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Sample records for 3d phononic crystal

  1. Reduction of thermal conductivity by nanoscale 3D phononic crystal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    We studied how the period length and the mass ratio affect the thermal conductivity of isotopic nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) phononic crystal of Si. Simulation results by equilibrium molecular dynamics show isotopic nanoscale 3D phononic crystals can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si at high temperature (1000 K), which leads to a larger ZT than unity. The thermal conductivity decreases as the period length and mass ratio increases. The phonon dispersion curves show an obvious decrease of group velocities in 3D phononic crystals. The phonon's localization and band gap is also clearly observed in spectra of normalized inverse participation ratio in nanoscale 3D phononic crystal.

  2. Reduction of Thermal Conductivity by Nanoscale 3D Phononic Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    We studied how the period length and the mass ratio affect the thermal conductivity of isotopic nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) phononic crystal of Si. Simulation results by equilibrium molecular dynamics show isotopic nanoscale 3D phononic crystals can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si at high temperature (1000 K), which leads to a larger ZT than unity. The thermal conductivity decreases as the period length and mass ratio increases. The phonon dispersion curves show an obvious decrease of group velocities in 3D phononic crystals. The phonon's localization and band gap is also clearly observed in spectra of normalized inverse participation ratio in nanoscale 3D phononic crystal. PMID:23378898

  3. Extreme low thermal conductivity in nanoscale 3D Si phononic crystal with spherical pores.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose a nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) Si phononic crystal (PnC) with spherical pores, which can reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si by a factor up to 10,000 times at room temperature. Thermal conductivity of Si PnCs depends on the porosity, for example, the thermal conductivity of Si PnCs with porosity 50% is 300 times smaller than that of bulk Si. The phonon participation ratio spectra demonstrate that more phonons are localized as the porosity increases. The thermal conductivity is insensitive to the temperature changes from room temperature to 1100 K. The extreme-low thermal conductivity could lead to a larger value of ZT than unity as the periodic structure affects very little the electric conductivity.

  4. The Calculation of the Band Structure in 3D Phononic Crystal with Hexagonal Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryadoust, Mahrokh; Salehi, H.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, the propagation of acoustic waves in the phononic crystals (PCs) of three dimensions with the hexagonal (HEX) lattice is studied theoretically. The PCs are constituted of nickel (Ni) spheres embedded in epoxy. The calculations of the band structure and the density of states are performed using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method in the irreducible part of the Brillouin zone (BZ). In this study, we analyse the dependence of the band structures inside (the complete band gap width) on c/a and filling fraction in the irreducible part of the first BZ. Also, we have analysed the band structure of the ALHA and MLHKM planes. The results show that the maximum width of absolute elastic band gap (AEBG) (0.045) in the irreducible part of the BZ of HEX lattice is formed for c/a=6 and filling fraction equal to 0.01. In addition, the maximum of the first and second AEBG widths are 0.0884 and 0.0474, respectively, in the MLHKM plane, and the maximum of the first and second AEBG widths are 0.0851 and 0.0431, respectively, in the ALHA plane.

  5. Investigation the effect of lattice angle on the band structure in 3D phononic crystals with rhombohedral(II) lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryadoust, M.; Salehi, H.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the propagation of acoustic waves in the phononic crystals (PC) of 3D with rhombohedral(II) lattice is studied theoretically. The PC are constituted of nickel spheres embedded in epoxy. The calculations of the band structure and density of states are performed with the plane wave expansion method in the irreducible part of the Brillouin zone (BZ). In this study, we analyze the dependence of the band structures inside (the complete band gap width) and outside the complete band gap (negative refraction of acoustic wave) on the lattice angle in the irreducible part of the first BZ. Also the effect of lattice angle has been analyzed on the band structure of the () and (122) planes. Then, the equifrequency surface is calculated for the high symmetry point in the [111] and [100] directions. The results show that the maximum width of AEBG (0.022) in the irreducible part of the BZ of RHL2 is formed for (105∘) and no AEBG is found for γ > 150∘. Also, the maximum of the first and second AEBG width are 0.1076 and 0.0523 for γ = 133∘ in the () plane and the maximum of the first and second AEBG width are 0.1446 and 0.0998 for γ = 113∘ in the (122) plane. In addition, we have found that frequencies in which negative refraction occurs is constant for all lattice angles.

  6. Phononic crystal devices

    DOEpatents

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  7. Investigation the effect of lattice angle on the band gap width in 3D phononic crystals with rhombohedral(I) lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, H.; Aryadoust, M.; Shoushtari, M. Zargar

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the propagation of acoustic waves in the phononic crystal of 3D with rhombohedral(I) lattice is studied theoretically. The crystal composite constituted of nickel spheres embedded in epoxy. The calculations of the band structure and density of states are performed with the plane wave expansion method in the irreducible part of Brillouin zone. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of lattice angle on the band structure and width of the band gap rhombohedral(I) lattice in the irreducible part of the first Brillouin zone and its planes separately. The results show that more than one complete band gape are formed in the four planes of the irreducible part. The most complete band gaps are formed in the (111) plane and the widest complete band gap in (443) with an angle greater than 80. So, if the sound passes through the (111) and (443) planes for the lattice angle close to 90, the crystal phononic displays the excellent insulation behavior. Moreover, in the other planes, the lattice angle does not affect on the width and the number of band gaps. Also, for the filling fraction 5 %, the widest complete band gap is formed. These results are consistent with the effect of symmetry on the band gap width, because the (111) plane has the most symmetry.

  8. Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F.; El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power

  9. Hypersonic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L

    2005-03-25

    In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.

  10. Phononic crystal diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Herbison, Sarah; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent

    2012-02-01

    When a phononic crystal is interrogated by an external source of acoustic waves, there is necessarily a phenomenon of diffraction occurring on the external enclosing surfaces. Indeed, these external surfaces are periodic and the resulting acoustic diffraction grating has a periodicity that depends on the orientation of the phononic crystal. This work presents a combined experimental and theoretical study on the diffraction of bulk ultrasonic waves on the external surfaces of a 2D phononic crystal that consists of a triangular lattice of steel rods in a water matrix. The results of transmission experiments are compared with theoretical band structures obtained with the finite-element method. Angular spectrograms (showing frequency as a function of angle) determined from diffraction experiments are then compared with finite-element simulations of diffraction occurring on the surfaces of the crystal. The experimental results show that the diffraction that occurs on its external surfaces is highly frequency-dependent and has a definite relation with the Bloch modes of the phononic crystal. In particular, a strong influence of the presence of bandgaps and deaf bands on the diffraction efficiency is found. This observation opens perspectives for the design of efficient phononic crystal diffraction gratings.

  11. Manipulation of Phonons with Phononic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Leseman, Zayd Chad

    2015-07-09

    There were three research goals associated with this project. First, was to experimentally demonstrate phonon spectrum control at THz frequencies using Phononic Crystals (PnCs), i.e. demonstrate coherent phonon scattering with PnCs. Second, was to experimentally demonstrate analog PnC circuitry components at GHz frequencies. The final research goal was to gain a fundamental understanding of phonon interaction using computational methods. As a result of this work, 7 journal papers have been published, 1 patent awarded, 14 conference presentations given, 4 conference publications, and 2 poster presentations given.

  12. Phonon-drag thermopower in 3D Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubakaddi, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    A theory of low-temperature phonon-drag thermopower S g in three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals has been developed considering screened electron-phonon deformation potential coupling. Numerical investigations of S g, in the boundary scattering regime for phonons, are made in 3D Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, as a function of temperature T and electron concentration n e. S g is found to increase rapidly for about T  <  1 K and nearly levels off for higher T. It is also seen that S g increases (decreases) with decreasing n e at lower (higher) T (<2 K). A screening effect is found to be very significant, strongly affecting T and n e dependence for about  <1 K and becoming negligible at higher temperature. In the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) regime the power laws S g ~ T 8 (T 4) and S g ~ n\\text{e}-5/3 (n\\text{e}-1/3) with (without) screening are obtained. These laws with respect to T and n e are, respectively, characteristics of 3D phonons and Dirac 3D electrons. Comparison with diffusion thermopower S d shows that S g dominates (and is much greater than) S d for about T  >  0.2 K. Herring’s law S g μ p ~ T -1, relating phonon limited mobility μ p and S g in the BG regime, is shown to be valid in 3D Dirac semimetals. The results obtained here are compared with those in 3D semiconductors, low-dimensional semiconductor heterojunctions and graphene. We conclude that n e-dependent measurements, rather than T-dependent ones, provide a clearer signature of the 3D Dirac semimetal phase.

  13. Phonon-drag thermopower in 3D Dirac semimetals.

    PubMed

    Kubakaddi, S S

    2015-11-18

    A theory of low-temperature phonon-drag thermopower S(g) in three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals has been developed considering screened electron-phonon deformation potential coupling. Numerical investigations of S(g), in the boundary scattering regime for phonons, are made in 3D Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, as a function of temperature T and electron concentration n e. S(g) is found to increase rapidly for about T  <  1 K and nearly levels off for higher T. It is also seen that S(g) increases (decreases) with decreasing n e at lower (higher) T (<2 K). A screening effect is found to be very significant, strongly affecting T and n e dependence for about  <1 K and becoming negligible at higher temperature. In the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) regime the power laws S(g) ~ T(8) (T(4)) and S(g) ~ n(e)(-5/3)(n(e)(-1/3) with (without) screening are obtained. These laws with respect to T and n e are, respectively, characteristics of 3D phonons and Dirac 3D electrons. Comparison with diffusion thermopower S(d) shows that S (g) dominates (and is much greater than) S(d) for about T  >  0.2 K. Herring's law S(g) μ p ~ T (-1), relating phonon limited mobility μ p and S(g) in the BG regime, is shown to be valid in 3D Dirac semimetals. The results obtained here are compared with those in 3D semiconductors, low-dimensional semiconductor heterojunctions and graphene. We conclude that n e-dependent measurements, rather than T-dependent ones, provide a clearer signature of the 3D Dirac semimetal phase. PMID:26490643

  14. Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points

    SciTech Connect

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Kafesaki, M.; Economou, E. N.

    2014-12-15

    In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.

  15. Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Kafesaki, M.; Economou, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.

  16. Acoustic superfocusing by solid phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Assouar, M. Badreddine Oudich, Mourad

    2014-12-08

    We propose a solid phononic crystal lens capable of acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit. The unit cell of the crystal is formed by four rigid cylinders in a hosting material with a cavity arranged in the center. Theoretical studies reveal that the solid lens produces both negative refraction to focus propagating waves and surface states to amplify evanescent waves. Numerical analyses of the superfocusing effect of the considered solid phononic lens are presented with a separated source excitation to the lens. In this case, acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit is evidenced. Compared to the fluid phononic lenses, the solid lens is more suitable for ultrasonic imaging applications.

  17. Refraction characteristics of phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2015-08-01

    Some of the most interesting refraction properties of phononic crystals are revealed by examining the anti-plane shear waves in doubly periodic elastic composites with unit cells containing rectangular and/or elliptical multi-inclusions. The corresponding band structure, group velocity, and energy-flux vector are calculated using a powerful mixed variational method that accurately and efficiently yields all the field quantities over multiple frequency pass-bands. The background matrix and the inclusions can be anisotropic, each having distinct elastic moduli and mass densities. Equifrequency contours and energy-flux vectors are readily calculated as functions of the wave-vector components. By superimposing the energy-flux vectors on equifrequency contours in the plane of the wave-vector components, and supplementing this with a three-dimensional graph of the corresponding frequency surface, a wealth of information is extracted essentially at a glance. This way it is shown that a composite with even a simple square unit cell containing a central circular inclusion can display negative or positive energy and phase velocity refractions, or simply performs a harmonic vibration (standing wave), depending on the frequency and the wave-vector. Moreover, that the same composite when interfaced with a suitable homogeneous solid can display: (1) negative refraction with negative phase velocity refraction; (2) negative refraction with positive phase velocity refraction; (3) positive refraction with negative phase velocity refraction; (4) positive refraction with positive phase velocity refraction; or even (5) complete reflection with no energy transmission, depending on the frequency, and direction and the wavelength of the plane-wave that is incident from the homogeneous solid to the interface. For elliptical and rectangular inclusion geometries, analytical expressions are given for the key calculation quantities. Expressions for displacement, velocity, linear momentum

  18. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder. PMID:27580163

  19. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.

  20. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    DOEpatents

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  1. Understanding Crystal Populations; Looking Towards 3D Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerram, D. A.; Morgan, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand volcanic systems, the potential record held within crystal populations needs to be revealed. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that the crystal populations that arrive at the surface in volcanic eruptions are commonly mixtures of crystals, which may be representative of simple crystallization, recycling of crystals and incorporation of alien crystals. If we can quantify the true 3D population within a sample then we will be able to separate crystals with different histories and begin to interrogate the true and complex plumbing within the volcanic system. Modeling crystal populations is one area where we can investigate the best methodologies to use when dealing with sections through 3D populations. By producing known 3D shapes and sizes with virtual textures and looking at the statistics of shape and size when such populations are sectioned, we are able to gain confidence about what our 2D information is telling us about the population. We can also use this approach to test the size of population we need to analyze. 3D imaging through serial sectioning or x-ray CT, provides a complete 3D quantification of a rocks texture. Individual phases can be identified and in principle the true 3D statistics of the population can be interrogated. In practice we need to develop strategies (as with 2D-3D transformations), that enable a true characterization of the 3D data, and an understanding of the errors and pitfalls that exist. Ultimately, the reproduction of true 3D textures and the wealth of information they hold, is now within our reach.

  2. Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, Arafa H. E-mail: arafa.hussien@science.bsu.edu.eg; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F.

    2015-08-14

    Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.

  3. Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F.

    2015-08-01

    Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.

  4. Phononic subsurface: Flow stabilization by crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mahmoud I.; Biringen, Sedat; Bilal, Osama R.; Kucala, Alec

    2015-11-01

    Flow control is a century-old problem where the goal is to alter a flow's natural state to achieve improved performance, such as delay of laminar-to-turbulent transition or reduction of drag in a fully developed turbulent flow. Meeting this goal promises to significantly reduce the dependence on fossil fuels for global transport. In this work, we show that phonon motion underneath a surface interacting with a flow may be tuned to cause the flow to stabilize, or destabilize, as desired. This concept is demonstrated by simulating a fully developed plane Poiseuille (channel) flow whereby a small portion of an otherwise rigid wall is replaced with a one-dimensional phononic crystal. A Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is introduced to the flow as an evolving disturbance. Upon tuning the frequency-dependent phase and amplitude relations of the surface of the phononic crystal that interfaces with the flow, the TS wave is shown to stabilize, or destabilize, as needed. A theory of subsurface phonons is presented that provides an accurate prediction of this behavior without the need for a flow simulation. This represents an unprecedented capability to passively synchronize wave propagation across a fluid-structure interface and achieve favorable, and predictable, alterations to the flow properties. National Science Foundation, Grant No. 1131802.

  5. 3D reconstruction of two-dimensional crystals.

    PubMed

    Stahlberg, Henning; Biyani, Nikhil; Engel, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals determines the structure of membrane proteins in the lipid bilayer by imaging with cryo-electron microscopy and image processing. Membrane proteins can be packed in regular 2D arrays by their reconstitution in the presence of lipids at low lipid to protein weight-to-weight ratio. The crystal quality depends on the protein purity and homogeneity, its stability, and on the crystallization conditions. A 2D crystal presents the membrane protein in a functional and fully lipidated state. Electron crystallography determines the 3D structure even of small membrane proteins up to atomic resolution, but 3D density maps have a better resolution in the membrane plane than in the vertical direction. This problem can be partly eliminated by applying an iterative algorithm that exploits additional known constraints about the 2D crystal. 2D electron crystallography is particularly attractive for the structural analysis of membrane proteins that are too small for single particle analyses and too unstable to form 3D crystals. With the recent introduction of direct electron detector cameras, the routine determination of the atomic 3D structure of membrane-embedded membrane proteins is in reach. PMID:26093179

  6. 3D Reproduction of a Snow Crystal by Stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Jun'ichi; Yanagi, Satoshi; Aoki, Yuya; Kubo, Akihiko; Kameda, Takao; Ullah, A. M. M. Sharif

    A new method was proposed for replicating snow crystals that uses light-curing resin containing no harmful substances, as the replicating material, and the 3D reproduction of a snow crystal by stereolithography was conducted. It was found that a UV light irradiation density of at least 0.6 mW/cm2 was required to complete the light-hardening reaction within 15 min when polyene/polythiol resin (NOA81) was used as the light-curing resin. When the atmospheric temperature was 0 °C, the maximum temperature rise due to the light-hardening reaction was 4.2 °C at an irradiation density of 1.0 mW/cm2. This suggests that the initial temperature of the light-curing resin must be approximately -5 °C to prevent the snow crystal from melting when an irradiation density of 1.0 mW/cm2 is applied at an atmospheric temperature of below 0 °C. This replication method has sufficient accuracy to reconstruct the 3D shape of a snow crystal. The 3D reproduction of a snow crystal by stereolithography was conducted by transforming the CSV-formatted 3D profile height data to STL-formatted CAD data.

  7. Shear surface waves in phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Kutsenko, A A; Shuvalov, A L

    2013-02-01

    The existence of shear horizontal (SH) surface waves in two-dimensional periodic phononic crystals with an asymmetric depth-dependent profile is theoretically reported. Examples of dispersion spectra with bandgaps for subsonic and supersonic SH surface waves are demonstrated. The link between the effective (quasistatic) speeds of the SH bulk and surface waves is established. Calculation and analysis is based on the integral form of a projector on the subspace of evanescent modes which means no need for their explicit finding. This method can be extended to the vector waves and the three-dimensional case.

  8. Engineering thermal conductance using a two-dimensional phononic crystal

    PubMed Central

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Puurtinen, Tuomas A.; Isotalo, Tero J.; Chaudhuri, Saumyadip; Maasilta, Ilari J.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling thermal transport has become relevant in recent years. Traditionally, this control has been achieved by tuning the scattering of phonons by including various types of scattering centres in the material (nanoparticles, impurities, etc). Here we take another approach and demonstrate that one can also use coherent band structure effects to control phonon thermal conductance, with the help of periodically nanostructured phononic crystals. We perform the experiments at low temperatures below 1 K, which not only leads to negligible bulk phonon scattering, but also increases the wavelength of the dominant thermal phonons by more than two orders of magnitude compared to room temperature. Thus, phononic crystals with lattice constants ≥1 μm are shown to strongly reduce the thermal conduction. The observed effect is in quantitative agreement with the theoretical calculation presented, which accurately determined the ballistic thermal conductance in a phononic crystal device. PMID:24647049

  9. Engineering thermal conductance using a two-dimensional phononic crystal.

    PubMed

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Puurtinen, Tuomas A; Isotalo, Tero J; Chaudhuri, Saumyadip; Maasilta, Ilari J

    2014-03-19

    Controlling thermal transport has become relevant in recent years. Traditionally, this control has been achieved by tuning the scattering of phonons by including various types of scattering centres in the material (nanoparticles, impurities, etc). Here we take another approach and demonstrate that one can also use coherent band structure effects to control phonon thermal conductance, with the help of periodically nanostructured phononic crystals. We perform the experiments at low temperatures below 1 K, which not only leads to negligible bulk phonon scattering, but also increases the wavelength of the dominant thermal phonons by more than two orders of magnitude compared to room temperature. Thus, phononic crystals with lattice constants ≥1 μm are shown to strongly reduce the thermal conduction. The observed effect is in quantitative agreement with the theoretical calculation presented, which accurately determined the ballistic thermal conductance in a phononic crystal device.

  10. Geometric tuning of thermal conductivity in three-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhiyong; Wehmeyer, Geoff; Dames, Chris; Chen, Yunfei

    2016-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the thermal transport properties of a three-dimensional (3D) anisotropic phononic crystal consisting of silicon nanowires and films. The calculation shows that the in-plane thermal conductivity is negatively correlated with the out-of-plane thermal conductivity upon making geometric changes, whether varying the nanowire diameter or the film thickness. This enables the anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity to be tailored over a wide range, in some cases by more than a factor of 20. Similar trends in thermal conductivity are also observed from an independent phonon ray tracing simulation considering only diffuse boundary scattering effects, though the range of anisotropy ratios is smaller than that obtained in MD simulation. By analyzing the phonon dispersion relation with varied geometric parameters, it is found that increasing the nanowire diameter increases the out-of-plane acoustic phonon group velocities, but reduces the in-plane longitudinal and fast transverse acoustic phonon group velocities. The calculated phonon irradiation further verified the negative correlation between the in-plane and the out-of-plane thermal conductivity. The proposed 3D phononic crystal may find potential application in thermoelectrics, energy storage, catalysis and sensing applications owing to its widely tailorable thermal conductivity.

  11. Transmission function and thermal conductivity of Si phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jung Hyun; Jang, Moon-Gyu; Moon, S. E.; Shin, Mincheol

    2016-10-01

    We investigate phonon transport properties of Si phononic crystals by using an atomistic Green function method. By varying form factors such as thickness, orientation, and pore size of unit cells, mean-free path and associated thermal conductivity of phononic crystals are obtained. We present the empirical formula for thermal conductivity as a function of cell size and, by extrapolating results from it for realistic cell sizes, the thermal conductivity is compared with experimental ones. The formula is found to predict a nearly equal amount of the suppression in thermal conductivity to the experimental values, implying a feasible calculation method for predicting thermal properties of phononic crystals.

  12. Monolithic phononic crystals with a surface acoustic band gap from surface phonon-polariton coupling.

    PubMed

    Yudistira, D; Boes, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Pennec, Y; Yeo, L Y; Mitchell, A; Friend, J R

    2014-11-21

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the existence of complete surface acoustic wave band gaps in surface phonon-polariton phononic crystals, in a completely monolithic structure formed from a two-dimensional honeycomb array of hexagonal shape domain-inverted inclusions in single crystal piezoelectric Z-cut lithium niobate. The band gaps appear at a frequency of about twice the Bragg band gap at the center of the Brillouin zone, formed through phonon-polariton coupling. The structure is mechanically, electromagnetically, and topographically homogeneous, without any physical alteration of the surface, offering an ideal platform for many acoustic wave applications for photonics, phononics, and microfluidics.

  13. 3D plasmonic crystal metamaterials for ultra-sensitive biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Aristov, Andrey I.; Manousidaki, Maria; Danilov, Artem; Terzaki, Konstantina; Fotakis, Costas; Farsari, Maria; Kabashin, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the excitation of plasmons in 3D plasmon crystal metamaterials and report the observation of a delocalized plasmon mode, which provides extremely high spectral sensitivity (>2600 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) change), outperforming all plasmonic counterparts excited in 2D nanoscale geometries, as well as a prominent phase-sensitive response (>3*104 deg. of phase per RIU). Combined with a large surface for bioimmobilization provided by the 3D matrix, the proposed sensor architecture promises a new important landmark in the advancement of plasmonic biosensing technology. PMID:27151104

  14. 3D holographic polymer photonic crystal for superprism application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xiaonan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Sasa; Chen, Ray T.

    2007-02-01

    Photonic crystal based superprism offers a new way to design new optical components for beam steering and DWDM application. 3D photonic crystals are especially attractive as they could offer more control of the light beam based on the needs. A polygonal prism based holographic fabrication method has been demonstrated for a three-dimensional face-centered-cubic (FCC)-type submicron polymer photonic crystal using SU8 as the photo-sensitive material. Therefore antivibration equipment and complicated optical alignment system are not needed and the requirement for the coherence of the laser source is relaxed compared with the traditional holographic setup. By changing the top-cut prism structure, the polarization of the laser beam, the exposure and development conditions we can achieve different kinds of triclinic or orthorhombic photonic crystals on demand. Special fabrication treatments have been introduced to ensure the survivability of the fabricated large area (cm2) nano-structures. Scanning electron microscopy and diffraction results proved the good uniformity of the fabricated structures. With the proper design of the refraction prism we have achieved a partial bandgap for S+C band (1460-1565nm) in the [111] direction. The transmission and reflection spectra obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are in good agreement with simulated band structure. The superprism effects around 1550nm wavelength for the fabricated 3D polymer photonic crystal have been theoretically calculated and such effects can be used for beam steering purpose.

  15. Sub-wavelength phononic crystal liquid sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Manzhu; Zubtsov, Mikhail; Lucklum, Ralf

    2011-07-01

    We introduce an acoustic liquid sensor based on phononic crystals consisting of steel plate with an array of holes filled with liquid. We both theoretically and experimentally demonstrate sensor properties considering the mechanism of the extraordinary acoustic transmission as underlying phenomenon. The frequency of this resonant transmission peak is shown to rely on the speed of sound of the liquid, and the resonant frequency can be used as a measure of speed of sound and related properties, like concentration of a component in the liquid mixture. The finite-difference time domain method has been applied for sensor design. Ultrasonic transmission experiments are performed. Good consistency of the resonant frequency shift has been found between theoretical results and experiments. The proposed scheme offers a platform for an acoustic liquid sensor.

  16. Remarkable reduction of thermal conductivity in phosphorene phononic crystal.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorene has received much attention due to its interesting physical and chemical properties, and its potential applications such as thermoelectricity. In thermoelectric applications, low thermal conductivity is essential for achieving a high figure of merit. In this work, we propose to reduce the thermal conductivity of phosphorene by adopting the phononic crystal structure, phosphorene nanomesh. With equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the thermal conductivity is remarkably reduced in the phononic crystal. Our analysis shows that the reduction is due to the depressed phonon group velocities induced by Brillouin zone folding, and the reduced phonon lifetimes in the phononic crystal. Interestingly, it is found that the anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity could be tuned by the 'non-square' pores in the phononic crystal, as the phonon group velocities in the direction with larger projection of pores is more severely suppressed, leading to greater reduction of thermal conductivity in this direction. Our work provides deep insight into thermal transport in phononic crystals and proposes a new strategy to reduce the thermal conductivity of monolayer phosphorene. PMID:27033566

  17. Remarkable reduction of thermal conductivity in phosphorene phononic crystal.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorene has received much attention due to its interesting physical and chemical properties, and its potential applications such as thermoelectricity. In thermoelectric applications, low thermal conductivity is essential for achieving a high figure of merit. In this work, we propose to reduce the thermal conductivity of phosphorene by adopting the phononic crystal structure, phosphorene nanomesh. With equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the thermal conductivity is remarkably reduced in the phononic crystal. Our analysis shows that the reduction is due to the depressed phonon group velocities induced by Brillouin zone folding, and the reduced phonon lifetimes in the phononic crystal. Interestingly, it is found that the anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity could be tuned by the 'non-square' pores in the phononic crystal, as the phonon group velocities in the direction with larger projection of pores is more severely suppressed, leading to greater reduction of thermal conductivity in this direction. Our work provides deep insight into thermal transport in phononic crystals and proposes a new strategy to reduce the thermal conductivity of monolayer phosphorene.

  18. Remarkable reduction of thermal conductivity in phosphorene phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorene has received much attention due to its interesting physical and chemical properties, and its potential applications such as thermoelectricity. In thermoelectric applications, low thermal conductivity is essential for achieving a high figure of merit. In this work, we propose to reduce the thermal conductivity of phosphorene by adopting the phononic crystal structure, phosphorene nanomesh. With equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the thermal conductivity is remarkably reduced in the phononic crystal. Our analysis shows that the reduction is due to the depressed phonon group velocities induced by Brillouin zone folding, and the reduced phonon lifetimes in the phononic crystal. Interestingly, it is found that the anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity could be tuned by the ‘non-square’ pores in the phononic crystal, as the phonon group velocities in the direction with larger projection of pores is more severely suppressed, leading to greater reduction of thermal conductivity in this direction. Our work provides deep insight into thermal transport in phononic crystals and proposes a new strategy to reduce the thermal conductivity of monolayer phosphorene.

  19. Thermal phonon transport in silicon nanowires and two-dimensional phononic crystal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Junki; Kage, Yuta; Maire, Jeremie; Moser, Dominik; Paul, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Thermal phonon transport in silicon nanowires (Si NWs) and two-dimensional phononic crystal (2D PnC) nanostructures was investigated by measuring thermal conductivity using a micrometer-scale time-domain thermoreflectance. The impact of nanopatterning on thermal conductivity strongly depends on the geometry, specularity parameter, and thermal phonon mean free path (MFP) distribution. Thermal conductivities for 2D PnC nanostructures were found to be much lower than that for NWs with similar characteristic length and surface-to-volume ratio due to stronger phonon back scattering. In single-crystalline Si, PnC patterning has a stronger impact at 4 K than at room temperature due to a higher specularity parameter and a longer thermal phonon MFP. Nanowire patterning has a stronger impact in polycrystalline Si, where thermal phonon MFP distribution is biased longer by grain boundary scattering.

  20. Finite element analysis of surface modes in phononic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuning; Schubert, Martin; Dekorsy, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The study of surface modes in phononic crystal waveguides in the hypersonic regime is a burgeoning field with a large number of possible applications. By using the finite element method, the band structure and the corresponding transmission spectrum of surface acoustic waves in phononic crystal waveguides generated by line defects in a silicon pillar-substrate system were calculated and investigated. The bandgaps are caused by the hybridization effect of band branches induced by local resonances and propagating modes in the substrate. By changing the sizes of selected pillars in the phononic crystal waveguides, the corresponding bands shift and localized modes emerge due to the local resonance effect induced by the pillars. This effect offers further possibilities for tailoring the propagation and filtering of elastic waves. The presented results have implications for the engineering of phonon dynamics in phononic nanostructures.

  1. Acoustic Bloch oscillations in a two-dimensional phononic crystal.

    PubMed

    He, Zhaojian; Peng, Shasha; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of acoustic Bloch oscillations at megahertz frequency in a two-dimensional phononic crystal. By creating periodically arrayed cavities with a decreasing gradient in width along one direction in the phononic crystal, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders are created in the frequency domain. The oscillatory motion of an incident Gaussian pulse inside the sample is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment.

  2. Dissipation induced by phonon elastic scattering in crystals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guolong; Ren, Zhongzhou; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the phonon elastic scattering leads to a dominant dissipation in crystals at low temperature. The two-level systems (TLSs) should be responsible for the elastic scattering, whereas the dissipation induced by static-point defects (SPDs) can not be neglected. One purpose of this work is to show how the energy splitting distribution of the TLS ensemble affects the dissipation. Besides, this article displays the proportion of phonon-TLS elastic scattering to total phonon dissipation. The coupling coefficient of phonon-SPD scattering and the constant P0 of the TLS distribution are important that we estimate their magnitudes in this paper. Our results is useful to understand the phonon dissipation mechanism, and give some clues to improve the performance of mechanical resonators, apply the desired defects, or reveal the atom configuration in lattice structure of disordered crystals. PMID:27669517

  3. Phononic Crystal Tunable via Ferroelectric Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaowei; Cai, Feiyan; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Fei; Sun, Rong; Fu, Xianzhu; Xiong, Rengen; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-09-01

    Phononic crystals (PCs) consisting of periodic materials with different acoustic properties have potential applications in functional devices. To realize more smart functions, it is desirable to actively control the properties of PCs on demand, ideally within the same fabricated system. Here, we report a tunable PC made of Ba0.7Sr0.3Ti O3 (BST) ceramics, wherein a 20-K temperature change near room temperature results in a 20% frequency shift in the transmission spectra induced by a ferroelectric phase transition. The tunability phenomenon is attributed to the structure-induced resonant excitation of A0 and A1 Lamb modes that exist intrinsically in the uniform BST plate, while these Lamb modes are sensitive to the elastic properties of the plate and can be modulated by temperature in a BST plate around the Curie temperature. The study finds opportunities for creating tunable PCs and enables smart temperature-tuned devices such as the Lamb wave filter or sensor.

  4. Acoustic wave characterization of silicon phononic crystal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Duan; Jiang, Wanli; Xu, Dehui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yuelin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, characterization of megahertz Lamb waves in a silicon phononic crystal based asymmetry filter by laser Doppler vibrometer is demonstrated. The acoustic power from a piezoelectric substrate was transmitted into the silicon superstrate by fluid coupling method, and measured results show that the displacement amplitude of the acoustic wave in the superstrate was approximately one fifth of that in the piezoelectric substrate. Effect of the phononic bandgap on the propagation of Lamb wave in the silicon superstrate is also measured, and the result shows that the phononic crystal structure could reflect part of the acoustic waves back.

  5. The phononic crystals: An unending quest for tailoring acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2016-07-01

    Periodicity (in time or space) is a part and parcel of every living being: one can see, hear and feel it. Everyday examples are locomotion, respiration and heart beat. The reinforced N-dimensional periodicity over two or more crystalline solids results in the so-called phononic band gap crystals. These can have dramatic consequences on the propagation of phonons, vibrations and sound. The fundamental physics of cleverly fabricated phononic crystals can offer a systematic route to realize the Anderson localization of sound and vibrations. As to the applications, the phononic crystals are envisaged to find ways in the architecture, acoustic waveguides, designing transducers, elastic/acoustic filters, noise control, ultrasonics, medical imaging and acoustic cloaking, to mention a few. This review focuses on the brief sketch of the progress made in the field that seems to have prospered even more than was originally imagined in the early nineties.

  6. Evolution of molecular crystal optical phonons near structural phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michki, Nigel; Niessen, Katherine; Xu, Mengyang; Markelz, Andrea

    Molecular crystals are increasingly important photonic and electronic materials. For example organic semiconductors are lightweight compared to inorganic semiconductors and have inexpensive scale up processing with roll to roll printing. However their implementation is limited by their environmental sensitivity, in part arising from the weak intermolecular interactions of the crystal. These weak interactions result in optical phonons in the terahertz frequency range. We examine the evolution of intermolecular interactions near structural phase transitions by measuring the optical phonons as a function of temperature and crystal orientation using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The measured orientation dependence of the resonances provides an additional constraint for comparison of the observed spectra with the density functional calculations, enabling us to follow specific phonon modes. We observe crystal reorganization near 350 K for oxalic acid as it transforms from dihydrate to anhydrous form. We also report the first THz spectra for the molecular crystal fructose through its melting point.

  7. Sculptured thin films as 3D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Vijayakumar C.

    2012-10-01

    Sculptured thin films (STFs) are columnar thin films nano-engineered to have controllable porosity, structural chirality and periodicity in one, two or three dimensions. These characteristics of STFs have been exploited in developing optical elements such as thin film filters, polarizers, sensors, and waveguides for integrated optics. They can be fabricated by a simple two-stage (lithography and deposition) process. In this paper, we develop a grating theory-based modeling approach for STFs as fully 3D periodic structures. Input for this model consists of a structural parameter set that is easily accessible experimentally. This helps establish a common parameter set for evaluating STFs from a fabrication as well as modeling perspective, thus laying the base required for developing appropriate process monitoring and control methods necessary for successful commercial production. Using the proposed model, we develop a quantitative understanding of the limits of applicability of traditional modeling methods for STFs and develop guidelines for robust design of STF-based devices. We apply this knowledge gained to explore STFs in two illustrative examples: (i) as a notch filter, and (ii) as a 3D photonic crystal. The results demonstrate the potential for success and highlight the remaining challenges that need to be overcome.

  8. One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G

    2010-03-10

    We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons.

  9. Subwavelength waveguiding of surface phonons in pillars-based phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addouche, Mahmoud; Al-Lethawe, Mohammed A.; Elayouch, Aliyasin; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we theoretically analyze the guiding of surface phonons through locally resonant defects in pillars-based phononic crystal. Using finite element method, we simulate the propagation of surface phonons through a periodic array of cylindrical pillars deposited on a semi-infinite substrate. This structure displays several band gaps, some of which are due to local resonances of the pillar. By introducing pillar defects inside the phononic structure, we show the possibility to perform a waveguiding of surface phonons based on two mechanisms that spatially confine the elastic energy in very small waveguide apertures. A careful choice of the height of the defect pillars, allows to shift the frequency position of the defect modes inside or outside the locally resonant band gaps and create two subwavelenght waveguiding mechanisms. The first is a classical mechanism that corresponds to the presence of the defect modes inside the locally resonant band gap. The seconde is due to the hybridation between the phonon resonances of defect modes and the surface phonons of the semi-infinite homogenous medium. We discuss the nature and the difference between both waveguiding phenomena.

  10. Microwave-frequency electromechanical resonators incorporating phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satzinger, K. J.; Peairs, G.; Vainsencher, A.; Cleland, A. N.

    Piezoelectric micromechanical resonators at gigahertz frequencies have been operated in the quantum limit, with quantum control and measurement achieved using superconducting qubits. However, experiments to date have been limited by mechanical dissipation, due to a combination of internal and radiative losses. In this talk, we explore the incorporation of phononic crystals into resonator designs. In phononic crystals, periodic patterning manipulates the acoustic band structure of the material. Through appropriately chosen geometries, these periodic patterns lead to full acoustic bandgaps which can be used to greatly reduce radiation losses from resonant structures. Alternatively, the crystal geometry can be manipulated to allow isolated modes within the bandgap, giving fine control over the spatial structure of the resonator modes. In this talk, we will describe the design, fabrication, and measurement of resonators with phononic crystals.

  11. Phononic crystals of spherical particles: A tight binding approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mattarelli, M.; Secchi, M.; Montagna, M.

    2013-11-07

    The vibrational dynamics of a fcc phononic crystal of spheres is studied and compared with that of a single free sphere, modelled either by a continuous homogeneous medium or by a finite cluster of atoms. For weak interaction among the spheres, the vibrational dynamics of the phononic crystal is described by shallow bands, with low degree of dispersion, corresponding to the acoustic spheroidal and torsional modes of the single sphere. The phonon displacements are therefore related to the vibrations of a sphere, as the electron wave functions in a crystal are related to the atomic wave functions in a tight binding model. Important dispersion is found for the two lowest phonon bands, which correspond to zero frequency free translation and rotation of a free sphere. Brillouin scattering spectra are calculated at some values of the exchanged wavevectors of the light, and compared with those of a single sphere. With weak interaction between particles, given the high acoustic impedance mismatch in dry systems, the density of phonon states consist of sharp bands separated by large gaps, which can be well accounted for by a single particle model. Based on the width of the frequency gaps, tunable with the particle size, and on the small number of dispersive acoustic phonons, such systems may provide excellent materials for application as sound or heat filters.

  12. A GaAs phononic crystal with shallow noncylindrical holes.

    PubMed

    Petrus, Joseph A; Mathew, Reuble; Stotz, James A H

    2014-02-01

    A square lattice of shallow, noncylindrical holes in GaAs is shown to act as a phononic crystal (PnC) reflector. The holes are produced by wet-etching a GaAs substrate using a citric acid:H2O2 etching procedure and a photolithographed array pattern. Although nonuniform and asymmetric etch rates limit the depth and shape of the phononic crystal holes, the matrix acts as a PnC, as demonstrated by insertion loss measurements together with interferometric imaging of surface acoustic waves propagating on the GaAs surface. The measured vertical displacement induced by surface phonons compares favorably with finite-difference time-domain simulations of a PnC with rounded-square holes.

  13. Bulk phonon scattering in perturbed quasi-3D multichannel crystallographic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Rabia, M S

    2008-11-19

    In the present paper, we concentrate on the influence of local defects on scattering properties of elastic waves in perturbed crystalline quasi-three-dimensional nanostructures in the harmonic approximation. Our model consists of three infinite atomic planes, assimilated into a perfect waveguide in which different distributions of scatterers (or defects) are inserted in the bulk. We have investigated phonon transmission and conductance for three bulk defect configurations. The numerical treatment of the problem, based on the Landauer approach, resorts to the matching method initially employed for the study of surface localized phonons and resonances. We present a detailed study of the defect-induced fluctuations in the transmission spectra. These fluctuations can be related to Fano resonances and Fabry-Pérot oscillations. The first is due to the coupling between localized defect states and the perfect waveguide propagating modes whereas the latter results from the interference between incidental and reflected waves. Numerical results reveal the intimate relation between transmission spectra and localized impurity states and provide a basis for the understanding of conductance spectroscopy experiments in disordered mesoscopic systems. PMID:21693856

  14. Phonon-enhanced crystal growth and lattice healing

    DOEpatents

    Buonassisi, Anthony; Bertoni, Mariana; Newman, Bonna

    2013-05-28

    A system for modifying dislocation distributions in semiconductor materials is provided. The system includes one or more vibrational sources for producing at least one excitation of vibrational mode having phonon frequencies so as to enhance dislocation motion through a crystal lattice.

  15. Mode- and Direction-Dependent Mechanical Energy Dissipation in Single-Crystal Resonators due to Anharmonic Phonon-Phonon Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Srikanth S.; Candler, Robert N.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we determine the intrinsic mechanical energy dissipation limit for single-crystal resonators due to anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering in the Akhiezer (Ω τ ≪1 ) regime. The energy loss is derived using perturbation theory and the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, and includes the direction- and polarization-dependent mode-Grüneisen parameters in order to capture the strain-induced anharmonicity among phonon branches. This expression reveals the fundamental differences among the internal friction limits for different types of bulk-mode elastic waves. For cubic crystals, 2D-extensional modes have increased dissipation compared to width-extensional modes because the biaxial deformation opposes the natural Poisson contraction of the solid. Additionally, we show that shear-mode vibrations, which preserve volume, have significantly reduced energy loss because dissipative phonon-phonon scattering is restricted to pure-shear phonon branches, indicating that Lamé- or wineglass-mode resonators will have the highest upper limit on mechanical efficiency. Finally, we employ key simplifications to evaluate the quality factor limits for common mode shapes in single-crystal silicon devices, explicitly including the correct effective elastic storage moduli for different vibration modes and crystal orientations. Our expression satisfies the pressing need for a reliable analytical model that can predict the phonon-phonon dissipation limits for modern resonant microelectromechanical systems, where precise manufacturing techniques and accurate finite-element methods can be used to select particular vibrational mode shapes and crystal orientations.

  16. Virtual and Printed 3D Models for Teaching Crystal Symmetry and Point Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Lluís; Estop, Euge`nia

    2015-01-01

    Both, virtual and printed 3D crystal models can help students and teachers deal with chemical education topics such as symmetry and point groups. In the present paper, two freely downloadable tools (interactive PDF files and a mobile app) are presented as examples of the application of 3D design to study point-symmetry. The use of 3D printing to…

  17. Cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, A.; Pennec, Y.; Yanagishita, T.; Masuda, H.; Knoll, W.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the engineering of the phonon dispersion diagram in monodomain anodic porous alumina (APA) films through the porosity and physical state of the material residing in the nanopores. Lattice symmetry and inclusion materials are theoretically identified to be the main factors which control the hypersonic acoustic wave propagation. This involves the interaction between the longitudinal and the transverse modes in the effective medium and a flat band characteristic of the material residing in the cavities. Air and filled nanopores, therefore, display markedly different dispersion relations and the inclusion materials lead to a locally resonant structural behavior uniquely determining their properties under confinement. APA films emerge as a new platform to investigate the rich acoustic phenomena of structured composite matter.

  18. Topological Phononic Crystals with One-Way Elastic Edge Waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pai; Lu, Ling; Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-09-01

    We report a new type of phononic crystals with topologically nontrivial band gaps for both longitudinal and transverse polarizations, resulting in protected one-way elastic edge waves. In our design, gyroscopic inertial effects are used to break the time-reversal symmetry and realize the phononic analogue of the electronic quantum (anomalous) Hall effect. We investigate the response of both hexagonal and square gyroscopic lattices and observe bulk Chern numbers of 1 and 2, indicating that these structures support single and multimode edge elastic waves immune to backscattering. These robust one-way phononic waveguides could potentially lead to the design of a novel class of surface wave devices that are widely used in electronics, telecommunication, and acoustic imaging. PMID:26382680

  19. Topological Phononic Crystals with One-Way Elastic Edge Waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pai; Lu, Ling; Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-09-01

    We report a new type of phononic crystals with topologically nontrivial band gaps for both longitudinal and transverse polarizations, resulting in protected one-way elastic edge waves. In our design, gyroscopic inertial effects are used to break the time-reversal symmetry and realize the phononic analogue of the electronic quantum (anomalous) Hall effect. We investigate the response of both hexagonal and square gyroscopic lattices and observe bulk Chern numbers of 1 and 2, indicating that these structures support single and multimode edge elastic waves immune to backscattering. These robust one-way phononic waveguides could potentially lead to the design of a novel class of surface wave devices that are widely used in electronics, telecommunication, and acoustic imaging.

  20. Template-Directed Directionally Solidified 3D Mesostructured AgCl-KCl Eutectic Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwoo; Aagesen, Larry K; Choi, Jun Hee; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Ha Seong; Liu, Jinyun; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kang, Jin Gu; Ramazani, Ali; Thornton, Katsuyo; Braun, Paul V

    2015-08-19

    3D mesostructured AgCl-KCl photonic crystals emerge from colloidal templating of eutectic solidification. Solvent removal of the KCl phase results in a mesostructured AgCl inverse opal. The 3D-template-induced confinement leads to the emergence of a complex microstructure. The 3D mesostructured eutectic photonic crystals have a large stop band ranging from the near-infrared to the visible tuned by the processing.

  1. Generalized thermoelastic wave band gaps in phononic crystals without energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying; Yu, Kaiping; Li, Xiao; Zhou, Haotian

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the thermoelastic wave propagation in the phononic crystals in the context of Green-Nagdhi theory by taking thermoelastic coupling into account. The thermal field is assumed to be steady. Thermoelastic wave band structures of 3D and 2D are derived by using the plane wave expansion method. For the 2D problem, the anti-plane shear mode is not affected by the temperature difference. Thermoelastic wave bands of the in-plane x-y mode are calculated for lead/silicone rubber, aluminium/silicone rubber, and aurum/silicone rubber phononic crystals. The new findings in the numerical results indicate that the thermoelastic wave bands are composed of the pure elastic wave bands and the thermal wave bands, and that the thermal wave bands can serve as the low boundary of the first band gap when the filling ratio is low. In addition, for the lead/silicone rubber phononic crystals the effects of lattice type (square, rectangle, regular triangle, and hexagon) and inclusion shape (circle, oval, and square) on the normalized thermoelastic bandwidth and the upper/lower gap boundaries are analysed and discussed. It is concluded that their effects on the thermoelastic wave band structure are remarkable.

  2. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  3. A full field, 3-D velocimeter for microgravity crystallization experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodkey, Robert S.; Russ, Keith M.

    1991-01-01

    The programming and algorithms needed for implementing a full-field, 3-D velocimeter for laminar flow systems and the appropriate hardware to fully implement this ultimate system are discussed. It appears that imaging using a synched pair of video cameras and digitizer boards with synched rails for camera motion will provide a viable solution to the laminar tracking problem. The algorithms given here are simple, which should speed processing. On a heavily loaded VAXstation 3100 the particle identification can take 15 to 30 seconds, with the tracking taking less than one second. It seeems reasonable to assume that four image pairs can thus be acquired and analyzed in under one minute.

  4. Holographically Defined Nanoparticle Placement in 3D Colloidal Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Yoonho; Yu, Dongguk; George, Matthew C.; Braun, Paul V.

    2010-06-30

    We demonstrate an optical interference-based photochemical method for the high-resolution localization of nanoparticles inside colloidal crystals or other porous structures. The method specifically relies on photoinduced inversion of the colloidal crystal surface charge to drive the localized deposition of charged gold nanoparticles. 4-Bromomethyl-3-nitrobenzoic acid (BNBA) was used as a photocleavable linker, and dansylamide was attached to BNBA to increase the absorption at 351 nm. Two-beam interference lithography was used for high-resolution optical patterning of the colloidal crystals; the resulting pattern was then decorated with functional nanoparticles. The periodicity of the pattern was 400 nm, and the width of the gold nanoparticle decorated region was ~200 nm. Our strategy of using photoswitching in a refractive-index-matched porous medium followed by the attachment of nanoparticles to the photoswitched region should be applicable to wide classes of charged nanoparticles.

  5. Phonons in two-dimensional soft colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke; Still, Tim; Schoenholz, Samuel; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Schindler, Michael; Maggs, A. C.; Liu, Andrea J.; Yodh, A. G.

    2013-08-01

    The vibrational modes of pristine and polycrystalline monolayer colloidal crystals composed of thermosensitive microgel particles are measured using video microscopy and covariance matrix analysis. At low frequencies, the Debye relation for two-dimensional harmonic crystals is observed in both crystal types; at higher frequencies, evidence for van Hove singularities in the phonon density of states is significantly smeared out by experimental noise and measurement statistics. The effects of these errors are analyzed using numerical simulations. We introduce methods to correct for these limitations, which can be applied to disordered systems as well as crystalline ones, and we show that application of the error correction procedure to the experimental data leads to more pronounced van Hove singularities in the pristine crystal. Finally, quasilocalized low-frequency modes in polycrystalline two-dimensional colloidal crystals are identified and demonstrated to correlate with structural defects such as dislocations, suggesting that quasilocalized low-frequency phonon modes may be used to identify local regions vulnerable to rearrangements in crystalline as well as amorphous solids.

  6. Stress Wave Isolation by Purely Mechanical Topological Phononic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Chaunsali, Rajesh; Li, Feng; Yang, Jinkyu

    2016-01-01

    We present an active, purely mechanical stress wave isolator that consists of short cylindrical particles arranged in a helical architecture. This phononic structure allows us to change inter-particle stiffness dynamically by controlling the contact angles of the cylinders. We use torsional travelling waves to control the contact angles, thereby imposing a desired spatio-temporal stiffness variation to the phononic crystal along the longitudinal direction. Such torsional excitation is a form of parametric pumping in the system, which results in the breakage of the time-reversal symmetry. We report that, in quasi-static sense, the system shows topologically non-trivial band-gaps. However, in a dynamic regime where the pumping effect is significant, these band-gaps become asymmetric with respect to the frequency and wavenumber domains in the dispersion relationship. By using numerical simulations, we show that such asymmetry has a direct correspondence to the topological invariant, i.e., Chern number, of the system. We propose that this asymmetry, accompanied by selective inter-band transition, can be utilized for directional isolation of the stress wave propagating along the phononic crystal. PMID:27477236

  7. Stress Wave Isolation by Purely Mechanical Topological Phononic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Chaunsali, Rajesh; Li, Feng; Yang, Jinkyu

    2016-01-01

    We present an active, purely mechanical stress wave isolator that consists of short cylindrical particles arranged in a helical architecture. This phononic structure allows us to change inter-particle stiffness dynamically by controlling the contact angles of the cylinders. We use torsional travelling waves to control the contact angles, thereby imposing a desired spatio-temporal stiffness variation to the phononic crystal along the longitudinal direction. Such torsional excitation is a form of parametric pumping in the system, which results in the breakage of the time-reversal symmetry. We report that, in quasi-static sense, the system shows topologically non-trivial band-gaps. However, in a dynamic regime where the pumping effect is significant, these band-gaps become asymmetric with respect to the frequency and wavenumber domains in the dispersion relationship. By using numerical simulations, we show that such asymmetry has a direct correspondence to the topological invariant, i.e., Chern number, of the system. We propose that this asymmetry, accompanied by selective inter-band transition, can be utilized for directional isolation of the stress wave propagating along the phononic crystal. PMID:27477236

  8. Stress Wave Isolation by Purely Mechanical Topological Phononic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaunsali, Rajesh; Li, Feng; Yang, Jinkyu

    2016-08-01

    We present an active, purely mechanical stress wave isolator that consists of short cylindrical particles arranged in a helical architecture. This phononic structure allows us to change inter-particle stiffness dynamically by controlling the contact angles of the cylinders. We use torsional travelling waves to control the contact angles, thereby imposing a desired spatio-temporal stiffness variation to the phononic crystal along the longitudinal direction. Such torsional excitation is a form of parametric pumping in the system, which results in the breakage of the time-reversal symmetry. We report that, in quasi-static sense, the system shows topologically non-trivial band-gaps. However, in a dynamic regime where the pumping effect is significant, these band-gaps become asymmetric with respect to the frequency and wavenumber domains in the dispersion relationship. By using numerical simulations, we show that such asymmetry has a direct correspondence to the topological invariant, i.e., Chern number, of the system. We propose that this asymmetry, accompanied by selective inter-band transition, can be utilized for directional isolation of the stress wave propagating along the phononic crystal.

  9. Structural engineering of three-dimensional phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpero, Tommaso; Schoenwald, Stefan; Zemp, Armin; Bergamini, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Artificially-structured materials are attracting the research interest of a growing community of scientists for the possibility to develop novel materials with advantageous properties that arise from the ability to tailor the propagation of elastic waves, and thus energy, through them. In this work, we propose a three-dimensional phononic crystal whose unit cell has been engineered to obtain a strong wave-attenuation band in the middle of the acoustic frequency range. The combination of its acoustic properties with the dimensions of the unit cell and its static mechanical properties makes it an interesting material for possibly several applications in civil and mechanical engineering, for instance as the core of an acoustically insulating sandwich panel. A sample of this crystal has been manufactured and experimentally tested with respect to its acoustic transmissibility. The performance of the phononic crystal core is remarkable both in terms of amplitude reduction in the transmissibility and width of the attenuation band. A parametric study has been finally conducted on selected geometrical parameters of the unit cell and on their effect on the macroscopic properties of the crystal. This work represents an application-oriented example of how the macroscopic properties of an artificially-structured material can be designed, according to specific needs, by a conventional engineering of its unit cell.

  10. Electron-phonon interaction in three-, two- and one-dimensional ternary mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Junhua; Fan, Yunpeng

    2016-05-01

    The electron-phonon (e-p) interaction in three-dimensional (3D), two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) ternary mixed crystals is studied. The e-p interaction Hamiltonians including the unit cell volume variation in ternary mixed crystals are obtained by using the modified random-element-isodisplacement model and Born-Huang method. The polaronic self-trapping energy and renormalized effective mass of GaAsxSb1-x, GaPxAs1-x and GaPxSb1-x compounds are numerically calculated. It is confirmed theoretically that the nonlinear variation of the self-trapping energy and effective mass with the composition is essential and the unit cell volume effects cannot be neglected except the weak e-p coupling. The dimensional effect cannot also be ignored.

  11. Numerical investigation of diffraction of acoustic waves by phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent

    2012-05-01

    Diffraction as well as transmission of acoustic waves by two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) composed of steel rods in water are investigated in this paper. The finite element simulations were performed in order to compute pressure fields generated by a line source that are incident on a finite size PC. Such field maps are analyzed based on the complex band structure for the infinite periodic PC. Finite size computations indicate that the exponential decrease of the transmission at deaf frequencies is much stronger than that in Bragg band gaps.

  12. 3-D Crystal Tectonics of Red Coral (Corallium Rubrum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielzeuf, D.; Garrabou, J.; Baronnet, A.; Grauby, O.; Marschal, C.

    2007-12-01

    A combination of analytical techniques (petrographic microscopy, SEM, TEM, and EMP) has been used to characterize the internal physico-chemical structure of the red coral (corallium rubrum) skeleton. A section normal to the skeleton axis shows an inner medullar zone with a bulbous-tip cross shape, surrounded by a large circular domain composed of concentric rings (width of each ring ca 150 microns). Growth rings are revealed by the cyclic variation of concentration of the organic matter (OM) and oscillations of the Mg/Ca ratio. Experiments carried out in natural environment show that the detected growth rings are annual. Thus, both oscillations of concentration of OM and Mg/Ca ratio can be used to determine the age of the red coral colonies, some of which can be as old as a few tens (or even a few hundreds) of years. Concentric ring are riddled and display a succession of wavelets (wavelength ca 300 microns). The internal structure of each wavelet is complex, both physically and chemically: it is formed by the accumulation of strata with locally tortuous interfaces due to the presence of micro protuberances (ca 30 microns). This interlocked structure confers an exceptional stiffness on the red coral skeleton. Interfaces between strata sometimes display sharp discontinuities indicating interruption of the mineralizing process. This fact has important consequences on the ability of the whole structure to register external forcings with accuracy. SEM and TEM studies show that each stratum is made of submicron crystalline units (ca 200 nm) organized or not in polycrystalline fibers or blades (ca 1 to 10 microns). Porosity can be observed at all scales between the various structural units. HRTEM studies show that in spite of displaying single crystal scattering behavior, the submicron crystalline units are made of 2-5 nm nanodomains with intercalated nanopores. We interpret the nanodomains as nanograins aggregated by a mechanism of oriented attachment. The red coral

  13. Towards true 3D textural analysis; using your crystal mush wisely.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerram, D. A.; Morgan, D. J.; Pankhurst, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The crystal cargo that is found in volcanic and plutonic rocks contains a wealth of information about magmatic mush processes, crystallisation history, crystal entrainment and recycling. Phenocryst populations predominantly record episodes of growth/nucleation and bulk geochemical changes within an evolving crystal-melt body. Ante- and xeno-crysts provide useful clues to the nature of mush interaction with wall rock and with principal magma(s). Furthermore, crystal evolutions (core to rim) record pathways through pressure, temperature and compositional space. These can often illustrate complex recycling within systems, describing the plumbing architecture. Understanding this architecture underpins our knowledge of how igneous systems can interact with the crust, grow, freeze, re-mobilise and prime for eruption. Initially, 2D studies produced corrected 3D crystal size distributions to help provide information about nucleation and residence times. It immediately became clear that crystal shape is an important factor in determining the confidence placed upon 3D reconstructions of 2D data. Additionally studies utilised serial sections of medium- to coarse-grain-size populations which allowed 3D reconstruction using modelling software to be improved, since size and shape etc. can be directly constrained. Finally the advent of textural studies using X-ray tomography has revolutionised the way in which we can inspect the crystal cargo in mushy systems, allowing us to image in great detail crystal packing arrangements, 3D CSDs, shapes and orientations etc. The latest most innovative studies use X-ray micro-computed tomography to rapidly characterise chemical populations within the crystal cargo, adding a further dimension to this approach, and implies the ability to untangle magmatic chemical components to better understand their individual and combined evolution. In this contribution key examples of the different types of textural analysis techniques in 2D and 3D

  14. Raman phonons in multiferroic FeVO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, An-Min; Liu, Kai; Ji, Jian-Ting; He, Chang-Zhen; Tian, Yong; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Qing-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Multiferroic materials are promising candidates for next-generation multi-functional devices, because of the coexistence of multi-orders and the coupling between the orders. FeVO4 has been confirmed to be a multiferroic compound, since it exhibits both ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures. In this paper, we have performed careful Raman scattering measurements on high-quality FeVO4 single crystals. The compound has a very rich phonon structure due to its low crystal symmetry (P - 1) and at least 47 Raman-active phonon modes have been resolved in the low and hightemperature spectra. Most of the observed modes are well assigned with aid of first-principles calculations and symmetry analysis. The present study provides an experimental basis for exploring spin-lattice coupling and the mechanism of multiferroicity in FeVO4 Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921701), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174367 and 11004243), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Research Funds of Renmin University of China (Grant Nos. 10XNI038, 14XNLF06, and 14XNLQ03).

  15. Fluxes of nonequilibrium photo-excited phonons along surfaces of crystals without an inversion center

    SciTech Connect

    Blokh, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The flux of nonequilibrium phonons excited by light in the near-surface domain of a crystal or a thin plate is investigated. An exact expression is obtained for the phonon energy flux for a crystal with a polar direction and its polarization dependence is analyzed. The magnitude of the energy flux can reach the incident light intensity. The temperature difference produced by the flux of nonequilibrium photo-excited phonons is found.

  16. Nanoscale resolved infrared probing of crystal structure and of plasmon-phonon coupling.

    PubMed

    Huber, A; Ocelic, N; Taubner, T; Hillenbrand, R

    2006-04-01

    We show that slight variations of a crystal lattice cause significant spectral modifications of phonon-polariton resonant near-field interaction between polar semiconductor crystals and a scanning metal tip. Exploiting the effect for near-field imaging a SiC polytype boundary, we establish infrared mapping of crystal structure and crystal defects at 20 nm spatial resolution (lambda/500). By spectroscopic probing of doped SiC polytypes, we find that phonon-polariton resonant near-field interaction is also sensitive to electronic properties due to plasmon-phonon coupling in the crystals.

  17. Hierarchical thermoelectrics: crystal grain boundaries as scalable phonon scatterers.

    PubMed

    Selli, Daniele; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Schapotschnikow, Philipp; Donadio, Davide; Leoni, Stefano

    2016-02-14

    Thermoelectric materials are strategically valuable for sustainable development, as they allow for the generation of electrical energy from wasted heat. In recent years several strategies have demonstrated some efficiency in improving thermoelectric properties. Dopants affect carrier concentration, while thermal conductivity can be influenced by alloying and nanostructuring. Features at the nanoscale positively contribute to scattering phonons, however those with long mean free paths remain difficult to alter. Here we use the concept of hierarchical nano-grains to demonstrate thermal conductivity reduction in rocksalt lead chalcogenides. We demonstrate that grains can be obtained by taking advantage of the reconstructions along the phase transition path that connects the rocksalt structure to its high-pressure form. Since grain features naturally change as a function of size, they impact thermal conductivity over different length scales. To understand this effect we use a combination of advanced molecular dynamics techniques to engineer grains and to evaluate thermal conductivity in PbSe. By affecting grain morphologies only, i.e. at constant chemistry, two distinct effects emerge: the lattice thermal conductivity is significantly lowered with respect to the perfect crystal, and its temperature dependence is markedly suppressed. This is due to an increased scattering of low-frequency phonons by grain boundaries over different size scales. Along this line we propose a viable process to produce hierarchical thermoelectric materials by applying pressure via a mechanical load or a shockwave as a novel paradigm for material design.

  18. Hierarchical thermoelectrics: crystal grain boundaries as scalable phonon scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selli, Daniele; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Schapotschnikow, Philipp; Donadio, Davide; Leoni, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    Thermoelectric materials are strategically valuable for sustainable development, as they allow for the generation of electrical energy from wasted heat. In recent years several strategies have demonstrated some efficiency in improving thermoelectric properties. Dopants affect carrier concentration, while thermal conductivity can be influenced by alloying and nanostructuring. Features at the nanoscale positively contribute to scattering phonons, however those with long mean free paths remain difficult to alter. Here we use the concept of hierarchical nano-grains to demonstrate thermal conductivity reduction in rocksalt lead chalcogenides. We demonstrate that grains can be obtained by taking advantage of the reconstructions along the phase transition path that connects the rocksalt structure to its high-pressure form. Since grain features naturally change as a function of size, they impact thermal conductivity over different length scales. To understand this effect we use a combination of advanced molecular dynamics techniques to engineer grains and to evaluate thermal conductivity in PbSe. By affecting grain morphologies only, i.e. at constant chemistry, two distinct effects emerge: the lattice thermal conductivity is significantly lowered with respect to the perfect crystal, and its temperature dependence is markedly suppressed. This is due to an increased scattering of low-frequency phonons by grain boundaries over different size scales. Along this line we propose a viable process to produce hierarchical thermoelectric materials by applying pressure via a mechanical load or a shockwave as a novel paradigm for material design.

  19. Acoustic waves switch based on meta-fluid phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Feng

    2012-08-01

    The acoustic waves switch based on meta-fluid phononic crystals (MEFL PCs) is theoretically investigated. The MEFL PCs consist of fluid matrix and fluid-like inclusions with extremely anisotropic-density. The dispersion relations are calculated via the plane wave expansion method, which are in good agreement with the transmitted sound pressure level spectra obtained by the finite element method. The results show that the width of absolute band gap in MEFL PCs depends sensitively upon the orientation of the extremely anisotropic-density inclusions and reaches maximum at the rotating angle of 45°, with the gap position nearly unchanged. Also, the inter-mode conversion inside anisotropic-density inclusions can be ignored due to large acoustic mismatch. The study gives a possibility to realize greater flexibility and stronger effects in tuning the acoustic band gaps, which is very significant in the enhanced control over sound waves and has potential applications in ultrasonic imaging and therapy.

  20. Acoustic cloaking by a near-zero-index phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Yang; Wu, Ying; Ni, Xu; Chen, Ze-Guo; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Zero-refractive-index materials may lead to promising applications in various fields. Here, we design and fabricate a near Zero-Refractive-Index (ZRI) material using a phononic crystal (PC) composed of a square array of densely packed square iron rods in air. The dispersion relation exhibits a nearly flat band across the Brillouin zone at the reduced frequency f = 0.5443c/a, which is due to Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance. By using a retrieval method, we find that both the effective mass density and the reciprocal of the effective bulk modulus are close to zero at frequencies near the flat band. We also propose an equivalent tube network model to explain the mechanisms of the near ZRI effect. This FP-resonance-induced near ZRI material offers intriguing wave manipulation properties. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally its ability to shield a scattering obstacle and guide acoustic waves through a bent structure.

  1. Modification of phonon processes in nanostructured rare-earth-ion-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Thomas; Veissier, Lucile; Thiel, Charles W.; Cone, Rufus L.; Barclay, Paul E.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Nano-structuring impurity-doped crystals affects the phonon density of states and thereby modifies the atomic dynamics induced by interaction with phonons. We propose the use of nano-structured materials in the form of powders or phononic bandgap crystals to enable or improve persistent spectral hole burning and coherence for inhomogeneously broadened absorption lines in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. This is crucial for applications such as ultra-precise radio-frequency spectrum analyzers and optical quantum memories. As an example, we discuss how phonon engineering can enable spectral hole burning in erbium-doped materials operating in the convenient telecommunication band and present simulations for density of states of nano-sized powders and phononic crystals for the case of Y2SiO5 , a widely used material in current quantum memory research.

  2. Edge waves and resonances in two-dimensional phononic crystal plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Jin-Chen Hsu, Chih-Hsun

    2015-05-07

    We present a numerical study on phononic band gaps and resonances occurring at the edge of a semi-infinite two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal plate. The edge supports localized edge waves coupling to evanescent phononic plate modes that decay exponentially into the semi-infinite phononic crystal plate. The band-gap range and the number of edge-wave eigenmodes can be tailored by tuning the distance between the edge and the semi-infinite 2D phononic lattice. As a result, a phononic band gap for simultaneous edge waves and plate waves is created, and phononic cavities beside the edge can be built to support high-frequency edge resonances. We design an L3 edge cavity and analyze its resonance characteristics. Based on the band gap, high quality factor and strong confinement of resonant edge modes are achieved. The results enable enhanced control over acoustic energy flow in phononic crystal plates, which can be used in designing micro and nanoscale resonant devices and coupling of edge resonances to other types of phononic or photonic crystal cavities.

  3. CMOS compatible fabrication of 3D photonic crystals by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibelhuber, M.; Uhrmann, T.; Glinsner, T.

    2015-03-01

    Nanoimprinting techniques are an attractive solution for next generation lithography methods for several areas including photonic devices. A variety of potential applications have been demonstrated using nanoimprint lithography (NIL) (e.g. SAW devices, vias and contact layers with dual damascene imprinting process, Bragg structures, patterned media) [1,2]. Nanoimprint lithography is considered for bridging the gap from R and D to high volume manufacturing. In addition, it is capable to adapt to the needs of the fragmented and less standardized photonic market easily. In this work UV-NIL has been selected for the fabrication process of 3D-photonic crystals. It has been shown that UVNIL using a multiple layer approach is well suited to fabricate a 3D woodpile photonic crystal. The necessary alignment accuracies below 100nm were achieved using a simple optical method. In order to obtain sufficient alignment of the stacks to each other, a two stage alignment process is performed: at first proximity alignment is done followed by the Moiré alignment in soft contact with the substrate. Multiple steps of imprinting, etching, Si deposition and chemical mechanical polishing were implemented to create high quality 3D photonic crystals with up to 5 layers. This work has proven the applicability of nanoimprint lithography in a CMOS compatible process on 3D photonic crystals with alignment accuracy down to 100nm. Optimizing the processes will allow scaling up these structures on full wafers while still meeting the requirements of the designated devices.

  4. Coherent optical phonon oscillation and possible electronic softening in WTe2 crystals

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhu, Weida; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Shenghua; Zhu, Xiyu; Wu, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Wen, Hai-hu; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly-growing interest in WTe2 has been triggered by the giant magnetoresistance effect discovered in this unique system. While many efforts have been made towards uncovering the electron- and spin-relevant mechanisms, the role of lattice vibration remains poorly understood. Here, we study the coherent vibrational dynamics in WTe2 crystals by using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. The oscillation signal in time domain in WTe2 has been ascribed as due to the coherent dynamics of the lowest energy A1 optical phonons with polarization- and wavelength-dependent measurements. With increasing temperature, the phonon energy decreases due to anharmonic decay of the optical phonons into acoustic phonons. Moreover, a significant drop (15%) of the phonon energy with increasing pump power is observed which is possibly caused by the lattice anharmonicity induced by electronic excitation and phonon-phonon interaction. PMID:27457385

  5. Coherent optical phonon oscillation and possible electronic softening in WTe2 crystals.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhu, Weida; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Shenghua; Zhu, Xiyu; Wu, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Wen, Hai-Hu; Xiao, Min

    2016-07-26

    A rapidly-growing interest in WTe2 has been triggered by the giant magnetoresistance effect discovered in this unique system. While many efforts have been made towards uncovering the electron- and spin-relevant mechanisms, the role of lattice vibration remains poorly understood. Here, we study the coherent vibrational dynamics in WTe2 crystals by using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. The oscillation signal in time domain in WTe2 has been ascribed as due to the coherent dynamics of the lowest energy A1 optical phonons with polarization- and wavelength-dependent measurements. With increasing temperature, the phonon energy decreases due to anharmonic decay of the optical phonons into acoustic phonons. Moreover, a significant drop (15%) of the phonon energy with increasing pump power is observed which is possibly caused by the lattice anharmonicity induced by electronic excitation and phonon-phonon interaction.

  6. Coherent optical phonon oscillation and possible electronic softening in WTe2 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhu, Weida; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Shenghua; Zhu, Xiyu; Wu, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Wen, Hai-Hu; Xiao, Min

    2016-07-01

    A rapidly-growing interest in WTe2 has been triggered by the giant magnetoresistance effect discovered in this unique system. While many efforts have been made towards uncovering the electron- and spin-relevant mechanisms, the role of lattice vibration remains poorly understood. Here, we study the coherent vibrational dynamics in WTe2 crystals by using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. The oscillation signal in time domain in WTe2 has been ascribed as due to the coherent dynamics of the lowest energy A1 optical phonons with polarization- and wavelength-dependent measurements. With increasing temperature, the phonon energy decreases due to anharmonic decay of the optical phonons into acoustic phonons. Moreover, a significant drop (15%) of the phonon energy with increasing pump power is observed which is possibly caused by the lattice anharmonicity induced by electronic excitation and phonon-phonon interaction.

  7. Coherent optical phonon oscillation and possible electronic softening in WTe2 crystals.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhu, Weida; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Shenghua; Zhu, Xiyu; Wu, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Wen, Hai-Hu; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly-growing interest in WTe2 has been triggered by the giant magnetoresistance effect discovered in this unique system. While many efforts have been made towards uncovering the electron- and spin-relevant mechanisms, the role of lattice vibration remains poorly understood. Here, we study the coherent vibrational dynamics in WTe2 crystals by using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. The oscillation signal in time domain in WTe2 has been ascribed as due to the coherent dynamics of the lowest energy A1 optical phonons with polarization- and wavelength-dependent measurements. With increasing temperature, the phonon energy decreases due to anharmonic decay of the optical phonons into acoustic phonons. Moreover, a significant drop (15%) of the phonon energy with increasing pump power is observed which is possibly caused by the lattice anharmonicity induced by electronic excitation and phonon-phonon interaction. PMID:27457385

  8. General theory of electronic transport in molecular crystals. I. Local linear electron-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbey, R.; Munn, R. W.

    1980-02-01

    An improved general theory of electronic transport in molecular crystals with local linear electron-phonon coupling is presented. It is valid for arbitrary electronic and phonon bandwidths and for arbitrary electron-phonon coupling strength, yielding small-polaron theory for narrow electronic bands and strong coupling, and semiconductor theory for wide electronic bands and weak coupling. Detailed results are derived for electronic excitations fully clothed with phonons and having a bandwidth no larger than the phonon frequency; the electronic and phonon densities of states are taken as Gaussian for simplicity. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on temperature and on the other parameters is analyzed thoroughly. The calculated behavior provides a rational interpretation of observed trends in the magnitude and temperature dependence of charge-carrier drift mobilities in molecular crystals.

  9. Crystal structure dependent thermal conductivity in two-dimensional phononic crystal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Junki; Kage, Yuta; Hori, Takuma; Shiomi, Junichiro; Nomura, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    Thermal phonon transport in square- and triangular-lattice Si phononic crystal (PnC) nanostructures with a period of 300 nm was investigated by measuring the thermal conductivity using micrometer-scale time-domain thermoreflectance. The placement of circular nanoholes has a strong influence on thermal conductivity when the periodicity is within the range of the thermal phonon mean free path. A staggered hole structure, i.e., a triangular lattice, has lower thermal conductivity, where the difference in thermal conductivity depends on the porosity of the structure. The largest difference in conductivity of approximately 20% was observed at a porosity of around 30%. This crystal structure dependent thermal conductivity can be understood by considering the local heat flux disorder created by a staggered hole structure. Numerical simulation using the Monte Carlo technique was also employed and also showed the lower thermal conductivity for a triangular lattice structure. Besides gaining a deeper understanding of nanoscale thermal phonon transport, this information would be useful in the design of highly efficient thermoelectric materials created by nanopatterning.

  10. Theory of rigid-plane phonon modes in layered crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, K. H.; Verberck, B.

    2012-03-01

    The lattice dynamics of low-frequency rigid-plane modes in metallic (graphene multilayers, GML) and in insulating (hexagonal boron-nitride multilayers, BNML) layered crystals is investigated. The frequencies of shearing and compression (stretching) modes depend on the layer number N and are presented in the form of fan diagrams. The results for GML and BNML are very similar. In both cases, only the interactions (van der Waals and Coulomb) between nearest-neighbor planes are effective, while the interactions between more distant planes are screened. A comparison with recent Raman scattering results on low-frequency shear modes in GML [Tan , Nat. Mater., in press, doi:10.1038/nmat3245, (2012)] is made. Relations with the low-lying rigid-plane phonon dispersions in the bulk materials are established. Master curves, which connect the fan diagram frequencies for any given N, are derived. Static and dynamic thermal correlation functions for rigid-layer shear and compression modes are calculated. The results might be of use for the interpretation of friction force experiments on multilayer crystals.

  11. Tunable ultrasonic phononic crystal controlled by infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Ezekiel; Neogi, Arup E-mail: arup@unt.edu; Reyes, Delfino; Rojas, Miguel Mayorga; Krokhin, Arkadii; Wang, Zhiming E-mail: arup@unt.edu

    2014-10-06

    A tunable phononic crystal based ultrasonic filter was designed by stimulating the phase of the polymeric material embedded in a periodic structure using infrared radiation. The acoustic filter can be tuned remotely using thermal stimulation induced by the infrared radiation. The filter is composed of steel cylinder scatterers arranged periodically in a background of bulk poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) polymer hydrogel. The lattice structure creates forbidden bands for certain sets of mechanical waves that cause it to behave as an ultrasonic filter. Since the bandstructure is determined by not only the arrangement of the scatterers but also the physical properties of the materials composing the scatterers and background, modulating either the arrangement or physical properties will alter the effect of the crystal on propagating mechanical waves. Here, the physical properties of the filter are varied by inducing changes in the polymer hydrogel using an electromagnetic thermal stimulus. With particular focus on the k{sub 00}-wave, the transmission of ultrasonic wave changes by as much as 20 dBm, and band widths by 22% for select bands.

  12. Tunable ultrasonic phononic crystal controlled by infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Ezekiel; Reyes, Delfino; Rojas, Miguel Mayorga; Krokhin, Arkadii; Wang, Zhiming; Neogi, Arup

    2014-10-01

    A tunable phononic crystal based ultrasonic filter was designed by stimulating the phase of the polymeric material embedded in a periodic structure using infrared radiation. The acoustic filter can be tuned remotely using thermal stimulation induced by the infrared radiation. The filter is composed of steel cylinder scatterers arranged periodically in a background of bulk poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) polymer hydrogel. The lattice structure creates forbidden bands for certain sets of mechanical waves that cause it to behave as an ultrasonic filter. Since the bandstructure is determined by not only the arrangement of the scatterers but also the physical properties of the materials composing the scatterers and background, modulating either the arrangement or physical properties will alter the effect of the crystal on propagating mechanical waves. Here, the physical properties of the filter are varied by inducing changes in the polymer hydrogel using an electromagnetic thermal stimulus. With particular focus on the k00-wave, the transmission of ultrasonic wave changes by as much as 20 dBm, and band widths by 22% for select bands.

  13. Electrical and thermal properties of polycrystalline Si thin films with phononic crystal nanopatterning for thermoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Masahiro; Kage, Yuta; Müller, David; Moser, Dominik; Paul, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Electrical and thermal properties of polycrystalline Si thin films with two-dimensional phononic patterning were investigated at room temperature. Electrical and thermal conductivities for the phononic crystal nanostructures with a variety of radii of the circular holes were measured to systematically investigate the impact of the nanopatterning. The concept of phonon-glass and electron-crystal is valid in the investigated electron and phonon transport systems with the neck size of 80 nm. The thermal conductivity is more sensitive than the electrical conductivity to the nanopatterning due to the longer mean free path of the thermal phonons than that of the charge carriers. The values of the figure of merit ZT were 0.065 and 0.035, and the enhancement factors were 2 and 4 for the p-doped and n-doped phononic crystals compared to the unpatterned thin films, respectively, when the characteristic size of the phononic crystal nanostructure is below 100 nm. The greater enhancement factor of ZT for the n-doped sample seems to result from the strong phonon scattering by heavy phosphorus atoms at the grain boundaries.

  14. Electrical and thermal properties of polycrystalline Si thin films with phononic crystal nanopatterning for thermoelectric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Masahiro; Kage, Yuta; Müller, David; Moser, Dominik; Paul, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Electrical and thermal properties of polycrystalline Si thin films with two-dimensional phononic patterning were investigated at room temperature. Electrical and thermal conductivities for the phononic crystal nanostructures with a variety of radii of the circular holes were measured to systematically investigate the impact of the nanopatterning. The concept of phonon-glass and electron-crystal is valid in the investigated electron and phonon transport systems with the neck size of 80 nm. The thermal conductivity is more sensitive than the electrical conductivity to the nanopatterning due to the longer mean free path of the thermal phonons than that of the charge carriers. The values of the figure of merit ZT were 0.065 and 0.035, and the enhancement factors were 2 and 4 for the p-doped and n-doped phononic crystals compared to the unpatterned thin films, respectively, when the characteristic size of the phononic crystal nanostructure is below 100 nm. The greater enhancement factor of ZT for the n-doped sample seems to result from the strong phonon scattering by heavy phosphorus atoms at the grain boundaries.

  15. Liquid crystal materials and structures for image processing and 3D shape acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbat, K.; Garbat, P.; Jaroszewicz, L.

    2012-03-01

    The image processing supported by liquid crystals device has been used in numerous imaging applications, including polarization imaging, digital holography and programmable imaging. Liquid crystals have been extensively studied and are massively used in display and optical processing technology. We present here the main relevant parameters of liquid crystal for image processing and 3D shape acquisition and we compare the main liquid crystal options which can be used with their respective advantages. We propose here to compare performance of several types of liquid crystal materials: nematic mixtures with high and medium optical and dielectrical anisotropies and relatively low rotational viscosities nematic materials which may operate in TN mode in mono and dual frequency addressing systems.

  16. Single particle 3D reconstruction for 2D crystal images of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Sebastian; Arheit, Marcel; Kowal, Julia; Zeng, Xiangyan; Stahlberg, Henning

    2014-03-01

    In cases where ultra-flat cryo-preparations of well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) crystals are available, electron crystallography is a powerful method for the determination of the high-resolution structures of membrane and soluble proteins. However, crystal unbending and Fourier-filtering methods in electron crystallography three-dimensional (3D) image processing are generally limited in their performance for 2D crystals that are badly ordered or non-flat. Here we present a single particle image processing approach, which is implemented as an extension of the 2D crystallographic pipeline realized in the 2dx software package, for the determination of high-resolution 3D structures of membrane proteins. The algorithm presented, addresses the low single-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 2D crystal images by exploiting neighborhood correlation between adjacent proteins in the 2D crystal. Compared with conventional single particle processing for randomly oriented particles, the computational costs are greatly reduced due to the crystal-induced limited search space, which allows a much finer search space compared to classical single particle processing. To reduce the considerable computational costs, our software features a hybrid parallelization scheme for multi-CPU clusters and computer with high-end graphic processing units (GPUs). We successfully apply the new refinement method to the structure of the potassium channel MloK1. The calculated 3D reconstruction shows more structural details and contains less noise than the map obtained by conventional Fourier-filtering based processing of the same 2D crystal images.

  17. Microscopic spin Hamiltonian approaches for 3d8 and 3d2 ions in a trigonal crystal field - perturbation theory methods versus complete diagonalization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudowicz, Czeslaw; Yeung, Yau-yuen; Yang, Zi-Yuan; Qin, Jian

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, we critically review the existing microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) approaches, namely the complete diagonalization method (CDM) and the perturbation theory method (PTM), for 3d8(3d2) ions in a trigonal (C3v, D3, D3d) symmetry crystal field (CF). A new CDM is presented and a CFA/MSH computer package based on our crystal-field analysis (CFA) package for 3dN ions is developed for numerical calculations. Our method takes into account the contribution to the SH parameters (D, g∥ and g⊥) from all 45 CF states for 3d8(3d2) ions and is based on the complete diagonalization of the Hamiltonian including the electrostatic interactions, the CF terms (in the intermediate CF scheme) and the spin-orbit coupling. The CFA/MSH package enables us to study not only the CF energy levels and wavefunctions but also the SH parameters as functions of the CF parameters (B20, B40 and B43 or alternatively Dq, v and v') for 3d8(3d2) ions in trigonal symmetry. Extensive comparative studies of other MSH approaches are carried out using the CFA/MSH package. First, we check the accuracy of the approximate PTM based on the `quasi-fourth-order' perturbation formulae developed by Petrosyan and Mirzakhanyan (PM). The present investigations indicate that the PM formulae for the g-factors (g∥ and g⊥) indeed work well, especially for the cases of small v and v' and large Dq, whereas the PM formula for the zero-field splitting (ZFS) exhibits serious shortcomings. Earlier criticism of the PM approach by Zhou et al (Zhou K W, Zhao S B, Wu P F and Xie J K 1990 Phys. Status Solidi b 162 193) is then revisited. Second, we carry out an extensive comparison of the results of the present CFA/MSH package and those of other CDMs based on the strong- and weak-CF schemes. The CF energy levels and the SH parameters for 3d2 and 3d8 ions at C3v symmetry sites in several crystals are calculated and analysed. Our investigations reveal serious inconsistencies in the CDM results of Zhou et al and Li

  18. Coherent heat transport in 2D phononic crystals with acoustic impedance mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes, A.; Anjos, V.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we have calculated the cumulative thermal conductivities of micro-phononic crystals formed by different combinations of inclusions and matrices at a sub-Kelvin temperature regime. The low-frequency phonon spectra (up to tens of GHz) were obtained by solving the generalized wave equation for inhomogeneous media with the plane wave expansion method. The thermal conductivity was calculated from Boltzmann transport theory highlighting the role of the low-frequency thermal phonons and neglecting phonon-phonon scattering. A purely coherent thermal transport regime was assumed throughout the structures. Our findings show that the cumulative thermal conductivity drops dramatically when compared with their bulk counterpart. Depending on the structural composition this reduction may be attributed to the phonon group velocity due to a flattening of the phonon dispersion relation, the extinction of phonon modes in the density of states or due to the presence of complete band gaps. According to the contrast between the inclusions and the matrices, three types of two dimensional phononic crystals were considered: carbon/epoxy, carbon/polyethylene and tungsten/silicon, which correspond respectively to a moderate, strong and very strong mismatch in the mechanical properties of these materials.

  19. Bloch wave deafness and modal conversion at a phononic crystal boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laude, Vincent; Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Benchabane, Sarah; Declercq, Nico F.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate modal conversion at the boundary between a homogeneous incident medium and a phononic crystal, with consideration of the impact of symmetry on the excitation of Bloch waves. We give a quantitative criterion for the appearance of deaf Bloch waves, which are antisymmetric with respect to a symmetry axis of the phononic crystal, in the frame of generalized Fresnel formulas for reflection and transmission at the phononic crystal boundary. This criterion is used to index Bloch waves in the complex band structure of the phononic crystal, for directions of incidence along a symmetry axis. We argue that within deaf frequency ranges transmission is multi-exponential, as it is within frequency band gaps.

  20. 3D equilibrium crystal shapes in the new light of STM and AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzel, H. P.

    2003-10-01

    A systematic study of 3D equilibrium crystal shapes (ECS) can yield important surface energetic quantities, such as step, kink, surface and step-step interaction free energies. Observations of the ECS, especially of flat facets and adjacent vicinal regions, will provide primarily relative step and surface free energies. An advanced goal is to determine absolute step free energies, kink formation and step interaction energies. Absolute values of these energies are important in governing crystal growth morphologies, high temperature phase changes and kinetic processes associated with shape changes. Furthermore, absolute step and kink energies are the key to absolute surface free energies of well defined low-index orientations. We review new experiments where sections of the ECS are monitored as a function of temperature to extract characteristic morphological parameters, yielding absolute surface energetic quantities. Attention will be paid to the question of attaining true 3D equilibrium of an ensemble of crystallites. The special role of scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopies will be stressed. New ways of overcoming the problem of the activation barrier for facet growth (or shrinkage) through the study of dislocated crystallites will be demonstrated. In the general context of 3D crystallites, the study of 2D nano-crystals, in the form of adatom or vacancy islands on extended flat surfaces, will be discussed. In particular, the connection between the temperature dependent shape of 2D islands and the absolute step and kink formation energies of the bounding steps, complementary to facet shape changes of 3D crystallites, has emerged as an important topic of recent research. Finally, high temperature phase changes, such as surface roughening and surface melting, as they have been observed by scanning electron microscopy on 3D crystallites, will be briefly reviewed.

  1. Analysis of dispersion characteristics of phononic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, D. A. Kolenov, S. A.; Grigoruk, V. I.; Movchan, N. N.

    2011-05-15

    A general theory for calculating the dispersion of bulk acoustic waves in 3D and 2D phononic crystals made of anisotropic materials is presented, which is based on the plane-wave expansion method. Two approaches to separating acoustic modes in the dispersion diagrams are proposed. The pattern of the acoustic field distribution is studied as depending on the wavevector direction for various types of modes. Degeneracy of acoustic modes in directions different from the axes of symmetry of the phononic crystal is demonstrated. Possibilities of the proposed method are illustrated by the application to 3D and 2D silicon-based phononic crystal structures.

  2. Band structure in two-dimensional fiber-air phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Pan, Ning

    2011-02-01

    A two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) composed of textile fiber and air is initially discussed in this paper, which is different from the previous PCs with rigid inclusions. The plain wave expansion method is used to calculate band structure of different PCs by altering fiber material properties and structure parameters. Numerical results show that the effect of material properties of soft fiber on band structure of phononic crystal can be ignored, while the effect of structural parameters is obvious.

  3. Acoustic scattering from phononic crystals with complex geometry.

    PubMed

    Kulpe, Jason A; Sabra, Karim G; Leamy, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    This work introduces a formalism for computing external acoustic scattering from phononic crystals (PCs) with arbitrary exterior shape using a Bloch wave expansion technique coupled with the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral (HKI). Similar to a Kirchhoff approximation, a geometrically complex PC's surface is broken into a set of facets in which the scattering from each facet is calculated as if it was a semi-infinite plane interface in the short wavelength limit. When excited by incident radiation, these facets introduce wave modes into the interior of the PC. Incorporation of these modes in the HKI, summed over all facets, then determines the externally scattered acoustic field. In particular, for frequencies in a complete bandgap (the usual operating frequency regime of many PC-based devices and the requisite operating regime of the presented theory), no need exists to solve for internal reflections from oppositely facing edges and, thus, the total scattered field can be computed without the need to consider internal multiple scattering. Several numerical examples are provided to verify the presented approach. Both harmonic and transient results are considered for spherical and bean-shaped PCs, each containing over 100 000 inclusions. This facet formalism is validated by comparison to an existing self-consistent scattering technique.

  4. Viewing zone duplication of multi-projection 3D display system using uniaxial crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Kun; Park, Soon-Gi; Moon, Seokil; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    We propose a novel multiplexing technique for increasing the viewing zone of a multi-view based multi-projection 3D display system by employing double refraction in uniaxial crystal. When linearly polarized images from projector pass through the uniaxial crystal, two possible optical paths exist according to the polarization states of image. Therefore, the optical paths of the image could be changed, and the viewing zone is shifted in a lateral direction. The polarization modulation of the image from a single projection unit enables us to generate two viewing zones at different positions. For realizing full-color images at each viewing zone, a polarization-based temporal multiplexing technique is adopted with a conventional polarization switching device of liquid crystal (LC) display. Through experiments, a prototype of a ten-view multi-projection 3D display system presenting full-colored view images is implemented by combining five laser scanning projectors, an optically clear calcite (CaCO3) crystal, and an LC polarization rotator. For each time sequence of temporal multiplexing, the luminance distribution of the proposed system is measured and analyzed.

  5. Numerical simulations - Some results for the 2- and 3-D Hubbard models and a 2-D electron phonon model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scalapino, D. J.; Sugar, R. L.; White, S. R.; Bickers, N. E.; Scalettar, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations on the half-filled three-dimensional Hubbard model clearly show the onset of Neel order. Simulations of the two-dimensional electron-phonon Holstein model show the competition between the formation of a Peierls-CDW state and a superconducting state. However, the behavior of the partly filled two-dimensional Hubbard model is more difficult to determine. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic correlations grow as T is reduced. Doping away from half-filling suppresses these correlations, and it is found that there is a weak attractive pairing interaction in the d-wave channel. However, the strength of the pair field susceptibility is weak at the temperatures and lattice sizes that have been simulated, and the nature of the low-temperature state of the nearly half-filled Hubbard model remains open.

  6. Bottom-up Fabrication of Multilayer Stacks of 3D Photonic Crystals from Titanium Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kubrin, Roman; Pasquarelli, Robert M; Waleczek, Martin; Lee, Hooi Sing; Zierold, Robert; do Rosário, Jefferson J; Dyachenko, Pavel N; Montero Moreno, Josep M; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Janssen, Rolf; Eich, Manfred; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schneider, Gerold A

    2016-04-27

    A strategy for stacking multiple ceramic 3D photonic crystals is developed. Periodically structured porous films are produced by vertical convective self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) microspheres. After infiltration of the opaline templates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania and thermal decomposition of the polystyrene matrix, a ceramic 3D photonic crystal is formed. Further layers with different sizes of pores are deposited subsequently by repetition of the process. The influence of process parameters on morphology and photonic properties of double and triple stacks is systematically studied. Prolonged contact of amorphous titania films with warm water during self-assembly of the successive templates is found to result in exaggerated roughness of the surfaces re-exposed to ALD. Random scattering on rough internal surfaces disrupts ballistic transport of incident photons into deeper layers of the multistacks. Substantially smoother interfaces are obtained by calcination of the structure after each infiltration, which converts amorphous titania into the crystalline anatase before resuming the ALD infiltration. High quality triple stacks consisting of anatase inverse opals with different pore sizes are demonstrated for the first time. The elaborated fabrication method shows promise for various applications demanding broadband dielectric reflectors or titania photonic crystals with a long mean free path of photons. PMID:27045887

  7. Bottom-up Fabrication of Multilayer Stacks of 3D Photonic Crystals from Titanium Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kubrin, Roman; Pasquarelli, Robert M; Waleczek, Martin; Lee, Hooi Sing; Zierold, Robert; do Rosário, Jefferson J; Dyachenko, Pavel N; Montero Moreno, Josep M; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Janssen, Rolf; Eich, Manfred; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schneider, Gerold A

    2016-04-27

    A strategy for stacking multiple ceramic 3D photonic crystals is developed. Periodically structured porous films are produced by vertical convective self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) microspheres. After infiltration of the opaline templates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania and thermal decomposition of the polystyrene matrix, a ceramic 3D photonic crystal is formed. Further layers with different sizes of pores are deposited subsequently by repetition of the process. The influence of process parameters on morphology and photonic properties of double and triple stacks is systematically studied. Prolonged contact of amorphous titania films with warm water during self-assembly of the successive templates is found to result in exaggerated roughness of the surfaces re-exposed to ALD. Random scattering on rough internal surfaces disrupts ballistic transport of incident photons into deeper layers of the multistacks. Substantially smoother interfaces are obtained by calcination of the structure after each infiltration, which converts amorphous titania into the crystalline anatase before resuming the ALD infiltration. High quality triple stacks consisting of anatase inverse opals with different pore sizes are demonstrated for the first time. The elaborated fabrication method shows promise for various applications demanding broadband dielectric reflectors or titania photonic crystals with a long mean free path of photons.

  8. Electron crystallography of ultrathin 3D protein crystals: atomic model with charges.

    PubMed

    Yonekura, Koji; Kato, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Mitsuo; Tomita, Masahiro; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2015-03-17

    Membrane proteins and macromolecular complexes often yield crystals too small or too thin for even the modern synchrotron X-ray beam. Electron crystallography could provide a powerful means for structure determination with such undersized crystals, as protein atoms diffract electrons four to five orders of magnitude more strongly than they do X-rays. Furthermore, as electron crystallography yields Coulomb potential maps rather than electron density maps, it could provide a unique method to visualize the charged states of amino acid residues and metals. Here we describe an attempt to develop a methodology for electron crystallography of ultrathin (only a few layers thick) 3D protein crystals and present the Coulomb potential maps at 3.4-Å and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, obtained from Ca(2+)-ATPase and catalase crystals. These maps demonstrate that it is indeed possible to build atomic models from such crystals and even to determine the charged states of amino acid residues in the Ca(2+)-binding sites of Ca(2+)-ATPase and that of the iron atom in the heme in catalase.

  9. Electron crystallography of ultrathin 3D protein crystals: Atomic model with charges

    PubMed Central

    Yonekura, Koji; Kato, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Mitsuo; Tomita, Masahiro; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins and macromolecular complexes often yield crystals too small or too thin for even the modern synchrotron X-ray beam. Electron crystallography could provide a powerful means for structure determination with such undersized crystals, as protein atoms diffract electrons four to five orders of magnitude more strongly than they do X-rays. Furthermore, as electron crystallography yields Coulomb potential maps rather than electron density maps, it could provide a unique method to visualize the charged states of amino acid residues and metals. Here we describe an attempt to develop a methodology for electron crystallography of ultrathin (only a few layers thick) 3D protein crystals and present the Coulomb potential maps at 3.4-Å and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, obtained from Ca2+-ATPase and catalase crystals. These maps demonstrate that it is indeed possible to build atomic models from such crystals and even to determine the charged states of amino acid residues in the Ca2+-binding sites of Ca2+-ATPase and that of the iron atom in the heme in catalase. PMID:25730881

  10. Reduction in the thermal conductivity of single crystalline silicon by phononic crystal patterning.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Patrick E; Reinke, Charles M; Su, Mehmet F; Olsson, Roy H; Shaner, Eric A; Leseman, Zayd C; Serrano, Justin R; Phinney, Leslie M; El-Kady, Ihab

    2011-01-12

    Phononic crystals (PnCs) are the acoustic wave equivalent of photonic crystals, where a periodic array of scattering inclusions located in a homogeneous host material causes certain frequencies to be completely reflected by the structure. In conjunction with creating a phononic band gap, anomalous dispersion accompanied by a large reduction in phonon group velocities can lead to a massive reduction in silicon thermal conductivity. We measured the cross plane thermal conductivity of a series of single crystalline silicon PnCs using time domain thermoreflectance. The measured values are over an order of magnitude lower than those obtained for bulk Si (from 148 W m(-1) K(-1) to as low as 6.8 W m(-1) K(-1)). The measured thermal conductivity is much smaller than that predicted by only accounting for boundary scattering at the interfaces of the PnC lattice, indicating that coherent phononic effects are causing an additional reduction to the cross plane thermal conductivity.

  11. Investigation of dual photonic and phononic bandgaps in two-dimensional phoxonic crystals with veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tian-Xue; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2014-02-01

    Phoxonic crystal is a promising artificial periodic material for optomechanical systems and acousto-optical devices. In this paper, two-dimensional phoxonic crystals with veins in square, triangle and honeycomb lattices are investigated. Detailed discussion is presented on the variation of the photonic and phononic bandgaps with the geometry and lattice form of the structure. The results show that simultaneous large complete photonic and phononic bandgaps can exist over a wide range of geometry parameters for the square and honeycomb lattices. These large regions offer good tolerance for the technological realization and flexibility in designing this phoxonic crystal structure.

  12. Broadband evolution of phononic-crystal-waveguide eigenstates in real- and k-spaces

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, P. H.; Nanri, K.; Matsuda, O.; Tomoda, M.; Profunser, D. M.; Veres, I. A.; Danworaphong, S.; Khelif, A.; Benchabane, S.; Laude, V.; Wright, O. B.

    2013-01-01

    Control of sound in phononic band-gap structures promises novel control and guiding mechanisms. Designs in photonic systems were quickly matched in phononics, and rows of defects in phononic crystals were shown to guide sound waves effectively. The vast majority of work in such phononic guiding has been in the frequency domain, because of the importance of the phononic dispersion relation in governing acoustic confinement in waveguides. However, frequency-domain studies miss vital information concerning the phase of the acoustic field and eigenstate coupling. Using a wide range of wavevectors k, we implement an ultrafast technique to probe the wave field evolution in straight and L-shaped phononic crystal surface-phonon waveguides in real- and k-space in two spatial dimensions, thus revealing the eigenstate-energy redistribution processes and the coupling between different frequency-degenerate eigenstates. Such use of k-t space is a first in acoustics, and should have other interesting applications such as acoustic-metamaterial characterization. PMID:24284621

  13. Phonon modes and metal-insulator transition in GaN crystals under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovsky, L. A.; Knap, W.; Chervin, J. C.; Wisniewski, P.

    1998-05-01

    Close inspection of experimental results given by Perlin and co-workers [Phys. Status Solidi B 198, 223 (1996); Phys. Rev. B 45, 83 (1992)] shows that three phenomena were observed in that work: optical-phonon shift and splitting under pressures, which can be explained in a symmetry consideration for the Γ point of hexagonal crystals; inhomogeneous broadening and shift of phonon frequencies due to strain fluctuations which are described in the present paper using Dyson's equation for the phonon Green's function; phonon hardening and decreasing of width in the metal-insulator transition in GaN under pressure of about 22 GPa. The last effect results from the interaction between electrons and optical phonons, but this interaction makes no impact on the line shape (Fano effect). We find that the phonon line shape in semiconductors with small carrier concentration is determined by strain fluctuations or imperfections. Estimates show that the electron-phonon interaction is the reason why optical phonons are not detected in typical metals.

  14. Review on Chalcogenide 3D Nano-structured Crystals: Synthesis and Growth Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) nano-structured crystals have received extensive attention for their superior properties over zero dimensional (0D), one dimensional (1D), or two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials in many areas. This review is generalized for the group of chalcogenide nanoflowers (NFs) by the synthetic techniques, such as solvothermal, wet chemical, sol-gel, surface oxidation, microwave, coating, electrochemical, and several other methods. The formation mechanism was also described for the purpose of opening up new food for thoughts to bring up new functionality of materials by tuning the morphology of crystals. The pH value or the template plays fundamental role in forming the nano-flowered structure. Moreover, the correlations between the surface area (SA), contact angle (CA), and the NFs are also discussed within the context. Here, we also discussed some patents relevant to the topic.

  15. Fabrication of 3D polymer photonic crystals for near-IR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Peng; Qiu, Liang; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J.; Prather, Dennis W.; Sharkawy, Ahmed; Kelmelis, Eric

    2008-02-01

    Photonic crystals[1, 2] have stirred enormous research interest and became a growing enterprise in the last 15 years. Generally, PhCs consist of periodic structures that possess periodicity comparable with the wavelength that the PhCs are designed to modulate. If material and periodic pattern are properly selected, PhCs can be applied to many applications based on their unique properties, including photonic band gaps (PBG)[3], self-collimation[4], super prism[5], etc. Strictly speaking, PhCs need to possess periodicity in three dimensions to maximize their advantageous capabilities. However, many current research is based on scaled two-dimensional PhCs, mainly due to the difficulty of fabrication such three-dimensional PhCs. Many approaches have been explored for the fabrication of 3D photonic crystals, including layer-by-layer surface micromachining[6], glancing angle deposition[7], 3D micro-sculpture method[8], self-assembly[9] and lithographical methods[10-12]. Among them, lithographic methods became increasingly accepted due to low costs and precise control over the photonic crystal structure. There are three mostly developed lithographical methods, namely X-ray lithography[10], holographic lithography[11] and two-photon polymerization[12]. Although significant progress has been made in developing these lithography-based technologies, these approaches still suffer from significant disadvantages. X-ray lithography relies on an expensive radiation source. Holographic lithography lacks the flexibility to create engineered defects, and multi-photon polymerization is not suitable for parallel fabrication. In our previous work, we developed a multi-layer photolithography processes[13, 14] that is based on multiple resist application and enhanced absorption upon exposure. Using a negative lift-off resist (LOR) and 254nm DUV source, we have demonstrated fabrication of 3D arbitrary structures with feature size of several microns. However, severe intermixing problem

  16. Dexterous acoustic trapping and patterning of particles assisted by phononic crystal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu; Xu, Shengjun; Feng, Junheng; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2015-04-01

    In this letter, we present experimental demonstration of multi-particles trapping and patterning by the artificially engineered acoustic field of phononic crystal plate. Polystyrene particles are precisely trapped and patterned in two dimensional arrays, for example, the square, triangular, or quasi-periodic arrays, depending on the structures of the phononic crystal plates with varying sub-wavelength holes array. Analysis shows that the enhanced acoustic radiation force, induced by the resonant transmission field highly localized near the sub-wavelength apertures, accounts for the particles self-organizing. It can be envisaged that this kind of simple design of phononic crystal plates would pave an alternative route for self-assembly of particles and may be utilized in the lab-on-a-chip devices.

  17. Dexterous acoustic trapping and patterning of particles assisted by phononic crystal plate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu Xu, Shengjun; Feng, Junheng; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2015-04-20

    In this letter, we present experimental demonstration of multi-particles trapping and patterning by the artificially engineered acoustic field of phononic crystal plate. Polystyrene particles are precisely trapped and patterned in two dimensional arrays, for example, the square, triangular, or quasi-periodic arrays, depending on the structures of the phononic crystal plates with varying sub-wavelength holes array. Analysis shows that the enhanced acoustic radiation force, induced by the resonant transmission field highly localized near the sub-wavelength apertures, accounts for the particles self-organizing. It can be envisaged that this kind of simple design of phononic crystal plates would pave an alternative route for self-assembly of particles and may be utilized in the lab-on-a-chip devices.

  18. Complete band gaps and deaf bands of triangular and honeycomb water-steel phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Fu-Li; Khelif, Abdelkrim; Moubchir, Hanane; Choujaa, Abdelkrim; Chen, Chii-Chang; Laude, Vincent

    2007-02-01

    Phononic crystals with triangular and honeycomb lattices are investigated experimentally and theoretically. They are composed of arrays of steel cylinders immersed in water. The measured transmission spectra reveal the existence of complete band gaps but also of deaf bands. Band gaps and deaf bands are identified by comparing band structure computations, obtained by a periodic-boundary finite element method, with transmission simulations, obtained using the finite difference time domain method. The appearance of flat bands and the polarization of the associated eigenmodes is also discussed. Triangular and honeycomb phononic crystals with equal cylinder diameter and smallest spacing are compared. As previously obtained with air-solid phononic crystals, it is found that the first complete band gap opens for the honeycomb lattice but not for the triangular lattice, thanks to symmetry reduction.

  19. Tunable phononic crystals based on piezoelectric composites with 1-3 connectivity.

    PubMed

    Croënne, Charles; Ponge, Marie-Fraise; Dubus, Bertrand; Granger, Christian; Haumesser, Lionel; Levassort, Franck; Vasseur, Jérôme O; Lordereau, Albert; Pham Thi, Mai; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine

    2016-06-01

    Phononic crystals made of piezoelectric composites with 1-3 connectivity are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that they present Bragg band gaps that depend on the periodic electrical boundary conditions. These structures have improved properties compared to phononic crystals composed of bulk piezoelectric elements, especially the existence of larger band gaps and the fact that they do not require severe constraints on their aspect ratios. Experimental results present an overall agreement with the theoretical predictions and clearly show that the pass bands and stop bands of the device under study are easily tunable by only changing the electrical boundary conditions applied on each piezocomposite layer.

  20. Interface nano-confined acoustic waves in polymeric surface phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Travagliati, Marco; Nardi, Damiano; Giannetti, Claudio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Banfi, Francesco; Gusev, Vitalyi; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Piazza, Vincenzo

    2015-01-12

    The impulsive acoustic dynamics of soft polymeric surface phononic crystals is investigated here in the hypersonic frequency range by near-IR time-resolved optical diffraction. The acoustic response is analysed by means of wavelet spectral methods and finite element modeling. An unprecedented class of acoustic modes propagating within the polymer surface phononic crystal and confined within 100 nm of the nano-patterned interface is revealed. The present finding opens the path to an alternative paradigm for characterizing the mechanical properties of soft polymers at interfaces and for sensing schemes exploiting polymers as embedding materials.

  1. Hybrid phononic crystals for broad-band frequency noise control by sound blocking and localization.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sungmin; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yoon Young

    2012-11-01

    A bandgap cannot be enlarged sufficiently enough to suppress a broad-band noise only with a single type of finite-length phononic crystals. Here, a hybrid phononic crystal consisting of a bi-prism and an inverted bi-prism is proposed for noise control in a broad band; a stop band is formed in a central frequency range while positive-positive and positive-negative refractions occur in lower and higher frequency ranges to concentrate acoustic energy in a central localized zone. Thereby, the remaining zone becomes little affected by the noise. Analysis and numerical simulations are given for the justification of the proposed configuration. PMID:23145703

  2. Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Wu, Tsung-Tsong

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we present a study on the existence of Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu piezoelectric surface acoustic waves in a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal (zinc oxide, ZnO, and cadmium-sulfide, CdS) using the plane wave expansion method. In the configuration of ZnO (100)/CdS(100) phononic crystal, the calculated results show that this type of surface waves has higher acoustic wave velocities, high electromechanical coupling coefficients, and larger band gap width than those of the Rayleigh surface waves and pseudosurface waves. In addition, we find that the folded modes of the Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface waves have higher coupling coefficients.

  3. Tunable phononic crystals based on piezoelectric composites with 1-3 connectivity.

    PubMed

    Croënne, Charles; Ponge, Marie-Fraise; Dubus, Bertrand; Granger, Christian; Haumesser, Lionel; Levassort, Franck; Vasseur, Jérôme O; Lordereau, Albert; Pham Thi, Mai; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine

    2016-06-01

    Phononic crystals made of piezoelectric composites with 1-3 connectivity are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that they present Bragg band gaps that depend on the periodic electrical boundary conditions. These structures have improved properties compared to phononic crystals composed of bulk piezoelectric elements, especially the existence of larger band gaps and the fact that they do not require severe constraints on their aspect ratios. Experimental results present an overall agreement with the theoretical predictions and clearly show that the pass bands and stop bands of the device under study are easily tunable by only changing the electrical boundary conditions applied on each piezocomposite layer. PMID:27369154

  4. Research on the large band gaps in multilayer radial phononic crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the band gaps (BGs) of new proposed radial phononic crystal (RPC) structure composed of multilayer sections. The band structure, transmission spectra and eigenmode displacement fields of the multilayer RPC are calculated by using finite element method (FEM). Due to the vibration coupling effects between thin circular plate and intermediate mass, the RPC structure can exhibit large BGs, which can be effectively shifted by changing the different geometry values. This study shows that multilayer RPC can unfold larger and lower BGs than traditional phononic crystals (PCs) and RPC can be composed of single material.

  5. Research on the tunability of point defect modes in a two-dimensional magneto-elastic phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chunlong; Jin, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Point defect modes in a 2D phononic crystal with giant magnetostrictive material tuned by a magnetic field and compressive stress are investigated theoretically in this study. The 3D magnetostrictive constitutive model proposed by Liu and Zheng (2005 Acta Mech. Sin. 21 278-85) is adopted to develop effective elastic, piezomagnetic, and magnetic permeability constants. The finite element method, in combination with a supercell technique, is then applied to obtain the band structures and transmission spectra of the point defect modes in a 2D phononic crystal composed of Terfenol-D rods of circular cross section embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix with a square lattice. The magnetic field not only enlarges the first band gap (FBG) but also opens up a new band gap of XY modes. New point defect modes are simultaneously trapped in the band gaps. The width of the FBG and the frequencies of the point defects of the Z mode decrease as the magnetic field increases.

  6. Photonic liquid crystal fibers tuning by four electrode system produced with 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertman, Slawomir; Bednarska, Karolina; Czapla, Aleksandra; Woliński, Tomasz R.

    2015-09-01

    Photonic liquid crystal fiber has been intensively investigated in last few years. It has been proved that guiding properties of such fibers could be tuned with an electric field. In particular efficient tuning could be obtained if multi-electrode system allowing for dynamic change of not only intensity of the electric field, but also its direction. In this work we report a simple to build four electrode system, which is based on a precisely aligned four cylindrical microelectrodes. As an electrodes we use enameled copper wire with diameter adequate to the diameter of the fiber to be tuned. To ensure uniform and parallel alignment of the wires a special micro-profiles has been designed and then produced with filament 3D printer. The possibility of the dynamic change of the electric field direction in such scalable and cost effective electrode assembly has been experimentally confirmed.

  7. Development of 3D photonic crystals using sol-gel process for high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, F.; Dieudonné, E.; Bertussi, B.; Vallé, K.; Belleville, P.; Mallejac, N.; Enoch, S.; Sanchez, C.

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) are periodic materials with a modulated refractive index on a length scale close to the light wavelength. This optical property allows the preparation of specific optical components like highly reflective mirrors. Moreover, these structured materials are known to have a high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the sub-nanosecond range compared to multi-layered dielectric mirrors. This property is obtained because only one high LIDT material (silica) is used. The second material used in the layer stack is replaced by air. In this work, we present the development of 3D PCs with narrow-sized colloidal silica particles, prepared by sol-gel process and deposited with Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Different syntheses routes have been investigated and compared regarding the optical properties of the PCs. Finally a numerical model based on an ideal opal network including defect influence is used to explain these experimental results.

  8. Fabrication of 3-D Photonic Band Gap Crystals Via Colloidal Self-Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Girija; Blank, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of photons in a Photonic Crystals, PCs, is like that of electrons in a semiconductor in that, it prohibits light propagation over a band of frequencies, called Photonic Band Gap, PBG. Photons cannot exist in these band gaps like the forbidden bands of electrons. Thus, PCs lend themselves as potential candidates for devices based on the gap phenomenon. The popular research on PCs stem from their ability to confine light with minimal losses. Large scale 3-D PCs with a PBG in the visible or near infra red region will make optical transistors and sharp bent optical fibers. Efforts are directed to use PCs for information processing and it is not long before we can have optical integrated circuits in the place of electronic ones.

  9. Formation of Bragg band gaps in anisotropic phononic crystals analyzed with the empty lattice model

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yan -Feng; Maznev, Alexei; Laude, Vincent

    2016-05-11

    Bragg band gaps of phononic crystals generally, but not always, open at Brillouin zone boundaries. The commonly accepted explanation stems from the empty lattice model: assuming a small material contrast between the constituents of the unit cell, avoided crossings in the phononic band structure appear at frequencies and wavenumbers corresponding to band intersections; for scalar waves the lowest intersections coincide with boundaries of the first Brillouin zone. However, if a phononic crystal contains elastically anisotropic materials, its overall symmetry is not dictated solely by the lattice symmetry. We construct an empty lattice model for phononic crystals made of isotropic andmore » anisotropic materials, based on their slowness curves. We find that, in the anisotropic case, avoided crossings generally do not appear at the boundaries of traditionally defined Brillouin zones. Furthermore, the Bragg "planes" which give rise to phononic band gaps, are generally not flat planes but curved surfaces. Lastly, the same is found to be the case for avoided crossings between shear (transverse) and longitudinal bands in the isotropic case.« less

  10. Polymorphism, crystal nucleation and growth in the phase-field crystal model in 2D and 3D.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gyula I; Tegze, György; Pusztai, Tamás; Tóth, Gergely; Gránásy, László

    2010-09-15

    We apply a simple dynamical density functional theory, the phase-field crystal (PFC) model of overdamped conservative dynamics, to address polymorphism, crystal nucleation, and crystal growth in the diffusion-controlled limit. We refine the phase diagram for 3D, and determine the line free energy in 2D and the height of the nucleation barrier in 2D and 3D for homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation by solving the respective Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations. We demonstrate that, in the PFC model, the body-centered cubic (bcc), the face-centered cubic (fcc), and the hexagonal close-packed structures (hcp) compete, while the simple cubic structure is unstable, and that phase preference can be tuned by changing the model parameters: close to the critical point the bcc structure is stable, while far from the critical point the fcc prevails, with an hcp stability domain in between. We note that with increasing distance from the critical point the equilibrium shapes vary from the sphere to specific faceted shapes: rhombic dodecahedron (bcc), truncated octahedron (fcc), and hexagonal prism (hcp). Solving the equation of motion of the PFC model supplied with conserved noise, solidification starts with the nucleation of an amorphous precursor phase, into which the stable crystalline phase nucleates. The growth rate is found to be time dependent and anisotropic; this anisotropy depends on the driving force. We show that due to the diffusion-controlled growth mechanism, which is especially relevant for crystal aggregation in colloidal systems, dendritic growth structures evolve in large-scale isothermal single-component PFC simulations. An oscillatory effective pair potential resembling those for model glass formers has been evaluated from structural data of the amorphous phase obtained by instantaneous quenching. Finally, we present results for eutectic solidification in a binary PFC model. PMID:21386517

  11. Phonon and crystal field excitations in geometrically frustrated rare earth titanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lummen, T. T. A.; Handayani, I. P.; Donker, M. C.; Fausti, D.; Dhalenne, G.; Berthet, P.; Revcolevschi, A.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

    2008-06-01

    The phonon and crystal field excitations in several rare earth titanate pyrochlores are investigated. Magnetic measurements on single crystals of Gd2Ti2O7 , Tb2Ti2O7 , Dy2Ti2O7 , and Ho2Ti2O7 are used for characterization, while Raman spectroscopy and terahertz time domain spectroscopy are employed to probe the excitations in the materials. The lattice excitations are found to be analogous across the compounds over the whole temperature range investigated (295-4 K). The resulting full phononic characterization of the R2Ti2O7 pyrochlore structure is then used to identify crystal field excitations observed in the materials. Several crystal field excitations have been observed in Tb2Ti2O7 in Raman spectroscopy, among which all of the previously reported excitations. The presence of additional crystal field excitations, however, suggests the presence of two inequivalent Tb3+ sites in the low-temperature structure. Furthermore, the crystal field level at approximately 13cm-1 is found to be both Raman and dipole active, indicating broken inversion symmetry in the system and thus undermining its current symmetry interpretation. In addition, evidence is found for a significant crystal field-phonon coupling in Tb2Ti2O7 . The additional crystal field information on Tb2Ti2O7 adds to the recent discussion on the low temperature symmetry of this system and may serve to improve its theoretical understanding.

  12. Band structure and transmission characteristics of complex phononic crystals by multi-level substructure scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, H. W.; Chen, B. S.

    2015-10-01

    A fast scheme based on the multi-level substructure technique is proposed for the band structure and transmission characteristics calculation of phononic crystals uniformly. The main idea is that finite element models of phononic crystals are divided into several domains by a special multi-level decomposition. For the band structure calculation, the upscaling calculation is employed to condense the internal stiffness matrix of the unit cell into the Bloch boundary. Due to the internal stiffness matrix does not change along with reduced wave vectors in an iteration process, the scheme can reduce the computational scale and improve the efficiency greatly, meanwhile it does not introduce approximation into the traditional finite element model. For the transmission characteristics calculation, the unit cell of the phononic crystal is periodic which is taken as a substructure with the same coefficient matrix. Moreover, the downscaling calculation of internal displacements can be selected flexibly. Some closely watched examples of the three-dimensional locally resonant, defect state of Lamb wave and Bragg waveguide are analyzed. Numerical results indicate that the proposed scheme is efficient and accurate, which may widely be applicable and suitable for complex phononic crystal problems, and provides a reliable numerical tool to optimize and design crystal devices.

  13. Electron-phonon interaction in quasi-1D ternary mixed crystals of polar semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yunpeng; Hou, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    The electron-optical-phonon interaction between an electron and two branches of LO-phonon modes in a quasi-one-dimensional ternary mixed crystal (TMC) of polar semiconductors is studied. The new electron-phonon interaction Hamiltonian including the unit-cell volume variation in TMCs is obtained by using the modified random element isodisplacement model and Born-Huang method. The energies of polaron are numerically calculated for several systems of III-V compounds. A group of III-nitride mixed crystals is also taken into numerical calculation in our theory. It is verified theoretically that the obvious nonlinearity of the polaronic energy and effective mass with the composition is essential and the unit-cell volume effects cannot be neglected except the very weak e-p coupling.

  14. Ultra-wide acoustic band gaps in pillar-based phononic crystal strips

    SciTech Connect

    Coffy, Etienne Lavergne, Thomas; Addouche, Mahmoud; Euphrasie, Sébastien; Vairac, Pascal; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2015-12-07

    An original approach for designing a one dimensional phononic crystal strip with an ultra-wide band gap is presented. The strip consists of periodic pillars erected on a tailored beam, enabling the generation of a band gap that is due to both Bragg scattering and local resonances. The optimized combination of both effects results in the lowering and the widening of the main band gap, ultimately leading to a gap-to-midgap ratio of 138%. The design method used to improve the band gap width is based on the flattening of phononic bands and relies on the study of the modal energy distribution within the unit cell. The computed transmission through a finite number of periods corroborates the dispersion diagram. The strong attenuation, in excess of 150 dB for only five periods, highlights the interest of such ultra-wide band gap phononic crystal strips.

  15. Dynamic response of a tunable phononic crystal under applied mechanical and magnetic loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Alireza; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic response of a tunable phononic crystal consisting of a porous hyperelastic magnetoelastic elastomer subjected to a macroscopic deformation and an external magnetic field is theoretically investigated. Finite deformations and magnetic induction influence phononic characteristics of the periodic structure through geometrical pattern transformation and material properties. A magnetoelastic energy function is proposed to develop constitutive laws considering large deformations and magnetic induction in the periodic structure. Analytical and finite element methods are utilized to compute the dispersion relation and band structure of the phononic crystal for different cases of deformation and magnetic loadings. It is demonstrated that magnetic induction not only controls the band diagram of the structure but also has a strong effect on preferential directions of wave propagation.

  16. AFC3D: A 3D graphical tool to model assimilation and fractional crystallization with and without recharge in the R environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Silvina; Carniel, Roberto; Caffe, Pablo J.

    2014-03-01

    AFC3D is an original graphical free software developed in the framework of the R scientific environment and dedicated to the modelling of assimilation and fractional crystallization without (AFC) and with (AFC-r) recharge, facilitating the search for the solutions of the equations originally proposed by DePaolo (1981, 1985) and first solved in a graphical way by Aitcheson and Forrest (1994). The software presented here allows a graphical 3D representation of ρ (mass of assimilated crust/mass of original magma) as a function of r (rate of crustal assimilation/rate of fractional crystallization) and β (recharge rate of magma replenishment / rate of assimilation) for each element/isotope, finding a coherent set of (r, β, ρ) parameter triples in a mostly automated way. Mathematically optimized solutions are derived, which can and should then be discussed and evaluated from a geological and petrological point of view by the end user. The presented contribution presents the software and a series of models published in the literature, which are discussed as case studies of application and whose solutions are sometimes enhanced based on the results provided by the software.

  17. 3D integration of photonic crystal devices: vertical coupling with a silicon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, L; Romeo, P Rojo; Letartre, X; Drouard, E; Viktorovitch, P

    2010-07-19

    Two integrated devices based on the vertical coupling between a photonic crystal microcavity and a silicon (Si) ridge waveguide are presented in this paper. When the resonator is coupled to a single waveguide, light can be spectrally extracted from the waveguide to free space through the far field emission of the resonator. When the resonator is vertically coupled to two waveguides, a vertical add-drop filter can be realized. The dropping efficiency of these devices relies on a careful design of the resonator. In this paper, we use a Fabry-Perot (FP) microcavity composed of two photonic crystal (PhC) slab mirrors. Thanks to the unique dispersion properties of slow Bloch modes (SBM) at the flat extreme of the dispersion curve, it is possible to design a FP cavity exhibiting two quasi-degenerate modes. This specific configuration allows for a coupling efficiency that can theoretically achieve 100%. Using 3D FDTD calculations, we discuss the design of such devices and show that high dropping efficiency can be achieved between the Si waveguides and the PhC microcavity.

  18. Switchable 3D liquid crystal grating generated by periodic photo-alignment on both substrates.

    PubMed

    Nys, I; Beeckman, J; Neyts, K

    2015-10-21

    A planar liquid crystal (LC) cell is developed in which two photo-alignment layers have been illuminated with respectively a horizontal and a vertical diffraction pattern of interfering left- and right-handed circularly polarized light. In the bulk of the cell, a complex LC configuration is obtained with periodicity in two dimensions. Remarkably, the period of the structure is larger than the period of the interference pattern, indicating that lowering of the symmetry allows a reduction in the elastic energy. The liquid crystal configuration depends on the periodicity of the alignment but also on the thickness of the cell. By applying a voltage over the electrodes, the power going into the different diffracted orders can be tuned. Finite element (FE) simulations based on Q-tensor theory are used to find the 3D equilibrium director distribution, which is used to simulate the near-field transmission profile based on the Jones calculus. A 2D Fourier transform is performed for both the x- and y-component of the transmitted wave to find the diffraction efficiency. PMID:26313442

  19. Mechanism of the Reduced Thermal Conductivity of Fishbone-Type Si Phononic Crystal Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, M.; Maire, J.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism of the reduced thermal conductivity of fishbone-type phononic crystal (PnC) nanostructures, in which ballistic phonon transport is dominant, was investigated with consideration of both the wave and particle nature of phonons. Phononic band diagrams were calculated for an Si nanowire and a fishbone-type PnC structure with a period of 100 nm, and a clear reduction of the group velocity of phonons, because of a zone-folding effect, was shown. Air-suspended Si nanowires and fishbone-type PnC structures were fabricated by electron beam (EB) lithography, and their thermal conductivities were measured by use of the originally developed micro time-domain thermoreflectance method. The PnC structure had a much lower thermal conductivity. We measured the thermal conductivity of a variety of PnC structures with different fin widths to investigate the mechanism of the reduced thermal conductivity observed. The result indicates that the increase of the phonon traveling distance. as a result of the fins, also results in reduced thermal conductivity.

  20. Mechanism of the Reduced Thermal Conductivity of Fishbone-Type Si Phononic Crystal Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, M.; Maire, J.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism of the reduced thermal conductivity of fishbone-type phononic crystal (PnC) nanostructures, in which ballistic phonon transport is dominant, was investigated with consideration of both the wave and particle nature of phonons. Phononic band diagrams were calculated for an Si nanowire and a fishbone-type PnC structure with a period of 100 nm, and a clear reduction of the group velocity of phonons, because of a zone-folding effect, was shown. Air-suspended Si nanowires and fishbone-type PnC structures were fabricated by electron beam (EB) lithography, and their thermal conductivities were measured by use of the originally developed micro time-domain thermoreflectance method. The PnC structure had a much lower thermal conductivity. We measured the thermal conductivity of a variety of PnC structures with different fin widths to investigate the mechanism of the reduced thermal conductivity observed. The result indicates that the increase of the phonon traveling distance. as a result of the fins, also results in reduced thermal conductivity.

  1. Observation of superconductivity induced by a point contact on 3D Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Wang, Huichao; Liu, Haiwen; Lu, Hong; Yang, Wuhao; Jia, Shuang; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Xie, X C; Wei, Jian; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals, which possess 3D linear dispersion in the electronic structure as a bulk analogue of graphene, have lately generated widespread interest in both materials science and condensed matter physics. Recently, crystalline Cd3As2 has been proposed and proved to be a 3D Dirac semimetal that can survive in the atmosphere. Here, by using point contact spectroscopy measurements, we observe exotic superconductivity around the point contact region on the surface of Cd3As2 crystals. The zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) and double conductance peaks (DCPs) symmetric around zero bias suggest p-wave-like unconventional superconductivity. Considering the topological properties of 3D Dirac semimetals, our findings may indicate that Cd3As2 crystals under certain conditions could be topological superconductors, which are predicted to support Majorana zero modes or gapless Majorana edge/surface modes in the boundary depending on the dimensionality of the material.

  2. Observation of superconductivity induced by a point contact on 3D Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Wang, Huichao; Liu, Haiwen; Lu, Hong; Yang, Wuhao; Jia, Shuang; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Xie, X. C.; Wei, Jian; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals, which possess 3D linear dispersion in the electronic structure as a bulk analogue of graphene, have lately generated widespread interest in both materials science and condensed matter physics. Recently, crystalline Cd3As2 has been proposed and proved to be a 3D Dirac semimetal that can survive in the atmosphere. Here, by using point contact spectroscopy measurements, we observe exotic superconductivity around the point contact region on the surface of Cd3As2 crystals. The zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) and double conductance peaks (DCPs) symmetric around zero bias suggest p-wave-like unconventional superconductivity. Considering the topological properties of 3D Dirac semimetals, our findings may indicate that Cd3As2 crystals under certain conditions could be topological superconductors, which are predicted to support Majorana zero modes or gapless Majorana edge/surface modes in the boundary depending on the dimensionality of the material.

  3. Electron-phonon relaxation rate in single-crystal lanthanum cuprate

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, G. L.; Eesley, G. L.; Brorson, S. D.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Dresselhaus, G.; Cassanho, A.; Jenssen, H. P.; Gabbe, D. R.

    1989-07-24

    We report the results of phonon relaxation processes obtained from picosecond transient thermoreflectance measurements of single-crystal La/sub 2/CuO/sub 4+/ital y// (/ital y//similar to/0.06). Nonequilibrium heating was found to occur on a picosecond time scale. The time scale of the nonequilibrium heating is a sensitive measurement of the modest electron-phonon interaction (/lambda//le/0.1) in the nonsuperconducting La/sub 2/CuO/sub 4+/ital y//.

  4. Two-dimensional phononic-photonic band gap optomechanical crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Hill, Jeff T; Meenehan, Seán; Chan, Jasper; Gröblacher, Simon; Painter, Oskar

    2014-04-18

    We present the fabrication and characterization of an artificial crystal structure formed from a thin film of silicon that has a full phononic band gap for microwave X-band phonons and a two-dimensional pseudo-band gap for near-infrared photons. An engineered defect in the crystal structure is used to localize optical and mechanical resonances in the band gap of the planar crystal. Two-tone optical spectroscopy is used to characterize the cavity system, showing a large coupling (g0/2π≈220  kHz) between the fundamental optical cavity resonance at ωo/2π=195  THz and colocalized mechanical resonances at frequency ωm/2π≈9.3  GHz.

  5. Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A.; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-10-01

    We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on (\\hslash ω /{k}bT) than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation.

  6. 3D dependence of the dielectric dispersion in a BaTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, V. K.; Lotonov, A. M.; Gavrilova, N. D.

    2013-08-01

    The 3D dependences ɛ'(log f, T) and tanδ(log f, T) of a perfect BaTiO3 single crystal grown by the Remeika method have been studied in the ranges f = 1-2 × 107 Hz and T = -80-130°C. These dependences characterize a transition from the paraelectric phase (121.5°C) as a near-antiferroelectric transition followed by the transition to the tetragonal phase at ˜79.5°C. According to a number of signs, the range 121.5-79.5°C corresponds to a metastable phase typical of first-order phase transitions. The unexpected result of this work has been discussed with invoking the hypothesis on the BaTiO3 structure in the paraelectric phase, according to which it consists of three antiferroelectric states oriented along the crystallographic axes. Using the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 as an example, the method of direct correct determination of the temperatures of the structural transformations from the anomaly of tanδ(log f, T) has also been demonstrated.

  7. Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-10-14

    We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on [Formula: see text] than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation. PMID:27606574

  8. Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-10-14

    We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on [Formula: see text] than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation.

  9. Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in 3D Opal-based Magnetophotonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardavi-Horvath, Martha; Makeeva, Galina S.; Golovanov, Oleg A.; Rinkevich, Anatolii B.

    2013-03-01

    Opals, a class of self-organized 3D nanostructures, are typical representatives of photonic bandgap structures. The voids inside of the opal structure of close packed SiO2 spheres can be infiltrated by a magnetic material, creating magnetically tunable magnetophotonic crystals with interesting and potentially useful properties at GHz and THz frequencies. The propagation of electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies was investigated numerically in SiO2 opal based magnetic nanostructures, using rigorous mathematical models to solve Maxwell's equations complemented by the Landau-Lifshitz equation with electrodynamic boundary conditions. The numerical approach is based on Galerkin's projection method using the decomposition algorithm on autonomous blocks with Floquet channels. The opal structure consists of SiO2 nanospheres, with inter-sphere voids infiltrated with nanoparticles of Ni-Zn ferrites. Both the opal matrix and the ferrite are assumed to be lossy. A model, taking into account the real structure of the ferrite particles in the opal's voids was developed to simulate the measured FMR lineshape of the ferrite infiltrated opal. The numerical technique shows an excellent agreement when applied to model recent experimental data on similar ferrite opals.

  10. Large complete band gap in two-dimensional phononic crystal slabs with elliptic inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongsen; Chen, Jiujiu; Han, Xu; Huang, Kan; Peng, Jianguo

    2012-04-01

    Phononic band structure with periodic elliptic inclusions for the square lattice is investigated based on the plane wave expansion method. The numerical results show the systems composed of tungsten (W) elliptic rods embedded in a silicon (Si) matrix can exhibit a larger complete band gap than the conventional circular phononic crystal (PC) slabs. The phononic band structure of the plate-mode waves and the width of the first complete band gap can be tuned by varying the ratio of the minor axis and the major axis, the orientation angle of the elliptic rods and the thickness of the PC slabs. We also study the band structure of plate-mode waves propagating in two-dimensional (2D) slabs with periodic elliptic inclusions coated on uniform substrate.

  11. Manipulating the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of graphene phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shiqian; An, Meng; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2016-07-01

    By using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, modulating the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of graphene phononic crystals (GPnCs) is investigated. It is found that the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of GPnCs follows ˜T -α behavior. The power exponents (α) can be efficiently tuned by changing the characteristic size of GPnCs. The phonon participation ratio spectra and dispersion relation reveal that the long-range phonon modes are more affected in GPnCs with larger holes (L 0). Our results suggest that constructing GPnCs is an effective method to manipulate the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of graphene, which would be beneficial for developing GPnC-based thermal management and signal processing devices.

  12. Surface and confined acoustic waves in finite size 1D solid-fluid phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hassouani, Y.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Rais, R.

    2007-12-01

    Using a Green's function method, we investigate theoretically the eigenmodes of a finite one-dimensional phononic crystal (superlattice) composed of N alternating layers of an elastic solid and an ideal fluid. If the finite superlattice is free of stress on both sides, we show that there are always N-1 modes in the allowed bands whereas there is one and only one mode corresponding to each band gap. This mode is either a surface mode in the band gap or a constant-frequency confined band-edge mode. If the finite superlattice is bounded from one side by a homogeneous fluid whereas the other surface is kept free, then an incident phonon from the fluid is perfectly reflected, however this reflection takes place with a large delay time if the frequency of the incident phonon coincides with the eigenfrequency of a surface mode

  13. Effects of ternary mixed crystal and size on optical phonons in wurtzite nitride core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Guan, J. Y.; Zhang, S. F.; Ban, S. L.; Qu, Y.

    2014-04-21

    Within the framework of dielectric continuum and Loudon's uniaxial crystal models, existence conditions dependent on components and frequencies for optical phonons in wurtzite nitride core-shell nanowires (CSNWs) are discussed to obtain dispersion relations and electrostatic potentials of optical phonons in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN CSNWs. The results show that there may be four types of optical phonons in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN CSNWs for a given ternary mixed crystal (TMC) component due to the phonon dispersion anisotropy. This property is analogous to wurtzite planar heterojunctions. Among the optical phonons, there are two types of quasi-confined optical (QCO) phonons (named, respectively, as QCO-A and QCO-B), one type of interface (IF) phonons and propagating (PR) phonons existing in certain component and frequency domains while the dispersion relations and electrostatic potentials of same type of optical phonons vary with components. Furthermore, the size effect on optical phonons in CSNWs is also discussed. The dispersion relations of IF and QCO-A are independent of the boundary location of CSNWs. Meanwhile, dispersion relations and electrostatic potentials of QCO-B and PR phonons vary obviously with size, especially, when the ratio of a core radius to a shell radius is small, and dispersion relation curves of PR phonons appear to be close to each other, whereas, this phenomenon disappears when the ratio becomes large. Based on our conclusions, one can further discuss photoelectric properties in nitride CSNWs consisting of TMCs associated with optical phonons.

  14. Effects of ternary mixed crystal and size on optical phonons in wurtzite nitride core-shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Guan, J. Y.; Zhang, S. F.; Ban, S. L.; Qu, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Within the framework of dielectric continuum and Loudon's uniaxial crystal models, existence conditions dependent on components and frequencies for optical phonons in wurtzite nitride core-shell nanowires (CSNWs) are discussed to obtain dispersion relations and electrostatic potentials of optical phonons in InxGa1-xN/GaN CSNWs. The results show that there may be four types of optical phonons in InxGa1-xN/GaN CSNWs for a given ternary mixed crystal (TMC) component due to the phonon dispersion anisotropy. This property is analogous to wurtzite planar heterojunctions. Among the optical phonons, there are two types of quasi-confined optical (QCO) phonons (named, respectively, as QCO-A and QCO-B), one type of interface (IF) phonons and propagating (PR) phonons existing in certain component and frequency domains while the dispersion relations and electrostatic potentials of same type of optical phonons vary with components. Furthermore, the size effect on optical phonons in CSNWs is also discussed. The dispersion relations of IF and QCO-A are independent of the boundary location of CSNWs. Meanwhile, dispersion relations and electrostatic potentials of QCO-B and PR phonons vary obviously with size, especially, when the ratio of a core radius to a shell radius is small, and dispersion relation curves of PR phonons appear to be close to each other, whereas, this phenomenon disappears when the ratio becomes large. Based on our conclusions, one can further discuss photoelectric properties in nitride CSNWs consisting of TMCs associated with optical phonons.

  15. Phonon dispersion in acene molecular crystals using van der Waals density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Altvater, Florian; Rangel, Tonatiuh; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    Much progress has been made of late in understanding the fundamental processes in optoelectronic materials. An ongoing challenge is the accurate inclusion of nuclear motion and to go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Especially in materials like molecular crystals, where van der Waals (vdW) forces dominate the cohesive energy and the electronic structure is very sensitive to intermolecular geometry, phonons can be an important facilitator and dissipation mechanism. Thus there is a need to assess and understand the efficacy of existing approaches for phonon dispersions in vdW-bound solids. In this work we use a vdW density functional to calculate the phonon dispersion of members of the acene family. We establish the accuracy of the method using naphthalene, obtaining excellent agreement with experimental results, and in a further step, we explore the strength of the electron-phonon coupling across the Brillouin zone. Taken all together, our calculations illustrate the potential for quantitative prediction of vibrational properties of weakly-bound organic crystals over the entire Brillouin zone from first principles.

  16. Direct fabrication of complex 3D hierarchical nanostructures by reactive ion etching of hollow sphere colloidal crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kuo; Li, Jiaqi; Van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Clays, Koen

    2016-09-21

    Direct reactive ion etching (RIE) of hollow SiO2 sphere colloidal crystals (HSCCs) is employed as a facile, low-cost method to fabricate complex three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanostructures. These multilayered structures are gradually transformed into nanostructures of increasing complexity by controlling the etching time, without complicated procedures (no mask needed). The resulting 3D topologies are unique, and cannot be obtained through traditional approaches. The formation mechanism of these structures is explained in detail by geometrical modeling during the different etching stages, through shadow effects of the higher layers. SEM images confirm the modeled morphological changes. The nanostructures obtained by our approach show very fine features as small as ∼30 nm. Our approach opens new avenues to directly obtain complex 3D nanostructures from colloidal crystals and can find applications in sensing, templating, and catalysis where fine tuning the specific surface might be critical. PMID:27545098

  17. Electrical conduction mechanisms in PbSe and PbS nano crystals 3D matrix layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbell, Matan; Hechster, Elad; Sarusi, Gabby

    2016-02-01

    A simulation study and measurements of the electrical conductance in a PbSe and PbS spherical Nano-crystal 3D matrix layer was carried out focusing on its dependences of Nano-crystal size distribution and size gradient along the layer thickness (z-direction). The study suggests a new concept of conductance enhancement by utilizing a size gradient along the layer thickness from mono-layer to the next mono-layer of the Nano-crystals, in order to create a gradient of the energy levels and thus improve directional conductance in this direction. A Monte Carlo simulation of the charge carriers path along the layer thickness of the Nano-crystals 3D matrix using the Miller-Abrahams hopping model was performed. We then compared the conductance characteristics of the gradual size 3D matrix layer to a constant-sized 3D matrix layer that was used as a reference in the simulation. The numerical calculations provided us with insights into the actual conductance mechanism of the PbSe and PbS Nano-crystals 3D matrix and explained the discrepancies in actual conductance and the variability in measured mobilities published in the literature. It is found that the mobility and thus conductance are dependent on a critical electrical field generated between two adjacent nano-crystals. Our model explains the conductance dependents on the: Cathode-Anode distance, the distance between the adjacent nano-crystals in the 3D matrix layer and the size distribution along the current direction. Part of the model (current-voltage dependence) was validated using a current-voltage measurements taken on a constant size normal distribution nano-crystals PbS layer (330nm thick) compared with the predicted I-V curves. It is shown that under a threshold bias, the current is very low, while after above a threshold bias the conductance is significantly increased due to increase of hopping probability. Once reaching the maximum probability the current tend to level-off reaching the maximal conductance

  18. Search for E(2g) phonon modes in MgB2 single crystals by point-contact spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Naidyuk, Yu G; Yanson, I K; Kvitnitskaya, O E; Lee, S; Tajima, S

    2003-05-16

    The electron-phonon interaction in magnesium diboride MgB2 single crystals is investigated by point-contact (PC) spectroscopy. For the first time the electron coupling with E(2g) phonon modes is resolved in the PC spectra. The correlation between intensity of the extremely broad E(2g) modes in the PC spectra and value of the superconducting gap is established. Our observations favor current theoretical models for electron-phonon mediated superconductivity in MgB2, and they better match the harmonic phonon model.

  19. From molecular to macroscopic via the rational design of a self-assembled 3D DNA crystal.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianping; Birktoft, Jens J; Chen, Yi; Wang, Tong; Sha, Ruojie; Constantinou, Pamela E; Ginell, Stephan L; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2009-09-01

    We live in a macroscopic three-dimensional (3D) world, but our best description of the structure of matter is at the atomic and molecular scale. Understanding the relationship between the two scales requires a bridge from the molecular world to the macroscopic world. Connecting these two domains with atomic precision is a central goal of the natural sciences, but it requires high spatial control of the 3D structure of matter. The simplest practical route to producing precisely designed 3D macroscopic objects is to form a crystalline arrangement by self-assembly, because such a periodic array has only conceptually simple requirements: a motif that has a robust 3D structure, dominant affinity interactions between parts of the motif when it self-associates, and predictable structures for these affinity interactions. Fulfilling these three criteria to produce a 3D periodic system is not easy, but should readily be achieved with well-structured branched DNA motifs tailed by sticky ends. Complementary sticky ends associate with each other preferentially and assume the well-known B-DNA structure when they do so; the helically repeating nature of DNA facilitates the construction of a periodic array. It is essential that the directions of propagation associated with the sticky ends do not share the same plane, but extend to form a 3D arrangement of matter. Here we report the crystal structure at 4 A resolution of a designed, self-assembled, 3D crystal based on the DNA tensegrity triangle. The data demonstrate clearly that it is possible to design and self-assemble a well-ordered macromolecular 3D crystalline lattice with precise control. PMID:19727196

  20. Resonance laser-plasma excitation of coherent terahertz phonons in the bulk of fluorine-bearing crystals under high-intensity femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Potemkin, F V; Mareev, E I; Khodakovskii, N G; Mikheev, P M

    2013-08-31

    The dynamics of coherent phonons in fluorine-containing crystals was investigated by pump-probe technique in the plasma production regime. Several phonon modes, whose frequencies are overtones of the 0.38-THz fundamental frequency, were simultaneously observed in a lithium fluoride crystal. Phonons with frequencies of 1 and 0.1 THz were discovered in a calcium fluoride crystal and coherent phonons with frequencies of 1 THz and 67 GHz were observed in a barium fluoride crystal. Furthermore, in the latter case the amplitudes of phonon mode oscillations were found to significantly increase 15 ps after laser irradiation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  1. Particle trapping and transport achieved via an adjustable acoustic field above a phononic crystal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Ke, M.; Qiu, C.; Liu, Z.

    2016-06-01

    We present the design for an acoustic system that can achieve particle trapping and transport using the acoustic force field above a phononic crystal plate. The phononic crystal plate comprised a thin brass plate with periodic slits alternately embedded with two kinds of elastic inclusions. Enhanced acoustic transmission and localized acoustic fields were achieved when the structure was excited by external acoustic waves. Because of the different resonant frequencies of the two elastic inclusions, the acoustic field could be controlled via the working frequency. Particles were transported between adjacent traps under the influence of the adjustable acoustic field. This device provides a new and versatile avenue for particle manipulation that would complement other means of particle manipulation.

  2. The manipulation of self-collimated beam in phononic crystals composed of orientated rectangular inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chia-Nien; Chen, Lien-Wen

    2016-07-01

    Self-collimation is wave propagation in straight path without diffraction. The performance is evaluated by bandwidth, angular collimating range and straightness of equi-frequency contours. The present study aims to manipulate the self-collimated beam in square-array phononic crystals by means of orientated rectangular inclusions. Finite element simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the aspect ratio and orientation angle of rectangular inclusions on the self-collimated beam. The simulation results show that the proposed design successfully achieves all-angle self-collimation phenomenon. In addition, it also shows that the propagation direction of a self-collimated beam can be effectively manipulated by varying the orientation angle of inclusions. Numerical simulation result of the S-shaped bend demonstrates that acoustic collimated beam can be steered with negligible diffraction. Overall, the proposed design has significant potential for the realization of applications such as collimators, acoustic waveguides and other phononic crystals-based systems.

  3. Acoustic beam splitting in two-dimensional phononic crystals using self-collimation effect

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing; Wu, Fugen Zhong, Huilin; Yao, Yuanwei; Zhang, Xin

    2015-10-14

    We propose two models of self-collimation-based beam splitters in phononic crystals. The finite element method is used to investigate the propagation properties of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals. The calculated results show that the efficiency of the beam splitter can be controlled systematically by varying the radius of the rods or by changing the orientation of the square rods in the line defect. The effect of changing the side length of the square rods on acoustic wave propagation is discussed. The results show that the total transmission/reflection range decreases/increases as the side length increases. We also find that the relationship between the orientation of the transflective point and the side length of the square rods is quasi-linear.

  4. Effects of rotated square inserts on the longitudinal vibration band gaps in thin phononic crystal plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haojiang; Liu, Rongqiang; Shi, Chuang; Guo, Hongwei; Deng, Zongquan

    2015-07-01

    Longitudinal vibration of thin phononic crystal plates with a hybrid square-like array of square inserts is investigated. The plane wave expansion method is used to calculate the vibration band structure of the plate. Numerical results show that rotated square inserts can open several vibration gaps, and the band structures are twisted because of the rotation of inserts. Filling fraction and material of the insert affect the change law of the gap width versus the rotation angles of square inserts.

  5. Focusing capability of a phononic crystal based on a hollow metallic structure.

    PubMed

    Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Croenne, Charles; Vasseur, Jerome; Haumesser, Lionel; Norris, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The dispersion curves of a phononic crystal (PC) based on a hollow metallic structure are presented. They exhibit a negative refraction dispersion branch and perfect refractive index matching with the surrounding water, leading to focusing capability. Numerical and experimental results are reported for a flat PC lens. The characteristics of the focal spot (intensity, dimensions, etc.) are numerically and experimentally investigated with the goal of finding the frequency of the optimal imaging performance. PMID:25073139

  6. Bulk crystal growth and electronic characterization of the 3D Dirac semimetal Na{sub 3}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Kushwaha, Satya K.; Krizan, Jason W.; Cava, R. J.; Feldman, Benjamin E.; Gyenis, András; Randeria, Mallika T.; Xiong, Jun; Xu, Su-Yang; Alidoust, Nasser; Belopolski, Ilya; Liang, Tian; Zahid Hasan, M.; Ong, N. P.; Yazdani, A.

    2015-04-01

    High quality hexagon plate-like Na{sub 3}Bi crystals with large (001) plane surfaces were grown from a molten Na flux. The freshly cleaved crystals were analyzed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, allowing for the characterization of the three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal (TDS) behavior and the observation of the topological surface states. Landau levels were observed, and the energy-momentum relations exhibited a linear dispersion relationship, characteristic of the 3D TDS nature of Na{sub 3}Bi. In transport measurements on Na{sub 3}Bi crystals, the linear magnetoresistance and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillations are observed for the first time.

  7. A 3D hybrid praseodymium-antimony-oxochloride compound: single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Gui-Gang; Hu, Bing; Li, Jian-Rong; Feng, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xin-Chen; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2013-11-01

    A 3D organic-inorganic hybrid compound, (2-MepyH)3[{Fe(1,10-phen)3}3][{Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(11.5)}(TDC)(4.5)({Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(9.5)} Cl)]·3(2-Mepy)·28H2O (1; 2-Mepy=2-methylpyridine, 1,10-phen=1,10-phenanthroline, H2TDC=thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid), was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Unusually, two kinds of high-nuclearity clusters, namely [(Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl11)(COO)5](5-) and [(Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl9)Cl(COO)5](4-), coexist in the structure of compound 1; two of the latter clusters are doubly bridged by two μ2-Cl(-) moieties to form a new centrosymmetric dimeric cluster. An unprecedented spontaneous and reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation was observed, which simultaneously involved a notable organic-ligand movement between the metal ions and an alteration of the bridging ion in the dimeric cluster, induced by guest-release/re-adsorption, thereby giving rise to the interconversion between compound 1 and the compound (2-MepyH)3[{Fe(1,10-phen)3}3][{Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(11.5)}(TDC)4({Pr4Sb12O18Cl(10.5)(TDC)(0.5)(H2O)(1.5)}O(0.5))]·25H2O (1'). The mechanism of this transformation has also been discussed in great detail. Photocatalytic H2-evolution activity was observed for compound 1' under UV light with Pt as a co-catalyst and MeOH as a sacrificial electron donor.

  8. A 3D hybrid praseodymium-antimony-oxochloride compound: single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Gui-Gang; Hu, Bing; Li, Jian-Rong; Feng, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xin-Chen; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2013-11-01

    A 3D organic-inorganic hybrid compound, (2-MepyH)3[{Fe(1,10-phen)3}3][{Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(11.5)}(TDC)(4.5)({Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(9.5)} Cl)]·3(2-Mepy)·28H2O (1; 2-Mepy=2-methylpyridine, 1,10-phen=1,10-phenanthroline, H2TDC=thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid), was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Unusually, two kinds of high-nuclearity clusters, namely [(Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl11)(COO)5](5-) and [(Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl9)Cl(COO)5](4-), coexist in the structure of compound 1; two of the latter clusters are doubly bridged by two μ2-Cl(-) moieties to form a new centrosymmetric dimeric cluster. An unprecedented spontaneous and reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation was observed, which simultaneously involved a notable organic-ligand movement between the metal ions and an alteration of the bridging ion in the dimeric cluster, induced by guest-release/re-adsorption, thereby giving rise to the interconversion between compound 1 and the compound (2-MepyH)3[{Fe(1,10-phen)3}3][{Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(11.5)}(TDC)4({Pr4Sb12O18Cl(10.5)(TDC)(0.5)(H2O)(1.5)}O(0.5))]·25H2O (1'). The mechanism of this transformation has also been discussed in great detail. Photocatalytic H2-evolution activity was observed for compound 1' under UV light with Pt as a co-catalyst and MeOH as a sacrificial electron donor. PMID:24114981

  9. Computation of diffuse scattering arising from one-phonon excitations in a neutron time-of-flight single-crystal Laue diffraction experiment

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Matthias J.; Graziano, Gabriella; Mukhopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Refson, Keith; von Zimmerman, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Direct phonon excitation in a neutron time-of-flight single-crystal Laue diffraction experiment has been observed in a single crystal of NaCl. At room temperature both phonon emission and excitation leave characteristic features in the diffuse scattering and these are well reproduced using ab initio phonons from density functional theory (DFT). A measurement at 20 K illustrates the effect of thermal population of the phonons, leaving the features corresponding to phonon excitation and strongly suppressing the phonon annihilation. A recipe is given to compute these effects combining DFT results with the geometry of the neutron experiment. PMID:26306090

  10. Control of elastic wave propagation in one-dimensional piezomagnetic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ponge, Marie-Fraise; Croënne, Charles; Vasseur, Jérôme O; Bou Matar, Olivier; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Dubus, Bertrand

    2016-06-01

    Two ways of controlling the acoustic waves propagation by external inductance or capacitance in a one-dimensional (1-D) piezomagnetic phononic crystal are investigated. The structure is made of identical bars, constituted of a piezomagnetic material, surrounded by a coil and connected to an external impedance. A model of propagation of longitudinal elastic waves through the periodic structure is developed and the dispersion equation is obtained. Reflection and transmission coefficients are derived from a 2 × 2 transfer matrix formalism that also allows for the calculation of elastic effective parameters (density, Young modulus, speed of sound, impedance). The effect of shunting impedances is numerically investigated. The results reveal that a connected external inductance tunes the Bragg band gaps of the 1-D phononic crystal. When the elements are connected via a capacitance, a hybridization gap, due to the resonance of the LC circuit made of the piezomagnetic element and the capacitance, coexists with the Bragg band gap. The value of the external capacitance modifies the boundaries of both gaps. Calculation of the effective characteristics of the phononic crystal leads to an analysis of the physical mechanisms involved in the wave propagation. When periodically connected to external capacitances, a homogeneous piezomagnetic stack behaves as a dispersive tunable metamaterial.

  11. Silicon-based filters, resonators and acoustic channels with phononic crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zi-Gui

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the phenomenon of phononic crystal silicon-based filters, resonators and acoustic channels structured in geometrical periodic arrays created by a single silicon material. Component structured geometrical periodic array refers to a structure of square stubbed rods arranged in repeated arrays on a silicon plate. The study discovered that the band gap of the phononic crystal structure can be modulated under different heights and rotational angles of periodically arrayed square stubbed rods. In addition to band gap modulation, we used the finite element method (FEM) and supercell techniques to analyse the resonance characteristics of defect-containing phononic crystal structures with a larger band gap size design. In addition, the paper also investigated the effects on acoustic channels. Previous studies have already analysed defect-containing resonator and channel phenomenon by the plane-wave expansion method with supercell techniques. However, the FEM can solve numerical issues of extreme difficulty to reach convergence. The results of this study elaborated on the manufacturing feasibility of silicon-based acoustic resonance and filter devices under a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor synchronization process.

  12. Extending and lowing band gaps in one-dimensional phononic crystal strip with pillars and holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chunyang; Guo, Jianwen; Liu, Yongfu

    2015-12-01

    Effectiveness of extending and lowing gaps in one-dimensional phononic crystal strips is conducted by periodically patterning pillar-type strip with holes. Finite element method is applied to the hybrid unit to calculate band structures and eigen modes. Transmission spectra and displacement fields are investigated to confirm the gap effect in the studied hybrid strips. Numerical results show that, the one-dimensional hybrid strip can open lower and wider gaps. Compared with two-dimensional phononic crystal plate, band structures of phononic crystal strip show different group velocities and frequencies in low-order bands, different eigen modes of gap edge because of boundary condition difference. The effectiveness of modulating gaps with strip width is investigated. Gap degeneration happens to adjust lower gap edge downward. Besides, hybrid structure with double-side pillar leads to more resonance bands than that with single-side pillar. Vibration mode of pure pillar type structure located in lower edge of the gap of hybrid single-side pillar-type structure, and some resonance modes in the hole-type strip are reserved in hybrid single-side pillar structure. Resonance in hybrid double-side pillar structure is introduced by vibration of the double-pillar character, to create more flat bands. Furthermore, gap sensitivity to geometrical parameters of pillars and holes is also investigated.

  13. Control of elastic wave propagation in one-dimensional piezomagnetic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ponge, Marie-Fraise; Croënne, Charles; Vasseur, Jérôme O; Bou Matar, Olivier; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Dubus, Bertrand

    2016-06-01

    Two ways of controlling the acoustic waves propagation by external inductance or capacitance in a one-dimensional (1-D) piezomagnetic phononic crystal are investigated. The structure is made of identical bars, constituted of a piezomagnetic material, surrounded by a coil and connected to an external impedance. A model of propagation of longitudinal elastic waves through the periodic structure is developed and the dispersion equation is obtained. Reflection and transmission coefficients are derived from a 2 × 2 transfer matrix formalism that also allows for the calculation of elastic effective parameters (density, Young modulus, speed of sound, impedance). The effect of shunting impedances is numerically investigated. The results reveal that a connected external inductance tunes the Bragg band gaps of the 1-D phononic crystal. When the elements are connected via a capacitance, a hybridization gap, due to the resonance of the LC circuit made of the piezomagnetic element and the capacitance, coexists with the Bragg band gap. The value of the external capacitance modifies the boundaries of both gaps. Calculation of the effective characteristics of the phononic crystal leads to an analysis of the physical mechanisms involved in the wave propagation. When periodically connected to external capacitances, a homogeneous piezomagnetic stack behaves as a dispersive tunable metamaterial. PMID:27369153

  14. Waves in periodic media: Fourier analysis shortcuts and physical insights, case of 2D phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, S.; Gazalet, J.; Kastelik, J. C.

    2014-03-01

    Phononic crystal is a structured media with periodic modulation of its physical properties that influences the propagation of elastic waves and leads to a peculiar behaviour, for instance the phononic band gap effect by which elastic waves cannot propagate in certain frequency ranges. The formulation of the problem leads to a second order partial differential equation with periodic coefficients; different methods exist to determine the structure of the eigenmodes propagating in the material, both in the real or Fourier domain. Brillouin explains the periodicity of the band structure as a direct result of the discretization of the crystal in the real domain. Extending the Brillouin vision, we introduce digital signal processing tools developed in the frame of distribution functions theory. These tools associate physical meaning to mathematical expressions and reveal the correspondence between real and Fourier domains whatever is the physical domain under consideration. We present an illustrative practical example concerning two dimensions phononic crystals and highlight the appreciable shortcuts brought by the method and the benefits for physical interpretation.

  15. Mineral crystal alignment in mineralized fracture callus determined by 3D small-angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yifei; Manjubala, Inderchand; Roschger, Paul; Schell, Hanna; Duda, Georg N.; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Callus tissue formed during bone fracture healing is a mixture of different tissue types as revealed by histological analysis. But the structural characteristics of mineral crystals within the healing callus are not well known. Since two-dimensional (2D) scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) patterns showed that the size and orientation of callus crystals vary both spatially and temporally [1] and 2D electron microscopic analysis implies an anisotropic property of the callus morphology, the mineral crystals within the callus are also expected to vary in size and orientation in 3D. Three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (3D SAXS), which combines 2D SAXS patterns collected at different angles of sample tilting, has been previously applied to investigate bone minerals in horse radius [2] and oim/oim mouse femur/tibia [3]. We implement a similar 3D SAXS method but with a different way of data analysis to gather information on the mineral alignment in fracture callus. With the proposed accurate yet fast assessment of 3D SAXS information, it was shown that the plate shaped mineral particles in the healing callus were aligned in groups with their predominant orientations occurring as a fiber texture.

  16. Nonlinear phononic crystals based on chains of disks alternating with toroidal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadoni, A.; Daraio, C.; Hurst, W.; Brown, M.

    2011-04-01

    We study experimentally the acoustic response of a load-bearing, phononic crystal composed of alternating steel disks, and polytetrafluoroethylene o-rings under precompression. The crystal allows for axial, rocking, and shear-polarized wavemodes when excited by a broad-band signal applied off-axis. Finite element analysis is employed to determine the system's wave modes. The nonlinear interaction between disks and o-rings supports a dynamic response that is tunable with variations in static precompression, leading to controllable frequency shifts in a large band gap. A modal analysis reveals that four of the six principal wave modes are susceptible to external precompression while two modes are not.

  17. Propagation of thickness-twist waves in elastic plates with periodically varying thickness and phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Chen, Weiqiu; Yang, Jiashi

    2014-09-01

    We study the propagation of thickness-twist (TT) waves in a crystal plate of AT-cut quartz with periodically varying, piecewise constant thickness. The scalar differential equation by Tiersten and Smythe is employed. The problem is found to be mathematically equivalent to the motion of an electron in a periodic potential field governed by Schrodinger's equation. An analytical solution is obtained. Numerical results show that the eigenvalue (frequency) spectrum of the waves has a band structure with allowed and forbidden bands. Therefore, for TT waves, plates with periodically varying thickness can be considered as phononic crystals. The effects of various parameters on the frequency spectrum are examined. PMID:24924785

  18. Light-spectrum modification of warm white-light-emitting diodes with 3D colloidal photonic crystals to approximate candlelight.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chun-Feng; Hsieh, Cheng-Liang; Wu, Chia-Jung

    2013-09-15

    This study presents the light-spectrum modification of warm white-light-emitting diodes (w-WLEDs) with 3D colloidal photonic crystals (3D CPhCs) to approximate candlelight. The study measures the angular-resolved transmission properties of the w-WLEDs with CPhCs, which exhibit photonic stop bands based on the CPhC photonic band structures. The w-WLEDs with 3D CPhCs produce a low correlated color temperature of 1963 K, a high color-rendering index of 85, and a luminous flux of 22.8 lm (four times that of a candle). This study presents the successful development of a novel low-cost technique to produce candlelight w-WLEDs for use as an indoor light source. PMID:24104827

  19. Twisting phonons in complex crystals with quasi-one-dimensional substructures [Twisting Phonons in Higher Manganese Silicides with a Complex Nowotny Chimney Ladder Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, Douglas L.; Ma, Jie; Yan, Jiaqiang; Delaire, Olivier A.; Chen, Xi; Weathers, Annie; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Shi, Li

    2015-04-15

    A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain the low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.

  20. Universal relationships for the phonon spectra in BCC, FCC, and HCP crystals with a short-range interatomic interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vaks, V. G. Zhuravlev, I. A.; Zabolotskii, A. D.

    2012-03-15

    The frequencies of the phonon branches that correspond to the vibrations of the close-packed atomic planes in bcc, fcc, and hcp crystals with short-range interatomic interaction are shown to be described by a universal relationship, which only contains two parameters for each branch, for any polarization {lambda}. These phonon branches correspond to the ({xi}, {xi}, 0) direction in bcc crystals, the ({xi}, {xi}, {xi}) direction in fcc crystals, and the (0, 0, {xi}) direction in hcp crystals. This universal relationship can only be violated by long-range interactions, namely, the interactions outside the sixth coordination shell in a bcc crystal, the fifth coordination shell in an fcc crystal, and the eleventh or tenth coordination shell in an hcp crystal. The effect of these long-range interactions for each phonon branch can be quantitatively characterized by certain parameters {Delta}{sub n{lambda}}, which are simply expressed in terms of the frequencies of three phonons of the branch. The values of these parameters are presented for all bcc, fcc, and hcp metals whose phonon spectra are measured. In most cases, the proposed relationships for the frequencies are found to be fulfilled accurate to several percent. In the cases where the {Delta}{sub n{lambda}} parameters are not small, they can give substantial information on the type and scale of long-range interaction effects in various metals.

  1. Phonon-mediated quantum spin simulator employing a planar ionic crystal in a Penning trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.-C. Joseph; Keith, Adam C.; Freericks, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    We derive the normal modes for a rotating Coulomb ion crystal in a Penning trap, quantize the motional degrees of freedom, and illustrate how they can be driven by a spin-dependent optical dipole force to create a quantum spin simulator on a triangular lattice with hundreds of spins. The analysis for the axial modes (oscillations perpendicular to the two-dimensional crystal plane) follow a standard normal-mode analysis, while the remaining planar modes are more complicated to analyze because they have velocity-dependent forces in the rotating frame. After quantizing the normal modes into phonons, we illustrate some of the different spin-spin interactions that can be generated by entangling the motional degrees of freedom with the spin degrees of freedom via a spin-dependent optical dipole force. In addition to the well-known power-law dependence of the spin-spin interactions when driving the axial modes blue of the phonon band, we notice certain parameter regimes in which the level of frustration between the spins can be engineered by driving the axial or planar phonon modes at different frequencies. These systems may allow for the analog simulation of quantum spin glasses with large numbers of spins.

  2. Design of quasi-one-dimensional phononic crystal cavity for efficient photoelastic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ingi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-08-01

    We propose and design a phononic crystal (PnC) cavity for efficient photoelastic modulation. A strongly confined acoustic field in the cavity enhances light-sound interaction, which results in efficient phase modulation of light. As one of the possible configurations, an acoustic cavity formed in a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) PnC was investigated. By carefully tuning geometrical parameters, we successfully designed a high-Q cavity mode for a longitudinal wave within a complete phononic band gap. The acoustic Q was calculated to be as high as 9.5 × 104. This enables efficient optical modulation by a factor of 2.5 compared with a bar-type structure without PnCs.

  3. Band gap structures in two-dimensional super porous phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Sun, Xiu-zhan; Chen, Shao-ting

    2013-02-01

    As one kind of new linear cellular alloys (LCAs), Kagome honeycombs, which are constituted by triangular and hexagonal cells, attract great attention due to the excellent performance compared to the ordinary ones. Instead of mechanical investigation, the in-plane elastic wave dispersion in Kagome structures are analyzed in this paper aiming to the multi-functional application of the materials. Firstly, the band structures in the common two-dimensional (2D) porous phononic structures (triangular or hexagonal honeycombs) are discussed. Then, based on these results, the wave dispersion in Kagome honeycombs is given. Through the component cell porosity controlling, the effects of component cells on the whole responses of the structures are investigated. The intrinsic relation between the component cell porosity and the critical porosity of Kagome honeycombs is established. These results will provide an important guidance in the band structure design of super porous phononic crystals.

  4. Nanostructured TTT(TCNQ)2 Organic Crystals as Promising Thermoelectric n-Type Materials: 3D Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanduleac, Ionel; Casian, Anatolie

    2016-03-01

    The thermoelectric properties of quasi-one-dimensional TTT(TCNQ)2 organic crystals have been investigated to assess the prospect of using this type of compound as an n-type thermoelectric material. A three-dimensional (3D) physical model was elaborated. This takes into account two of the most important interactions of conduction electrons with longitudinal acoustic phonons—scattering of the electrons' by neighboring molecular chains and scattering by impurities and defects. Electrical conductivity, thermopower, power factor, electronic thermal conductivity, and thermoelectric figure of merit in the direction along the conducting molecular chains were calculated numerically for different crystal purity. It was shown that in stoichiometric compounds the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT remains small even after an increase of crystal perfection. The thermoelectric properties may be significantly enhanced by simultaneous increases of crystal perfection and electron concentration. The latter can be achieved by additional doping with donors. For less pure crystals, the interaction with impurities dominates the weak interchain interaction and the simpler one-dimensional (1D) physical model is applicable. When the impurity scattering is reduced, the interchain interaction begins to limit carrier mobility and use of the 3D physical model is required. The optimum properties enabling prediction of ZT ˜ 1 were determined.

  5. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Ultrasound Transmission in Bubbly PDMS Phononic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, Caleb; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Sachse, Wolfgang; Stewart, Derek

    2014-03-01

    Phononic crystals are two- and three-dimensional structures with a periodic arrangement of two or more materials with different acoustic properties. Depending on the size, structure, and characteristics of the constituent materials, metamaterials with interesting acoustic properties can be formed. These crystals can be used to control the transmission of sound at selected frequencies, focus sound, or serve as waveguides. In this talk, we will focus on the transmission of ultrasonic waves through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films with entrapped air bubbles. Two different theoretical models were used to predict ultrasonic transmission through air-PDMS crystals: (1) a simple scattering model for a series of partially reflective thin films and (2) the code MULTEL, which calculates the transmission using multiple scattering theory. A fabrication process was also developed to stack layers of the crystals with unprecedented alignment. We measured the ultrasonic transmission through the films using the ultrasonic through-transmission mode in a water bath and found an excellent agreement between the measured and calculated transmission. Additionally, we used these models to predict the performance of new phononic structures by scanning a large parameter space and showed how ultrasonic transmission through PDMS layers can be engineered by varying the dimensions, separation, and arrangement of air bubbles. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  6. Pressure-Induced Oriented Attachment Growth of Large-Size Crystals for Constructing 3D Ordered Superstructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lian, Gang; Si, Haibin; Wang, Qilong; Cui, Deliang; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-26

    Oriented attachment (OA), a nonclassical crystal growth mechanism, provides a powerful bottom-up approach to obtain ordered superstructures, which also demonstrate exciting charge transmission characteristic. However, there is little work observably pronouncing the achievement of 3D OA growth of crystallites with large size (e.g., submicrometer crystals). Here, we report that SnO2 3D ordered superstructures can be synthesized by means of a self-limited assembly assisted by OA in a designed high-pressure solvothermal system. The size of primary building blocks is 200-250 nm, which is significantly larger than that in previous results (normally <10 nm). High pressure plays the key role in the formation of 3D configuration and fusion of adjacent crystals. Furthermore, this high-pressure strategy can be readily expanded to additional materials. We anticipate that the welded structures will constitute an ideal system with relevance to applications in optical responses, lithium ion battery, solar cells, and chemical sensing.

  7. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics.

    PubMed

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  8. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  9. Anisotropic lattice expansion of three-dimensional colloidal crystals and its impact on hypersonic phonon band gaps.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songtao; Zhu, Gaohua; Zhang, Jin S; Banerjee, Debasish; Bass, Jay D; Ling, Chen; Yano, Kazuhisa

    2014-05-21

    We report anisotropic expansion of self-assembled colloidal polystyrene-poly(dimethylsiloxane) crystals and its impact on the phonon band structure at hypersonic frequencies. The structural expansion was achieved by a multistep infiltration-polymerization process. Such a process expands the interplanar lattice distance 17% after 8 cycles whereas the in-plane distance remains unaffected. The variation of hypersonic phonon band structure induced by the anisotropic lattice expansion was recorded by Brillouin measurements. In the sample before expansion, a phononic band gap between 3.7 and 4.4 GHz is observed; after 17% structural expansion, the gap is shifted to a lower frequency between 3.5 and 4.0 GHz. This study offers a facile approach to control the macroscopic structure of colloidal crystals with great potential in designing tunable phononic devices.

  10. Generalized Pseudo-Unit-Cell model for long-wavelength optical phonons of multinary mixed crystals: application to A(x)B(1-x)C(y)D(1-y) type mixed crystals.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenfeng; Li, Jingzhen; Zheng, Ruisheng; Lu, Xiaowei; Chen, Hongyi

    2013-05-20

    Long-wavelength optical phonons in multinary mixed crystals are studied based on the Pseudo-Unit-Cell model. A unitary matrix method is developed to calculate the eigenfrequencies of optical phonons in multinary mixed crystals. The analytical expressions of oscillator strengths and dielectric constants of the multinary mixed crystals are obtained as a function of the phonon frequencies. The results indicate that the composition dependence of oscillator strengths shows clearly the phonon-mode behaviors of the mixed crystals. The theory and calculation method can be applied to any type of multinary mixed crystals. It is found that there is a composition independent point for the dielectric constant of quaternary mixed crystals.

  11. Low-frequency spatial wave manipulation via phononic crystals with relaxed cell symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Celli, Paolo; Gonella, Stefano

    2014-03-14

    Phononic crystals enjoy unique wave manipulation capabilities enabled by their periodic topologies. On one hand, they feature frequency-dependent directivity, which allows directional propagation of selected modes even at low frequencies. However, the stellar nature of the propagation patterns and the inability to induce single-beam focusing represent significant limitations of this functionality. On the other hand, one can realize waveguides by defecting the periodic structure of a crystal operating in bandgap mode along some desired path. Waveguides of this type are only activated in the relatively high and narrow frequency bands corresponding to total bandgaps, which limits their potential technological applications. In this work, we introduce a class of phononic crystals with relaxed cell symmetry and we exploit symmetry relaxation of a population of auxiliary microstructural elements to achieve spatial manipulation of elastic waves at very low frequencies, in the range of existence of the acoustic modes. By this approach, we achieve focusing without modifying the default static properties of the medium and by invoking mechanisms that are well suited to envision adaptive configurations for semi-active wave control.

  12. Crystal structure and phonon softening in Ca3Ir4Sn13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzone, D. G.; Gerber, S.; Gavilano, J. L.; Sibille, R.; Medarde, M.; Delley, B.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Neugebauer, M.; Regnault, L. P.; Chernyshov, D.; Piovano, A.; Fernández-Díaz, T. M.; Keller, L.; Cervellino, A.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Kenzelmann, M.

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the crystal structure and lattice excitations of the ternary intermetallic stannide Ca3Ir4Sn13 using neutron and x-ray scattering techniques. For T >T*≈38 K, the x-ray diffraction data can be satisfactorily refined using the space group P m 3 ¯n . Below T*, the crystal structure is modulated with a propagation vector of q ⃗=(1 /2 ,1 /2 ,0 ) . This may arise from a merohedral twinning in which three tetragonal domains overlap to mimic a higher symmetry, or from a doubling of the cubic unit cell. Neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy results show that the structural transition at T* is of a second-order, and that it is well described by mean-field theory. Inelastic neutron scattering data point towards a displacive structural transition at T* arising from the softening of a low-energy phonon mode with an energy gap of Δ (120 K)=1.05 meV. Using density functional theory, the soft phonon mode is identified as a "breathing" mode of the Sn12 icosahedra and is consistent with the thermal ellipsoids of the Sn2 atoms found by single-crystal diffraction data.

  13. Omnidirectional refractive devices for flexural waves based on graded phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Torrent, Daniel Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2014-12-14

    Different omnidirectional refractive devices for flexural waves in thin plates are proposed and numerically analyzed. Their realization is explained by means phononic crystal plates, where a previously developed homogenization theory is employed for the design of graded index refractive devices. These devices consist of a circular cluster of inclusions with a properly designed gradient in their radius. With this approach, the Luneburg and Maxwell lenses and a family of beam splitters for flexural waves are proposed and analyzed. Results show that these devices work properly in a broadband frequency region, being therefore an efficient approach for the design of refractive devices specially interesting for nano-scale applications.

  14. Planar modes free piezoelectric resonators using a phononic crystal with holes.

    PubMed

    Aragón, J L; Quintero-Torres, R; Domínguez-Juárez, J L; Iglesias, E; Ronda, S; Montero de Espinosa, F

    2016-09-01

    By using the principles behind phononic crystals, a periodic array of circular holes made along the polarization thickness direction of piezoceramic resonators are used to stop the planar resonances around the thickness mode band. In this way, a piezoceramic resonator adequate for operation in the thickness mode with an in phase vibration surface is obtained, independently of its lateral shape. Laser vibrometry, electric impedance tests and finite element models are used to corroborate the performances of different resonators made with this procedure. This method can be useful in power ultrasonic devices, physiotherapy and other external medical power ultrasound applications where piston-like vibration in a narrow band is required.

  15. Planar modes free piezoelectric resonators using a phononic crystal with holes.

    PubMed

    Aragón, J L; Quintero-Torres, R; Domínguez-Juárez, J L; Iglesias, E; Ronda, S; Montero de Espinosa, F

    2016-09-01

    By using the principles behind phononic crystals, a periodic array of circular holes made along the polarization thickness direction of piezoceramic resonators are used to stop the planar resonances around the thickness mode band. In this way, a piezoceramic resonator adequate for operation in the thickness mode with an in phase vibration surface is obtained, independently of its lateral shape. Laser vibrometry, electric impedance tests and finite element models are used to corroborate the performances of different resonators made with this procedure. This method can be useful in power ultrasonic devices, physiotherapy and other external medical power ultrasound applications where piston-like vibration in a narrow band is required. PMID:27387418

  16. Direct growth of single-crystal Pt nanowires on Sn@CNT Nanocable: 3D electrodes for highly active electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuhui; Zhang, Gaixia; Geng, Dongsheng; Chen, Yougui; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Li, Ruying; Cai, Mei; Sun, Xueliang

    2010-01-18

    A newly designed and fabricated novel three dimensional (3D) nanocomposite composed of single-crystal Pt nanowires (PtNW) and a coaxial nanocable support consisting of a tin nanowire and a carbon nanotube (Sn@CNT) is reported. This nanocomposite is fabricated by the synthesis of Sn@CNT nanocables by means of a thermal evaporation method, followed by the direct growth with PtNWs through a facile aqueous solution approach at room temperature. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the PtNW--Sn@CNT 3D electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic performance in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), methanol oxidation (MOR) for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), and CO tolerance compared with commercial ETEK Pt/C catalyst made of Pt nanoparticles. PMID:20024993

  17. Modeling induction heating and 3-D heat transfer for growth of rectangular crystals using FIDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, L. J.; Martin, R. W.

    1988-09-01

    We are developing a process to grow large rectangular crystals for use as solid state lasers by a Bridgman-like method. The process is based on induction heating of two graphite susceptors which transfer energy to an ampoule containing the melt and crystal. The induction heating version of FIDAP developed by Gresho and Derby is applied to this system to determine the power deposition profile in electrically conducting regions. The calculated power is subsequently used as a source term in the heat equation to calculate the temperature profile. Results are presented which examine the sensitivity of the system to electrical and thermal conductivities, and design modifications are illustrated which could improve the temperature field for crystal growth applications.

  18. Beam paths of flexural Lamb waves at high frequency in the first band within phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Boyko, O.; Bonello, B.

    2014-12-15

    This work deals with an analytical and numerical study of the focusing of the lowest order anti-symmetric Lamb wave in gradient index phononic crystals. Computing the ray trajectories of the elastic beam allowed us to analyze the lateral dimensions and shape of the focus, either in the inner or behind the phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses, for frequencies within a broad range in the first band. We analyzed and discussed the focusing behaviors inside the acoustic lenses where the focalization at sub-wavelength scale was achieved. The focalization behind the gradient index phononic crystal is shown to be efficient as well: we report on FMHM = 0.63λ at 11MHz.

  19. Image forces on 3d dislocation structures in crystals of finite volume

    SciTech Connect

    El-Azab, A.

    1999-07-01

    The present work aims at studying the image stress and image Peach-Koehler force fields for three-dimensional dislocation configurations in a single crystal of finite volume. It is shown that the image stress field is significant within the entire crystal volume, and that the image Peach-Koehler force can be of the same order of magnitude as the direct interaction force calculated from the infinite domain solution. The results demonstrate that image stress gives rise to long-range interaction forces that are important in meso-scale dynamics of dislocation structures.

  20. Image Forces on 3-D Dislocation Structures in Crystals of Finite Volume

    SciTech Connect

    El-Azab, Anter ); V.V. Bulatov

    1999-01-01

    The present work aims at studying the image stress and image Peach-Koehler force fields for three-dimensional dislocation configurations in a single crystal of finite volume. It is shown that the image stress field is significant within the entire crystal volume, and that the image Peach-Koehler force can be of the same order of magnitude as the direct interaction force calculated from the infinite domain solution. The results demonstrate that image stress gives rise to long-range interaction forces that are important in meso-scale dynamics of dislocation structures.

  1. Ultralow frequency acoustic bandgap and vibration energy recovery in tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Yu, Lie; Hou, Hong

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates ultralow frequency acoustic properties and energy recovery of tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal (TFBPC) and its complementary structure. The dispersion curve relationships, transmission spectra and displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied with FEA in detail. Compared with the traditional three layer phononic crystal (PC) structure, this structure proposed in this paper not only unfold bandgaps (BGs) in lower frequency range (below 300 Hz), but also has lighter weight because of beam structural cracks. We analyze the relevant physical mechanism behind this phenomenon, and discuss the effects of the tetragonal folding beam geometric parameters on band structure maps. FEM proves that the multi-cell structures with different arrangements have different acoustic BGs when compared with single cell structure. Harmonic frequency response and piezoelectric properties of TFBPC are specifically analyzed. The results confirm that this structure does have the recovery ability for low frequency vibration energy in environment. These conclusions in this paper could be indispensable to PC practical applications such as BG tuning and could be applied in portable devices, wireless sensor, micro-electro mechanical systems which can recycle energy from vibration environment as its own energy supply.

  2. Phononic crystal surface mode coupling and its use in acoustic Doppler velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Kaya, Olgun Adem; Ulug, Bulent

    2016-02-01

    It is numerically shown that surface modes of two-dimensional phononic crystals, which are Bloch modes bound to the interface between the phononic crystal and the surrounding host, can couple back and forth between the surfaces in a length scale determined by the separation of two surfaces and frequency. Supercell band structure computations through the finite-element method reveal that the surface band of an isolated surface splits into two bands which support either symmetric or antisymmetric hybrid modes. When the surface separation is 3.5 times the lattice constant, a coupling length varying between 30 and 48 periods can be obtained which first increases linearly with frequency and, then, decreases rapidly. In the linear regime, variation of coupling length can be used as a means of measuring speeds of objects on the order of 0.1m/s by incorporating the Doppler shift. Speed sensitivity can be improved by increasing surface separation at the cost of larger device sizes.

  3. Multilayer-split-tube resonators with low-frequency band gaps in phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong; Gao, Nansha

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, low-frequency band gaps in two-dimensional Helmholtz resonant phononic crystals (PCs) composed of multilayer-split-tube resonators are investigated. The band structures, transmission spectra, and pressure field of the acoustic modes of these PCs are calculated by using a finite element method (FEM). The numerical results show that the first band gap of the structure is from 88 to 140 Hz. The transmission spectra are in accordance with those of the dispersion relation calculations. The acoustic modes of the bands are analyzed to reveal the nature of this phenomenon. It is found that the interaction between the local resonance and the traveling wave modes in proposed structure is responsible for the formation of the first band gap. The influences of the structural parameters on the band gaps are investigated by using FEM and the electrical circuit analogy. Numerical results show that the band gaps can be modulated in an even wider frequency range by changing the structural parameters, such as the rotation angle, the number of tubes, and the radius of the outer tube. The structural design results provide an effective way for phononic crystals to obtain the low-frequency band gaps, which have potential application in the low-frequency noise reduction.

  4. Experimental studies of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles doped silica matrix 3D magneto-photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Diwan, E.; Royer, F.; Kekesi, R.; Jamon, D.; Blanc-Mignon, M. F.; Neveu, S.; Rousseau, J. J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present the synthesis and the optical properties of 3D magneto-photonic structures. The elaboration process consists in firstly preparing then infiltrating polystyrene direct opals with a homogeneous solution of sol-gel silica precursors doped by cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, and finally dissolving the polystyrene spheres. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the prepared samples clearly evidence a periodic arrangement. Using a home-made polarimetric optical bench, the transmittance as a function of the wavelength, the Faraday rotation as a function of the applied magnetic field, and the Faraday ellipticity as a function of the wavelength and as a function of the applied magnetic field were measured. The existence of deep photonic band gaps (PBG), the unambiguous magnetic character of the samples and the qualitative modification of the Faraday ellipticity in the area of the PBG are evidenced.

  5. Ultra-directional source of longitudinal acoustic waves based on a two-dimensional solid/solid phononic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Morvan, B.; Tinel, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.; Swinteck, N.; Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-07

    Phononic crystals (PC) can be used to control the dispersion properties of acoustic waves, which are essential to direct their propagation. We use a PC-based two-dimensional solid/solid composite to demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the spatial filtering of a monochromatic non-directional wave source and its emission in a surrounding water medium as an ultra-directional beam with narrow angular distribution. The phenomenon relies on square-shaped equifrequency contours (EFC) enabling self-collimation of acoustic waves within the phononic crystal. Additionally, the angular width of collimated beams is controlled via the EFC size-shrinking when increasing frequency.

  6. A layer-multiple-scattering method for phononic crystals and heterostructures of such

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainidou, R.; Stefanou, N.; Psarobas, I. E.; Modinos, A.

    2005-03-01

    We present a computer program to calculate the frequency band structure of an infinite phononic crystal, and the transmission, reflection and absorption of elastic waves by a slab of this crystal. The crystal consists of a stack of identical slices parallel to a given surface; the slice may consist of multilayers of non-overlapping spheres of given periodicity parallel to the surface and homogeneous plates. The elastic coefficients of the various components of the crystal may be complex functions of the frequency. Program summaryTitle of program: MULTEL Catalogue identifier:ADUT Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUT Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Pentium 4 PC, HP J-5600 Installation: University of Athens, Section of Solid State Physics Operating systems: MS Windows, LINUX, HP-UX Programming language used: FORTRAN 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 0.9M words Number of bits in a word: 32 Number of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No Distribution format:tar.gz. Number of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8676 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 61 459 Nature of physical problem: Calculation of the complex band structure associated with a given surface of a phononic crystal, and of the transmission, reflection and absorption coefficients of elastic waves by a slab of the crystal parallel to the given surface. We note that the ordinary frequency band structure of the infinite crystal is contained within the complex band structure of any surface of the crystal. Method of solution: Solution of the equations of elasticity using multiple-scattering techniques. Restrictions on the complexity of the program: The structures that can be considered consist of parallel planes of non-overlapping spheres of given two-dimensional periodicity and uniform plates. Typical running time: For the

  7. A generalized crystal-cutting method for modeling arbitrarily oriented crystals in 3D periodic simulation cells with applications to crystal-crystal interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Mathew, Nithin; Jiang, Shan; Sewell, Thomas D.

    2016-10-01

    A Generalized Crystal-Cutting Method (GCCM) is developed that automates construction of three-dimensionally periodic simulation cells containing arbitrarily oriented single crystals and thin films, two-dimensionally (2D) infinite crystal-crystal homophase and heterophase interfaces, and nanostructures with intrinsic N-fold interfaces. The GCCM is based on a simple mathematical formalism that facilitates easy definition of constraints on cut crystal geometries. The method preserves the translational symmetry of all Bravais lattices and thus can be applied to any crystal described by such a lattice including complicated, low-symmetry molecular crystals. Implementations are presented with carefully articulated combinations of loop searches and constraints that drastically reduce computational complexity compared to simple loop searches. Orthorhombic representations of monoclinic and triclinic crystals found using the GCCM overcome some limitations in standard distributions of popular molecular dynamics software packages. Stability of grain boundaries in β-HMX was investigated using molecular dynamics and molecular statics simulations with 2D infinite crystal-crystal homophase interfaces created using the GCCM. The order of stabilities for the four grain boundaries studied is predicted to correlate with the relative prominence of particular crystal faces in lab-grown β-HMX crystals. We demonstrate how nanostructures can be constructed through simple constraints applied in the GCCM framework. Example GCCM constructions are shown that are relevant to some current problems in materials science, including shock sensitivity of explosives, layered electronic devices, and pharmaceuticals.

  8. The dominant role of chalcogen bonding in the crystal packing of 2D/3D aromatics.

    PubMed

    Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Přáda, Adam; Padělková, Zdeňka; Pecina, Adam; Macháček, Jan; Lepšík, Martin; Holub, Josef; Růžička, Aleš; Hnyk, Drahomír; Hobza, Pavel

    2014-09-15

    The chalcogen bond is a nonclassical σ-hole-based noncovalent interaction with emerging applications in medicinal chemistry and material science. It is found in organic compounds, including 2D aromatics, but has so far never been observed in 3D aromatic inorganic boron hydrides. Thiaboranes, harboring a sulfur heteroatom in the icosahedral cage, are candidates for the formation of chalcogen bonds. The phenyl-substituted thiaborane, synthesized and crystalized in this study, forms sulfur⋅⋅⋅π type chalcogen bonds. Quantum chemical analysis revealed that these interactions are considerably stronger than both in their organic counterparts and in the known halogen bond. The reason is the existence of a highly positive σ-hole on the positively charged sulfur atom. This discovery expands the possibilities of applying substituted boron clusters in crystal engineering and drug design.

  9. Dehydration induced 2D-to-3D crystal-to-crystal network re-assembly and ferromagnetism tuning within two chiral copper(II)-tartrate coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Hsiang; Lee, Szu-Hsuan; Chiang, Jung-Chun; Chen, Po-Chen; Chien, Po-Hsiu; Yang, Chen-I

    2013-12-28

    The synthesis of two homochiral l-tartrate-copper(II) coordination polymers, [Cu2(C4H4O6)2(H2O)2·xH2O]n (1), and [Cu(C4H4O6)]n (2), under hydrothermal conditions, is reported. Compound 1 adopts a 2D layered network structure with a space group of P21, while compound 2 features a 3D network structure with a space group P21212. Interestingly, the 2D layered structure of compound 1 can undergo a crystal-to-crystal network reassembly, with the formation of the 3D network structure of compound 2 under dehydration conditions. Variable temperature and field magnetic studies reveal the existence of a distinct ferromagnetic interaction between Cu(2+) ions as the result of distinct syn-anti carboxylate bridging coordination modes.

  10. A 3D MOF showing unprecedented solvent-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and excellent CO2 adsorption selectivity at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tao; Gong, Jun; Ma, Junhan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yonghua; Xu, Yan; Shen, Xuan; Zhu, Dunru

    2014-12-28

    A water stable porous 3D metal-organic framework, [Cu3L2(μ3-OH)2(μ2-H2O)]·2DMA (1, mother crystal, H2L = 2,2'-dinitrobiphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide), shows unprecedented irreversible solvent-induced substitutions of bridging aqua ligands and guest-exchanges in single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations at room temperature (RT), producing quantitatively three daughter crystals, [Cu3L2(μ3-OH)2]·2S (2: 2A, S = acetone; 2B, S = 2-propanol; 2C, S = 2-butanol), which exhibit reversible interconversion by guest-exchanges at RT in SCSC transformations. MOF 1 shows excellent separation selectivity (128) of CO2/N2 at RT and is a better sorbent of micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) than currently known benchmark ZIF-8.

  11. Hierarchical self-assembly of hexagonal single-crystal nanosheets into 3D layered superlattices with high conductivity.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yulun; Shen, Yuhua; Yang, Liangbao; Han, Bin; Huang, Fangzhi; Li, Shikuo; Chu, Zhuwang; Xie, Anjian

    2012-06-21

    While the number of man-made nano superstructures realized by self-assembly is growing in recent years, assemblies of conductive polymer nanocrystals, especially for superlattices, are still a significant challenge, not only because of the simplicity of the shape of the nanocrystal building blocks and their interactions, but also because of the poor control over these parameters in the fabrication of more elaborate nanocrystals. Here, we firstly report a facile and general route to a new generation of 3D layered superlattices of polyaniline doped with CSA (PANI-CSA) and show how PANI crystallize and self-assemble, in a suitable single solution environment. In cyclohexane, 1D amorphous nanofibers transformed to 1D nanorods as building blocks, and then to 2D single-crystal nanosheets with a hexagonal phase, and lastly to 3D ordered layered superlattices with the narrowest polydispersity value (M(w)/M(n) = 1.47). Remarkably, all the instructions for the hierarchical self-assembly are encoded in the layered shape in other non-polar solvents (hexane, octane) and their conductivity in the π-π stacking direction is improved to about 50 S cm(-1), which is even higher than that of the highest previously reported value (16 S cm(-1)). The method used in this study is greatly expected to be readily scalable to produce superlattices of conductive polymers with high quality and low cost. PMID:22609947

  12. Hierarchical self-assembly of hexagonal single-crystal nanosheets into 3D layered superlattices with high conductivity.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yulun; Shen, Yuhua; Yang, Liangbao; Han, Bin; Huang, Fangzhi; Li, Shikuo; Chu, Zhuwang; Xie, Anjian

    2012-06-21

    While the number of man-made nano superstructures realized by self-assembly is growing in recent years, assemblies of conductive polymer nanocrystals, especially for superlattices, are still a significant challenge, not only because of the simplicity of the shape of the nanocrystal building blocks and their interactions, but also because of the poor control over these parameters in the fabrication of more elaborate nanocrystals. Here, we firstly report a facile and general route to a new generation of 3D layered superlattices of polyaniline doped with CSA (PANI-CSA) and show how PANI crystallize and self-assemble, in a suitable single solution environment. In cyclohexane, 1D amorphous nanofibers transformed to 1D nanorods as building blocks, and then to 2D single-crystal nanosheets with a hexagonal phase, and lastly to 3D ordered layered superlattices with the narrowest polydispersity value (M(w)/M(n) = 1.47). Remarkably, all the instructions for the hierarchical self-assembly are encoded in the layered shape in other non-polar solvents (hexane, octane) and their conductivity in the π-π stacking direction is improved to about 50 S cm(-1), which is even higher than that of the highest previously reported value (16 S cm(-1)). The method used in this study is greatly expected to be readily scalable to produce superlattices of conductive polymers with high quality and low cost.

  13. Clusters, molecular layers, and 3D crystals of water on Ni(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Thürmer, Konrad; Nie, Shu; Bartelt, Norman C.; Feibelman, Peter J.

    2014-11-14

    We examined the growth and stability of ice layers on Ni(111) up to ∼7 molecular layers (ML) thick using scanning tunneling microscopy. At low coverage, films were comprised of ∼1 nm wide two-dimensional (2D) clusters. Only above ∼0.5 ML did patches of continuous 2D layers emerge, coexisting with the clusters until the first ML was complete. The structure of the continuous layer is clearly different from that of the 2D clusters. Subsequently, a second molecular layer grew on top of the first. 3D crystallites started to form only after this 2nd ML was complete. 2D clusters re-appeared when thicker films were partially evaporated, implying that these clusters represent the equilibrium configuration at low coverage. Binding energies and image simulations computed with density functional theory suggest that the 2D clusters are partially dissociated and surrounded by H adatoms. The complete 2D layer contains only intact water molecules because of the lack of favorable binding sites for H atoms. We propose molecular structures for the 2D layer that are composed of the same pentagon-heptagon binding motif and water density observed on Pt(111). The similarity of the water structures on Pt and Ni suggests a general prescription for generating low-energy configurations on close-packed metal substrates.

  14. Crystal structure of human glyoxalase I--evidence for gene duplication and 3D domain swapping.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, A D; Olin, B; Ridderström, M; Mannervik, B; Jones, T A

    1997-01-01

    The zinc metalloenzyme glyoxalase I catalyses the glutathione-dependent inactivation of toxic methylglyoxal. The structure of the dimeric human enzyme in complex with S-benzyl-glutathione has been determined by multiple isomorphous replacement (MIR) and refined at 2.2 A resolution. Each monomer consists of two domains. Despite only low sequence homology between them, these domains are structurally equivalent and appear to have arisen by a gene duplication. On the other hand, there is no structural homology to the 'glutathione binding domain' found in other glutathione-linked proteins. 3D domain swapping of the N- and C-terminal domains has resulted in the active site being situated in the dimer interface, with the inhibitor and essential zinc ion interacting with side chains from both subunits. Two structurally equivalent residues from each domain contribute to a square pyramidal coordination of the zinc ion, rarely seen in zinc enzymes. Comparison of glyoxalase I with other known structures shows the enzyme to belong to a new structural family which includes the Fe2+-dependent dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase and the bleomycin resistance protein. This structural family appears to allow members to form with or without domain swapping. PMID:9218781

  15. Slow to superluminal light waves in thin 3D photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Galisteo-López, J F; Galli, M; Balestreri, A; Patrini, M; Andreani, L C; López, C

    2007-11-12

    Phase measurements on self-assembled three-dimensional photonic crystals show that the group velocity of light can flip from small positive (slow) to negative (superluminal) values in samples of a few mum size. This phenomenon takes place in a narrow spectral range around the second-order stop band and follows from coupling to weakly dispersive photonic bands associated with multiple Bragg diffraction. The observations are well accounted for by theoretical calculations of the phase delay and of photonic states in the finite-sized systems.

  16. Fabrication of fully undercut ZnO-based photonic crystal membranes with 3D optical confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Sandro Phil; Albert, Maximilian; Meier, Cedrik

    2016-09-01

    For studying nonlinear photonics, a highly controllable emission of photons with specific properties is essential. Two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhCs) have proven to be an excellent candidate for manipulating photon emission due to resonator-based effects. Additionally, zinc oxide (ZnO) has high susceptibility coefficients and therefore shows pronounced nonlinear effects. However, in order to fabricate such a cavity, a fully undercut ZnO membrane is required, which is a challenging problem due to poor selectivity of the known etching chemistry for typical substrates such as sapphire or ZnO. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate and characterize fully undercut photonic crystal membranes based on a thin ZnO film sandwiched between two layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on silicon substrates, from the initial growth of the heterostructure throughout the entire fabrication process. This process leads to a fully undercut ZnO-based membrane with adjustable optical confinement in all three dimensions. Finally, photonic resonances within the tailored photonic band gap are achieved due to optimized PhC-design (in-plane) and total internal reflection in the z-direction. The presented approach enables a variety of photon based resonator structures in the UV regime for studying nonlinear effects, including photon-exciton coupling and all-optical switching.

  17. Inverted Yablonovite-like 3D photonic crystals fabricated by laser nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, Ivan I.; Samusev, Kirill B.; Rybin, Mikhail V.; Limonov, Mikhail F.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Gaidukeviciute, Arune; Kiyan, Roman V.; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2012-06-01

    We report on the fabrication of inverted Yablonovite-like three-dimensional photonic crystals by nonlinear optical nanolithography based on two-photon polymerization of a zirconium propoxide hybrid organic-inorganic material with Irgacure 369 as photo-initiator. Advantage of this material is ultra-low shrinkage that guaranty high fabrication fidelity. Images of the fabricated structure are obtained with a scanning electron microscope. The photonic crystal consists of three sets of nearly cylindrical structural elements directed along the three lattice vectors of the fcc lattice and cross each other at certain angles to produce inverted Yablonovite geometry. To investigate photonic properties of the inverted Yablonovite structures, we calculate the photonic band structure for ten lowest-frequency electromagnetic modes. In contrast to the direct Yablonovite structure that has a complete photonic band gap between the second and third bands, we find no complete photonic band gaps in the inverted Yablonovite lattice. This situation is opposite to the case of fcc lattice of close-packed dielectric spheres in air that has a complete photonic band gap only for the inverted geometry.

  18. Phonon-electron coupling and tunneling effect on charge transport in organic semi-conductor crystals of Cn-BTBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yecheng; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2016-09-01

    Cn-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]-benzothiophene (BTBT) crystals show very high hole mobilities in experiments. These high mobilities are beyond existing theory prediction. Here, we employed different quantum chemistry methods to investigate charge transfer in Cn-BTBT crystals and tried to find out the reasons for the underestimation in the theory. It was found that the hopping rate estimated by the Fermi Golden Rule is higher than that of the Marcus theory due to the high temperature approximation and failure at the classic limit. More importantly, molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the phonon induced fluctuation of electronic transfer integral is much larger than the average of the electronic transfer integral itself. Mobilities become higher if simulations implement the phonon-electron coupling. This conclusion indicates that the phonon-electron coupling promotes charge transfer in organic semi-conductors at room temperature.

  19. Phonon-electron coupling and tunneling effect on charge transport in organic semi-conductor crystals of Cn-BTBT.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yecheng; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2016-09-14

    Cn-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]-benzothiophene (BTBT) crystals show very high hole mobilities in experiments. These high mobilities are beyond existing theory prediction. Here, we employed different quantum chemistry methods to investigate charge transfer in Cn-BTBT crystals and tried to find out the reasons for the underestimation in the theory. It was found that the hopping rate estimated by the Fermi Golden Rule is higher than that of the Marcus theory due to the high temperature approximation and failure at the classic limit. More importantly, molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the phonon induced fluctuation of electronic transfer integral is much larger than the average of the electronic transfer integral itself. Mobilities become higher if simulations implement the phonon-electron coupling. This conclusion indicates that the phonon-electron coupling promotes charge transfer in organic semi-conductors at room temperature. PMID:27634252

  20. The properties of optimal two-dimensional phononic crystals with different material contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zong-Fa; Wu, Bin; He, Cun-Fu

    2016-09-01

    By modifying the spatial distribution of constituent material phases, phononic crystals (PnCs) can be designed to exhibit band gaps within which sound and vibration cannot propagate. In this paper, the developed topology optimization method (TOM), based on genetic algorithms (GAs) and the finite element method (FEM), is proposed to design two-dimensional (2D) solid PnC structures composed of two contrasting elastic materials. The PnCs have the lowest order band gap that is the third band gap for the coupled mode, the first band gap for the shear mode or the XY 34 Z band gap for the mixed mode. Moreover, the effects of the ratios of contrasting material properties on the optimal layout of unit cells and the corresponding phononic band gaps (PBGs) are investigated. The results indicate that the topology of the optimal PnCs and corresponding band gaps varies with the change of material contrasts. The law can be used for the rapid design of desired PnC structures.

  1. Heat transport and phonon localization in mass-disordered harmonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Kundu, Anupam; Roy, Dibyendu; Dhar, Abhishek; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Spohn, Herbert

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the steady-state heat current in two- and three-dimensional disordered harmonic crystals in a slab geometry connected at the boundaries to stochastic white-noise heat baths at different temperatures. The disorder causes short-wavelength phonon modes to be localized so the heat current in this system is carried by the extended phonon modes which can be either diffusive or ballistic. Using ideas both from localization theory and from kinetic theory we estimate the contribution of various modes to the heat current and from this we obtain the asymptotic system size dependence of the current. These estimates are compared with results obtained from a numerical evaluation of an exact formula for the current, given in terms of a frequency-transmission function, as well as from direct nonequilibrium simulations. These yield a strong dependence of the heat flux on boundary conditions. Our analytical arguments show that for realistic boundary conditions the conductivity is finite in three dimensions but we are not able to verify this numerically, except in the case where the system is subjected to an external pinning potential. This case is closely related to the problem of localization of electrons in a random potential and here we numerically verify that the pinned three-dimensional system satisfies Fourier’s law while the two-dimensional system is a heat insulator. We also investigate the inverse participation ratio of different normal modes.

  2. Pressure-induced phonon freezing in the ZnSeS II-VI mixed crystal: phonon-polaritons and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajj Hussein, R.; Pagès, O.; Polian, A.; Postnikov, A. V.; Dicko, H.; Firszt, F.; Strzałkowski, K.; Paszkowicz, W.; Broch, L.; Ravy, S.; Fertey, P.

    2016-05-01

    Near-forward Raman scattering combined with ab initio phonon and bond length calculations is used to study the ‘phonon-polariton’ transverse optical modes (with mixed electrical-mechanical character) of the II-VI ZnSe1-x S x mixed crystal under pressure. The goal of the study is to determine the pressure dependence of the poorly-resolved percolation-type Zn-S Raman doublet of the three oscillator [1  ×  (Zn-Se), 2  ×  (Zn-S)] ZnSe0.68S0.32 mixed crystal, which exhibits a phase transition at approximately the same pressure as its two end compounds (~14 GPa, zincblende  →  rocksalt), as determined by high-pressure x-ray diffraction. We find that the intensity of the lower Zn-S sub-mode of ZnSe0.68S0.32, due to Zn-S bonds vibrating in their own (S-like) environment, decreases under pressure (Raman scattering), whereas its frequency progressively converges onto that of the upper Zn-S sub-mode, due to Zn-S vibrations in the foreign (Se-like) environment (ab initio calculations). Ultimately, only the latter sub-mode survives. A similar ‘phonon freezing’ was earlier evidenced with the well-resolved percolation-type Be-Se doublet of Zn1-x Be x Se (Pradhan et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 115207), that exhibits a large contrast in the pressure-induced structural transitions of its end compounds. We deduce that the above collapse/convergence process is intrinsic to the percolation doublet of a short bond under pressure, at least in a ZnSe-based mixed crystal, and not due to any pressure-induced structural transition.

  3. Twisting phonons in complex crystals with quasi-one-dimensional substructures [Twisting Phonons in Higher Manganese Silicides with a Complex Nowotny Chimney Ladder Structure

    DOE PAGES

    Abernathy, Douglas L.; Ma, Jie; Yan, Jiaqiang; Delaire, Olivier A.; Chen, Xi; Weathers, Annie; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Shi, Li

    2015-04-15

    A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain themore » low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.« less

  4. Coupling between crystal field transitions and phonons in the 4f-electron system CeCu 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schedler, R.; Witte, U.; Loewenhaupt, M.; Kulda, J.

    2003-07-01

    In general, elementary excitations like phonons and crystal field (CF) transitions are considered decoupled and the determination and interpretation of the measured spectra of both phenomena, i.e. the phonon dispersion relations and the CF level schemes are made independently of each other. A signature of a strong coupling between both phenomena is the observation of an unusual behaviour in both subsystems. In this paper, we present inelastic neutron scattering results on the rare earth compound CeCu 2. This substance shows a orthorhombic CeCu 2 structure with 18 phonon modes and a splitting of the J= {5}/{2} ground state multiplet of the Ce 3+ ions into 3 doublets. The assumption of a coupling between a CF transition connecting the two excited CF states and phonons was put forward from the results of inelastic neutron data on a polycrystalline sample. This assumption is now confirmed by inelastic neutron spectra on a single crystal showing unusual phonon energy shifts and line widths as well as a strong broadening of the CF excitations.

  5. 3D visualization of XFEL beam focusing properties using LiF crystal X-ray detector.

    PubMed

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ozaki, Norimasa; Albertazzi, Bruno; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Sato, Yuya; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Pikuz, Sergei; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report, that by means of direct irradiation of lithium fluoride a (LiF) crystal, in situ 3D visualization of the SACLA XFEL focused beam profile along the propagation direction is realized, including propagation inside photoluminescence solid matter. High sensitivity and large dynamic range of the LiF crystal detector allowed measurements of the intensity distribution of the beam at distances far from the best focus as well as near the best focus and evaluation of XFEL source size and beam quality factor M(2). Our measurements also support the theoretical prediction that for X-ray photons with energies ~10 keV the radius of the generated photoelectron cloud within the LiF crystal reaches about 600 nm before thermalization. The proposed method has a spatial resolution ~0.4-2.0 μm for photons with energies 6-14 keV and potentially could be used in a single shot mode for optimization of different focusing systems developed at XFEL and synchrotron facilities. PMID:26634431

  6. 3D visualization of XFEL beam focusing properties using LiF crystal X-ray detector

    PubMed Central

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ozaki, Norimasa; Albertazzi, Bruno; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Sato, Yuya; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Pikuz, Sergei; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N.; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report, that by means of direct irradiation of lithium fluoride a (LiF) crystal, in situ 3D visualization of the SACLA XFEL focused beam profile along the propagation direction is realized, including propagation inside photoluminescence solid matter. High sensitivity and large dynamic range of the LiF crystal detector allowed measurements of the intensity distribution of the beam at distances far from the best focus as well as near the best focus and evaluation of XFEL source size and beam quality factor M2. Our measurements also support the theoretical prediction that for X-ray photons with energies ~10 keV the radius of the generated photoelectron cloud within the LiF crystal reaches about 600 nm before thermalization. The proposed method has a spatial resolution ~ 0.4–2.0 μm for photons with energies 6–14 keV and potentially could be used in a single shot mode for optimization of different focusing systems developed at XFEL and synchrotron facilities. PMID:26634431

  7. Design of radial phononic crystal using annular soft material with low-frequency resonant elastic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Yu, Lie; Xin, Hang

    2016-10-01

    Using FEM, we theoretically study the vibration properties of radial phononic crystal (RPC) with annular soft material. The band structures, transmission spectra, and displacement fields of eigenmode are given to estimate the starting and cut-off frequency of band gaps. Numerical calculation results show that RPC with annular soft material can yield low-frequency band gaps below 350 Hz. Annular soft material decreases equivalent stiffness of the whole structure effectively, and makes corresponding band gaps move to the lower frequency range. Physical mechanism behind band gaps is the coupling effect between long or traveling wave in plate matrix and the vibrations of corrugations. By changing geometrical dimensions of plate thickness e, the length of silicone rubber h2, and the corrugation width b, we can control the location and width of the first band gap. These research conclusions of RPC structure with annular soft material can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps, generate filters, and design acoustic devices.

  8. Interface acoustic waves at the interface between two semi-infinite phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yukihiro; Okashiwa, Nobuharu; Nishiguchi, Norihiko

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the band structures of interface acoustic waves (IAWs) in a system composed of two dissimilar semi-infinite two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystals (PCs), which is referred to as a dual 2D PC system. We suggest a method by which we can estimate roughly the constituent elements (for example, filling fraction and type of substance) of each PC in a dual 2D PC system. We find that, for a specific set of filling fractions of the constituent PCs, an IAW branch exists below the lowest bulk transverse-wave branch in dispersion relations, and is subject to Bragg reflection in the vicinity of the Brillouin-zone boundary, which reduces the group velocity of IAWs. The findings of this work suggest the possibility of new acoustic devices utilizing IAWs.

  9. Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Damiano; Travagliati, Marco; Siemens, Mark E; Li, Qing; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Ferrini, Gabriele; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Banfi, Francesco

    2011-10-12

    High-frequency surface acoustic waves can be generated by ultrafast laser excitation of nanoscale patterned surfaces. Here we study this phenomenon in the hypersonic frequency limit. By modeling the thermomechanics from first-principles, we calculate the system's initial heat-driven impulsive response and follow its time evolution. A scheme is introduced to quantitatively access frequencies and lifetimes of the composite system's excited eigenmodes. A spectral decomposition of the calculated response on the eigemodes of the system reveals asymmetric resonances that result from the coupling between surface and bulk acoustic modes. This finding allows evaluation of impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic wave frequencies and lifetimes and expands our understanding of the scattering of surface waves in mesoscale metamaterials. The model is successfully benchmarked against time-resolved optical diffraction measurements performed on one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface phononic crystals, probed using light at extreme ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths.

  10. Probing Thermomechanics at the Nanoscale: Impulsively Excited Pseudosurface Acoustic Waves in Hypersonic Phononic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    High-frequency surface acoustic waves can be generated by ultrafast laser excitation of nanoscale patterned surfaces. Here we study this phenomenon in the hypersonic frequency limit. By modeling the thermomechanics from first-principles, we calculate the system’s initial heat-driven impulsive response and follow its time evolution. A scheme is introduced to quantitatively access frequencies and lifetimes of the composite system’s excited eigenmodes. A spectral decomposition of the calculated response on the eigemodes of the system reveals asymmetric resonances that result from the coupling between surface and bulk acoustic modes. This finding allows evaluation of impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic wave frequencies and lifetimes and expands our understanding of the scattering of surface waves in mesoscale metamaterials. The model is successfully benchmarked against time-resolved optical diffraction measurements performed on one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface phononic crystals, probed using light at extreme ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths. PMID:21910426

  11. A three-dimensional Bloch wave expansion to determine external scattering from finite phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Kulpe, Jason A; Sabra, Karim G; Leamy, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    External scattering from a finite phononic crystal (PC) is studied using the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral theorem integrated with a Bloch wave expansion (BWE). The BWE technique is used to describe the internal pressure field of a semi-infinite or layered PC subject to an incident monochromatic plane wave. Following the BWE solution, the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral is used to determine the external scattered field. For cubic PCs, the scattered results are compared to numerical treatments in both the frequency and time domain. The presented approach is expected to be valid when the PC size is larger than the acoustic wavelength. However, very good agreement in the spatial beam pattern is also documented for both large and small (with respect to the wavelength) PCs. The result of this work is a fully-analytical, efficient, and verified approach for accurately predicting external scattering from finite, three-dimensional PCs.

  12. Wave mixing in coupled phononic crystals via a variable stiffness mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil-Yong; Chong, Christopher; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Yang, Jinkyu

    2016-10-01

    We investigate wave mixing effects in a phononic crystal that couples the wave dynamics of two channels -- primary and control ones -- via a variable stiffness mechanism. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that the wave transmission in the primary channel can be manipulated by the control channel's signal. We show that the application of control waves allows the selection of a specific mode through the primary channel. We also demonstrate that the mixing of two wave modes is possible whereby a modulation effect is observed. A detailed study of the design parameters is also carried out to optimize the switching capabilities of the proposed system. Finally, we verify that the system can fulfill both switching and amplification functionalities, potentially enabling the realization of an acoustic transistor.

  13. Broadband and wide-angle negative reflection at a phononic crystal boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Degang; Zhu, Xuefeng Yi, Lin; Ye, Yangtao; Xu, Shengjun

    2014-01-27

    We have theoretically and experimentally demonstrated the anomalous negative reflection at the boundary of a well-designed two-dimensional phononic crystal. This exotic phenomenon is attributed to the selective enhancement of −1st order diffraction mode with the zero-order diffraction mode being dramatically suppressed. After material and structural optimization, the negative reflection can be maintained in a broadband of frequencies and for a wide incident angle range. Our system can be employed to design Littrow configuration to realize perfect broadband and wide-angle blazing. The study gives a possibility to achieve greater flexibility and stronger effects in manipulating reflected acoustic waves, which has potential applications in underwater communication, medical ultrasonics, etc.

  14. Carrier scattering processes and low energy phonon spectroscopy in hybrid perovskites crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Even, Jacky; Paofai, Serge; Bourges, Philippe; Letoublon, Antoine; Cordier, Stéphane; Durand, Olivier; Katan, Claudine

    2016-03-01

    Despite the wealth of research conducted the last three years on hybrid organic perovskites (HOP), several questions remain open including: to what extend the organic moiety changes the properties of the material as compared to allinorganic (AIP) related perovskite structures. To ultimately reach an answer to this question, we have recently introduced two approaches that were designed to take the stochastic molecular degrees of freedom into account, and suggested that the high temperature cubic phase of HOP and AIP is an appropriate reference phase to rationalize HOP's properties. In this paper, we recall the main concepts and discuss more specifically the various possible couplings between charge carriers and low energy excitations such as acoustic and optical phonons. As available experimental or simulated data on low energy excitations are limited, we also present preliminary neutron scattering and ultrasonic measurements obtained and freshly prepared single crystals of CH3NH3PbBr3.

  15. Gradient-index phononic crystal lens-based enhancement of elastic wave energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tol, S.; Degertekin, F. L.; Erturk, A.

    2016-08-01

    We explore the enhancement of structure-borne elastic wave energy harvesting, both numerically and experimentally, by exploiting a Gradient-Index Phononic Crystal Lens (GRIN-PCL) structure. The proposed GRIN-PCL is formed by an array of blind holes with different diameters on an aluminum plate, where the blind hole distribution is tailored to obtain a hyperbolic secant gradient profile of refractive index guided by finite-element simulations of the lowest asymmetric mode Lamb wave band diagrams. Under plane wave excitation from a line source, experimentally measured wave field validates the numerical simulation of wave focusing within the GRIN-PCL domain. A piezoelectric energy harvester disk located at the first focus of the GRIN-PCL yields an order of magnitude larger power output as compared to the baseline case of energy harvesting without the GRIN-PCL on the uniform plate counterpart.

  16. NanoFIBrication of a two-dimensional phononic crystal in a free standing membrane.

    SciTech Connect

    Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F.; El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Olsson, Roy H., III

    2010-06-01

    A two-dimensional phononic crystal (PnC) that can operate in the GHz range is created in a freestanding silicon substrate using NanoFIBrication (using a focused ion beam (FIB) to fabricate nanostructures). First, a simple cubic 6.75 x 6.75 ?m array of vias with 150 nm spacing is generated. After patterning the vias, they are backfilled with void-free tungsten scatterers. Each via has a diameter of 48 nm. Numerical calculations predict this 2D PnC will generate a band gap near 22 GHz. A protective layer of chromium on top of the thin (100 nm) silicon membrane confines the surface damage to the chromium, which can be removed at a later time. Inspection of the underside of the membrane shows the vias flaring out at the exit, which we are dubbing the 'trumpet effect'. The trumpet effect is explained by modeling the lateral damage in a freestanding membrane.

  17. Modeling the crystal distribution of lead-sulfate in lead-acid batteries with 3D spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Moritz; Badeda, Julia; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-04-01

    For the reliability of lead-acid batteries it is important to have an accurate prediction of its response to load profiles. A model for the lead-sulfate growth is presented, which is embedded in a physical-chemical model with 3D spatial resolution is presented which is used for analyzing the different mechanism influencing the cell response. One import factor is the chemical dissolution and precipitation of lead-sulfate, since its dissolution speed limits the charging reaction and the accumulation of indissolvable of lead-sulfate leads to capacity degradation. The cell performance/behavior is not only determined by the amount of the sulfate but also by the radii and distribution of the crystals. The presented model can be used to for an improved understanding of the interaction of the different mechanisms.

  18. Hierarchical self-assembly of hexagonal single-crystal nanosheets into 3D layered superlattices with high conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yulun; Shen, Yuhua; Yang, Liangbao; Han, Bin; Huang, Fangzhi; Li, Shikuo; Chu, Zhuwang; Xie, Anjian

    2012-05-01

    While the number of man-made nano superstructures realized by self-assembly is growing in recent years, assemblies of conductive polymer nanocrystals, especially for superlattices, are still a significant challenge, not only because of the simplicity of the shape of the nanocrystal building blocks and their interactions, but also because of the poor control over these parameters in the fabrication of more elaborate nanocrystals. Here, we firstly report a facile and general route to a new generation of 3D layered superlattices of polyaniline doped with CSA (PANI-CSA) and show how PANI crystallize and self-assemble, in a suitable single solution environment. In cyclohexane, 1D amorphous nanofibers transformed to 1D nanorods as building blocks, and then to 2D single-crystal nanosheets with a hexagonal phase, and lastly to 3D ordered layered superlattices with the narrowest polydispersity value (Mw/Mn = 1.47). Remarkably, all the instructions for the hierarchical self-assembly are encoded in the layered shape in other non-polar solvents (hexane, octane) and their conductivity in the π-π stacking direction is improved to about 50 S cm-1, which is even higher than that of the highest previously reported value (16 S cm-1). The method used in this study is greatly expected to be readily scalable to produce superlattices of conductive polymers with high quality and low cost.While the number of man-made nano superstructures realized by self-assembly is growing in recent years, assemblies of conductive polymer nanocrystals, especially for superlattices, are still a significant challenge, not only because of the simplicity of the shape of the nanocrystal building blocks and their interactions, but also because of the poor control over these parameters in the fabrication of more elaborate nanocrystals. Here, we firstly report a facile and general route to a new generation of 3D layered superlattices of polyaniline doped with CSA (PANI-CSA) and show how PANI crystallize and

  19. 3D ToF-SIMS Analysis of Peptide Incorporation into MALDI Matrix Crystals with Sub-micrometer Resolution.

    PubMed

    Körsgen, Martin; Pelster, Andreas; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-02-01

    The analytical sensitivity in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is largely affected by the specific analyte-matrix interaction, in particular by the possible incorporation of the analytes into crystalline MALDI matrices. Here we used time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to visualize the incorporation of three peptides with different hydrophobicities, bradykinin, Substance P, and vasopressin, into two classic MALDI matrices, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA). For depth profiling, an Ar cluster ion beam was used to gradually sputter through the matrix crystals without causing significant degradation of matrix or biomolecules. A pulsed Bi3 ion cluster beam was used to image the lateral analyte distribution in the center of the sputter crater. Using this dual beam technique, the 3D distribution of the analytes and spatial segregation effects within the matrix crystals were imaged with sub-μm resolution. The technique could in the future enable matrix-enhanced (ME)-ToF-SIMS imaging of peptides in tissue slices at ultra-high resolution. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26419771

  20. 3D ToF-SIMS Analysis of Peptide Incorporation into MALDI Matrix Crystals with Sub-micrometer Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körsgen, Martin; Pelster, Andreas; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F.

    2016-02-01

    The analytical sensitivity in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is largely affected by the specific analyte-matrix interaction, in particular by the possible incorporation of the analytes into crystalline MALDI matrices. Here we used time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to visualize the incorporation of three peptides with different hydrophobicities, bradykinin, Substance P, and vasopressin, into two classic MALDI matrices, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA). For depth profiling, an Ar cluster ion beam was used to gradually sputter through the matrix crystals without causing significant degradation of matrix or biomolecules. A pulsed Bi3 ion cluster beam was used to image the lateral analyte distribution in the center of the sputter crater. Using this dual beam technique, the 3D distribution of the analytes and spatial segregation effects within the matrix crystals were imaged with sub-μm resolution. The technique could in the future enable matrix-enhanced (ME)-ToF-SIMS imaging of peptides in tissue slices at ultra-high resolution.

  1. Theory of the zero-field splitting of 6S(3d5)-state ions in cubic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan-Lun, Yu; Tao, Tan

    1994-02-01

    A study is made of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) of 6S(3d5) ions in cubic crystals, based on an extended crystal-field (CF) model which assumes two constants ζte and ζtt in the description of the spin-orbit (SO) interaction. In addition to the recognized origin for the ZFS, namely, the combined effect of the CF and the SO couplings, a second source is found to arise from the SO interaction alone through a difference between ζte and ζtt caused by covalency. To understand this second effect, we have investigated the SO coupling processes which contribute to the ZFS, using the Macfarlane-Zdansky perturbation procedure. Processes in which the couplings are all between states of different configurations tm2e5-m are found to make a positive contribution proportional to ζ4te. Other processes contribute negatively through a term in ζ2teζ2tt. The ZFS is thus determined by the relative magnitudes of these two parts, and a small difference between ζte and ζtt will cause a great change in its value. Application of this new theory is successfully made to Mn2+ ions in tetrahedral II-VI compounds and in fluoroperovskites.

  2. Enhancing the Thermoelectric Figure of Merit by Low-Dimensional Electrical Transport in Phonon-Glass Crystals.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xue-Ya; Yu, Xiaoxiang; Yao, Kai-Lun; Huang, Xiaoming; Yang, Nuo; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2015-08-12

    Low-dimensional electronic and glassy phononic transport are two important ingredients of highly efficient thermoelectric materials, from which two branches of thermoelectric research have emerged. One focuses on controlling electronic transport in the low dimension, while the other focuses on multiscale phonon engineering in the bulk. Recent work has benefited much from combining these two approaches, e.g., phonon engineering in low-dimensional materials. Here we propose to employ the low-dimensional electronic structure in bulk phonon-glass crystals as an alternative way to increase the thermoelectric efficiency. Through first-principles electronic structure calculations and classical molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the π-π-stacking bis(dithienothiophene) molecular crystal is a natural candidate for such an approach. This is determined by the nature of its chemical bonding. Without any optimization of the material parameters, we obtained a maximum room-temperature figure of merit, ZT, of 1.48 at optimal doping, thus validating our idea.

  3. Single-Crystal to Single-Crystal Phase Transition and Segmented Thermochromic Luminescence in a Dynamic 3D Interpenetrated Ag(I) Coordination Network.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi-Hao; Li, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Li-Wei; Yu, Si-Qi; Wang, Xing-Po; Sun, Di

    2016-02-01

    A new 3D Ag(I)-based coordination network, [Ag2(pz)(bdc)·H2O]n (1; pz = pyrazine and H2bdc = benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid), was constructed by one-pot assembly and structurally established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at different temperatures. Upon cooling from 298 to 93 K, 1 undergo an interesting single-crystal to single-crystal phase transition from orthorhombic Ibca (Z = 16) to Pccn (Z = 32) at around 148 K. Both phases show a rare 2-fold-interpenetrated 4-connected lvt network but incorporate different [Ag2(COO)2] dimeric secondary building units. It is worth mentioning that complex 1 shows red- and blue-shifted luminescences in the 290-170 and 140-80 K temperature ranges, respectively. The variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray crystallographic studies suggest that the argentophilic interactions and rigidity of the structure dominated the luminescence chromism trends at the respective temperature ranges. Upon being mechanically ground, 1 exhibits a slight mechanoluminescence red shift from 589 to 604 nm at 298 K.

  4. Laboratory investigation on the role of tubular shaped micro resonators phononic crystal insertion on the absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, I.; Kusuma, J. I.; Harjana; Kristiani, R.; Hanina, R.

    2016-02-01

    This paper emphasizes the influence of tubular shaped microresonators phononic crystal insertion on the sound absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber. A simple cubic and two different bodies centered cubic phononic crystal lattice model were analyzed in a laboratory test procedure. The experiment was conducted by using transfer function based two microphone impedance tube method refer to ASTM E-1050-98. The results show that sound absorption coefficient increase significantly at the mid and high-frequency band (600 - 700 Hz) and (1 - 1.6 kHz) when tubular shaped microresonator phononic crystal inserted into the tested sound absorber element. The increment phenomena related to multi-resonance effect that occurs when sound waves propagate through the phononic crystal lattice model that produce multiple reflections and scattering in mid and high-frequency band which increases the sound absorption coefficient accordingly

  5. Finite Element Method for Analysis of Band Structures of 2D Phononic Crystals with Archimedean-like tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianbao; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a finite element method based on the ABAQUS code and user subroutine is presented to evaluate the propagation of acoustic waves in the two-dimensional phononic crystals with Archimedean-like tilings. Two systems composed of cylinder scatters embedded in a host in Ladybug and Bathroom lattices are considered. Complete and accurate band structures and transmission spectra are obtained to identify the band gaps and eigenmodes. We found that Archimedean-like structures can have some advantages over the traditional square lattice regarding the completeness of the gap and its position and width. Also, due to the same square primitive unit cell and the first Brillouin zone, the two square-like lattices have similar acoustic response in lower bands. The results indicate that the finite element method is precise for the band structure computation of the complex phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings.

  6. High-Q cross-plate phononic crystal resonator for enhanced acoustic wave localization and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Yang, Chao; Wang, Decai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jiajia

    2015-05-01

    A high-Q cross-plate phononic crystal resonator (Cr-PCR) coupled with an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR) is proposed to improve acoustic wave localization and energy harvesting. Owing to the strongly directional wave-scattering effect of the cross-plate corners, strong confinement of acoustic waves emerges. Consequently, the proposed Cr-PCR structure exhibits ∼353.5 times higher Q value and ∼6.1 times greater maximum pressure amplification than the phononic crystal resonator (Cy-PCR) (consisting of cylindrical scatterers) of the same size. Furthermore, the harvester using the proposed Cr-PCR and the EMHR has ∼22 times greater maximum output-power volume density than the previous harvester using Cy-PCR and EMHR structures.

  7. Seven 3d-4f coordination polymers of macrocyclic oxamide with polycarboxylates: Syntheses, crystal structures and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Na; Sun, Ya-Qiu; Zheng, Yan-Feng; Xu, Yan-Yan; Gao, Dong-Zhao; Zhang, Guo-Ying

    2016-11-01

    Seven new 3d-4f heterometallic coordination polymers, [Ln(CuL)2(Hbtca)(btca)(H2O)]·2H2O (Ln = TbIII1, PrIII2, SmIII3, EuIII4, YbIII5), [Nd(NiL)(nip)(Rnip)]·0·25H2O·0.25CH3OH (R= 0.6CH3, 0.4H) 6 and [Nd2(NiL)(nip)3(H2O)]·2H2O 7(CuL or NiL, H2L = 2, 3-dioxo-5, 6, 14, 15-dibenzo-1, 4, 8, 12-tetraazacyclo-pentadeca-7, 13-dien; H2btca = benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid; H2nip = 5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized by a solvothermal method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-5 exhibit a double-strand meso-helical chain structures formed by [LnIIICuII2] units via the oxamide and benzotriazole-5-carboxylate bridges, while complex 6 exhibits a four-strand meso-helical chain formed by NdNi unit via the oxamide and 5-nitroisophthalate bridges. Complex 7 consists of a 2D layer framework formed by four-strand meso-helical chain via the nip2- bridges. Moreover, the magnetic properties of them were investigated, and the best-fit analysis of χMT versus T show that the anisotropic contribution of Ln(III) ions (arising from the spin-orbit coupling or the crystal field perturbation) dominates (weak exchange limit) in these complexes(for 3, λ = 214.6 cm-1, zj' = -0.33 cm-1, gav = 1.94; for 5, Δ = 6.98 cm-1, zj' = 1.53 cm-1, gav = 1.85).

  8. Micro-wires self-assembled and 3D-connected with the help of a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Agha, H; Fleury, J-B; Galerne, Y

    2012-09-01

    We discuss a method for producing automatic 3D connections at right places between substrates in front of one another. The idea is based on the materialization of disclination lines working as templates. The lines are first created in the nematic liquid crystal (5CB) at the very place where microwires have to be synthesized. Due to their anchoring properties, colloids dispersed into the nematic phase produce orientational distortions around them. These distortions, which may be considered as due to topological charges, result in a nematic force, able to attract the colloids towards the disclinations. Ultimately, the particles get trapped onto them, forming micro- or nano-necklaces. Before being introduced in the nematic phase, the colloids are covered with an adhering and conducting polypyrrole film directly synthesized at the surface of the particles (heterogeneous polymerization). In this manner, the particles become conductive so that we may finally perform an electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers solved in 5CB, and definitely stick the whole necklace. The electric connection thus synthesized is analyzed by AFM, and its strength is checked by means of hydrodynamic tests. This wiring method could allow Moore's law to overcome the limitations that arise when down-sizing the electronic circuits to nanometer scale.

  9. Preliminary studies of 3D magnetophotonic crystals designed from a template stuffed by sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekesi, R.; Royer, F.; Blanc Mignon, M. F.; Goutaland, F.; Chatelon, J. P.; Tombacz, E.; Jamon, D.

    2010-05-01

    Based on the previous work of Nishijima [1], the aim of this work is to realize 3D magnetophotonic crystals (MPC) by a sol-gel approach, in order to obtain a magneto-optical material with a large merit factor. These MPC are made by immersion of an opal template of polystyrene spheres in a sol-gel TEOS preparation doped by magnetic nanoparticles. The template can be realized using centrifugation or sedimentation, and it is removed after the solidification of the doped matrix by an immersion in ethyl acetate. Calculations made on 1D structures confirm that a periodic arrangement of a magneto-optical material is a way to increase the Faraday Rotation and the merite factor. The characterization of the samples is made by SEM and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. In virtue of the SEM pictures we can establish that the template is well-structured, what is confirmed by a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) in the spectrophotometry spectral. The central wavelength of the PBG depends on the size of the polystyrene spheres. The final MPC obtained with a silica matrix doped by maghemite nanoparticles has also well-structured areas. Ongoing works concern the study of the Farady rotation as a function of the wavelength.

  10. In-plane time-harmonic elastic wave motion and resonance phenomena in a layered phononic crystal with periodic cracks.

    PubMed

    Golub, Mikhail V; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an elastodynamic analysis of two-dimensional time-harmonic elastic wave propagation in periodically multilayered elastic composites, which are also frequently referred to as one-dimensional phononic crystals, with a periodic array of strip-like interior or interface cracks. The transfer matrix method and the boundary integral equation method in conjunction with the Bloch-Floquet theorem are applied to compute the elastic wave fields in the layered periodic composites. The effects of the crack size, spacing, and location, as well as the incidence angle and the type of incident elastic waves on the wave propagation characteristics in the composite structure are investigated in details. In particular, the band-gaps, the localization and the resonances of elastic waves are revealed by numerical examples. In order to understand better the wave propagation phenomena in layered phononic crystals with distributed cracks, the energy flow vector of Umov and the corresponding energy streamlines are visualized and analyzed. The numerical results demonstrate that large energy vortices obstruct elastic wave propagation in layered phononic crystals at resonance frequencies. They occur before the cracks reflecting most of the energy transmitted by the incoming wave and disappear when the problem parameters are shifted from the resonant ones.

  11. The Brillouin zones and band gaps of a two-dimensional phononic crystal with parallelogram lattice structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, JiaGuang; Xu, Wen

    2014-06-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study on the acoustic band structure of two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal. The 2D phononic crystal with parallelogram lattice structure is considered to be formed by rigid solid rods embedded in air. For the circular rods, some of the extrema of the acoustic bands appear in the usual high-symmetry points and, in contrast, we find that some of them are located in other specific lines. For the case of elliptic rods, our results indicate that it is necessary to study the whole first Brillouin zone to obtain rightly the band structure and corresponding band gaps. Furthermore, we evaluate the first and second band gaps using the plane wave expansion method and find that these gaps can be tuned by adjusting the side lengths ratio R, inclined angle θ and filling fraction F of the parallelogram lattice with circular rods. The results show that the largest value of the first band gap appears at θ=90° and F=0.7854. In contrast, the largest value of the second band gap is at θ=60° and F=0.9068. Our results indicate that the improvement of matching degree between scatterers and lattice pattern, rather than the reduction of structural symmetry, is mainly responsible for the enhancement of the band gaps in the 2D phononic crystal.

  12. A mechanical-magneto-thermal model for the tunability of band gaps of epoxy/Terfenol-D phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunzu; Shi, Yang; Gao, Yuanwen

    2015-07-01

    A way based on the temperature effect is investigated to adjust the longitudinal wave band gaps of one-dimensional epoxy/Terfenol-D phononic crystals. For both the cases (with and without consideration of demagnetization effect), the dependences of component materials' effective parameters on temperature are obtained by applying a nonlinear mechanical-magneto-thermal coupling constitutive model and fitting the experimental data, respectively. Further, the influence of temperature on the band structure of wave propagation in phononic crystals consisting of epoxy and Terfenol-D is discussed in detail. Meanwhile, the effects of magnetic field, pre-stress, and filling fraction are studied. Numerical results show that temperature has a significant influence on the band structure of wave propagation in phononic crystals: As temperature rises from - 40 ° C to 40 ° C , the widths of the first, second, and fourth band gaps increase, while that of the third band gap decreases. In addition, the demagnetization effect should not be ignored under a low magnetic field.

  13. Development of an acoustic filter for parametric loudspeaker using phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ji, Peifeng; Hu, Wenlin; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The spurious signal generated as a result of nonlinearity at the receiving system affects the measurement of the difference-frequency sound in the parametric loudspeaker, especially in the nearfield or near the beam axis. In this paper, an acoustic filter is designed using phononic crystals and its theoretical simulations are carried out by quasi-one- and two-dimensional models with Comsol Multiphysics. According to the simulated transmission loss (TL), an acoustic filter is prototyped consisting of 5×7 aluminum alloy cylinders and its performance is verified experimentally. There is good agreement with the simulation result for TL. After applying our proposed filter in the axial measurement of the parametric loudspeaker, a clear frequency dependence from parametric array effect is detected, which exhibits a good match with the well-known theory described by the Gaussian-beam expansion technique. During the directivity measurement for the parametric loudspeaker, the proposed filter has also proved to be effective and is only needed for small angles.

  14. Large band gaps in radial phononic crystal structure with round mass block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Jing, Li; Lu, Kuan; Yu, Lie

    2016-06-01

    Using the finite element method, we theoretically study the vibration properties of radial phononic crystal (RPC) structure with round mass block. The band structures, transmission spectra, and displacement fields of eigenmode are given to estimate the starting and cut-off frequency of band gaps. Compared to the contrast structure, numerical calculation results show that RPC structure with round mass block can yield several band gaps below 150 kHz. The physical mechanism of band gaps are attributed to the coupling between the longitudinal vibration in round mass block and vibrations in outer frame or coating layer. By changing geometrical dimensions r of round mass block, we can shift the location and width of band gaps. Significantly, as the increase of geometric parameter ratio a1/a2, band width shifts and the more new band gaps appear; the more bands become flat at this moment because of the stronger multiple vibration coupling effect plays a more prominent role in the opening of band gaps. These vibration properties of RPC structure with round mass block can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps, generate filters, and design acoustic devices.

  15. Extremely low-frequency Lamb wave band gaps in a sandwich phononic crystal thin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; Wu, Jiu Hui; Liu, Zhangyi; Fu, Gang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a kind of sandwich phononic crystal (PC) plate with silicon rubber scatterers embedded in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix is proposed to demonstrate its low-frequency Lamb wave band gap (BG) characteristics. The dispersion relationship and the displacement vector fields of the basic slab modes and the locally resonant modes are investigated to show the BG formation mechanism. The anti-symmetric Lamb wave BG is further studied due to its important function in reducing vibration. The analysis on the BG characteristics of the PC through changing their geometrical parameters is performed. By optimizing the structure, a sandwich PC plate with a thickness of only 3 mm and a lower boundary (as low as 23.9 Hz) of the first anti-symmetric BG is designed. Finally, sound insulation experiment on a sandwich PC plate with the thickness of only 2.5 mm is conducted, showing satisfactory noise reduction effect in the frequency range of the anti-symmetric Lamb BG. Therefore, this kind of sandwich PC plate has potential applications in controlling vibration and noise in low-frequency ranges.

  16. Lamb waves propagation in a novel metal-matrix phononic crystals plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suobin; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xi, Yanhui

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the propagation properties of Lamb waves in a novel phononic crystals (PCs) plate composed of a square array of double-sided composite taper stubs, which are deposited on a 2D locally resonant PC plate that composes of an array of rubber fillers embedded in the steel plate is studied. It is shown that the spring-mass system of the resonator will be decoupled by introducing the rubber filler, and then the out-of-plane band gap (BG) and the in-plane BG can be adjusted into the same lowest frequency range, respectively (the out-of-plane BG is adjusted by the rubber filler and the in-plane BG is adjusted by the taper stub). As a result, the frequency range of the generated complete BG is between 59-93 Hz due to the overlap between the in-plane and out-of-plane BG. Compared with the classic double-sided stubbed PC plate, the relative bandwidth of the BG is enlargement by a factor of 5.5 and the location of the BG is reduced by a factor of 5.5 in the proposed structure. It provides an effective way for metal-matrix PCs to obtain complete BGs in low-frequency range (below 100 Hz), which has potential for the reduction of the vibration at low frequency in practical case.

  17. Acoustic add-drop filters based on phononic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami-Dogolsara, Babak; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Nazari, Fakhroddin

    2016-01-01

    We report the design procedure for an acoustic add-drop filter (ADF) composed of two line-defect waveguides coupled through a ring resonator cavity (RRC) all based on a phononic crystal (PnC) platform. Using finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods, we study the propagation of acoustic waves through the PnC based ADF structures. Numerical results show that the quality factor for the ADF with a quasisquare ring resonator with a frequency band of 95 Hz centered about 75.21 kHz is Q ˜ 800. We show that the addition of an appropriate scatterer at each RRC corner can reduce the scattering loss, enhancing the quality factor and the transmission efficiency. Moreover, it is also shown that by increasing the coupling gaps between the RRC and waveguides the quality factor can be increased by ˜25 times, at the expense of a significant reduction in the transmission efficiency this is attributed to the enhanced selectivity in expense of weakened coupling. Finally, by varying the effective path length of the acoustic wave in the RRC, via selectively varying the inclusions physical and geometrical properties, we show how one can ultra-fine and fine-tune the resonant frequency of the ADF.

  18. Waveform-preserved unidirectional acoustic transmission based on impedance-matched acoustic metasurface and phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ai-Ling; Chen, Tian-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Peng; Wan, Le-Le

    2016-08-01

    The waveform distortion happens in most of the unidirectional acoustic transmission (UAT) devices proposed before. In this paper, a novel type of waveform-preserved UAT device composed of an impedance-matched acoustic metasurface (AMS) and a phononic crystal (PC) structure is proposed and numerically investigated. The acoustic pressure field distributions and transmittance are calculated by using the finite element method. The subwavelength AMS that can modulate the wavefront of the transmitted wave at will is designed and the band structure of the PC structure is calculated and analyzed. The sound pressure field distributions demonstrate that the unidirectional acoustic transmission can be realized by the proposed UAT device without changing the waveforms of the output waves, which is the distinctive feature compared with the previous UAT devices. The physical mechanism of the unidirectional acoustic transmission is discussed by analyzing the refraction angle changes and partial band gap map. The calculated transmission spectra show that the UAT device is valid within a relatively broad frequency range. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical predictions. The proposed UAT device provides a good reference for designing waveform-preserved UAT devices and has potential applications in many fields, such as medical ultrasound, acoustic rectifiers, and noise insulation.

  19. Development of an acoustic filter for parametric loudspeaker using phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ji, Peifeng; Hu, Wenlin; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The spurious signal generated as a result of nonlinearity at the receiving system affects the measurement of the difference-frequency sound in the parametric loudspeaker, especially in the nearfield or near the beam axis. In this paper, an acoustic filter is designed using phononic crystals and its theoretical simulations are carried out by quasi-one- and two-dimensional models with Comsol Multiphysics. According to the simulated transmission loss (TL), an acoustic filter is prototyped consisting of 5×7 aluminum alloy cylinders and its performance is verified experimentally. There is good agreement with the simulation result for TL. After applying our proposed filter in the axial measurement of the parametric loudspeaker, a clear frequency dependence from parametric array effect is detected, which exhibits a good match with the well-known theory described by the Gaussian-beam expansion technique. During the directivity measurement for the parametric loudspeaker, the proposed filter has also proved to be effective and is only needed for small angles. PMID:26855254

  20. Investigation of phononic crystals for dispersive surface acoustic wave ozone sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westafer, Ryan S.

    The object of this research was to investigate dispersion in surface phononic crystals (PnCs) for application to a newly developed passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) ozone sensor. Frequency band gaps and slow sound already have been reported for PnC lattice structures. Such engineered structures are often advertised to reduce loss, increase sensitivity, and reduce device size. However, these advances have not yet been realized in the context of surface acoustic wave sensors. In early work, we computed SAW dispersion in patterned surface structures and we confirmed that our finite element computations of SAW dispersion in thin films and in one dimensional surface PnC structures agree with experimental results obtained by laser probe techniques. We analyzed the computations to guide device design in terms of sensitivity and joint spectral operating point. Next we conducted simulations and experiments to determine sensitivity and limit of detection for more conventional dispersive SAW devices and PnC sensors. Finally, we conducted extensive ozone detection trials on passive reflection mode SAW devices, using distinct components of the time dispersed response to compensate for the effect of temperature. The experimental work revealed that the devices may be used for dosimetry applications over periods of several days.

  1. Large Area 2D and 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals Fabricated by a Roll-to-Roll Langmuir-Blodgett Method.

    PubMed

    Parchine, Mikhail; McGrath, Joe; Bardosova, Maria; Pemble, Martyn E

    2016-06-14

    We present our results on the fabrication of large area colloidal photonic crystals on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using a roll-to-roll Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) colloidal photonic crystals from silica nanospheres (250 and 550 nm diameter) with a total area of up to 340 cm(2) have been fabricated in a continuous manner compatible with high volume manufacturing. In addition, the antireflective properties and structural integrity of the films have been enhanced via the use of a second roll-to-roll process, employing a slot-die coating of an optical adhesive over the photonic crystal films. Scanning electron microscopy images, atomic force microscopy images, and UV-vis optical transmission and reflection spectra of the fabricated photonic crystals are analyzed. This analysis confirms the high quality of the 2D and 3D photonic crystals fabricated by the roll-to-roll LB technique. Potential device applications of the large area 2D and 3D colloidal photonic crystals on flexible PET film are briefly reviewed. PMID:27218474

  2. Large Area 2D and 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals Fabricated by a Roll-to-Roll Langmuir-Blodgett Method.

    PubMed

    Parchine, Mikhail; McGrath, Joe; Bardosova, Maria; Pemble, Martyn E

    2016-06-14

    We present our results on the fabrication of large area colloidal photonic crystals on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using a roll-to-roll Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) colloidal photonic crystals from silica nanospheres (250 and 550 nm diameter) with a total area of up to 340 cm(2) have been fabricated in a continuous manner compatible with high volume manufacturing. In addition, the antireflective properties and structural integrity of the films have been enhanced via the use of a second roll-to-roll process, employing a slot-die coating of an optical adhesive over the photonic crystal films. Scanning electron microscopy images, atomic force microscopy images, and UV-vis optical transmission and reflection spectra of the fabricated photonic crystals are analyzed. This analysis confirms the high quality of the 2D and 3D photonic crystals fabricated by the roll-to-roll LB technique. Potential device applications of the large area 2D and 3D colloidal photonic crystals on flexible PET film are briefly reviewed.

  3. Holographic fabrication of 3D photonic crystal templates with 4, 5, and 6-fold rotational symmetry using a single beam and single exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, David; George, David; Lutkenhaus, Jeffery; Philipose, Usha; Zhang, Hualiang; Lin, Yuankun

    2016-03-01

    A method of fabricating large-volume three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal and quasicrystal templates using holographic lithography is presented. Fabrication is accomplished using a single-beam and single exposure by a reflective optical element (ROE). The ROE is 3D printed support structure which holds reflecting surfaces composed of silicon or gallium arsenide. Large-volume 3D photonic crystal and quasicrystal templates with 4-fold, 5-fold, and 6-fold symmetry were fabricated and found to be in good agreement with simulation. Although the reflective surfaces were setup away from the Brewster's angle, the interference among the reflected s and p-polarizations still generated bicontinuous structures, demonstrating the flexibility of the ROE. The ROE, being a compact and inexpensive alternative to diffractive optical elements and top-cut prisms, facilitates the large-scale integration of holographically fabricated photonic structures into on-chip applications.

  4. The effect of stiffness and mass on coupled oscillations in a phononic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Baboly, M. Ghasemi; Su, M. F.; Alaie, S.; Goettler, D. F.; Leseman, Z. C.; Reinke, C. M.; El-Kady, I.

    2013-11-15

    Insight into phononic bandgap formation is presented using a first principles-type approach where phononic lattices are treated as coupled oscillators connected via massless tethers. The stiffness of the tethers and the mass of the oscillator are varied and their influences on the bandgap formation are deduced. This analysis is reinforced by conducting numerical simulations to examine the modes bounding the bandgap and highlighting the effect of the above parameters. The analysis presented here not only sheds light on the origins of gap formation, but also allows one to define design rules for wide phononic gaps and maximum gap-to-midgap ratios.

  5. Physics of band-gap formation and its evolution in the pillar-based phononic crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pourabolghasem, Reza; Mohammadi, Saeed; Eftekhar, Ali Asghar; Adibi, Ali; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2014-07-07

    In this paper, the interplay of Bragg scattering and local resonance is theoretically studied in a phononic crystal (PnC) structure composed of a silicon membrane with periodic tungsten pillars. The comparison of phononic band gaps (PnBGs) in three different lattice types (i.e., square, triangular, and honeycomb) with different pillar geometries shows that different PnBGs have varying degrees of dependency on the lattice symmetry based on the interplay of the local resonances and the Bragg effect. The details of this interplay is discussed. The significance of locally resonating pillars, specially in the case of tall pillars, on PnBGs is discussed and verified by examining the PnBG position and width in perturbed lattices via Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the PnBGs caused by the local resonance of the pillars are more resilient to the lattice perturbations than those caused by Bragg scattering.

  6. Nonequilibrium kinetics of the electron–phonon sybsystem of a crystal in a strong electric field as a base of the electroplastic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, V. I. Vlasenko, A. M.; Sokolenko, V. I.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2015-09-15

    We present the results of a kinetic analysis of nonequilibrium dynamics of the electron–phonon system of a crystal in a strong electric field based on the proposed method of numerically solving a set of Boltzmann equations for electron and phonon distribution functions without expanding the electron distribution function into a series in the phonon energy. It is shown that the electric field action excites the electron subsystem, which by transferring energy to the phonon subsystem creates a large amount of short-wave phonons that effectively influence the lattice defects (point, lines, boundaries of different phases), which results in a redistribution of and decrease in the lattice defect density, in damage healing, in a decrease in the local peak stress, and a decrease in the degradation level of the construction material properties.

  7. Nonequilibrium kinetics of the electron-phonon sybsystem of a crystal in a strong electric field as a base of the electroplastic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, V. I.; Vlasenko, A. M.; Sokolenko, V. I.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2015-09-01

    We present the results of a kinetic analysis of nonequilibrium dynamics of the electron-phonon system of a crystal in a strong electric field based on the proposed method of numerically solving a set of Boltzmann equations for electron and phonon distribution functions without expanding the electron distribution function into a series in the phonon energy. It is shown that the electric field action excites the electron subsystem, which by transferring energy to the phonon subsystem creates a large amount of short-wave phonons that effectively influence the lattice defects (point, lines, boundaries of different phases), which results in a redistribution of and decrease in the lattice defect density, in damage healing, in a decrease in the local peak stress, and a decrease in the degradation level of the construction material properties.

  8. Development and evaluation of a LOR-based image reconstruction with 3D system response modeling for a PET insert with dual-layer offset crystal design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Stortz, Greg; Sossi, Vesna; Thompson, Christopher J.; Retière, Fabrice; Kozlowski, Piotr; Thiessen, Jonathan D.; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present a method of 3D system response calculation for analytical computer simulation and statistical image reconstruction for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible positron emission tomography (PET) insert system that uses a dual-layer offset (DLO) crystal design. The general analytical system response functions (SRFs) for detector geometric and inter-crystal penetration of coincident crystal pairs are derived first. We implemented a 3D ray-tracing algorithm with 4π sampling for calculating the SRFs of coincident pairs of individual DLO crystals. The determination of which detector blocks are intersected by a gamma ray is made by calculating the intersection of the ray with virtual cylinders with radii just inside the inner surface and just outside the outer-edge of each crystal layer of the detector ring. For efficient ray-tracing computation, the detector block and ray to be traced are then rotated so that the crystals are aligned along the X-axis, facilitating calculation of ray/crystal boundary intersection points. This algorithm can be applied to any system geometry using either single-layer (SL) or multi-layer array design with or without offset crystals. For effective data organization, a direct lines of response (LOR)-based indexed histogram-mode method is also presented in this work. SRF calculation is performed on-the-fly in both forward and back projection procedures during each iteration of image reconstruction, with acceleration through use of eight-fold geometric symmetry and multi-threaded parallel computation. To validate the proposed methods, we performed a series of analytical and Monte Carlo computer simulations for different system geometry and detector designs. The full-width-at-half-maximum of the numerical SRFs in both radial and tangential directions are calculated and compared for various system designs. By inspecting the sinograms obtained for different detector geometries, it can be seen that the DLO crystal

  9. Role of exciton-phonon interactions and disordering processes in the formation of the absorption edge in Cu6P(S1- x Sex)5Br crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Kranjcec, M.; Suslikov, L. M.; Kovacs, D. Sh.; Pan'ko, V. V.

    2002-04-01

    The absorption edge in Cu6P(S1- x Sex)5Br crystals has been studied for strong absorption in the temperature range of 77 330 K. The parameters of the Urbach absorption edge and exciton-phonon interactions in Cu6P(S1- x Sex)5Br crystals are determined and their effect on the composition disorder is studied.

  10. 3D Micro-topography of Transferred Laboratory and Natural Ice Crystal Surfaces Imaged by Cryo and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, N. B.; Boaggio, K.; Bancroft, L.; Bandamede, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work has highlighted micro-scale roughness on the surfaces of ice crystals grown and imaged in-situ within the chambers of environmental scanning electron microscopes (ESEM). These observations appear to align with theoretical and satellite observations that suggest a prevalence of rough ice in cirrus clouds. However, the atmospheric application of the lab observations are indeterminate because the observations have been based only on crystals grown on substrates and in pure-water vapor environments. In this work, we present details and results from the development of a transfer technique which allows natural and lab-grown ice and snow crystals to be captured, preserved, and transferred into the ESEM for 3D imaging. Ice crystals were gathered from 1) natural snow, 2) a balloon-borne cirrus particle capture device, and 3) lab-grown ice crystals from a diffusion chamber. Ice crystals were captured in a pre-conditioned small-volume (~1 cm3) cryo-containment cell. The cell was then sealed closed and transferred to a specially-designed cryogenic dewer (filled with liquid nitrogen or crushed dry ice) for transport to a new Hitachi Field Emission, Variable Pressure SEM (SU-5000). The cryo-cell was then removed from the dewer and quickly placed onto the pre-conditioned cryo transfer stage attached to the ESEM (Quorum 3010T). Quantitative 3D topographical digital elevation models of ice surfaces are reported from SEM for the first time, including a variety of objective measures of statistical surface roughness. The surfaces of the transported crystals clearly exhibit signatures of mesoscopic roughening that are similar to examples of roughness seen in ESEM-grown crystals. For most transported crystals, the habits and crystal edges are more intricate that those observed for ice grown directly on substrates within the ESEM chamber. Portions of some crystals do appear smooth even at magnification greater than 1000x, a rare observation in our ESEM-grown crystals. The

  11. Study of Electron, Phonon and Crystal Stability Versus Thermoelectric Properties in Mg2X(X = Si, Sn) Compounds and Their Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, J.; Tobola, J.; Wiendlocha, B.; Chaput, L.; Zwolenski, P.; Berthebaud, D.; Gascoin, F.; Recour, Q.; Scherrer, H.

    2013-10-01

    We present results of extensive theoretical and experimental investigations of Mg2Si and Mg2Sn and their Mg2Si1-xSnx alloys. Electronic and phonon properties of binary compounds were studied by ab initio calculations. Then, both compounds were synthesized by the solid-state reaction and electrical resistivity and thermopower was measured at high temperature (300-900 K). In both the compounds, the theoretical bandgaps (0.56 eV in Mg2Si and 0.16 eV in Mg2Sn) agree very well with the experimental values (0.6 eV in Mg2Si and 0.17 eV from activation law in Mg2Sn) upon applying the modified Becke-Johnson semilocal exchange potential and including spin-orbit coupling in the calculations. Calculated phonon spectra support crystal stability of both compounds. For Mg2Si, the contributions from Si and Mg are spread over all the spectrum (0-10 THz), whereas in the case of Mg2Sn, a gap opens around 4 THz with Sn and Mg contributions dominating in lower and higher energy range, respectively. The calculated heat capacity at low temperature (0-300 K) fairly agrees with available experimental data. The crystal structure of Mg2Si1-xSnx with x = 0, 0.25, 0.4, 0.75, 1 was studied by X-ray diffraction measurements. The alloy compositions exist in the ranges 0 < x < 0.4 and 0.6 < x < 1 and the obtained samples are almost single phased. Detailed crystal stability study with temperature revealed that all powder samples started to decompose into MgO, Si and Sn at 630 K. For hot pressed bulk materials, the decomposition is much slower than in powder compounds but it still appears. Interestingly, thermoelectric properties measurements performed in Mg2Si1-xSnx show that both electrical resistivity and thermopower curves are repeatable during temperature cycles up to 770 K. On the other hand, temperature-dependent X-ray powder diffraction suggests that these compounds are not stable. Furthermore, electronic structure calculations of almost 40 impurities (s- and p-block, 3d and 4d transition

  12. Ab initio calculation of electron-phonon coupling in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between electrons and vibrational modes in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 is theoretically investigated using ab-initio calculations. The large primitive cell of β-Ga2O3 gives rise to 30 phonon modes all of which are taken into account in transport calculation. The electron-phonon interaction is calculated under density functional perturbation theory and then interpolated using Wannier-Fourier interpolation. The long-range interaction elements between electrons and polar optical phonon (POP) modes are calculated separately using the Born effective charge tensor. The direction dependence of the long-range POP coupling in a monoclinic crystal is explored and is included in the transport calculations. Scattering rate calculations are done using the Fermi golden rule followed by solving the Boltzmann transport equation using the Rode's method to estimate low field mobility. A room temperature mobility of 115 cm2/V s is observed. Comparison with recent experimentally reported mobility is done for a wide range of temperatures (30 K-650 K). It is also found that the POP interaction dominates the electron mobility under low electric field conditions. The relative contribution of the different POP modes is analyzed and the mode 21 meV POP is found to have the highest impact on low field electron mobility at room temperature.

  13. Observation of band gaps in the gigahertz range and deaf bands in a hypersonic aluminum nitride phononic crystal slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorisse, M.; Benchabane, S.; Teissier, G.; Billard, C.; Reinhardt, A.; Laude, V.; Defaÿ, E.; Aïd, M.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the observation of elastic waves propagating in a two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of air holes drilled in an aluminum nitride membrane. The theoretical band structure indicates the existence of an acoustic band gap centered around 800 MHz with a relative bandwidth of 6.5% that is confirmed by gigahertz optical images of the surface displacement. Further electrical measurements and computation of the transmission reveal a much wider attenuation band that is explained by the deaf character of certain bands resulting from the orthogonality of their polarization with that of the source.

  14. Calculation of energy relaxation rates of fast particles by phonons in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prange, Micah; Campbell, Luke; Wu, Dangxin; Kerisit, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    We present ab initio calculations of the temperature-dependent exchange of energy between a classical charged point-particle and the phonons of a crystalline material. The phonons, which are computed using density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) methods, interact with the moving particle via the Coulomb interaction between the density induced in the material by phonon excitation and the charge of the classical particle. Energy relaxation rates are computed using time-dependent perturbation theory. The method, which is applicable wherever DFPT is, is illustrated with results for several important scintillators whose performance is affected by electron thermalization. We discuss the influence of the form assumed for quasiparticle dispersion on theoretical estimates of electron cooling rates. This research was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of DNN R&D, of the DOE. PNNL is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under Contract DE-AC0576RL01830.

  15. Calculation of energy relaxation rates of fast particles by phonons in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Prange, Micah P.; Campbell, Luke W.; Wu, Dangxin; Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2015-03-01

    We present ab initio calculations of the temperature-dependent exchange of energy between a classical charged point-particle and the phonons of a crystalline material. The phonons, which are computed using density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) methods, interact with the mov- ing particle via the Coulomb interaction between the density induced in the material by phonon excitation and the charge of the classical particle. Energy relaxation rates are computed using time- dependent perturbation theory. The method, which is applicable wherever DFPT is, is illustrated with results for CsI, an important scintillator whose performance is affected by electron thermal- ization. We discuss the influence of the form assumed for quasiparticle dispersion on theoretical estimates of electron cooling rates.

  16. A SiPM-based isotropic-3D PET detector X'tal cube with a three-dimensional array of 1 mm3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Kawai, Hideyuki; Suga, Mikio; Watanabe, Mitsuo

    2011-11-01

    We are developing a novel, general purpose isotropic-3D PET detector X'tal cube which has high spatial resolution in all three dimensions. The research challenge for this detector is implementing effective detection of scintillation photons by covering six faces of a segmented crystal block with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). In this paper, we developed the second prototype of the X'tal cube for a proof-of-concept. We aimed at realizing an ultimate detector with 1.0 mm3 cubic crystals, in contrast to our previous development using 3.0 mm3 cubic crystals. The crystal block was composed of a 16 × 16 × 16 array of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (LGSO) crystals 0.993 × 0.993 × 0.993 mm3 in size. The crystals were optically glued together without inserting any reflector inside and 96 multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs, S10931-50P, i.e. six faces each with a 4 × 4 array of MPPCs), each having a sensitive area of 3.0 × 3.0 mm2, were optically coupled to the surfaces of the crystal block. Almost all 4096 crystals were identified through Anger-type calculation due to the finely adjusted reflector sheets inserted between the crystal block and light guides. The reflector sheets, which formed a belt of 0.5 mm width, were placed to cover half of the crystals of the second rows from the edges in order to improve identification performance of the crystals near the edges. Energy resolution of 12.7% was obtained at 511 keV with almost uniform light output for all crystal segments thanks to the effective detection of the scintillation photons.

  17. Negative refraction and focusing analysis in a left-handed material slab and realization with a 3D photonic crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadlou, Majid; Kamarei, Mahmoud; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hossein

    2006-02-01

    The increasing interest in metamaterials and structures with negative refraction index requires a formulation capable of a full analysis of wave propagation in such materials and structures. Since two-dimensional (2D) problems have been largely explored in the literature, the natural step is a three-dimensional (3D) formulation of these structures. In this paper, (3D) formulation and simulation of a left-handed metamaterial slab using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with perfectly matched layers (PMLs) is presented, and also a (3D) photonic crystal (PC) based structure is presented as a candidate for replacing the left-handed medium slab to realize the negative index of refraction on natural dielectric substrates. The results of these simulations are compared with each other, and the resulting outputs of the developed model are in good agreement. The results demonstrate numerically the focusing of the field emitted from an omnidirectional line source placed in front of the slab and crystal. Both the source and the focus pattern are away from the slab interfaces at two sides of the slab to have a real, negative perfect image. The dimensions of the simulation domain are set to have both source and image in the resulted plots. The focus pattern shows the ability of a photonic crystal structure in making a true flat lens.

  18. Excitation of surface waves on one-dimensional solid-fluid phononic crystals and the beam displacement effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Liu, Jingfei; Benchabane, Sarah; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent

    2014-12-01

    The possibility of surface wave generation by diffraction of pressure waves on deeply corrugated one-dimensional phononic crystal gratings is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Generation of leaky surface waves, indeed, is generally invoked in the explanation of the beam displacement effect that can be observed upon reflection on a shallow grating of an acoustic beam of finite width. True surface waves of the grating, however, have a dispersion that lies below the sound cone in water. They thus cannot satisfy the phase-matching condition for diffraction from plane waves of infinite extent incident from water. Diffraction measurements indicate that deeply corrugated one-dimensional phononic crystal gratings defined in a silicon wafer are very efficient diffraction gratings. They also confirm that all propagating waves detected in water follow the grating law. Numerical simulations however reveal that in the sub-diffraction regime, acoustic energy of a beam of finite extent can be transferred to elastic waves guided at the surface of the grating. Their leakage to the specular direction along the grating surface explains the apparent beam displacement effect.

  19. Excitation of surface waves on one-dimensional solid–fluid phononic crystals and the beam displacement effect

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Liu, Jingfei; Declercq, Nico F.; Benchabane, Sarah; Laude, Vincent

    2014-12-15

    The possibility of surface wave generation by diffraction of pressure waves on deeply corrugated one-dimensional phononic crystal gratings is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Generation of leaky surface waves, indeed, is generally invoked in the explanation of the beam displacement effect that can be observed upon reflection on a shallow grating of an acoustic beam of finite width. True surface waves of the grating, however, have a dispersion that lies below the sound cone in water. They thus cannot satisfy the phase-matching condition for diffraction from plane waves of infinite extent incident from water. Diffraction measurements indicate that deeply corrugated one-dimensional phononic crystal gratings defined in a silicon wafer are very efficient diffraction gratings. They also confirm that all propagating waves detected in water follow the grating law. Numerical simulations however reveal that in the sub-diffraction regime, acoustic energy of a beam of finite extent can be transferred to elastic waves guided at the surface of the grating. Their leakage to the specular direction along the grating surface explains the apparent beam displacement effect.

  20. Dispersion relations of elastic waves in one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal with initial stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun

    2016-03-01

    The dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal formed by periodically repeating of a pre-stressed piezoelectric slab and a pre-stressed piezomagnetic slab are studied in this paper. The influences of initial stress on the dispersive relation are considered based on the incremental stress theory. First, the incremental stress theory of elastic solid is extended to the magneto-electro-elasto solid. The governing equations, constitutive equations, and boundary conditions of the incremental stresses in a magneto-electro-elasto solid are derived with consideration of the existence of initial stresses. Then, the transfer matrices of a pre-stressed piezoelectric slab and a pre-stressed piezomagnetic slab are formulated, respectively. The total transfer matrix of a single cell in the phononic crystal is obtained by the multiplication of two transfer matrixes related with two adjacent slabs. Furthermore, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the dispersive equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersive equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. The oblique propagation and the normal propagation situations are both considered. In the case of normal propagation of elastic waves, the analytical expressions of the dispersion equation are derived and compared with other literatures. The influences of initial stresses, including the normal initial stresses and shear initial stresses, on the dispersive relations are both discussed based on the numerical results.

  1. A meshfree local RBF collocation method for anti-plane transverse elastic wave propagation analysis in 2D phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Wang, Yuesheng; Sladek, Jan; Sladek, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a meshfree or meshless local radial basis function (RBF) collocation method is proposed to calculate the band structures of two-dimensional (2D) anti-plane transverse elastic waves in phononic crystals. Three new techniques are developed for calculating the normal derivative of the field quantity required by the treatment of the boundary conditions, which improve the stability of the local RBF collocation method significantly. The general form of the local RBF collocation method for a unit-cell with periodic boundary conditions is proposed, where the continuity conditions on the interface between the matrix and the scatterer are taken into account. The band structures or dispersion relations can be obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem and sweeping the boundary of the irreducible first Brillouin zone. The proposed local RBF collocation method is verified by using the corresponding results obtained with the finite element method. For different acoustic impedance ratios, various scatterer shapes, scatterer arrangements (lattice forms) and material properties, numerical examples are presented and discussed to show the performance and the efficiency of the developed local RBF collocation method compared to the FEM for computing the band structures of 2D phononic crystals.

  2. A new 3D nickel(II) framework composed of large rings: Ionothermal synthesis and crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Ling; Choi, Eun-Young; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2008-11-15

    Ionothermal reaction between Ni{sup 2+} and 1,3,5-benzentricarboxylic acid (H{sub 3}BTC) with [AMI]Cl (AMI=1-amyl-3-methylimidazolium) as the reaction medium produced a novel 3D mixed-ligand metal-organic framework [AMI][Ni{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(OAc)(MI){sub 3}] (1) (MI=1-methylimidazole) with [AMI]{sup +} incorporated in the framework. The framework is formed by connecting 2D planes, made up of 32- and 48-membered rings, through 1D chains composed of 32-membered rings. The two BTC{sup 3-} ligands in 1 show the same connectivity mode with two bidentate and one {mu}{sub 2} bridging carboxylic groups. This is a new connectivity mode to the already existing 17 in the Ni-BTC system. The role of MI and [AMI]Cl in the structure formation is discussed. - Graphical Abstract: A novel 3D framework [AMI][Ni{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(OAc)(MI){sub 3}] is obtained in ionothermal system with [AMI]{sup +} incorporating in the cavities as structure directing template and BTC{sup 3-} showing a new coordination fashion. The 3D framework is constructed by 2D layers linked with 1D double chains. The title compound has the middle thermal stability at ca. 280 deg. C.

  3. Crystal fields of porphyrins and phthalocyanines from polarization-dependent 2p-to-3d multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Phillip S.; Boukahil, Idris; Himpsel, F. J.; García-Lastra, J. M.; Kennedy, Colton K.; Jersett, Nathan J.; Cook, Peter L.

    2014-03-21

    Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy is combined with density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations to determine the crystal field parameters 10Dq, Ds, and Dt of transition metal phthalocyanines and octaethylporphyrins (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni). The polarization dependence facilitates the assignment of the multiplets in terms of in-plane and out-of-plane orbitals and avoids ambiguities. Crystal field values from density functional calculations provide starting values close to the optimum fit of the data. The resulting systematics of the crystal field can be used for optimizing electron-hole separation in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. Design and Optimization of Phononic Crystals and Metamaterials for Flow Control and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Osama R.

    Transmission of everyday sound and heat can be traced back to a physical particle, or wave, called a "phonon". Understanding, analyzing and manipulating phonons across multiple scales/disciplines can be achieved using phononic materials. That is a class of material systems featuring a basic pattern that repeats spatially. Among many qualities, it exhibits distinct frequency characteristics such as band gaps, where vibrational waves of certain frequencies are prohibited from propagation. These properties can benefit a multitude of applications, ranging from vibration isolation and converting waste heat into electricity to exotic concepts like acoustic cloaking. Using unit-cell design and optimization, phononic materials/devices with extraordinary properties may be realized. Since many of these applications are based on band-gap utilization, a critical design objective is to widen band-gap size or precisely synthesize its characteristics. Approaching this problem at the unit cell level is advantageous in many aspects, mostly because it provides a complete picture of the intrinsic local dynamics which is often obscured when analyzing the structure as a whole. Moreover, it is computationally less expensive than designing an entire structure. Unit-cell dispersion engineering is also scale independent; an optimized unit cell may be used to manipulate waves ranging from a few Hz to GHz, or higher, with proper scaling. In order to keep the structure/device size as small as possible, the band-gap central frequency is tuned to be as low as possible. The objective of this thesis is to explore and advance unit-cell design and optimization of phononic materials in one, two and three-dimensions for a broad range of applications. In particular, an application for flow control is investigated where a phononic material is shown to manipulate and alter a flow field in a favorable manner. Results involving unit-cell design and coupled fluid-structure simulations (as part of a

  5. Cavity optomechanics in photonic and phononic crystals: engineering the interaction of light and sound at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenfield, Matthew

    The dynamic back-action caused by electromagnetic forces (radiation pressure) in optical and microwave cavities is of growing interest. Back-action cooling, for example, is being pursued as a means of achieving the quantum ground state of macroscopic mechanical oscillators. Work in the optical domain has revolved around millimeter- or micrometer-scale structures using the radiation pressure force. By comparison, in microwave devices, low-loss superconducting structures have been used for gradient-force-mediated coupling to a nanomechanical oscillator of picogram mass. In this thesis, two different nanometer-scale structures that use combinations of gradient and radiation pressure optical forces are described theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. These structures merge the fields of cavity optomechanics and nanomechanics into nano-optomechanical systsms (NOMS). The first device, the “Zipper” optomechanical cavity, consists of a pair of doubly-clamped nanoscale beams separated by approximately 100 nanometers, each beam having a mass of 20 picograms and being patterned with a quasi-1D photonic crystal bandgap cavity. The optical mode of the coupled system is exquisitely sensitive to differential motion of the beams, producing optomechanical coupling right at the fundamental limit set by optical diffraction. The mechanical modes of the beam probed with a background sensitivity only a factor of 4 above the standard quantum limit, and the application of less than a milliwatt of optical power is shown to increase the mechanical rigidity of the system by almost an order of magnitude. The second device focuses on just one of the doubly-clamped nanoscale beams of the Zipper. We show that, in addition to a photonic bandgap cavity, the periodic patterning of the beam also produces a phononic bandgap cavity with localized mechanical modes having frequencies in the microwave regime. We call these photonic and phononic crystal bandgap cavities optomechanical crystals

  6. In situ 3D topographic and shape analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography for crystal form identification in polymorphic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xian-Zhen; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Nangia, Ashwini; Yang, Shuo; Lu, Xiao-Long; Li, Hai-Yan; Shao, Qun; He, You; York, Peter; Zhang, Ji-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphism denotes the existence of more than one crystal structure of a substance, and great practical and theoretical interest for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In many cases, it is challenging to produce a pure crystal form and establish a sensitive detection method for the identification of crystal form in a mixture of polymorphs. In this study, an accurate and sensitive method based on synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) was devised to identify the polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP). After 3D reconstruction, crystal particles were extracted and dozens of structural parameters were calculated. Whilst, the particle shapes of the two crystal forms were all irregular, the surface of CLP II was found to be rougher than CLP I. In order to classify the crystal form based on the quantitative morphological property of particles, Volume Bias Percentage based on Surface Smoothing (VBP) was defined and a new method based on VBP was successfully developed, with a total matching rate of 99.91% for 4544 particles and a lowest detectable limit of 1%. More important for the mixtures in solid pharmaceutical formulations, the interference of excipients can be avoided, a feature cannot achieved by other available analytical methods.

  7. In situ 3D topographic and shape analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography for crystal form identification in polymorphic mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xian-Zhen; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Nangia, Ashwini; Yang, Shuo; Lu, Xiao-Long; Li, Hai-Yan; Shao, Qun; He, You; York, Peter; Zhang, Ji-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism denotes the existence of more than one crystal structure of a substance, and great practical and theoretical interest for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In many cases, it is challenging to produce a pure crystal form and establish a sensitive detection method for the identification of crystal form in a mixture of polymorphs. In this study, an accurate and sensitive method based on synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) was devised to identify the polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP). After 3D reconstruction, crystal particles were extracted and dozens of structural parameters were calculated. Whilst, the particle shapes of the two crystal forms were all irregular, the surface of CLP II was found to be rougher than CLP I. In order to classify the crystal form based on the quantitative morphological property of particles, Volume Bias Percentage based on Surface Smoothing (VBP) was defined and a new method based on VBP was successfully developed, with a total matching rate of 99.91% for 4544 particles and a lowest detectable limit of 1%. More important for the mixtures in solid pharmaceutical formulations, the interference of excipients can be avoided, a feature cannot achieved by other available analytical methods. PMID:27097672

  8. A new class of tunable hypersonic phononic crystals based on polymer-tethered colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Redondo, E.; Schmitt, M.; Urbach, Z.; Hui, C. M.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Matyjaszewski, K.; Bockstaller, M. R.; Fytas, G.

    2015-09-01

    The design and engineering of hybrid materials exhibiting tailored phononic band gaps are fundamentally relevant to innovative material technologies in areas ranging from acoustics to thermo-optic devices. Phononic hybridization gaps, originating from the anti-crossing between local resonant and propagating modes, have attracted particular interest because of their relative robustness to structural disorder and the associated benefit to `manufacturability'. Although hybridization gap materials are well known, their economic fabrication and efficient control of the gap frequency have remained elusive because of the limited property variability and expensive fabrication methodologies. Here we report a new strategy to realize hybridization gap materials by harnessing the `anisotropic elasticity' across the particle-polymer interface in densely polymer-tethered colloidal particles. Theoretical and Brillouin scattering analysis confirm both the robustness to disorder and the tunability of the resulting hybridization gap and provide guidelines for the economic synthesis of new materials with deliberately controlled gap position and width frequencies.

  9. A new class of tunable hypersonic phononic crystals based on polymer-tethered colloids.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Redondo, E; Schmitt, M; Urbach, Z; Hui, C M; Sainidou, R; Rembert, P; Matyjaszewski, K; Bockstaller, M R; Fytas, G

    2015-09-22

    The design and engineering of hybrid materials exhibiting tailored phononic band gaps are fundamentally relevant to innovative material technologies in areas ranging from acoustics to thermo-optic devices. Phononic hybridization gaps, originating from the anti-crossing between local resonant and propagating modes, have attracted particular interest because of their relative robustness to structural disorder and the associated benefit to 'manufacturability'. Although hybridization gap materials are well known, their economic fabrication and efficient control of the gap frequency have remained elusive because of the limited property variability and expensive fabrication methodologies. Here we report a new strategy to realize hybridization gap materials by harnessing the 'anisotropic elasticity' across the particle-polymer interface in densely polymer-tethered colloidal particles. Theoretical and Brillouin scattering analysis confirm both the robustness to disorder and the tunability of the resulting hybridization gap and provide guidelines for the economic synthesis of new materials with deliberately controlled gap position and width frequencies.

  10. Laser demonstrations of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M; Page, R; Payne, S; Schunemann, P; Isaenko, L

    2000-04-01

    Laser results are summarized for the low-phonon hosts KPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5} and CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}. Radiative quantum efficiencies were determined in KPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}:Dy{sup 3+} directly from emission spectra in order to accurately determine its long-wavelength potential. The results indicate that room-temperature laser action should be possible to near 9 {micro}m in this host.

  11. Final LDRD report : enhanced spontaneous emission rate in visible III-nitride LEDs using 3D photonic crystal cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Arthur Joseph; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Coley, Anthony J.; Lee, Yun-Ju; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Luk, Ting Shan; Koleske, Daniel David; Fullmer, Kristine Wanta

    2009-09-01

    The fundamental spontaneous emission rate for a photon source can be modified by placing the emitter inside a periodic dielectric structure allowing the emission to be dramatically enhanced or suppressed depending on the intended application. We have investigated the relatively unexplored realm of interaction between semiconductor emitters and three dimensional photonic crystals in the visible spectrum. Although this interaction has been investigated at longer wavelengths, very little work has been done in the visible spectrum. During the course of this LDRD, we have fabricated TiO{sub 2} logpile photonic crystal structures with the shortest wavelength band gap ever demonstrated. A variety of different emitters with emission between 365 nm and 700 nm were incorporated into photonic crystal structures. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were performed to measure changes to the spontaneous emission rate. Both enhanced and suppressed emission were demonstrated and attributed to changes to the photonic density of states.

  12. Ultra-high frequency, high Q/volume micromechanical resonators in a planar AlN phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi Baboly, M.; Alaie, S.; Reinke, C. M.; El-Kady, I.; Leseman, Z. C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the first design and experimental demonstration of an ultrahigh frequency complete phononic crystal (PnC) bandgap aluminum nitride (AlN)/air structure operating in the GHz range. A complete phononic bandgap of this design is used to efficiently and simultaneously confine elastic vibrations in a resonator. The PnC structure is fabricated by etching a square array of air holes in an AlN slab. The fabricated PnC resonator resonates at 1.117 GHz, which corresponds to an out-of-plane mode. The measured bandgap and resonance frequencies are in very good agreement with the eigen-frequency and frequency-domain finite element analyses. As a result, a quality factor/volume of 7.6 × 1017/m3 for the confined resonance mode was obtained that is the largest value reported for this type of PnC resonator to date. These results are an important step forward in achieving possible applications of PnCs for RF communication and signal processing with smaller dimensions.

  13. 3D-Modeling of deformed halite hopper crystals: Object based image analysis and support vector machine, a first evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Marschallinger, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Halite hopper crystals are thought to develop by displacive growth in unconsolidated mud (Gornitz & Schreiber, 1984). The Alpine Haselgebirge, but also e.g. the salt deposits of the Rhine graben (mined at the beginning of the 20th century), comprise hopper crystals with shapes of cuboids, parallelepipeds and rhombohedrons (Görgey, 1912). Obviously, they deformed under oriented stress, which had been tried to reconstruct with respect to the sedimentary layering (Leitner et al., 2013). In the present work, deformed halite hopper crystals embedded in mudrock were automated reconstructed. Object based image analysis (OBIA) has been used successfully in remote sensing for 2D images before. The present study represents the first time that the method was used for reconstruction of three dimensional geological objects. First, manually a reference (gold standard) was created by redrawing contours of the halite crystals on each HRXCT scanning slice. Then, for OBIA, the computer program eCognition was used. For the automated reconstruction a rule set was developed. Thereby, the strength of OBIA was to recognize all objects similar to halite hopper crystals and in particular to eliminate cracks. In a second step, all the objects unsuitable for a structural deformation analysis were dismissed using a support vector machine (SVM) (clusters, polyhalite-coated crystals and spherical halites) The SVM simultaneously drastically reduced the number of halites. From 184 OBIA-objects 67 well shaped remained, which comes close to the number of pre-selected 52 objects. To assess the accuracy of the automated reconstruction, the result before and after SVM was compared to the reference, i.e. the gold standard. State-of the art per-scene statistics were extended to a per-object statistics. Görgey R (1912) Zur Kenntnis der Kalisalzlager von Wittelsheim im Ober-Elsaß. Tschermaks Mineral Petrogr Mitt 31:339-468 Gornitz VM, Schreiber BC (1981) Displacive halite hoppers from the dead sea

  14. Mueller matrix ellipsometry studies of the optical phonons and crystal field excitations in multiferroic orthoferrites RFeO3 (R=Tb,Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, V. A.; Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Sirenko, A. A.; Litvinchuk, A. P.; Wang, Yazhong; Cheong, S. W.

    Optical properties of multiferroic orthoferrites RFeO3 (R=Tb,Dy) bulk crystals have been studied in the far-infrared range from 50 to 1000 cm-1 and temperatures from 7 K to 300 K. Mueller matrix and rotating analyzer ellipsometry measurements were carried out at the U4IR beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Lab. Optical phonon spectra and crystal field excitations were measured for all three orthorhombic axes of RFeO3. In the experimental temperature dependencies of the phonon frequencies we found non-Grüneisen behavior caused by the electron-phonon and spin-phonon interactions. We determined the symmetries and selection rules for the crystal field transitions in Tb3+ and Dy3+ ions. Magnetic field dependencies of the optical spectra allowed us to determine anisotropy of the crystal field g-factors for Tb3+ and Dy3+ ions. This Project is supported by collaborative DOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER46382 between Rutgers U. and NJIT. Use of NSLS-BNL was supported by DOE DE-AC02-98CH10886. V.A. Martinez was supported by NEU NSF-1343716.

  15. Novel 1 × N ultrasonic power splitters based on self-imaging effect of phononic crystal waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Qiushun; Yu, Tianbao; Wang, Tongbiao; Liu, Nianhua; Liao, Qinghua; Xu, Xuming

    2016-02-01

    We present an appropriate design and simulated results of novel 1 × N (N represents an integer larger than 1) ultrasonic power splitters based on self-imaging effect with symmetric interference of phononic crystal waveguide arrays. Such sonic devices with two and three output channels are discussed in detail as examples. The finite element method is used to calculate the distribution of total displacement field and evaluate the efficiency of these structures. Results show that these devices exhibit new and interesting characteristics, such as compact size, wide bandwidth, and high-transmission. The approach provides a novel method and compact model for exporting freely ultrasonic waves to N channels and can present practical applications in future acoustic wave circuits.

  16. Characteristics of the guided modes in a two-dimensional three-component phononic crystal with linear defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Cheng, Zhao; Lian-Zhi, Deng; Li-Bo, Yuan

    2012-02-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal (PC), including a type of linear defect that is composed of third component materials, is proposed in this paper. The sonic guided characteristics of the structure are investigated by combining the plane-wave expansion method and a supercell technique. The results show that there are guided modes in the original band gap when third material-based linear defects are introduced in the two-component PC. The frequency of the guided modes changes with the rotational angle and filling fraction of the linear defect. The frequency distribution is symmetric to the (0, 1) direction. The sonic waveguide characteristics of the PC do not change with the orientation and the type of cross-section of the defect cylinders when the filling fraction is very small. This property has potential application in controlling the guided modes in a 2D PC.

  17. Acoustic band gaps with diffraction gratings in a two-dimensional phononic crystal with a square lattice in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Il; Kang, Hwi Suk; Yoon, Suk Wang

    2016-04-01

    The present work reports a combined experimental and theoretical study on the acoustic band gaps in a two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal (PC) consisting of periodic square arrays of stainless-steel cylinders with diameters of 1.0 mm and a lattice constant of 1.5 mm in water. The theoretical band structure of the 2D PC was calculated along the ΓX direction of the first Brillouin zone. The transmission and the reflection coefficients were obtained both experimentally and theoretically along the ΓX direction of the 2D PC. The 2D PC exhibited 5 band gaps at frequencies below 2.0 MHz, with the first Bragg gap being around a frequency of 0.5 MHz. To understand the band gaps in the 2D PC, we calculated the acoustic pressure fields at specific frequencies of interest for normal incidence, and we explained them from the perspective of acoustic diffraction gratings.

  18. Birefringent phononic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Psarobas, I. E. Exarchos, D. A.; Matikas, T. E.

    2014-12-15

    Within the framework of elastic anisotropy, caused in a phononic crystal due to low crystallographic symmetry, we adopt a model structure, already introduced in the case of photonic metamaterials, and by analogy, we study the effect of birefringence and acoustical activity in a phononic crystal. In particular, we investigate its low-frequency behavior and comment on the factors which determine chirality by reference to this model.

  19. Duality between the dynamics of line-like brushes of point defects in 2D and strings in 3D in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digal, Sanatan; Ray, Rajarshi; Saumia, P. S.; Srivastava, Ajit M.

    2013-10-01

    We analyze the dynamics of dark brushes connecting point vortices of strength ±1 formed in the isotropic-nematic phase transition of a thin layer of nematic liquid crystals, using a crossed polarizer set up. The evolution of the brushes is seen to be remarkably similar to the evolution of line defects in a three-dimensional nematic liquid crystal system. Even phenomena like the intercommutativity of strings are routinely observed in the dynamics of brushes. We test the hypothesis of a duality between the two systems by determining exponents for the coarsening of total brush length with time as well as shrinking of the size of an isolated loop. Our results show scaling behavior for the brush length as well as the loop size with corresponding exponents in good agreement with the 3D case of string defects.

  20. Quantitative 3D Fluorescence Imaging of Single Catalytic Turnovers Reveals Spatiotemporal Gradients in Reactivity of Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals upon Steaming

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the number, distribution, and accessibility of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite-based catalysts is of a paramount importance to further improve their catalytic performance. However, it remains challenging to measure real-time changes in reactivity of single zeolite catalyst particles by ensemble-averaging characterization methods. In this work, a detailed 3D single molecule, single turnover sensitive fluorescence microscopy study is presented to quantify the reactivity of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals upon steaming. This approach, in combination with the oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol as a probe reaction, allowed the stochastic behavior of single catalytic turnovers and temporally resolved turnover frequencies of zeolite domains smaller than the diffraction limited resolution to be investigated with great precision. It was found that the single turnover kinetics of the parent zeolite crystal proceeds with significant spatial differences in turnover frequencies on the nanoscale and noncorrelated temporal fluctuations. Mild steaming of zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals at 500 °C led to an enhanced surface reactivity, with up to 4 times higher local turnover rates than those of the parent H-ZSM-5 crystals, and revealed remarkable heterogeneities in surface reactivity. In strong contrast, severe steaming at 700 °C significantly dealuminated the zeolite H-ZSM-5 material, leading to a 460 times lower turnover rate. The differences in measured turnover activities are explained by changes in the 3D aluminum distribution due to migration of extraframework Al-species and their subsequent effect on pore accessibility, as corroborated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) sputter depth profiling data. PMID:25867455

  1. Syntheses, crystal structures, and characterization of three 1D, 2D and 3D complexes based on mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huai-Xia; Liang, Zhen; Hao, Bao-Lian; Meng, Xiang-Ru

    2014-10-01

    Three new 1D to 3D complexes, namely, {[Ni(btec)(Himb)2(H2O)2]·6H2O}n (1), {[Cd(btec)0.5(imb)(H2O)]·1.5H2O}n (2), and {[Zn(btec)0.5(imb)]·H2O}n (3) (H4btec=1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, imb=2-(1H-imidazol-1-methyl)-1H-benzimidazole) have been synthesized by adjusting the central metal ions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that complex 1 possesses a 1D chain structure which is further extended into the 3D supramolecular architecture via hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 features a 2D network with Schla¨fli symbol (53·62·7)(52·64). Complex 3 presents a 3D framework with a point symbol of (4·64·8)(42·62·82). Moreover, their IR spectra, PXRD patterns, thermogravimetric curves, and luminescent emissions were studied at room temperature.

  2. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization.

    PubMed

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O

    2012-11-21

    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  3. A new class of tunable hypersonic phononic crystals based on polymer-tethered colloids

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Redondo, E.; Schmitt, M.; Urbach, Z.; Hui, C. M.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Matyjaszewski, K.; Bockstaller, M. R.; Fytas, G.

    2015-01-01

    The design and engineering of hybrid materials exhibiting tailored phononic band gaps are fundamentally relevant to innovative material technologies in areas ranging from acoustics to thermo-optic devices. Phononic hybridization gaps, originating from the anti-crossing between local resonant and propagating modes, have attracted particular interest because of their relative robustness to structural disorder and the associated benefit to ‘manufacturability'. Although hybridization gap materials are well known, their economic fabrication and efficient control of the gap frequency have remained elusive because of the limited property variability and expensive fabrication methodologies. Here we report a new strategy to realize hybridization gap materials by harnessing the ‘anisotropic elasticity' across the particle–polymer interface in densely polymer-tethered colloidal particles. Theoretical and Brillouin scattering analysis confirm both the robustness to disorder and the tunability of the resulting hybridization gap and provide guidelines for the economic synthesis of new materials with deliberately controlled gap position and width frequencies. PMID:26390851

  4. Dielectric and infrared properties of SrTiO3 single crystal doped by 3d (V, Mn, Fe, Ni) and 4f (Nd, Sm, Er) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletic, S.; Maletic, D.; Petronijevic, I.; Dojcilovic, J.; M. Popovic, D.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the effects of doping by 3d (V, Mn, Fe, Ni) and 4f (Nd, Sm, Er) ions on dielectric and infrared properties of SrTiO3 (STO) single crystals are investigated. It is well known that doping of the SrTiO3 can change the dielectric properties of the STO from an insulator to an n-type semiconductor, and even to a metallic conductor. Dielectric and infrared (IR) properties of the undoped STO and doped STO single crystals are analyzed using dielectric spectroscopy (80 kHz-5 MHz), transmission (200 cm-1-4000 cm-1), and reflection spectroscopy (50 cm-1-2000 cm-1). It is found that doping by the 3d ions reduces the value of dielectric permittivity, but the trend of temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity remains almost unchanged. On the other hand, dielectric spectroscopy measurements for samples doped by 4f ions show the anomalous behaviors of the dielectric permittivity at temperatures around the temperature of the structural phase transition. There are two fractures of temperature dependences of inverse dielectric permittivity ɛr-1(T). Transmittance spectroscopy measurements show that there are differences in the shape of the spectrum in the mid-IR region between the undoped STO and the one doped by 4f ions. The differences in the reflectance spectrum between the STO:Nd and STO are analyzed in detail.

  5. An Artificial Ising System with Phononic Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Hamed; Griffith, W. Ashley; Benson, Philip; Nasseri, M. H. B.; Young, R. Paul

    Many intractable systems and problems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we report mapping collective phononic excitations from different sources of crystal vibrations to spin systems. The phononic excitations in our experiments are due to micro and nano cracking (yielding crackling noises due to lattice distortion). We develop real time mapping of the multi-array senores to a network-space and then mapping the excitation- networks to spin-like systems. We show that new mapped system satisfies the quench (impulsive) characteristics of the Ising model in 2D classical spin systems. In particular, we show that our artificial Ising system transits between two ground states and approaching the critical point accompanies with a very short time frozen regime, inducing formation of domains separated by kinks. For a cubic-test under a true triaxial test (3D case), we map the system to a 6-spin ring under a transversal-driving field where using functional multiplex networks, the vector components of the spin are inferred (i.e., XY model). By visualization of spin patterns of the ring per each event, we demonstrate that ``kinks'' (as defects) proliferate when system approach from above to its critical point. We support our observations with employing recorded acoustic excitations during distortion of crystal lattices in nano-indentation tests on different crystals (silicon and graphite), triaxial loading test on rock (poly-crystal) samples and a true 3D triaxial test.

  6. Dynamics of electron-phonon scattering: crystal- and angular-momentum transfer probed by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Beye, M; Hennies, F; Deppe, M; Suljoti, E; Nagasono, M; Wurth, W; Föhlisch, A

    2009-12-01

    Experimentally, we observe angular-momentum transfer in electron-phonon scattering, although it is commonly agreed that phonons transfer mostly linear momentum. Therefore, the incorporation of angular momentum to describe phonons is necessary already for simple semiconductors and bears significant implications for the formation of new quasiparticles in correlated functional materials. Separation of linear and angular-momentum transfer in electron-phonon scattering is achieved by highly selective excitations on the femtosecond time scale of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

  7. Six-membered metalla-coronands. synthesis and crystal packing: columns, compartments, and 3D-networks.

    PubMed

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Deutscher, Christian; Sperner, Stefan; Nakajima, Takayuki; Ako, Ayuk M; Uller, Eveline; Hampel, Frank; Heinemann, Frank W

    2004-07-12

    Reaction of various N-substituted diethanolamines H(2)L(3) (4) with calcium hydride and iron(III) chloride leads to the self-assembly of six-membered ferric wheels [Fe(6)X(6)(L(3))(6)] (5). Principally, all the iron coronands are isostructural; however, they differ fundamentally with respect to their crystal packing. Exemplarily, this is discussed for selected members of the space groups R, P, P2(1)/c, P2(1)/n, C2/c, and P. Depending on the nature of their sidearms, the ferric wheels create various substructures. For instance, the ferric wheels 5a-i of space group R or P are piled in parallel in cylindrical columns, which are surrounded by six parallel columns alternately dislocated by (1)/(3)c and (2)/(3)c against the central one. Pronounced van der Waals interactions give rise to compartmentation and incarceration of guest molecules as seen for 5e,g. However, in 5h strong pi-pi interactions create a three-dimensional scaffold. The most significant difference of the ferric wheels 5j-p of space groups P2(1)/c, P2(1)/n, and C2/c is that these ferric wheels are arranged in parallel in two orientations. They differ mainly only by the included angle of the two groups of parallel wheels. In the case of 5l, molecular chains are formed in the crystal due to pi-pi interactions. The ferric wheels 5q-y of space group P are packed in the crystal most simply, with all the ferric wheels piled in parallel.

  8. Syntheses, crystal structures, and characterization of three 1D, 2D and 3D complexes based on mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huai-Xia; Liang, Zhen; Hao, Bao-Lian; Meng, Xiang-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Three new 1D to 3D complexes, namely, ([Ni(btec)(Himb){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), ([Cd(btec){sub 0.5}(imb)(H{sub 2}O)]·1.5H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2), and ([Zn(btec){sub 0.5}(imb)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) (H{sub 4}btec=1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, imb=2-(1H-imidazol-1-methyl)-1H-benzimidazole) have been synthesized by adjusting the central metal ions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that complex 1 possesses a 1D chain structure which is further extended into the 3D supramolecular architecture via hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 features a 2D network with Schla¨fli symbol (5{sup 3}·6{sup 2}·7)(5{sup 2}·6{sup 4}). Complex 3 presents a 3D framework with a point symbol of (4·6{sup 4}·8)(4{sup 2}·6{sup 2}·8{sup 2}). Moreover, their IR spectra, PXRD patterns, thermogravimetric curves, and luminescent emissions were studied at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Three new 1D to 3D complexes with different structural and topological motifs have been obtained by modifying the central metal ions. Additionally, their IR, TG analyses and fluorescent properties are also investigated. - Highlights: • Three complexes based on mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands. • The complexes are characterized by IR, luminescence and TGA techniques. • Benzenetetracarboxylates display different coordination modes in complexes 1–3. • Changing the metal ions can result in complexes with completely different structures.

  9. Anomalous Fluorescence Enhancement from Double Heterostructure 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals--A Multifunctional Fluorescence-Based Sensor Platform.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Kim, Tak H; Gan, Zongsong; Cole, Ivan S; Zhao, Dongyuan; Kielpinski, Dave; Gu, Min; Li, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Augmenting fluorescence intensity is of vital importance to the development of chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and miniature light sources. Here we report an unprecedented fluorescence enhancement with a novel architecture of multilayer three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals self-assembled from polystyrene spheres. The new technique uses a double heterostructure, which comprises a top and a bottom layer with a periodicity overlapping the excitation wavelength (E) of the emitters, and a middle layer with a periodicity matching the fluorescence wavelength (F) and a thickness that supports constructive interference for the excitation wavelength. This E-F-E double heterostructure displays direction-dependent light trapping for both excitation and fluorescence, coupling the modes of photonic crystal with multiple-beam interference. The E-F-E double heterostructure renders an additional 5-fold enhancement to the extraordinary FL amplification of Rhodamine B in monolithic E CPhCs, and 4.3-fold acceleration of emission dynamics. Such a self-assembled double heterostructure CPhCs may find significant applications in illumination, laser, chemical/biochemical sensing, and solar energy harvesting. We further demonstrate the multi-functionality of the E-F-E double heterostructure CPhCs in Hg (II) sensing. PMID:26400503

  10. Anomalous Fluorescence Enhancement from Double Heterostructure 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals-A Multifunctional Fluorescence-Based Sensor Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Kim, Tak H.; Gan, Zongsong; Cole, Ivan S.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Kielpinski, Dave; Gu, Min; Li, Qin

    2015-09-01

    Augmenting fluorescence intensity is of vital importance to the development of chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and miniature light sources. Here we report an unprecedented fluorescence enhancement with a novel architecture of multilayer three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals self-assembled from polystyrene spheres. The new technique uses a double heterostructure, which comprises a top and a bottom layer with a periodicity overlapping the excitation wavelength (E) of the emitters, and a middle layer with a periodicity matching the fluorescence wavelength (F) and a thickness that supports constructive interference for the excitation wavelength. This E-F-E double heterostructure displays direction-dependent light trapping for both excitation and fluorescence, coupling the modes of photonic crystal with multiple-beam interference. The E-F-E double heterostructure renders an additional 5-fold enhancement to the extraordinary FL amplification of Rhodamine B in monolithic E CPhCs, and 4.3-fold acceleration of emission dynamics. Such a self-assembled double heterostructue CPhCs may find significant applications in illumination, laser, chemical/biochemical sensing, and solar energy harvesting. We further demonstrate the multi-functionality of the E-F-E double heterostructure CPhCs in Hg (II) sensing.

  11. Monitoring the formation of carbide crystal phases during the thermal decomposition of 3d transition metal dicarboxylate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Huba, ZJ; Carpenter, EE

    2014-06-06

    Single molecule precursors can help to simplify the synthesis of complex alloys by minimizing the amount of necessary starting reagents. However, single molecule precursors are time consuming to prepare with very few being commercially available. In this study, a simple precipitation method is used to prepare Fe, Co, and Ni fumarate and succinate complexes. These complexes were then thermally decomposed in an inert atmosphere to test their efficiency as single molecule precursors for the formation of metal carbide phases. Elevated temperature X-ray diffraction was used to identify the crystal phases produced upon decomposition of the metal dicarboxylate complexes. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with an infrared detector was used to identify the developed gaseous decomposition products. All complexes tested showed a reduction from the starting M2+ oxidation state to the M oxidation state, upon decomposition. Also, each complex tested showed CO2 and H2O as gaseous decomposition products. Nickel succinate, iron succinate, and iron fumarate complexes were found to form carbide phases upon decomposition. This proves that transition metal dicarboxylate salts can be employed as efficient single molecule precursors for the formation of metal carbide crystal phases.

  12. Preface to special topic: Selected articles from phononics 2013: The second international conference on phononic crystals/metamaterials, phonon transport and optomechanics, 2-7 June 2013, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt

    DOE PAGES

    Hussein, Mahmoud I.; El-Kady, Ihab; Li, Baowen; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-12-31

    “Phononics” is an interdisciplinary branch of physics and engineering that deals with the behavior of phonons, and more broadly elastic and acoustic waves in similar context, and their manipulation in solids and/or fluids to benefit technological applications. Compared to resembling disciplines, such as electronics and photonics, phononics is a youthful field. It is growing at a remarkable rate, especially when viewed liberally with no limiting constraints on any particular length scale, discipline or application.

  13. Femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous N-doped Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 92} films and in situ characterization by coherent phonon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhongyu; Wen, Ting; Lai, Tianshu E-mail: jwzhai@tongji.edu.cn; Hu, Yifeng; Zhai, Jiwei E-mail: jwzhai@tongji.edu.cn

    2015-04-07

    Femtosecond laser-irradiation-induced phase change of amorphous N-doped Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 92} films is in situ studied by coherent phonon spectroscopy. We have observed that a new coherent optical phonon (COP) mode occurs as laser irradiation fluence reaches certain thresholds, indicating laser-induced phase changes. Additionally, this new phonon mode has also been verified in heat-annealing-crystallized N-doped Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 92} films, confirming the emergence of laser-irradiation-induced crystallization. By measuring the pump fluence dependence of COP dynamics in laser-crystallized N-doped Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 92} films, we found that the frequency and lifetime of COP decrease with the increasing of pump fluence, which suggests good crystallinity in laser-crystallized N-doped Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 92} films. It has also been observed that the crystallization temperature of amorphous N-doped Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 92} films increases with N-doping content. Our results indicate promising applications of N-doped Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 92} films in optical phase-change memory devices.

  14. Femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous N-doped Ge8Sb92 films and in situ characterization by coherent phonon spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongyu; Hu, Yifeng; Wen, Ting; Zhai, Jiwei; Lai, Tianshu

    2015-04-01

    Femtosecond laser-irradiation-induced phase change of amorphous N-doped Ge8Sb92 films is in situ studied by coherent phonon spectroscopy. We have observed that a new coherent optical phonon (COP) mode occurs as laser irradiation fluence reaches certain thresholds, indicating laser-induced phase changes. Additionally, this new phonon mode has also been verified in heat-annealing-crystallized N-doped Ge8Sb92 films, confirming the emergence of laser-irradiation-induced crystallization. By measuring the pump fluence dependence of COP dynamics in laser-crystallized N-doped Ge8Sb92 films, we found that the frequency and lifetime of COP decrease with the increasing of pump fluence, which suggests good crystallinity in laser-crystallized N-doped Ge8Sb92 films. It has also been observed that the crystallization temperature of amorphous N-doped Ge8Sb92 films increases with N-doping content. Our results indicate promising applications of N-doped Ge8Sb92 films in optical phase-change memory devices.

  15. Probing the 3D structure of cornea-like collagen liquid crystals with polarization-resolved SHG microscopy.

    PubMed

    Teulon, Claire; Tidu, Aurélien; Portier, François; Mosser, Gervaise; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2016-07-11

    This work aims at characterizing the three-dimensional organization of liquid crystals composed of collagen, in order to determine the physico-chemical conditions leading to highly organized structures found in biological tissues such as cornea. To that end, we use second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, since aligned collagen structures have been shown to exhibit intrinsic SHG signals. We combine polarization-resolved SHG experiments (P-SHG) with the theoretical derivation of the SHG signal of collagen molecules tilted with respect to the focal plane. Our P-SHG images exhibit striated patterns with variable contrast, as expected from our analytical and numerical calculations for plywood-like nematic structures similar to the ones found in the cornea. This study demonstrates the benefits of P-SHG microscopy for in situ characterization of highly organized biopolymers at micrometer scale, and the unique sensitivity of this nonlinear optical technique to the orientation of collagen molecules. PMID:27410876

  16. Selective imaging of 3D director fields and study of defects in biaxial smectic A liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Smalyukh, I I; Pratibha, R; Madhusudana, N V; Lavrentovich, O D

    2005-02-01

    We report on the selective imaging of different director fields in a biaxial smectic A (SmAb) liquid crystal using Fluorescence Confocal Polarizing Microscopy (FCPM) and Polarizing Microscopy (PM). The patterns of two directors, namely the director n(a) perpendicular to the lamellae and the director n(b) in their planes are visualized by doping the liquid crystal with two fluorescent dyes with different orientation of the transition dipoles with respect to the lamellar matrix. The properties of defects such as disclinations and focal conic domains (FCDs) are consistent with the non-polar D2h-symmetry of the SmA(b) mesophase in the studied mixture of bent-core and rod-like molecules: (1) majority of defects in the director n(b) are half-integer "+/-1/2" disclinations; (2) the integer-strength "+/-1" defects tend to split into the "+/-1/2" disclinations. We compare the vertical cross-sections of the "+/-1" disclinations in the field in SmA(b) and uniaxial nematic samples. In SmA(b), the "+/-1" disclinations do not escape into the third dimension, while in the nematic samples with Schlieren textures they do despite the surface anchoring at the plates; the experimentally determined director field around the escaped disclination capped by a pair of surface point defects--boojums matches the one predicted recently [C. Chiccoli et al., Phys. Rev. E 66, 030701 (2002)]. The FCD structure in SmA(b) is similar to that in SmA and SmC in terms of the normal to the layers but differs significantly in terms of the director n(b) field parallel to the smectic layers. The FCDs in SmA(b) can be associated with topologically non-trivial configurations of n(b) in the surrounding matrix that are equivalent to the disclination lines.

  17. Disordered zinc in Zn4Sb3 with phonon-glass and electron-crystal thermoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Christensen, Mogens; Nishibori, Eiji; Caillat, Thierry; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2004-07-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity, thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenges. The compound Zn4Sb3 is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known. Its high efficiency results from an extraordinarily low thermal conductivity in conjunction with the electronic structure of a heavily doped semiconductor. Previous structural studies have been unable to explain this unusual combination of properties. Here, we show through a comprehensive structural analysis using single-crystal X-ray and powder-synchrotron-radiation diffraction methods, that both the electronic and thermal properties of Zn4Sb3 can be understood in terms of unique structural features that have been previously overlooked. The identification of Sb3- ions and Sb24- dimers reveals that Zn4Sb3 is a valence semiconductor with the ideal stoichiometry Zn13Sb10. In addition, the structure contains significant disorder, with zinc atoms distributed over multiple positions. The discovery of glass-like interstitial sites uncovers a highly effective mechanism for reducing thermal conductivity. Thus Zn4Sb3 is in many ways an ideal 'phonon glass, electron crystal' thermoelectric material.

  18. Disordered Zinc in Zn4Sb3 with Phonon-Glass and Electron-Crystal Thermoelectric Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Christensen, Mogens; Nishibori, Eiji; Caillat, Thierry; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity, thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenges. The compound Zn4Sb3 is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known. Its high efficiency results from an extraordinarily low thermal conductivity in conjunction with the electronic structure of a heavily doped semiconductor. Previous structural studies have been unable to explain this unusual combination of properties. Here, we show through a comprehensive structural analysis using single-crystal X-ray and powder-synchrotron-radiation diffraction methods, that both the electronic and thermal properties of Zn4Sb3 can be understood in terms of unique structural features that have been previously overlooked. The identification of Sb3- ions and Sb-2(4-) dimers reveals that Zn4Sb3 is a valence semiconductor with the ideal stoichiometry Zn13Sb10. In addition, the structure contains significant disorder, with zinc atoms distributed over multiple positions. The discovery of glass-like interstitial sites uncovers a highly effective mechanism for reducing thermal conductivity. Thus Zn4Sb3 is in many ways an ideal 'phonon glass, electron crystal' thermoelectric material.

  19. Electron-phonon interaction and thermal boundary resistance at the crystal-amorphous interface of the phase change compound GeTe

    SciTech Connect

    Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, Marco; Donadio, Davide; Sosso, Gabriele C.; Behler, Jörg

    2015-01-07

    Phonon dispersion relations and electron-phonon coupling of hole-doped trigonal GeTe have been computed by density functional perturbation theory. This compound is a prototypical phase change material of interest for applications in phase change non-volatile memories. The calculations allowed us to estimate the electron-phonon contribution to the thermal boundary resistance at the interface between the crystalline and amorphous phases present in the device. The lattice contribution to the thermal boundary resistance has been computed by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations with an interatomic potential based on a neural network scheme. We find that the electron-phonon term contributes to the thermal boundary resistance to an extent which is strongly dependent on the concentration and mobility of the holes. Further, for measured values of the holes concentration and electrical conductivity, the electron-phonon term is larger than the contribution from the lattice. It is also shown that the presence of Ge vacancies, responsible for the p-type degenerate character of the semiconductor, strongly affects the lattice thermal conductivity of the crystal.

  20. Phonon density of states of single-crystal SrF e2A s2 across the collapsed phase transition at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Q.; Lu, P. C.; Wu, J. J.; Liu, J.; Wang, X. C.; Zhao, J. Y.; Bi, W.; Alp, E. E.; Park, C. Y.; Popov, D.; Jin, C. Q.; Sun, J.; Lin, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    To help our understanding of the structural and superconducting transitions in ferropnictides, partial phonon density of states (PDOS) of iron in a single-crystal SrF e2A s2 pnictide have been investigated from both out-of-plane and in-plane polarizations with respect to the basal plane of the crystal structure using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in a high-pressure diamond anvil cell at ambient temperature. The partial PDOS of iron in the pnictide crystal changes dramatically at approximately 8 GPa, which can be associated with the tetragonal (T) to collapsed tetragonal (CT) isostructural transition as evidenced in high-pressure x-ray diffraction measurements and theoretical calculations. Across the T-CT phase transition, analysis of the PDOS spectra shows a rapid stiffening of the optical phonon modes and a dramatic increase of the Lamb-Mössbauer factor (fLM) and mean force constant which can be associated with the rapid decrease of the c axis and the anomalous expansion of the a axis. Theoretically calculated Fe partial PDOS and lattice parameters of SrF e2A s2 further reveal the strong correlation between the lattice parameters and phonons. Our results show that the T-CT transition can induce significant changes in the vibrational, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of SrF e2A s2 single crystal at high pressure.

  1. A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand: Solvothermal synthesis, crystal structure, gas adsorption and magnetic property

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qingfu Zhang, Haina; Geng, Aijing; Wang, Suna; Zhang, Chong

    2014-04-01

    A new cobalt(II)–organic framework, [Co{sub 2}(L)(py){sub 2}(DMSO)]{sub n}• 0.5nDMF• 2nDMSO (1) [H{sub 4}L=5,5'-((naphthalene-2,6-dicarbonyl)bis(azanediyl))diisophthalic acid, py=pyridine, DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide], has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, PXRD and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The structural analysis reveals that complex 1 is a 3D framework built from nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligands (L{sup 4−}) and dinuclear [Co{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}] secondary building units (SBUs), exhibiting a uninodal (4,4)-connected crb topology with the Schläfli symbol of (4• 6{sup 5}). The desolvated complex (1a) displays higher adsorption capability for CO{sub 2} than N{sub 2}, which may be due to the relatively strong binding affinity between the CO{sub 2} molecules and acylamide groups in the framework. The magnetic investigation shows that the dominant antiferromagnetic interaction is observed in complex 1. - Graphical abstract: A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand was solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized, its thermal stability, gas adsorption and magnetic property were studied. - Highlights: • A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized. • Complex 1 exhibits a uninodal (4,4)-connected crb topology. • The thermal stability, gas adsorption and magnetic property were studied.

  2. 3D {ital XY} Scaling of the Irreversibility Line of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.R.; Loram, J.W.; Johnson, J.D.; Hodby, J.W.; Changkang, C.

    1997-09-01

    We find experimentally that the irreversibility line, H{sub irr}(T) , and the reversible magnetization of twinned YBa{sub 2}Cu {sub 3}O{sub 7} crystals both show 3D XY scaling, which suggests a common origin for both quantities. Analysis of this result and of a correlation between the condensation energy and H{sub irr}(T) of oxygen deficient YBa{sub 2}Cu {sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} for 0{lt}{delta}{lt}0.6 , implies that H{sub irr}(T) is strongly influenced by critical fluctuations. It is possible that these values of H{sub irr}(T) and the recently discovered vortex melting line, H{sub m}(T) , both correspond to an upper critical field line which has been suppressed by thermodynamic fluctuations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Role of surfactant during microemulsion photopolymerization for the creation of three-dimensional (3D) liquid crystal elastomer microsphere spatial cell scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegmann, Elda; Bera, Tanmay; Malcuit, Christopher; Clements, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell scaffolds based on connected nematic liquid crystal elastomer microsphere architectures support the attachment and proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts, neuroblastomas (SHSY5Y) and human dermal fibroblasts (hDF). The microsphere spatial cell scaffolds were prepared by an oil-in-water microemulsion photopolymerization of reactive nematic mesogens in the presence of various surfactants, and the as-prepared scaffold constructs are composed of smooth surface microspheres with diameter ranging from 10 to 30 μm. We here investigate how the nature and type of surfactant used during the microemulsion photopolymerization impacts both the size and size distribution of the resulting microspheres as well as their surface morphology, i.e. the surface roughness.

  4. Photonic bandgap extension of surface-disordered 3D photonic crystals based on the TiO2 inverse opal architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aijun; Liu, Wenfang; Tang, Junjie; Chen, Sheng-Li; Dong, Peng

    2014-04-15

    A photonic bandgap (PBG) extension of surface-disordered 3D photonic crystals (PCs) based on the TiO2 inverse opal (TiO2-IO) architecture has been demonstrated. By using a liquid phase deposition (LPD) process based on the controlled hydrolysis of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid, an extra layer of TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited onto the internal surface of the air voids in the TiO2-IOs to increase their surface roughness, thereby introducing surface disorder in the 3D order structures. The PBG relative width of surface-disordered TiO2-IOs has been broadened significantly, and, compared to the original TiO2-IO, its largest rate of increase (27%) has been obtained. It was found that the PBG relative width increased rapidly at first and then to a much slower rate of change with increase of the duration of the LPD time. A possible cause for this finding is discussed in this Letter. PMID:24978999

  5. Simulations of wave propagation and disorder in 3D non-close-packed colloidal photonic crystals with low refractive index contrast.

    PubMed

    Glushko, O; Meisels, R; Kuchar, F

    2010-03-29

    The plane-wave expansion method (PWEM), the multiple-scattering method (MSM) and the 3D finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) are applied for simulations of propagation of electromagnetic waves through 3D colloidal photonic crystals. The system investigated is not a "usual" artificial opal with close-packed fcc lattice but a dilute bcc structure which occurs due to long-range repulsive interaction between electrically charged colloidal particles during the growth process. The basic optical properties of non-close-packed colloidal PhCs are explored by examining the band structure and reflection spectra for a bcc lattice of silica spheres in an aqueous medium. Finite size effects and correspondence between the Bragg model, band structure and reflection spectra are discussed. The effects of size, positional and missing-spheres disorder are investigated. In addition, by analyzing the results of experimental work we show that the fabricated structures have reduced plane-to-plane distance probably due to the effect of gravity during growth.

  6. Design of crystal-like aperiodic solids with selective disorder–phonon coupling

    PubMed Central

    Overy, Alistair R.; Cairns, Andrew B.; Cliffe, Matthew J.; Simonov, Arkadiy; Tucker, Matthew G.; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    Functional materials design normally focuses on structurally ordered systems because disorder is considered detrimental to many functional properties. Here we challenge this paradigm by showing that particular types of strongly correlated disorder can give rise to useful characteristics that are inaccessible to ordered states. A judicious combination of low-symmetry building unit and high-symmetry topological template leads to aperiodic ‘procrystalline' solids that harbour this type of disorder. We identify key classes of procrystalline states together with their characteristic diffraction behaviour, and establish mappings onto known and target materials. The strongly correlated disorder found in these systems is associated with specific sets of modulation periodicities distributed throughout the Brillouin zone. Lattice dynamical calculations reveal selective disorder-driven phonon broadening that resembles the poorly understood ‘waterfall' effect observed in relaxor ferroelectrics. This property of procrystalline solids suggests a mechanism by which strongly correlated topological disorder might allow independently optimized thermal and electronic transport behaviour, such as required for high-performance thermoelectrics. PMID:26842772

  7. Design of crystal-like aperiodic solids with selective disorder-phonon coupling.

    PubMed

    Overy, Alistair R; Cairns, Andrew B; Cliffe, Matthew J; Simonov, Arkadiy; Tucker, Matthew G; Goodwin, Andrew L

    2016-01-01

    Functional materials design normally focuses on structurally ordered systems because disorder is considered detrimental to many functional properties. Here we challenge this paradigm by showing that particular types of strongly correlated disorder can give rise to useful characteristics that are inaccessible to ordered states. A judicious combination of low-symmetry building unit and high-symmetry topological template leads to aperiodic 'procrystalline' solids that harbour this type of disorder. We identify key classes of procrystalline states together with their characteristic diffraction behaviour, and establish mappings onto known and target materials. The strongly correlated disorder found in these systems is associated with specific sets of modulation periodicities distributed throughout the Brillouin zone. Lattice dynamical calculations reveal selective disorder-driven phonon broadening that resembles the poorly understood 'waterfall' effect observed in relaxor ferroelectrics. This property of procrystalline solids suggests a mechanism by which strongly correlated topological disorder might allow independently optimized thermal and electronic transport behaviour, such as required for high-performance thermoelectrics. PMID:26842772

  8. Design of crystal-like aperiodic solids with selective disorder-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overy, Alistair R.; Cairns, Andrew B.; Cliffe, Matthew J.; Simonov, Arkadiy; Tucker, Matthew G.; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2016-02-01

    Functional materials design normally focuses on structurally ordered systems because disorder is considered detrimental to many functional properties. Here we challenge this paradigm by showing that particular types of strongly correlated disorder can give rise to useful characteristics that are inaccessible to ordered states. A judicious combination of low-symmetry building unit and high-symmetry topological template leads to aperiodic `procrystalline' solids that harbour this type of disorder. We identify key classes of procrystalline states together with their characteristic diffraction behaviour, and establish mappings onto known and target materials. The strongly correlated disorder found in these systems is associated with specific sets of modulation periodicities distributed throughout the Brillouin zone. Lattice dynamical calculations reveal selective disorder-driven phonon broadening that resembles the poorly understood `waterfall' effect observed in relaxor ferroelectrics. This property of procrystalline solids suggests a mechanism by which strongly correlated topological disorder might allow independently optimized thermal and electronic transport behaviour, such as required for high-performance thermoelectrics.

  9. Phonon engineering for nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubry, Sylvie; Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H.; Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.

  10. Complete low-frequency bandgap in a two-dimensional phononic crystal with spindle-shaped inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Wang; Hui, Wang; Mei-Ping, Sheng; Qing-Hua, Qin

    2016-04-01

    A two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) structure possessing a relatively low frequency range of complete bandgap is presented. The structure is composed of periodic spindle-shaped plumbum inclusions in a rubber matrix which forms a square lattice. The dispersion relation, transmission spectrum and displacement field are studied using the finite element method in conjunction with the Bloch theorem. Numerical results show that the present PC structure can achieve a large complete bandgap in a relatively low frequency range compared with two inclusions of different materials, which is useful in low-frequency noise and vibration control and can be designed as a low frequency acoustic filter and waveguides. Moreover, the transmission spectrum and effective mass are evaluated to validate the obtained band structure. It is interesting to see that within the band gap the effective mass becomes negative, resulting in an imaginary wave speed and wave exponential attenuation. Finally, sensitivity analysis of the effect of geometrical parameters of the presented PC structure on the lowest bandgap is performed to investigate the variations of the bandgap width and frequency. Project supported by the China Scholarship Council.

  11. Systematic topology optimization of solid-solid phononic crystals for multiple separate band-gaps with different polarizations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zong-Fa; Wu, Bin; He, Cun-Fu

    2016-02-01

    Phononic crystals (PnCs) have attracted considerable interest due to their unique and outstanding band-gap characteristics. In many applications, it is desirable to have a unit cell with specific band-gaps. The distribution of elastic materials within a unit cell has significant effect on the band-gaps, which is extremely difficult to be determined without systematic synthesis method. In this paper, topology optimization techniques are utilized to obtain two-dimensional (2D) square lattice PnCs with maximized relative band-gaps between multiple consecutive bands. The optimization follows two-stage design process using Genetic algorithms (GAs) in combination with finite element method (FEM). Three numerical examples are given to optimize 2D steel/epoxy PnCs in one-eighth symmetry for coupled mode, shear mode and mixed mode respectively. The results show that the optimized PnCs with different band-gaps, which can easily be found by the developed method, have different materials layout, and the PnCs with the lowest order band-gap are simple lattice and have the highest value of application in noise reduction and vibration isolation. Some optimized PnCs with higher order band-gaps have the same lattice as those with the lowest order band-gap, and whose absolute band-gaps are inversely proportional to the minimum feature size of primitive cells. PMID:26456279

  12. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity.

    PubMed

    Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V

    2014-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.

  13. Quasi-periodic Fibonacci and periodic one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals of porous silicon: Experiment and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, Gazi N. Goller, Bernhard

    2014-09-07

    A one-dimensional Fibonacci phononic crystal and a distributed Bragg reflector were constructed from porous silicon. The structures had the same number of layers and similar acoustic impedance mismatch, and were electrochemically etched in highly boron doped silicon wafers. The thickness of the individual layers in the stacks was approximately 2 μm. Both types of hypersonic band gap structure were studied by direct measurement of the transmittance of longitudinal acoustic waves in the 0.1–2.6 GHz range. Acoustic band gaps deeper than 50 dB were detected in both structures. The experimental results were compared with model calculations employing the transfer matrix method. The acoustic properties of periodic and quasi-periodic structures in which half-wave retarding bi-layers do not consist of two quarter-wave retarding layers are discussed. The strong correlation between width and depth of gaps in the transmission spectra is demonstrated. The dominant mechanisms of acoustic losses in porous multilayer structures are discussed. The elastic constants remain proportional over our range of porosity, and hence, the Grüneisen parameter is constant. This simplifies the expression for the porosity dependence of the Akhiezer damping.

  14. Bandgap properties in locally resonant phononic crystal double panel structures with periodically attached spring-mass resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Denghui; Shi, Zhiyu

    2016-10-01

    Bandgap properties of the locally resonant phononic crystal double panel structure made of a two-dimensional periodic array of a spring-mass resonator surrounded by n springs (n equals to zero at the beginning of the study) connected between the upper and lower plates are investigated in this paper. The finite element method is applied to calculate the band structure, of which the accuracy is confirmed in comparison with the one calculated by the extended plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the transmission spectrum. Numerical results and further analysis demonstrate that two bands corresponding to the antisymmetric vibration mode open a wide band gap but is cut narrower by a band corresponding to the symmetric mode. One of the regulation rules shows that the lowest frequency on the symmetric mode band is proportional to the spring stiffness. Then, a new design idea of adding springs around the resonator in a unit cell (n is not equal to zero now) is proposed in the need of widening the bandwidth and lowering the starting frequency. Results show that the bandwidth of the band gap increases from 50 Hz to nearly 200 Hz. By introducing the quality factor, the regulation rules with the comprehensive consideration of the whole structure quality limitation, the wide band gap and the low starting frequency are also discussed.

  15. Dispersion relations of elastic waves in one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal with functionally graded interlayers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun; Lan, Man; Li, Li

    2016-08-01

    The effects of functionally graded interlayers on dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal are studied in this paper. First, the state transfer equation of the functionally graded interlayer is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order (from second order to first order). The transfer matrix of the functionally graded interlayer is obtained by solving the state transfer equation with the spatial-varying coefficient. Based on the transfer matrixes of the piezoelectric slab, the piezomagnetic slab and the functionally graded interlayers, the total transfer matrix of a single cell is obtained. Further, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the resultant dispersion equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersion equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. Five kinds of profiles of functionally graded interlayers between a piezoelectric slab and a piezomagnetic slab are considered. It is shown that the functionally graded interlayers have evident influences on the dispersion curves and the band gaps. PMID:27179141

  16. Dispersion relations of elastic waves in one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal with functionally graded interlayers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun; Lan, Man; Li, Li

    2016-08-01

    The effects of functionally graded interlayers on dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal are studied in this paper. First, the state transfer equation of the functionally graded interlayer is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order (from second order to first order). The transfer matrix of the functionally graded interlayer is obtained by solving the state transfer equation with the spatial-varying coefficient. Based on the transfer matrixes of the piezoelectric slab, the piezomagnetic slab and the functionally graded interlayers, the total transfer matrix of a single cell is obtained. Further, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the resultant dispersion equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersion equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. Five kinds of profiles of functionally graded interlayers between a piezoelectric slab and a piezomagnetic slab are considered. It is shown that the functionally graded interlayers have evident influences on the dispersion curves and the band gaps.

  17. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity.

    PubMed

    Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V

    2014-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption. PMID:25215842

  18. Propagation behavior of elastic waves in one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal with line defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Y.; Jiao, F.-Y.; Liu, J.-X.

    2014-10-01

    Using a stiffness matrix method, we investigate the propagation behaviors of elastic waves in one-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric/piezomagnetic (PE/PM) phononic crystals (PCs) with line defects by calculating energy reflection/transmittion coefficients of quasi-pressure and quasi-shear waves. Line defects are created by the replacement of PE or PM constituent layer. The defect modes existing in the first gap are considered and the influences on defect modes of the material properties and volume fraction of the defect layers, the type of incident waves, the location of defect layer and the number of structural layers are discussed in detail. Numerical results indicate that defect modes are the most obvious when the defect layers are inserted in the middle of the perfect PCs; the types of incidence wave and material properties of the defect layers have important effects on the numbers, the location of frequencies and the peaks of defect modes, and the defect modes are strongly dependent on volume fraction of the defect layers. We hope this paper will be found useful for the design of PE/PM acoustic filters or acoustic transducer with PCs structures.

  19. Long-wave phonons in ZnSe-BeSe mixed crystals: Raman scattering and percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagès, O.; Ajjoun, M.; Tite, T.; Bormann, D.; Tournié, E.; Rustagi, K. C.

    2004-10-01

    We extend to longitudinal-optical (LO) phonons the percolation model set for the basic understanding of the atypical transverse-optical (TO) one-bond→two-mode behavior observed by Raman scattering in the Be-Se spectral range of the random Zn1-xBexSe alloy (0⩽x⩽1) , which opens the class of mixed crystals with contrast in the bond stiffness. The study is supported by contour modeling of the TO and LO Raman line shapes. This is achieved via application of the Hon and Faust treatment to a version of the modified-random-element-isodisplacement model generalized to multioscillators. While the TO signal clearly discriminates between Be-Se vibrations within the hard Be -rich region and the soft Zn -rich one, complexity arises in the LO symmetry due to vibration coupling via the 1ong-range longitudinal polarization field. In particular this generates a massive transfer of oscillator strength from the low-frequency (LO-) (hard, soft)-mixed mode to the high-frequency (LO+) one, which results in an apparent LO+ single-mode behavior. Moreover the contrasts between the Zn-Se and Be-Se bond lengths and bond stiffness are proposed to force a Verleur and Barker-like (VB) discrete multimode Raman response from each region. Accordingly LO- and LO+ intramode transfers of oscillator strength superimpose to the LO-→LO+ intermode one. This accounts for the spectacular distortions of the LO+ line shape. On the whole, the puzzling LO behavior can be regarded as the result of a cooperative phenomenon between two discrete assemblies of polar LO phonons, driven by the long-range longitudinal polarization field. Also, the Verleur and Barker description accounts for subtle unexplained behaviors in the TO symmetry. More generally it appears to provide a much attractive area for the discussion of the asymmetries of the TO and LO Raman line shapes in random alloys, as a possible alternative to the much debated spatial correlation model or to internal/external strain effects.

  20. Pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} on amorphous dielectric layers towards monolithic 3D photonic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haofeng; Brouillet, Jeremy; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} crystallized on amorphous layers at <450 °C towards 3D Si photonic integration. We developed two approaches to seed the lateral single crystal growth: (1) utilize the Gibbs-Thomson eutectic temperature depression at the tip of an amorphous GeSn nanotaper for selective nucleation; (2) laser-induced nucleation at one end of a GeSn strip. Either way, the crystallized Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} is dominated by a single grain >18 μm long that forms optoelectronically benign twin boundaries with others grains. These pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} patterns are suitable for monolithic 3D integration of active photonic devices on Si.

  1. Tunable passband in one-dimensional phononic crystal containing a piezoelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 single crystal defect layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuling; Song, Wei; Sun, Enwei; Zhang, Rui; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-06-01

    Longitudinal acoustic wave propagation in one-dimensional phononic crystal containing a 0.2 mol% Fe-doped relaxor-based ferroelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 (PMN-0.38PT) single crystal defect layer is theoretically studied using the transfer matrix method. A passband can be produced in the stopband when the inserted PMN-0.38PT layer with thickness around its half wavelength. The frequency of the passband is closely dependent on the PMN-PT strain coefficient, suggesting that the band structure of phononic crystal is tunable by applying external electric field onto the piezoelectric crystal. Also, we investigated the influence of acoustic impedance of periodic constitutive materials (layers A and B) on the passband, where the bandwidth of the new passband becomes narrower as the acoustic impedance ratio of layer A and B (ZA/ZB) increase. The simulated results provide valuable guidance for designing tunable acoustic filters and switches made of phononic crystal consisting of the piezoelectric defect layer.

  2. Crystal field analysis of the absorption spectra and electron phonon interaction in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12:Ni2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brik, M. G.

    2006-04-01

    Exchange charge model of crystal field [B.Z. Malkin, in: A.A. Kaplyanskii, B.M. Macfarlane (Eds.), Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare-earth Ions, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987, pp. 33 50.] was used to analyze the energy level schemes of Ni2+ ion at both possible positions (octahedral and tetrahedral) in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12. The crystal field parameters were calculated from the crystal structure data; the crystal field Hamiltonian was diagonalised in the complete basis consisting of 25 wave functions of all LS terms of the Ni2+ ion. Results of calculations are in a good agreement with experimental data. From the experimental spectra available in the literature, the Huang Rhys parameter S=3.5 and effective phonon energy ℏω=200cm were evaluated for the octahedral Ni2+ ion.

  3. 3-D supramolecular architectures in the three new complexes constructed from mixed ligands: Syntheses, crystal structures, spectroscopic properties, XRPD and thermal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo-Ping; Wang, Yao-Yu; Wang, Hong; Wang, Cui-Juan; Wen, Gui-Lin; Shi, Qi-Zhen; Peng, Shie-Ming

    2008-10-01

    Three new coordination polymers [Cu 2(bptc) (bpdap) 2]·4H 2O ( 1), {Zn 2(bptc)(bpe)(H 2O) 6} n ( 2) and {Co 2(bptc)(bpe)(H 2O) 8} n ( 3) [H 4bptc = 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylate acid, bpdap = N, N'-bis(2-pyridyl)-2,6-diaminopyridine, bpe = trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene] have been hydrothermally synthesized in different pH values and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The non-covalent interactions of hydrogen bond extend complexes 1, 2 and 3 into supramolecular architectures, where 1 exhibits a 3-D framework with 1-D open channels where the guest water molecules are located. Importantly, two kinds of chiral helical H-bonded chains appear in 1, and some types of H-bonded patterns exist in 1, 2 and 3. It is more remarkable that the building block bptc anion adopts versatile coordination modes in these complexes. The elemental analysis, IR spectra, XRPD and TG analysis are discussed for 1, 2 and 3. In addition, the fluorescence is also studied for 2 here.

  4. Numerical study and topology optimization of 1D periodic bimaterial phononic crystal plates for bandgaps of low order Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    The optimum topology of bimaterial phononic crystal (PhCr) plates with one-dimensional (1D) periodicity to attain maximum relative bandgap width of low order Lamb waves is computationally investigated. The evolution of optimized topology with respect to filling fraction of constituents, alternatively stiff scattering inclusion, is explored. The underlying idea is to develop PhCr plate structures with high specific bandgap efficiency at particular filling fraction, or further with multiscale functionality through gradient of optimized PhCr unitcell all over the lattice array. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in this research in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) for topology optimization of silicon-tungsten PhCr plate unitcells. A specialized FEM model is developed and verified for dispersion analysis of plate waves and calculation of modal response. Modal band structure of regular PhCr plate unitcells with centric scattering layer is studied as a function of aspect ratio and filling fraction. Topology optimization is then carried out for a few aspect ratios, with and without prescribed symmetry, over various filling fractions. The efficiency of obtained solutions is verified as compared to corresponding regular centric PhCr plate unitcells. Moreover, being inspired by the obtained optimum topologies, definite and easy to produce topologies are proposed with enhanced bandgap efficiency as compared to centric unitcells. Finally a few cases are introduced to evaluate the frequency response of finite PhCr plate structures produced by achieved topologies and also to confirm the reliability of calculated modal band structures. Cases made by consecutive unitcells of different filling fraction are examined in order to attest the bandgap efficiency and multiscale functionality of such graded PhCr plate structures.

  5. Ga, Ca, and 3d transition element (Cr through Zn) partitioning among spinel-lherzolite phases from the Lanzo massif, Italy: Analytical results and crystal chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Wogelius, R.A.; Fraser, D.G.

    1994-06-01

    Ultramafic rocks exposed in Lanzo massif, Italy is a record of mantle geochemistry, melting, sub-solidus re-equilibration. Plagioclase(+ spinel)-lherzolite samples were analyzed by Scanning Proton Microscopy, other techniques. Previous work postulated partial melting events and a two-stage sub-solidus cooling history; this paper notes Ga enrichment on spinel-clinopyroxene grain boundaries, high Ga and transition element content of spinel, and pyroxene zonation in Ca and Al. Trace element levels in olivine and orthopyroxene are also presented. Zoning trends are interpreted as due to diffusion during cooling. Olivine-clinopyroxene Cr and Ca exchange as well as clinopyroxene and spinel zonation trends indicate that the massif experienced at least two sub-solidus cooling episodes, one at 20 kbar to 1000 C and one at 8 kbar <750C. Ga levels in cores of Lanzo high-Cr spinels are high (82-66 ppM) relative to other mantle spinels (66-40 ppM), indicating enrichment. Ga content of ultramafic spinels apparently increases with Cr content; this may be due to: increased Ga solubility stemming from crystal chemical effects and/or higher Ga activities in associated silicate melts. Thus, during melting, high-Cr residual spinel may tend to buffer solid-phase Ga level. These spinels are not only rich in Ga and Cr (max 26.37 el. wt %), but also in Fe (max 21.07 el. wt %), Mn (max 3400 ppM), and Zn (max 2430 ppM). These enrichments are again due to melt extraction and partitioning into spinel structure. Low Ni (min 1050 ppM) levels are due to unsuccessful competition of Ni with Cr for octahedral structural sites caused by crystal field. Comparisons of change in partitioning vs Cr content among several 3d transition elements for spinels from Lanzo, other localities allow us to separate crystal field effects from bulk chemical effects and to show that in typical assemblages, inversion of olivine-spinel partition coefficient for Ni from <1 to >1 should occur at 11% el. wt. Cr in spinel.

  6. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs. PMID:27356177

  7. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs.

  8. Peculiarities in the transport characteristics of phonons in glasses and glass-like crystals at helium temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Salamatov, E. I.; Taranov, A. V.; Khazanov, E. N.

    2015-08-15

    Peculiarities in the transport characteristics of thermal-frequency phonons are analyzed in the region of transition to the thermal conductivity plateau in fused quartz, F-1 glass, glassed based on pentaphosphates of rare-earth metals, and a number of ferroelectrics (relaxors). It is shown that the formation of the plateau region in the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity at T < 10 K for these materials can be associated with the occurrence of a gap in the spectrum of phonon states.

  9. 3D cone-sheet and crystal-settling models reveal magma-reservoir structure of the Carlingford central complex, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauroth, Jenny; Burchardt, Steffi; Meade, Fiona; Troll, Valentin R.

    2014-05-01

    The Palaeogene Carlingford central complex, northeast Ireland, hosts a swarm of mostly basaltic cone-sheets with several lithological subsets (Halsall, 1974). The two most abundant sets are aphyric and highly porphyritic cone-sheets with up to 80% of cm-sized plagioclase phenocrysts. The abundance of highly porphyritic cone-sheets seems to systematically increase with altitude compared to the aphyric type (Meade, 2008). We hypothesised that this observation might be explained by the zonation of the source magma reservoir. In order to test this hypothesis, we modelled the 3D cone-sheet structure at depth and the settling of plagioclase phenocrysts. The 3D model of the Carlingford cone-sheet swarm reveals that lithological types of Carlingford cone-sheets are not systematically distributed in space. Using the method proposed by Burchardt et al. (2013), we constructed the likely source reservoir of the cone-sheets, which is saucer-shaped, elongated in NW direction, 7 km long and 3 km wide, and located at a depth of 1 km below the present-day land surface. Our calculation of the terminal velocity of the plagioclase phenocrysts shows that the large phenocrysts in the porphyritic cone-sheets were too big to float at the conditions present in the Carlingford magma reservoir. We can therefore exclude vertical magma-chamber stratification as an explanation for the formation and distribution of porphyritic and aphyric cone-sheets. Instead, we envisage the formation of a crystal mush at the base and sides of the Carlingford magma reservoir. Cone-sheet injection and magma-cha,ber replenishments have remobilised plagioclase cumulates, which may explain the occurrence and distribution of aphyric and highly porphyritic cone-sheets. REFERENCES Burchardt, S., Troll, V. R., Mathieu, L., Emeleus, H. C., Donaldson, C., 2013, Scientific Reports 3, 2891. Halsall, T.J., 1974, The minor intrusions and structure of the Carlingford complex, Eire (PhD thesis): University of Leicester. Meade

  10. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldovan, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.

  11. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics.

    PubMed

    Maldovan, Martin

    2013-11-14

    The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics. PMID:24226887

  12. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics.

    PubMed

    Maldovan, Martin

    2013-11-14

    The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.

  13. Elastic wave band gaps tuned by configuring radii of rods in two-dimensional phononic crystals with a hybrid square-like lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rongqiang; Zhao, Haojiang; Zhang, Yingying; Guo, Honghwei; Deng, Zongquan

    2015-12-01

    The plane wave expansion (PWE) method is used to calculate the band gaps of two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystals (PCs) with a hybrid square-like (HSL) lattice. Band structures of both XY-mode and Z-mode are calculated. Numerical results show that the band gaps between any two bands could be maximized by altering the radius ratio of the inclusions at different positions. By comparing with square lattice and bathroom lattice, the HSL lattice is more efficient in creating larger gaps.

  14. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  15. Phonon softening and superconductivity triggered by spin-orbit coupling in simple-cubic α-polonium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chang-Jong; Kim, Kyoo; Min, B. I.

    2012-08-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of stabilizing the simple-cubic (sc) structure in polonium (α-Po), based on the phonon dispersion calculations using the first-principles all-electron band method. We have demonstrated that the stable sc structure results from the suppression of the Peierls instability due to the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in α-Po. We have also discussed the structural chirality realized in β-Po, as a consequence of the phonon instability. Further, we have explored the possible superconductivity in α-Po, and predicted that it becomes a superconductor with Tc˜4 K. The transverse soft phonon mode at q≈(2)/(3)R, which is greatly influenced by the SOC, plays an important role both in the structural stability and the superconductivity in α-Po.

  16. Superlensing effect for surface acoustic waves in a pillar-based phononic crystal with negative refractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Addouche, Mahmoud Al-Lethawe, Mohammed A. Choujaa, Abdelkrim Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate super resolution imaging for surface acoustic waves using a phononic structure displaying negative refractive index. This phononic structure is made of a monolithic square lattice of cylindrical pillars standing on a semi-infinite medium. The pillars act as acoustic resonator and induce a surface propagating wave with unusual dispersion. We found, under specific geometrical parameters, one propagating mode that exhibits negative refraction effect with negative effective index close to −1. Furthermore, a flat lens with finite number of pillars is designed to allow the focusing of an acoustic point source into an image with a resolution of (λ)/3 , overcoming the Rayleigh diffraction limit.

  17. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  18. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  19. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  20. Thermal Conductivity of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Crystal: Defect Effect Uncovered by 0 K Limit Phonon Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Zaoli; Cheng, Zhe; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-12-16

    Crystalline ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has the highest reported thermal conductivity at room temperature: 104 W/(m·K), while theoretical predictions proposed an even higher value of 300 W/(m·K). Defects and amorphous fraction in practical UHMWPE fibers significantly reduces the thermal conductivity from the ideal value. Although the amorphous effect can be readily analyzed based on the effective medium theory, the defect effects are poorly understood. This work reports on the temperature-dependent behavior (down to 22 K) of thermal diffusivity and conductivity of UHMWPE fibers in anticipation of observing the reduction in phonon density and scattering rate against temperature and of freezing out high-momentum phonons to clearly observe the defect effects. By studying the temperature-dependent behavior of thermal reffusivity (Θ, inverse of thermal diffusivity) of UHMWPE fibers, we are able to quantify the defect effects on thermal conductivity. After taking out the amorphous region's effect, the residual thermal reffusivities (Θ0) for the studied two samples at the 0 K limit are determined as 3.45 × 10(4) and 2.95 × 10(4) s/m(2), respectively. For rare-/no-defects crystalline materials, Θ0 should be close to zero at the 0 K limit. The defect-induced low-momentum phonon mean free paths are determined as 8.06 and 9.42 nm for the two samples. They are smaller than the crystallite size in the (002) direction (19.7 nm) determined by X-ray diffraction. This strongly demonstrates the diffuse phonon scattering at the grain boundaries. The grain boundary thermal conductance (G) can be evaluated as G ≈ βρc(p)v with sound accuracy. At room temperature, G is around 3.73 GW/(m(2)·K) for S2, comparable to that of interfaces with tight atomic bonding.

  1. Interaction of optical phonons with magnons in orthorhombic crystals. Effect of a magnetic field on structural phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men'shenin, V. V.

    2007-05-01

    Interaction of polar optical phonons with magnons in manganates RMn2O5 (where R is a rare-earth ion) has been studied in the approximation of collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of manganese sublattices. It is shown that such interaction takes place only in multisublattice antiferromagnets in which exchange magnetic structures exist that are both even and odd with respect to space inversion. Effect of a magnetic field on the structural phase transitions in these oxides is analyzed.

  2. Thermal Conductivity of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Crystal: Defect Effect Uncovered by 0 K Limit Phonon Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Zaoli; Cheng, Zhe; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-12-16

    Crystalline ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has the highest reported thermal conductivity at room temperature: 104 W/(m·K), while theoretical predictions proposed an even higher value of 300 W/(m·K). Defects and amorphous fraction in practical UHMWPE fibers significantly reduces the thermal conductivity from the ideal value. Although the amorphous effect can be readily analyzed based on the effective medium theory, the defect effects are poorly understood. This work reports on the temperature-dependent behavior (down to 22 K) of thermal diffusivity and conductivity of UHMWPE fibers in anticipation of observing the reduction in phonon density and scattering rate against temperature and of freezing out high-momentum phonons to clearly observe the defect effects. By studying the temperature-dependent behavior of thermal reffusivity (Θ, inverse of thermal diffusivity) of UHMWPE fibers, we are able to quantify the defect effects on thermal conductivity. After taking out the amorphous region's effect, the residual thermal reffusivities (Θ0) for the studied two samples at the 0 K limit are determined as 3.45 × 10(4) and 2.95 × 10(4) s/m(2), respectively. For rare-/no-defects crystalline materials, Θ0 should be close to zero at the 0 K limit. The defect-induced low-momentum phonon mean free paths are determined as 8.06 and 9.42 nm for the two samples. They are smaller than the crystallite size in the (002) direction (19.7 nm) determined by X-ray diffraction. This strongly demonstrates the diffuse phonon scattering at the grain boundaries. The grain boundary thermal conductance (G) can be evaluated as G ≈ βρc(p)v with sound accuracy. At room temperature, G is around 3.73 GW/(m(2)·K) for S2, comparable to that of interfaces with tight atomic bonding. PMID:26593380

  3. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  4. Evidence for Electron-phonon Interaction in Fe1−xMxSb2 (M=Co and Cr; 0 x 0.5) Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, C.; Lazarevic, N.; Popovic, Z.V.; Hu, R.

    2010-04-16

    We have measured polarized Raman scattering spectra of the Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Sb{sub 2} and Fe{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}Sb{sub 2} (0 {le} x {le} 0.5) single crystals in the temperature range between 15 and 300 K. The highest energy B{sub 1g} symmetry mode shows significant line asymmetry due to phonon-mode coupling-width electronic background. The coupling constant achieves the highest value at about 40 K and after that it remains temperature independent. Origin of additional mode broadening is pure anharmonic. Below 40 K the coupling is drastically reduced, in agreement with transport properties measurements. Alloying of FeSb{sub 2} with Co and Cr produces the B{sub 1g} mode narrowing, i.e., weakening of the electron-phonon interaction. In the case of A{sub g} symmetry modes we have found a significant mode mixing.

  5. Cascade phonon-assisted trapping of positrons by divacancies in n-FZ-Si(P) single crystals irradiated with 15 MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, N. Yu.; Emtsev, V. V.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Kessler, C.; Elsayed, M.; Oganesyan, G. A.; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2014-02-01

    The trapping of positrons by the radiation defects in moderately doped oxygen-lean n-FZ-Si(P) single crystal irradiated with 15 MeV protons has been investigated in a comparative way using the positron lifetime spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. The experiments were carried out within a wide temperature interval ranging from 25 K - 29 K to 300 K. The positron trapping rate for divacancies was reconstructed in the course of many-stage isochronal annealing. The concentration and the charged states of divacancies (V2- and V2--) were estimated. The temperature dependency of the trapping cross section of positrons by the negatively charged divacancies is in a good agreement with the data of calculations based on the assumptions of the cascade phonon-assisted mechanism of exchange of the energy between the positron and acoustic long-wave phonons. Obeying ˜ T-3 law, the cross-section of the trapping of positrons by divacancies changes considerably ranging from ˜1.7×10-12 cm2 (66 - 100 K) to ˜2×10-14 cm2 (≈ 250 K). The characteristic length of trapping of the positron by V2-- divacancy was estimated to be l0(V2--)≈(3.4±0.2)×10-8 cm.

  6. GHz spurious mode free AlN lamb wave resonator with high figure of merit using one dimensional phononic crystal tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guoqiang; Zhu, Yao; Merugu, Srinivas; Wang, Nan; Sun, Chengliang; Gu, Yuandong

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports a spurious mode free GHz aluminum nitride (AlN) lamb wave resonator (LWR) towards high figure of merit (FOM). One dimensional gourd-shape phononic crystal (PnC) tether with large phononic bandgaps is employed to reduce the acoustic energy dissipation into the substrate. The periodic PnC tethers are based on a 1 μm-thick AlN layer with 0.26 μm-thick Mo layer on top. A clean spectrum over a wide frequency range is obtained from the measurement, which indicates a wide-band suppression of spurious modes. Experimental results demonstrate that the fabricated AlN LWR has an insertion loss of 5.2 dB and a loaded quality factor (Q) of 1893 at 1.02 GHz measured in air. An impressive ratio of the resistance at parallel resonance (Rp) to the resistance at series resonance (Rs) of 49.8 dB is obtained, which is an indication of high FOM for LWR. The high Rp to Rs ratio is one of the most important parameters to design a radio frequency filter with steep roll-off.

  7. Micro-CT observations of the 3D distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in cotyledons during maturation and germination in Lotus miyakojimae seeds.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Hayami, Masato; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Karahara, Ichirou; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takano, Hidekazu; Kagoshima, Yasushi; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2013-06-01

    The cotyledon of legume seeds is a storage organ that provides nutrients for seed germination and seedling growth. The spatial and temporal control of the degradation processes within cotyledons has not been elucidated. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, a common calcium deposit in plants, have often been reported to be present in legume seeds. In this study, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was employed at the SPring-8 facility to examine the three-dimensional distribution of crystals inside cotyledons during seed maturation and germination of Lotus miyakojimae (previously Lotus japonicus accession Miyakojima MG-20). Using this technique, we could detect the outline of the embryo, void spaces in seeds and the cotyledon venation pattern. We found several sites that strongly inhibited X-ray transmission within the cotyledons. Light and polarizing microscopy confirmed that these areas corresponded to CaOx crystals. Three-dimensional observations of dry seeds indicated that the CaOx crystals in the L. miyakojimae cotyledons were distributed along lateral veins; however, their distribution was limited to the abaxial side of the procambium. The CaOx crystals appeared at stage II (seed-filling stage) of seed development, and their number increased in dry seeds. The number of crystals in cotyledons was high during germination, suggesting that CaOx crystals are not degraded for their calcium supply. Evidence for the conservation of CaOx crystals in cotyledons during the L. miyakojimae germination process was also supported by the biochemical measurement of oxalic acid levels.

  8. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  9. Research on the vibration band gaps of isolators applied to ship hydraulic pipe supports based on the theory of phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhendong; Li, Baoren; Du, Jingmin; Yang, Gang

    2016-04-01

    According to the theory of phononic crystals, a new isolator applied to ship hydraulic pipe-support with a one-dimensional periodic composite structure is designed, which is composed of metal and rubber. The vibration of the ship hydraulic pipeline can be suppressed by the band gaps (BGs) of the isolator. The band structure and frequency response function of the isolator is figured out by the transfer matrix method and the finite element method respectively. The frequency ranges and width of the BGs can be modulated to obtain the best structure of the isolator by changing the geometrical parameters. The experimental results provide an attenuation of over 20 dB in the frequency range of the BGs, and the results show good agreement with those of the numeric calculations. The research provides an effective way to control the vibration of ship hydraulic pipelines.

  10. Band structure of cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhymzhanov, A. M.; Gueddida, A.; Alonso-Redondo, E.; Utegulov, Z. N.; Perevoznik, D.; Kurselis, K.; Chichkov, B. N.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G.

    2016-05-01

    The phononic band diagram of a periodic square structure fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse-induced two photon polymerization is recorded by Brillouin light scattering (BLS) at hypersonic (GHz) frequencies and computed by finite element method. The theoretical calculations along the two main symmetry directions quantitatively capture the band diagrams of the air- and liquid-filled structure and moreover represent the BLS intensities. The theory helps identify the observed modes, reveals the origin of the observed bandgaps at the Brillouin zone boundaries, and unravels direction dependent effective medium behavior.

  11. Optimum design of phononic crystal perforated plate structures for widest bandgap of fundamental guided wave modes and maximized in-plane stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad; Ng, Ching-Tai

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a topology optimization of single material phononic crystal plate (PhP) to be produced by perforation of a uniform background plate. The primary objective of this optimization study is to explore widest exclusive bandgaps of fundamental (first order) symmetric or asymmetric guided wave modes as well as widest complete bandgap of mixed wave modes (symmetric and asymmetric). However, in the case of single material porous phononic crystals the bandgap width essentially depends on the resultant structural integration introduced by achieved unitcell topology. Thinner connections of scattering segments (i.e. lower effective stiffness) generally lead to (i) wider bandgap due to enhanced interfacial reflections, and (ii) lower bandgap frequency range due to lower wave speed. In other words higher relative bandgap width (RBW) is produced by topology with lower effective stiffness. Hence in order to study the bandgap efficiency of PhP unitcell with respect to its structural worthiness, the in-plane stiffness is incorporated in optimization algorithm as an opposing objective to be maximized. Thick and relatively thin Polysilicon PhP unitcells with square symmetry are studied. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm NSGA-II is employed for this multi-objective optimization problem and modal band analysis of individual topologies is performed through finite element method. Specialized topology initiation, evaluation and filtering are applied to achieve refined feasible topologies without penalizing the randomness of genetic algorithm (GA) and diversity of search space. Selected Pareto topologies are presented and gradient of RBW and elastic properties in between the two Pareto front extremes are investigated. Chosen intermediate Pareto topology, even not extreme topology with widest bandgap, show superior bandgap efficiency compared with the results reported in other works on widest bandgap topology of asymmetric guided waves, available in the literature

  12. Blue diode-pumped solid-state-laser based on ytterbium doped laser crystals operating on the resonance zero-phonon transition

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.; Payne, Stephen A.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides an efficient, compact means of generating blue laser light at a wavelength near .about.493+/-3 nm, based on the use of a laser diode-pumped Yb-doped laser crystal emitting on its zero phonon line (ZPL) resonance transition at a wavelength near .about.986+/-6 nm, whose fundamental infrared output radiation is harmonically doubled into the blue spectral region. The invention is applied to the excitation of biofluorescent dyes (in the .about.490-496 nm spectral region) utilized in flow cytometry, immunoassay, DNA sequencing, and other biofluorescence instruments. The preferred host crystals have strong ZPL fluorecence (laser) transitions lying in the spectral range from .about.980 to .about.992 nm (so that when frequency-doubled, they produce output radiation in the spectral range from 490 to 496 nm). Alternate preferred Yb doped tungstate crystals, such as Yb:KY(WO.sub.4).sub.2, may be configured to lase on the resonant ZPL transition near 981 nm (in lieu of the normal 1025 nm transition). The laser light is then doubled in the blue at 490.5 nm.

  13. Effect of phonon-plasmon and surface plasmon polaritons on photoluminescence in quantum emitter and graphene deposited on polar crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Brzozowski, Marek J.; Apter, Boris

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the light-matter interaction in a quantum emitter and metallic graphene flake (MGF) hybrid system deposited on a polar material. The coupling of surface plasmons in graphene and optical phonons in the polar material produces phonon-plasmon polaritons (PPPs). Similarly, couplings of photons with surface plasmons of graphene produce surface-plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using the second quantized formulation for SPPs and PPPs interactions and density matrix method, we have calculated photoluminescence of the quantum emitters. It is found that when the exciton energy of the quantum emitter is in resonant with SPP and PPP energies, the photoluminescence in the quantum emitter are enhanced in the terahertz range. The enhancement is due to the transfer of SPP and PPP energies from the graphene flake to the quantum emitter. The energy transfer from graphene to the quantum emitter can be controlled by applying external pump lasers or stress and strain fields. These are interesting findings which can be used to fabricate switches and sensors.

  14. ThermoPhonon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, Nikolai

    2014-11-24

    ThermoPhonon is a stand-alone code, which can be integrated into other software packages. Typically, it is used together with a density functional theory (DFT) code (such as VASP, Wien2k, AbInit, SIESTA) and a phonon code (such as Phonopy or Phon). The workflow is the following. Molecular dynamics (MD) in a supercell at a given temperature T is performed using another code. After sufficient equilibration, the output in the form of atomic positions and forces for a large number of selected MD steps is recorded into a file. If needed, one can modify this file by applying additional constraints, such as enforced crystal symmetry or subtracted motion of the center of mass. ThermoPhonon reads the file with atomic positions and forces and writes a new file with the force constants. Force constants can be used by another code (such as Phonopy or Phon) to produce phonon spectrum for plotting, in the assumption of known equilibrium atomic positions provided in a separate file.

  15. ThermoPhonon

    2014-11-24

    ThermoPhonon is a stand-alone code, which can be integrated into other software packages. Typically, it is used together with a density functional theory (DFT) code (such as VASP, Wien2k, AbInit, SIESTA) and a phonon code (such as Phonopy or Phon). The workflow is the following. Molecular dynamics (MD) in a supercell at a given temperature T is performed using another code. After sufficient equilibration, the output in the form of atomic positions and forces formore » a large number of selected MD steps is recorded into a file. If needed, one can modify this file by applying additional constraints, such as enforced crystal symmetry or subtracted motion of the center of mass. ThermoPhonon reads the file with atomic positions and forces and writes a new file with the force constants. Force constants can be used by another code (such as Phonopy or Phon) to produce phonon spectrum for plotting, in the assumption of known equilibrium atomic positions provided in a separate file.« less

  16. 3D interconnected ionic nano-channels formed in polymer films: self-organization and polymerization of thermotropic bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Takahiro; Yoshio, Masafumi; Hamasaki, Atsushi; Kagimoto, Junko; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takashi

    2011-02-23

    Thermotropic bicontinuous cubic (Cub(bi)) liquid-crystalline (LC) compounds based on a polymerizable ammonium moiety complexed with a lithium salt have been designed to obtain lithium ion-conductive all solid polymeric films having 3D interconnected ionic channels. The monomer shows a Cub(bi) phase from -5 to 19 °C on heating. The complexes retain the ability to form the Cub(bi) LC phase. They also form hexagonal columnar (Col(h)) LC phases at temperatures higher than those of the Cub(bi) phases. The complex of the monomer and LiBF(4) at the molar ratio of 4:1 exhibits the Cub(bi) and Col(h) phases between -6 to 19 °C and 19 to 56 °C, respectively, on heating. The Cub(bi) LC structure formed by the complex has been successfully preserved by in situ photopolymerization through UV irradiation in the presence of a photoinitiator. The resultant nanostructured film is optically transparent and free-standing. The X-ray analysis of the film confirms the preservation of the self-assembled nanostructure. The polymer film with the Cub(bi) LC nanostructure exhibits higher ionic conductivities than the polymer films obtained by photopolymerization of the complex in the Col(h) and isotropic phases. It is found that the 3D interconnected ionic channels derived from the Cub(bi) phase function as efficient ion-conductive pathways.

  17. Enhancement of phonon backscattering due to confinement of ballistic phonon pathways in silicon as studied with a microfabricated phonon spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Otelaja, O. O.; Robinson, R. D.

    2015-10-26

    In this work, the mechanism for enhanced phonon backscattering in silicon is investigated. An understanding of phonon propagation through substrates has implications for engineering heat flow at the nanoscale, for understanding sources of decoherence in quantum systems, and for realizing efficient phonon-mediated particle detectors. In these systems, phonons that backscatter from the bottom of substrates, within the crystal or from interfaces, often contribute to the overall detector signal. We utilize a microscale phonon spectrometer, comprising superconducting tunnel junction emitters and detectors, to specifically probe phonon backscattering in silicon substrates (∼500 μm thick). By etching phonon “enhancers” or deep trenches (∼90 μm) around the detectors, we show that the backscattered signal level increases by a factor of ∼2 for two enhancers versus one enhancer. Using a geometric analysis of the phonon pathways, we show that the mechanism of the backscattered phonon enhancement is due to confinement of the ballistic phonon pathways and increased scattering off the enhancer walls. Our result is applicable to the geometric design and patterning of substrates that are employed in phonon-mediated detection devices.

  18. Preface: Phonons 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Bernard

    2007-06-01

    phonons can help tracking dark matter. These 328 presentations gave rise to 185 articles published in the present proceedings. The traditional topics of this conference series (phonons in superconductors and new materials, lattice dynamics, phonons in glasses and disordered materials, phase transitions, light, neutrons and x-ray inelastic scattering) were still very important in the scientific program but an increasing number of contributions occurred in the fields of coherent phonon generation, phonons in nanoscaled structures and nano/micro thermal phonon transport, expressing the growing involvement of condensed matter physicists in nanosciences. Areas like acoustic solitons and phononic crystals are now well established. Two noteworthy contributions have been brought in the long term quest for an operational SASER : one by Harold De Wijn's group from Utrecht in the classical ruby system and another one by Anthony Kent's group from Nottingham, who used semiconductor nanodevices to realize both an amplifying medium and a cavity. With these semiconductor devices the possibility for engineering, generation and detection of THz acoustic phonons are now imminent. By tradition, a prize is awarded every three years at the International Conference on Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter to honour a scientist for his outstanding contributions to the field of phonon physics. For this twelfth edition, Humphrey Maris has been honoured for his numerous breakthroughs in the physics of phonons and quantum fluids. According to the words of James Wolfe 'Humphrey Maris has delighted and innovated the members of our phonon community with an entertaining style and challenging wit'. Prizes were also awarded for the best presentations during the poster sessions. The two winners were Peter van Capel from Utrecht, Netherlands, ('Simulations of acoustic soliton-induced chirping of exciton resonances') and Patrick Emery from Lille, France, ('Acoustic attenuation in silica in the 100-250 GHz

  19. Crystal structure of (E)-9-(4-nitro-benzyl-idene)-8,9-di-hydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5(7H)-one.

    PubMed

    Khodjaniyazov, Khamid U; Ashurov, Jamshid M

    2016-04-01

    The title compound, C17H12N4O3, a pyrido-pyrrolo-pyrimidine derivative, is almost planar. The nitro-benzene ring is inclined to the mean plane of the 8,9-di-hydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5(7H)-one moiety (r.m.s. deviation = 0.023 Å) by 6.8 (1)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯O and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (101). PMID:27375862

  20. 3D Rare earth porous coordination frameworks with formamide generated in situ syntheses: Crystal structure and down- and up-conversion luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xue; Tian, Jing; Yang, Hong-Y.; Zhao, Kai; Li, Xia

    2013-05-01

    The reaction of RE(NO)₃·6H₂O and formamide yielded the coordination polymers, [RE(HCOO)₄]⁻[NH₂CHNH₂]⁺ (RE=Y 1, Eu 2, Gd 3, Tb 4, Dy 5, Er 6, and Yb 7). They possess 3D porous frameworks with the 1D rhombic channels occupied by [NH₂CHNH₂]⁺ cations. Complexes 2 and 4 display the characteristic down-conversion emissions corresponding to ⁵D₀→⁷FJ (J=1–4) transitions of Eu(III) ion and ⁵D₄→⁷FJ (J=6–3) transitions of Tb(III) ion, respectively. Longer lifetime values of 2.128±0.002 ms (⁵D₀) for 2 and 2.132±0.002 ms (⁵D₄) for 4 have been observed. The up-conversion spectra of the Y:Yb,Er and Gd:Yb,Er codoped complexes exhibit three emission bands around 410 (⁴H9/2→⁴I15/2, blue), 518–570 (⁴S3/2, ²H11/2→⁴I15/2, green), and 655 nm (⁴F9/2→⁴I15/2, red). - Graphical Abstract: The complexes [RE(HCOO)₄]⁻[NH₂CHNH₂]⁺ possess 3D porous frameworks. Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes show characteristic emission of Ln(III) ions. The up-conversion emission of the Y:Yb,Er and Gd:Yb,Er codoped complexes was observed. Highlights: •The reaction of RE(NO)₃·6H₂O and formamide produced complexes [RE(HCOO)₄]⁻[NH₂CHNH₂]⁺. • The complexes possess 3D frameworks with the 1D channels occupied by [NH₂CHNH₂]+ cations. • Eu(III)/Tb(III) complexes display the characteristic down-conversion emission of Ln(III) ions. • The Y:Yb,Er and Gd:Yb,Er doped complexes exhibit the up-conversion emission.

  1. Cascade phonon-assisted trapping of positrons by divacancies in n-FZ-Si(P) single crystals irradiated with 15 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Arutyunov, N. Yu.; Emtsev, V. V.; Oganesyan, G. A.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Kessler, C.; Elsayed, M.; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2014-02-21

    The trapping of positrons by the radiation defects in moderately doped oxygen-lean n-FZ-Si(P) single crystal irradiated with 15 MeV protons has been investigated in a comparative way using the positron lifetime spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. The experiments were carried out within a wide temperature interval ranging from 25 K – 29 K to 300 K. The positron trapping rate for divacancies was reconstructed in the course of many-stage isochronal annealing. The concentration and the charged states of divacancies (V{sub 2}{sup −} and V{sub 2}{sup −−}) were estimated. The temperature dependency of the trapping cross section of positrons by the negatively charged divacancies is in a good agreement with the data of calculations based on the assumptions of the cascade phonon-assisted mechanism of exchange of the energy between the positron and acoustic long-wave phonons. Obeying ∼ T{sup −3} law, the cross-section of the trapping of positrons by divacancies changes considerably ranging from ∼1.7×10{sup −12} cm{sup 2} (66 – 100 K) to ∼2×10{sup −14} cm{sup 2} (≈ 250 K). The characteristic length of trapping of the positron by V{sub 2}{sup −−} divacancy was estimated to be l{sub 0}(V{sub 2}{sup −−})≈(3.4±0.2)×10{sup −8} cm.

  2. Characterization of the non-collinear acousto-optical cell based on calomel (Hg2Cl2) crystal and operating within the two-phonon light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Arellanes, Adan O.

    2016-03-01

    Performances of any system for data processing based on acousto-optical technique are mainly determined by parameters of the acousto-optical cell (AOC) exploited within the schematic arrangement. Here, basic properties of the AOC, involved into a novel processor for precise optical spectrum analysis dedicated to modern astrophysical applications, are considered. Because potential applications of this processor will be focused on investigations in extra-galactic astronomy as well as studies of extra-solar planets, an advanced regime of the non-collinear two-phonon light scattering has been elaborated for spectrum analysis with significantly improved spectral resolution. Under similar uprated requirements, the AOC, based on that specific regime in the calomel (Hg2Cl2) crystal, had been chosen, and its parameters were analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally. Then, the adequate approach to estimating the frequency/spectral bandwidth and spectral resolution had been developed. The bandwidth was calculated and experimentally realized with the additionally involved tilt angle of light incidence, allowing variations for acoustic frequencies. The resolution was characterized taking into account its doubling peculiar to the nonlinear two-phonon mechanism of light scattering. Proof-of-principle experiments were performed with the calomel AOC of 52 mm optical aperture, providing ~94% efficiency in the transmitted light due to the slow-shear acoustic mode of finite amplitude (the acoustic power density ~150 mW/mm2) with the velocity of 0.347×105 cm/s at the radio-wave acoustic frequency ~71 MHz. As a result, we have obtained the spectral resolution <0.235 Å within the spectral bandwidth <290 Å that looks as the best one can mention at the moment in acousto-optics.

  3. Electron spin echo of Cu(2+) in the triglycine sulfate crystal family (TGS, TGSe, TGFB): electron spin-lattice relaxation, Debye temperature and spin-phonon coupling.

    PubMed

    Lijewski, S; Goslar, J; Hoffmann, S K

    2006-07-01

    The electron spin-lattice relaxation of Cu(2+) has been studied by the electron spin echo technique in the temperature range 4.2-115 K in triglycine sulfate (TGS) family crystals. Assuming that the relaxation is due to Raman relaxation processes the Debye temperature Θ(D) was determined as 190 K for TGS, 168 K for triglycine selenate (TGSe) and 179 K for triglycine fluoroberyllate (TGFB). We also calculated the Θ(D) values from the sound velocities derived from available elastic constants. The elastic Debye temperatures were found as 348 K for TGS, 288 K for TGSe and 372 K for TGFB. The results shown good agreement with specific heat data for TGS. The elastic Θ(D) are considerably larger than those determined from the Raman spin-lattice relaxation. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. We propose to use a modified expression describing two-phonon Raman relaxation with a single variable only (Θ(D)) after elimination of the sound velocity. Moreover, we show that the relaxation data can be fitted using the elastic Debye temperature value as a constant with an additional relaxation process contributing at low temperatures. This mechanism can be related to a local mode of the Cu(2+) defect in the host lattice. Electron paramagnetic resonance g-factors and hyperfine splitting were analysed in terms of the molecular orbital theory and the d-orbital energies and covalency factors of the Cu(gly)(2) complexes were found. Using the structural data and calculated orbital energies the spin-phonon coupling matrix element of the second-order Raman process was calculated as 553 cm(-1) for TGS, 742 cm(-1) for TGSe and 569 cm(-1) for TGFB. PMID:21690828

  4. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  5. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  6. Metal-organic frameworks: 3D frameworks from 3D printers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ian D.

    2014-11-01

    High-throughput screening of solvothermal crystallization conditions for MOFs and other solids may receive a boost from the application of 3D printing techniques to low-cost, disposable pressure vessels.

  7. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  8. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and X-ray crystal structure of novel classical 6,5,6-tricyclic benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines as dual thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Xilin; L.Kisliuk, Roy; Piraino, Jennifer; Cody, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    Classical antifolates (4-7) with a tricyclic benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold and a flexible and rigid benzoylglutamate were synthesized as dual thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors. Oxidative aromatization of ethyl 2-amino-4-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophene-3-carboxylate (±)-9 to ethyl 2-amino-4-methyl-1-benzothiophene-3-carboxylate 10 with 10% Pd/C was a key synthetic step. Compounds with 2-CH3 substituents inhibited human (h) TS (IC50 = 0.26-0.8 μM), but not hDHFR. Substitution of the 2-CH3 with a 2-NH2 increases hTS inhibition by more than 10-fold and also affords excellent hDHFR inhibition (IC50 = 0.09-0.1 μM). This study shows that the tricyclic benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold is highly conducive to single hTS or dual hTS-hDHFR inhibition depending on the 2-position substituents. The X-ray crystal structures of 6 and 7 with hDHFR reveal, for the first time, that tricyclics 6 and 7 bind with the benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine ring in the folate binding mode with the thieno S mimicking the 4-amino of methotrexate. PMID:21550809

  9. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  10. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  11. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Structures of 3D Lead-Halide Hybrid Perovskites and Pressure Effects on their Electronic and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Adam; Lin, Yu; Beavers, Christine M; Voss, Johannes; Mao, Wendy L; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2016-04-27

    We report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX3 (MA = CH3NH3 (+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites' precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaque black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material's resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(Br x I1-x )3 (0.2 < x < 1) reversibly form light-induced trap states, which pin their PL to a low energy. This may explain the low voltages obtained from solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors. PMID:27163050

  12. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Structures of 3D Lead-Halide Hybrid Perovskites and Pressure Effects on their Electronic and Optical Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX3 (MA = CH3NH3+, X = Br– or I–) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites’ precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaque black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material’s resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(BrxI1–x)3 (0.2 < x < 1) reversibly form light-induced trap states, which pin their PL to a low energy. This may explain the low voltages obtained from solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors. PMID:27163050

  13. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Structures of 3D Lead-Halide Hybrid Perovskites and Pressure Effects on their Electronic and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Adam; Lin, Yu; Beavers, Christine M; Voss, Johannes; Mao, Wendy L; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2016-04-27

    We report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX3 (MA = CH3NH3 (+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites' precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaque black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material's resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(Br x I1-x )3 (0.2 < x < 1) reversibly form light-induced trap states, which pin their PL to a low energy. This may explain the low voltages obtained from solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors.

  14. Organic solvent-based graphene oxide liquid crystals: a facile route toward the next generation of self-assembled layer-by-layer multifunctional 3D architectures.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Rouhollah; Aboutalebi, Seyed Hamed; Esrafilzadeh, Dorna; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Moulton, Simon E; Razal, Joselito M; Wallace, Gordon G

    2013-05-28

    We introduce soft self-assembly of ultralarge liquid crystalline (LC) graphene oxide (GO) sheets in a wide range of organic solvents overcoming the practical limitations imposed on LC GO processing in water. This expands the number of known solvents which can support amphiphilic self-assembly to ethanol, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, N-dimethylformamide, N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone, and a number of other organic solvents, many of which were not known to afford solvophobic self-assembly prior to this report. The LC behavior of the as-prepared GO sheets in organic solvents has enabled us to disperse and organize substantial amounts of aggregate-free single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs, up to 10 wt %) without compromise in LC properties. The as-prepared LC GO-SWNT dispersions were employed to achieve self-assembled layer-by-layer multifunctional 3D hybrid architectures comprising SWNTs and GO with unrivalled superior mechanical properties (Young's modulus in excess of 50 GPa and tensile strength of more than 500 MPa).

  15. Phonon Mapping in Flowing Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, J. P. C.

    2015-03-01

    When a material conducts heat, a modification of the phonon population occurs. The equilibrium Bose-Einstein distribution is perturbed towards flowing-equilibrium, for which the distribution function is not analytically known. Here I argue that the altered phonon population can be efficiently mapped over broad regions of reciprocal space, via diffuse x-ray scattering or time-of-flight neutron scattering, while a thermal gradient is applied across a single crystal sample. When compared to traditional transport measurements, this technique offers a superior, information-rich new perspective on lattice thermal conductivity, wherein the band and momentum dependences of the phonon thermal current are directly resolved. The proposed method is benchmarked using x-ray thermal diffuse scattering measurements of single crystal diamond under transport conditions. CHESS is supported by the NSF & NIH/NIGMS via NSF Award DMR-1332208.

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of a new 3D supramolecular unsymmetrical tetradentate Schiff bases copper (II) framework with stable tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Awwadi, Firas F.; Al-Razagg, Raiid; Esmadi, Fatima T.

    2016-12-01

    Flexible unsymmetrical Schiff base ligand (L) which is derived from the half unit Y = C6H5COCH2C(Ndbnd CH2C6H4NH2)CH3 (obtained from the reaction of benzoylacetone and 2-aminobenzylamine) and 2- quinolinecarboxaldehyde have been successfully co-assembled with Cu(ClO4)2 to give out the [Cu(L)]ClO4 complex. The complex crystallizes in two different space groups; P21/n and P-1. The crystal structure of the P-1 phase indicates the presence of tunnels; the volume of these tunnels is 157 Å3 which is big enough to accommodate solvent molecules. The X-ray data indicates that these tunnels are most probably filled by highly disordered solvent molecules or solvent molecules with partial occupancy. The tunneled structure is stabilized via π-π stacking interactions to give a supramolecular MOF with 1D rhomboidal tunnels array. The copper(II) atom assumes a distorted-square pyrimidal coordination geometry where the perchlorate is located on the apex of the pyramide. In addition, this work presents and discusses the spectroscopic (IR, UV/vis), electro-chemical (cyclic voltammetry) behavior of the Cu(II) complexes. The Cu(II) oxidation state is stabilized by the novel tetradentate ligands, showing Cu(I/II) couple around 0.1 vs. Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe+.

  17. Two-dimensional 3d-4f heterometallic coordination polymers: syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of six new Co(II)-Ln(III) compounds.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gallifa, Pau; Fabelo, Oscar; Pasán, Jorge; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2014-06-16

    Six new heterometallic cobalt(II)-lanthanide(III) complexes of formulas [Ln(bta)(H2O)2]2[Co(H2O)6]·10H2O [Ln = Nd(III) (1) and Eu(III) (2)] and [Ln2Co(bta)2(H2O)8]n·6nH2O [Ln = Eu(III) (3), Sm(III) (4), Gd(III) (5), and Tb(III) (6)] (H4bta = 1,2,4,5-benzenetretracaboxylic acid) have been synthesized and characterized via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 and 2 are isostructural compounds with a structure composed of anionic layers of [Ln(bta)(H2O)2]n(n-) sandwiching mononuclear [Co(H2O)6](2+) cations plus crystallization water molecules, which are interlinked by electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonds, leading to a supramolecular three-dimensional network. 3-6 are also isostructural compounds, and their structure consists of neutral layers of formula [Ln2Co(bta)2(H2O)8]n and crystallization water molecules, which are connected through hydrogen bonds to afford a supramolecular three-dimensional network. Heterometallic chains formed by the regular alternation of two nine-coordinate lanthanide(III) polyhedra [Ln(III)O9] and one compressed cobalt(II) octahedron [Co(II)O6] along the crystallographic c-axis are cross-linked by bta ligands within each layer of 3-6. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on polycrystalline samples for 3-6 have been carried out in the temperature range of 2.0-300 K. The magnetic behavior of these types of Ln(III)-Co(II) complexes, which have been modeled by using matrix dagonalization techniques, reveals the lack of magnetic coupling for 3 and 4, and the occurrence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions within the Gd(III)-Gd(III) (5) and Tb(III)-Tb(III) (6) dinuclear units through the exchange pathway provided by the double oxo(carboxylate) and double syn-syn carboxylate bridges. PMID:24901707

  18. Two-dimensional 3d-4f heterometallic coordination polymers: syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of six new Co(II)-Ln(III) compounds.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gallifa, Pau; Fabelo, Oscar; Pasán, Jorge; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2014-06-16

    Six new heterometallic cobalt(II)-lanthanide(III) complexes of formulas [Ln(bta)(H2O)2]2[Co(H2O)6]·10H2O [Ln = Nd(III) (1) and Eu(III) (2)] and [Ln2Co(bta)2(H2O)8]n·6nH2O [Ln = Eu(III) (3), Sm(III) (4), Gd(III) (5), and Tb(III) (6)] (H4bta = 1,2,4,5-benzenetretracaboxylic acid) have been synthesized and characterized via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 and 2 are isostructural compounds with a structure composed of anionic layers of [Ln(bta)(H2O)2]n(n-) sandwiching mononuclear [Co(H2O)6](2+) cations plus crystallization water molecules, which are interlinked by electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonds, leading to a supramolecular three-dimensional network. 3-6 are also isostructural compounds, and their structure consists of neutral layers of formula [Ln2Co(bta)2(H2O)8]n and crystallization water molecules, which are connected through hydrogen bonds to afford a supramolecular three-dimensional network. Heterometallic chains formed by the regular alternation of two nine-coordinate lanthanide(III) polyhedra [Ln(III)O9] and one compressed cobalt(II) octahedron [Co(II)O6] along the crystallographic c-axis are cross-linked by bta ligands within each layer of 3-6. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on polycrystalline samples for 3-6 have been carried out in the temperature range of 2.0-300 K. The magnetic behavior of these types of Ln(III)-Co(II) complexes, which have been modeled by using matrix dagonalization techniques, reveals the lack of magnetic coupling for 3 and 4, and the occurrence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions within the Gd(III)-Gd(III) (5) and Tb(III)-Tb(III) (6) dinuclear units through the exchange pathway provided by the double oxo(carboxylate) and double syn-syn carboxylate bridges.

  19. Wide-stopband aperiodic phononic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Denis, K. L.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that a phonon stopband can be synthesized from an aperiodic structure comprising a discrete set of phononic filter stages. Each element of the set has a dispersion relation that defines a complete bandgap when calculated under a Bloch boundary condition. Hence, the effective stopband width in an aperiodic phononic filter (PnF) may readily exceed that of a phononic crystal with a single lattice constant or a coherence scale. With simulations of multi-moded phononic waveguides, we discuss the effects of finite geometry and mode-converting junctions on the phonon transmission in PnFs. The principles described may be utilized to form a wide stopband in acoustic and surface wave media. Relative to the quantum of thermal conductance for a uniform mesoscopic beam, a PnF with a stopband covering 1.6–10.4 GHz is estimated to reduce the thermal conductance by an order of magnitude at 75 mK.

  20. Wide-Stopband Aperiodic Phononic Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostem, Karwan; Chuss, David; Denis, K. L.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a phonon stopband can be synthesized from an aperiodic structure comprising a discrete set of phononic filter stages. Each element of the set has a dispersion relation that defines a complete bandgap when calculated under a Bloch boundary condition. Hence, the effective stopband width in an aperiodic phononic filter (PnF) may readily exceed that of a phononic crystal with a single lattice constant or a coherence scale. With simulations of multi-moded phononic waveguides, we discuss the effects of finite geometry and mode-converting junctions on the phonon transmission in PnFs. The principles described may be utilized to form a wide stopband in acoustic and surface wave media. Relative to the quantum of thermal conductance for a uniform mesoscopic beam, a PnF with a stopband covering 1.6-10.4 GHz is estimated to reduce the thermal conductance by an order of magnitude at 75 mK.

  1. Topologically protected elastic waves in phononic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, S. Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Surface waves in topological states of quantum matter exhibit unique protection from backscattering induced by disorders, making them ideal carriers for both classical and quantum information. Topological matters for electrons and photons are largely limited by the range of bulk properties, and the associated performance trade-offs. In contrast, phononic metamaterials provide access to a much wider range of material properties. Here we demonstrate numerically a phononic topological metamaterial in an elastic-wave analogue of the quantum spin Hall effect. A dual-scale phononic crystal slab is used to support two effective spins for phonons over a broad bandwidth, and strong spin–orbit coupling is realized by breaking spatial mirror symmetry. By preserving the spin polarization with an external load or spatial symmetry, phononic edge states are shown to be robust against scattering from discrete defects as well as disorders in the continuum, demonstrating topological protection for phonons in both static and time-dependent regimes. PMID:26530426

  2. Specific features of insulator-metal transitions under high pressure in crystals with spin crossovers of 3d ions in tetrahedral environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lobach, K. A. Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Ovchinnikova, T. M.

    2015-01-15

    For Mott insulators with tetrahedral environment, the effective Hubbard parameter U{sub eff} is obtained as a function of pressure. This function is not universal. For crystals with d{sup 5} configuration, the spin crossover suppresses electron correlations, while for d{sup 4} configurations, the parameter U{sub eff} increases after a spin crossover. For d{sup 2} and d{sup 7} configurations, U{sub eff} increases with pressure in the high-spin (HS) state and is saturated after the spin crossover. Characteristic features of the insulator-metal transition are considered as pressure increases; it is shown that there may exist cascades of several transitions for various configurations.

  3. Three-Dimensional (3D) Bicontinuous Hierarchically Porous Mn2O3 Single Crystals for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Cai, Yi; Li, Yu; Deng, Zhao; Zeng, Jun-Yang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Chao; Hasan, Tawfique; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-10-01

    Bicontinuous hierarchically porous Mn2O3 single crystals (BHP-Mn2O3-SCs) with uniform parallelepiped geometry and tunable sizes have been synthesized and used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The monodispersed BHP-Mn2O3-SCs exhibit high specific surface area and three dimensional interconnected bimodal mesoporosity throughout the entire crystal. Such hierarchical interpenetrating porous framework can not only provide a large number of active sites for Li ion insertion, but also good conductivity and short diffusion length for Li ions, leading to a high lithium storage capacity and enhanced rate capability. Furthermore, owing to their specific porosity, these BHP-Mn2O3-SCs as anode materials can accommodate the volume expansion/contraction that occurs with lithium insertion/extraction during discharge/charge processes, resulting in their good cycling performance. Our synthesized BHP-Mn2O3-SCs with a size of ~700 nm display the best electrochemical performance, with a large reversible capacity (845 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles), high coulombic efficiency (>95%), excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability (410 mA h g-1 at 1 Ag-1). These values are among the highest reported for Mn2O3-based bulk solids and nanostructures. Also, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study demonstrates that the BHP-Mn2O3-SCs are suitable for charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  4. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  5. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  6. Effect of magnetized phonons on electrical and thermal conductivity of neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiko, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We study electrical and thermal conductivities of degenerate electrons emitting and absorbing phonons in a strongly magnetized crystalline neutron star crust. We take into account modification of the phonon spectrum of a Coulomb solid of ions caused by a strong magnetic field. Boltzmann transport equation is solved using a generalized variational method. The ensuing 3D integrals over the transferred momenta are evaluated by two different numerical techniques, the Monte Carlo method and a regular integration over the first Brillouin zone. The results of the two numerical approaches are shown to be in a good agreement. An appreciable growth of electrical and thermal resistivities is reported at quantum and intermediate temperatures T ≲ 0.1Tp (Tp is the ion plasma temperature) in a wide range of chemical compositions and mass densities of matter even for moderately magnetized crystals ωB ˜ ωp (ωB and ωp are the ion cyclotron and plasma frequencies). This effect is due to an appearance of a soft (ω ∝ k2) phonon mode in the magnetized ion Coulomb crystal, which turns out to be easier to excite than acoustic phonons characteristic of the field-free case. These results are important for modelling magneto-thermal evolution of neutron stars.

  7. Expansion of lower-frequency locally resonant band gaps using a double-sided stubbed composite phononic crystals plate with composite stubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suobin; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Li, Yinggang; Chen, Weihua

    2016-06-01

    We studied the expansion of locally resonant complete band gaps in two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) using a double-sided stubbed composite PC plate with composite stubs. Results show that the introduction of the proposed structure gives rise to a significant expansion of the relative bandwidth by a factor of 1.5 and decreases the opening location of the first complete band gap by a factor of 3 compared to the classic double-sided stubbed PC plate with composite stubs. Furthermore, more band gaps appear in the lower-frequency range (0.006). These phenomena can be attributed to the strong coupling between the "analogous rigid mode" of the stub and the anti-symmetric Lamb modes of the plate. The "analogous rigid mode" of the stub is produced by strengthening the localized resonance effect of the composite plates through the double-sided stubs, and is further strengthened through the introduction of composite stubs. The "analogous rigid mode" of the stubs expands the out-of-plane band gap, which overlaps with in-plane band gap in the lower-frequency range. As a result, the complete band gap is expanded and more complete band gaps appear.

  8. Spin-phonon and lattice contributions to the ground-state splitting of Gd3+ and Eu2+ in scheelite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlov, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    The EPR spectra of Gd3+ in CaWO4 single crystals have been studied at temperatures T = 1.8, 4.2, and 114-300 K, and the temperature dependence of the parameters b {/n m } ( T) of the spin Hamiltonian has been found. The behavior of b {2/0}( T) has been analyzed. The spin-phonon and static lattice contributions b {2/0}( F) and b {2/0}( L) to b {2/0}( T) have been revealed. For this purpose, the variation of b {2/0}( L) has been calculated taking into account the thermal shifts of oxygen ions in CaWO4. Similar analysis has been carried out for CaWO4: Eu2+ based on the EPR data of other authors (Bronstein, Voterra and Harvey, Kiefte). It has been shown that at b {2/0}( F) > 0, the variation of b {2/0}( F) as a function of T for these impurity centers is described well by the Pfister model and a sign change of b {2/0}( T) for Eu2+ is determined by thermal expansion of the lattice.

  9. Crystal structure and phonon properties of noncentrosymmetric LiNaB{sub 4}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Maczka, M. Waskowska, A.; Majchrowski, A.; Zmija, J.; Hanuza, J.; Keszler, D.A.

    2007-02-15

    A new borate, LiNaB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, has been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure determination. The material crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, noncentrosymmetric space group Fdd2, with unit cell dimensions a=13.325(2), b=14.099(2), c=10.243(2)A, Z=16, and V=1924.3(7)A{sup 3}. Like Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, the structure is built of two symmetrically independent, interpenetrating (B{sub 4}O{sub 7}){sub {approx}}{sup 3} polyanionic frameworks built from condensation of the B{sub 4}O{sub 9} fundamental building block, which is comprised of two distorted BO{sub 4} tetrahedra and two BO{sub 3} triangles. The interpenetrating frameworks produce distinct tunnels that are selectively occupied by the Li and Na atoms. Large single crystals exhibiting an optical absorption edge with {lambda}<180nm have been grown via the top-seeded-solution-growth method. The SHG signal (0.15x potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP)) is consistent with the calculated components of the SHG tensor and the approximate centrosymmetric disposition of the independent and interpenetrating (B{sub 4}O{sub 7}){sub {approx}}{sup 3} frameworks. A complete analysis of polarized IR and Raman spectra confirms a close relationship between the title compound and Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}.

  10. Investigarion of the effects of a quantum dot crystal geometry on its brillouin spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balandin, O.; Lazarenkova, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model and carry out simulation of Brillouin spectrum of three-dimensional (3D) quantum dot (QD) arrays with a high order of 3D periodicity, i.e. quantum dot crystals (QDC). The phonon spectrum of Ge/Si QDC is found from the numerical solution of the elasticity equation for the whole structure. The developed approach is valid for any QD shape and regimentation and allows to include disorder in consider at ion.

  11. Holographic Interferometry based on photorefractive crystal to measure 3D thermo-elastic distortion of composite structures and comparison with finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thizy, C.; Eliot, F.; Ballhause, D.; Olympio, K. R.; Kluge, R.; Shannon, A.; Laduree, G.; Logut, D.; Georges, M. P.

    2013-04-01

    Thermo-elastic distortions of composite structures have been measured by a holographic camera using a BSO photorefractive crystal as the recording medium. The first test campaign (Phase 1) was performed on CFRP struts with titanium end-fittings glued to the tips of the strut. The samples were placed in a vacuum chamber. The holographic camera was located outside the chamber and configured with two illuminations to measure the relative out-of-plane and in-plane (in one direction) displacements. The second test campaign (Phase 2) was performed on a structure composed of a large Silicon Carbide base plate supported by 3 GFRP struts with glued Titanium end-fittings. Thermo-elastic distortions have been measured with the same holographic camera used in phase 1, but four illuminations, instead of two, have been used to provide the three components of displacement. This technique was specially developed and validated during the phase 2 in CSL laboratory. The system has been designed to measure an object size of typically 250x250 mm2; the measurement range is such that the sum of the largest relative displacements in the three measurement directions is maximum 20 μm. The validation of the four-illuminations technique led to measurement uncertainties of 120 nm for the relative in-plane and out-of-plane displacements, 230 nm for the absolute in-plane displacement and 400 nm for the absolute out-of-plane displacement. For both campaigns, the test results have been compared to the predictions obtained by finite element analyses and the correlation of these results was good.

  12. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  13. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  14. Isotopic effects on the phonon modes in boron carbide.

    PubMed

    Werheit, H; Kuhlmann, U; Rotter, H W; Shalamberidze, S O

    2010-10-01

    The effect of isotopes ((10)B-(11)B; (12)C-(13)C) on the infrared- and Raman-active phonons of boron carbide has been investigated. For B isotopes, the contributions of the virtual crystal approximation, polarization vector and isotopical disorder are separated. Boron and carbon isotope effects are largely opposite to one another and indicate the share of the particular atoms in the atomic assemblies vibrating in specific phonon modes. Some infrared-active phonons behave as expected for monatomic boron crystals.

  15. Hydrogen in polar intermetallics: Syntheses and structures of the ternary Ca5Bi3D0.93, Yb5Bi3Hx, and Sm5Bi3H~1 by powder neutron or single crystal X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leon-Escamilla, E. Alejandro; Dervenagas, Panagiotis; Stasis, Constantine; Corbett, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The syntheses of the title compounds are described in detail. Structural characterizations from refinements of single crystal X-ray diffraction data for Yb{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub x} and Sm{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub 1} and of powder neutron diffraction data for Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}D{sub 0.93(3)} are reported. These confirm that all three crystallize with the heavy atom structure type of {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}, and the third gives the first proof that the deuterium lies in the center of nominal calcium tetrahedra, isostructural with the Ca{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}F-type structure. These Ca and Yb phases are particularly stable with respect to dissociation to Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type product plus H{sub 2}. Some contradictions in the literature regarding Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} and Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}H{sub x} phases are considered in terms of adventitious hydrogen impurities that are generated during reactions in fused silica containers at elevated temperatures.

  16. A phononic crystal strip based on silicon for support tether applications in silicon-based MEMS resonators and effects of temperature and dopant on its band gap characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Thi Dep; Bao, JingFu

    2016-04-01

    Phononic crystals (PnCs) and n-type doped silicon technique have been widely employed in silicon-based MEMS resonators to obtain high quality factor (Q) as well as temperature-induced frequency stability. For the PnCs, their band gaps play an important role in the acoustic wave propagation. Also, the temperature and dopant doped into silicon can cause the change in its material properties such as elastic constants, Young's modulus. Therefore, in order to design the simultaneous high Q and frequency stability silicon-based MEMS resonators by two these techniques, a careful design should study effects of temperature and dopant on the band gap characteristics to examine the acoustic wave propagation in the PnC. Based on these, this paper presents (1) a proposed silicon-based PnC strip structure for support tether applications in low frequency silicon-based MEMS resonators, (2) influences of temperature and dopant on band gap characteristics of the PnC strips. The simulation results show that the largest band gap can achieve up to 33.56 at 57.59 MHz and increase 1280.13 % (also increase 131.89 % for ratio of the widest gaps) compared with the counterpart without hole. The band gap properties of the PnC strips is insignificantly effected by temperature and electron doping concentration. Also, the quality factor of two designed length extensional mode MEMS resonators with proposed PnC strip based support tethers is up to 1084.59% and 43846.36% over the same resonators with PnC strip without hole and circled corners, respectively. This theoretical study uses the finite element analysis in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB softwares as simulation tools. This findings provides a background in combination of PnC and dopant techniques for high performance silicon-based MEMS resonators as well as PnC-based MEMS devices.

  17. Identification of specific phonon contributions in BCS-type superconductivity of boride-carbide crystals with a layer-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunok, H. Y.; Tütüncü, H. M.; Özer, S.; Ugˇur, Ş.; Srivastava, G. P.

    2015-03-01

    We report on an ab initio study of the BCS-type superconductivity in the intermetallic borocarbides YPd2B2C, YPt2B2C and LaPt2B2C with a layer-like structure. The largest contribution to the electron-phonon coupling constant λ is identified to come from transverse acoustic phonons at a zone-edge, arising from the atomic vibrations in the boron-transition metal layer. A detailed examination of the atomic geometry in the boron-transition metal layer, the electron-phonon coupling constant λ, and the logarithmically averaged phonon frequency ωln helps explain the relatively higher superconducting temperature Tc of YPd2B2C (20.6 K) compared to that of YPt2B2C (11.3 K) and LaPt2B2C (10.40 K).

  18. The phonon Hall effect: theory and application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifa; Ren, Jie; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2011-08-01

    We present a systematic theory of the phonon Hall effect in a ballistic crystal lattice system, and apply it on the kagome lattice which is ubiquitous in various real materials. By proposing a proper second quantization for the non-Hermitian in the polarization-vector space, we obtain a new heat current density operator with two separate contributions: the normal velocity responsible for the longitudinal phonon transport, and the anomalous velocity manifesting itself as the Hall effect of transverse phonon transport. As exemplified in kagome lattices, our theory predicts that the direction of Hall conductivity at low magnetic field can be reversed by tuning the temperatures, which we hope can be verified by experiments in the future. Three phonon-Hall-conductivity singularities induced by phonon-band-topology change are discovered as well, which correspond to the degeneracies at three different symmetric center points, Γ, K, X, in the wavevector space of the kagome lattice.

  19. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  1. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  2. Probing phonons in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, D; Chiang, T; Krisch, M; Occelli, F; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Xu, R; Boro, C

    2003-12-17

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties [1]. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}' {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts. Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimental data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter-atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single-grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc {delta}-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution

  3. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  4. Edge phonons in black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, H B; Villegas, C E P; Bahamon, D A; Muraca, D; Castro Neto, A H; de Souza, E A T; Rocha, A R; Pimenta, M A; de Matos, C J S

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  5. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  6. Inelastic X-ray Scattering Study of SmFeAs(O1−xFy) Single Crystals: Evidence for Strong Momentum-Dependent Doping-Induced Renormalizations of Optical Phonons

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.P.; Le Tacon, M.; Forrest, T.R.; Ruegg, Ch.; Bosak, A.; Walters, A.C.; Mittal, R.; Rønnow, H.M.; Zhigadlo, N.D.; Katrych, S.; Karpinski, J.; Krisch, M.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2009-12-01

    We report inelastic x-ray scattering experiments on the lattice dynamics in SmFeAsO and superconducting SmFeAsO{sub 0.60}F{sub 0.35} single crystals. Particular attention was paid to the dispersions along the [100] direction of three optical modes close to 23 meV, polarized out of the FeAs planes. Remarkably, two of these modes are strongly renormalized upon fluorine doping. These results provide significant insight into the energy and momentum dependence of the coupling of the lattice to the electron system and underline the importance of spin-phonon coupling in the superconducting iron pnictides.

  7. Toward quantitative modeling of silicon phononic thermocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lacatena, V.; Haras, M.; Robillard, J.-F. Dubois, E.; Monfray, S.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-03-16

    The wealth of technological patterning technologies of deca-nanometer resolution brings opportunities to artificially modulate thermal transport properties. A promising example is given by the recent concepts of 'thermocrystals' or 'nanophononic crystals' that introduce regular nano-scale inclusions using a pitch scale in between the thermal phonons mean free path and the electron mean free path. In such structures, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced down to two orders of magnitude with respect to its bulk value. Beyond the promise held by these materials to overcome the well-known “electron crystal-phonon glass” dilemma faced in thermoelectrics, the quantitative prediction of their thermal conductivity poses a challenge. This work paves the way toward understanding and designing silicon nanophononic membranes by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Several systems are studied in order to distinguish the shape contribution from bulk, ultra-thin membranes (8 to 15 nm), 2D phononic crystals, and finally 2D phononic membranes. After having discussed the equilibrium properties of these structures from 300 K to 400 K, the Green-Kubo methodology is used to quantify the thermal conductivity. The results account for several experimental trends and models. It is confirmed that the thin-film geometry as well as the phononic structure act towards a reduction of the thermal conductivity. The further decrease in the phononic engineered membrane clearly demonstrates that both phenomena are cumulative. Finally, limitations of the model and further perspectives are discussed.

  8. Collaborative annotation of 3D crystallographic models.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J; Henderson, M; Khan, I

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AnnoCryst system-a tool that was designed to enable authenticated collaborators to share online discussions about 3D crystallographic structures through the asynchronous attachment, storage, and retrieval of annotations. Annotations are personal comments, interpretations, questions, assessments, or references that can be attached to files, data, digital objects, or Web pages. The AnnoCryst system enables annotations to be attached to 3D crystallographic models retrieved from either private local repositories (e.g., Fedora) or public online databases (e.g., Protein Data Bank or Inorganic Crystal Structure Database) via a Web browser. The system uses the Jmol plugin for viewing and manipulating the 3D crystal structures but extends Jmol by providing an additional interface through which annotations can be created, attached, stored, searched, browsed, and retrieved. The annotations are stored on a standardized Web annotation server (Annotea), which has been extended to support 3D macromolecular structures. Finally, the system is embedded within a security framework that is capable of authenticating users and restricting access only to trusted colleagues.

  9. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  10. Timescales of quartz crystallization estimated from glass inclusion faceting using 3D propagation phase-contrast x-ray tomography: examples from the Bishop (California, USA) and Oruanui (Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand) Tuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamukcu, A.; Gualda, G. A.; Anderson, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Compositions of glass inclusions have long been studied for the information they provide on the evolution of magma bodies. Textures - sizes, shapes, positions - of glass inclusions have received less attention, but they can also provide important insight into magmatic processes, including the timescales over which magma bodies develop and erupt. At magmatic temperatures, initially round glass inclusions will become faceted (attain a negative crystal shape) through the process of dissolution and re-precipitation, such that the extent to which glass inclusions are faceted can be used to estimate timescales. The size and position of the inclusion within a crystal will influence how much faceting occurs: a larger inclusion will facet more slowly; an inclusion closer to the rim will have less time to facet. As a result, it is critical to properly document the size, shape, and position of glass inclusions to assess faceting timescales. Quartz is an ideal mineral to study glass inclusion faceting, as Si is the only diffusing species of concern, and Si diffusion rates are relatively well-constrained. Faceting time calculations to date (Gualda et al., 2012) relied on optical microscopy to document glass inclusions. Here we use 3D propagation phase-contrast x-ray tomography to image glass inclusions in quartz. This technique enhances inclusion edges such that images can be processed more successfully than with conventional tomography. We have developed a set of image processing tools to isolate inclusions and more accurately obtain information on the size, shape, and position of glass inclusions than with optical microscopy. We are studying glass inclusions from two giant tuffs. The Bishop Tuff is ~1000 km3 of high-silica rhyolite ash fall, ignimbrite, and intracaldera deposits erupted ~760 ka in eastern California (USA). Glass inclusions in early-erupted Bishop Tuff range from non-faceted to faceted, and faceting times determined using both optical microscopy and x

  11. AGGRESCAN3D (A3D): server for prediction of aggregation properties of protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Rafael; Jamroz, Michal; Szczasiuk, Agata; Pujols, Jordi; Kmiecik, Sebastian; Ventura, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation underlies an increasing number of disorders and constitutes a major bottleneck in the development of therapeutic proteins. Our present understanding on the molecular determinants of protein aggregation has crystalized in a series of predictive algorithms to identify aggregation-prone sites. A majority of these methods rely only on sequence. Therefore, they find difficulties to predict the aggregation properties of folded globular proteins, where aggregation-prone sites are often not contiguous in sequence or buried inside the native structure. The AGGRESCAN3D (A3D) server overcomes these limitations by taking into account the protein structure and the experimental aggregation propensity scale from the well-established AGGRESCAN method. Using the A3D server, the identified aggregation-prone residues can be virtually mutated to design variants with increased solubility, or to test the impact of pathogenic mutations. Additionally, A3D server enables to take into account the dynamic fluctuations of protein structure in solution, which may influence aggregation propensity. This is possible in A3D Dynamic Mode that exploits the CABS-flex approach for the fast simulations of flexibility of globular proteins. The A3D server can be accessed at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/A3D/. PMID:25883144

  12. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  13. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  14. Phonons from neutron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrov, D.A.; Louca, D.; Roeder, H. )

    1999-09-01

    The spherically averaged structure function S([vert bar][bold q][vert bar]) obtained from pulsed neutron powder diffraction contains both elastic and inelastic scattering via an integral over energy. The Fourier transformation of S([vert bar][bold q][vert bar]) to real space, as is done in the pair density function (PDF) analysis, regularizes the data, i.e., it accentuates the diffuse scattering. We present a technique which enables the extraction of off-center ([vert bar][bold q][vert bar][ne]0) phonon information from powder diffraction experiments by comparing the experimental PDF with theoretical calculations based on standard interatomic potentials and the crystal symmetry. This procedure [dynamics from powder diffraction] has been [ital successfully] implemented as demonstrated here for two systems, a simple metal fcc Ni and an ionic crystal CaF[sub 2]. Although computationally intensive, this data analysis allows for a phonon based modeling of the PDF, and additionally provides off-center phonon information from neutron powder diffraction. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  15. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  16. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  17. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  18. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  19. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  20. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  1. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  2. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  3. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  5. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  6. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  7. Spectral challenges of individual wavelength-scale particles: strong phonons and their distorted lineshapes.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Aruna; Malone, Marvin A; Luthra, Antriksh; Lioi, David; Coe, James V

    2013-07-01

    Beyond our own interest in airborne particulate matter, the prediction of extinction and absorption spectra of single particles of mixed composition has wide use in astronomy, geology, atmospheric sciences, and nanotechnology. Single particle spectra present different challenges than traditional spectroscopic approaches. To quantify the amount of a material in a bulk sample (molecules in solution or the gas phase), one might employ the Beer-Lambert law assuming a simple slab-type assay geometry and averaging over orientation, whereas with single particles one might have a specific orientation and require a nonlinear, Mie-like particle theory. The complicating single particle issues include: strong and broad scattering at wavelengths similar to the particle size, phonon lineshape phase shifting, particle shape effects, distortion of transition lineshapes by strong vibrational bands, bi- and trirefringence, crystal orientation effects including dispersion, and composition mixtures. This work uses a combination of three-dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) calculations and experimental infrared spectra on single, crystalline quartz particles to illustrate some of the challenges--in particular the distortion of lineshapes by strong phonons that lie within a range of strong scattering. It turns out that many mineral dust components in the inhalable size range have strong phonons. A Mie-Bruggeman model for single particle spectra is presented to isolate the effects of strong phonons on lineshapes which has utility for analysing the spectra of single, mixed-composition particles. This model will ultimately enable the determination of volume fractions of components in single particles that are mixtures of many materials with strong phonons, as are the dust particles breathed into people's lungs. PMID:23703537

  8. Spectral challenges of individual wavelength-scale particles: strong phonons and their distorted lineshapes.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Aruna; Malone, Marvin A; Luthra, Antriksh; Lioi, David; Coe, James V

    2013-07-01

    Beyond our own interest in airborne particulate matter, the prediction of extinction and absorption spectra of single particles of mixed composition has wide use in astronomy, geology, atmospheric sciences, and nanotechnology. Single particle spectra present different challenges than traditional spectroscopic approaches. To quantify the amount of a material in a bulk sample (molecules in solution or the gas phase), one might employ the Beer-Lambert law assuming a simple slab-type assay geometry and averaging over orientation, whereas with single particles one might have a specific orientation and require a nonlinear, Mie-like particle theory. The complicating single particle issues include: strong and broad scattering at wavelengths similar to the particle size, phonon lineshape phase shifting, particle shape effects, distortion of transition lineshapes by strong vibrational bands, bi- and trirefringence, crystal orientation effects including dispersion, and composition mixtures. This work uses a combination of three-dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) calculations and experimental infrared spectra on single, crystalline quartz particles to illustrate some of the challenges--in particular the distortion of lineshapes by strong phonons that lie within a range of strong scattering. It turns out that many mineral dust components in the inhalable size range have strong phonons. A Mie-Bruggeman model for single particle spectra is presented to isolate the effects of strong phonons on lineshapes which has utility for analysing the spectra of single, mixed-composition particles. This model will ultimately enable the determination of volume fractions of components in single particles that are mixtures of many materials with strong phonons, as are the dust particles breathed into people's lungs.

  9. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  10. Phonon dispersion and lifetimes in MgB2.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Abhay; Calandra, Matteo; D'Astuto, Matteo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Bellin, Christophe; Krisch, Michael; Karpinski, J; Kazakov, S M; Jun, J; Daghero, D; Parlinski, K

    2003-03-01

    We measure phonon dispersion and linewidth in a single crystal of MgB2 along the Gamma-A, Gamma-M, and A-L directions using inelastic x-ray scattering. We use density functional theory to compute the effect of both electron-phonon coupling and anharmonicity on the linewidth, obtaining excellent agreement with experiment. Anomalous broadening of the E(2g) phonon mode is found all along Gamma-A. The dominant contribution to the linewidth is always the electron-phonon coupling.

  11. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  12. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  13. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  14. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  15. Raman spectra of semiconductor nanoparticles: Disorder-activated phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, Alka; Rustagi, K. C.

    1998-09-01

    We present Raman spectra of four semiconductor doped glasses and a single crystal of CdS0.55Se0.45 in the range 30-800 cm-1 in the backscattering geometry. This includes the first-order Raman scattering from the disorder-activated zone-edge phonons and the LO phonons. TO phonon modes are not observed, as in bulk CdS, for the excitation well above the lowest gap. We show that the asymmetric line profile of the LO phonon structure can be understood as a composite of two phonon modes: the zone center and the zone edge phonons. Disorder-activated modes in the (30-130)-cm-1 range and the higher-order Raman spectra are also observed and found to be consistent with this assignment.

  16. Phonon-based scalable quantum computing and sensing (Presentation Video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kady, Ihab

    2015-04-01

    Quantum computing fundamentally depends on the ability to concurrently entangle and individually address/control a large number of qubits. In general, the primary inhibitors of large scale entanglement are qubit dependent; for example inhomogeneity in quantum dots, spectral crowding brought about by proximity-based entanglement in ions, weak interactions of neutral atoms, and the fabrication tolerances in the case of Si-vacancies or SQUIDs. We propose an inherently scalable solid-state qubit system with individually addressable qubits based on the coupling of a phonon with an acceptor impurity in a high-Q Phononic Crystal resonant cavity. Due to their unique nonlinear properties, phonons enable new opportunities for quantum devices and physics. We present a phononic crystal-based platform for observing the phonon analogy of cavity quantum electrodynamics, called phonodynamics, in a solid-state system. Practical schemes involve selective placement of a single acceptor atom in the peak of the strain field in a high-Q phononic crystal cavity that enables strong coupling of the phonon modes to the energy levels of the atom. A qubit is then created by entangling a phonon at the resonance frequency of the cavity with the atomic acceptor states. We show theoretical optimization of the cavity design and excitation waveguides, along with estimated performance figures of the phoniton system. Qubits based on this half-sound, half-matter quasi-particle, may outcompete other quantum architectures in terms of combined emission rate, coherence lifetime, and fabrication demands.

  17. Computer-aided 3D display system and its application in 3D vision test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, XiaoYun; Ma, Lan; Hou, Chunping; Wang, Jiening; Tang, Da; Li, Chang

    1998-08-01

    The computer aided 3D display system, flicker-free field sequential stereoscopic image display system, is newly developed. This system is composed of personal computer, liquid crystal glasses driving card, stereoscopic display software and liquid crystal glasses. It can display field sequential stereoscopic images at refresh rate of 70 Hz to 120 Hz. A typical application of this system, 3D vision test system, is mainly discussed in this paper. This stereoscopic vision test system can test stereoscopic acuity, cross disparity, uncross disparity and dynamic stereoscopic vision quantitatively. We have taken the use of random-dot- stereograms as stereoscopic vision test charts. Through practical test experiment between Anaglyph Stereoscopic Vision Test Charts and this stereoscopic vision test system, the statistical figures and test result is given out.

  18. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  19. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  20. Understanding the spin-driven polarizations in Bi MO3 (M = 3 d transition metals) multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kc, Santosh; Lee, Jun Hee; Cooper, Valentino R.

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) , a promising multiferroic, stabilizes in a perovskite type rhombohedral crystal structure (space group R3c) at room temperature. Recently, it has been reported that in its ground state it possess a huge spin-driven polarization. To probe the underlying mechanism of this large spin-phonon response, we examine these couplings within other Bi based 3 d transition metal oxides Bi MO3 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) using density functional theory. Our results demonstrate that this large spin-driven polarization is a consequence of symmetry breaking due to competition between ferroelectric distortions and anti-ferrodistortive octahedral rotations. Furthermore, we find a strong dependence of these enhanced spin-driven polarizations on the crystal structure; with the rhombohedral phase having the largest spin-induced atomic distortions along [111]. These results give us significant insights into the magneto-electric coupling in these materials which is essential to the magnetic and electric field control of electric polarization and magnetization in multiferroic based devices. Research is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division and the Office of Science Early Career Research Program (V.R.C) and used computational resources at NERSC.

  1. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  2. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  3. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  4. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  5. Symmetry-adapted phonon analysis of nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaei, Amin; Dayal, Kaushik; Elliott, Ryan S.

    2013-02-01

    The characteristics of phonons, i.e. linearized normal modes of vibration, provide important insights into many aspects of crystals, e.g. stability and thermodynamics. In this paper, we use the Objective Structures framework to make concrete analogies between crystalline phonons and normal modes of vibration in non-crystalline but highly symmetric nanostructures. Our strategy is to use an intermediate linear transformation from real-space to an intermediate space in which the Hessian matrix of second derivatives is block-circulant. The block-circulant nature of the Hessian enables us to then follow the procedure to obtain phonons in crystals: namely, we use the Discrete Fourier Transform from this intermediate space to obtain a block-diagonal matrix that is readily diagonalizable. We formulate this for general Objective Structures and then apply it to study carbon nanotubes of various chiralities that are subjected to axial elongation and torsional deformation. We compare the phonon spectra computed in the Objective Framework with spectra computed for armchair and zigzag nanotubes. We also demonstrate the approach by computing the Density of States. In addition to the computational efficiency afforded by Objective Structures in providing the transformations to almost-diagonalize the Hessian, the framework provides an important conceptual simplification to interpret the phonon curves. Our findings include that, first, not all non-optic long-wavelength modes are zero energy and conversely not all zero energy modes are long-wavelength; second, the phonon curves accurately predict both the onset as well as the soft modes for instabilities such as torsional buckling; and third, unlike crystals where phonon stability does not provide information on stability with respect to non-rank-one deformation modes, phonon stability in nanotubes is sufficient to guarantee stability with respect to all perturbations that do not involve structural modes. Our finding of characteristic

  6. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  7. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  8. Time domain topology optimization of 3D nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elesin, Y.; Lazarov, B. S.; Jensen, J. S.; Sigmund, O.

    2014-02-01

    We present an efficient parallel topology optimization framework for design of large scale 3D nanophotonic devices. The code shows excellent scalability and is demonstrated for optimization of broadband frequency splitter, waveguide intersection, photonic crystal-based waveguide and nanowire-based waveguide. The obtained results are compared to simplified 2D studies and we demonstrate that 3D topology optimization may lead to significant performance improvements.

  9. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  10. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  11. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  12. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  13. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  14. Probing phonons in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-11-16

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}{prime} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the

  15. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  16. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  17. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  18. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  19. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  20. Isotopic phonon effects in β-rhombohedral boron—non-statistical isotope distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werheit, H.; Filipov, V.; Kuhlmann, U.; Schwarz, U.; Armbrüster, M.; Antadze, M.

    2012-05-01

    On the basis of the spectra of IR- and Raman-active phonons, the isotopic phonon effects in β-rhombohedral boron are analysed for polycrystalline 10B- and 11B-enriched samples of different origin and high-purity natB single crystals. Intra- and inter-icosahedral B-B vibrations are harmonic, hence meeting the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) requirements. Deviations from the phonon shift expected according to the VCA are attributed to the anharmonic share of the lattice vibrations. In the case of icosahedral vibrations, the agreement with calculations on α-rhombohedral boron by Shirai and Katayama-Yoshida is quite satisfactory. Phonon shifts due to isotopic disorder in natB are separated and determined. Some phonon frequencies are sensitive to impurities. The isotopic phonon effects yield valuable specific information on the nature of the different phonon modes. The occupation of regular boron sites by isotopes deviates significantly from the random distribution.

  1. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  2. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  3. Modification of the phonon spectrum of bulk Si through surface nanostructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Huang, Y.; Kazan, M.; Bruyant, A.; Tabbal, M.; Lerondel, G.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present experimental evidence on the change of the phonon spectrum and vibrational properties of a bulk material through phonon hybridization mechanisms. The phonon spectrum in a finite material is strongly affected by the presence of free surfaces, which is the addition of a contribution from an essentially two-dimensional crystal. The phonon spectrum of a bulk material can hence be altered by a hybridization mechanism between confined phonon modes in nanostructures introduced on the surface of a bulk material and the underlying bulk phonon modes. We measured the heat capacities of bare and surface-structured silicon substrates originating from the same silicon wafer. Then, we deduced important features of the phonon spectra of the samples investigated through a rigorous analysis of the measured heat capacity curves. The results show that the shape and size of the nanostructures made on the surface of the bulk substrate have a strong effect on the phonon spectrum of the bulk material.

  4. Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, Amjad Al; Farías, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate‧s Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed.

  5. Understandng of phonon anharmonicity in thermoelectric clathrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, Katsumi; Wu, Jiazhen; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Huynh, Khuong; Akagi, Kazuto; AIMR Collaboration; Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science Collaboration

    Anharmonicity in phonons, apart from the conventional Einstein- or Debye- mode harmonic phonons, is frequently observed for amorphous or glass-like materials. A frontier topic relating to anharmonic phonons revolves around the fact that they are also observed in a single crystal with a void of cage structure. Although the origin of the phonon anharmonicity has been the center of scientific debate for many years, a clear understanding has not yet been achieved. In the present study, we show that the anharmonic oscillations in thermoelectric clathrates can successfully be rationalized in terms of a single unified exponential line for a variety of clathrates by employing a new parameter associated with the freedom of space. The intrinsic nature of phonon anharmonicity is described based on the unified picture with a help of first principles calculations. Although the origin of the anharmonicity appearing in disordered materials is complex to understand due to the missing information on the real structure, the present unified picture gives important information applicable to other systems.

  6. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  7. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  8. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  9. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  10. Temperature dependence of phonon-defect interactions: phonon scattering vs. phonon trapping.

    PubMed

    Bebek, M B; Stanley, C M; Gibbons, T M; Estreicher, S K

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between thermal phonons and defects are conventionally described as scattering processes, an idea proposed almost a century ago. In this contribution, ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations provide atomic-level insight into the nature of these interactions. The defect is the Si|X interface in a nanowire containing a δ-layer (X is C or Ge). The phonon-defect interactions are temperature dependent and involve the trapping of phonons for meaningful lengths of time in defect-related, localized, vibrational modes. No phonon scattering occurs and the momentum of the phonons released by the defect is unrelated to the momentum of the phonons that generated the excitation. The results are extended to the interactions involving only bulk phonons and to phonon-defect interactions at high temperatures. These do resemble scattering since phonon trapping occurs for a length of time short enough for the momentum of the incoming phonon to be conserved. PMID:27535463

  11. Temperature dependence of phonon-defect interactions: phonon scattering vs. phonon trapping

    PubMed Central

    Bebek, M. B.; Stanley, C. M.; Gibbons, T. M.; Estreicher, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between thermal phonons and defects are conventionally described as scattering processes, an idea proposed almost a century ago. In this contribution, ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations provide atomic-level insight into the nature of these interactions. The defect is the Si|X interface in a nanowire containing a δ-layer (X is C or Ge). The phonon-defect interactions are temperature dependent and involve the trapping of phonons for meaningful lengths of time in defect-related, localized, vibrational modes. No phonon scattering occurs and the momentum of the phonons released by the defect is unrelated to the momentum of the phonons that generated the excitation. The results are extended to the interactions involving only bulk phonons and to phonon-defect interactions at high temperatures. These do resemble scattering since phonon trapping occurs for a length of time short enough for the momentum of the incoming phonon to be conserved. PMID:27535463

  12. Temperature dependence of phonon-defect interactions: phonon scattering vs. phonon trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebek, M. B.; Stanley, C. M.; Gibbons, T. M.; Estreicher, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    The interactions between thermal phonons and defects are conventionally described as scattering processes, an idea proposed almost a century ago. In this contribution, ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations provide atomic-level insight into the nature of these interactions. The defect is the Si|X interface in a nanowire containing a δ-layer (X is C or Ge). The phonon-defect interactions are temperature dependent and involve the trapping of phonons for meaningful lengths of time in defect-related, localized, vibrational modes. No phonon scattering occurs and the momentum of the phonons released by the defect is unrelated to the momentum of the phonons that generated the excitation. The results are extended to the interactions involving only bulk phonons and to phonon-defect interactions at high temperatures. These do resemble scattering since phonon trapping occurs for a length of time short enough for the momentum of the incoming phonon to be conserved.

  13. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  14. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  15. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  16. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  17. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  18. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  19. Phonon Recycling for Ultrasensitive Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    Initially proposed (Day et al. 2003; Zmuidzinas 2012) in 1999 by our Caltech/JPL group, and thanks to strong support from NASA, the superconducting (microwave) kinetic inductance detector (MKID or KID) technology continues to develop rapidly as it transitions into applications. The development effort worldwide is intensifying and NASA's continued support of KID development is essential in order to keep pace. Here we propose to investigate and demonstrate a new, low-TRL concept, which we call phonon recycling, that promises to open broad new avenues in KID design and performance. Briefly, phonon recycling allows the detector designer to tailor the responsivity and sensitivity of a KID to match the needs of the application by using geometry to restrict the rate at which recombination phonons are allowed to escape from the detector. In particular, phonon recycling should allow very low noise-equivalent power (NEP) to be achieved without requiring very low operating tem- peratures. Phonon recycling is analogous to the use of micromachined suspension legs to control the flow of heat in a bolometer, as measured by the thermal conductivity G. However, phonon recycling exploits the non-thermal distribution of recombination phonons as well as their very slow decay in crystals at low temperatures. These properties translate to geometrical and mechanical requirements for a phonon-recycled KID that are considerably more relaxed than for a bolometer operating at the same temperature and NEP. Our ultimate goal is to develop detector arrays suitable for a far-infrared (FIR) space mission, which will impose strict requirements on the array sensitivity, yield, uniformity, multiplexing density, etc. Through previous NASA support under the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, we have successfully demonstrated the MAKO submillimeter camera at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and have become familiar with these practical issues. If our demonstration of phonon recycling

  20. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.