly vast amounts of complex network information to be conveyed, significantly impacts operator workload. Information management research is rife with efforts to develop schemes to aid operators to identify, review, organize, and retrieve the wealth of available data. Data may take on such distinct forms as intelligence libraries, logistics databases, operational environment models, or network topologies. Increased use of taxonomies and semantic technologies opens opportunities to employ network visualization as a display mechanism for diverse information aggregations. The broad applicability of network visualizations is still being tested, but in current usage, the complexity of densely populated abstract networks suggests the potential utility of 3D. Employment of 2.5D in network visualization, using classic perceptual cues, creates a 3D experience within a 2D medium. It is anticipated that use of 3D perspective (2.5D) will enhance user ability to visually inspect large, complex, multidimensional networks. Current research for 2.5D visualizations demonstrates that display attributes, including color, shape, size, lighting, atmospheric effects, and shadows, significantly impact operator experience. However, guidelines for utilization of attributes in display design are limited. This paper discusses pilot experimentation intended to identify potential problem areas arising from these cues and determine how best to optimize perceptual cue settings. Development of optimized design guidelines will ensure that future experiments, comparing network displays with other visualizations, are not confounded or impeded by suboptimal attribute characterization. Current experimentation is anticipated to support development of cost-effective, visually effective methods to implement 3D in military applications.

  11. Construction of Extended 3D Field of Views of the Internal Bladder Wall Surface: A Proof of Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hamadou, Achraf; Daul, Christian; Soussen, Charles

    2016-09-01

    3D extended field of views (FOVs) of the internal bladder wall facilitate lesion diagnosis, patient follow-up and treatment traceability. In this paper, we propose a 3D image mosaicing algorithm guided by 2D cystoscopic video-image registration for obtaining textured FOV mosaics. In this feasibility study, the registration makes use of data from a 3D cystoscope prototype providing, in addition to each small FOV image, some 3D points located on the surface. This proof of concept shows that textured surfaces can be constructed with minimally modified cystoscopes. The potential of the method is demonstrated on numerical and real phantoms reproducing various surface shapes. Pig and human bladder textures are superimposed on phantoms with known shape and dimensions. These data allow for quantitative assessment of the 3D mosaicing algorithm based on the registration of images simulating bladder textures.

  12. Automatic alignment of standard views in 3D echocardiograms using real-time tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orderud, Fredrik; Torp, Hans; Rabben, Stein Inge

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic approach for alignment of standard apical and short-axis slices, and correcting them for out-of-plane motion in 3D echocardiography. This is enabled by using real-time Kalman tracking to perform automatic left ventricle segmentation using a coupled deformable model, consisting of a left ventricle model, as well as structures for the right ventricle and left ventricle outflow tract. Landmark points from the segmented model are then used to generate standard apical and short-axis slices. The slices are automatically updated after tracking in each frame to correct for out-of-plane motion caused by longitudinal shortening of the left ventricle. Results from a dataset of 35 recordings demonstrate the potential for automating apical slice initialization and dynamic short-axis slices. Apical 4-chamber, 2-chamber and long-axis slices are generated based on an assumption of fixed angle between the slices, and short-axis slices are generated so that they follow the same myocardial tissue over the entire cardiac cycle. The error compared to manual annotation was 8.4 +/- 3.5 mm for apex, 3.6 +/- 1.8 mm for mitral valve and 8.4 +/- 7.4 for apical 4-chamber view. The high computational efficiency and automatic behavior of the method enables it to operate in real-time, potentially during image acquisition.

  13. 3-D view of erosional scars on U. S. Mid-Atlantic continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Farre, J.A.; Ryan, W.B.

    1985-06-01

    Deep-towed side-scan and bathymetric data have been merged to present a 3-D view of the lower continental slope and upper continental rise offshore Atlantic City, New Jersey. Carteret Canyon narrows and becomes nearly stranded on the lower slope where it leads into one of two steep-walled, flat-floored erosional chutes. The floors of the chutes, cut into semilithified middle Eocene siliceous limestones, are marked by downslope-trending grooves. The grooves are interpreted to be gouge marks formed during rock and sediment slides. On the uppermost rise, beneath the chutes, is a 40-m deep depression. The origin of the depression is believed to be related to material moving downslope and encountering the change in gradient at the slope/rise boundary. Downslope of the depression are channels, trails, and allochthonous blocks. The lack of significant post-early Miocene deposits implies that the lower slope offshore New Jersey has yet to reach a configuration conducive to sediment accumulation. The age of erosion on the lower slope apparently ranges from late Eocene-early Miocene to the recent geologic past.

  14. Incremental Multi-view 3D Reconstruction Starting from Two Images Taken by a Stereo Pair of Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El hazzat, Soulaiman; Saaidi, Abderrahim; Karam, Antoine; Satori, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for multi-view 3D reconstruction based on the use of a binocular stereo vision system constituted of two unattached cameras to initialize the reconstruction process. Afterwards , the second camera of stereo vision system (characterized by varying parameters) moves to capture more images at different times which are used to obtain an almost complete 3D reconstruction. The first two projection matrices are estimated by using a 3D pattern with known properties. After that, 3D scene points are recovered by triangulation of the matched interest points between these two images. The proposed approach is incremental. At each insertion of a new image, the camera projection matrix is estimated using the 3D information already calculated and new 3D points are recovered by triangulation from the result of the matching of interest points between the inserted image and the previous image. For the refinement of the new projection matrix and the new 3D points, a local bundle adjustment is performed. At first, all projection matrices are estimated, the matches between consecutive images are detected and Euclidean sparse 3D reconstruction is obtained. So, to increase the number of matches and have a more dense reconstruction, the Match propagation algorithm, more suitable for interesting movement of the camera, was applied on the pairs of consecutive images. The experimental results show the power and robustness of the proposed approach.

  15. Single view-based 3D face reconstruction robust to self-occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Lee, Sung Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jo, Jaeik; Kim, Jaihie

    2012-12-01

    State-of-the-art 3D morphable model (3DMM) is used widely for 3D face reconstruction based on a single image. However, this method has a high computational cost, and hence, a simplified 3D morphable model (S3DMM) was proposed as an alternative. Unlike the original 3DMM, S3DMM uses only a sparse 3D facial shape, and therefore, it incurs a lower computational cost. However, this method is vulnerable to self-occlusion due to head rotation. Therefore, we propose a solution to the self-occlusion problem in S3DMM-based 3D face reconstruction. This research is novel compared with previous works, in the following three respects. First, self-occlusion of the input face is detected automatically by estimating the head pose using a cylindrical head model. Second, a 3D model fitting scheme is designed based on selected visible facial feature points, which facilitates 3D face reconstruction without any effect from self-occlusion. Third, the reconstruction performance is enhanced by using the estimated pose as the initial pose parameter during the 3D model fitting process. The experimental results showed that the self-occlusion detection had high accuracy and our proposed method delivered a noticeable improvement in the 3D face reconstruction performance compared with previous methods.

  16. Quality Assessment of 3d Reconstruction Using Fisheye and Perspective Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecha, C.; Zoller, R.; Rutishauser, S.; Brot, B.; Schneider-Zapp, K.; Chovancova, V.; Krull, M.; Glassey, L.

    2015-03-01

    Recent mathematical advances, growing alongside the use of unmanned aerial vehicles, have not only overcome the restriction of roll and pitch angles during flight but also enabled us to apply non-metric cameras in photogrammetric method, providing more flexibility for sensor selection. Fisheye cameras, for example, advantageously provide images with wide coverage; however, these images are extremely distorted and their non-uniform resolutions make them more difficult to use for mapping or terrestrial 3D modelling. In this paper, we compare the usability of different camera-lens combinations, using the complete workflow implemented in Pix4Dmapper to achieve the final terrestrial reconstruction result of a well-known historical site in Switzerland: the Chillon Castle. We assess the accuracy of the outcome acquired by consumer cameras with perspective and fisheye lenses, comparing the results to a laser scanner point cloud.

  17. 3D shape reconstruction of medical images using a perspective shape-from-shading method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Han, Jiu-qiang

    2008-06-01

    A 3D shape reconstruction approach for medical images using a shape-from-shading (SFS) method was proposed in this paper. A new reflectance map equation of medical images was analyzed with the assumption that the Lambertian reflectance surface was irradiated by a point light source located at the light center and the image was formed under perspective projection. The corresponding static Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation of the reflectance map equation was established. So the shape-from-shading problem turned into solving the viscosity solution of the static H-J equation. Then with the conception of a viscosity vanishing approximation, the Lax-Friedrichs fast sweeping numerical method was used to compute the viscosity solution of the H-J equation and a new iterative SFS algorithm was gained. Finally, experiments on both synthetic images and real medical images were performed to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed SFS method.

  18. Diffraction effects incorporated design of a parallax barrier for a high-density multi-view autostereoscopic 3D display.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ki-Hyuk; Ju, Heongkyu; Kwon, Hyunkyung; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2016-02-22

    We present optical characteristics of view image provided by a high-density multi-view autostereoscopic 3D display (HD-MVA3D) with a parallax barrier (PB). Diffraction effects that become of great importance in such a display system that uses a PB, are considered in an one-dimensional model of the 3D display, in which the numerical simulation of light from display panel pixels through PB slits to viewing zone is performed. The simulation results are then compared to the corresponding experimental measurements with discussion. We demonstrate that, as a main parameter for view image quality evaluation, the Fresnel number can be used to determine the PB slit aperture for the best performance of the display system. It is revealed that a set of the display parameters, which gives the Fresnel number of ∼ 0.7 offers maximized brightness of the view images while that corresponding to the Fresnel number of 0.4 ∼ 0.5 offers minimized image crosstalk. The compromise between the brightness and crosstalk enables optimization of the relative magnitude of the brightness to the crosstalk and lead to the choice of display parameter set for the HD-MVA3D with a PB, which satisfies the condition where the Fresnel number lies between 0.4 and 0.7. PMID:26907057

  19. Motion-parallax smoothness of short-, medium-, and long-distance 3D image presentation using multi-view displays.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Urano, Yohei; Nishio, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-19

    The discontinuity of motion parallax offered by multi-view displays was assessed by subjective evaluation. A super multi-view head-up display, which provides dense viewing points and has short-, medium-, and long-distance display ranges, was used. The results showed that discontinuity perception depended on the ratio of an image shift between adjacent parallax images to a pixel pitch of three-dimensional (3D) images and the crosstalk between viewing points. When the ratio was less than 0.2 and the crosstalk was small, the discontinuity was not perceived. When the ratio was greater than 1 and the crosstalk was small, the discontinuity was perceived, and the resolution of the 3D images decreased twice. When the crosstalk was large, the discontinuity was not perceived even when the ratio was 1 or 2. However, the resolution decreased two or more times. PMID:23187574

  20. Multi-view alignment with database of features for an improved usage of high-end 3D scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonarrigo, Francesco; Signoroni, Alberto; Leonardi, Riccardo

    2012-12-01

    The usability of high-precision and high-resolution 3D scanners is of crucial importance due to the increasing demand of 3D data in both professional and general-purpose applications. Simplified, intuitive and rapid object modeling requires effective and automated alignment pipelines capable to trace back each independently acquired range image of the scanned object into a common reference system. To this end, we propose a reliable and fast feature-based multiple-view alignment pipeline that allows interactive registration of multiple views according to an unchained acquisition procedure. A robust alignment of each new view is estimated with respect to the previously aligned data through fast extraction, representation and matching of feature points detected in overlapping areas from different views. The proposed pipeline guarantees a highly reliable alignment of dense range image datasets on a variety of objects in few seconds per million of points.

  1. Development of a Top-View Numeric Coding Teaching-Learning Trajectory within an Elementary Grades 3-D Visualization Design Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Jacqueline J.

    2013-01-01

    This article explicates the development of top-view numeric coding of 3-D cube structures within a design research project focused on 3-D visualization skills for elementary grades children. It describes children's conceptual development of 3-D cube structures using concrete models, conventional 2-D pictures and abstract top-view numeric…

  2. Real-Depth imaging: a new 3D imaging technology with inexpensive direct-view (no glasses) video and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgoff, Eugene

    1997-05-01

    Floating Images, Inc. has developed the software and hardware for a new, patent pending, 'floating 3-D, off-the-screen- experience' display technology. This technology has the potential to become the next standard for home and arcade video games, computers, corporate presentations, Internet/Intranet viewing, and television. Current '3-D graphics' technologies are actually flat on screen. Floating ImagesTM technology actually produce images at different depths from any display, such as CRT and LCD, for television, computer, projection, and other formats. In addition, unlike stereoscopic 3-D imaging, no glasses, headgear, or other viewing aids are used. And, unlike current autostereoscopic imaging technologies, there is virtually no restriction on where viewers can sit to view the images, with no 'bad' or 'dead' zones, flipping, or pseudoscopy. In addition to providing traditional depth cues such as perspective and background image occlusion, the new technology also provides both horizontal and vertical binocular parallax (the ability to look around foreground objects to see previously hidden background objects, with each eye seeing a different view at all times) and accommodation (the need to re-focus one's eyes when shifting attention from a near object to a distant object) which coincides with convergence (the need to re-aim one's eyes when shifting attention from a near object to a distant object). Since accommodation coincides with convergence, viewing these images doesn't produce headaches, fatigue, or eye-strain, regardless of how long they are viewed (unlike stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays). The imagery (video or computer generated) must either be formatted for the Floating ImagesTM platform when written or existing software can be re-formatted without much difficulty.

  3. Extended field-of-view and increased-signal 3D holographic illumination with time-division multiplexing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Samuel J.; Allen, William E.; Kauvar, Isaac; Andalman, Aaron S.; Young, Noah P.; Kim, Christina K.; Marshel, James H.; Wetzstein, Gordon; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used for generating multifocal three-dimensional (3D) illumination patterns, but these are limited to a field of view constrained by the pixel count or size of the SLM. Further, with two-photon SLM-based excitation, increasing the number of focal spots penalizes the total signal linearly—requiring more laser power than is available or can be tolerated by the sample. Here we analyze and demonstrate a method of using galvanometer mirrors to time-sequentially reposition multiple 3D holograms, both extending the field of view and increasing the total time-averaged two-photon signal. We apply our approach to 3D two-photon in vivo neuronal calcium imaging. PMID:26699047

  4. Extended field-of-view and increased-signal 3D holographic illumination with time-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Samuel J; Allen, William E; Kauvar, Isaac; Andalman, Aaron S; Young, Noah P; Kim, Christina K; Marshel, James H; Wetzstein, Gordon; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-12-14

    Phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used for generating multifocal three-dimensional (3D) illumination patterns, but these are limited to a field of view constrained by the pixel count or size of the SLM. Further, with two-photon SLM-based excitation, increasing the number of focal spots penalizes the total signal linearly--requiring more laser power than is available or can be tolerated by the sample. Here we analyze and demonstrate a method of using galvanometer mirrors to time-sequentially reposition multiple 3D holograms, both extending the field of view and increasing the total time-averaged two-photon signal. We apply our approach to 3D two-photon in vivo neuronal calcium imaging. PMID:26699047

  5. Shape measurement by a multi-view methodology based on the remote tracking of a 3D optical scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Sandro; Paoli, Alessandro; Viviano Razionale, Armando

    2012-03-01

    Full field optical techniques can be reliably used for 3D measurements of complex shapes by multi-view processes, which require the computation of transformation parameters relating different views into a common reference system. Although, several multi-view approaches have been proposed, the alignment process is still the crucial step of a shape reconstruction. In this paper, a methodology to automatically align 3D views has been developed by integrating a stereo vision system and a full field optical scanner. In particular, the stereo vision system is used to remotely track the optical scanner within a working volume. The tracking system uses stereo images to detect the 3D coordinates of retro-reflective infrared markers rigidly connected to the scanner. Stereo correspondences are established by a robust methodology based on combining the epipolar geometry with an image spatial transformation constraint. The proposed methodology has been validated by experimental tests regarding both the evaluation of the measurement accuracy and the 3D reconstruction of an industrial shape.

  6. Effectiveness of Applying 2D Static Depictions and 3D Animations to Orthographic Views Learning in Graphical Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chih-Fu; Chiang, Ming-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study provides experiment results as an educational reference for instructors to help student obtain a better way to learn orthographic views in graphical course. A visual experiment was held to explore the comprehensive differences between 2D static and 3D animation object features; the goal was to reduce the possible misunderstanding…

  7. Fibroblasts Lead the Way: A Unified View of 3D Cell Motility.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Ryan J; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2015-11-01

    Primary human fibroblasts are remarkably adaptable, able to migrate in differing types of physiological 3D tissue and on rigid 2D tissue culture surfaces. The crawling behavior of these and other vertebrate cells has been studied intensively, which has helped generate the concept of the cell motility cycle as a comprehensive model of 2D cell migration. However, this model fails to explain how cells force their large nuclei through the confines of a 3D matrix environment and why primary fibroblasts can use more than one mechanism to move in 3D. Recent work shows that the intracellular localization of myosin II activity is governed by cell-matrix interactions to both force the nucleus through the extracellular matrix (ECM) and dictate the type of protrusions used to migrate in 3D. PMID:26437597

  8. A full-parallax 3D display with restricted viewing zone tracking viewer's eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beppu, Naoto; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-03-01

    The Three-Dimensional (3D) vision became widely known as familiar imaging technique now. The 3D display has been put into practical use in various fields, such as entertainment and medical fields. Development of 3D display technology will play an important role in a wide range of fields. There are various ways to the method of displaying 3D image. There is one of the methods that showing 3D image method to use the ray reproduction and we focused on it. This method needs many viewpoint images when achieve a full-parallax because this method display different viewpoint image depending on the viewpoint. We proposed to reduce wasteful rays by limiting projector's ray emitted to around only viewer using a spinning mirror, and to increase effectiveness of display device to achieve a full-parallax 3D display. We propose a method by using a tracking viewer's eye, a high-speed projector, a rotating mirror that tracking viewer (a spinning mirror), a concave mirror array having the different vertical slope arranged circumferentially (a concave mirror array), a cylindrical mirror. About proposed method in simulation, we confirmed the scanning range and the locus of the movement in the horizontal direction of the ray. In addition, we confirmed the switching of the viewpoints and convergence performance in the vertical direction of rays. Therefore, we confirmed that it is possible to realize a full-parallax.

  9. Hubble and ESO's VLT provide unique 3D views of remote galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    Astronomers have obtained exceptional 3D views of distant galaxies, seen when the Universe was half its current age, by combining the twin strengths of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's acute eye, and the capacity of ESO's Very Large Telescope to probe the motions of gas in tiny objects. By looking at this unique "history book" of our Universe, at an epoch when the Sun and the Earth did not yet exist, scientists hope to solve the puzzle of how galaxies formed in the remote past. ESO PR Photo 10a/09 A 3D view of remote galaxies ESO PR Photo 10b/09 Measuring motions in 3 distant galaxies ESO PR Video 10a/09 Galaxies in collision For decades, distant galaxies that emitted their light six billion years ago were no more than small specks of light on the sky. With the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in the early 1990s, astronomers were able to scrutinise the structure of distant galaxies in some detail for the first time. Under the superb skies of Paranal, the VLT's FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph (ESO 13/02) -- which obtains simultaneous spectra from small areas of extended objects -- can now also resolve the motions of the gas in these distant galaxies (ESO 10/06). "This unique combination of Hubble and the VLT allows us to model distant galaxies almost as nicely as we can close ones," says François Hammer, who led the team. "In effect, FLAMES/GIRAFFE now allows us to measure the velocity of the gas at various locations in these objects. This means that we can see how the gas is moving, which provides us with a three-dimensional view of galaxies halfway across the Universe." The team has undertaken the Herculean task of reconstituting the history of about one hundred remote galaxies that have been observed with both Hubble and GIRAFFE on the VLT. The first results are coming in and have already provided useful insights for three galaxies. In one galaxy, GIRAFFE revealed a region full of ionised gas, that is, hot gas composed of atoms that have been stripped of

  10. Real-time 3-D shape measurement with composite phase-shifting fringes and multi-view system.

    PubMed

    Tao, Tianyang; Chen, Qian; Da, Jian; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Yan; Zuo, Chao

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, fringe projection has become an established and essential method for dynamic three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement in different fields such as online inspection and real-time quality control. Numerous high-speed 3-D shape measurement methods have been developed by either employing high-speed hardware, minimizing the number of pattern projection, or both. However, dynamic 3-D shape measurement of arbitrarily-shaped objects with full sensor resolution without the necessity of additional pattern projections is still a big challenge. In this work, we introduce a high-speed 3-D shape measurement technique based on composite phase-shifting fringes and a multi-view system. The geometry constraint is adopted to search the corresponding points independently without additional images. Meanwhile, by analysing the 3-D position and the main wrapped phase of the corresponding point, pairs with an incorrect 3-D position or a considerable phase difference are effectively rejected. All of the qualified corresponding points are then corrected, and the unique one as well as the related period order is selected through the embedded triangular wave. Finally, considering that some points can only be captured by one of the cameras due to the occlusions, these points may have different fringe orders in the two views, so a left-right consistency check is employed to eliminate those erroneous period orders in this case. Several experiments on both static and dynamic scenes are performed, verifying that our method can achieve a speed of 120 frames per second (fps) with 25-period fringe patterns for fast, dense, and accurate 3-D measurement. PMID:27607632

  11. 7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE AND EAST FACE OF CUT STONE TOWER - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. Salt Lake City, Utah, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This 3-D perspective view, in simulated natural colors, presents a late spring view over Salt Lake City towards the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains to the east. The image was created by draping ASTER image data over digital topography data from the US Geological Survey's National Elevation Data.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation

  13. Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat, Los Angeles, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    growing Landsat image archive. This Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: View width 134 kilometers (83 miles); view distance 150 kilometers (93 miles) Location: 34.3 degrees North latitude, 118.4 degrees West longitude Orientation: View west-northwest, 1.8 X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2+4, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Landsat 30 meters (98 feet) Graphic Data: earthquake faults active in Late Quaternary times Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), May 4, 2001 (Landsat).

  14. Perspective view, Landsat overlay Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area with limited space and water resources. This perspective view, combining a Landsat image with SRTM topography, shows how the topography controls the urban growth pattern, causes cloud formation, and directs the rainfall runoff pattern. Features of interest in this scene include downtown Honolulu (right), Honolulu Harbor (right), Pearl Harbor (center), and offshore reef patterns (foreground). The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the image. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu Peninsula and Kaneohe Bay (upper right). Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, and in this rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level. High resolution topographic and image data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat 7 satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated about six times vertically. The Landsat 7 image was acquired on February 12, 2000, and was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS)Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The

  15. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillippines - Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This perspective view looking toward the east shows the western flank of the volcano where most of these pyroclastic flows were deposited.

    This debris consists of ash and boulders that mix with water after heavy rains to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.

    The topographic data were collected by NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument on November 29, 1996. Colors are from the French SPOT satellite imaging data in both visible and infrared wavelengths collected in February 1996. Areas of vegetation appear red and areas without vegetation appear light blue. River valleys radiate out from the summit of the volcano (upper center). Since the eruption, lahars have stripped these valleys of any vegetation. The Pasig-Potrero River flows to the northeast off the summit in the upper right of the image.

    Scientists have been using airborne radar data collected by the AIRSAR instrument in their studies of the aftereffects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. AIRSAR collected imaging radar data over the volcano during a mission to the Pacific Rim region in late 1996 and on a follow-up mission to the area in late 2000. These data sets

  16. View planetary differentiation process through high-resolution 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Core-mantle separation is one of the most important processes in planetary evolution, defining the structure and chemical distribution in the planets. Iron-dominated core materials could migrate through silicate mantle to the core by efficient liquid-liquid separation and/or by percolation of liquid metal through solid silicate matrix. We can experimentally simulate these processes to examine the efficiency and time of core formation and its geochemical signatures. The quantitative measure of the efficiency of percolation is usually the dihedral angle, related to the interfacial energies of the liquid and solid phases. To determine the true dihedral angle at high pressure and temperatures, it is necessary to measure the relative frequency distributions of apparent dihedral angles between the quenched liquid metal and silicate grains for each experiment. Here I present a new imaging technique to visualize the distribution of liquid metal in silicate matrix in 3D by combination of focus ion beam (FIB) milling and high-resolution SEM image. The 3D volume rendering provides precise determination of the dihedral angle and quantitative measure of volume fraction and connectivity. I have conducted a series of experiments using mixtures of San Carlos olivine and Fe-S (10wt%S) metal with different metal-silicate ratios, up to 25 GPa and at temperatures above 1800C. High-quality 3D volume renderings were reconstructed from FIB serial sectioning and imaging with 10-nm slice thickness and 14-nm image resolution for each quenched sample. The unprecedented spatial resolution at nano scale allows detailed examination of textural features and precise determination of the dihedral angle as a function of pressure, temperature and composition. The 3D reconstruction also allows direct assessment of connectivity in multi-phase matrix, providing a new way to investigate the efficiency of metal percolation in a real silicate mantle.

  17. Image-Based Rendering of LOD1 3D City Models for traffic-augmented Immersive Street-view Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brédif, M.

    2013-10-01

    It may be argued that urban areas may now be modeled with sufficient details for realistic fly-through over the cities at a reasonable price point. Modeling cities at the street level for immersive street-view navigation is however still a very expensive (or even impossible) operation if one tries to match the level of detail acquired by street-view mobile mapping imagery. This paper proposes to leverage the richness of these street-view images with the common availability of nation-wide LOD1 3D city models, using an image-based rendering technique : projective multi-texturing. Such a coarse 3D city model may be used as a lightweight scene proxy of approximate coarse geometry. The images neighboring the interpolated viewpoint are projected onto this scene proxy using their estimated poses and calibrations and blended together according to their relative distance. This enables an immersive navigation within the image dataset that is perfectly equal to - and thus as rich as - original images when viewed from their viewpoint location, and which degrades gracefully in between viewpoint locations. Beyond proving the applicability of this preprocessing-free computer graphics technique to mobile mapping images and LOD1 3D city models, our contributions are three-fold. Firstly, image distortion is corrected online in the GPU, preventing an extra image resampling step. Secondly, externally-computed binary masks may be used to discard pixels corresponding to moving objects. Thirdly, we propose a shadowmap-inspired technique that prevents, at marginal cost, the projective texturing of surfaces beyond the first, as seen from the projected image viewpoint location. Finally, an augmented visualization application is introduced to showcase the proposed immersive navigation: images are unpopulated from vehicles using externally-computed binary masks and repopulated using a 3D visualization of a 2D traffic simulation.

  18. Perspective view, Landsat overlay Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image shows a perspective view of the area around Pasadena, California, just north of Los Angeles. The cluster of hills surrounded by freeways on the left is the Verdugo Hills, which lie between the San Gabriel Valley in the foreground and the San Fernando Valley in the upper left. The San Gabriel Mountains are seen across the top of the image, and parts of the high desert near the city of Palmdale are visible along the horizon on the right. Several urban features can be seen in the image. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is the bright cluster of buildings just right of center; the flat tan area to the right of JPL at the foot of the mountains is a new housing development devoid of vegetation. Two freeways (the 210 and the 134) cross near the southeastern end of the Verdugo Hills near a white circular feature, the Rose Bowl. The commercial and residential areas of the city of Pasadena are the bright areas clustered around the freeway. These data will be used for a variety of applications including urban planning and natural hazard risk analysis.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers

  19. 3D high-efficiency video coding for multi-view video and depth data.

    PubMed

    Muller, Karsten; Schwarz, Heiko; Marpe, Detlev; Bartnik, Christian; Bosse, Sebastian; Brust, Heribert; Hinz, Tobias; Lakshman, Haricharan; Merkle, Philipp; Rhee, Franz Hunn; Tech, Gerhard; Winken, Martin; Wiegand, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes an extension of the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard for coding of multi-view video and depth data. In addition to the known concept of disparity-compensated prediction, inter-view motion parameter, and inter-view residual prediction for coding of the dependent video views are developed and integrated. Furthermore, for depth coding, new intra coding modes, a modified motion compensation and motion vector coding as well as the concept of motion parameter inheritance are part of the HEVC extension. A novel encoder control uses view synthesis optimization, which guarantees that high quality intermediate views can be generated based on the decoded data. The bitstream format supports the extraction of partial bitstreams, so that conventional 2D video, stereo video, and the full multi-view video plus depth format can be decoded from a single bitstream. Objective and subjective results are presented, demonstrating that the proposed approach provides 50% bit rate savings in comparison with HEVC simulcast and 20% in comparison with a straightforward multi-view extension of HEVC without the newly developed coding tools. PMID:23715605

  20. 3D reconstruction of scintillation light emission from proton pencil beams using limited viewing angles-a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hui, CheukKai; Robertson, Daniel; Beddar, Sam

    2014-08-21

    An accurate and high-resolution quality assurance (QA) method for proton radiotherapy beams is necessary to ensure correct dose delivery to the target. Detectors based on a large volume of liquid scintillator have shown great promise in providing fast and high-resolution measurements of proton treatment fields. However, previous work with these detectors has been limited to two-dimensional measurements, and the quantitative measurement of dose distributions was lacking. The purpose of the current study is to assess the feasibility of reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) scintillation light distributions of spot scanning proton beams using a scintillation system. The proposed system consists of a tank of liquid scintillator imaged by charge-coupled device cameras at three orthogonal viewing angles. Because of the limited number of viewing angles, we developed a profile-based technique to obtain an initial estimate that can improve the quality of the 3D reconstruction. We found that our proposed scintillator system and profile-based technique can reconstruct a single energy proton beam in 3D with a gamma passing rate (3%/3 mm local) of 100.0%. For a single energy layer of an intensity modulated proton therapy prostate treatment plan, the proposed method can reconstruct the 3D light distribution with a gamma pass rate (3%/3 mm local) of 99.7%. In addition, we also found that the proposed method is effective in detecting errors in the treatment plan, indicating that it can be a very useful tool for 3D proton beam QA. PMID:25054735

  1. 3D reconstruction of scintillation light emission from proton pencil beams using limited viewing angles—a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, CheukKai; Robertson, Daniel; Beddar, Sam

    2014-08-01

    An accurate and high-resolution quality assurance (QA) method for proton radiotherapy beams is necessary to ensure correct dose delivery to the target. Detectors based on a large volume of liquid scintillator have shown great promise in providing fast and high-resolution measurements of proton treatment fields. However, previous work with these detectors has been limited to two-dimensional measurements, and the quantitative measurement of dose distributions was lacking. The purpose of the current study is to assess the feasibility of reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) scintillation light distributions of spot scanning proton beams using a scintillation system. The proposed system consists of a tank of liquid scintillator imaged by charge-coupled device cameras at three orthogonal viewing angles. Because of the limited number of viewing angles, we developed a profile-based technique to obtain an initial estimate that can improve the quality of the 3D reconstruction. We found that our proposed scintillator system and profile-based technique can reconstruct a single energy proton beam in 3D with a gamma passing rate (3%/3 mm local) of 100.0%. For a single energy layer of an intensity modulated proton therapy prostate treatment plan, the proposed method can reconstruct the 3D light distribution with a gamma pass rate (3%/3 mm local) of 99.7%. In addition, we also found that the proposed method is effective in detecting errors in the treatment plan, indicating that it can be a very useful tool for 3D proton beam QA.

  2. Stereoscopic 3D entertainment and its effect on viewing comfort: comparison of children and adults.

    PubMed

    Pölönen, Monika; Järvenpää, Toni; Bilcu, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Children's and adults' viewing comfort during stereoscopic three-dimensional film viewing and computer game playing was studied. Certain mild changes in visual function, heterophoria and near point of accommodation values, as well as eyestrain and visually induced motion sickness levels were found when single setups were compared. The viewing system had an influence on viewing comfort, in particular for eyestrain levels, but no clear difference between two- and three-dimensional systems was found. Additionally, certain mild changes in visual functions and visually induced motion sickness levels between adults and children were found. In general, all of the system-task combinations caused mild eyestrain and possible changes in visual functions, but these changes in magnitude were small. According to subjective opinions that further support these measurements, using a stereoscopic three-dimensional system for up to 2 h was acceptable for most of the users regardless of their age. PMID:22818394

  3. A wavelet-based image quality metric for the assessment of 3D synthesized views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosc, Emilie; Battisti, Federica; Carli, Marco; Le Callet, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel image quality assessment technique for evaluating virtual synthesized views in the context of multi-view video. In particular, Free Viewpoint Videos are generated from uncompressed color views and their compressed associated depth maps by means of the View Synthesis Reference Software, provided by MPEG. Prior to the synthesis step, the original depth maps are encoded with different coding algorithms thus leading to the creation of additional artifacts in the synthesized views. The core of proposed wavelet-based metric is in the registration procedure performed to align the synthesized view and the original one, and in the skin detection that has been applied considering that the same distortion is more annoying if visible on human subjects rather than on other parts of the scene. The effectiveness of the metric is evaluated by analyzing the correlation of the scores obtained with the proposed metric with Mean Opinion Scores collected by means of subjective tests. The achieved results are also compared against those of well known objective quality metrics. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric.

  4. 3D Shape Perception in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: A Visual Neuroscience Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gillebert, Céline R.; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Bastin, Christine; Neyens, Veerle; Bruffaerts, Rose; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Laere, Koen; Versijpt, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Salmon, Eric; Todd, James T.; Orban, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare focal neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visuoperceptual and visuospatial deficits, most often due to atypical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We applied insights from basic visual neuroscience to analyze 3D shape perception in humans affected by PCA. Thirteen PCA patients and 30 matched healthy controls participated, together with two patient control groups with diffuse Lewy body dementia (DLBD) and an amnestic-dominant phenotype of AD, respectively. The hierarchical study design consisted of 3D shape processing for 4 cues (shading, motion, texture, and binocular disparity) with corresponding 2D and elementary feature extraction control conditions. PCA and DLBD exhibited severe 3D shape-processing deficits and AD to a lesser degree. In PCA, deficient 3D shape-from-shading was associated with volume loss in the right posterior inferior temporal cortex. This region coincided with a region of functional activation during 3D shape-from-shading in healthy controls. In PCA patients who performed the same fMRI paradigm, response amplitude during 3D shape-from-shading was reduced in this region. Gray matter volume in this region also correlated with 3D shape-from-shading in AD. 3D shape-from-disparity in PCA was associated with volume loss slightly more anteriorly in posterior inferior temporal cortex as well as in ventral premotor cortex. The findings in right posterior inferior temporal cortex and right premotor cortex are consistent with neurophysiologically based models of the functional anatomy of 3D shape processing. However, in DLBD, 3D shape deficits rely on mechanisms distinct from inferior temporal structural integrity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visuoperceptual dysfunction and most often an atypical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) affecting the ventral and dorsal visual streams rather than the medial

  5. An Automatic 3d Reconstruction Method Based on Multi-View Stereo Vision for the Mogao Grottoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, J.; Zhong, S.; Zheng, L.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents an automatic three-dimensional reconstruction method based on multi-view stereo vision for the Mogao Grottoes. 3D digitization technique has been used in cultural heritage conservation and replication over the past decade, especially the methods based on binocular stereo vision. However, mismatched points are inevitable in traditional binocular stereo matching due to repeatable or similar features of binocular images. In order to reduce the probability of mismatching greatly and improve the measure precision, a portable four-camera photographic measurement system is used for 3D modelling of a scene. Four cameras of the measurement system form six binocular systems with baselines of different lengths to add extra matching constraints and offer multiple measurements. Matching error based on epipolar constraint is introduced to remove the mismatched points. Finally, an accurate point cloud can be generated by multi-images matching and sub-pixel interpolation. Delaunay triangulation and texture mapping are performed to obtain the 3D model of a scene. The method has been tested on 3D reconstruction several scenes of the Mogao Grottoes and good results verify the effectiveness of the method.

  6. Quantitative analysis of 3D stent reconstruction from a limited number of views in cardiac rotational angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrenot, Béatrice; Vaillant, Régis; Prost, Rémy; Finet, Gérard; Douek, Philippe; Peyrin, Françoise

    2007-03-01

    Percutaneous coronary angioplasty consists in conducting a guidewire carrying a balloon and a stent through the lesion and deploying the stent by balloon inflation. A stent is a small 3D complex mesh hardly visible in X-ray images : the control of stent deployment is difficult although it is important to avoid post intervention complications. In a previous work, we proposed a method to reconstruct 3D stent images from a set of 2D cone-beam projections acquired in rotational acquisition mode. The process involves a motion compensation procedure based on the position of two markers located on the guidewire in the 2D radiographic sequence. Under the hypothesis that the stent and markers motions are identical, the method was shown to generate a negligible error. If this hypothesis is not fulfilled, a solution could be to use only the images where motion is weakest, at the detriment of having a limiter number of views. In this paper, we propose a simulation based study of the impact of a limited number of views in our context. The chain image involved in the acquisition of X-ray sequences is first modeled to simulate realistic noisy projections of stent animated by a motion close to cardiac motion. Then, the 3D stent images are reconstructed using the proposed motion compensation method from gated projections. Two gating strategies are examined to select projection in the sequences. A quantitative analysis is carried out to assess reconstruction quality as a function of noise and acquisition strategy.

  7. 3D Segmentation of the Left Ventricle Combining Long- and Shortaxis Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relan, Jatin; Säring, Dennis; Groth, Michael; Müllerleile, Kai; Handels, Heinz

    Segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) is required to quantify LV remodeling after myocardial infarction. Therefore spatiotemporal Cine MR sequences including longaxis and shortaxis images are acquired. In this paper a new segmentation method for fast and robust segmentation of the left ventricle is presented. The new approach considers the position of the mitral valve and the apex as well as the longaxis contours to generate a 3D LV surface model. The segmentation result can be checked and adjusted in the shortaxis images. Finally quantitative parameters were extracted. For evaluation the LV was segmented in eight datasets of the same subject by two medical experts using a contour drawing tool and the new segmentation tool. The results of both methods were compared concerning interaction time and intra- and interobserver variance. The presented segmentation method proved to be fast. The intra- and interobserver variance is decreased for all extracted parameters.

  8. A 3D view of the Hydra I galaxy cluster core - I. Kinematic substructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, Michael; Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo; Richtler, Tom; Coccato, Lodovico; Arnaboldi, Magda; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia

    2015-02-01

    We used FORS2 in MXU mode to mimic a coarse `IFU' in order to measure the 3D large-scale kinematics around the central Hydra I cluster galaxy NGC 3311. Our data show that the velocity dispersion field varies as a function of radius and azimuthal angle and violates point symmetry. Also, the velocity field shows similar dependence, hence the stellar halo of NGC 3311 is a dynamically young structure. The kinematic irregularities coincide in position with a displaced diffuse halo North-East of NGC 3311 and with tidal features of a group of disrupting dwarf galaxies. This suggests that the superposition of different velocity components is responsible for the kinematic substructure in the Hydra I cluster core.

  9. Potential hazards of viewing 3-D stereoscopic television, cinema and computer games: a review.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Peter A

    2011-03-01

    The visual stimulus provided by a 3-D stereoscopic display differs from that of the real world because the image provided to each eye is produced on a flat surface. The distance from the screen to the eye remains fixed, providing a single focal distance, but the introduction of disparity between the images allows objects to be located geometrically in front of, or behind, the screen. Unlike in the real world, the stimulus to accommodation and the stimulus to convergence do not match. Although this mismatch is used positively in some forms of Orthoptic treatment, a number of authors have suggested that it could negatively lead to the development of asthenopic symptoms. From knowledge of the zone of clear, comfortable, single binocular vision one can predict that, for people with normal binocular vision, adverse symptoms will not be present if the discrepancy is small, but are likely if it is large, and that what constitutes 'large' and 'small' are idiosyncratic to the individual. The accommodation-convergence mismatch is not, however, the only difference between the natural and the artificial stimuli. In the former case, an object located in front of, or behind, a fixated object will not only be perceived as double if the images fall outside Panum's fusional areas, but it will also be defocused and blurred. In the latter case, however, it is usual for the producers of cinema, TV or computer game content to provide an image that is in focus over the whole of the display, and as a consequence diplopic images will be sharply in focus. The size of Panum's fusional area is spatial frequency-dependent, and because of this the high spatial frequencies present in the diplopic 3-D image will provide a different stimulus to the fusion system from that found naturally. PMID:21309798

  10. Calibration and 3D reconstruction of underwater objects with non-single-view projection model by structured light stereo imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yexin; Negahdaripour, Shahriar; Aykin, Murat D

    2016-08-20

    Establishing the projection model of imaging systems is critical in 3D reconstruction of object shapes from multiple 2D views. When deployed underwater, these are enclosed in waterproof housings with transparent glass ports that generate nonlinear refractions of optical rays at interfaces, leading to invalidation of the commonly assumed single-viewpoint (SVP) model. In this paper, we propose a non-SVP ray tracing model for the calibration of a projector-camera system, employed for 3D reconstruction based on the structured light paradigm. The projector utilizes dot patterns, having established that the contrast loss is less severe than for traditional stripe patterns in highly turbid waters. Experimental results are presented to assess the achieved calibrating accuracy. PMID:27556973

  11. Automated bone segmentation from large field of view 3D MR images of the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ying; Fripp, Jurgen; Chandra, Shekhar S; Schwarz, Raphael; Engstrom, Craig; Crozier, Stuart

    2013-10-21

    Accurate bone segmentation in the hip joint region from magnetic resonance (MR) images can provide quantitative data for examining pathoanatomical conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement through to varying stages of osteoarthritis to monitor bone and associated cartilage morphometry. We evaluate two state-of-the-art methods (multi-atlas and active shape model (ASM) approaches) on bilateral MR images for automatic 3D bone segmentation in the hip region (proximal femur and innominate bone). Bilateral MR images of the hip joints were acquired at 3T from 30 volunteers. Image sequences included water-excitation dual echo stead state (FOV 38.6 × 24.1 cm, matrix 576 × 360, thickness 0.61 mm) in all subjects and multi-echo data image combination (FOV 37.6 × 23.5 cm, matrix 576 × 360, thickness 0.70 mm) for a subset of eight subjects. Following manual segmentation of femoral (head-neck, proximal-shaft) and innominate (ilium+ischium+pubis) bone, automated bone segmentation proceeded via two approaches: (1) multi-atlas segmentation incorporating non-rigid registration and (2) an advanced ASM-based scheme. Mean inter- and intra-rater reliability Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC) for manual segmentation of femoral and innominate bone were (0.970, 0.963) and (0.971, 0.965). Compared with manual data, mean DSC values for femoral and innominate bone volumes using automated multi-atlas and ASM-based methods were (0.950, 0.922) and (0.946, 0.917), respectively. Both approaches delivered accurate (high DSC values) segmentation results; notably, ASM data were generated in substantially less computational time (12 min versus 10 h). Both automated algorithms provided accurate 3D bone volumetric descriptions for MR-based measures in the hip region. The highly computational efficient ASM-based approach is more likely suitable for future clinical applications such as extracting bone-cartilage interfaces for potential cartilage segmentation. PMID:24077264

  12. Automated bone segmentation from large field of view 3D MR images of the hip joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ying; Fripp, Jurgen; Chandra, Shekhar S.; Schwarz, Raphael; Engstrom, Craig; Crozier, Stuart

    2013-10-01

    Accurate bone segmentation in the hip joint region from magnetic resonance (MR) images can provide quantitative data for examining pathoanatomical conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement through to varying stages of osteoarthritis to monitor bone and associated cartilage morphometry. We evaluate two state-of-the-art methods (multi-atlas and active shape model (ASM) approaches) on bilateral MR images for automatic 3D bone segmentation in the hip region (proximal femur and innominate bone). Bilateral MR images of the hip joints were acquired at 3T from 30 volunteers. Image sequences included water-excitation dual echo stead state (FOV 38.6 × 24.1 cm, matrix 576 × 360, thickness 0.61 mm) in all subjects and multi-echo data image combination (FOV 37.6 × 23.5 cm, matrix 576 × 360, thickness 0.70 mm) for a subset of eight subjects. Following manual segmentation of femoral (head-neck, proximal-shaft) and innominate (ilium+ischium+pubis) bone, automated bone segmentation proceeded via two approaches: (1) multi-atlas segmentation incorporating non-rigid registration and (2) an advanced ASM-based scheme. Mean inter- and intra-rater reliability Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC) for manual segmentation of femoral and innominate bone were (0.970, 0.963) and (0.971, 0.965). Compared with manual data, mean DSC values for femoral and innominate bone volumes using automated multi-atlas and ASM-based methods were (0.950, 0.922) and (0.946, 0.917), respectively. Both approaches delivered accurate (high DSC values) segmentation results; notably, ASM data were generated in substantially less computational time (12 min versus 10 h). Both automated algorithms provided accurate 3D bone volumetric descriptions for MR-based measures in the hip region. The highly computational efficient ASM-based approach is more likely suitable for future clinical applications such as extracting bone-cartilage interfaces for potential cartilage segmentation.

  13. Supervised and unsupervised MRF based 3D scene classification in multiple view airborne oblique images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, M.; Xiao, J.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we develop and compare two methods for scene classification in 3D object space, that is, not single image pixels get classified, but voxels which carry geometric, textural and color information collected from the airborne oblique images and derived products like point clouds from dense image matching. One method is supervised, i.e. relies on training data provided by an operator. We use Random Trees for the actual training and prediction tasks. The second method is unsupervised, thus does not ask for any user interaction. We formulate this classification task as a Markov-Random-Field problem and employ graph cuts for the actual optimization procedure. Two test areas are used to test and evaluate both techniques. In the Haiti dataset we are confronted with largely destroyed built-up areas since the images were taken after the earthquake in January 2010, while in the second case we use images taken over Enschede, a typical Central European city. For the Haiti case it is difficult to provide clear class definitions, and this is also reflected in the overall classification accuracy; it is 73% for the supervised and only 59% for the unsupervised method. If classes are defined more unambiguously like in the Enschede area, results are much better (85% vs. 78%). In conclusion the results are acceptable, also taking into account that the point cloud used for geometric features is not of good quality and no infrared channel is available to support vegetation classification.

  14. 3D numerical model for a focal plane view in case of mosaic grating compressor for high energy CPA chain.

    PubMed

    Montant, S; Marre, G; Blanchot, N; Rouyer, C; Videau, L; Sauteret, C

    2006-12-11

    An important issue, mosaic grating compressor, is studied to recompress pulses for multiPetawatt, high energy laser systems. Alignment of the mosaic elements is crucial to control the focal spot and thus the intensity on target. No theoretical approach analyses the influence of compressor misalignment on spatial and temporal profiles in the focal plane. We describe a simple 3D numerical model giving access to the focal plane view after a compressor. This model is computationally inexpensive since it needs only 1D Fourier transforms to access to the temporal profile. We present simulations of monolithic and mosaic grating compressors. PMID:19529688

  15. Delivery mechanisms of 3D geological models - a perspective from the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrington, Ricky; Myers, Antony; Wood, Ben; Arora, Baneet

    2013-04-01

    The past decade has seen the British Geological Survey (BGS) construct over one hundred 3D geological models using software such as GOCAD®, GSI3D, EarthVision and Petrel across the United Kingdom and overseas. These models have been produced for different purposes and at different scales and resolutions in the shallow and deep subsurface. Alongside the construction of these models, the BGS and its collaborators have developed several options for disseminating these 3D geological models to external partners and the public. Initially, the standard formats for disseminating these 3D geological models by the BGS comprised of 2D images of cross-sections, GIS raster data and specialised visualisation software such as the LithoFrame Viewer. The LithoFrame Viewer is a thick-client software that allows the user to explore the 3D geometries of the geological units using a 3D interface, and generate synthetic cross-sections and boreholes on the fly. Despite the increased functionality of the LithoFrame Viewer over the other formats, the most popular data formats distributed remained 2D images of cross-sections, CAD based formats (e.g. DWG and DXF) and GIS raster data of surfaces and thicknesses, as these were the types of data that the external partners were most used too. Since 2009 software for delivering 3D geological models has advanced and types of data available have increased. Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) has been used to increase the number of outputs from 3D geological models. These include: • 3D PDFs (Adobe Acrobat) • KMZ/KML (GoogleEarth) • 3D shapefiles (ESRI) Alongside these later outputs, the BGS has developed other software such as GroundhogTM and Geovisionary (in collaboration with Virtalis). Groundhog is fully a web based application that allows the user to generate synthetic cross-sections, boreholes and horizontal slices from 3D geological models on the fly. Geovisionary provides some of the most advanced visualisation of 3D geological models in

  16. Automatic thermographic scanning with the creation of 3D panoramic views of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarini, G.; Cadelano, G.; Bortolin, A.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared thermography is widely applied to the inspection of building, enabling the identification of thermal anomalies due to the presence of hidden structures, air leakages, and moisture. One of the main advantages of this technique is the possibility to acquire rapidly a temperature map of a surface. However, due to the actual low-resolution of thermal camera and the necessity of scanning surfaces with different orientation, during a building survey it is necessary to take multiple images. In this work a device based on quantitative infrared thermography, called aIRview, has been applied during building surveys to automatically acquire thermograms with a camera mounted on a robotized pan tilt unit. The goal is to perform a first rapid survey of the building that could give useful information for the successive quantitative thermal investigations. For each data acquisition, the instrument covers a rotational field of view of 360° around the vertical axis and up to 180° around the horizontal one. The obtained images have been processed in order to create a full equirectangular projection of the ambient. For this reason the images have been integrated into a web visualization tool, working with web panorama viewers such as Google Street View, creating a webpage where it is possible to have a three dimensional virtual visit of the building. The thermographic data are embedded with the visual imaging and with other sensor data, facilitating the understanding of the physical phenomena underlying the temperature distribution.

  17. Towards An Understanding of Mobile Touch Navigation in a Stereoscopic Viewing Environment for 3D Data Exploration.

    PubMed

    Lopez, David; Oehlberg, Lora; Doger, Candemir; Isenberg, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    We discuss touch-based navigation of 3D visualizations in a combined monoscopic and stereoscopic viewing environment. We identify a set of interaction modes, and a workflow that helps users transition between these modes to improve their interaction experience. In our discussion we analyze, in particular, the control-display space mapping between the different reference frames of the stereoscopic and monoscopic displays. We show how this mapping supports interactive data exploration, but may also lead to conflicts between the stereoscopic and monoscopic views due to users' movement in space; we resolve these problems through synchronization. To support our discussion, we present results from an exploratory observational evaluation with domain experts in fluid mechanics and structural biology. These experts explored domain-specific datasets using variations of a system that embodies the interaction modes and workflows; we report on their interactions and qualitative feedback on the system and its workflow. PMID:27045916

  18. Fast, large field-of-view, telecentric optical-CT scanning system for 3D radiochromic dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, A; Oldham, M

    2010-01-01

    We describe initial experiences with an in-house, fast, large field-of-view optical-CT telecentric scanner (the Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner (DLOS)). The DLOS system is designed to enable telecentric optical-CT imaging of dosimeters up to 24 cm in diameter with a spatial resolution of 1 mm3, in approximately 10 minutes. These capabilities render the DLOS system a unique device at present. The system is a scaled up version of early prototypes in our lab. This scaling introduces several challenges, including the accurate measurement of a greatly increased range of light attenuation within the dosimeter, and the need to reduce even minor reflections and scattered light within the imaging chain. We present several corrections and techniques that enable accurate, low noise, 3D dosimetery with the DLOS system. PMID:21218169

  19. Effects Of Long-Term Viewing Of VISIDEP tm 3-D Television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaurin, A. P.; Jones, Edwin R.

    1988-06-01

    A comparison was made between viewing normal television and VISIDEPTM television which produces three-dimensional images by the method of alternating images. Two separate groups of fifteen university students reviewed fifty minute unrelieved exposure to television; one group watched standard television and the other watched VISIDEP. Both groups were surveyed regarding questions of eye strain, fatigue, headache, or other discomforts, as well as questions of apparent depth and image quality. One week later the participants were all shown the VISIDEP television and surveyed in the same manner as before. In addition, they were given a chance to make a direct side-by-side comparison and evaluate the images. Analysis of the viewer responses shows that in relation to viewer comfort, VISIDEP television is as acceptable to viewers as normal television, for it introduces no additional problems. However, the VISIDEP images were clearly superior in there ability to invoke an enhanced perception of depth.

  20. Attitudes of Patients Toward Adoption of 3D Technology in Pain Assessment: Qualitative Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Past research has revealed that insufficient pain assessment could, and often, has negative implications on the provision of quality health care. While current available clinical approaches have proven to be valid interventions, they are expensive and can often fail in providing efficient pain measurements. The increase in the prevalence of pain calls for more intuitive pain assessment solutions. Computerized alternatives have already been proposed both in the literature and in commerce, but may lack essential qualities such as accuracy of the collected clinical information and effective patient-clinician interaction. In response to this concern, 3-dimensional (3D) technology could become the innovative intervention needed to support and improve the pain assessment process. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to describe qualitative findings from a study which was designed to explore patients’ perceptions of adopting 3D technology in the assessment of their pain experience related to important themes that might positively or negatively influence the quality of the pain assessment process. Methods The perceptions of 60 individuals with some form of pain in the area of Greater London were collected through semi-structured interviews. Of the 60 respondents, 24 (43%) produced usable responses and were analyzed for content using principles of the grounded theory approach and thematic analysis, in order to gain insight into the participants’ beliefs and attitudes towards adopting 3D technology in pain assessment. Results The analysis identified 4 high-level core themes that were representative of the participants’ responses. These themes indicated that most respondents valued “the potential of 3D technology to facilitate better assessment of pain” as the most useful outcome of adopting a 3D approach. Respondents also expressed their opinions on the usability of the 3D approach, with no important concerns reported about its perceived ease of

  1. A user-friendly nano-CT image alignment and 3D reconstruction platform based on LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng-Hao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Zhi-Li; Gao, Kun; Wu, Zhao; Zhu, Pei-Ping; Wu, Zi-Yu

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography at the nanometer scale (nano-CT) offers a wide range of applications in scientific and industrial areas. Here we describe a reliable, user-friendly, and fast software package based on LabVIEW that may allow us to perform all procedures after the acquisition of raw projection images in order to obtain the inner structure of the investigated sample. A suitable image alignment process to address misalignment problems among image series due to mechanical manufacturing errors, thermal expansion, and other external factors has been considered, together with a novel fast parallel beam 3D reconstruction procedure that was developed ad hoc to perform the tomographic reconstruction. We have obtained remarkably improved reconstruction results at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility after the image calibration, the fundamental role of this image alignment procedure was confirmed, which minimizes the unwanted blurs and additional streaking artifacts that are always present in reconstructed slices. Moreover, this nano-CT image alignment and its associated 3D reconstruction procedure are fully based on LabVIEW routines, significantly reducing the data post-processing cycle, thus making the activity of the users faster and easier during experimental runs.

  2. The MUSE 3D view of the Hubble Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Drake, A.; Franx, M.; Tacchella, S.; Vernet, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Blaizot, J.; Bouché, N.; Bouwens, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Carton, D.; Caruana, J.; Clément, B.; Dreizler, S.; Epinat, B.; Guiderdoni, B.; Herenz, C.; Husser, T.-O.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnovic, D.; Lilly, S.; Martinsson, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Patricio, V.; Schaye, J.; Shirazi, M.; Soto, K.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Urrutia, T.; Weilbacher, P.; de Zeeuw, T.

    2015-03-01

    We observed Hubble Deep Field South with the new panoramic integral-field spectrograph MUSE that we built and have just commissioned at the VLT. The data cube resulting from 27 h of integration covers one arcmin2 field of view at an unprecedented depth with a 1σ emission-line surface brightness limit of 1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2, and contains ~90 000 spectra. We present the combined and calibrated data cube, and we performed a first-pass analysis of the sources detected in the Hubble Deep Field South imaging. We measured the redshifts of 189 sources up to a magnitude I814 = 29.5, increasing the number of known spectroscopic redshifts in this field by more than an order of magnitude. We also discovered 26 Lyα emitting galaxies that are not detected in the HST WFPC2 deep broad-band images. The intermediate spectral resolution of 2.3 Å allows us to separate resolved asymmetric Lyα emitters, [O ii]3727 emitters, and C iii]1908 emitters, and the broad instantaneous wavelength range of 4500 Å helps to identify single emission lines, such as [O iii]5007, Hβ, and Hα, over a very wide redshift range. We also show how the three-dimensional information of MUSE helps to resolve sources that are confused at ground-based image quality. Overall, secure identifications are provided for 83% of the 227 emission line sources detected in the MUSE data cube and for 32% of the 586 sources identified in the HST catalogue. The overall redshift distribution is fairly flat to z = 6.3, with a reduction between z = 1.5 to 2.9, in the well-known redshift desert. The field of view of MUSE also allowed us to detect 17 groups within the field. We checked that the number counts of [O ii]3727 and Lyα emitters are roughly consistent with predictions from the literature. Using two examples, we demonstrate that MUSE is able to provide exquisite spatially resolved spectroscopic information on the intermediate-redshift galaxies present in the field. Thisunique data set can be used for a

  3. Solar Radiation Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere: A 3D Perspective on Observations and Climate Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Marshak, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of sunlight with clouds is a ubiquitous and often pleasant visual experience, but it conjures up major challenges for weather, climate, environmental science and beyond. Those engaged in the characterization of clouds (and the clear air nearby) by remote sensing methods are even more confronted. The problem comes, on the one hand, from the spatial complexity of real clouds and, on the other hand, from the dominance of multiple scattering in the radiation transport. The former ingredient contrasts sharply with the still popular representation of clouds as homogeneous plane-parallel slabs for the purposes of radiative transfer computations. In typical cloud scenes the opposite asymptotic transport regimes of diffusion and ballistic propagation coexist. We survey the three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer literature over the past 50 years and identify three concurrent and intertwining thrusts: first, how to assess the damage (bias) caused by 3D effects in the operational 1D radiative transfer models? Second, how to mitigate this damage? Finally, can we exploit 3D radiative transfer phenomena to innovate observation methods and technologies? We quickly realize that the smallest scale resolved computationally or observationally may be artificial but is nonetheless a key quantity that separates the 3D radiative transfer solutions into two broad and complementary classes: stochastic and deterministic. Both approaches draw on classic and contemporary statistical, mathematical and computational physics.

  4. Solar radiation transport in the cloudy atmosphere: a 3D perspective on observations and climate impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Marshak, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The interplay of sunlight with clouds is a ubiquitous and often pleasant visual experience, but it conjures up major challenges for weather, climate, environmental science and beyond. Those engaged in the characterization of clouds (and the clear air nearby) by remote sensing methods are even more confronted. The problem comes, on the one hand, from the spatial complexity of real clouds and, on the other hand, from the dominance of multiple scattering in the radiation transport. The former ingredient contrasts sharply with the still popular representation of clouds as homogeneous plane-parallel slabs for the purposes of radiative transfer computations. In typical cloud scenes the opposite asymptotic transport regimes of diffusion and ballistic propagation coexist. We survey the three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer literature over the past 50 years and identify three concurrent and intertwining thrusts: first, how to assess the damage (bias) caused by 3D effects in the operational 1D radiative transfer models? Second, how to mitigate this damage? Finally, can we exploit 3D radiative transfer phenomena to innovate observation methods and technologies? We quickly realize that the smallest scale resolved computationally or observationally may be artificial but is nonetheless a key quantity that separates the 3D radiative transfer solutions into two broad and complementary classes: stochastic and deterministic. Both approaches draw on classic and contemporary statistical, mathematical and computational physics.

  5. Height of warm core in very severe cyclonic storms Phailin: INSAT-3D perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, S. Indira; Prasad, V. S.; Rajagopal, E. N.; Basu, Swati

    2016-05-01

    Warm core is the characteristic that distinguishes tropical cyclones from its extra tropical counter parts, where the center of the cyclone is warmer than its environment. Two of the most common variables used to characterize the warm core are its strength and height. The strength is given by the magnitude of maximum perturbation temperature and the height is the level where the maximum perturbation temperature occurs. INSAT-3D, India's advanced weather satellite, is the first geostationary sounder over India and the surrounding Oceanic regions. INSAT-3D has 18 channel sounder with a resolution of 10 km to profile the atmospheric temperature and humidity. Brightness Temperatures (Tbs) from INSAT-3D sounder channels are used to analyze the warm core structure of Tropical cyclone Phailin (8-14 October 2013) over the North Indian Ocean. Only when the system becomes very severe cyclonic system, when the eye of the cyclone is clearer (fully cloud free), the sounder channel Tbs showed multiple maxima, with strong primary maximum in the middle level (600-500 mb) and the secondary maximum in the upper level (300-250 mb), unlike the conventional belief suggested warm core existence at 250 mb. Due to the high resolution of (10 km) INSAT-3D sounder channels, compared to the Micro wave channels (AMSU-A of 50 km resolution), the warm core structure below 10 km of the atmosphere is well resolved.

  6. 3D pulse EPR imaging from sparse-view projections via constrained, total variation minimization

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Zhiwei; Redler, Gage; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Tumors and tumor portions with low oxygen concentrations (pO2) have been shown to be resistant to radiation therapy. As such, radiation therapy efficacy may be enhanced if delivered radiation dose is tailored based on the spatial distribution of pO2 within the tumor. A technique for accurate imaging of tumor oxygenation is critically important to guide radiation treatment that accounts for the effects of local pO2. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) has been considered one of the leading methods for quantitatively imaging pO2 within tumors in vivo. However, current EPRI techniques require relatively long imaging times. Reducing the number of projections can considerably reduce the imaging time. Conventional image reconstruction algorithms, such as filtered back projection (FBP), may produce severe artifacts in images reconstructed from sparse-view projections. This can lower the utility of these reconstructed images. In this work, an optimization based image reconstruction algorithm using constrained, total variation (TV) minimization, subject to data consistency, is developed and evaluated. The algorithm was evaluated using simulated phantom, physical phantom and pre-clinical EPRI data. The TV algorithm is compared with FBP using subjective and objective metrics. The results demonstrate the merits of the proposed reconstruction algorithm. PMID:26225440

  7. 3D pulse EPR imaging from sparse-view projections via constrained, total variation minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhiwei; Redler, Gage; Epel, Boris; Qian, Yuhua; Halpern, Howard

    2015-09-01

    Tumors and tumor portions with low oxygen concentrations (pO2) have been shown to be resistant to radiation therapy. As such, radiation therapy efficacy may be enhanced if delivered radiation dose is tailored based on the spatial distribution of pO2 within the tumor. A technique for accurate imaging of tumor oxygenation is critically important to guide radiation treatment that accounts for the effects of local pO2. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) has been considered one of the leading methods for quantitatively imaging pO2 within tumors in vivo. However, current EPRI techniques require relatively long imaging times. Reducing the number of projection scan considerably reduce the imaging time. Conventional image reconstruction algorithms, such as filtered back projection (FBP), may produce severe artifacts in images reconstructed from sparse-view projections. This can lower the utility of these reconstructed images. In this work, an optimization based image reconstruction algorithm using constrained, total variation (TV) minimization, subject to data consistency, is developed and evaluated. The algorithm was evaluated using simulated phantom, physical phantom and pre-clinical EPRI data. The TV algorithm is compared with FBP using subjective and objective metrics. The results demonstrate the merits of the proposed reconstruction algorithm.

  8. A comparison of multi-view 3D reconstruction of a rock wall using several cameras and a laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoeni, K.; Giacomini, A.; Murtagh, R.; Kniest, E.

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a comparative study between multi-view 3D reconstruction using various digital cameras and a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Five different digital cameras were used in order to estimate the limits related to the camera type and to establish the minimum camera requirements to obtain comparable results to the ones of the TLS. The cameras used for this study range from commercial grade to professional grade and included a GoPro Hero 1080 (5 Mp), iPhone 4S (8 Mp), Panasonic Lumix LX5 (9.5 Mp), Panasonic Lumix ZS20 (14.1 Mp) and Canon EOS 7D (18 Mp). The TLS used for this work was a FARO Focus 3D laser scanner with a range accuracy of ±2 mm. The study area is a small rock wall of about 6 m height and 20 m length. The wall is partly smooth with some evident geological features, such as non-persistent joints and sharp edges. Eight control points were placed on the wall and their coordinates were measured by using a total station. These coordinates were then used to georeference all models. A similar number of images was acquired from a distance of between approximately 5 to 10 m, depending on field of view of each camera. The commercial software package PhotoScan was used to process the images, georeference and scale the models, and to generate the dense point clouds. Finally, the open-source package CloudCompare was used to assess the accuracy of the multi-view results. Each point cloud obtained from a specific camera was compared to the point cloud obtained with the TLS. The latter is taken as ground truth. The result is a coloured point cloud for each camera showing the deviation in relation to the TLS data. The main goal of this study is to quantify the quality of the multi-view 3D reconstruction results obtained with various cameras as objectively as possible and to evaluate its applicability to geotechnical problems.

  9. Feasibility of low-dose single-view 3D fiducial tracking concurrent with external beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Speidel, Michael A.; Wilfley, Brian P.; Hsu, Annie; Hristov, Dimitre

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: In external-beam radiation therapy, existing on-board x-ray imaging chains orthogonal to the delivery beam cannot recover 3D target trajectories from a single view in real-time. This limits their utility for real-time motion management concurrent with beam delivery. To address this limitation, the authors propose a novel concept for on-board imaging based on the inverse-geometry Scanning-Beam Digital X-ray (SBDX) system and evaluate its feasibility for single-view 3D intradelivery fiducial tracking. Methods: A chest phantom comprising a posterior wall, a central lung volume, and an anterior wall was constructed. Two fiducials were placed along the mediastinal ridge between the lung cavities: a 1.5 mm diameter steel sphere superiorly and a gold cylinder (2.6 mm length x 0.9 mm diameter) inferiorly. The phantom was placed on a linear motion stage that moved sinusoidally. Fiducial motion was along the source-detector (z) axis of the SBDX system with {+-}10 mm amplitude and a programmed period of either 3.5 s or 5 s. The SBDX system was operated at 15 frames per second, 100 kVp, providing good apparent conspicuity of the fiducials. With the stage moving, detector data were acquired and subsequently reconstructed into 15 planes with a 12 mm plane-to-plane spacing using digital tomosynthesis. A tracking algorithm was applied to the image planes for each temporal frame to determine the position of each fiducial in (x,y,z)-space versus time. A 3D time-sinusoidal motion model was fit to the measured 3D coordinates and root mean square (RMS) deviations about the fitted trajectory were calculated. Results: Tracked motion was sinusoidal and primarily along the source-detector (z) axis. The RMS deviation of the tracked z-coordinate ranged from 0.53 to 0.71 mm. The motion amplitude derived from the model fit agreed with the programmed amplitude to within 0.28 mm for the steel sphere and within -0.77 mm for the gold seed. The model fit periods agreed with the programmed

  10. 3D modeling, custom implants and its future perspectives in craniofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Custom implants for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects have gained importance due to better performance over their generic counterparts. This is due to the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, reduced surgical times and better cosmesis. Application of 3D modeling in craniofacial surgery is changing the way surgeons are planning surgeries and graphic designers are designing custom implants. Advances in manufacturing processes and ushering of additive manufacturing for direct production of implants has eliminated the constraints of shape, size and internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for the fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of the region of implantation. This article will review recent trends in 3D modeling and custom implants in craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:24987592

  11. 2D approaches to 3D watermarking: state-of-the-art and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrea, M.; Duţă, S.; Prêteux, F.

    2006-02-01

    With the advent of the Information Society, video, audio, speech, and 3D media represent the source of huge economic benefits. Consequently, there is a continuously increasing demand for protecting their related intellectual property rights. The solution can be provided by robust watermarking, a research field which exploded in the last 7 years. However, the largest part of the scientific effort was devoted to video and audio protection, the 3D objects being quite neglected. In the absence of any standardisation attempt, the paper starts by summarising the approaches developed in this respect and by further identifying the main challenges to be addressed in the next years. Then, it describes an original oblivious watermarking method devoted to the protection of the 3D objects represented by NURBS (Non uniform Rational B Spline) surfaces. Applied to both free form objects and CAD models, the method exhibited very good transparency (no visible differences between the marked and the unmarked model) and robustness (with respect to both traditional attacks and to NURBS processing).

  12. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Mount Shasta, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The volcanic nature of Mount Shasta is clearly evident in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the northwest. At over 4,300 meters (14,000 feet), Mount Shasta is California's tallest volcano and part of the Cascade chain of volcanoes extending south from Washington. The twin summits of Shasta and Shastina tower over a lava flow on the flank of the volcano. Cutting across the lava flow is the bright line of a railroad. The bright area at the right edge is the town of Weed.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an online mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  13. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The defining landmarks of San Francisco, its bay and the San Andreas Fault are clearly seen in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the south. Running from the bottom of the scene diagonally up to the left, the trough of the San Andreas Fault is occupied by Crystal Springs Reservoir and San Andreas Lake. Interstate 280 winds along the side of the fault. San Francisco International Airport is the angular feature projecting into the bay just below San Bruno Mountain, the elongated ridge cutting across the peninsula. The hills of San Francisco can be seen beyond San Bruno Mountain and beyond the city, the Golden Gate.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D

  14. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Most of the population of Utah lives just west of the Wasatch Mountains in the north central part of the state. This broad east-northeastward view shows that region with the cities of Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo seen from left to right. The Great Salt Lake (left) and Utah Lake (right) are quite shallow and appear greenish in this enhanced natural color view. Thousands of years ago ancient Lake Bonneville covered all of the lowlands seen here. Its former shoreline is clearly seen as a wave-cut bench and/or light colored 'bathtub ring' at several places along the base of the mountain front - evidence seen from space of our ever-changing planet.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  15. A Molecular Perspective of Inter-filament Bonding in Fused Deposition Modeling 3-D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duranty, Edward; Spradlin, Brandon; Dadmun, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Fused deposition 3D printing is an important tool for low-cost and rapid prototyping of objects with complex geometries. 3D printed materials are composed of many filaments deposited on a heated substrate, requiring the bonding of neighboring filaments during the deposition process. Filament deposition often creates voids between filaments, which requires necking between them to create a robust sample. Therefore the amount of interfacial contact and interdiffusion between filaments become important parameters that control the macroscopic physical properties of the printed prototype. Our research focuses on quantifying the interfacial adhesion between ABS filaments and its impact on structural properties. The time evolution of the temperature profile near the heated substrate demonstrates that the deposited filaments are repeatedly heated above the Tg of ABS allowing interpenetration of the polymer chains between adjacent filaments. Results of DMA experiments on samples of different geometries have been correlated to microphotography that monitors the degree of necking between filaments and the thermal history. Results indicate that interfacial contact area between filaments and increased thermal energy are crucial to their mechanical properties.

  16. 36. Historic view of the Museum of Art, general perspective ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic view of the Museum of Art, general perspective view of side and rear elevations, view looking northwest (date unknown) - University of Oregon Museum of Art, 1470 Johnson Lane, Eugene, Lane County, OR

  17. 35. Historic view of the Museum of Art, general perspective ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Historic view of the Museum of Art, general perspective view of front facade, view looking northeast (date unknown) - University of Oregon Museum of Art, 1470 Johnson Lane, Eugene, Lane County, OR

  18. High-speed 3-D measurement with a large field of view based on direct-view confocal microscope with an electrically tunable lens.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeong-jun; Yoo, Hongki; Gweon, DaeGab

    2016-02-22

    We propose a new structure of confocal imaging system based on a direct-view confocal microscope (DVCM) with an electrically tunable lens (ETL). Since it has no mechanical moving parts to scan both the lateral (x-y) and axial (z) directions, the DVCM with an ETL allows for high-speed 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging. Axial response and signal intensity of the DVCM were analyzed theoretically according to the pinhole characteristics. The system was designed to have an isotropic spatial resolution of 20 µm in both lateral and axial direction with a large field of view (FOV) of 10 × 10 mm. The FOV was maintained according to the various focal shifts as a result of an integrated design of an objective lens with the ETL. The developed system was calibrated to have linear focal shift over a range of 9 mm with an applied current to the ETL. The system performance of 3-D volume imaging was demonstrated using standard height specimens and a dental plaster. PMID:26907034

  19. NavOScan: hassle-free handheld 3D scanning with automatic multi-view registration based on combined optical and inertial pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkelt, C.; Kleiner, B.; Thorhallsson, T.; Mendoza, C.; Bräuer-Burchardt, C.; Kühmstedt, P.; Notni, G.

    2013-05-01

    Portable 3D scanners with low measurement uncertainty are ideally suited for capturing the 3D shape of objects right in their natural environment. However, elaborate manual post processing was usually necessary to build a complete 3D model from several overlapping scans (multiple views), or expensive or complex additional hardware (like trackers etc.) was needed. On the contrary, the NavOScan project[1] aims at fully automatic multi-view 3D scan assembly through a Navigation Unit attached to the scanner. This light weight device combines an optical tracking system with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) for robust relative scanner position estimation. The IMU provides robustness against swift scanner movements during view changes, while the wide angle, high dynamic range (HDR) optical tracker focused on the measurement object and its background ensures accurate sensor position estimations. The underlying software framework, partly implemented in hardware (FPGA) for performance reasons, fusions both data streams in real time and estimates the navigation unit's current pose. Using this pose to calculate the starting solution of the Iterative Closest Point registration approach allows for automatic registration of multiple 3D scans. After finishing the individual scans required to fully acquire the object in question, the operator is readily presented with its finalized complete 3D model! The paper presents an overview over the NavOScan architecture, highlights key aspects of the registration and navigation pipeline and shows several measurement examples obtained with the Navigation Unit attached to a hand held structured-light 3D scanner.

  20. Anaglyph of Perspective View with Aerial Photo Overlay Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph is a perspective view that shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north toward the San Gabriel Mountains. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from two datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provided the image detail. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings left of center, at the base of the mountains. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires can strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows. Data shown in this image can be used to predict both how wildfires spread over the terrain and how mudflows are channeled down the canyons.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  1. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  2. New 3-D view of a middle-shelf grounding-zone wedge in Eastern Basin Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, P. J.; Tomkin, J.

    2008-12-01

    A new large-area multibeam survey of a previously identified grounding zone wedge on the central Ross Sea middle continental shelf was acquired during NBP0802 and NBP0803 in February 2008. Within a regional framework, this wedge corresponds to the third grounding event since the WAIS began the post-LGM retreat. The survey reveals the 3-D detailed view of a lineated topset with iceberg gouges, a smooth multi-lobed foreset and distinct downdip pinchout of the grounding zone wedge. Beyond the down-dip pinchout, older subglacial lineations, oblique to the younger lineations, are evident. The multibeam survey along with sub- bottom profiler records permitted us to precisely position piston cores for each of these morphologic sectors. The combined data may serve as a proxy for evaluating some aspects of the WAIS's modern grounding- zone system. For example, sediment cores at the wedge's thin landward and basinward limits obtained homogenous gray mud below a thin olive-green pelagic drape. The absence of a similar pelagic drape embedded in the homogenous gray muds suggests that grounded ice did not retreat past this location before the WAIS occupied the middle-shelf grounding position. In other words, the pause in WAIS retreat was not associated with any significant re-advance.

  3. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  5. Perspective View with Landsat Overlaid Owahanga, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looks south along the southeast coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The capital city of Wellington is off the right side of the image. The river in the foreground reaches the coast at the town of Owahanga. The point protruding east (left) in the middle of the image is Castlepoint. The dark green areas are thick pine forests. The Wairarapa valley is in the far distance at the righthand side.

    This image shows how elevation data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. In this case color and natural shading were provided by images collected by the Landsat 4Thematic Mapper in 1989. The terrain perspective was derived from SRTM elevation data acquired in February. Topography is not vertically exaggerated.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    The University of Oxford Department of Earth Sciences provided the Landsat data.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective Center location: 40.9 deg. south lat., 170.3 deg. east lon. Orientation: view looking south Original data

  6. Perspective view from northeast of convalescent pavilion ("A"). National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from northeast of convalescent pavilion ("A"). - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Hospital, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  7. Perspective view of east entrance from northeast National Home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of east entrance from northeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Perspective view of south facade from southeast National Home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of south facade from southeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 5. Perspective view of Express Building, looking southwest, with railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Perspective view of Express Building, looking southwest, with railroad tracks in foreground - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  10. 3. Perspective view of Express Building looking northeast, with Division ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of Express Building looking northeast, with Division Street in foreground - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  11. Perspective view of second floor landing from northeast National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of second floor landing from northeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Danville Branch, Directors' House, 1900 and 2000 East Main Street , Danville, Vermilion County, IL

  12. 4. Perspective view of platform, looking northeast. Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view of platform, looking northeast. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  14. Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner of F and 2nd Streets North, view looking southeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  15. Perspective view looking northwest across the south end of South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view looking northwest across the south end of South Washington Place; view includes the east elevation of the Walters Art Museum and the south balustrade - Mount Vernon Place, Charles & Monument Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE FIRST BANK OF JOSEPH, LOCATED BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE FIRST BANK OF JOSEPH, LOCATED BETWEEN JOSEPH AND SECOND AVENUE ON MAIN STREET. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Joseph Main Street, Between Joseph & Second Avenues, Joseph, Wallowa County, OR

  17. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE FIRST BANK OF JOSEPH, LOCATED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE FIRST BANK OF JOSEPH, LOCATED AT THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECOND AND MAIN, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Joseph Main Street, Between Joseph & Second Avenues, Joseph, Wallowa County, OR

  18. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE C. 1926 GAZETTETIMES BUILDING LOCATED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE C. 1926 GAZETTE-TIMES BUILDING LOCATED AT 302 THIRD STREET SOUTHWEST, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Corvallis Downtown Historic District, Bounded by First & Sixth Streets, Van Buren & Western Avenues, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  19. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE C. 1893 HOTEL JULIAN, LOCATED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE C. 1893 HOTEL JULIAN, LOCATED AT 103-107 SECOND STREET, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Corvallis Downtown Historic District, Bounded by First & Sixth Streets, Van Buren & Western Avenues, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  20. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING HIGH LINE SYSTEM. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE ARCH CONSTRUCTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE ARCH CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TO NORTH ON WEST SIDE. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  2. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE AFTER COMPLETION, VIEW TO EAST. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, VIEW TO NORTH. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  4. DETAIL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE DECK POUR, VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  5. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE AFTER COMPLETION, VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  6. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, the gray area in the center of the image. The view is toward the northwest with the Pacific Ocean in the distance and shows a portion of the Meseta Central (Central Valley), home to about a third of Costa Rica's population.

    Like much of Central America, Costa Rica is generally cloud covered, so very little satellite imagery is available. The ability of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) instrument to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements will allow generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. These data were used to generate the image.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using elevation data from SRTM and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between

  7. Perspective View with Color-Coded Shaded Relief, Central Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows central Panama, with the remnants of the extinct volcano El Valle in the foreground and the Caribbean Sea in the distance. El Valle underwent an explosive eruption about 3 million years ago, forming a crater 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) across, one of the largest in the Americas. The crater subsequently filled with water forming a huge lake, but about 12,000 years ago a breach at the present site of the waterfall Choro de las Mozas caused it to drain, forming the present valley. Within the crater is the town of El Valle de Anton, whose 600-meter (1,968-foot) elevation and resulting cooler climate make it a popular tourist and vacation site.

    The lake in the distance is Lake Gatun, at the west end of the Panama Canal. The canal itself extends to the southwest (to the right in this northeast facing view) but is hidden by the intervening terrain.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM, and range from green at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  8. SummitView 1.0: a code to automatically generate 3D solid models of surface micro-machining based MEMS designs.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Yarberry, Victor R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes the SummitView 1.0 computer code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. SummitView is designed to generate a 3D solid model, amenable to visualization and meshing, that represents the end state of a microsystem fabrication process such as the SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-Planar Multilevel MEMS Technology) V process. Functionally, SummitView performs essentially the same computational task as an earlier code called the 3D Geometry modeler [1]. However, because SummitView is based on 2D instead of 3D data structures and operations, it has significant speed and robustness advantages. As input it requires a definition of both the process itself and the collection of individual 2D masks created by the designer and associated with each of the process steps. The definition of the process is contained in a special process definition file [2] and the 2D masks are contained in MEM format files [3]. The code is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes represent the geometric data and the SUMMiT V process steps. Classes are provided for the following process steps: Planar Deposition, Planar Etch, Conformal Deposition, Dry Etch, Wet Etch and Release Etch. SummitView is built upon the 2D Boolean library GBL-2D [4], and thus contains all of that library's functionality.

  9. Laser gated viewing at ISL for vision through smoke, active polarimetry, and 3D imaging in NIR and SWIR wavelength bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we want to give a review on the application of laser gated viewing for the improvement of vision cross-diffusing obstacles (smoke, turbid medium, …), the capturing of 3D scene information, or the study of material properties by polarimetric analysis at near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) wavelengths. Laser gated viewing has been studied since the 1960s as an active night vision method. Owing to enormous improvements in the development of compact and highly efficient laser sources and in the development of modern sensor technologies, the maturity of demonstrator systems rose during the past decades. Further, it was demonstrated that laser gated viewing has versatile sensing capabilities with application for long-range observation under certain degraded weather conditions, vision through obstacles and fog, active polarimetry, and 3D imaging.

  10. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  11. Quantification of perspective-induced shape change of clavicles at radiography and 3D scanning to assist human identification.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Carl N; Guyomarc'h, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Change in perspective between antemortem and postmortem imaging sessions (radiograph to radiograph and surface scan to radiograph) may cause different 2D renderings of the same osseous element complicating comparisons for identification. In this study, clavicle shape changes due to radiographic positioning and 3D laser scanning were examined in 20 right-side specimens, as pertinent to chest radiograph comparisons. Results indicate substantial changes in clavicle form with short source-to-image receptor distance, elevation of the element from the image receptor, and movement of the element away from the center beam (10% mean square for shape). Although quantitative shape differences were small when the clavicle was in close opposition to the image receptor (3% mean square), important qualitative differences remained with large distances from the center beam (e.g., conoid tubercle presence/absence). The significance of these results for image superimposition and computer-automated-shape-based searches of radiographic libraries to find matching candidates is discussed. PMID:24313366

  12. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Santa Barbara, California, is often called 'America's Riviera.' It enjoys a Mediterranean climate, a mountain backdrop, and a long and varied coastline. This perspective view of the Santa Barbara region was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat satellite image. The view is toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2526 m or 8286 feet) along the skyline. The coast here generally faces south. Consequently, Fall and Winter sunrises occur over the ocean, which is unusual for the U.S. west coast. The Santa Barbara 'back country' is very rugged and largely remains as undeveloped wilderness and an important watershed for local communities. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface.

    To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet) long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL

  13. Accuracy of x-ray image-based 3D localization from two C-arm views: a comparison between an ideal system and a real device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brost, Alexander; Strobel, Norbert; Yatziv, Liron; Gilson, Wesley; Meyer, Bernhard; Hornegger, Joachim; Lewin, Jonathan; Wacker, Frank

    2009-02-01

    arm X-ray imaging devices are commonly used for minimally invasive cardiovascular or other interventional procedures. Calibrated state-of-the-art systems can, however, not only be used for 2D imaging but also for three-dimensional reconstruction either using tomographic techniques or even stereotactic approaches. To evaluate the accuracy of X-ray object localization from two views, a simulation study assuming an ideal imaging geometry was carried out first. This was backed up with a phantom experiment involving a real C-arm angiography system. Both studies were based on a phantom comprising five point objects. These point objects were projected onto a flat-panel detector under different C-arm view positions. The resulting 2D positions were perturbed by adding Gaussian noise to simulate 2D point localization errors. In the next step, 3D point positions were triangulated from two views. A 3D error was computed by taking differences between the reconstructed 3D positions using the perturbed 2D positions and the initial 3D positions of the five points. This experiment was repeated for various C-arm angulations involving angular differences ranging from 15° to 165°. The smallest 3D reconstruction error was achieved, as expected, by views that were 90° degrees apart. In this case, the simulation study yielded a 3D error of 0.82 mm +/- 0.24 mm (mean +/- standard deviation) for 2D noise with a standard deviation of 1.232 mm (4 detector pixels). The experimental result for this view configuration obtained on an AXIOM Artis C-arm (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany) system was 0.98 mm +/- 0.29 mm, respectively. These results show that state-of-the-art C-arm systems can localize instruments with millimeter accuracy, and that they can accomplish this almost as well as an idealized theoretical counterpart. High stereotactic localization accuracy, good patient access, and CT-like 3D imaging capabilities render state-of-the-art C-arm systems ideal devices for X

  14. Portland, Mount Hood, & Columbia River Gorge, Oregon, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Portland, the largest city in Oregon, is located on the Columbia River at the northern end of the Willamette Valley. On clear days, Mount Hood highlights the Cascade Mountains backdrop to the east. The Columbia is the largest river in the American Northwest and is navigable up to and well beyond Portland. It is also the only river to fully cross the Cascade Range, and has carved the Columbia River Gorge, which is seen in the left-central part of this view. A series of dams along the river, at topographically favorable sites, provide substantial hydroelectric power to the region.

    This perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data substantially help in analyzing Landsat images by revealing the third dimension of Earth's surface, topographic height. The Landsat archive is managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's Eros Data Center (USGS EDC).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  15. The Best of Both Worlds: 3D X-ray Microscopy with Ultra-high Resolution and a Large Field of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Gelb, J.; Yang, Y.; Guan, Y.; Wu, W.; Chen, J.; Tian, Y.

    2011-09-01

    3D visualizations of complex structures within various samples have been achieved with high spatial resolution by X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT). While high spatial resolution generally comes at the expense of field of view (FOV). Here we proposed an approach that stitched several 3D volumes together into a single large volume to significantly increase the size of the FOV while preserving resolution. Combining this with nano-CT, 18-μm FOV with sub-60-nm resolution has been achieved for non-destructive 3D visualization of clustered yeasts that were too large for a single scan. It shows high promise for imaging other large samples in the future.

  16. Perspective View with Color-Coded Shaded Relief, Panama Canal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Panama Canal with the Gulf of Panama in the foreground and the Caribbean Sea in the distance. The canal runs northwest-southeast from the city of Colon on the Atlantic side to Panama City on the Pacific side. Water levels are maintained along its length by three reservoirs, the largest of which is Lake Gatun, visible at the right center of the image. Built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914, the canal extends for approximately 50 miles, and is widely considered to be one of the world's great engineering achievements.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM, and range from green at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 9.0 degrees North latitude, 79.8 degrees West longitude Orientation

  17. 5. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion and the east lawn, from the northeast (less distant view). The view includes manicured hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an annual flower bed, white pine (Pinus strobus), white birch (Betula species), and Norway spruce (Picea abies). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  18. 6. Perspective view of the south facade of the mansion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Perspective view of the south facade of the mansion and the south lawn, from the southeast. (more distant view). The view includes manicured hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an annual flower bed, white pine (Pinus strobus) and white birch (Betula species). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  19. 4. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion and the east lawn, from the northeast (more distant view). The view includes manicured hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an annual flower bed, white pine (Pinus strobus) and white birch (Betula species). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  20. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The cities of San Francisco and the East Bay are highlighted in this computer-generated perspective viewed from west of the Golden Gate. San Francisco occupies the peninsula jutting into the picture from the right. Golden Gate Park is the long rectangle near its left end and the Presidiois the green area at its tip, from which Golden Gate Bridge crosses to Marin. Treasure Island is the bright spot above San Francisco and Alcatraz Island is the small smudge below and to the left. Across the bay from San Francisco lie Berkeley (left) and Oakland (right). Mount Diablo, a landmark visible for many miles, rises in the distance at the upper right.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an on-line mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation

  1. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  2. FACET: a radiation view factor computer code for axisymmetric, 2D planar, and 3D geometries with shadowing

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.

    1983-08-01

    The computer code FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors for input to finite-element heat-transfer analysis codes. The first section of this report is a brief review of previous radiation-view-factor computer codes. The second section presents the defining integral equation for the geometric view factor between two surfaces and the assumptions made in its derivation. Also in this section are the numerical algorithms used to integrate this equation for the various geometries. The third section presents the algorithms used to detect self-shadowing and third-surface shadowing between the two surfaces for which a view factor is being calculated. The fourth section provides a user's input guide followed by several example problems.

  3. Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER field team measuring (Michael Lee and Dominic Duran foreground, Christopher Marston rear). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  4. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS FORMER ENTRANCE TO HARBISONWALKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS FORMER ENTRANCE TO HARBISON-WALKER BRICKYARD AT END OF STREET. - T. A. Giacobello Foreign Supplies Store, Shirley Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  5. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, CONTROL TOWER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, LOOKING TO NORTHEAST. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  6. 7. 31719 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, DOUBLE HOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 317-19 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, DOUBLE HOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST (REAR), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MEAT HOUSE, NURSERY BUILDINGS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MEAT HOUSE, NURSERY BUILDINGS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO RIGHT AND LEFT - Greenwood Furnace, Meat House, East of McAlevy's Fort on State Route 305, McAlevys Fort, Huntingdon County, PA

  8. 24. Perspective view from the southwest, focusing on the onestory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Perspective view from the southwest, focusing on the one-story conservatory (Note the archaeological sifting apparatus on the left). - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit is located under the center first-floor window. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Perspective view of the front elevation (note: decorative details such ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the front elevation (note: decorative details such as the brackets underpinning the deep cornice on the porch and house) - Philip T. Berry House, 1402 Thirty-first Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Perspective view of east facade from northeast National Home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of east facade from northeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Perspective view of #158 east facade from southeast National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of #158 east facade from southeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Perspective view, south wing, from the southeast (note the monitor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view, south wing, from the southeast (note the monitor running along the ridgeline, providing natural light along the third-floor main corridor - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER IN AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is the portion of the seed house to the right (south) of the double doors. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 2. INTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE LOOKING ACROSS PEWS (WITH RACKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE LOOKING ACROSS PEWS (WITH RACKS FOR FANS AND HYMNALS) TO PULPIT. - Sardis Baptist Church, Sanders' Ferry, Wilson's Crossing, Warrior River, Cordova, Walker County, AL

  17. 6. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONCRETE COUNTERWEIGHT, LOOKING SW ACROSS NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONCRETE COUNTERWEIGHT, LOOKING SW ACROSS NORTH AVENUE. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. Perspective view of the portico and north wing on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the portico and north wing on the east façade, looking northwest from a cherry picker. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 1. Perspective View of Scales Shanty looking south with Scranton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective View of Scales Shanty looking south with Scranton Yards in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Track Scales, 500 feet Southeast of Bridge No. 60, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  20. Perspective view of door to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of door to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; the bureau occupies the southern third of the building - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE AND WEST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE AND WEST END OF ENGINE REPAIR HOUSE, HARBISON-WALKER QUARRY - Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, Engine Repair House, West end of Shirley Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  2. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SIDE AND FRONT ELEVATIONS OF THE CHURCH AND THE GAZEBO BAND STAND (LEFT) - St. Mark's Catholic Church, 1040 Tenth Avenue West, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Perspective view looking along the Constitution Avenue facade, showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view looking along the Constitution Avenue facade, showing the twenty-seven bays and the three central arches that mark the entrance to the building - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Perspective view of bridge, looking west. Note that piers are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of bridge, looking west. Note that piers are wide enough to accommodate a second track. - Monongahela Railroad, New Geneva Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, South of Lock & Dam No. 7, New Geneva, Fayette County, PA

  5. 5. Perspective view of single bin, looking north. Delaware, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Perspective view of single bin, looking north. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. 7. Perspective view of turntable, with steam engine behind. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Perspective view of turntable, with steam engine behind. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  7. 3. Perspective view of SW corner of Building 59, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of SW corner of Building 59, showing narrow separation of west side of Building 59 from Building 856. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. 1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded over facility. Armory Street appears in the foreground. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE FROM NORTH SHOWING SPRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE FROM NORTH SHOWING SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND SMOKE HOUSE TO LEFT OF MAIN HOUSE WITH WOOD SHED TO THE REAR - Lakeside, 20 North Main Street, Yardley, Bucks County, PA

  10. Perspective view of the Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, now Emmanuel Christian Community Church, on West Lanvale Street - Lafayette Square, Bounded by West Lafayette, North Arlington, West Lanvale & North Carrollton streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. Perspective, environmental view looking from the intersection of West Lanvale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective, environmental view looking from the intersection of West Lanvale Street and North Carrollton Avenue - Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, 1210 West Lanvale Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH AND WEST SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH AND WEST SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST, NOTE THE OPEN PANEL IN THE SIDING THAT ALLOW FOR VENTILATION OF THE DRYING TOBACCO - The Cottage, Tobacco Barn, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  13. Detail perspective view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge arch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge arch, decorative cantilevered balustrade, and floor beams. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  14. 5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT, FILL CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. 6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MIDSLOPE VICINITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MID-SLOPE VICINITY, CUT CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. 2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOATHOUSE FROM SOUTH, TAKEN SUBSEQUENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOATHOUSE FROM SOUTH, TAKEN SUBSEQUENT TO FL-261-A-3 BUT PRIOR TO THE HURRICANE OF 1926 - Ralph M. Munroe House, Boathouse, 3485 Main Highway (Coconut Grove), Miami, Miami-Dade County, FL

  19. 3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF HOUSE FROM SOUTHEAST, PRIOR TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF HOUSE FROM SOUTHEAST, PRIOR TO THE ALTERATIONS OF 1908, SHOWING ADDITION OF FULL LATTICE WORK SCREENING FOUNDATIONS - Ralph M. Munroe House, 3485 Main Highway, Coconut Grove, Miami, Miami-Dade County, FL

  20. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONDUCTOR'S SHED (CENTER) CA. 1893, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONDUCTOR'S SHED (CENTER) CA. 1893, LOCATED NORTH OF THE CAR BARNS ALONG CENTRAL AVENUE - Johnstown Passenger Railway Company, Conductor's Shed, Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  1. Perspective view of east face, looking due south, with train ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of east face, looking due south, with train on bridge. - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Beaver River Bridge, Spanning Beaver River along line of Second Avenue, New Brighton, Beaver County, PA

  2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF PITTSBURGH HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF PITTSBURGH HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE CREATIVE AND PERFORMING ARTS, BUILT 2003 BY THE FIRM OF MACLACHLAN CORNELIUS AND FILONI. - Pittsburgh High School for the Creative & Performing Arts, 111 Ninth Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  3. Perspective view lookin southeast to west elevation and north gable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view lookin southeast to west elevation and north gable end; note change in grade and banked quality of north and east elevations. - Roulette Farm, Springhouse-Kitchen, Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD

  4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF LIBRARY IN ENVIRONMENT CONTEXT, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF LIBRARY IN ENVIRONMENT CONTEXT, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE ROOF OF THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE - Free Library of Philadelphia, Central Library, 1901 Vine Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CENTRAL BAY OF EAST ARMORY, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CENTRAL BAY OF EAST ARMORY, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  6. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS OF POWER BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS OF POWER BUILDING. NOTE DORMER WINDOWS AND BOARD AND BATTEN SIDING USED TO DISGUISE THE BUILDING. - Radar Station B-71, Power Building, Coastal Drive, Klamath, Del Norte County, CA

  7. 7. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, BOARD AND BATTEN WALL AND WINDOW, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, BOARD AND BATTEN WALL AND WINDOW, EAST SIDE OF PASSAGE, FROM NORTH - Seton Belt Barn, West Side of Church Road, north of Central Avenue (Route 214), Mitchellville, Prince George's County, MD

  8. Perspective view looking from the northeast, from approximately the same ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view looking from the northeast, from approximately the same vantage point as in MD-1109-K-12 - National Park Seminary, Japanese Bungalow, 2801 Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  9. Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing north hall at far left. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 3. Perspective view of west entrance to Gas House. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of west entrance to Gas House. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Gas House, 100 block of South Washington Avenue, west side, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. Perspective view of south portal. Note how portal angles about ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of south portal. Note how portal angles about 5' forward over the approach. - Red Oak Creek Bridge, Spanning (Big) Red Oak Creek, Huel Brown Road (Covered Bridge Road), Woodbury, Meriwether County, GA

  12. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING LAUREL STREET FACADE (to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING LAUREL STREET FACADE (to right) AND COMMERCE STREET FACADE (to left) - Cumberland National Bank, 59-61 East Commerce Street, Bridgeton, Cumberland County, NJ

  13. Perspective view NW by 310. Note the concrete pier extending ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view NW by 310. Note the concrete pier extending from the bridge in the foreground. This way to allow maximum water flow during floods and rainy periods. - Weaverland Bridge, Quarry Road spanning Conestoga Creek, Terre Hill, Lancaster County, PA

  14. 1. TUCKERTON WIRELESS, RADIO ROAD, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONCRETE FOUNDATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TUCKERTON WIRELESS, RADIO ROAD, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONCRETE FOUNDATION OF RADIO STANTION WITH WIRELESS BUILDING AND SMOKESTACK IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTH - Town of Tuckerton, U.S. Highway 9 & County Road 539, Tuckerton, Ocean County, NJ

  15. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST OF THE SATURN I TEST. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST OF THE SATURN I TEST. NOTE THE GANTRY CRANE USED TO MANEUVER ROCKETS INTO THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE TEST STAND, NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE TEST STAND, NOTE THE SERVICE AND SUPPORT BUILDINGS TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT OF THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND SIDE ELEVATION, SHOWING EGYPTIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND SIDE ELEVATION, SHOWING EGYPTIAN REVIVAL TOMB SITUATED WITHIN SURROUNDING GRAVES - Mount Pleasant Cemetery, George Opdyke Tomb, 375 Broadway Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  18. Perspective view of the west elevation looking from the southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the west elevation looking from the southwest (Eighth Street side; note U.S. Patent Office in background) - United States General Post Office, Between Seventh, Eighth, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bushhammered, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bush-hammered, recessed panels in fascia wall - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  20. "Shower head" water connection for servicing railroad locomotives, perspective view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Shower head" water connection for servicing railroad locomotives, perspective view looking NW across ATSF railyard. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE EAST SIDE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE EAST SIDE OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING. PIECES OF A DISASSEMBLED RAIL CAR IN FOREGROUND. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (LN) COOLING SHED, MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (L-N) COOLING SHED, MILL BUILDING AND CONVEYOR BRIDGE. NOTE CORNERSTONE ON THE MILL BUILDING. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING, AMMONIA SPHERES IN FOREGROUND. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  4. DETAIL PERSPECTIVE OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE, VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL PERSPECTIVE OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE, VIEW TO NORTH ON WEST SIDE. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  5. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  6. perspective view of the Shipping Building (1915) from the northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    perspective view of the Shipping Building (1915) from the northwest. The Meat Products Building appears in the far right. - H.J. Heinz Company Factories, 300 Heinz Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  7. The mechanisms of driving lithospheric deformation in India-Asia collision zone: a perspective from 3-D numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Kaus, Boris

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of intraplate deformation remains incompletely understood by plate tectonics theory. The India-Asia collision zone is the largest present-day example of continental collision, which makes it an ideal location to study the processes of continental deformation. Existing models of lithospheric deformation are typically quasi two-dimensional and often assume that the lithosphere is a thin viscous sheet, which deforms homogeneously as a result of the collision, or flows above a partially molten lower crust, which explains the exhumation of Himalayan units and lateral spreading of Tibetan plateau. An opposing view is that most deformation localize in shear zones separating less deformed blocks, requiring the lithosphere to have an elasto-plastic rather than a viscous rheology. In order to distinguish which model best fits the observations we develop a 3-D visco-elasto-plastic model, which can model both distributed and highly localized deformation. In our preliminary result, most of the large-scale strike-slips faults including Altyn-Tagh fault, Xianshuihe fault, Red-River fault, Sagaing fault and Jiali fault can be simulated. The topography is consistent with observations that flat plateau in central Tibet and steep, abrupt margins adjacent to Sichuan basin, and gradual topography in southeast Tibet. These models suggest that the localized large-scale strike-slip faults accommodate the continental deformation. These results show the importance of a weak lower crust and topographic effects, as well as the effect of rheology and temperature structure of the lithosphere on the deformation patterns.

  8. Library of Congress Model, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: Block length 120 kilometers (74 miles), block width 60 kilometers (37 miles) Location: 34.2 degrees North latitude, 118.3 degrees West longitude Orientation: View North-Northwest, 1.5 times vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively, plus elevation shading. Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), May 4, 2001 (Landsat)

  9. MRI Volume Fusion Based on 3D Shearlet Decompositions.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chang; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xue Gang; Huang, Qi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays many MRI scans can give 3D volume data with different contrasts, but the observers may want to view various contrasts in the same 3D volume. The conventional 2D medical fusion methods can only fuse the 3D volume data layer by layer, which may lead to the loss of interframe correlative information. In this paper, a novel 3D medical volume fusion method based on 3D band limited shearlet transform (3D BLST) is proposed. And this method is evaluated upon MRI T2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping data of 4 human brains. Both the perspective impression and the quality indices indicate that the proposed method has a better performance than conventional 2D wavelet, DT CWT, and 3D wavelet, DT CWT based fusion methods. PMID:24817880

  10. MRI Volume Fusion Based on 3D Shearlet Decompositions

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Chang; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xue Gang; Huang, Qi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays many MRI scans can give 3D volume data with different contrasts, but the observers may want to view various contrasts in the same 3D volume. The conventional 2D medical fusion methods can only fuse the 3D volume data layer by layer, which may lead to the loss of interframe correlative information. In this paper, a novel 3D medical volume fusion method based on 3D band limited shearlet transform (3D BLST) is proposed. And this method is evaluated upon MRI T2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping data of 4 human brains. Both the perspective impression and the quality indices indicate that the proposed method has a better performance than conventional 2D wavelet, DT CWT, and 3D wavelet, DT CWT based fusion methods. PMID:24817880

  11. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Bhuj, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 23.4 deg. North lat., 69.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: looking northeast Image Data: Landsat Bands 5, 4, 3 as red, green, blue respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: four days in February, 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

  12. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Bhuj and Anjar, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 23.4 deg. North lat., 69.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: looking East Image Data: Landsat Bands 5, 4, 3 as red, green, blue respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: four days in February, 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

  13. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 10.5 deg. North lat., 84.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: looking South Image Data: Landsat Bands 5, 4, 3 as red, green, blue respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February, 2000 (SRTM)

  14. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Lakes Managua and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 12.1 degrees North latitude, 86.1degrees West longitude Orientation: looking South Image Data: Landsat bands 5, 4, 3 as red, green, blue respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  15. Perspective view of shaded relief, color as height, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind. The area is located just east of the narrow range of the Andes Mountains, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) east of the border with Chile. Interesting features include basalt-capped mesas (top) and young volcanic cones (left foreground). Geologists will use SRTM topographic data to study the interaction of volcanic, climatic and erosional processes.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1100 meters (3600 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC

  16. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    San Joaquin, the name given to the southern portion of California's vast Central Valley, has been called the world's richest agricultural valley. In this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image, we are looking toward the southwest over a checkerboard pattern of agricultural fields. Mt. Pinos, a popular location for stargazing at 2,692 meters (8,831 feet) looms above the valley floor and is visible on the left side of the image. The productive southern San Joaquin is in reality a desert, averaging less than 12.7 cm (5 inches) of rain per year. Through canals and irrigation, the region nurtures some two hundred crops including grapes, figs, apricots, oranges, and more than 4,047 square-km (1,000,000 acres) of cotton. The California Aqueduct, transporting water from the Sacramento River Delta through the San Joaquin, runs along the base of the low-lying Wheeler Ridge on the left side of the image. The valley is not all agriculture though. Kern County, near the valley's southern end, is the United States' number one oil producing county, and actually produces more crude oil than Oklahoma. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U

  17. Radiometric and geometric evaluation of GeoEye-1, WorldView-2 and Pléiades-1A stereo images for 3D information extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, D.; Remondino, F.; Angiuli, E.; Agugiaro, G.

    2015-02-01

    Today the use of spaceborne Very High Resolution (VHR) optical sensors for automatic 3D information extraction is increasing in the scientific and civil communities. The 3D Optical Metrology (3DOM) unit of the Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK) in Trento (Italy) has collected VHR satellite imagery, as well as aerial and terrestrial data over Trento for creating a complete testfield for investigations on image radiometry, geometric accuracy, automatic digital surface model (DSM) generation, 2D/3D feature extraction, city modelling and data fusion. This paper addresses the radiometric and the geometric aspects of the VHR spaceborne imagery included in the Trento testfield and their potential for 3D information extraction. The dataset consist of two stereo-pairs acquired by WorldView-2 and by GeoEye-1 in panchromatic and multispectral mode, and a triplet from Pléiades-1A. For reference and validation, a DSM from airborne LiDAR acquisition is used. The paper gives details on the project, dataset characteristics and achieved results.

  18. 3D crustal architecture of the Alps-Apennines join — a new view on seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, M. E.; Laubscher, H. P.

    1996-08-01

    Seismic data from the Alps-Apennines join have usually been interpreted in the form of 2D cross-sections, passing either through the Western Alps or the Ligurian Alps-Monferrato Apennines. However, the oblique SE-NW convergence of Adria and Europa and superimposed rotations imply a distinct 3D kinematic development around the Adriatic Indenter (AI), the westernmost spur of Adria. In order to develop kinematic models, data on motion at the different margins of AI must be coordinated. Along the northern margin, the dextrally transpressive Insubric line (IL) was active between 25 and 16 Ma (Insubric-Helvetic phase of Alpine orogeny). Contemporaneously, along the southern margin (Paleo-Apenninic phase), a complementary sinistral motion took place along the Villalvernia-Varzi line (VVL). It emplaced the Monferrato Apennines westward to the north of the Ligurian Alps by carrying them westward on top of AI. Between 14 and 6 Ma (Jura-Lombardic phase of Alpine orogeny) the Lombardic thrust belt developed on the northern margin of AI, now largely hidden under the Po plain. Its continuation to the southwest is impeded by older thrust masses along the Western Alps that consist largely of basement, their sediments having been eroded, as noted on the deep reflection line CROP ALPI-1 by earlier investigators. This line, moreover, contains a deep reflection band originating in the autochthonous Mesozoic of the Apenninic foredeep. In order to better visualize this origin and the relation of further elements identified on reflection lines around the northwestern end of the Monferrato Apennines, a 3D fence diagram was constructed. It helps in establishing a 3D structural-kinematic model of the Alps-Apennines join based on the kinematics of AI. This model features an underthrust of AI under the western Alps in the Paleo-Apenninic phase. In the course of this underthrust, the Paleo-Apenninic elements of the Monferrato moved under the marginal thrusts of the western Alps. Subsequent Neo

  19. Gypsies in the palace: Experimentalist's view on the use of 3-D physics-based simulation of hillslope hydrological response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, A.L.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Tromp-Van Meerveld, I.; Peters, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    As a fundamental unit of the landscape, hillslopes are studied for their retention and release of water and nutrients across a wide range of ecosystems. The understanding of these near-surface processes is relevant to issues of runoff generation, groundwater-surface water interactions, catchment export of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, contaminants (e.g. mercury) and ultimately surface water health. We develop a 3-D physics-based representation of the Panola Mountain Research Watershed experimental hillslope using the TOUGH2 sub-surface flow and transport simulator. A recent investigation of sub-surface flow within this experimental hillslope has generated important knowledge of threshold rainfall-runoff response and its relation to patterns of transient water table development. This work has identified components of the 3-D sub-surface, such as bedrock topography, that contribute to changing connectivity in saturated zones and the generation of sub-surface stormflow. Here, we test the ability of a 3-D hillslope model (both calibrated and uncalibrated) to simulate forested hillslope rainfall-runoff response and internal transient sub-surface stormflow dynamics. We also provide a transparent illustration of physics-based model development, issues of parameterization, examples of model rejection and usefulness of data types (e.g. runoff, mean soil moisture and transient water table depth) to the model enterprise. Our simulations show the inability of an uncalibrated model based on laboratory and field characterization of soil properties and topography to successfully simulate the integrated hydrological response or the distributed water table within the soil profile. Although not an uncommon result, the failure of the field-based characterized model to represent system behaviour is an important challenge that continues to vex scientists at many scales. We focus our attention particularly on examining the influence of bedrock permeability, soil anisotropy and

  20. On the Use of Uavs in Mining and Archaeology - Geo-Accurate 3d Reconstructions Using Various Platforms and Terrestrial Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscharf, A.; Rumpler, M.; Fraundorfer, F.; Mayer, G.; Bischof, H.

    2015-08-01

    During the last decades photogrammetric computer vision systems have been well established in scientific and commercial applications. Especially the increasing affordability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in conjunction with automated multi-view processing pipelines have resulted in an easy way of acquiring spatial data and creating realistic and accurate 3D models. With the use of multicopter UAVs, it is possible to record highly overlapping images from almost terrestrial camera positions to oblique and nadir aerial images due to the ability to navigate slowly, hover and capture images at nearly any possible position. Multi-copter UAVs thus are bridging the gap between terrestrial and traditional aerial image acquisition and are therefore ideally suited to enable easy and safe data collection and inspection tasks in complex or hazardous environments. In this paper we present a fully automated processing pipeline for precise, metric and geo-accurate 3D reconstructions of complex geometries using various imaging platforms. Our workflow allows for georeferencing of UAV imagery based on GPS-measurements of camera stations from an on-board GPS receiver as well as tie and control point information. Ground control points (GCPs) are integrated directly in the bundle adjustment to refine the georegistration and correct for systematic distortions of the image block. We discuss our approach based on three different case studies for applications in mining and archaeology and present several accuracy related analyses investigating georegistration, camera network configuration and ground sampling distance. Our approach is furthermore suited for seamlessly matching and integrating images from different view points and cameras (aerial and terrestrial as well as inside views) into one single reconstruction. Together with aerial images from a UAV, we are able to enrich 3D models by combining terrestrial images as well inside views of an object by joint image processing to

  1. The potential of 3D-FISH and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy for studies of 3D nuclear architecture: 3D structured illumination microscopy of defined chromosomal structures visualized by 3D (immuno)-FISH opens new perspectives for studies of nuclear architecture.

    PubMed

    Markaki, Yolanda; Smeets, Daniel; Fiedler, Susanne; Schmid, Volker J; Schermelleh, Lothar; Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) has opened up new possibilities to study nuclear architecture at the ultrastructural level down to the ~100 nm range. We present first results and assess the potential using 3D-SIM in combination with 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) for the topographical analysis of defined nuclear targets. Our study also deals with the concern that artifacts produced by FISH may counteract the gain in resolution. We address the topography of DAPI-stained DNA in nuclei before and after 3D-FISH, nuclear pores and the lamina, chromosome territories, chromatin domains, and individual gene loci. We also look at the replication patterns of chromocenters and the topographical relationship of Xist-RNA within the inactive X-territory. These examples demonstrate that an appropriately adapted 3D-FISH/3D-SIM approach preserves key characteristics of the nuclear ultrastructure and that the gain in information obtained by 3D-SIM yields new insights into the functional nuclear organization. PMID:22508100

  2. Perspective view of Post and King Saloon, 129 North E ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Post and King Saloon, 129 North E Street (corner of E and North 2nd Streets), view looking southwest - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  3. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE EAST SIDE OF THE COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE EAST SIDE OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH WITH THE FIRE CACHE BUILDING, COMMUNICATIONS BUILDING, GRAPHICS BUILDING, FOREST PRACTICES BUILDING, AND THE K.O.G. (KEEP OREGON GREEN) BUILDING VISIBLE FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  4. 49. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion and the east lawn, from the northeast. The view includes manicured hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an annual flower bed, white pine (Pinus strobus), white birch (Betula species), and Norway spruce (Picea abies). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  5. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE AFTER COMPLETION, VIEW TO WEST WITH CROOKED RIVER HIGH BRIDGE (1926) AND OREGON TRUCK RAILWAY BRIDGE (1911) IN BACKGROUND. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  6. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE ARCH CONSTRUCTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE ARCH CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TO SOUTH OF SOUTHERN TRAVELING FORMWORK AND CABLE STAY TOWER. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  7. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE ARCH CONSTRUCTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE ARCH CONSTRUCTION, VIEW OF SOUTH TRAVELING FORMWORK AND NORTH ARCH PRIOR TO CLOSURE POUR. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  8. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Mt. Pinos, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Prominently displayed in this image, Mt. Pinos, at 2,692 meters (8,831 feet) is the highest peak in the Los Padres National Forest. Named for the mantle of pine trees covering its slopes and summit, it offers one of the best stargazing sites in Southern California. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data were combined with Landsat data to generate this perspective view looking toward the northwest. Not only is the mountain popular with astronomers and astro-photographers, it is also popular for hiking trails and winter sports.

    The broad low relief area in the right foreground is Cuddy Valley. Cuddy Valley Road is the bright line on the right (north)side of the valley. Just to the left and paralleling the road is a scarp (cliff) formed by the San Andreas fault. The fault slices through the mountains here and then bends and continues onto the Carrizo Plain (right center horizon). This entire segment of the San Andreas fault broke in a major earthquake in 1857.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter(98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National

  9. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 10.0 deg. North lat., 83.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: looking Southeast Image Data: Landsat Bands 5, 4, 3 as red, green, blue respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February, 2000 (SRTM)

  10. Perspective view, Landsat overlay San Andreas Fault, Palmdale, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: Varies in a perspective view Location: 34.58 deg. North lat., 118.13 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking Northwest Original Data Resolution: SRTM and Landsat: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  11. A 3-D view of field-scale fault-zone cementation from geologically ground-truthed electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, H.; Spinelli, G. A.; Mozley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fault-zones are an important control on fluid flow, affecting groundwater supply, hydrocarbon/contaminant migration, and waste/carbon storage. However, current models of fault seal are inadequate, primarily focusing on juxtaposition and entrainment effects, despite the recognition that fault-zone cementation is common and can dramatically reduce permeability. We map the 3D cementation patterns of the variably cemented Loma Blanca fault from the land surface to ~40 m depth, using electrical resistivity and induced polarization (IP). The carbonate-cemented fault zone is a region of anomalously low normalized chargeability, relative to the surrounding host material. Zones of low-normalized chargeability immediately under the exposed cement provide the first ground-truth that a cemented fault yields an observable IP anomaly. Low-normalized chargeability extends down from the surface exposure, surrounded by zones of high-normalized chargeability, at an orientation consistent with normal faults in the region; this likely indicates cementation of the fault zone at depth, which could be confirmed by drilling and coring. Our observations are consistent with: 1) the expectation that carbonate cement in a sandstone should lower normalized chargeability by reducing pore-surface area and bridging gaps in the pore space, and 2) laboratory experiments confirming that calcite precipitation within a column of glass beads decreases polarization magnitude. The ability to characterize spatial variations in the degree of fault-zone cementation with resistivity and IP has exciting implications for improving predictive models of the hydrogeologic impacts of cementation within faults.

  12. Current Applications and Future Perspectives of the Use of 3D Printing in Anatomical Training and Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Vivek; Štrkalj, Goran; Štrkalj, Mirjana; Di Ieva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is a form of rapid prototyping technology, which has led to innovative new applications in biomedicine. It facilitates the production of highly accurate three dimensional objects from substrate materials. The inherent accuracy and other properties of 3D printing have allowed it to have exciting applications in anatomy education and surgery, with the specialty of neurosurgery having benefited particularly well. This article presents the findings of a literature review of the Pubmed and Web of Science databases investigating the applications of 3D printing in anatomy and surgical education, and neurosurgery. A number of applications within these fields were found, with many significantly improving the quality of anatomy and surgical education, and the practice of neurosurgery. They also offered advantages over existing approaches and practices. It is envisaged that the number of useful applications will rise in the coming years, particularly as the costs of this technology decrease and its uptake rises. PMID:27445707

  13. Current Applications and Future Perspectives of the Use of 3D Printing in Anatomical Training and Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Vivek; Štrkalj, Goran; Štrkalj, Mirjana; Di Ieva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is a form of rapid prototyping technology, which has led to innovative new applications in biomedicine. It facilitates the production of highly accurate three dimensional objects from substrate materials. The inherent accuracy and other properties of 3D printing have allowed it to have exciting applications in anatomy education and surgery, with the specialty of neurosurgery having benefited particularly well. This article presents the findings of a literature review of the Pubmed and Web of Science databases investigating the applications of 3D printing in anatomy and surgical education, and neurosurgery. A number of applications within these fields were found, with many significantly improving the quality of anatomy and surgical education, and the practice of neurosurgery. They also offered advantages over existing approaches and practices. It is envisaged that the number of useful applications will rise in the coming years, particularly as the costs of this technology decrease and its uptake rises. PMID:27445707

  14. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  15. Split view Time-resolved PIV with a CW laser for 3-D measurements of planar velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzawawy, Amir; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2011-11-01

    The demand to increase the temporal resolution of Stereo-PIV systems used in the measurement of highly unsteady flow fields is limited by the low repetition rate of the pulsed lasers and cameras. The availability of high-frame-rate digital cameras and CW lasers opens new possibilities in the development of continuous PIV systems with increased temporal resolution. The present setup consists of a single high-frame-rate camera which can accommodate two simultaneous stereo view images of the deforming fluid on its CMOS sensor obtained by using four different planar mirrors, appropriately positioned This approach offers several advantages over traditional systems with two different cameras. First, it provides identical system parameters for the two views which minimize their differences and thus facilitating robust stereo matching. Second, it eliminates any need of synchronization between both cameras and the laser. And third its cost is substantially lower than the cost of a system with two cameras. The development of the technique will be described and the results of qualification tests in several wind tunnel flows will be presented and discussed. Sponsored by NSF Grant #1033117.

  16. Viewing Mobile Learning from a Pedagogical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Matthew; Schuck, Sandra; Burden, Kevin; Aubusson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mobile learning is a relatively new phenomenon and the theoretical basis is currently under development. The paper presents a pedagogical perspective of mobile learning which highlights three central features of mobile learning: authenticity, collaboration and personalisation, embedded in the unique timespace contexts of mobile learning. A…

  17. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Fernando Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 33 kilometers (20 miles) view width, 88 kilometers (55 miles) view distance Location: 34.2 deg. North lat., 118.5 deg. West lon. Orientation: View toward the northeast, 3X vertical exaggeration Image: Landsat bands 1, 2&4, 3 as blue, green, and red, respectively Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 (SRTM), November 11, 1986 (Landsat)

  18. Creating 3D visualizations of MRI data: A brief guide

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data is itself 3D, it is often difficult to adequately present the results papers and slides in 3D. As a result, findings of MRI studies are often presented in 2D instead. A solution is to create figures that include perspective and can convey 3D information; such figures can sometimes be produced by standard functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis packages and related specialty programs. However, many options cannot provide functionality such as visualizing activation clusters that are both cortical and subcortical (i.e., a 3D glass brain), the production of several statistical maps with an identical perspective in the 3D rendering, or animated renderings. Here I detail an approach for creating 3D visualizations of MRI data that satisfies all of these criteria. Though a 3D ‘glass brain’ rendering can sometimes be difficult to interpret, they are useful in showing a more overall representation of the results, whereas the traditional slices show a more local view. Combined, presenting both 2D and 3D representations of MR images can provide a more comprehensive view of the study’s findings. PMID:26594340

  19. Reconstruction for Time-Domain In Vivo EPR 3D Multigradient Oximetric Imaging—A Parallel Processing Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaraj, Christopher D.; Thadikonda, Kishan; Fletcher, Anthony R.; Doan, Phuc N.; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Matsumoto, Shingo; Johnson, Calvin A.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Subramanian, Sankaran; Krishna, Murali C.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23 × 23 × 23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet). The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time. PMID:19672315

  20. Reconstruction for time-domain in vivo EPR 3D multigradient oximetric imaging--a parallel processing perspective.

    PubMed

    Dharmaraj, Christopher D; Thadikonda, Kishan; Fletcher, Anthony R; Doan, Phuc N; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Matsumoto, Shingo; Johnson, Calvin A; Cook, John A; Mitchell, James B; Subramanian, Sankaran; Krishna, Murali C

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23 x 23 x 23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet). The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time. PMID:19672315

  1. Comparison of INSAT-3D AOD over Indian region with satellite- and ground-based measurements: a data assimilation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumit; George, John P.; Sreevathsa, M. N. Raghavendra; Indira Rani, S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims at comparing the INSAT-3D AOD with other space based observations over the continental regions. INSAT-3D launched in 2013 is an advanced geostationary weather satellite of India at 82° East longitude provides Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) observations at 650 nm over both land and ocean. The level-3 daily AOD measurements from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra) and MISR are used for comparison with that from INSAT-3D. This work is applied during premonsoon season of 2015. Overall statistical scores and systematic errors are compared to characterize various error sources. Our study indicates that significant differences exist between different aerosol observations which may be partly due to retrieval algorithm, sensor configurations and temporal sampling. Comparison of INSAT observed AOD shows less bias towards MISR and MODIS-Terra observed AOD than with MODIS-Aqua. The INSAT observations over oceanic region have better correlation, minimum bias and rmse than land region. Overall, the mean bias of the dataset is ±0.05, with a root mean square error of 0.22, but these errors are also found highly dependent on geographical region. Additionally, we compared INSAT 660 nm AOD with two AERONET ground stations. The comparison of INSAT with different observations shows that the retrieved AOD is closer to the ground-based data than the MISR and MODIS AOD.

  2. Wavelet-Based 3D Reconstruction of Microcalcification Clusters from Two Mammographic Views: New Evidence That Fractal Tumors Are Malignant and Euclidean Tumors Are Benign

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, Kendra A.; Tanenbaum, Aaron B.; Albert, Seth; Guimond, Lyne; Kestener, Pierre; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC) in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views. As a novelty, we define the “CC-MLO fractal dimension plot”, where a “fractal zone” and “Euclidean zones” (non-fractal) are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign) obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases) were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases). Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue. PMID:25222610

  3. Two world views: Perspectives on autistic behaviours.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Sarah J; Parry, Odette

    2015-11-01

    This article reports on a study, utilising phenomenological methodology, which used interview and video narratives to collect data from 10 young people with autism and their parents. Data analysis employed multistage, primarily ethnomethodological methods in order to interpret and understand experiences of autism. The study found that parents, arguably influenced by the medical and psychological perspectives through which 'autism' has evolved, problematise what children with autism do as pathological. This article juxtaposes parents' understandings against how children with autism, themselves, account for what they do, by exploring respective accounts of children's obsessions and ritualistic behaviours. PMID:24311744

  4. Perspective view, showing west front and north side, with ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view, showing west front and north side, with ca. 1974-1975 outdoor regulatory pumps at right, and hydraulic gate check cylinders on the afterbay structure on the crest of the hill in left background - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  5. Perspective view. Fivestory reinforced concrete factory building reveals the structural ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. Five-story reinforced concrete factory building reveals the structural frame on the exterior of the facade. Twelve bay facade facing onto Clay Avenue (north facade) has first floor openings bricked up. Mix of typical factory windows and glass block windows fill the majority of the openings on the rest of building - Russell Industrial Center, 1600 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  6. 5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST SHOWING ENTRANCE TO CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST SHOWING ENTRANCE TO CREW SHELTER AND THE TAPERING SHAPE OF THE SOUTHEAST END WALL OF AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Perspective view of SW corner of milk barn shows that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of SW corner of milk barn shows that entire south side has been covered by briar bushes. Bushes also obscure west side of creamery to the right. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  8. 1. Perspective view of the corn crib, taken from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective view of the corn crib, taken from the southwest looking past the corn crib toward the north elevation of the chicken coop, showing the spatial relationship of the outbuildings to one another - Chellberg Farm, Corn Crib, 900 North Mineral Springs Road, Porter, Porter County, IN

  9. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF NORTH SIDE. LOW BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF NORTH SIDE. LOW BUILDING IN CENTER IS A SIGNAL POWER GENERATING STATION (C. 1986). LOW TOWER STRUCTURE ON THE LEFT IS ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310, LOCATION OF POWER FEED TO THE CATENARY SYSTEM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  10. 5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH WING LOOKING NORTHWEST (NOTE: AREA TO LEFT OF CENTER ARCH IS THE CARETAKER'S DWELLING, AND TO THE RIGHT, THE CARRIAGE HOUSE) - Belair, Stables, Belair Drive at East end of Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  11. MACHINE SHOP, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHNORTHEAST OF THE WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MACHINE SHOP, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST OF THE WEST SIDE AND SOUTH END. WEST (REAR) SIDE OF GENERAL WAREHOUSE IS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. 5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO EAST SHOWING NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO EAST SHOWING NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING. (NOTE THAT RIGHT PORTION OF PHOTOGRAPH WAS FOGGED DUE TO BELLOWS LEAK). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  13. 5. Perspective view of SE corner of Building 59. In ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Perspective view of SE corner of Building 59. In distance, note change in the roff line where the 1896 south section of building ends and the 1904 middle section begins. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. Perspective view from northeast of former Surgeon's Quarters. This duplex ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from northeast of former Surgeon's Quarters. This duplex structure also housed the Secretary and was built in 1887. It is attributed to architect Henry C. Koch, due to the similarity between this Shingle Style house and his contemporary design for the Soldiers' Home Chapel. - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Surgeon's Quarters, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  15. 3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVERSEERS COTTAGE AT 110 CORINTH ROAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVERSEERS COTTAGE AT 110 CORINTH ROAD. NOTE ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, PORCH POSTS, AND STEPS. ORIGINALLY THIS HOUSE SAT ON BRICK PIERS WITH WOOD LATTICE BETWEEN. THE FOUNDATION HAS NOW BEEN INFILLED WITH BRICK. - 110 Corinth Road (House), 110 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  16. 1. Perspective view of east and south elevations of Riverdale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective view of east and south elevations of Riverdale Cotton Mill. The spinning room is located on the third floor, carding room on second floor and machine/maintenance shop on first floor. South elevation of Georgia Power powerhouse adjacent to Riverdale Mill appears on right. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  17. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, FROM THE NORTHEAST ATOP EAST WING (FOREGROUND), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, FROM THE NORTHEAST ATOP EAST WING (FOREGROUND), OF GREAT KIVA (RECONSTUCTED IN BACKGROUND) AND A SMALLER KIVA (MIDDLE GROUND) - Aztec Ruins, Great Kiva, New Mexico 44 near junction of U.S. 550, Aztec, San Juan County, NM

  18. Hangar no. 1 perspective view of south doors and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 1 perspective view of south doors and west side doors. Seen from hangar apron. Note hydrogen building at left edge distance. Looking 44 NE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. 4. VIEW EAST, PERSPECTIVE DOWN INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, PERSPECTIVE DOWN INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT TO CONEMAUGH RIVER AND AREA OF LOWER INCLINE - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. 32. View looking south. A high perspective of the first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. View looking south. A high perspective of the first bay on the south side of the lock. The recesses and grooves are plainly seen in the west lock gate sills. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM SOUTH. BOARD SIDING, ROOF SHINGLES, AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM SOUTH. BOARD SIDING, ROOF SHINGLES, AND TOP LAYER OF BOARD DECKING WERE INSTALLED IN 1995. - Cataract Falls Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek, bypassed section of CR 279 (Cataract Falls Unit of Leiber State Recreation Area), Cataract, Owen County, IN

  2. Perspective view. Threestory steel and brick building with factory windows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. Three-story steel and brick building with factory windows punctuating facades. East and west facades have tall brick piers capped with evenly spaced stone capitals. North facade (facing Milwaukee Ave. E.) has parapet element decorated with stone accent lines and large flagpole. Piers on north facade have raised stone base - New Center Stamping, 950 East Milwaukee Avenue, Detroit, MI

  3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF POWER BUILDING WITH ADDITION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF POWER BUILDING WITH ADDITION. NOTE WINDOW OPENINGS, WHICH ARE MERELY OPENINGS IN THE BOARD AND BATTEN SIDING AND REVEAL THE CONCRETE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION OF THE BUILDING. - Radar Station B-71, Power Building, Coastal Drive, Klamath, Del Norte County, CA

  4. Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution Avenue and is nineteen bays long with twelve single columns and two sets of paired columns - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Perspective view of the Fifteenth Street facade; this facade stretches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Fifteenth Street facade; this facade stretches almost three city blocks but is partially masked by trees and relieved by four pedimented pavilions. At the time of its construction, this was the largest office building in the world. - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Hangar no. 2 perspective detail view of west doors. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 perspective detail view of west doors. Note door tracks in underside of upper door structure. Darkening at top of image due to lens vignetting. Looking 78 w. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  7. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF BUILDINGS 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF BUILDINGS 1 (RIGHT) AND 2 (LEFT). BUILDING 1 HOUSES ADMINISTRATION, CONTROL ROOM, AND BINS FOR STORING LIME (NOT IN USE). BUILDING 2 WAS THE ORIGINAL ZEOLITE STRUCTURE. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Global Views, Personal Perspectives: Connecting to Self as Scholar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    A global view requires not only a broader perspective, but also greater depth to anchor it firmly. In increasingly changing contexts, are we connected to ourselves in a way that feeds our spirits and nourishes our work? A professional sphere based only on research and practice risks being unbalanced and may jeopardize our well-being as academics.…

  9. 2D/3D Synthetic Vision Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, jason L.

    2008-01-01

    Flight-deck display software was designed and developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) terrain, obstacle, and flight-path perspectives on a single navigation display. The objective was to optimize the presentation of synthetic vision (SV) system technology that permits pilots to view multiple perspectives of flight-deck display symbology and 3D terrain information. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the concept. The concept has numerous unique implementation features that would permit enhanced operational concepts and efficiencies in both current and future aircraft.

  10. A Model of Manual Control with Perspective Scene Viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Barbara Townsend

    2013-01-01

    A model of manual control during perspective scene viewing is presented, which combines the Crossover Model with a simpli ed model of perspective-scene viewing and visual- cue selection. The model is developed for a particular example task: an idealized constant- altitude task in which the operator controls longitudinal position in the presence of both longitudinal and pitch disturbances. An experiment is performed to develop and vali- date the model. The model corresponds closely with the experimental measurements, and identi ed model parameters are highly consistent with the visual cues available in the perspective scene. The modeling results indicate that operators used one visual cue for position control, and another visual cue for velocity control (lead generation). Additionally, operators responded more quickly to rotation (pitch) than translation (longitudinal).

  11. Pasadena, California Perspective View with Aerial Photo and Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene.

    This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation

  12. Increasing the effective aperture of a detector and enlarging the receiving field of view in a 3D imaging lidar system through hexagonal prism beam splitting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cui, Tianxiang; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Yunxi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-11

    The detector in a highly accurate and high-definition scanning 3D imaging lidar system requires high frequency bandwidth and sufficient photosensitive area. To solve the problem of small photosensitive area of an existing indium gallium arsenide detector with a certain frequency bandwidth, this study proposes a method for increasing the receiving field of view (FOV) and enlarging the effective photosensitive aperture of such detector through hexagonal prism beam splitting. The principle and construction of hexagonal prism beam splitting is also discussed in this research. Accordingly, a receiving optical system with two hexagonal prisms is provided and the splitting beam effect of the simulation experiment is analyzed. Using this novel method, the receiving optical system's FOV can be improved effectively up to ±5°, and the effective photosensitive aperture of the detector is increased from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. PMID:27410800

  13. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males. PMID:26158956

  14. The influence of radiographic viewing perspective and demographics on the Critical Shoulder Angle

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Thomas; Popp, Ariane Gerber; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Chong; Tashjian, Robert Z.; Henninger, Heath B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of the critical shoulder angle (CSA) is important in clinical evaluation of degenerative rotator cuff tears. This study analyzed the influence of radiographic viewing perspective on the CSA, developed a classification system to identify malpositioned radiographs, and assessed the relationship between the CSA and demographic factors. Methods Glenoid height, width and retroversion were measured on 3D CT reconstructions of 68 cadaver scapulae. A digitally reconstructed radiograph was aligned perpendicular to the scapular plane, and retroversion was corrected to obtain a true antero-posterior (AP) view. In 10 scapulae, incremental anteversion/retroversion and flexion/extension views were generated. The CSA was measured and a clinically applicable classification system was developed to detect views with >2° change in CSA versus true AP. Results The average CSA was 33±4°. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was high (ICC≥0.81) but decreased with increasing viewing angle. Views beyond 5° anteversion, 8° retroversion, 15° flexion and 26° extension resulted in >2° deviation of the CSA compared to true AP. The classification system was capable of detecting aberrant viewing perspectives with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 53%. Correlations between glenoid size and CSA were small (R≤0.3), and CSA did not vary by gender (p=0.426) or side (p=0.821). Conclusions The CSA was most susceptible to malposition in ante/retroversion. Deviations as little as 5° in anteversion resulted in a CSA >2° from true AP. A new classification system refines the ability to collect true AP radiographs of the scapula. The CSA was unaffected by demographic factors. PMID:25591458

  15. TU-C-BRE-04: 3D Gel Dosimetry Using ViewRay On-Board MR Scanner: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Du, D; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Wooten, H; Xiao, Z; Yang, D; Hu, Y; Li, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: MR based 3D gel has been proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry. However, access to MR scanner has been one of the limiting factors for its wide acceptance. Recent commercialization of an on-board MR-IGRT device (ViewRay) may render the availability issue less of a concern. This work reports our attempts to simulate MR based dose measurement accuracy on ViewRay using three different gels. Methods: A spherical BANG gel dosimeter was purchased from MGS Research. Cylindrical MAGIC gel and Fricke gel were fabricated in-house according to published recipes. After irradiation, BANG and MAGIC were imaged using a dual-echo spin echo sequence for T2 measurement on a Philips 1.5T MR scanner, while Fricke gel was imaged using multiple spin echo sequences. Difference between MR measured and TPS calculated dose was defined as noise. The noise power spectrum was calculated and then simulated for the 0.35 T magnetic field associated with ViewRay. The estimated noise was then added to TG-119 test cases to simulate measured dose distributions. Simulated measurements were evaluated against TPS calculated doses using gamma analysis. Results: Given same gel, sequence and coil setup, with a FOV of 180×90×90 mm3, resolution of 3×3×3 mm3, and scanning time of 30 minutes, the simulated measured dose distribution using BANG would have a gamma passing rate greater than 90% (3%/3mm and absolute). With a FOV 180×90×90 mm3, resolution of 4×4×5 mm3, and scanning time of 45 minutes, the simulated measuremened dose distribution would have a gamma passing rate greater than 97%. MAGIC exhibited similar performance while Fricke gel was inferior due to much higher noise. Conclusions: The simulation results demonstrated that it may be feasible to use MAGIC and BANG gels for 3D dose verification using ViewRay low-field on-board MRI scanner.

  16. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  17. Health promotion viewed in a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect critically on the current health promotion initiatives targeting overweight individuals in Western countries. The paper's methodological approach is to draw on analytical findings from my and other sociologists' empirical work on how the problems of overweight people are being defined in various settings in Denmark, England, Australia and the US. I try to illustrate how health promotion targeting overweight individuals can not only be seen as a project aimed at securing longer lives and fewer illnesses for people carrying excess fat but also a moral project that, in a more general sense, aims to tell people how they ought to live their lives. I link this moral aspect of health promotion to a) the medicalization tendency in current Western society (e.g. a growing pharmaceutical industry and its economic interest in transforming the human condition of being overweight into a treatable disorder) and b) the strong focus on individual risk today. One of the main arguments in the paper is that health in relation to overweight is primarily defined from a biomedical perspective that praises certain physical measurements of the body, as well as dominant societal values such as  self-responsibility and self-control, and that a combination of biomedicine and these dominating values can lead to health promotion becoming a problematic moral endeavour. PMID:25416571

  18. A review of 3D image-based dosimetry, technical considerations and emerging perspectives in 90Y microsphere therapy

    PubMed Central

    O’ Doherty, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Yttrium-90 radioembolization (90Y-RE) is a well-established therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and also of metastatic liver deposits from other malignancies. Nuclear Medicine and Cath Lab diagnostic imaging takes a pivotal role in the success of the treatment, and in order to fully exploit the efficacy of the technique and provide reliable quantitative dosimetry that are related to clinical endpoints in the era of personalized medicine, technical challenges in imaging need to be overcome. In this paper, the extensive literature of current 90Y-RE techniques and challenges facing it in terms of quantification and dosimetry are reviewed, with a focus on the current generation of 3D dosimetry techniques. Finally, new emerging techniques are reviewed which seek to overcome these challenges, such as high-resolution imaging, novel surgical procedures and the use of other radiopharmaceuticals for therapy and pre-therapeutic planning. PMID:27182449

  19. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Rann of Kachchh, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    ) elevation. Geologists are studying the folded red sandstone layers that form these hills to determine if they are related to the fault that broke in the 2001 earthquake.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 5X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 23.5 deg. North lat., 69.9 deg. East lon. Orientation: looking Southwest Image Data

  20. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Rann of Kachchh, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    ) elevation. Geologists are studying the folded red sandstone layers that form these hills to determine if they are related to the fault that broke in the 2001 earthquake.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 5X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 23.5 deg. North lat., 69.9 deg. East lon. Orientation: looking Southwest Image Data

  1. Views of professionalism: a veterinary institutional perspective.

    PubMed

    Roder, C; Whittlestone, K; May, S A

    2012-12-01

    In many western countries, there has been a marked change in the demographic profile of those entering the veterinary profession, with a shift from a predominantly male to a predominantly female intake. There have been parallel changes in society, with greater emphasis on human rights and work-life balance. It is, therefore, timely to consider what constitutes correct professional conduct for the profession, as there is the potential for problems to arise over the interpretation of 'professionalism' due to cultural and generational differences. A cross-section of staff and students within one veterinary institution were invited to take part in a survey exploring their prioritisation of 10 aspects of the professional role. A cluster analysis was performed, and four distinctly different profiles were established according to the views held by the cluster members. Cluster membership was found to significantly correlate to career stage, with altruism and social justice progressively giving way to professional autonomy and dominance. All four clusters in this educational environment prioritised technical and interpersonal competences above all other aspects of the professional role. PMID:23118040

  2. Biblical views on abortion: an Episcopal perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilson-kastner, P; Blair, B

    1985-01-01

    perspective, this is a god-like decision. Any study of the tradition of the church over the centuries must deal with at least 2 related questions: the morality of the act of induced abortion; and the definition of the person. These are related, because if one does not believe that the fetus is a person until a certain age the act must be defined differently than if one considers the fetus a person from conception. PMID:12178933

  3. Library of Congress Model, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) has produced the first high-resolution, near-global elevation dataset of Earth. In recognition of this achievement, and as an illustration of the data, the United States Library of Congress now displays a 'solid terrain model' of Los Angeles and adjacent mountainous terrain. The model was created by carving a high-density foam block using computer-guided drills that referenced the SRTM dataset. The block was then covered with a Landsat satellite image using computer-guided paint guns that referenced both the Landsat image and the SRTM dataset. The view shown here mimics the actual model on display at the Library of Congress and was generated from the same satellite image and elevation data sets.

    The model shows the Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica Mountains along the Malibu Coast (lower left), San Fernando Valley (left center), downtown Los Angeles (bottom center), San Gabriel and Pomona Valleys (lower right), San Gabriel Mountains (right center to far right), and part of the Mojave Desert (upper right). Colors are enhanced true color with added topographic shading, and elevation differences are exaggerated 1.5 times. The view is toward the north-northwest.

    The Los Angeles region was chosen for the Library of Congress model because it illustrates so many ways that topography affects the daily lives of people. The region consists of a coastal plain, inland valleys, mountains up to 3068 meters (10,064 feet), and a desert interior. Topography blocks the landward influence of marine airmasses here such that summer temperatures often differ by 40 degrees Fahrenheit (22 C) across this region at a given moment even at similar elevations. Temperatures also typically cool with rising elevation, and winter storms drop most of their moisture in the mountains, leaving little rainfall for areas further inland, thus creating the deserts.

    Topography also controls the land use pattern. The mountains are mostly very

  4. Perspective View, Syracuse, Oneida Lake, Utica, Upstate New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    and Herkimer. The valley between the Adirondacks to the left (north) and the Catskills to the right guides both the Erie Canal and New York State Thruway on their way to Albany and the Hudson River (both off the edge of the image), illustrating the importance of topography in transportation.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 112 kilometers wide, 176 kilometers distance (69 by 109 miles) Location: 43 deg. North lat., 76 deg. West lon. Orientation: View east southeast Colors: Landsat bands 1,2,3 in blue, green, and red Date Acquired: February 13, 2000 (SRTM); October 18, 1991 (Landsat)

  5. Perspective View, New York State, Lake Ontario to Long Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    -C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 220 by 510 kilometers (135 by 315 miles) Location: 43 deg. North lat., 75 deg. West lon. Orientation: View southeast Colors: Landsat bands 2,4,7 in blue, green, and red Date Acquired: February 13, 2000 (SRTM); Various Dates (Landsat Mosaic) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  6. Perspective View, New York State, Long Island to Lake Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    -C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 220 by 510 kilometers (135 by 315 miles) Location: 43 deg. North lat., 75 deg. West lon. Orientation: View northwest Colors: Landsat bands 2, 4, 7 in blue, green, and red Date Acquired: February 13, 2000 (SRTM); Various Dates (Landsat Mosaic)

  7. Perspective View, Landsat Overlay, Salalah, Oman, Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. The city is located on the broad, generally bright coastal plain and includes areas of green irrigated crops. This view was generated from a Landsat image draped over a preliminary elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The edges of the dataset are to the upper right, left, and lower left. The Arabian Sea (lower right) is represented by the blue false-colored area. Vertical exaggeration of topography is 3X.

    This scene illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. The Arabian Peninsula is very arid. However, the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains wrings moisture from the summer monsoons allowing for growth of natural vegetation (green along the mountain fronts and in the canyons), and soil development (dark brown areas), as well as cultural development of the coastal plain. The monsoons also provide moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot)spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  8. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St. (Duplicate Color view of HAER MI-334-1) - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  9. Perspective view of Bailey and Massingill Store (4 North E ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Bailey and Massingill Store (4 North E Street, far right of frame), view looking north on E Street. Also visible are General Merchandise Building (8 North E Street), Ousley Furniture Store ( 12 North E Street), Millenery (18 North E Street), Thornton Drug (26 North E Street), B. Reynolds Building (102-106 North E Street), Saloon (108 North E Street), and Langslet Tailor Shop (110-112 North E Street) - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  10. Perspective view. The threestory reinforced concrete building faced with brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. The three-story reinforced concrete building faced with brick has direct frontage onto neighboring railroad line. The facade says: "The Fairmont Creamery Company" in white stone. The facade is divided into bays by large brick piers capped with a square accent piece. A large stone band runs just above the windows and between the second and third floors - The Fairmont Creamery Company, 608 East Milwaukee Avenue, Detroit, MI

  11. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY COTTON MILL (A. FRANCIS WALKER, 1900-01) FROM DUNSON STREET. UNITY COTTON MILL WAS THE FIRST OF SEVERAL TEXTILE MILLS BUILT BY THE CALLAWAY MILLS GROUP IN SOUTHWEST LAGRANGE DURING THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. NOTE REMAINING PORTION OF ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Unity Cotton Mill, 815 Leeman Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  12. Perspective view of Building No. 61 from northwest. These duplex ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Building No. 61 from northwest. These duplex quarters were built during the 1920s on the south edge of the Northwestern Branch campus. This building is sited on a rise and shares paths and lawn with two similar structures - Buildings 56 and 79. Now located directly adjacent to the current hospital complex (background), all three duplexes are slated for demolition. - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Quarters, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  13. perspective view of bell telephone of Pennsylvania from the northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    perspective view of bell telephone of Pennsylvania from the northwest. This switching hall, built in 1890, was designed by Frederick j. osterling. Other Bell Telephone buildings on the block include the twenty-story headquarters building (1923, james t. windrim) on the left, and an eleven-story building (1905, alden & Harlow) on the right. - Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania Building, 416-420 Seventh Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. A Comparison of the Perceptual Benefits of Linear Perspective and Physically-Based Illumination for Display of Dense 3D Streamtubes

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, David C

    2008-01-01

    Large datasets typically contain coarse features comprised of finer sub-features. Even if the shapes of the small structures are evident in a 3D display, the aggregate shapes they suggest may not be easily inferred. From previous studies in shape perception, the evidence has not been clear whether physically-based illumination confers any advantage over local illumination for understanding scenes that arise in visualization of large data sets that contain features at two distinct scales. In this paper we show that physically- based illumination can improve the perception for some static scenes of complex 3D geometry from flow fields. We perform human- subjects experiments to quantify the effect of physically-based illumination on participant performance for two tasks: selecting the closer of two streamtubes from a field of tubes, and identifying the shape of the domain of a flow field over different densities of tubes. We find that physically-based illumination influences participant performance as strongly as perspective projection, suggesting that physically-based illumination is indeed a strong cue to the layout of complex scenes. We also find that increasing the density of tubes for the shape identification task improved participant performance under physically-based illumination but not under the traditional hardware-accelerated illumination model.

  15. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  16. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  17. 'Endurance' Untouched (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree, stereo view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  18. Integrated 3D view of postmating responses by the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract, obtained by micro-computed tomography scanning.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Alexandra L; Riccio, Mark L; Avila, Frank W; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-07-01

    Physiological changes in females during and after mating are triggered by seminal fluid components in conjunction with female-derived molecules. In insects, these changes include increased egg production, storage of sperm, and changes in muscle contraction within the reproductive tract (RT). Such postmating changes have been studied in dissected RT tissues, but understanding their coordination in vivo requires a holistic view of the tissues and their interrelationships. Here, we used high-resolution, multiscale micro-computed tomography (CT) scans to visualize and measure postmating changes in situ in the Drosophila female RT before, during, and after mating. These studies reveal previously unidentified dynamic changes in the conformation of the female RT that occur after mating. Our results also reveal how the reproductive organs temporally shift in concert within the confines of the abdomen. For example, we observed chiral loops in the uterus and in the upper common oviduct that relax and constrict throughout sperm storage and egg movement. We found that specific seminal fluid proteins or female secretions mediate some of the postmating changes in morphology. The morphological movements, in turn, can cause further changes due to the connections among organs. In addition, we observed apparent copulatory damage to the female intima, suggesting a mechanism for entry of seminal proteins, or other exogenous components, into the female's circulatory system. The 3D reconstructions provided by high-resolution micro-CT scans reveal how male and female molecules and anatomy interface to carry out and coordinate mating-dependent changes in the female's reproductive physiology. PMID:26041806

  19. Integrated 3D view of postmating responses by the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract, obtained by micro-computed tomography scanning

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Alexandra L.; Riccio, Mark L.; Avila, Frank W.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological changes in females during and after mating are triggered by seminal fluid components in conjunction with female-derived molecules. In insects, these changes include increased egg production, storage of sperm, and changes in muscle contraction within the reproductive tract (RT). Such postmating changes have been studied in dissected RT tissues, but understanding their coordination in vivo requires a holistic view of the tissues and their interrelationships. Here, we used high-resolution, multiscale micro-computed tomography (CT) scans to visualize and measure postmating changes in situ in the Drosophila female RT before, during, and after mating. These studies reveal previously unidentified dynamic changes in the conformation of the female RT that occur after mating. Our results also reveal how the reproductive organs temporally shift in concert within the confines of the abdomen. For example, we observed chiral loops in the uterus and in the upper common oviduct that relax and constrict throughout sperm storage and egg movement. We found that specific seminal fluid proteins or female secretions mediate some of the postmating changes in morphology. The morphological movements, in turn, can cause further changes due to the connections among organs. In addition, we observed apparent copulatory damage to the female intima, suggesting a mechanism for entry of seminal proteins, or other exogenous components, into the female’s circulatory system. The 3D reconstructions provided by high-resolution micro-CT scans reveal how male and female molecules and anatomy interface to carry out and coordinate mating-dependent changes in the female’s reproductive physiology. PMID:26041806

  20. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  1. 14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW INTO CENTER SECTION OF STARBOARD FISH HOLD. NOTE THAT THE CONCRETE FLOOR IS CARRIED UP THE HULL, WELL INTO THE CEILING. EACH HOLD COULD BE PARTITIONED INTO SECTIONS USING WOOD BOARDS WHICH FIT INTO SLOTS FORMED BY SCANTLINGS. NOTE ROUND OPENING AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. SIMILAR OPENINGS OVER OTHER AREAS OF THE HOLD WERE USED TO DROP FISH FROM THE DECK INTO THE ICE-FILLED HOLD. FISH WOULD BE SORTED BY SPECIES AND DROPPED TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE HOLD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, PAIR OF HOUSES ON EAST SIDE OF UBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW, PAIR OF HOUSES ON EAST SIDE OF UBER STREET AT NOS. 2119 AND 2121, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE ECLECTIC BLOCK-LONG DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATES PAIRS OF THREE-AND-ONE-HALF-STORY, GABLE-FRONTED UNITS WITH THREE-STORY UNITS HAVING FLAT PARAPETS. MASONRY ARCHWAYS SPANNING THE OPEN SPACE BETWEEN THE PAIRS TIE THEM INTO A SINGLE COMPOSITION AT STREET LEVEL. THESE ARCHED OPENINGS WERE ORIGINALLY FITTED WITH DECORATIVE IRON GATES, ONLY A FEW OF WHICH SURVIVE. - 2100 Block North Uber Street (Houses), East & west sides between Diamond Street & Susquehanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Perspective view. notes on reverse: The main facade of Mount ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. notes on reverse: The main facade of Mount Atlas was built by Peter B. Whiting in 1790. All exterior woodwork except the cornice is said to be carved by Mr. Foley. Some original frames and casings around transom window over front door. Front door is also original. Some original beaded weatherboards on wall protected by basement entrance (poplar weatherboards). Porch added after 1900. Original mantelpiece with painting of girl above (may be a late eighteenth-century painting). Smokehouse to left is original. Charles B. Carter owned the house from 1801-35 and is buried in the cemetery nearby. - Mount Atlas, State Route 731 vicinity, Waterfall, Prince William County, VA

  4. Three dimensional perspective view of portion of western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three dimensional perspective view of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows dark. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43938.

  5. Grounding-line migration in plan-view marine ice-sheet models: results of the ice2sea MISMIP3d intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank; Perichon, Laura; Durand, Gaël; Gagliardini, Olivier; Favier, Lionel; Hindmarsh, Richard; Zwinger, Thomas; Participants, Mismip3d

    2013-04-01

    Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models able to simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison experiment for plan-view marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no buttressing effects from lateral drag). A unique steady state grounding line position exists for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed under those simplified conditions. Perturbation experiments specifying spatial (lateral) variation in basal sliding parameters permitted the evolution of curved grounding lines, generating buttressing effects. The experiments showed regions of compression and extensional flow across the grounding line, thereby invalidating the boundary layer theory. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which neither resolve membrane stresses, nor reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line, are invalid. Steady-state grounding line positions were found to be dependent on the level of physical model approximation. Models that only include membrane stresses result in ice sheets with a larger span than those that also incorporate vertical shearing at the grounding line, such as higher-order and full-Stokes models. From a numerical perspective, resolving grounding lines requires a sufficiently small grid size (

  6. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  8. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  9. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Pre-eruption Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Landsat image archive. This Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: View width 21 kilometers (13 miles), View distance 42 kilometers (26 miles) Location: 1.5 deg. South lat., 29.3 deg. East lon. Orientation: View east-northeast, 5 degrees below horizontal Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Landsat 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), 11 December 2001 (Landsat)

  10. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  12. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  13. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  15. The effect of activity outside the field of view on image quality for a 3D LSO-based whole body PET/CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Della Monica, P; Leva, L; Sacchetti, G; Inglese, E; Brambilla, M

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of outside field of view (FOV) activity concentration (A(c)(,out)) on the noise equivalent count rate (NECR), scatter fraction (SF) and image quality of a 3D LSO whole-body PET/CT scanner. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was the figure of merit used to characterize the image quality of PET scans. A modified International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) phantom was used to obtain SF and counting rates similar to those found in average patients. A scatter phantom was positioned at the end of the modified IEC phantom to simulate an activity that extends beyond the scanner. The modified IEC phantom was filled with (18)F (11 kBq mL(-1)) and the spherical targets, with internal diameter (ID) ranging from 10 to 37 mm, had a target-to-background ratio of 10. PET images were acquired with background activity concentrations into the FOV (A(c)(,bkg)) about 11, 9.2, 6.6, 5.2 and 3.5 kBq mL(-1). The emission scan duration (ESD) was set to 1, 2, 3 and 4 min. The tube inside the scatter phantom was filled with activities to provide A(c)(,out) in the whole scatter phantom of zero, half, unity, twofold and fourfold the one of the modified IEC phantom. Plots of CNR versus the various parameters are provided. Multiple linear regression was employed to study the effects of A(c)(,out) on CNR, adjusted for the presence of variables (sphere ID, A(c)(,bkg) and ESD) related to CNR. The presence of outside FOV activity at the same concentration as the one inside the FOV reduces peak NECR of 30%. The increase in SF is marginal (1.2%). CNR diminishes significantly with increasing outside FOV activity, in the range explored. ESD and A(c)(,out) have a similar weight in accounting for CNR variance. Thus, an experimental law that adjusts the scan duration to the outside FOV activity can be devised. Recovery of CNR loss due to an elevated A(c)(,out) activity seems feasible by modulating the ESD in individual bed positions according to A

  16. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Metro Los Angeles, Calif.: Malibu to Mount Baldy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount San Antonio (more commonly known as Mount Baldy) crowns the San Gabriel Mountains northeast of Los Angeles in this computer-generated east-northeast perspective viewed from above the Malibu coastline. On the right, the Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica are in the foreground. Further away are downtown Los Angeles (appearing grey) and then the San Gabriel Valley, which lies adjacent to the mountain front. The San Fernando Valley appears in the left foreground, separated from the ocean by the Santa Monica Mountains. At 3,068 meters (10,064 feet) Mount Baldy rises above the tree line, exposing bright white rocks that are not snow capped in this early autumn scene.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), an enhanced color Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated one and one-half times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA

  17. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  18. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  19. Perspective View of Shaded Relief with Color as Height, Miyake-Jima, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3D perspective view shows the Japanese island called Miyake-Jima viewed from the northeast. This island -- about 180 kilometers (110 miles) south of Tokyo -- is part of the Izu chain of volcanic islands that runs south from the main Japanese island of Honshu. Dominated by the 820-meter-high (2,700 feet) volcano Mount Oyama, Miyake-Jima is home to 3,800 people. In late June 2000, a series of earthquakes alerted scientists to possible volcanic activity and on June 27 authorities evacuated 2,600 people. On July 7, the island was hit by a typhoon passing overhead, and on July 8 the volcano began erupting. The volcano erupted five times over the next week, spreading gray ash over surrounding areas. Detailed topographic information can be used to predict the directions that lava flows will take. The previous major eruption of Mount Oyama occurred in 1983, when lava flows destroyed hundreds of houses, and an earlier eruption in 1940 killed 11 people.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. The elevation is indicated by colors. Lowest elevation areas appear blue, medium elevations appear green, while higher elevations appear brown and white.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers

  2. The systemic view of violence: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, J S; Cottone, R R

    1998-01-01

    Systems theory has been critiqued by a number of feminist writers who felt that it did not adequately address the issues of violence and male domination in families. This essay argues that systems theory describes the world from an "exogenic" perspective--the scientific world of nature, which is intrinsically amoral. In the exogenic world all causality is circular, as nature maintains a system that has survived for billions of years. Bateson found "mind" to be within the system of nature, implying that mind must also be amoral. However, most people view the world from an "endogenic" perspective, a personal construction of reality molded by the environment in which they live, and which inevitably incorporates morality. Humans believe that violence is wrong, not for intellectual reasons, but for moral reasons. Implications for therapy are presented. A postmodern or constructivist position is taken as a way to acknowledge the influence of relationships on problems and definitions of problems, while allowing for a moral or legal consensus to pervade the therapeutic enterprise. PMID:9589281

  3. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  4. Analyzing the 3D Structure of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II and Its Mutants Using Deep View and the Protein Data Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ship, Noam J.; Zamble, Deborah B.

    2005-01-01

    The self directed study of a 3D image of a biomolecule stresses the complex nature of the intra- and intermolecular interactions that come together to define its structure. This is made up of a series of in vitro experiments with a wild-type and mutants forms of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) that examine the structure function relationship…

  5. MTF characterization in 2D and 3D for a high resolution, large field of view flat panel imager for cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Jainil; Mann, Steve D.; Tornai, Martin P.; Richmond, Michelle; Zentai, George

    2014-03-01

    The 2D and 3D modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of a custom made, large 40x30cm2 area, 600- micron CsI-TFT based flat panel imager having 127-micron pixellation, along with the micro-fiber scintillator structure, were characterized in detail using various techniques. The larger area detector yields a reconstructed FOV of 25cm diameter with an 80cm SID in CT mode. The MTFs were determined with 1x1 (intrinsic) binning. The 2D MTFs were determined using a 50.8 micron tungsten wire and a solid lead edge, and the 3D MTF was measured using a custom made phantom consisting of three nearly orthogonal 50.8 micron tungsten wires suspended in an acrylic cubic frame. The 2D projection data was reconstructed using an iterative OSC algorithm using 16 subsets and 5 iterations. As additional verification of the resolution, along with scatter, the Catphan® phantom was also imaged and reconstructed with identical parameters. The measured 2D MTF was ~4% using the wire technique and ~1% using the edge technique at the 3.94 lp/mm Nyquist cut-off frequency. The average 3D MTF measured along the wires was ~8% at the Nyquist. At 50% MTF, the resolutions were 1.2 and 2.1 lp/mm in 2D and 3D, respectively. In the Catphan® phantom, the 1.7 lp/mm bars were easily observed. Lastly, the 3D MTF measured on the three wires has an observed 5.9% RMSD, indicating that the resolution of the imaging system is uniform and spatially independent. This high performance detector is integrated into a dedicated breast SPECT-CT imaging system.

  6. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  7. Thirty Five Years of Viewing Sociology as an External Program Reviewer: A Dean's Perspective on How Administrators View Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohm, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    The author, who has served as an external program reviewer for 17 sociology program reviews, gives his perspective on the views that academic administrators have of sociology. On the plus side, administrators view sociology as a discipline that teaches many students; values and incorporates diversity; produces research aimed at ameliorating…

  8. 3D geometry applied to atmospheric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Faivre, Michael

    Epipolar geometry is an efficient method for generating 3D representations of objects. Here we present an original application of this method to the case of atmospheric layers. Two synchronized simultaneous images of the same scene are taken in two sites at a distance D. The 36*36 fields of view are oriented face to face along the same line of sight, but in opposite directions. The elevation angle of the optical axis above the horizon is 17. The observed objects are airglow emissions or cirrus clouds or aircraft trails. In the case of clouds, the shape of the objects is diffuse. To obtain a superposition of the common observed zone, it is necessary to calculate a normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC) to identify pairs of matching points in both images. The perspective effect in the rectangular images is inverted to produce a satellite-type view of the atmospheric layer as could be seen from an overlying satellite. We developed a triangulation algorithm to retrieve the 3D surface of the observed layer. The stereoscopic method was used to retrieve the wavy structure of the OH emissive layer at the altitude of 87 km. The distance between the observing sites was 600 km. Results obtained in Peru from the sites of Cerro Cosmos and Cerro Verde will be presented. We are currently extending the stereoscopic procedure to the study of troposphere cirruses, of natural origin or induced by aircraft engines. In this case, the distance between observation sites is D 60 km.

  9. Pwyll Impact Crater: Perspective View of Topographic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This computer-generated perspective view of the Pwyll impact crater on Jupiter's moon Europa was created using images taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera when the spacecraft flew past that moon on Feb. 20 and Dec. 16, 1997 during its 6th and 12th orbits of Jupiter. Images of the crater taken from different angles on the different orbits have been combined to generate a model of the topography of Pwyll and its surroundings. This simulated view is from the southwest at a 45 degree angle, with the vertical exaggerated four times the natural size. The colors represent different elevation levels with blue being the lowest and red the highest. Pwyll, about 26 kilometers (16 miles) across, is unusual among craters in the solar system, because its floor is at about the same elevation as the surrounding terrain. Moreover, its central peak, standing approximately 600 meters (almost 2,000 feet) above the floor, is much higher than its rim. This may indicate that the crater was modified shortly after its formation by the flow of underlying warm ice.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  10. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  11. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Manhattan Island, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image of Manhattan, the city's skyscrapers appear as ghostly white spikes. The green patch in the middle of the image is Central park. The Hudson River is visible on the upper left-hand side and the east River on the upper right. Although not designed to measure the heights of buildings, the radar used by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was so sensitive that it easily detected the Manhattan skyscrapers but could not distinguish individual structures.

    The image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and enhanced true-color Landsat 5 satellite images. Topographic shading in the image was enhanced with false shading derived from the elevation model. Topographic expression is exaggerated 6X.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60-meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective, Manhattan is about 3.5 km (2.2 miles) across. Location: 40.8 deg. North lat., 74 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 (SRTM)

  12. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  13. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Perspective View with Lava SRTM / ASTER / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view, topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image, and a false sky was added.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. This Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image was provided to the SRTM and ASTER projects by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, S.D.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) will image Earth for several years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. ASTER is providing scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added

  14. Accurate registration of random radiographic projections based on three spherical references for the purpose of few-view 3D reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, Ralf; Heil, Ulrich; Weinheimer, Oliver; Gross, Daniel; Bruellmann, Dan; Thomas, Eric; Schwanecke, Ulrich; Schoemer, Elmar

    2008-02-15

    Precise registration of radiographic projection images acquired in almost arbitrary geometries for the purpose of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is beset with difficulties. We modify and enhance a registration method [R. Schulze, D. D. Bruellmann, F. Roeder, and B. d'Hoedt, Med. Phys. 31, 2849-2854 (2004)] based on coupling a minimum amount of three reference spheres in arbitrary positions to a rigid object under study for precise a posteriori pose estimation. Two consecutive optimization procedures (a, initial guess; b, iterative coordinate refinement) are applied to completely exploit the reference's shadow information for precise registration of the projections. The modification has been extensive, i.e., only the idea of using the sphere shadows to locate each sphere in three dimensions from each projection was retained whereas the approach to extract the shadow information has been changed completely and extended. The registration information is used for subsequent algebraic reconstruction of the 3D information inherent in the projections. We present a detailed mathematical theory of the registration process as well as simulated data investigating its performance in the presence of error. Simulation of the initial guess revealed a mean relative error in the critical depth coordinate ranging between 2.1% and 4.4%, and an evident error reduction by the subsequent iterative coordinate refinement. To prove the applicability of the method for real-world data, algebraic 3D reconstructions from few ({<=}9) projection radiographs of a human skull, a human mandible and a teeth-containing mandible segment are presented. The method facilitates extraction of 3D information from only few projections obtained from off-the-shelf radiographic projection units without the need for costly hardware. Technical requirements as well as radiation dose are low.

  15. Simi Valley, California, Perspective View of Shaded Relief, color as height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic perspective view shows an area of Ventura County, California, including Simi Valley in the center of the image. The view is toward the East. At the lower left is the Santa Clara River Valley. The mountains along the left of the image are Oak Ridge, known to be an active zone of seismic uplift. San Fernando Valley is smooth area at top. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards in regions such as Southern California.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to red at the highest elevations. This image contains about 750 meters (2500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and

  16. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Mt. Pinos and San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Ask any astronomer where the best stargazing site in Southern California is, and chances are they'll say Mt. Pinos. In this perspective view generated from SRTM elevation data the snow-capped peak is seen rising to an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet), in stark contrast to the flat agricultural fields of the San Joaquin valley seen in the foreground. Below the summit, but still well away from city lights, the Mt. Pinos parking lot at 2,468 meters (8,100 feet) is a popular viewing area for both amateur and professional astronomers and astro-photographers. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Distance to Horizon: 176 kilometers (109 miles) Location: 34.83 deg. North lat., 119.25 deg. West lon. View: Toward the Southwest Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  17. Richat Structure, Mauritania, Perspective View, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    -C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    View Size: 68 kilometers (42 miles) wide by 112 kilometers (69 miles) distance Location: 21.2 degrees North latitude, 11.7 degrees West longitude Orientation: View toward west-northwest Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 4, 7 in B.G.R. Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), January 13, 1987 (Landsat)

  18. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  19. fVisiOn: glasses-free tabletop 3D display to provide virtual 3D media naturally alongside real media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2012-06-01

    A novel glasses-free tabletop 3D display, named fVisiOn, floats virtual 3D objects on an empty, flat, tabletop surface and enables multiple viewers to observe raised 3D images from any angle at 360° Our glasses-free 3D image reproduction method employs a combination of an optical device and an array of projectors and produces continuous horizontal parallax in the direction of a circular path located above the table. The optical device shapes a hollow cone and works as an anisotropic diffuser. The circularly arranged projectors cast numerous rays into the optical device. Each ray represents a particular ray that passes a corresponding point on a virtual object's surface and orients toward a viewing area around the table. At any viewpoint on the ring-shaped viewing area, both eyes collect fractional images from different projectors, and all the viewers around the table can perceive the scene as 3D from their perspectives because the images include binocular disparity. The entire principle is installed beneath the table, so the tabletop area remains clear. No ordinary tabletop activities are disturbed. Many people can naturally share the 3D images displayed together with real objects on the table. In our latest prototype, we employed a handmade optical device and an array of over 100 tiny projectors. This configuration reproduces static and animated 3D scenes for a 130° viewing area and allows 5-cm-tall virtual characters to play soccer and dance on the table.

  20. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, CORNER UNIT AND REPRESENTATIVE INTERIOR HOUSE (NOS. 1921 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW, CORNER UNIT AND REPRESENTATIVE INTERIOR HOUSE (NOS. 1921 AND 1923). THE TWO ATTACHED STRUCTURES WERE ONCE PART OF AN EIGHT-UNIT ROW EXTENDING FOR ONE-HALF A BLOCK ON THE NORTH SIDE OF DIAMOND STREET WEST FROM NINETEENTH STREET. THIS DEVELOPMENT LIKELY ALSO INCLUDED FOUR DWELLINGS IMMEDIATELY BEHIND THESE HOUSES TO THE NORTH, FRONTING ON NINETEENTH STREET. A NOTICE FROM THE MAY 28, 1890 ISSUE OF PHILADELPHIA REAL ESTATE RECORD AND BUILDERS’ GUIDE ANNOUNCED THE DEVELOPMENT’S ANTICIPATED CONSTRUCTION BY PROLIFIC LOCAL REAL ESTATE AGENT/BUILDER THOMAS H. PARKS, WHO LIVED ONLY ONE BLOCK AWAY AT THE CORNER OF GRATZ AND DIAMOND STREETS (IN NO. 1821, NOW LOST). THOMAS PARKS HAD USED ARCHITECT ANGUS S. WADE FOR THE 1800 BLOCK OF DIAMOND STREET, BUT IT APPEARS THAT HE MAY HAVE EMPLOYED ANOTHER OF POPULAR ARCHITECT WILLIS G. HALE’S PROTÉGÉS, ROBERT W. MARPLE, FOR THIS BLOCK, AT LEAST FOR THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF ITS CONSTRUCTION. THE HOUSES’ EBULLIENCE AND EXOTICISM SUGGESTS HALE’S WORK OR THAT OF HISO FFICE; THEY BEAR NOTABLE SIMILARITY TO HOUSES DESIGNED BY HALE A YEAR EARLIER IN THE 1800 BLOCK OF W. GIRARD AVENUE. SEE HABS PA-6677 FOR MORE ON THOMAS PARKS AND THE 1800 BLOCK OF DIAMOND STREET, AND HABS PA-6678, FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT WILLIS HALE AND THE 1800 BLOCK OF W. GIRARD AVENUE. - 1900 Block Diamond Street (Houses), Northwest corner of Diamond & Uber Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Three dimensional perspective view of Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective of Mammoth Mountain, California. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit, April 13, 1994. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar iamage on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation Map. Vertical exaggeration is 2X. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north, 119.0 degrees west. In this color representation, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-Band VV-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-Band VV to C-Band HV. Blue areas are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. Crowley Lake is in the foreground and Highway 395 crosses in the middle of the image. Mammoth Mountain is shown in the upper right. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43933.

  3. The secrets of El Dorado viewed through a microbial perspective

    PubMed Central

    Briones, Aurelio M.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of the Amazon Dark Earths was a model of sustainable soil management that involved intensive composting and charcoal (biochar) application. Biochar has been the focus of increasing research attention for carbon sequestration, although the role of compost or humic substances (HS) as they interact with biochar has not been much studied. We provide a perspective that biochar and HS may facilitate extracellular electron transfer (EET) reactions in soil, which occurs under similar conditions that generate the greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. Facilitating EET may constitute a viable strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas emission. In general, we lack knowledge in the mechanisms that link the surface chemical characteristics of biochar to the physiology of microorganisms that are involved in various soil processes including those that influence soil organic matter dynamics and methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Most studies view biochar as a mostly inert microbial substrate that offers little other than a high sorptive surface area. Synergism between biochar and HS resulting in enhanced EET provides a mechanism to link electrochemical properties of these materials to microbial processes in sustainable soils. PMID:22866049

  4. The secrets of El Dorado viewed through a microbial perspective.

    PubMed

    Briones, Aurelio M

    2012-01-01

    The formation of the Amazon Dark Earths was a model of sustainable soil management that involved intensive composting and charcoal (biochar) application. Biochar has been the focus of increasing research attention for carbon sequestration, although the role of compost or humic substances (HS) as they interact with biochar has not been much studied. We provide a perspective that biochar and HS may facilitate extracellular electron transfer (EET) reactions in soil, which occurs under similar conditions that generate the greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. Facilitating EET may constitute a viable strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas emission. In general, we lack knowledge in the mechanisms that link the surface chemical characteristics of biochar to the physiology of microorganisms that are involved in various soil processes including those that influence soil organic matter dynamics and methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Most studies view biochar as a mostly inert microbial substrate that offers little other than a high sorptive surface area. Synergism between biochar and HS resulting in enhanced EET provides a mechanism to link electrochemical properties of these materials to microbial processes in sustainable soils. PMID:22866049

  5. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  6. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  7. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. Monocular 3-D gait tracking in surveillance scenes.

    PubMed

    Rogez, Grégory; Rihan, Jonathan; Guerrero, Jose J; Orrite, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Gait recognition can potentially provide a noninvasive and effective biometric authentication from a distance. However, the performance of gait recognition systems will suffer in real surveillance scenarios with multiple interacting individuals and where the camera is usually placed at a significant angle and distance from the floor. We present a methodology for view-invariant monocular 3-D human pose tracking in man-made environments in which we assume that observed people move on a known ground plane. First, we model 3-D body poses and camera viewpoints with a low dimensional manifold and learn a generative model of the silhouette from this manifold to a reduced set of training views. During the online stage, 3-D body poses are tracked using recursive Bayesian sampling conducted jointly over the scene's ground plane and the pose-viewpoint manifold. For each sample, the homography that relates the corresponding training plane to the image points is calculated using the dominant 3-D directions of the scene, the sampled location on the ground plane and the sampled camera view. Each regressed silhouette shape is projected using this homographic transformation and is matched in the image to estimate its likelihood. Our framework is able to track 3-D human walking poses in a 3-D environment exploring only a 4-D state space with success. In our experimental evaluation, we demonstrate the significant improvements of the homographic alignment over a commonly used similarity transformation and provide quantitative pose tracking results for the monocular sequences with a high perspective effect from the CAVIAR dataset. PMID:23955796

  9. Rossby-wave driven stirring of the UTLS - a detailed view on the intricately layered structure by the 3-D imaging limb-sounder GLORIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungermann, J.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Hoepfner, M.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Gimballed Limb Radiance Imager of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is a new instrument that combines a classical Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) with a 2-D detector array. Imaging allows the spatial sampling to be improved by up to an order of magnitude when compared to a limb scanning instrument. GLORIA is designed to operate on various high altitude research platforms. The instrument is a joint development of the German Helmholtz Large Research Facilities Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Research Centre Juelich (FZJ). GLORIA builds upon the heritage of KIT and FZJ in developing and operating IR limb sounders (MIPAS, CRISTA). In Summer 2012, GLORIA was an integral part of the first large missions for the German research aircraft HALO dedicated to atmospheric research, TACTS and ESMVAL. The data span latitudes from 80°N to 65°S and include several tomographic flight patterns that allow the 3-D reconstruction of observed air masses. We provide an overview of the heterogeneous structure of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) as observed over Europe. Retrieved water vapor and ozone are used to identify the tropospheric or stratospheric character of air masses and can thus be used to visualize the multi-species 2-D (and partly 3-D) chemical structure of the UTLS. A highly intricate structure is found consisting often of fine-scale layers extending only several hundred meters in the vertical. These horizontally large-scale structures are thus below the typical vertical resolution of current chemistry climate models. Trajectory studies reveal the origin of the filaments to be Rossby wave-breaking events over the Pacific and Atlantic that cause tropical air stemming from the general area of the Asian monsoon to be mixed across the jet-stream into the subtropical lowermost stratosphere. These results demonstrate a rich spatial structure of the UTLS region at the subtropical jet, where the tropopause break is perturbed by breaking Rossby waves. The

  10. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  11. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  12. Budapest, Hungary, Perspective View, SRTM Elevation Model with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    View Size: 133 kilometers (82 miles) wide, 90 kilometers (56 miles) distance Location: 47.5 degrees North latitude, 19.0 degrees East longitude Orientation: Looking West, 15 degrees down from horizontal, 3X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 4, 7 as blue, green, red respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), October 11, 1990 (Landsat)

  13. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH CENTURY BASEMENT ENTRY WELL AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  14. Feasibility of contactless 3D optical measurement for the analysis of bone and soft tissue lesions: new technologies and perspectives in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Porta, Davide; Picozzi, Massimo

    2009-05-01

    In forensic pathology and anthropology, a correct analysis of lesions on soft tissues and bones is of the utmost importance, in order to verify the cause and manner of death. Photographs, videos, and photogrammetry may be an optimal manner of immortalizing a lesion, both on cadavers and skeletal remains; however, none of these can supply a detailed three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the lesion. Up to now, only the use of casts has given us the possibility of studying deep lesions such as saw marks with an accurate and complete 3D reconstruction of bone structure. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of 3D optical contactless measurement for the accurate recording of soft tissue and bone lesions, in order to develop a unique and precise method of registering and analyzing lesions, both in forensic pathology and anthropology. Three cases were analyzed: the first, a car accident with blunt force skin injuries; the second, a murder with blunt force injury to the head applied with a metal rod; the third, a series of sharp force knife and saw lesions on bone. Results confirm that 3D optical digitizing technology is a crucial tool in the immortalization of wound morphology in the medico-legal context even on "difficult" substrates such as cut marks and saw marks on bone. PMID:19368623

  15. Perspective View, Radar Image, Color as Height, Molokai, Lanai and Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows three Hawaiian islands: Molokai (lower left), Lanai (right), and the northwest tip of Maui (upper left). Data such as these will be useful for studying the history of volcanic activity on these now extinct volcanoes. SRTM data also will help local officials evaluate and mitigate natural hazards for islands throughout the Pacific. For example, improved elevation data will make it easier for communities to plan for tsunamis (tidal waves generated by earthquakes around the perimeter of the Pacific) by helping them identify evacuation routes and areas prone to flooding.

    This perspective view combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains 1800 meters (5900 feet) of total relief.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 60 by 70 kilometers (37 by 43 miles) Location: 20.8 deg. North lat., 156.7 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking southeast Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet

  16. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Paula, and Santa Clara River Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Rectangular fields of the agriculturally rich Santa Clara River Valley are visible in this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image. The Santa Clara River, which lends its name to this valley, flows from headwaters near Acton, California, 160 km (100 miles) to the Pacific Ocean, and is one of only two natural river systems remaining in southern California. In the foreground of this image, the largely dry riverbed can be seen as a bright feature as it winds its way along the base of South Mountain. The bright region at the right end of this portion of the valley is the city of Santa Paula, California. Founded in 1902, this small, picturesque town at the geographic center of Ventura County is referred to as the 'Citrus Capital of the World.' The city is surrounded by orange, lemon, and avocado groves and is a major distribution point for citrus fruits in the United States. The bright, linear feature in the center of the valley is State Highway 126, the valley's 'main drag.' For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  17. A Career with a View: Agentic Perspectives of Women Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how women faculty in one research university enacted agency via perspectives that facilitated their career advancement amidst gendered organizational practices. Archer's (2003) critical realist theory of agency and inner conversations and Acker's (2006) work on gendered organizations guided analysis. Four perspectives adopted…

  18. Point of View: Leadership Studies from Different Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    By adopting the dictum that all knowledge is knowledge from a point of view, educators can arrange the literature on leadership into nine categories from three conceptually distinct points of view, namely the Leader, the Follower, and the Investigator. Students who come to appreciate and account for point of view not only increase their…

  19. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  20. Interior view, Slave Quarter/Service Wing, first floor, east end, perspective ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, Slave Quarter/Service Wing, first floor, east end, perspective view of the east chimney looking northwest (note ghost of mantel, nailing block - Decatur House, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 748 Jackson Place Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 7. Building No. 9967A. Perspective view of SE corner includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Building No. 9967-A. Perspective view of SE corner includes exit door from Ramp No. 5 connecting to Building No. 9966-A, which is out of view to the right. - Madigan Hospital, Medical Detachment Barracks, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  2. Influence of a psychological perspective on scene viewing and memory for scenes.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, Johanna K; Hyönä, Jukka; Viljanen, Minna

    2011-07-01

    In the study, 33 participants viewed photographs from either a potential homebuyer's or a burglar's perspective, or in preparation for a memory test, while their eye movements were recorded. A free recall and a picture recognition task were performed after viewing. The results showed that perspective had rapid effects, in that the second fixation after the scene onset was more likely to land on perspective-relevant than on perspective-irrelevant areas within the scene. Perspective-relevant areas also attracted longer total fixation time, more visits, and longer first-pass dwell times than did perspective-irrelevant areas. As for the effects of visual saliency, the first fixation was more likely to land on a salient than on a nonsalient area; salient areas also attracted more visits and longer total fixation time than did nonsalient areas. Recall and recognition performance reflected the eye fixation results: Both were overall higher for perspective-relevant than for perspective-irrelevant scene objects. The relatively low error rates in the recognition task suggest that participants had gained an accurate memory for scene objects. The findings suggest that the role of bottom-up versus top-down factors varies as a function of viewing task and the time-course of scene processing. PMID:21391155

  3. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  4. Cape Town, South Africa, Perspective View, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    -C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    View Size: 66 kilometers (41 miles) wide by 134 kilometers (83 miles) distance Location: 34.2 degrees South latitude, 18.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: View toward east-southeast Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2, 3 in blue, green, red Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), June 13, 2000 (Landsat)

  5. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  6. Porting the 3D Gyrokinetic Particle-in-cell Code GTC to the CRAY/NEC SX-6 Vector Architecture: Perspectives and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ethier; Z. Lin

    2003-09-15

    Several years of optimization on the super-scalar architecture has made it more difficult to port the current version of the 3D particle-in-cell code GTC to the CRAY/NEC SX-6 vector architecture. This paper explains the initial work that has been done to port this code to the SX-6 computer and to optimize the most time consuming parts. Early performance results are shown and compared to the same test done on the IBM SP Power 3 and Power 4 machines.

  7. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  8. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  9. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  10. Differing views: Can chimpanzees do Level 2 perspective-taking?

    PubMed

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Although chimpanzees understand what others may see, it is unclear whether they understand how others see things (Level 2 perspective-taking). We investigated whether chimpanzees can predict the behavior of a conspecific which is holding a mistaken perspective that differs from their own. The subject competed with a conspecific over two food sticks. While the subject could see that both were the same size, to the competitor one appeared bigger than the other. In a previously established game, the competitor chose one stick in private first and the subject chose thereafter, without knowing which of the sticks was gone. Chimpanzees and 6-year-old children chose the 'riskier' stick (that looked bigger to the competitor) significantly less in the game than in a nonsocial control. Children chose randomly in the control, thus showing Level 2 perspective-taking skills; in contrast, chimpanzees had a preference for the 'riskier' stick here, rendering it possible that they attributed their own preference to the competitor to predict her choice. We thus run a follow-up in which chimpanzees did not have a preference in the control. Now, they also chose randomly in the game. We conclude that chimpanzees solved the task by attributing their own preference to the other, while children truly understood the other's mistaken perspective. PMID:26852383

  11. Federal Information Policies in the 1990s: Views and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter, Ed.; And Others

    This book uses a cross-disciplinary approach to profile developments through November 1995 concerning important U.S. government information policy issues. Information policy analyses benefit from a historical perspective while seeking to identify current areas of agreement and disagreement, especially at a time when the United States is moving…

  12. Viewing Attractiveness Socialization from a Social Network Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, A. Chris

    Providing a framework for a symposium exploring the influence of physical attractiveness on the socialization process, this paper (1) offers a working definition of physical attractiveness, (2) reviews stereotypes associated with attractiveness, and (3) discusses a social network perspective on the influence of attractiveness. Physical…

  13. Preschool Teachers' Views on Children's Learning: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge; Margetts, Kay; Nyland, Berenice; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Ugaste, Aino; Vrinioti, Kalliope

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning? What activities are important for learning? What…

  14. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Ventura, and Lake Casitas, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Ventura, California is one of this state's oldest cities. Officially known as San Buenaventura, it was established in 1782 with the founding of the Mission San Buenaventura, the ninth of the 21 Spanish missions founded in California. In this perspective view generated from SRTM elevation data, the city can be seen occupying the shore of the Pacific Ocean and the nearby foothills. Lake Casitas, a reservoir and popular recreation area, is the dark blue feature in the center of the image. Holding back the 313,000 megaliter (254,000 acre-feet) storage capacity of the reservoir and visible as a very bright feature foreground of the lake, is the Casitas Dam, a 102-meter(334-foot) Earth fill dam. The reservoir and dam were built between 1956 and 1959 for the Federal Bureau of Reclamation's Ventura River Project. In addition to recreational use, Lake Casitas provides irrigation, municipal and industrial water to urban and suburban areas in Ventura County. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena

  15. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Caliente Range and Cuyama Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Location (Center): 34.97 deg. North lat., 119.70 deg. West lon. View: Southeast Scale: Scale Varies in this Perspective Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  16. 3D Radiative Transfer Effects in Multi-Angle/Multi-Spectral Radio-Polarimetric Signals from a Mixture of Clouds and Aerosols Viewed by a Non-Imaging Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Garay, Michael J.; Xu, Feng; Qu, Zheng; Emde, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    When observing a spatially complex mix of aerosols and clouds in a single relatively large field-of-view, nature entangles their signals non-linearly through polarized radiation transport processes that unfold in the 3D position and direction spaces. In contrast, any practical forward model in a retrieval algorithm will use only 1D vector radiative transfer (vRT) in a linear mixing technique. We assess the difference between the observed and predicted signals using synthetic data from a high-fidelity 3D vRT model with clouds generated using a Large Eddy Simulation model and an aerosol climatology. We find that this difference is signal--not noise--for the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS), an instrument developed by NASA. Moreover, the worst case scenario is also the most interesting case, namely, when the aerosol burden is large, hence hase the most impact on the cloud microphysics and dynamics. Based on our findings, we formulate a mitigation strategy for these unresolved cloud adjacency effects assuming that some spatial information is available about the structure of the clouds at higher resolution from "context" cameras, as was planned for NASA's ill-fated Glory mission that was to carry the APS but failed to reach orbit. Application to POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances) data from the period when PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) was in the A-train is briefly discussed.

  17. Rapid 360 degree imaging and stitching of 3D objects using multiple precision 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Thomas; Yin, Stuart; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Jiangan; Wu, Frank

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present the system architecture of a 360 degree view 3D imaging system. The system consists of multiple 3D sensors synchronized to take 3D images around the object. Each 3D camera employs a single high-resolution digital camera and a color-coded light projector. The cameras are synchronized to rapidly capture the 3D and color information of a static object or a live person. The color encoded structure lighting ensures the precise reconstruction of the depth of the object. A 3D imaging system architecture is presented. The architecture employs the displacement of the camera and the projector to triangulate the depth information. The 3D camera system has achieved high depth resolution down to 0.1mm on a human head sized object and 360 degree imaging capability.

  18. Melt-rock reaction in the asthenospheric mantle: Perspectives from high-order accurate numerical simulations in 2D and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupathi, S.; Schiemenz, A. R.; Liang, Y.; Parmentier, E.; Hesthaven, J.

    2013-12-01

    The style and mode of melt migration in the mantle are important to the interpretation of basalts erupted on the surface. Both grain-scale diffuse porous flow and channelized melt migration have been proposed. To better understand the mechanisms and consequences of melt migration in a heterogeneous mantle, we have undertaken a numerical study of reactive dissolution in an upwelling and viscously deformable mantle where solubility of pyroxene increases upwards. Our setup is similar to that described in [1], except we use a larger domain size in 2D and 3D and a new numerical method. To enable efficient simulations in 3D through parallel computing, we developed a high-order accurate numerical method for the magma dynamics problem using discontinuous Galerkin methods and constructed the problem using the numerical library deal.II [2]. Linear stability analyses of the reactive dissolution problem reveal three dynamically distinct regimes [3] and the simulations reported in this study were run in the stable regime and the unstable wave regime where small perturbations in porosity grows periodically. The wave regime is more relevant to melt migration beneath the mid-ocean ridges but computationally more challenging. Extending the 2D simulations in the stable regime in [1] to 3D using various combinations of sustained perturbations in porosity at the base of the upwelling column (which may result from a viened mantle), we show the geometry and distribution of dunite channel and high-porosity melt channels are highly correlated with inflow perturbation through superposition. Strong nonlinear interactions among compaction, dissolution, and upwelling give rise to porosity waves and high-porosity melt channels in the wave regime. These compaction-dissolution waves have well organized but time-dependent structures in the lower part of the simulation domain. High-porosity melt channels nucleate along nodal lines of the porosity waves, growing downwards. The wavelength scales

  19. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Monica Bay to Mount Baden-Powell, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 29 kilometers (18 miles) view width, 70 kilometers (43 miles) view distance Location: 34.2 deg. North lat., 118.2 deg. West lon. Orientation: View toward the northeast, 3X vertical exaggeration Image: Landsat bands 1, 2&4, 3 as blue, green, and red, respectively Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 (SRTM), November 11, 1986 (Landsat)

  20. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Syracuse, Oneida Lake, Upstate New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian Space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 200 kilometers View Distance x 280 kilometers View Width (Background) (125 by 175 miles) Location: 43.1 deg. North Lat, 76.1.deg. West Lon. (Syracuse) Orientation: View is toward the east Date Acquired: SRTM, February 13, 2000; Landsat, various

  1. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  2. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  3. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  4. Fast perspective volume ray casting method using GPU-based acceleration techniques for translucency rendering in 3D endoluminal CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek-Hee; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Ho; Kye, Heewon; Shin, Yeong Gil; Kim, Soo Hong

    2009-08-01

    Recent advances in graphics processing unit (GPU) have enabled direct volume rendering at interactive rates. However, although perspective volume rendering for opaque isosurface is rapidly performed using conventional GPU-based method, perspective volume rendering for non-opaque volume such as translucency rendering is still slow. In this paper, we propose an efficient GPU-based acceleration technique of fast perspective volume ray casting for translucency rendering in computed tomography (CT) colonography. The empty space searching step is separated from the shading and compositing steps, and they are divided into separate processing passes in the GPU. Using this multi-pass acceleration, empty space leaping is performed exactly at the voxel level rather than at the block level, so that the efficiency of empty space leaping is maximized for colon data set, which has many curved or narrow regions. In addition, the numbers of shading and compositing steps are fixed, and additional empty space leapings between colon walls are performed to increase computational efficiency further near the haustral folds. Experiments were performed to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional GPU-based method, which has been known to be the fastest algorithm. The experimental results showed that the rendering speed of our method was 7.72fps for translucency rendering of 1024x1024 colonoscopy image, which was about 3.54 times faster than that of the conventional method. Since our method performed the fully optimized empty space leaping for any kind of colon inner shapes, the frame-rate variations of our method were about two times smaller than that of the conventional method to guarantee smooth navigation. The proposed method could be successfully applied to help diagnose colon cancer using translucency rendering in virtual colonoscopy. PMID:19541296

  5. Role of Magnetic Exchange Interactions in the Magnetization Relaxation of {3d-4f} Single-Molecule Magnets: A Theoretical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Beg, Mohammad Faizan; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-11

    Combined density functional and ab initio calculations are performed on two isomorphous tetranuclear {Ni3 (III) Ln(III) } star-type complexes [Ln=Gd (1), Dy (2)] to shed light on the mechanism of magnetic exchange in 1 and the origin of the slow magnetization relaxation in complex 2. DFT calculations correctly reproduce the sign and magnitude of the J values compared to the experiments for complex 1. Acute ∢Ni-O-Gd bond angles present in 1 instigate a significant interaction between the 4fxyz orbital of the Gd(III) ion and 3d${{_{x{^{2}}- y{^{2}}}}}$ orbital of the Ni(II) ions, leading to rare and strong antiferromagnetic Ni⋅⋅⋅Gd interactions. Calculations reveal the presence of a strong next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni antiferromagnetic interaction in complex 1 leading to spin frustration behavior. CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations performed on complex 2 suggest that the octahedral environment around the Dy(III) ion is neither strong enough to stabilize the mJ |±15/2〉 as the ground state nor able to achieve a large ground-state-first-excited-state gap. The ground-state Kramers doublet for the Dy(III) ion is found to be the mJ |±13/2〉 state with a significant transverse anisotropy, leading to very strong quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). Using the POLY_ANISO program, we have extracted the JNiDy interaction as -1.45 cm(-1) . The strong Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions are found to quench the QTM to a certain extent, resulting in zero-field SMM behavior for complex 2. The absence of any ac signals at zero field for the structurally similar [Dy(AlMe4 )3 ] highlights the importance of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and the Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in the magnetization relaxation of complex 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the roles of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in magnetization relaxation of a {3d-4f} molecular magnet have been established. PMID

  6. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  7. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    , even if one data object lies behind another. Stereoscopic viewing is another powerful tool to investigate 3-D relationships between objects. This form of immersion is constructed through viewing two separate images that are interleaved--typically 48 frames per second, per eye--and synced through an emitter and a set of specialized polarizing eyeglasses. The polarizing lenses flicker at an equivalent rate, blanking the eye for which a particular image was not drawn, producing the desired stereo effect. Volumetric visualization of the ARAD 3-D seismic dataset will be presented. The effective use of transparency reveals detailed structure of the melt-lens beneath the 9°03'N overlapping spreading center (OSC) along the East Pacific Rise, including melt-filled fractures within the propagating rift-tip. In addition, range-gated images of seismic reflectivity will be co-registered to investigate the physical properties (melt versus mush) of the magma chamber at this locale. Surface visualization of a dense, 2-D grid of MCS seismic data beneath Axial seamount (Juan de Fuca Ridge) will also be highlighted, including relationships between the summit caldera and rift zones, and the underlying (and humongous) magma chamber. A selection of Quicktime movies will be shown. Popcorn will be served, really!

  8. A Constructivist View of Music Education: Perspectives for Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes a constructivist view of music education. A constructivist music classroom exemplifies deep learning when students formulate questions, acquire new knowledge by developing and implementing plans for investigating these questions, and reflect on the results. A context for deep learning requires that teachers and students work…

  9. Exploring College Students' Cultural View from a Knowledge Creation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Guo-Tsai; Hong, Huang-Yao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate college students' cultural views. To this end, an exploratory study was implemented, and data mainly came from students' essay writing (via individual reflective activities) and focused group discussion (via collective reflective activities). The participants were 176 college students taking a…

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Surgeon's view on latest findings and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Slotta, Jan Erik; Kollmar, Otto; Ellenrieder, Volker; Ghadimi, B Michael; Homayounfar, Kia

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver-derived malignancy with a high fatality rate. Risk factors for the development of HCC have been identified and are clearly described. However, due to the lack of tumor-specific symptoms, HCC are diagnosed at progressed tumor stages in most patients, and thus curative therapeutic options are limited. The focus of this review is on surgical therapeutic options which can be offered to patients with HCC with special regard to recent findings, not exclusively focused on surgical therapy, but also to other treatment modalities. Further, potential promising future perspectives for the treatment of HCC are discussed. PMID:26019733

  11. 3D-patterned polymer brush surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuechang; Liu, Xuqing; Xie, Zhuang; Zheng, Zijian

    2011-12-01

    Polymer brush-based three-dimensional (3D) structures are emerging as a powerful platform to engineer a surface by providing abundant spatially distributed chemical and physical properties. In this feature article, we aim to give a summary of the recent progress on the fabrication of 3D structures with polymer brushes, with a particular focus on the micro- and nanoscale. We start with a brief introduction on polymer brushes and the challenges to prepare their 3D structures. Then, we highlight the recent advances of the fabrication approaches on the basis of traditional polymerization time and grafting density strategies, and a recently developed feature density strategy. Finally, we provide some perspective outlooks on the future directions of engineering the 3D structures with polymer brushes.

  12. Nurses' views on empowerment: a critical social theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Y

    1997-09-01

    This is the first study which describes British nurses' views on the concept of empowerment. Despite the frequent call for nurses to empower patients there was no evidence in the literature about British nurses' views. The study was carried out prior to a course exploring empowerment for practice. Focus groups were used to gather the data. Critical social theory and the work of Paulo Freire (1972) and Jurgen Habermas (1971, 1979) was used as a theoretical framework to underpin the enquiry. Taped interview transcripts were analysed thematically. Four categories emerged from the data to provide the framework for the themes: 'empowerment', 'having personal power', 'relationships within the multidisciplinary team', and 'feeling right about oneself'. It is suggested that the nurses in this study manifested signs of being oppressed and striving for liberation. The limitations of the study are identified, but the overall conclusion is that the teaching of critical social theories as an empowerment paradigm is relevant in nurse education today. PMID:9378874

  13. Can we trace the eastern Gondwanan margin in Australia? New perspectives from transdimensional inversion of ambient noise for 3D shear velocity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilia, S.; Rawlinson, N.; Direen, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    Although the notion of Rodinia is quite well accepted in the geoscience community, the location and nature of the eastern continental margin of the Gondwana fragment in Australia is still vague and remains one of the most hotly debated topics in Australian geology. Moreover, most post-Rodinian reconstructions models choose not to tackle the ';Tasmanian challenge', and focus only on the tectonic evolution of mainland southeast Australia, thereby conveniently ignoring the wider tectonic implications of Tasmania's complex geological history. One of the chief limitations of the tectonic reconstructions in this region is a lack of information on Paleozoic (possibly Proterozoic) basement structures. Vast Mesozoic-Cainozoic sedimentary and volcanic cover sequences obscure older outcrops and limit the power of direct observational techniques. In response to these challenges, our effort is focused on ambient seismic noise for imaging 3D crustal shear velocity structure using surface waves, which is capable of illuminating basement structure beneath younger cover. The data used in this study is sourced from the WOMBAT transportable seismic array, which is compounded by around 650 stations spanning the majority of southeastern Australia, including Tasmania and several islands in Bass Strait. To produce the highest quality Green's functions, careful processing of the data has been performed, after which group velocity dispersion measurements have been carried out using a frequency-time analysis method on the symmetric component of the empirical Green's functions (EGFs). Group dispersion measurements from the EGFs have been inverted using a novel hierarchical, transdimensional, Bayesian algorithm to obtain Rayleigh-wave group velocity maps at different periods from 2 to 30 s. The new approach has several advantages in that the number and distribution of model parameters are implicitly controlled by the data, in which the noise is treated as unknown in the inversion. This

  14. Standards-based approaches to 3D and multiview video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Gary J.

    2009-08-01

    The extension of video applications to enable 3D perception, which typically is considered to include a stereo viewing experience, is emerging as a mass market phenomenon, as is evident from the recent prevalence of 3D major cinema title releases. For high quality 3D video to become a commonplace user experience beyond limited cinema distribution, adoption of an interoperable coded 3D digital video format will be needed. Stereo-view video can also be studied as a special case of the more general technologies of multiview and "free-viewpoint" video systems. The history of standardization work on this topic is actually richer than people may typically realize. The ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), in particular, has been developing interoperability standards to specify various such coding schemes since the advent of digital video as we know it. More recently, the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG) has been involved as well in the Joint Video Team (JVT) work on development of 3D features for H.264/14496-10 Advanced Video Coding, including Multiview Video Coding (MVC) extensions. This paper surveys the prior, ongoing, and anticipated future standardization efforts on this subject to provide an overview and historical perspective on feasible approaches to 3D and multiview video coding.

  15. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  16. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  17. University Students' Views on Bullying from the Perspective of Different Participant Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie-Anne; Cowie, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Sixty university students in three different participant roles--perpetrator, the target and the bystander--took part in a role-play incident of bullying. Participants were asked to describe (i) their perspective on the incident; (ii) their views of the target and the perpetrator and (iii) their solution to the problem. The findings suggest that…

  18. Commentary: Challenging Views and Creative Insights from a Social Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Anna N. N.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary focuses on the challenging views and creative insights inspired by the four articles in this special issue of the journal. The studies have integrated creativity research with social psychological and cultural perspectives. I have highlighted the unique contribution of how Karwowski, Tanggaard, Glaveanu, and Hennessey have each…

  19. First Simultaneous Views of the Axial and Lateral Perspectives of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, I.; Cremades, H.; Balmaceda, L.; Dohmen, I.

    2016-08-01

    The different appearances exhibited by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are believed to be in part the result of different orientations of their main axis of symmetry, consistent with a flux-rope configuration. There are observational reports of CMEs seen along their main axis (axial perspective) and perpendicular to it (lateral perspective), but no simultaneous observations of both perspectives from the same CME have been reported to date. The stereoscopic views of the telescopes onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft, in combination with the views from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), allow us to study the axial and lateral perspectives of a CME simultaneously for the first time. In addition, this study shows that the lateral angular extent ( L) increases linearly with time, while the angular extent of the axial perspective ( D) presents this behavior only from the low corona to {≈} 5 R_{⊙}, where it slows down. The ratio L/D ≈ 1.6 obtained here as the average over several points in time is consistent with measurements of L and D previously performed on events exhibiting only one of the perspectives from the single vantage point provided by SOHO.

  20. First Simultaneous Views of the Axial and Lateral Perspectives of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, I.; Cremades, H.; Balmaceda, L.; Dohmen, I.

    2016-07-01

    The different appearances exhibited by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are believed to be in part the result of different orientations of their main axis of symmetry, consistent with a flux-rope configuration. There are observational reports of CMEs seen along their main axis (axial perspective) and perpendicular to it (lateral perspective), but no simultaneous observations of both perspectives from the same CME have been reported to date. The stereoscopic views of the telescopes onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft, in combination with the views from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), allow us to study the axial and lateral perspectives of a CME simultaneously for the first time. In addition, this study shows that the lateral angular extent (L) increases linearly with time, while the angular extent of the axial perspective (D) presents this behavior only from the low corona to {≈} 5 R_{⊙}, where it slows down. The ratio L/D ≈ 1.6 obtained here as the average over several points in time is consistent with measurements of L and D previously performed on events exhibiting only one of the perspectives from the single vantage point provided by SOHO.