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Sample records for 3d photonic lattices

  1. Visualization of 3D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Clemens, James

    2016-05-01

    We describe the visualization of 3D optical lattices based on Sisyphus cooling implemented with open source software. We plot the adiabatic light shift potentials found by diagonalizing the effective Hamiltonian for the light shift operator. Our program incorporates a variety of atomic ground state configurations with total angular momentum ranging from j = 1 / 2 to j = 4 and a variety of laser beam configurations including the two-beam lin ⊥ lin configuration, the four-beam umbrella configuration, and four beams propagating in two orthogonal planes. In addition to visualizing the lattice the program also evaluates lattice parameters such as the oscillation frequency for atoms trapped deep in the wells. The program is intended to help guide experimental implementations of optical lattices.

  2. RNA folding on the 3D triangular lattice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Difficult problems in structural bioinformatics are often studied in simple exact models to gain insights and to derive general principles. Protein folding, for example, has long been studied in the lattice model. Recently, researchers have also begun to apply the lattice model to the study of RNA folding. Results We present a novel method for predicting RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots: first simulate the folding dynamics of the RNA sequence on the 3D triangular lattice, next extract and select a set of disjoint base pairs from the best lattice conformation found by the folding simulation. Experiments on sequences from PseudoBase show that our prediction method outperforms the HotKnot algorithm of Ren, Rastegari, Condon and Hoos, a leading method for RNA pseudoknot prediction. Our method for RNA secondary structure prediction can be adapted into an efficient reconstruction method that, given an RNA sequence and an associated secondary structure, finds a conformation of the sequence on the 3D triangular lattice that realizes the base pairs in the secondary structure. We implemented a suite of computer programs for the simulation and visualization of RNA folding on the 3D triangular lattice. These programs come with detailed documentation and are accessible from the companion website of this paper at http://www.cs.usu.edu/~mjiang/rna/DeltaIS/. Conclusion Folding simulation on the 3D triangular lattice is effective method for RNA secondary structure prediction and lattice conformation reconstruction. The visualization software for the lattice conformations of RNA structures is a valuable tool for the study of RNA folding and is a great pedagogic device. PMID:19891777

  3. Lattice Boltzmann Method for 3-D Flows with Curved Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Renwei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Dazhi; Luo, Li-Shi

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we investigate two issues that are important to computational efficiency and reliability in fluid dynamics applications of the lattice, Boltzmann equation (LBE): (1) Computational stability and accuracy of different lattice Boltzmann models and (2) the treatment of the boundary conditions on curved solid boundaries and their 3-D implementations. Three athermal 3-D LBE models (D3QI5, D3Ql9, and D3Q27) are studied and compared in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. The boundary treatment recently developed by Filippova and Hanel and Met et al. in 2-D is extended to and implemented for 3-D. The convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the 3-D LBE models with the boundary treatment for curved boundaries were tested in simulations of four 3-D flows: (1) Fully developed flows in a square duct, (2) flow in a 3-D lid-driven cavity, (3) fully developed flows in a circular pipe, and (4) a uniform flow over a sphere. We found that while the fifteen-velocity 3-D (D3Ql5) model is more prone to numerical instability and the D3Q27 is more computationally intensive, the 63Q19 model provides a balance between computational reliability and efficiency. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the boundary treatment for 3-D arbitrary curved geometry has second-order accuracy and possesses satisfactory stability characteristics.

  4. 2D and 3D heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    2014-03-01

    Exponential increases in the amount of data that need to be sensed, communicated, and processed are continuing to drive the complexity of our computing, networking, and sensing systems. High degrees of integration is essential in scalable, practical, and cost-effective microsystems. In electronics, high-density 2D integration has naturally evolved towards 3D integration by stacking of memory and processor chips with through-silicon-vias. In photonics, too, we anticipate highdegrees of 3D integration of photonic components to become a prevailing method in realizing future microsystems for information and communication technologies. However, compared to electronics, photonic 3D integration face a number of challenges. This paper will review two methods of 3D photonic integration --- fs laser inscription and layer stacking, and discuss applications and future prospects.

  5. Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-03-01

    We develop a method for obtaining 3D polarimetric integral images from elemental images recorded in low light illumination conditions. Since photon-counting images are very sparse, calculation of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization should be handled carefully. In our approach, polarimetric 3D integral images are generated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and subsequently reconstructed by means of a Total Variation Denoising filter. In this way, polarimetric results are comparable to those obtained in conventional illumination conditions. We also show that polarimetric information retrieved from photon starved images can be used in 3D object recognition problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D polarimetric photon counting integral imaging. PMID:25836861

  6. Transport in Sawtooth photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimann, Steffen; Morales-Inostroza, Luis; Real, Bastián; Cantillano, Camilo; Szameit, Alexander; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate, theoretically and experimentally, a photonic realization of a Sawtooth lattice. This special lattice exhibits two spectral bands, with one of them experiencing a complete collapse to a highly degenerate flat band for a special set of inter-site coupling constants. We report the ob- servation of different transport regimes, including strong transport inhibition due to the appearance of the non-diffractive flat band. Moreover, we excite localized Shockley surfaces states, residing in the gap between the two linear bands.

  7. 3D holographic polymer photonic crystal for superprism application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xiaonan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Sasa; Chen, Ray T.

    2007-02-01

    Photonic crystal based superprism offers a new way to design new optical components for beam steering and DWDM application. 3D photonic crystals are especially attractive as they could offer more control of the light beam based on the needs. A polygonal prism based holographic fabrication method has been demonstrated for a three-dimensional face-centered-cubic (FCC)-type submicron polymer photonic crystal using SU8 as the photo-sensitive material. Therefore antivibration equipment and complicated optical alignment system are not needed and the requirement for the coherence of the laser source is relaxed compared with the traditional holographic setup. By changing the top-cut prism structure, the polarization of the laser beam, the exposure and development conditions we can achieve different kinds of triclinic or orthorhombic photonic crystals on demand. Special fabrication treatments have been introduced to ensure the survivability of the fabricated large area (cm2) nano-structures. Scanning electron microscopy and diffraction results proved the good uniformity of the fabricated structures. With the proper design of the refraction prism we have achieved a partial bandgap for S+C band (1460-1565nm) in the [111] direction. The transmission and reflection spectra obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are in good agreement with simulated band structure. The superprism effects around 1550nm wavelength for the fabricated 3D polymer photonic crystal have been theoretically calculated and such effects can be used for beam steering purpose.

  8. 3D integration of sub-surface photonics with CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Bahram; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Koonath, Prakash

    2006-02-01

    The integration of photonics and electronics on a single silicon substrate requires technologies that can add optical functionalities without significantly sacrificing valuable wafer area. To this end, we have developed an innovative fabrication process, called SIMOX 3-D Sculpting, that enables monolithic optoelectronic integration in a manner that does not compromise the economics of CMOS manufacturing. In this technique, photonic devices are realized in subsurface silicon layers that are separated from the surface silicon layer by an intervening SiO II layer. The surface silicon layer may then be utilized for electronic circuitry. SIMOX 3-D sculpting involves (1) the implantation of oxygen ions into a patterned silicon substrate followed by (2) high temperature anneal to create buried waveguide-based photonic devices. This process has produced subterranean microresonators with unloaded quality factors of 8000 and extinction ratios >20dB. On the surface silicon layers, MOS transistor structures have been fabricated. The small cross-sectional area of the waveguides lends itself to the realization of nonlinear optical devices. We have previously demonstrated spectral broadening and continuum generation in silicon waveguides utilizing Kerr optical nonlinearity. This may be combined with microresonator filters for on-chip supercontiuum generation and spectral carving. The monolithic integration of CMOS circuits and optical modulators with such multi-wavelength sources represent an exciting avenue for silicon photonics.

  9. High resolution 3D fluorescence tomography using ballistic photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Kwong, Jessica; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a ballistic-photon based approach for improving the spatial resolution of fluorescence tomography using time-domain measurements. This approach uses early photon information contained in measured time-of-fight distributions originating from fluorescence emission. The time point spread functions (TPSF) from both excitation light and emission light are acquired with gated single photon Avalanche detector (SPAD) and time-correlated single photon counting after a short laser pulse. To determine the ballistic photons for reconstruction, the lifetime of the fluorophore and the time gate from the excitation profiles will be used for calibration, and then the time gate of the fluorescence profile can be defined by a simple time convolution. By mimicking first generation CT data acquisition, the sourcedetector pair will translate across and also rotate around the subject. The measurement from each source-detector position will be reshaped into a histogram that can be used by a simple back-projection algorithm in order to reconstruct high resolution fluorescence images. Finally, from these 2D sectioning slides, a 3D inclusion can be reconstructed accurately. To validate the approach, simulation of light transport is performed for biological tissue-like media with embedded fluorescent inclusion by solving the diffusion equation with Finite Element Method using COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. The reconstruction results from simulation studies have confirmed that this approach drastically improves the spatial resolution of fluorescence tomography. Moreover, all the results have shown the feasibility of this technique for high resolution small animal imaging up to several centimeters.

  10. Large Area Printing of 3D Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, James J.; Beaulieu, Michael R.; Hendricks, Nicholas R.; Kothari, Rohit

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a readily scalable print, lift, and stack approach for producing large area, 3D photonic crystal (PC) structures. UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was used to pattern grating structures comprised of highly filled nanoparticle polymer composite resists with tune-able refractive indices (RI). The gratings were robust and upon release from a support substrate were oriented and stacked to yield 3D PCs. The RI of the composite resists was tuned between 1.58 and 1.92 at 800 nm while maintaining excellent optical transparency. The grating structure dimensions, line width, depth, and pitch, were easily varied by simply changing the imprint mold. For example, a 6 layer log-pile stack was prepared using a composite resist a RI of 1.72 yielding 72 % reflection at 900 nm. The process is scalable for roll-to-roll (R2R) production. Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing - an NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center.

  11. Multiple-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Models in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    dHumieres, Dominique; Ginzburg, Irina; Krafczyk, Manfred; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of fifteen-velocity and nineteen-velocity models in three dimensions. Simulation of a diagonally lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions at Re=500 and 2000 is performed. The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation.

  12. Discrete beam combiners: 3D photonics for future interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minardi, S.; Saviauk, A.; Dreisow, F.; Nolte, S.; Pertsch, T.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of an experimental research aiming at investigating the potential of three-dimensional (3D) photonics for astronomical interferometry. We found that a simple two dimensional array of evanescently coupled waveguides (the so called Discrete Beam Combiner - DBC) can be used to retrieve the mutual coherence properties of light collected by three telescopes with a precision comparable to state-of-the-art interferometric beam combiners. On the basis of these results, we envisage the future use of DBCs in optical/IR interferometry, with particular attention to large arrays of telescopes.

  13. Experimental study of photonic crystal triangular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ruhu; Qin, Bo; Jin, Chongjun

    1999-06-01

    Triangular lattice photonic crystal behaving in the electromagnetic zones constructed from fused silica cylinders in styrofoam is fabricated. The transmission spectra of the photonic crystal with and without defects are measured. On this basis, the defect modes of photonic crystal were studied, and the potential applications of the photonic crystal are discussed.

  14. 3D Vectorial Time Domain Computational Integrated Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Bond, T C; Koning, J M; Stowell, M L

    2007-02-16

    The design of integrated photonic structures poses considerable challenges. 3D-Time-Domain design tools are fundamental in enabling technologies such as all-optical logic, photonic bandgap sensors, THz imaging, and fast radiation diagnostics. Such technologies are essential to LLNL and WFO sponsors for a broad range of applications: encryption for communications and surveillance sensors (NSA, NAI and IDIV/PAT); high density optical interconnects for high-performance computing (ASCI); high-bandwidth instrumentation for NIF diagnostics; micro-sensor development for weapon miniaturization within the Stockpile Stewardship and DNT programs; and applications within HSO for CBNP detection devices. While there exist a number of photonics simulation tools on the market, they primarily model devices of interest to the communications industry. We saw the need to extend our previous software to match the Laboratory's unique emerging needs. These include modeling novel material effects (such as those of radiation induced carrier concentrations on refractive index) and device configurations (RadTracker bulk optics with radiation induced details, Optical Logic edge emitting lasers with lateral optical inputs). In addition we foresaw significant advantages to expanding our own internal simulation codes: parallel supercomputing could be incorporated from the start, and the simulation source code would be accessible for modification and extension. This work addressed Engineering's Simulation Technology Focus Area, specifically photonics. Problems addressed from the Engineering roadmap of the time included modeling the Auston switch (an important THz source/receiver), modeling Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs, which had been envisioned as part of fast radiation sensors), and multi-scale modeling of optical systems (for a variety of applications). We proposed to develop novel techniques to numerically solve the 3D multi-scale propagation problem for both the microchip

  15. Defect solitons in photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianke; Chen, Zhigang

    2006-02-01

    Nonlinear defect modes (defect solitons) and their stability in one-dimensional photonic lattices with focusing saturable nonlinearity are investigated. It is shown that defect solitons bifurcate out from every infinitesimal linear defect mode. Low-power defect solitons are linearly stable in lower bandgaps but unstable in higher bandgaps. At higher powers, defect solitons become unstable in attractive defects, but can remain stable in repulsive defects. Furthermore, for high-power solitons in attractive defects, we found a type of Vakhitov-Kolokolov (VK) instability which is different from the usual VK instability based on the sign of the slope in the power curve. Lastly, we demonstrate that in each bandgap, in addition to defect solitons which bifurcate from linear defect modes, there is also an infinite family of other defect solitons which can be stable in certain parameter regimes. PMID:16605473

  16. Fabrication of 3D polymer photonic crystals for near-IR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Peng; Qiu, Liang; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J.; Prather, Dennis W.; Sharkawy, Ahmed; Kelmelis, Eric

    2008-02-01

    Photonic crystals[1, 2] have stirred enormous research interest and became a growing enterprise in the last 15 years. Generally, PhCs consist of periodic structures that possess periodicity comparable with the wavelength that the PhCs are designed to modulate. If material and periodic pattern are properly selected, PhCs can be applied to many applications based on their unique properties, including photonic band gaps (PBG)[3], self-collimation[4], super prism[5], etc. Strictly speaking, PhCs need to possess periodicity in three dimensions to maximize their advantageous capabilities. However, many current research is based on scaled two-dimensional PhCs, mainly due to the difficulty of fabrication such three-dimensional PhCs. Many approaches have been explored for the fabrication of 3D photonic crystals, including layer-by-layer surface micromachining[6], glancing angle deposition[7], 3D micro-sculpture method[8], self-assembly[9] and lithographical methods[10-12]. Among them, lithographic methods became increasingly accepted due to low costs and precise control over the photonic crystal structure. There are three mostly developed lithographical methods, namely X-ray lithography[10], holographic lithography[11] and two-photon polymerization[12]. Although significant progress has been made in developing these lithography-based technologies, these approaches still suffer from significant disadvantages. X-ray lithography relies on an expensive radiation source. Holographic lithography lacks the flexibility to create engineered defects, and multi-photon polymerization is not suitable for parallel fabrication. In our previous work, we developed a multi-layer photolithography processes[13, 14] that is based on multiple resist application and enhanced absorption upon exposure. Using a negative lift-off resist (LOR) and 254nm DUV source, we have demonstrated fabrication of 3D arbitrary structures with feature size of several microns. However, severe intermixing problem

  17. A lattice-Boltzmann scheme of the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D cuboid lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Haoda; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2015-11-01

    The standard lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow simulation is based on a square (in 2D) or cubic (in 3D) lattice grids. Recently, two new lattice Boltzmann schemes have been developed on a 2D rectangular grid using the MRT (multiple-relaxation-time) collision model, by adding a free parameter in the definition of moments or by extending the equilibrium moments. Here we developed a lattice Boltzmann model on 3D cuboid lattice, namely, a lattice grid with different grid lengths in different spatial directions. We designed our MRT-LBM model by matching the moment equations from the Chapman-Enskog expansion with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model guarantees correct hydrodynamics. A second-order term is added to the equilibrium moments in order to restore the isotropy of viscosity on a cuboid lattice. The form and the coefficients of the extended equilibrium moments are determined through an inverse design process. An additional benefit of the model is that the viscosity can be adjusted independent of the stress-moment relaxation parameter, thus improving the numerical stability of the model. The resulting cuboid MRT-LBM model is then validated through benchmark simulations using laminar channel flow, turbulent channel flow, and the 3D Taylor-Green vortex flow.

  18. Twisted 3D N=4 supersymmetric YM on deformed A{sub 3}{sup *} lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Saidi, El Hassan

    2014-01-15

    We study a class of twisted 3D N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on particular 3-dimensional lattice L{sub 3D} formally denoted as L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}} and given by non-trivial fibration L{sub 1D}{sup u{sub 1}}×L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 3}} with base L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 3}}=A{sub 2}{sup *}, the weight lattice of SU(3). We first, develop the twisted 3D N=4 SYM in continuum by using superspace method where the scalar supercharge Q is manifestly exhibited. Then, we show how to engineer the 3D lattice L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}} that host this theory. After that we build the lattice action S{sub latt} invariant under the following three points: (i) U(N) gauge invariance, (ii) BRST symmetry, (iii) the S{sub 3} point group symmetry of L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}}. Other features such as reduction to twisted 2D supersymmetry with 8 supercharges living on L{sub 2D}≡L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 2}×u{sub 1}}, the extension to twisted maximal 5D SYM with 16 supercharges on lattice L{sub 5D}≡L{sub 5D}{sup su{sub 4}×u{sub 1}} as well as the relation with known results are also given.

  19. The Quantum Dynamics of a Dilute Gas in a 3D BCC Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Linda; Boretz, Yingyue

    2015-03-01

    The classical and quantum dynamics of a dilute gas of rubidium atoms, in a 3D body-centered cubic optical lattice, is studied for a range of polarizations of the laser beams forming the lattice. The relative polarization of the lasers determines the the structure of the potential energy seen by the rubidium atoms. If three pairs of in-phase mutually perpendicular laser beams, with the same wavelength, form the lattice, only a limited range of possible couplings can be realized in the lab. We have determined the band structure of the BCC optical lattice for all theoretically possible couplings, and find that the band structure for lattices realizable in the lab, differs significantly from that expected for a BCC crystal. As coupling is increased, the lattice becomes increasingly chaotic and it becomes possible to produce band structure that has qualitative similarity to a BCC. Welch Foundation

  20. Increasing the filling of ultracold KRb molecules in a 3D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Steven; Covey, Jacob; Gadway, Bryce; Yan, Bo; Miecnikowski, Matthew; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer new opportunities for studying quantum magnetism and many-body physics. Recently, our group observed spin exchange interactions between KRb molecules in a 3D optical lattice, which is one of the first steps towards studying lattice spin models with polar molecules. The lattice fillings were about 10% or less in these experiments. Future experiments will benefit greatly from lower entropies and higher lattice fillings. Here, we have investigated the molecular creation process in a 3D optical lattice with the goal of maximizing the filling fraction. We start by loading a BEC of Rb and a degenerate Fermi gas of K into a 3D optical lattice. In the absence of K, Rb is a Mott insulator. We study how the Mott insulator and the filling of Rb are affected by the presence of K and develop a strategy to maintain high Rb filling throughout the molecule production process. We also find that we can convert a large fraction of these Rb to molecules when we operate with low Rb numbers. We acknowledge funding from DARPA, DOE, NIST, NSF, AFOSR, and the NDSEG Graduate Fellowship.

  1. Template-Directed Directionally Solidified 3D Mesostructured AgCl-KCl Eutectic Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwoo; Aagesen, Larry K; Choi, Jun Hee; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Ha Seong; Liu, Jinyun; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kang, Jin Gu; Ramazani, Ali; Thornton, Katsuyo; Braun, Paul V

    2015-08-19

    3D mesostructured AgCl-KCl photonic crystals emerge from colloidal templating of eutectic solidification. Solvent removal of the KCl phase results in a mesostructured AgCl inverse opal. The 3D-template-induced confinement leads to the emergence of a complex microstructure. The 3D mesostructured eutectic photonic crystals have a large stop band ranging from the near-infrared to the visible tuned by the processing. PMID:26177830

  2. 1024 pixels single photon imaging array for 3D ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellisai, S.; Guerrieri, F.; Tisa, S.; Zappa, F.; Tosi, A.; Giudice, A.

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensions (3D) acquisition systems are driving applications in many research field. Nowadays 3D acquiring systems are used in a lot of applications, such as cinema industry or in automotive (for active security systems). Depending on the application, systems present different features, for example color sensitivity, bi-dimensional image resolution, distance measurement accuracy and acquisition frame rate. The system we developed acquires 3D movie using indirect Time of Flight (iTOF), starting from phase delay measurement of a sinusoidally modulated light. The system acquires live movie with a frame rate up to 50frame/s in a range distance between 10 cm up to 7.5 m.

  3. Loading mode dependent effective properties of octet-truss lattice structures using 3D-printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challapalli, Adithya

    Cellular materials, often called lattice materials, are increasingly receiving attention for their ultralight structures with high specific strength, excellent impact absorption, acoustic insulation, heat dissipation media and compact heat exchangers. In alignment with emerging additive manufacturing (AM) technology, realization of the structural applications of the lattice materials appears to be becoming faster. Considering the direction dependent material properties of the products with AM, by directionally dependent printing resolution, effective moduli of lattice structures appear to be directionally dependent. In this paper, a constitutive model of a lattice structure, which is an octet-truss with a base material having an orthotropic material property considering AM is developed. In a case study, polyjet based 3D printing material having an orthotropic property with a 9% difference in the principal direction provides difference in the axial and shear moduli in the octet-truss by 2.3 and 4.6%. Experimental validation for the effective properties of a 3D printed octet-truss is done for uniaxial tension and compression test. The theoretical value based on the micro-buckling of truss member are used to estimate the failure strength. Modulus value appears a little overestimate compared with the experiment. Finite element (FE) simulations for uniaxial compression and tension of octettruss lattice materials are conducted. New effective properties for the octet-truss lattice structure are developed considering the observed behavior of the octet-truss structure under macroscopic compression and tension trough simulations.

  4. Increasing the filling fraction of ultracold polar KRb molecules in a 3D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Steven; Gadway, Bryce; Yan, Bo; Covey, Jacob; Jin, Deborah; Ye, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Gases of ultracold polar molecules with sufficiently low entropy are an ideal experimental scenario to look for signatures of long-range many-body interactions. Having a high filling fraction in a 3D lattice is one way to achieve a low entropy state. In earlier work, we showed that preformed pairs of K and Rb in a 3D lattice (sites that have exactly one K and one Rb) are converted to KRb Feshbach molecules with nearly 100% efficiency. Since the STIRAP transfer from Feshbach molecules to ground-state molecules is 90-100% efficient, loading a 3D lattice with a large fraction of preformed pairs will lead to a large filling fraction of ground-state molecules. Our scheme is to load a Mott insulator of Rb and band insulator of K. After we have loaded a lattice with a high filling fraction, we will investigate effects of dipolar interactions in a many-body system. We acknowledge funding from NIST, NSF, AFOSR-MURI, and the NDSEG Graduate Fellowship.

  5. Photon counting x-ray CT with 3D holograms by CdTe line sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, A.; Yomori, M.; Morii, H.; Neo, Y.; Aoki, T.; Mimura, H.

    2008-08-01

    The novel 3-D display system is required in the medical treatment field and non-destructive testing field. In these field, the X-ray CT system is used for obtaining 3-D information. However, there are no meaningful 3-D information in X-ray CT data, and there are also no practical 3-D display system. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an X-ray 3-D CT display system by combining a photon-counting X-ray CT system and a holographic image display system. The advantage of this system was demonstrated by comparing the holographic calculation time and recognizability of a reconstructed image.

  6. Enhanced hybrid search algorithm for protein structure prediction using the 3D-HP lattice model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Xiaopeng

    2013-09-01

    The problem of protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model is the prediction of protein tertiary structure. This problem is usually referred to as the protein folding problem. This paper presents a method for the application of an enhanced hybrid search algorithm to the problem of protein folding prediction, using the three dimensional (3D) HP lattice model. The enhanced hybrid search algorithm is a combination of the particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Since the PSO algorithm entraps local minimum in later evolution extremely easily, we combined PSO with the TS algorithm, which has properties of global optimization. Since the technologies of crossover and mutation are applied many times to PSO and TS algorithms, so enhanced hybrid search algorithm is called the MCMPSO-TS (multiple crossover and mutation PSO-TS) algorithm. Experimental results show that the MCMPSO-TS algorithm can find the best solutions so far for the listed benchmarks, which will help comparison with any future paper approach. Moreover, real protein sequences and Fibonacci sequences are verified in the 3D HP lattice model for the first time. Compared with the previous evolutionary algorithms, the new hybrid search algorithm is novel, and can be used effectively to predict 3D protein folding structure. With continuous development and changes in amino acids sequences, the new algorithm will also make a contribution to the study of new protein sequences. PMID:23824509

  7. Micromorph silicon tandem solar cells with fully integrated 3D photonic crystal intermediate reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Üpping, J.; Bielawny, A.; Fahr, S.; Rockstuhl, C.; Lederer, F.; Steidl, L.; Zentel, R.; Beckers, T.; Lambertz, A.; Carius, R.; Wehrspohn, R. B.

    2010-05-01

    A 3D photonic intermediate reflector for textured micromorph silicon tandem solar cells has been investigated. In thin-film silicon tandem solar cells consisting of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon with two junctions of a-Si/c-Si, efficiency enhancements can be achieved by increasing the current density in the a-Si top cell providing an optimized current matching at high current densities. For an ideal photon-management between top and bottom cell, a spectrally-selective intermediate reflective layer (IRL) is necessary. We present the first fully-integrated 3D photonic thin-film IRL device incorporated on a planar substrate. Using a ZnO inverted opal structure the external quantum efficiency of the top cell in the spectral region of interest could be enhanced. As an outlook we present the design and the preparation of a 3D self organized photonic crystal structure in a textured micromorph tandem solar cell.

  8. Inverted Yablonovite-like 3D photonic crystals fabricated by laser nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, Ivan I.; Samusev, Kirill B.; Rybin, Mikhail V.; Limonov, Mikhail F.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Gaidukeviciute, Arune; Kiyan, Roman V.; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2012-06-01

    We report on the fabrication of inverted Yablonovite-like three-dimensional photonic crystals by nonlinear optical nanolithography based on two-photon polymerization of a zirconium propoxide hybrid organic-inorganic material with Irgacure 369 as photo-initiator. Advantage of this material is ultra-low shrinkage that guaranty high fabrication fidelity. Images of the fabricated structure are obtained with a scanning electron microscope. The photonic crystal consists of three sets of nearly cylindrical structural elements directed along the three lattice vectors of the fcc lattice and cross each other at certain angles to produce inverted Yablonovite geometry. To investigate photonic properties of the inverted Yablonovite structures, we calculate the photonic band structure for ten lowest-frequency electromagnetic modes. In contrast to the direct Yablonovite structure that has a complete photonic band gap between the second and third bands, we find no complete photonic band gaps in the inverted Yablonovite lattice. This situation is opposite to the case of fcc lattice of close-packed dielectric spheres in air that has a complete photonic band gap only for the inverted geometry.

  9. Design of Chern and Mott insulators in buckled 3 d oxide honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doennig, David; Baidya, Santu; Pickett, Warren E.; Pentcheva, Rossitza

    2016-04-01

    Perovskite (La X O3 )2/(LaAlO3)4(111) superlattices with X spanning the entire 3 d transition-metal series combine the strongly correlated, multiorbital nature of electrons in transition-metal oxides with a honeycomb lattice as a key feature. Based on density functional theory calculations including strong interaction effects, we establish trends in the evolution of electronic states as a function of several control parameters: band filling, interaction strength, spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and lattice instabilities. Competition between local pseudocubic and global trigonal symmetry as well as the additional flexibility provided by the magnetic and spin degrees of freedom of 3 d ions lead to a broad array of distinctive broken-symmetry ground states not accessible for the (001)-growth direction, offering a platform to design two-dimensional electronic functionalities. Constraining the symmetry between the two triangular sublattices causes X =Mn , Co, and Ti to emerge as Chern insulators driven by SOC. For X =Mn we illustrate how interaction strength and lattice distortions can tune these systems between a Dirac semimetal, a Chern and a trivial Mott insulator.

  10. Lattice constraints on the thermal photon rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Kaczmarek, O.; Laine, M.; Meyer, F.

    2016-07-01

    We estimate the photon production rate from an SU(3) plasma at temperatures of about 1.1 Tc and 1.3 Tc . Lattice results for the vector current correlator at spatial momenta k ˜(2 -6 )T are extrapolated to the continuum limit and analyzed with the help of a polynomial interpolation for the corresponding spectral function, which vanishes at zero frequency and matches to high-precision perturbative results at large invariant masses. For small invariant masses the interpolation is compared with the next-to-leading-order (NLO) weak-coupling result, hydrodynamics, and a holographic model. At vanishing invariant mass we extract the photon rate which for k ≳3 T is found to be close to the NLO weak-coupling prediction. For k ≲2 T uncertainties remain large but the photon rate is likely to fall below the NLO prediction, in accordance with the onset of a strongly interacting behavior characteristic of the hydrodynamic regime.

  11. CMOS compatible fabrication of 3D photonic crystals by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibelhuber, M.; Uhrmann, T.; Glinsner, T.

    2015-03-01

    Nanoimprinting techniques are an attractive solution for next generation lithography methods for several areas including photonic devices. A variety of potential applications have been demonstrated using nanoimprint lithography (NIL) (e.g. SAW devices, vias and contact layers with dual damascene imprinting process, Bragg structures, patterned media) [1,2]. Nanoimprint lithography is considered for bridging the gap from R and D to high volume manufacturing. In addition, it is capable to adapt to the needs of the fragmented and less standardized photonic market easily. In this work UV-NIL has been selected for the fabrication process of 3D-photonic crystals. It has been shown that UVNIL using a multiple layer approach is well suited to fabricate a 3D woodpile photonic crystal. The necessary alignment accuracies below 100nm were achieved using a simple optical method. In order to obtain sufficient alignment of the stacks to each other, a two stage alignment process is performed: at first proximity alignment is done followed by the Moiré alignment in soft contact with the substrate. Multiple steps of imprinting, etching, Si deposition and chemical mechanical polishing were implemented to create high quality 3D photonic crystals with up to 5 layers. This work has proven the applicability of nanoimprint lithography in a CMOS compatible process on 3D photonic crystals with alignment accuracy down to 100nm. Optimizing the processes will allow scaling up these structures on full wafers while still meeting the requirements of the designated devices.

  12. The sign-factor of the 3D Ising model on dual BCC lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, Sh.; Sedrakyan, A.

    2002-01-01

    We modify the two-dimensional model for the sign-factor of the regular 3D Ising model (3DIM) presented by Kavalov and Sedrakyan (Phys. Lett. 173B (1986) 449 and Nucl. Phys. 285B (1987) 264) for the case of dual to body centered cubic (DBCC) three-dimensional lattice. The advantage of this lattice is in an absence of self-intersections of the two-dimensional surfaces embedded there. We investigate simpler case of the model with scalar fermions (instead of SU(2) needed for 3DIM) and have found it's spectrum, which appeared to be massless. We reformulate the model by use of R-matrix formalism and a new interesting structure appears in a necessity to introduce three-particle R(3)ijk-matrices. We formulate the integrability property of the model for more general case.

  13. Deconfinement Phase Transition in a 3D Nonlocal U(1) Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Gaku; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo; Sakakibara, Kazuhiko

    2005-06-03

    We introduce a 3D compact U(1) lattice gauge theory having nonlocal interactions in the temporal direction, and study its phase structure. The model is relevant for the compact QED{sub 3} and strongly correlated electron systems like the t-J model of cuprates. For a power-law decaying long-range interaction, which simulates the effect of gapless matter fields, a second-order phase transition takes place separating the confinement and deconfinement phases. For an exponentially decaying interaction simulating matter fields with gaps, the system exhibits no signals of a second-order transition.

  14. Discovery of a 3d-transition-metal-based ferromagnetic Kondo lattice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Us Saleheen, Ahmad; Samanta, Tapas; Lepkowski, Daniel; Shankar, Alok; Prestigiacomo, Joseph; Dubenko, Igor; Quetz, Abdiel; McDougald, Roy, Jr.; McCandless, Gregory; Chan, Julia; Adams, Philip; Young, David; Ali, Naushad; Stadler, Shane

    2015-03-01

    The formation of a Kondo lattice results in a wide variety of exotic phenomena associated with the competition between the Kondo effect and the RKKY interaction, such as heavy fermions, non-Fermi liquid behavior, unconventional superconductivity, and so on. A quantum critical point (QCP) has been frequently observed at the boundaries of competing phases for antiferromagnetic materials. However, the existence of a ferromagnetic (FM) QCP is unclear. Moreover, FM Kondo lattices are rare. Here we report the discovery of a FM Kondo lattice system Mn1-xFexCoGe, which is the first example of a 3d-metal-based system (i.e., not rare-earth-based). Resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity and thermopower studies on a single crystal sample indicate that the anisotropic FM kondo lattice has formed along c-axis. The signature of a spin density wave transition was also observed above the Kondo minimum, below which the resistivity follows a log(T) behavior. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant Nos. DE-FG02-13ER46946 and DE-FG02-06ER46291).

  15. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions. PMID:26924255

  16. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions. PMID:26924255

  17. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  18. New spiral state and skyrmion lattice in 3D model of chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybakov, Filipp N.; Borisov, Aleksandr B.; Blügel, Stefan; Kiselev, Nikolai S.

    2016-04-01

    We present the phase diagram of magnetic states for films of isotropic chiral magnets (ChMs) calculated as function of applied magnetic field and thickness of the film. We have found a novel magnetic state driven by the natural confinement of the crystal, localized at the surface and stacked on top of the conical bulk phase. This magnetic surface state has a three-dimensional (3D) chiral spin-texture described by the superposition of helical and cycloidal spin spirals. This surface state exists for a large range of applied magnetic fields and for any film thickness beyond a critical one. We also identified the whole thickness and field range for which the skyrmion lattice becomes the ground state of the system. Below a certain critical thickness the surface state and bulk conical phase are suppressed in favor of the skyrmion lattice. Unraveling of those phases and the construction of the phase diagram became possible using advanced computational techniques for direct energy minimization applied to a basic 3D model for ChMs. Presented results provide a comprehensive theoretical description for those effects already observed in experiments on thin films of ChMs, predict new effects important for applications and open perspectives for experimental studies of such systems.

  19. Design of Mott and topological phases on buckled 3d-oxide honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentcheva, Rossitza

    The honeycomb lattice, as realized e.g. in graphene, has rendered a robust platform for innovative science and potential applications. A much richer generalization of this lattice arises in (111)-oriented bilayers of perovskites, adding the complexity of the strongly correlated, multiorbital nature of electrons in transition metal oxides. Based on first principles calculations with an on-site Coulomb repulsion, here we provide trends in the evolution of ground states versus band filling in (111)-oriented (La XO3)2 /(LaAlO3)4 superlattices, with X spanning the entire 3d transition metal series. The competition between local quasi-cubic and global triangular symmetry triggers unanticipated broken symmetry phases, with mechanisms ranging from Jahn-Teller distortion, to charge-, spin-, and orbital-ordering. LaMnO3 and LaCoO3 bilayers, where spin-orbit coupling opens a sizable gap in the Dirac-point Fermi surface, emerge as much desired oxide-based Chern insulators, the latter displaying a gap capable of supporting room-temperature applications Further realizations of the honeycomb lattice and geometry patterns beyond the perovskite structure will be addressed. Research supported by the DFG, SFB/TR80.

  20. Electromagnetic Scattering of Finite and Infinite 3D Lattices in Polarizable Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinet, Benjamin; Martin, Olivier J. F.

    2009-10-07

    A novel method is elaborated for the electromagnetic scattering from periodical arrays of scatterers embedded in a polarizable background. A dyadic periodic Green's function is introduced to calculate the scattered electric field in a lattice of dielectric or metallic objects. The method exhibits strong advantages: discretization and computation of the field are restricted to the volume of the scatterers in the unit cell, open and periodic boundary conditions for the electric field are included in the Green's tensor, and finally both near and far-fields physics are directly revealed, without any additional computational effort. Promising applications include the design of periodic structures such as frequency-selective surfaces, photonic crystals and metamaterials.

  1. A photonic thermalization gap in disordered lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.

    2015-11-01

    The formation of gaps--forbidden ranges in the values of a physical parameter--is common to a variety of physical systems: from energy bandgaps of electrons in periodic lattices and their analogues in photonic, phononic and plasmonic systems to pseudo-energy gaps in aperiodic quasicrystals. Here, we predict a thermalization gap for light propagating in finite disordered structures characterized by disorder-immune chiral symmetry--the appearance of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in skew-symmetric pairs. In these systems, the span of sub-thermal photon statistics is inaccessible to input coherent light, which--once the steady state is reached--always emerges with super-thermal statistics no matter how small the disorder level. We formulate an independent constraint of the input field for the chiral symmetry to be activated and the gap to be observed. This unique feature enables a new form of photon-statistics interferometry: the deterministic tuning of photon statistics via controlled excitation symmetry breaking realized by sculpting the amplitude or phase of the input coherent field.

  2. Amoeboid migration mode adaption in quasi-3D spatial density gradients of varying lattice geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelashvili, Mari; Emmert, Martin; Hodeck, Kai F.; Heinrich, Doris

    2014-07-01

    Cell migration processes are controlled by sensitive interaction with external cues such as topographic structures of the cell’s environment. Here, we present systematically controlled assays to investigate the specific effects of spatial density and local geometry of topographic structure on amoeboid migration of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. This is realized by well-controlled fabrication of quasi-3D pillar fields exhibiting a systematic variation of inter-pillar distance and pillar lattice geometry. By time-resolved local mean-squared displacement analysis of amoeboid migration, we can extract motility parameters in order to elucidate the details of amoeboid migration mechanisms and consolidate them in a two-state contact-controlled motility model, distinguishing directed and random phases. Specifically, we find that directed pillar-to-pillar runs are found preferably in high pillar density regions, and cells in directed motion states sense pillars as attractive topographic stimuli. In contrast, cell motion in random probing states is inhibited by high pillar density, where pillars act as obstacles for cell motion. In a gradient spatial density, these mechanisms lead to topographic guidance of cells, with a general trend towards a regime of inter-pillar spacing close to the cell diameter. In locally anisotropic pillar environments, cell migration is often found to be damped due to competing attraction by different pillars in close proximity and due to lack of other potential stimuli in the vicinity of the cell. Further, we demonstrate topographic cell guidance reflecting the lattice geometry of the quasi-3D environment by distinct preferences in migration direction. Our findings allow to specifically control amoeboid cell migration by purely topographic effects and thus, to induce active cell guidance. These tools hold prospects for medical applications like improved wound treatment, or invasion assays for immune cells.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of dynamics of plunge and pitch of 3D flexible wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dewei; Shyy, Wei

    2008-11-01

    The method of lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation has been used to simulate fluid structures and motion of a flexible insect wing in a 3D space. In the method, a beam has been discretized into a chain of rigid segments. Each segment is connected through ball and socket joints at its ends. One segment may be bent and twisted with its neighboring segment. A constraint force is applied to each joint to ensure the solid structure moving as a whole flexible elastic body.We have demonstrated that the LB method is suitable for modeling of aerodynamics of insects flight at low Reynolds numbers. First, a simulation of plunging and pitching of a rigid wing is performed at Re=75 in a 2D space and the results of lift forces and flow structures are in excellent agreement with the previous results. Second, plunging and pitching of a flexible wing in span-wise direction is simulated at Re=136 in a 3D space. We found that when twisting elasticity is large enough the twisting angle could be controlled at a level of smaller than 0.2 degree. It is shown that as bending and twisting elasticity is large enough, the motion of flexible wing approaches that of a rigid membrane wing. The simulation results show that the optimization of flexibility in span-wise direction will benefit thrust and an intermediate level is favorable. The results are consistent with experimental finding.

  4. Bottom-up Fabrication of Multilayer Stacks of 3D Photonic Crystals from Titanium Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kubrin, Roman; Pasquarelli, Robert M; Waleczek, Martin; Lee, Hooi Sing; Zierold, Robert; do Rosário, Jefferson J; Dyachenko, Pavel N; Montero Moreno, Josep M; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Janssen, Rolf; Eich, Manfred; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schneider, Gerold A

    2016-04-27

    A strategy for stacking multiple ceramic 3D photonic crystals is developed. Periodically structured porous films are produced by vertical convective self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) microspheres. After infiltration of the opaline templates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania and thermal decomposition of the polystyrene matrix, a ceramic 3D photonic crystal is formed. Further layers with different sizes of pores are deposited subsequently by repetition of the process. The influence of process parameters on morphology and photonic properties of double and triple stacks is systematically studied. Prolonged contact of amorphous titania films with warm water during self-assembly of the successive templates is found to result in exaggerated roughness of the surfaces re-exposed to ALD. Random scattering on rough internal surfaces disrupts ballistic transport of incident photons into deeper layers of the multistacks. Substantially smoother interfaces are obtained by calcination of the structure after each infiltration, which converts amorphous titania into the crystalline anatase before resuming the ALD infiltration. High quality triple stacks consisting of anatase inverse opals with different pore sizes are demonstrated for the first time. The elaborated fabrication method shows promise for various applications demanding broadband dielectric reflectors or titania photonic crystals with a long mean free path of photons. PMID:27045887

  5. Development and validation of a 3D Lattice Boltzmann model for volcano aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, Federico; Bonadonna, Costanza; Ripepe, Maurizio; Chopard, Bastien; Malaspinas, Orestis; Latt, Jonas; Falcone, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    Infrasound measurements have a great potential for the real time characterization of volcanic plume source parameters [Ripepe et al., 2013]. Nonetheless many shortcomings have been highlighted in the understanding of the infrasound monitoring. In particular, the application of the classical acoustic source models to volcanic explosive eruptions has shown to be challenging and a better knowledge of the link between the acoustic radiation and actual volcanic fluid dynamics processes is required. New insights into this subject could be given by the study of realistic aeroacoustic numerical simulations of a volcanic jet. Our work mainly focuses on developing and validating such numerical model to determine when and if classical model source theory can be applied to explain volcanic infrasound data. Lattice Boltzmann strategies (LB) provide the opportunity to develop an accurate, computationally fast, 3D physical model for a volcanic jet and wave propagation. In the field of aeroacoustic applications, dedicated LB schemes has been proven to have the low dispersion and dissipative properties needed for capturing the weak acoustic pressure fluctuations. However, when dealing with simulations of realistic flows, artificial boundaries are defined around the flow region. The reflected waves from these boundaries can have significant influence on the flow field and overwhelm the acoustic field of interest. A special absorbing boundary layer has been implemented in our model to suppress the reflected waves [Xu et al., 2013]. In addition, for highly multi-scale turbulent flows, such as volcanic plumes, the number of grid points needed to represent the smallest scales might become intractable and the most complicated physics happen only in small portions of the computational domain. The implementation of the grid refinement, in our model allow us to insert local finer grids only where is actually needed [Lagrava et al., 2012] and to increase the size of the computational domain

  6. Fabrication of 3-D Photonic Band Gap Crystals Via Colloidal Self-Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Girija; Blank, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of photons in a Photonic Crystals, PCs, is like that of electrons in a semiconductor in that, it prohibits light propagation over a band of frequencies, called Photonic Band Gap, PBG. Photons cannot exist in these band gaps like the forbidden bands of electrons. Thus, PCs lend themselves as potential candidates for devices based on the gap phenomenon. The popular research on PCs stem from their ability to confine light with minimal losses. Large scale 3-D PCs with a PBG in the visible or near infra red region will make optical transistors and sharp bent optical fibers. Efforts are directed to use PCs for information processing and it is not long before we can have optical integrated circuits in the place of electronic ones.

  7. 3D photografting with aromatic azides: A comparison between three-photon and two-photon case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiquan; Ajami, Aliasghar; Stankevičius, Evaldas; Husinsky, Wolfgang; Račiukaitis, Gediminas; Stampfl, Jürgen; Liska, Robert; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-01

    Photografting is a method utilizing light activation for covalent incorporation of functional molecules into a polymer surface or polymer matrix. It has been widely applied as a simple and versatile method for tailoring physical-chemical properties of various surfaces. Grafting induced via multi-photon absorption provides additional advantages of spatial and temporal control of the process. Here, a novel fluoroaryl azide photografting compound (AFA) was synthesized and compared with the commercially available azide BAC-M. Using Z-scan technique, it was determined that AFA is a two-photon absorber at 798 nm, whereas BAC-M is a three-photon absorber at this wavelength. Both azides were employed for 3D photografting within a PEG-based matrix using femtosecond laser pulses. Both Z-scan measurements and 3D photografting tests indicated that, the intensity threshold for nonlinear absorption and photografting process is lower for AFA. As a result the processing window of AFA is much broader than that of BAC-M. But on the other hand, since BAC-M is characterized by the three-photon absorption (3PA) process, patterns with finer features can be produced using this molecule. The choice of the appropriate compound for 3D grafting will depend on the final application and the requirements associated with the resolution and post-modification protocol.

  8. Investigations and improvements of digital holographic tomography applied for 3D studies of transmissive photonics microelements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Jozwicka, Agata; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2008-08-01

    In order to control performance of photonics microelements it is necessary to receive 3D information about their amplitude and phase distributions. To perform this task we propose to apply tomography based on projections gather by digital holography (DH). Specifically the DH capability to register several angular views of the object during a single hologram capture is employed, which may in future shorten significantly the measurement time or even allow for tomographic analysis of dynamic media. However such a new approach brings a lot of new issues to be considered. Therefore, in this paper the method limitations, with special emphasis on holographic reconstruction process, are investigated through extensive numerical experiments with special focus on 3D refractive index distribution determination.. The main errors and means of their elimination are presented. The possibility of 3D refractive index distribution determination by means of DHT is proved numerically and experimentally.

  9. Photon-counting passive 3D image sensing and processing for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Seokwon; Javidi, Bahram; Watson, Edward

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we overview the nonlinear matched filtering for photon counting recognition with 3D passive sensing. The first and second order statistical properties of the nonlinear matched filtering can improve the recognition performance compared to the linear matched filtering. Automatic target reconstruction and recognition are addressed for partially occluded objects. The recognition performance is shown to be improved significantly in the reconstruction space. The discrimination capability is analyzed in terms of Fisher ratio (FR) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

  10. 3D single-molecule tracking using one- and two-photon excitation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cong; Perillo, Evan P.; Zhuang, Quincy; Huynh, Khang T.; Dunn, Andrew K.; Yeh, Hsin-Chih

    2014-03-01

    Three dimensional single-molecule tracking (3D-SMT) has revolutionized the way we study fundamental cellular processes. By analyzing the spatial trajectories of individual molecules (e.g. a receptor or a signaling molecule) in 3D space, one can discern the internalization or transport dynamics of these molecules, study the heterogeneity of subcellular structures, and elucidate the complex spatiotemporal regulation mechanisms. Sub-diffraction localization precision, sub-millisecond temporal resolution and tens-of-seconds observation period are the benchmarks of current 3D-SMT techniques. We have recently built two molecular tracking systems in our labs. The first system is a previously reported confocal tracking system, which we denote as the 1P-1E-4D (one-photon excitation, one excitation beam, and four fiber-coupled detectors) system. The second system is a whole new design that is based on two-photon excitation, which we denote as the 2P-4E-1D (two-photon excitation, four excitation beams, and only one detector) system. Here we compare these two systems based on Monte Carlo simulation of tracking a diffusing fluorescent molecule. Through our simulation, we have characterized the limitation of individual systems and optimized the system parameters such as magnification, z-plane separation, and feedback gains.

  11. Two photon polymerization lithography for 3D microfabrication of single wall carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushiba, Shota; Shoji, Satoru; Kuray, Preeya; Masui, Kyoko; Kono, Junichiro; Kawata, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Two photon polymerization (TPP) lithography has been established as a powerful tool to develop 3D fine structures of polymer materials, opening up a wide range applications such as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). TPP lithography is also promising for 3D micro fabrication of nanocomposites embedded with nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles. Here, we make use of TPP lithography to fabricate 3D micro structural single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/polymer composites. SWCNTs exhibit remarkable mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, which leads to enhance performances of polymers by loading SWCNTs. SWCNTs were uniformly dispersed in an acrylate UV-curable monomer including a few amounts of photo-initiator and photo-sensitizer. A femtosecond pulsed laser emitting at 780 nm was focused onto the resin, resulting in the photo-polymerization of a nanometric volume of the resin through TPP. By scanning the focus spot three dimensionally, arbitrary 3D structures were created. The spatial resolution of the fabrication was sub-micrometer, and SWCNTs were embedded in the sub-micro sized structures. The fabrication technique enables one to fabricate 3D micro structural SWCNT/polymer composites into desired shapes, and thus the technique should open up the further applications of SWCNT/polymer composites such as micro sized photomechanical actuators.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem

    PubMed Central

    Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N. Hafizah; Ishak, M. H. H.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Ho Tian, Ang

    2016-01-01

    This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required. PMID:27239221

  13. Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem.

    PubMed

    Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N Hafizah; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Ho Tian, Ang

    2016-01-01

    This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required. PMID:27239221

  14. Modeling plasmons and photons in complex, periodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClarren, Ryan; Pletzer, Alexander

    2002-11-01

    We present the continued evolution of Curly3d, a finite element code for solving the vector Helmholtz equation in a periodic lattice. New developments in Curly3d which are of particular interest for analyzing optical properties in such lattices are discussed: (1) the capability to compute the curl of a vector field of the lattice and by extension the Poynting flux throughout (2) the implementation of algorthims to allow for the lattice to have inhomogenuous and anisotropic dielectric and permeability properties on an arbitrarily small scale (i.e. on the order of a single element). Curly3d uses these new features coupled with its flexibility due to its implementation in the Python scripting language to analyze complex geometries. Calculations are performed on materials with local negative dielectric and permeability characteristics and presented with the necessary implications of the results.

  15. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Optical Photonic Lattices and Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulides, Demetrios

    Discretizing light behavior requires optical elements that can confine optical energy at distinct sites. One possible scenario in implementing such arrangements is to store energy within low loss high Q-microcavities and then allow photon exchange between such components in time. This scheme requires high-contrast dielectric elements that became available with the advent of photonic crystal technologies. Another possible avenue where such light discretization can be directly observed and studied is that based on evanescently coupled waveguide arrays. As indicated in several studies, discrete systems open up whole new directions in terms of modifying light transport properties. One such example is that of discrete solitons. By nature, discrete solitons represent self-trapped wavepackets in nonlinear periodic structures and result from the interplay between lattice diffraction (or dispersion) and material nonlinearity. In optics, this class of self-localized states has been successfully observed in both one- and two-dimensional nonlinear waveguide arrays. In recent years such photonic lattices have been implemented or induced in a variety of material systems, including those with cubic (Kerr), quadratic, photorefractive, and liquid-crystal nonlinearities. In all cases the underlying periodicity or discreteness can lead to new families of optical solitons that have no counterpart whatsoever in continuous systems. Interestingly, these results paved the way for observations in other physical systems obeying similar evolution equations like Bose-Einstein condensates. New developments in laser writing ultrashort femtosecond laser pulses, now allow the realization of all-optical switching networks in fully 3D environments using nonlinear discrete optics. Using this approach all-optical routing can be achieved using blocking operations. The spatio-temporal evolution of optical pulses in both normally and anomalously dispersive arrays can lead to novel schemes for mode

  16. Strongly Correlated Quantum Gases Trapped in 3D Spin-Dependent Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarco, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Optical lattices have emerged as ideal systems for exploring Hubbard model physics, since the equivalent of material parameters such as the ratio of tunneling to interaction energy are easily and widely tunable. In this talk I will discuss our recent measurements using novel lattice potentials to realize more complex Hubbard models for bosonic 87 Rb atoms. In these experiments, we adjust the polarization of the lattice laser beams to realize fully three-dimensional, spin-dependent cubic optical lattices. We demonstrate that atoms can be trapped in combinations of spin states for which superfluid and Mott-insulator phases exist simultaneously in the lattice. We also co-trap states that experience a strong lattice potential and no lattice potential whatsoever. I will discuss recent measurements revealing a mechanism similar to Kapitza resistance that leads to thermal decoupling in this latter combination. The implications for sympathetic cooling and thermometry using species-dependent lattices will be outlined.

  17. A simple configuration for fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic quasicrystals with complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, XiaoHong; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Wei; Jiang, LiuDi

    2016-06-01

    A simple method using a single-prism common-path interferometer is presented for the fabrication of complex quasicrystals in sub-micrometer scales. Multiple types of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) quasicrystalline structures are designed and their diffraction patterns are obtained by using Fourier Transform method. Multi-fold rotational symmetries are demonstrated and compared. By using this method, a wide range of quasicrystals types can be produced with arbitrary complexities and rotational symmetries. The transmittance studies of 12-fold and 18-fold structures also reveal the existence of complete photonic bandgaps, which also demonstrates increased symmetry and significantly improved characteristics of photonic band-gaps.

  18. Experimental studies of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles doped silica matrix 3D magneto-photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Diwan, E.; Royer, F.; Kekesi, R.; Jamon, D.; Blanc-Mignon, M. F.; Neveu, S.; Rousseau, J. J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present the synthesis and the optical properties of 3D magneto-photonic structures. The elaboration process consists in firstly preparing then infiltrating polystyrene direct opals with a homogeneous solution of sol-gel silica precursors doped by cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, and finally dissolving the polystyrene spheres. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the prepared samples clearly evidence a periodic arrangement. Using a home-made polarimetric optical bench, the transmittance as a function of the wavelength, the Faraday rotation as a function of the applied magnetic field, and the Faraday ellipticity as a function of the wavelength and as a function of the applied magnetic field were measured. The existence of deep photonic band gaps (PBG), the unambiguous magnetic character of the samples and the qualitative modification of the Faraday ellipticity in the area of the PBG are evidenced.

  19. 3D imaging using combined neutron-photon fan-beam tomography: A Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, J; Yazdanpanah, A Pour; Barzilov, A; Regentova, E

    2016-05-01

    The application of combined neutron-photon tomography for 3D imaging is examined using MCNP5 simulations for objects of simple shapes and different materials. Two-dimensional transmission projections were simulated for fan-beam scans using 2.5MeV deuterium-deuterium and 14MeV deuterium-tritium neutron sources, and high-energy X-ray sources, such as 1MeV, 6MeV and 9MeV. Photons enable assessment of electron density and related mass density, neutrons aid in estimating the product of density and material-specific microscopic cross section- the ratio between the two provides the composition, while CT allows shape evaluation. Using a developed imaging technique, objects and their material compositions have been visualized. PMID:26953978

  20. Multifocal multiphoton excitation and time correlated single photon counting detection for 3-D fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Dunsby, C; De Beule, P A A; Owen, D M; Anand, U; Lanigan, P M P; Benninger, R K P; Davis, D M; Neil, M A A; Anand, P; Benham, C; Naylor, A; French, P M W

    2007-10-01

    We report a multifocal multiphoton time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscope system that uses a 16 channel multi-anode PMT detector. Multiphoton excitation minimizes out-of-focus photobleaching, multifocal excitation reduces non-linear in-plane photobleaching effects and TCSPC electronics provide photon-efficient detection of the fluorescence decay profile. TCSPC detection is less prone to bleaching- and movement-induced artefacts compared to wide-field time-gated or frequency-domain FLIM. This microscope is therefore capable of acquiring 3-D FLIM images at significantly increased speeds compared to single beam multiphoton microscopy and we demonstrate this with live cells expressing a GFP tagged protein. We also apply this system to time-lapse FLIM of NAD(P)H autofluorescence in single live cells and report measurements on the change in the fluorescence decay profile following the application of a known metabolic inhibitor. PMID:19550524

  1. Preliminary study of the dosimetric characteristics of 3D-printed materials with megavoltage photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-07-01

    These days, 3D-printers are on the rise in various fields including radiation therapy. This preliminary study aimed to estimate the dose characteristics of 3D-printer materials that could be used as compensators or immobilizers in radiation treatment. The cubes with length of 5 cm and different densities of 50%, 75% and 100% were printed by using a 3D-printer. Planning CT scans of the cubes were performed by using a CT simulator (Brilliance CT, Philips Medical System, Netherlands). Dose distributions behind the cube were calculated after a 6 MV photon beam had passed through the cube. The dose responses for the 3D-printed cube, air and water were measured by using EBT3 film and a 2D array detector. When the results of air case were normalized to 100, the dose calculated by the TPS and the measured doses to 50% and 75% cube were of the 96 ~ 99. The measured and the calculated doses to water and to 100% of the cube were 82 ~ 84. The HU values for the 50%, 75% and 100% density cases were -910, -860 and -10, respectively. The dose characteristics of the 50% and the 75% products were similar to that of air while the 100% product seemed to be similar to that of water. This information will provide guidelines for making an immobilization tool that can play the role of a compensator and for making a real human phantom that can exactly describe the inside of the human body. This study was necessary for Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) based 3D-printer users who are planning to make something related to radiation therapy.

  2. Creating bio-inspired hierarchical 3D-2D photonic stacks via planar lithography on self-assembled inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian B; Aizenberg, Joanna; Lončar, Marko

    2013-12-01

    Structural hierarchy and complex 3D architecture are characteristics of biological photonic designs that are challenging to reproduce in synthetic materials. Top-down lithography allows for designer patterning of arbitrary shapes, but is largely restricted to planar 2D structures. Self-assembly techniques facilitate easy fabrication of 3D photonic crystals, but controllable defect-integration is difficult. In this paper we combine the advantages of top-down and bottom-up fabrication, developing two techniques to deposit 2D-lithographically-patterned planar layers on top of or in between inverse-opal 3D photonic crystals and creating hierarchical structures that resemble the architecture of the bright green wing scales of the butterfly, Parides sesostris. These fabrication procedures, combining advantages of both top-down and bottom-up fabrication, may prove useful in the development of omnidirectional coloration elements and 3D-2D photonic crystal devices. PMID:24263010

  3. Accurate measurements of thermal radiation from a tungsten photonic lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, C.H.; Sinclair, M.B.; Fleming, J.G.

    2005-06-13

    Recently, photonic lattice structures have become available that are fabricated from refractory materials such as tungsten and thus stable in vacuo at high temperatures. Such structures can be tailored to exhibit optical properties that are not achievable with ordinary optical materials. In particular, photonic lattices can be designed to suppress thermal emission in undesired spectral regions, and can thereby enhance the overall energy efficiency of emission at useful wavelengths. We report measurements of the thermal emission spectra of tungsten photonic lattices in the wavelength range 3 to 24 {mu}m. Suppression of thermal emission at wavelengths longer than the photonic bandedge ({approx}6 {mu}m) is observed, along with significant emission at shorter wavelengths. We show that from 404 to 546 K the spectral emissivity E({lambda}) is temperature independent and approaches [1-R({lambda})], where R({lambda}) is the measured specular reflectance spectrum. These results are in accord with Kirchhoff's law.

  4. The 3D split-ring cavity lattice: a new metastructure for engineering arrays of coupled microwave harmonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-02-01

    A new electromagnetic cavity structure, a lattice of 3D cavities consisting of an array of posts and gaps is presented. The individual cavity elements are based on the cylindrical re-entrant (or Klystron) cavity. We show that these cavities can also be thought of as 3D split-ring resonators, which is confirmed by applying symmetry transformations, each of which is an electromagnetic resonator with spatially separated magnetic and electric field. The characteristics of the cavity is used to mimic phonon behaviour of a one-dimensional (1D) chain of atoms. It is demonstrated how magnetic field coupling can lead to phonon-like dispersion curves with acoustical and optical branches. The system is able to reproduce a number of effects typical to 1D lattices exhibiting acoustic vibration, such as band gaps, phonon trapping, and effects of impurities. In addition, quasicrystal emulations predict the results expected from this class of ordered structures. The system is easily scalable to simulate two-dimensional and 3D lattices and shows a new way to engineer arrays of coupled microwave resonators with a variety of possible applications to hybrid quantum systems proposed.

  5. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  6. Detecting the Chern number of topological Weyl semimetals in 3D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan-Wei; Cao, Shuai

    2016-06-01

    We propose a realistic scheme to directly probe the Chern number of topological Weyl semimetals in optical lattices. The Weyl semimetal states can be realized with ultracold fermionic atoms trapped in three-dimensional optical lattices, and are topologically characterized by k z -dependent Chern number, where k z is the out-of-plane quasimomentum. We demonstrate with numerical simulations that this characteristic topological invariant can be extracted from the shift of the hybrid Wannier center in the optical lattice, based on the particle pumping approach. Through in situ measurement of atomic density, the topological properties of the Weyl semimetal states are then directly revealed.

  7. Photonic liquid crystal fibers tuning by four electrode system produced with 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertman, Slawomir; Bednarska, Karolina; Czapla, Aleksandra; Woliński, Tomasz R.

    2015-09-01

    Photonic liquid crystal fiber has been intensively investigated in last few years. It has been proved that guiding properties of such fibers could be tuned with an electric field. In particular efficient tuning could be obtained if multi-electrode system allowing for dynamic change of not only intensity of the electric field, but also its direction. In this work we report a simple to build four electrode system, which is based on a precisely aligned four cylindrical microelectrodes. As an electrodes we use enameled copper wire with diameter adequate to the diameter of the fiber to be tuned. To ensure uniform and parallel alignment of the wires a special micro-profiles has been designed and then produced with filament 3D printer. The possibility of the dynamic change of the electric field direction in such scalable and cost effective electrode assembly has been experimentally confirmed.

  8. 2D and 3D Anilato-Based Heterometallic M(I)M(III) Lattices: The Missing Link.

    PubMed

    Benmansour, Samia; Vallés-García, Cristina; Gómez-Claramunt, Patricia; Mínguez Espallargas, Guillermo; Gómez-García, Carlos J

    2015-06-01

    The similar bis-bidentate coordination mode of oxalato and anilato-based ligands is exploited here to create the first examples of 2D and 3D heterometallic lattices based on anilato ligands combining M(I) and a M(III) ions, phases already observed with oxalato but unknown with anilato-type ligands. These lattices are prepared with alkaline metal ions and magnetic chiral tris(anilato)metalate molecular building blocks: [M(III)(C6O4X2)3](3-) (M(III) = Fe and Cr; X = Cl and Br; (C6O4X2)(2-) = dianion of the 3,6-disubstituted derivatives of 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone, H4C6O4). The new compounds include two very similar 2D lattices formulated as (PBu3Me)2[NaCr(C6O4Br2)3] (1) and (PPh3Et)2[KFe(C6O4Cl2)3](dmf)2 (2), both presenting hexagonal [M(I)M(III)(C6O4X2)3](2-) honeycomb layers with (PBu3Me)(+) in 1 or (PPh3Et)(+) and dmf in 2 inserted between them. Minor modifications in the synthetic conditions yield the novel 3D lattice (NEt3Me)[Na(dmf)][NaFe(C6O4Cl2)3] (3), in which hexagonal layers analogous to 1 and 2 are interconnected through Na(+) cations, and (NBu3Me)2[NaCr(C6O4Br2)3] (4), the first heterometallic 3D lattice based on anilato ligands. This compound presents two interlocked chiral 3D (10,3) lattices with opposite chiralities. Attempts to prepare 4 in larger quantities result in the 2D polymorph of compound 4 (4'). Magnetic properties of compounds 1, 3, and 4' are reported, and in all cases we observe, as expected, paramagnetic behaviors that can be satisfactorily reproduced with simple monomer models including a zero field splitting (ZFS) of the corresponding S = 3/2 for Cr(III) in 1 and 4' or S = 5/2 for Fe(III) in 3. PMID:25965415

  9. Coupled Neutron-Photon, 3-D, Combinatorial Geometry, Time Dependent, Monte Carlo Transport Code System.

    2013-06-24

    Version 07 TART2012 is a coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code designed to use three-dimensional (3-D) combinatorial geometry. Neutron and/or photon sources as well as neutron induced photon production can be tracked. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART2012 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared tomore » other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART2012 extends the general utility of the code to even more areas of application than available in previous releases by concentrating on improving the physics, particularly with regard to improved treatment of neutron fission, resonance self-shielding, molecular binding, and extending input options used by the code. Several utilities are included for creating input files and displaying TART results and data. TART2012 uses the latest ENDF/B-VI, Release 8, data. New for TART2012 is the use of continuous energy neutron cross sections, in addition to its traditional multigroup cross sections. For neutron interaction, the data are derived using ENDF-ENDL2005 and include both continuous energy cross sections and 700 group neutron data derived using a combination of ENDF/B-VI, Release 8, and ENDL data. The 700 group structure extends from 10-5 eV up to 1 GeV. Presently nuclear data are only available up to 20 MeV, so that only 616 of the groups are currently used. For photon interaction, 701 point photon data were derived using the Livermore EPDL97 file. The new 701 point structure extends from 100 eV up to 1 GeV, and is currently used over this entire energy range. TART2012 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that one use only the most recent version of TART2012 and its data files. Check author’s homepage for related information: http

  10. Respiratory gating for proton beam scanning versus photon 3D-CRT for breast cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Flejmer, Anna M; Edvardsson, Anneli; Dohlmar, Frida; Josefsson, Dan; Nilsson, Mats; Witt Nyström, Petra; Dasu, Alexandru

    2016-05-01

    Background Respiratory gating and proton therapy have both been proposed to reduce the cardiopulmonary burden in breast cancer radiotherapy. This study aims to investigate the additional benefit of proton radiotherapy for breast cancer with and without respiratory gating. Material and methods Twenty left-sided patients were planned on computed tomography (CT)-datasets acquired during enhanced inspiration gating (EIG) and free-breathing (FB), using photon three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and scanned proton beams. Ten patients received treatment to the whole breast only (WBO) and 10 were treated to the breast and the regional lymph nodes (BRN). Dosimetric parameters characterizing the coverage of target volumes and the cardiopulmonary burden were compared using a paired, two-tailed Student's t-test. Results Protons ensured comparable or better target coverage than photons in all patients during both EIG and FB. The heterogeneity index decreased from 12% with photons to about 5% with protons. The mean dose to the ipsilateral lung was reduced in BRN patients from 12 Gy to 7 Gy  (RBE) in EIG and from 14 Gy to 6-7 Gy (RBE) in FB, while for WBO patients all values were about 5-6 Gy (RBE). The mean dose to heart decreased by a factor of four in WBO patients [from 1.1 Gy to 0.3 Gy (RBE) in EIG and from 2.1 Gy to 0.5 Gy (RBE) in FB] and 10 in BRN patients [from 2.1 Gy to 0.2 Gy (RBE) in EIG and from 3.4 Gy to 0.3 Gy (RBE) in FB]. Similarly, the mean and the near maximum dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) with protons in comparison with photons. Conclusion Proton spot scanning has a high potential to reduce the irradiation of organs at risk and other normal tissues for most patients, beyond what could be achieved with EIG and photon therapy. The largest dose sparing has been seen for BRN patients, both in terms of cardiopulmonary burden and integral dose. PMID:27027913

  11. Soliton dynamics in modulated Bessel photonic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ruelas, Adrian; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Gutierrez-Vega, Julio C.

    2010-12-15

    We address the existence and the controlled stability of two-dimensional solitons in modulated Bessel lattices (MBL) induced by a superposition of nondiffracting Bessel beams. We show that variation of the modulation parameter of the lattice and the initial transverse momentum of the soliton significantly modify the behavior of the solitons. We find that, under suitable and well-identified conditions, solitons propagating in the MBL exhibit six regimes of transverse mobility: stationary, oscillatory, rotating, unbounded or escape, transitional, and unstable. These results report propagating solitons that can develop these dynamics of transverse motion.

  12. Light control in Ge2Sb2Te5-coated opaline photonic crystals mediated by interplay of Wood anomalies and 3D Bragg diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, A. B.; Poddubny, A. N.; Yakovlev, S. A.; Kurdyukov, D. A.; Golubev, V. G.

    2013-04-01

    We present experimental and theoretical study of light reflection spectra from hybrid structures formed by Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide film on top of 3D opaline photonic crystal. We demonstrate the presence of diffraction anomalies (Wood anomalies) in the spectra. These anomalies are caused by the light scattering on the hybrid structure surface of hexagonal symmetry. To interpret the experimental results, we develop a qualitative theoretical model, taking into account the dispersion of quasi-waveguide modes supported by the surface layer of the hybrid structure. We consider the conditions for the coupling between the Bragg resonances associated with the diffraction of light on the 3D opal lattice and the resonances due to Wood anomalies.

  13. Dual FIB-SEM 3D imaging and lattice boltzmann modeling of porosimetry and multiphase flow in chalk.

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Alex; Petrusak, Robin; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2010-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage.

  14. Design and performance of a fiber array coupled multi-channel photon counting, 3D imaging, airborne lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Genghua; Shu, Rong; Hou, Libing; Li, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Photon counting lidar has an ultra-high sensitivity which can be hundreds even thousands of times higher than the linear detection lidar. It can significantly increase the system's capability of detection rang and imaging density, saving size and power consumings in airborne or space-borne applications. Based on Geiger-mode Si avalanche photodiodes (Si-APD), a prototype photon counting lidar which used 8 APDs coupled with a 1×8-pixel fiber array has been made in June, 2011. The experiments with static objects showed that the photon counting lidar could operate in strong solar background with 0.04 receiving photoelectrons on average. Limited by less counting times in moving platforms, the probability of detection and the 3D imaging density would be lower than that in static platforms. In this paper, a latest fiber array coupled multi-channel photon counting, 3D imaging, airborne lidar system is introduced. The correlation range receiver algorithm of photon counting 3D imaging is improved for airborne signal photon events extraction and noise filter. The 3D imaging experiments in the helicopter shows that the false alarm rate is less than 6×10-7, and the correct rate is better than 99.9% with 4 received photoelectrons and 0.7MHz system noise on average.

  15. Interferometry based multispectral photon-limited 2D and 3D integral image encryption employing the Hartley transform.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Lee, Byung-Geun; Sheridan, John T

    2015-06-15

    We present a method of securing multispectral 3D photon-counted integral imaging (PCII) using classical Hartley Transform (HT) based encryption by employing optical interferometry. This method has the simultaneous advantages of minimizing complexity by eliminating the need for holography recording and addresses the phase sensitivity problem encountered when using digital cameras. These together with single-channel multispectral 3D data compactness, the inherent properties of the classical photon counting detection model, i.e. sparse sensing and the capability for nonlinear transformation, permits better authentication of the retrieved 3D scene at various depth cues. Furthermore, the proposed technique works for both spatially and temporally incoherent illumination. To validate the proposed technique simulations were carried out for both the 2D and 3D cases. Experimental data is processed and the results support the feasibility of the encryption method. PMID:26193568

  16. Non-classical photon correlation in a two-dimensional photonic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jiao, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Gao, Zhen-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Hao; Jin, Xian-Min

    2016-06-01

    Quantum interference and quantum correlation, as two main features of quantum optics, play an essential role in quantum information applications, such as multi-particle quantum walk and boson sampling. While many experimental demonstrations have been done in one-dimensional waveguide arrays, it remains unexplored in higher dimensions due to tight requirement of manipulating and detecting photons in large-scale. Here, we experimentally observe non-classical correlation of two identical photons in a fully coupled two-dimensional structure, i.e. photonic lattice manufactured by three-dimensional femtosecond laser writing. Photon interference consists of 36 Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and 9 bunching. The overlap between measured and simulated distribution is up to $0.890\\pm0.001$. Clear photon correlation is observed in the two-dimensional photonic lattice. Combining with controllably engineered disorder, our results open new perspectives towards large-scale implementation of quantum simulation on integrated photonic chips.

  17. Non-classical photon correlation in a two-dimensional photonic lattice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jiao, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Gao, Zhen-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Hao; Jin, Xian-Min

    2016-06-13

    Quantum interference and quantum correlation, as two main features of quantum optics, play an essential role in quantum information applications, such as multi-particle quantum walk and boson sampling. While many experimental demonstrations have been done in one-dimensional waveguide arrays, it remains unexplored in higher dimensions due to tight requirement of manipulating and detecting photons in large-scale. Here, we experimentally observe non-classical correlation of two identical photons in a fully coupled two-dimensional structure, i.e. photonic lattice manufactured by three-dimensional femtosecond laser writing. Photon interference consists of 36 Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and 9 bunching. The overlap between measured and simulated distribution is up to 0.890 ± 0.001. Clear photon correlation is observed in the two-dimensional photonic lattice. Combining with controllably engineered disorder, our results open new perspectives towards large-scale implementation of quantum simulation on integrated photonic chips. PMID:27410282

  18. Light-spectrum modification of warm white-light-emitting diodes with 3D colloidal photonic crystals to approximate candlelight.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chun-Feng; Hsieh, Cheng-Liang; Wu, Chia-Jung

    2013-09-15

    This study presents the light-spectrum modification of warm white-light-emitting diodes (w-WLEDs) with 3D colloidal photonic crystals (3D CPhCs) to approximate candlelight. The study measures the angular-resolved transmission properties of the w-WLEDs with CPhCs, which exhibit photonic stop bands based on the CPhC photonic band structures. The w-WLEDs with 3D CPhCs produce a low correlated color temperature of 1963 K, a high color-rendering index of 85, and a luminous flux of 22.8 lm (four times that of a candle). This study presents the successful development of a novel low-cost technique to produce candlelight w-WLEDs for use as an indoor light source. PMID:24104827

  19. Two-photon decays of η _c from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Chen, Ying; Gong, Ming; Lei, Yu-Hong; Li, Ning; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Liu, Zhaofeng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Qiu, Wei-Feng; Wang, Zhan-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Bo

    2016-07-01

    We present an exploratory lattice study for the two-photon decay of η _c using N_f=2 twisted mass lattice QCD gauge configurations generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration. Two different lattice spacings of a=0.067 fm and a=0.085 fm are used in the study, both of which are of physical size of 2 fm. The decay widths are found to be 1.025(5) KeV for the coarser lattice and 1.062(5) KeV for the finer lattice, respectively, where the errors are purely statistical. A naive extrapolation toward the continuum limit yields Γ ˜eq 1.122(14) KeV, which is smaller than the previous quenched result and most of the current experimental results. Possible reasons are discussed.

  20. Investigation the effect of lattice angle on the band gap width in 3D phononic crystals with rhombohedral(I) lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, H.; Aryadoust, M.; Shoushtari, M. Zargar

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the propagation of acoustic waves in the phononic crystal of 3D with rhombohedral(I) lattice is studied theoretically. The crystal composite constituted of nickel spheres embedded in epoxy. The calculations of the band structure and density of states are performed with the plane wave expansion method in the irreducible part of Brillouin zone. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of lattice angle on the band structure and width of the band gap rhombohedral(I) lattice in the irreducible part of the first Brillouin zone and its planes separately. The results show that more than one complete band gape are formed in the four planes of the irreducible part. The most complete band gaps are formed in the (111) plane and the widest complete band gap in (443) with an angle greater than 80. So, if the sound passes through the (111) and (443) planes for the lattice angle close to 90, the crystal phononic displays the excellent insulation behavior. Moreover, in the other planes, the lattice angle does not affect on the width and the number of band gaps. Also, for the filling fraction 5 %, the widest complete band gap is formed. These results are consistent with the effect of symmetry on the band gap width, because the (111) plane has the most symmetry.

  1. Dynamic localization of light in squeezed-like photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhad, M. Khazaei; Golshani, M.; Mahdavi, S. M.; Bahrampour, A. R.; Langari, A.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the dynamic localization of light in the sinusoidal bent squeezed-like photonic lattices, a class of inhomogeneous semi-infinite waveguide arrays. Our findings show that, dynamic localization takes place for the normalized amplitude of sinusoidal profile (α) above a critical value αc. In this regime, for any normalized amplitude α >αc, there is a specific spatial period (ℓ) of waveguides, in which the dynamical oscillation, with the same spatial period occurs. Moreover, the specific spatial period is a decreasing function of the normalized amplitude α. Accordingly, the dynamical oscillation and self-imaging is realized, in spite of the existence of inhomogeneous coupling coefficients and semi-infinite nature of the squeezed-like photonic lattices. In addition, a comparison between the dynamic localization and Bloch oscillation in squeezed-like photonic lattices reveals that for the same values of α (>αc), the variation in the width and the mean center of the Bloch oscillation profile are less than the corresponding values of the dynamic localization. Also, we propose the experimental conditions to observation of dynamic localization in squeezed photonic lattices.

  2. Single qubit gates on neutral atoms in a 3d Optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aishwarya; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xianli; Corcovilos, Theodore A.; Weiss, David S.

    2015-05-01

    Neutral atoms are especially promising candidates for quantum computing because of their inherent scalability. To realize this scalability requires being able to manipulate the quantum information at target qubits with high fidelity and low crosstalk. We will present two single qubit gate addressing protocols. We have experimentally applied them both to targeted sites in a 5 × 5 × 5 3D array. The two distinct approaches both use crossed MEMS-mirror directed addressing beams along with microwave pulses to target atoms at single sites, while having minimal impact on the quantum information at non-target sites. Supported by DARPA, QUEST and ARO.

  3. Gold nanostars: surfactant-free synthesis, 3D modelling, and two-photon photoluminescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Khoury, Christopher G; Hwang, Hanjun; Wilson, Christy M; Grant, Gerald A; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the control of the optical and plasmonic properties of unique nanosystems—gold nanostars—both experimentally and theoretically permits superior design and fabrication for biomedical applications. Here, we present a new, surfactant-free synthesis method of biocompatible gold nanostars with adjustable geometry such that the plasmon band can be tuned into the near-infrared region ‘tissue diagnostic window’, which is most suitable for in vivo imaging. Theoretical modelling was performed for multiple-branched 3D nanostars and yielded absorption spectra in good agreement with experimental results. The plasmon band shift was attributed to variations in branch aspect ratio, and the plasmon band intensifies with increasing branch number, branch length, and overall star size. Nanostars showed an extremely strong two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) process. The TPL imaging of wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) functionalized nanostars on BT549 breast cancer cells and of PEGylated nanostars circulating in the vasculature, examined through a dorsal window chamber in vivo in laboratory mouse studies, demonstrated that gold nanostars can serve as an efficient contrast agent for biological imaging applications. PMID:22260928

  4. Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-10-14

    We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on [Formula: see text] than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation. PMID:27606574

  5. Protein folding optimization based on 3D off-lattice model via an improved artificial bee colony algorithm.

    PubMed

    Li, Bai; Lin, Mu; Liu, Qiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Changjun

    2015-10-01

    Protein folding is a fundamental topic in molecular biology. Conventional experimental techniques for protein structure identification or protein folding recognition require strict laboratory requirements and heavy operating burdens, which have largely limited their applications. Alternatively, computer-aided techniques have been developed to optimize protein structures or to predict the protein folding process. In this paper, we utilize a 3D off-lattice model to describe the original protein folding scheme as a simplified energy-optimal numerical problem, where all types of amino acid residues are binarized into hydrophobic and hydrophilic ones. We apply a balance-evolution artificial bee colony (BE-ABC) algorithm as the minimization solver, which is featured by the adaptive adjustment of search intensity to cater for the varying needs during the entire optimization process. In this work, we establish a benchmark case set with 13 real protein sequences from the Protein Data Bank database and evaluate the convergence performance of BE-ABC algorithm through strict comparisons with several state-of-the-art ABC variants in short-term numerical experiments. Besides that, our obtained best-so-far protein structures are compared to the ones in comprehensive previous literature. This study also provides preliminary insights into how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to reveal the dynamics of protein folding. Graphical Abstract Protein folding optimization using 3D off-lattice model and advanced optimization techniques. PMID:26381910

  6. An effective evolutionary algorithm for protein folding on 3D FCC HP model by lattice rotation and generalized move sets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteins are essential biological molecules which play vital roles in nearly all biological processes. It is the tertiary structure of a protein that determines its functions. Therefore the prediction of a protein's tertiary structure based on its primary amino acid sequence has long been the most important and challenging subject in biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics. In the past, the HP lattice model was one of the ab initio methods that many researchers used to forecast the protein structure. Although these kinds of simplified methods could not achieve high resolution, they provided a macrocosm-optimized protein structure. The model has been employed to investigate general principles of protein folding, and plays an important role in the prediction of protein structures. Methods In this paper, we present an improved evolutionary algorithm for the protein folding problem. We study the problem on the 3D FCC lattice HP model which has been widely used in previous research. Our focus is to develop evolutionary algorithms (EA) which are robust, easy to implement and can handle various energy functions. We propose to combine three different local search methods, including lattice rotation for crossover, K-site move for mutation, and generalized pull move; these form our key components to improve previous EA-based approaches. Results We have carried out experiments over several data sets which were used in previous research. The results of the experiments show that our approach is able to find optimal conformations which were not found by previous EA-based approaches. Conclusions We have investigated the geometric properties of the 3D FCC lattice and developed several local search techniques to improve traditional EA-based approaches to the protein folding problem. It is known that EA-based approaches are robust and can handle arbitrary energy functions. Our results further show that by extensive development of local searches, EA can also be very

  7. Dual FIB-SEM 3D Imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Porosimetry and Multiphase Flow in Chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, A. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Petrusak, R.

    2010-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of an Energy Frontier Research Center. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. A compact acousto-optic lens for 2D and 3D femtosecond based 2-photon microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Paul A.; Naga Srinivas, N.K.M.; Silver, R. Angus

    2010-01-01

    We describe a high speed 3D Acousto-Optic Lens Microscope (AOLM) for femtosecond 2-photon imaging. By optimizing the design of the 4 AO Deflectors (AODs) and by deriving new control algorithms, we have developed a compact spherical AOL with a low temporal dispersion that enables 2-photon imaging at 10-fold lower power than previously reported. We show that the AOLM can perform high speed 2D raster-scan imaging (>150 Hz) without scan rate dependent astigmatism. It can deflect and focus a laser beam in a 3D random access sequence at 30 kHz and has an extended focusing range (>137 μm; 40X 0.8NA objective). These features are likely to make the AOLM a useful tool for studying fast physiological processes distributed in 3D space PMID:20588506

  9. Photonic currents in driven and dissipative resonator lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Thomas; Vasić, Ivana; Hartmann, Michael J.; Hofstetter, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Arrays of coupled photonic cavities driven by external lasers represent a highly controllable setup to explore photonic transport. In this paper we address (quasi)-steady states of this system that exhibit photonic currents introduced by engineering driving and dissipation. We investigate two approaches: in the first one, photonic currents arise as a consequence of a phase difference of applied lasers and, in the second one, photons are injected locally and currents develop as they redistribute over the lattice. Effects of interactions are taken into account within a mean-field framework. In the first approach, we find that the current exhibits a resonant behavior with respect to the driving frequency. Weak interactions shift the resonant frequency toward higher values, while in the strongly interacting regime in our mean-field treatment the effect stems from multiphotonic resonances of a single driven cavity. For the second approach, we show that the overall lattice current can be controlled by incorporating few cavities with stronger dissipation rates into the system. These cavities serve as sinks for photonic currents and their effect is maximal at the onset of quantum Zeno dynamics.

  10. Robust light transport in non-Hermitian photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Stefano; Gatti, Davide; Della Valle, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Combating the effects of disorder on light transport in micro- and nano-integrated photonic devices is of major importance from both fundamental and applied viewpoints. In ordinary waveguides, imperfections and disorder cause unwanted back-reflections, which hinder large-scale optical integration. Topological photonic structures, a new class of optical systems inspired by quantum Hall effect and topological insulators, can realize robust transport via topologically-protected unidirectional edge modes. Such waveguides are realized by the introduction of synthetic gauge fields for photons in a two-dimensional structure, which break time reversal symmetry and enable one-way guiding at the edge of the medium. Here we suggest a different route toward robust transport of light in lower-dimensional (1D) photonic lattices, in which time reversal symmetry is broken because of the non-Hermitian nature of transport. While a forward propagating mode in the lattice is amplified, the corresponding backward propagating mode is damped, thus resulting in an asymmetric transport insensitive to disorder or imperfections in the structure. Non-Hermitian asymmetric transport can occur in tight-binding lattices with an imaginary gauge field via a non-Hermitian delocalization transition, and in periodically-driven superlattices. The possibility to observe non-Hermitian delocalization is suggested using an engineered coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structure. PMID:26314932

  11. Robust light transport in non-Hermitian photonic lattices

    PubMed Central

    Longhi, Stefano; Gatti, Davide; Valle, Giuseppe Della

    2015-01-01

    Combating the effects of disorder on light transport in micro- and nano-integrated photonic devices is of major importance from both fundamental and applied viewpoints. In ordinary waveguides, imperfections and disorder cause unwanted back-reflections, which hinder large-scale optical integration. Topological photonic structures, a new class of optical systems inspired by quantum Hall effect and topological insulators, can realize robust transport via topologically-protected unidirectional edge modes. Such waveguides are realized by the introduction of synthetic gauge fields for photons in a two-dimensional structure, which break time reversal symmetry and enable one-way guiding at the edge of the medium. Here we suggest a different route toward robust transport of light in lower-dimensional (1D) photonic lattices, in which time reversal symmetry is broken because of the non-Hermitian nature of transport. While a forward propagating mode in the lattice is amplified, the corresponding backward propagating mode is damped, thus resulting in an asymmetric transport insensitive to disorder or imperfections in the structure. Non-Hermitian asymmetric transport can occur in tight-binding lattices with an imaginary gauge field via a non-Hermitian delocalization transition, and in periodically-driven superlattices. The possibility to observe non-Hermitian delocalization is suggested using an engineered coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structure. PMID:26314932

  12. Massive Photons: An Infrared Regularization Scheme for Lattice QCD +QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Michael G.; Shindler, Andrea; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Walker-Loud, André

    2016-08-01

    Standard methods for including electromagnetic interactions in lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations result in power-law finite-volume corrections to physical quantities. Removing these by extrapolation requires costly computations at multiple volumes. We introduce a photon mass to alternatively regulate the infrared, and rely on effective field theory to remove its unphysical effects. Electromagnetic modifications to the hadron spectrum are reliably estimated with a precision and cost comparable to conventional approaches that utilize multiple larger volumes. A significant overall cost advantage emerges when accounting for ensemble generation. The proposed method may benefit lattice calculations involving multiple charged hadrons, as well as quantum many-body computations with long-range Coulomb interactions.

  13. LBM-EP: Lattice-Boltzmann method for fast cardiac electrophysiology simulation from 3D images.

    PubMed

    Rapaka, S; Mansi, T; Georgescu, B; Pop, M; Wright, G A; Kamen, A; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2012-01-01

    Current treatments of heart rhythm troubles require careful planning and guidance for optimal outcomes. Computational models of cardiac electrophysiology are being proposed for therapy planning but current approaches are either too simplified or too computationally intensive for patient-specific simulations in clinical practice. This paper presents a novel approach, LBM-EP, to solve any type of mono-domain cardiac electrophysiology models at near real-time that is especially tailored for patient-specific simulations. The domain is discretized on a Cartesian grid with a level-set representation of patient's heart geometry, previously estimated from images automatically. The cell model is calculated node-wise, while the transmembrane potential is diffused using Lattice-Boltzmann method within the domain defined by the level-set. Experiments on synthetic cases, on a data set from CESC'10 and on one patient with myocardium scar showed that LBM-EP provides results comparable to an FEM implementation, while being 10 - 45 times faster. Fast, accurate, scalable and requiring no specific meshing, LBM-EP paves the way to efficient and detailed models of cardiac electrophysiology for therapy planning. PMID:23286029

  14. Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: an advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jin-Feng; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2015-08-01

    3D printing technology has attracted much attention due to its high potential in scientific and industrial applications. As an outstanding 3D printing technology, two-photon polymerization (TPP) microfabrication has been applied in the fields of micro/nanophotonics, micro-electromechanical systems, microfluidics, biomedical implants and microdevices. In particular, TPP microfabrication is very useful in tissue engineering and drug delivery due to its powerful fabrication capability for precise microstructures with high spatial resolution on both the microscopic and the nanometric scale. The design and fabrication of 3D hydrogels widely used in tissue engineering and drug delivery has been an important research area of TPP microfabrication. The resolution is a key parameter for 3D hydrogels to simulate the native 3D environment in which the cells reside and the drug is controlled to release with optimal temporal and spatial distribution in vitro and in vivo. The resolution of 3D hydrogels largely depends on the efficiency of TPP initiators. In this paper, we will review the widely used photoresists, the development of TPP photoinitiators, the strategies for improving the resolution and the microfabrication of 3D hydrogels. PMID:25992492

  15. Microwave cavity lattices for quantum simulation with photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Devin Lane

    Historically our understanding of the microscopic world has been impeded by limitations in systems that behave classically. Even today, understanding simple problems in quantum mechanics remains a difficult task both computationally and experimentally. As a means of overcoming these classical limitations, the idea of using a controllable quantum system to simulate a less controllable quantum system has been proposed. This concept is known as quantum simulation and is the origin of the ideas behind quantum computing. In this thesis, experiments have been conducted that address the feasibility of using devices with a circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture as a quantum simulator. In a cQED device, a superconducting qubit is capacitively coupled to a superconducting resonator resulting in coherent quantum behavior of the qubit when it interacts with photons inside the resonator. It has been shown theoretically that by forming a lattice of cQED elements, different quantum phases of photons will exist for dierent system parameters. In order to realize such a quantum simulator, the necessary experimental foundation must rst be developed. Here experimental eorts were focused on addressing two primary issues: 1) designing and fabricating low disorder lattices that are readily available to incorporate superconducting qubits, and 2) developing new measurement tools and techniques that can be used to characterize large lattices, and probe the predicted quantum phases within the lattice. Three experiments addressing these issues were performed. In the rst experiment a Kagome lattice of transmission line resonators was designed and fabricated, and a comprehensive study on the effects of random disorder in the lattice demonstrated that disorder was dependent on the resonator geometry. Subsequently a cryogenic 3-axis scanning stage was developed and the operation of the scanning stage was demonstrated in the final two experiments. The rst scanning experiment was

  16. Two Photon Decays of Charmonia from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards

    2006-07-12

    We make the first calculation in lattice QCD of two-photon decays of mesons. Working in the charmonium sector, using the LSZ reduction to relate a photon to a sum of hadronic vector eigenstates, we compute form-factors in both the space-like and time-like domains for the transitions {eta}{sub c} {yields} {gamma}*{gamma}* and {chi}{sub c0} {yields} {gamma}*{gamma}*. At the on-shell point we find approximate agreement with experimental world-average values.

  17. Conical Diffraction and Composite Lieb Bosons in Photonic Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebel, Falko; Leykam, Daniel; Kroesen, Sebastian; Denz, Cornelia; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2016-05-01

    Pseudospin describes how waves are distributed between different "internal" degrees of freedom or microscopic states, such as polarizations, sublattices, or layers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate and explain wave dynamics in a photonic Lieb lattice, which hosts an integer pseudospin s =1 conical intersection. We study the most striking differences displayed by integer pseudospin states: pseudospin-dependent conical diffraction and the generation of higher charged optical vortices.

  18. Conical Diffraction and Composite Lieb Bosons in Photonic Lattices.

    PubMed

    Diebel, Falko; Leykam, Daniel; Kroesen, Sebastian; Denz, Cornelia; Desyatnikov, Anton S

    2016-05-01

    Pseudospin describes how waves are distributed between different "internal" degrees of freedom or microscopic states, such as polarizations, sublattices, or layers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate and explain wave dynamics in a photonic Lieb lattice, which hosts an integer pseudospin s=1 conical intersection. We study the most striking differences displayed by integer pseudospin states: pseudospin-dependent conical diffraction and the generation of higher charged optical vortices. PMID:27203324

  19. Engineering interconnected 3D vascular networks in hydrogels using molded sodium alginate lattice as the sacrificial template.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Ying; Jin, Zi-He; Gan, Bo-Wen; Lv, Song-Wei; Xie, Min; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Engineering 3D perfusable vascular networks in vitro and reproducing the physiological environment of blood vessels is very challenging for tissue engineering and investigation of blood vessel function. Here, we engineer interconnected 3D microfluidic vascular networks in hydrogels using molded sodium alginate lattice as sacrificial templates. The sacrificial templates are rapidly replicated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chips via Ca⁺²-crosslinking and then fully encapsulated in hydrogels. Interconnected channels with well controlled size and morphology are obtained by dissolving the monolayer or multilayer templates with EDTA solution. The human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are cultured on the channel linings and proliferated to form vascular lumens. The strong cell adhesion capability and adaptive response to shear stress demonstrate the excellent cytocompatibility of both the template and template-sacrificing process. Furthermore, the barrier function of the endothelial layer is characterized and the results show that a confluent endothelial monolayer is fully developed. Taken together, we develop a facile and rapid approach to engineer a vascular model that could be potentially used in physiological studies of vascular functions and vascular tissue engineering. PMID:24887141

  20. Fabrication of fully undercut ZnO-based photonic crystal membranes with 3D optical confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Sandro Phil; Albert, Maximilian; Meier, Cedrik

    2016-09-01

    For studying nonlinear photonics, a highly controllable emission of photons with specific properties is essential. Two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhCs) have proven to be an excellent candidate for manipulating photon emission due to resonator-based effects. Additionally, zinc oxide (ZnO) has high susceptibility coefficients and therefore shows pronounced nonlinear effects. However, in order to fabricate such a cavity, a fully undercut ZnO membrane is required, which is a challenging problem due to poor selectivity of the known etching chemistry for typical substrates such as sapphire or ZnO. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate and characterize fully undercut photonic crystal membranes based on a thin ZnO film sandwiched between two layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on silicon substrates, from the initial growth of the heterostructure throughout the entire fabrication process. This process leads to a fully undercut ZnO-based membrane with adjustable optical confinement in all three dimensions. Finally, photonic resonances within the tailored photonic band gap are achieved due to optimized PhC-design (in-plane) and total internal reflection in the z-direction. The presented approach enables a variety of photon based resonator structures in the UV regime for studying nonlinear effects, including photon-exciton coupling and all-optical switching.

  1. Comparison of Three-Dimensional (3D) Conformal Proton Radiotherapy (RT), 3D Conformal Photon RT, and Intensity-Modulated RT for Retroperitoneal and Intra-Abdominal Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Erika L.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Louis, Debbie; Flampouri, Stella; Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Paryani, Nitesh; Slopsema, Roelf

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To compare three-dimensional conformal proton radiotherapy (3DCPT), intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT), and 3D conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) to predict the optimal RT technique for retroperitoneal sarcomas. Methods and Materials: 3DCRT, IMRT, and 3DCPT plans were created for treating eight patients with retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the gross tumor plus a 2-cm margin, limited by bone and intact fascial planes. For photon plans, the planning target volume (PTV) included a uniform expansion of 5 mm. For the proton plans, the PTV was nonuniform and beam-specific. The prescription dose was 50.4 Gy/Cobalt gray equivalent CGE. Plans were normalized so that >95% of the CTV received 100% of the dose. Results: The CTV was covered adequately by all techniques. The median conformity index was 0.69 for 3DCPT, 0.75 for IMRT, and 0.51 for 3DCRT. The median inhomogeneity coefficient was 0.062 for 3DCPT, 0.066 for IMRT, and 0.073 for 3DCRT. The bowel median volume receiving 15 Gy (V15) was 16.4% for 3DCPT, 52.2% for IMRT, and 66.1% for 3DCRT. The bowel median V45 was 6.3% for 3DCPT, 4.7% for IMRT, and 15.6% for 3DCRT. The median ipsilateral mean kidney dose was 22.5 CGE for 3DCPT, 34.1 Gy for IMRT, and 37.8 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral mean kidney dose was 0 CGE for 3DCPT, 6.4 Gy for IMRT, and 11 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral kidney V5 was 0% for 3DCPT, 49.9% for IMRT, and 99.7% for 3DCRT. Regardless of technique, the median mean liver dose was <30 Gy, and the median cord V50 was 0%. The median integral dose was 126 J for 3DCPT, 400 J for IMRT, and 432 J for 3DCRT. Conclusions: IMRT and 3DCPT result in plans that are more conformal and homogenous than 3DCRT. Based on Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in Clinic benchmarks, the dosimetric advantage of proton therapy may be less gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity.

  2. Linear and Nonlinear Wave Dynamics in Amorphous Photonic Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechtsman, Mikael; Szameit, Alexander; Segev, Mordechai

    Conventional intuition in solid-state physics holds that in order for a solid to have an electronic band-gap, it must be periodic, allowing the use of Bloch's theorem. Indeed, the free-electron approximation seems to imply that Bragg scattering in periodic potentials is a necessary condition for the formation of a band-gap. But this is obviously untrue: looking through a window reveals that glassy silica (SiO2), although possessing no order at all, still displays a band-gap spanning the entire photon energy range of visible light, without absorption. Several experimental studies have probed the properties of the band-gap in such "amorphous" electronic systems using spectroscopic techniques [1], time-of-flight measurements [2], and others. With the major progress in photonic crystals [3, 4], it is natural to explore amorphous photonic structures with band-gaps, where the actual wavefunction can be observed directly, and hence, many physical issues can be studied at an unprecedented level. Indeed, amorphous photonic media have been studied theoretically in several pioneering papers (e.g., [5, 6]), and experiments in the microwave regime have demonstrated the existence of a band-gap [5]. However, amorphous band-gap media have never been studied experimentally in the optical regime. Particularly in optics, the full beauty of disorder can be revealed: optics offers the possibility to precisely engineer the potential strength and period, as well as the unique opportunity to employ nonlinearity under controlled conditions, which could unravel unknown features that are much harder to access experimentally in other systems. Here, we present the first experimental study of amorphous photonic lattices: a two-dimensional array of randomly organized evanescently coupled waveguides. We demonstrate that the bands in this medium, comprising inherently localized Anderson states, are separated by gaps, despite the total lack of Bragg scattering. We find that amorphous photonic

  3. Complex photonic lattices embedded with tailored intrinsic defects by a dynamically reconfigurable single step interferometric approach

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Jolly Joseph, Joby

    2014-02-24

    We report sculptured diverse photonic lattices simultaneously embedded with intrinsic defects of tunable type, number, shape as well as position by a single-step dynamically reconfigurable fabrication approach based on a programmable phase spatial light modulator-assisted interference lithography. The presented results on controlled formation of intrinsic defects in periodic as well as transversely quasicrystallographic lattices, irrespective and independent of their designed lattice geometry, portray the flexibility and versatility of the approach. The defect-formation in photonic lattices is also experimentally analyzed. Further, we also demonstrate the feasibility of fabrication of such defects-embedded photonic lattices in a photoresist, aiming concrete integrated photonic applications.

  4. Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135

  5. Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135

  6. Observation of localized flat-band modes in a quasi-one-dimensional photonic rhombic lattice.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sebabrata; Thomson, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the photonic realization of a dispersionless flat band in a quasi-one-dimensional photonic lattice fabricated by ultrafast laser inscription. In the nearest neighbor tight binding approximation, the lattice supports two dispersive and one nondispersive (flat) band. We experimentally excite superpositions of flat-band eigenmodes at the input of the photonic lattice and show the diffractionless propagation of the input states due to their infinite effective mass. In the future, the use of photonic rhombic lattices, together with the successful implementation of a synthetic gauge field, will enable the observation of Aharonov-Bohm photonic caging. PMID:26625021

  7. Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials.

    PubMed

    Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Schlie, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Haverich, Axel; Chichkov, Boris N

    2007-01-01

    We report on recent advances in the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine constructs using a two-photon polymerization technique (2PP). 2PP is a novel CAD/CAM technology allowing the fabrication of any computer-designed 3D structure from a photosensitive polymeric material. The flexibility of this technology and the ability to precisely define 3D construct geometry allows issues associated with vascularization and patient-specific tissue fabrication to be directly addressed. The fabrication of reproducible scaffold structures by 2PP is important for systematic studies of cellular processes and better understanding of in vitro tissue formation. In this study, 2PP was applied for the generation of 3D scaffold-like structures, using the photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer ORMOCER (ORganically MOdified CERamics) and epoxy-based SU8 materials. By comparing the proliferation rates of cells grown on flat material surfaces and under control conditions, it was demonstrated that ORMOCER and SU8 are not cytotoxic. Additional tests show that the DNA strand breaking of GFSHR-17 granulosa cells was not affected by the presence of ORMOCER. Furthermore, gap junction conductance measurements revealed that ORMOCER did not alter the formation of cell-cell junctions, critical for functional tissue growth. The possibilities of seeding 3D structures with cells were analysed. These studies demonstrate the great potential of 2PP technique for the manufacturing of scaffolds with controlled topology and properties. PMID:18265416

  8. Exact dynamics of finite Glauber-Fock photonic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Lara, B. M.

    2011-11-15

    The dynamics of Glauber-Fock lattice of size N is given through exact diagonalization of the corresponding Hamiltonian; the spectra {l_brace}{lambda}{sub k}{r_brace} is given as the roots of the Nth Hermite polynomial, H{sub N}({lambda}{sub k}/{radical}(2))=0, and the eigenstates are given in terms of Hermite polynomials evaluated at these roots. The exact dynamics is used to study coherent phenomena in discrete lattices. Due to the symmetry and spacing of the eigenvalues {l_brace}{lambda}{sub k}{r_brace}, oscillatory behavior is predicted with highly localized spectra, that is, near complete revivals of the photon number and partial recovery of the initial state at given waveguides.

  9. Reconfigurable lattice mesh designs for programmable photonic processors.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Soref, Richard A

    2016-05-30

    We propose and analyse two novel mesh design geometries for the implementation of tunable optical cores in programmable photonic processors. These geometries are the hexagonal and the triangular lattice. They are compared here to a previously proposed square mesh topology in terms of a series of figures of merit that account for metrics that are relevant to on-chip integration of the mesh. We find that that the hexagonal mesh is the most suitable option of the three considered for the implementation of the reconfigurable optical core in the programmable processor. PMID:27410130

  10. Modified Iterated perturbation theory in the strong coupling regime and its application to the 3d FCC lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Louis-François; Sémon, Patrick; Shastry, B. Sriram; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2012-02-01

    The Dynamical Mean-Field theory(DMFT) approach to the Hubbard model requires a method to solve the problem of a quantum impurity in a bath of non-interacting electrons. Iterated Perturbation Theory(IPT)[1] has proven its effectiveness as a solver in many cases of interest. Based on general principles and on comparisons with an essentially exact Continuous-Time Quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC)[2], here we show that the standard implementation of IPT fails when the interaction is much larger than the bandwidth. We propose a slight modification to the IPT algorithm by requiring that double occupancy calculated with IPT gives the correct value. We call this method IPT-D. We show how this approximate impurity solver compares with respect to CTQMC. We consider a face centered cubic lattice(FCC) in 3d for different physical properties. We also use IPT-D to study the thermopower using two recently proposed approximations[3]S^* and SKelvin that do not require analytical continuation and show how thermopower is essentially the entropy per particle in the incoherent regime but not in the coherent one.[1]H.Kajueter et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 131(1996)[2]P. Werner, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 076405(2006)[3]B.S. Sriram Shastry Rep. Prog. Phys. 72 016501(2009)

  11. Inflight performance of a second-generation photon-counting 3D imaging lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John; Machan, Roman; Leventhal, Ed; Lawrence, David; Jodor, Gabriel; Field, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    Sigma Space Corporation has recently developed a compact 3D imaging and polarimetric lidar suitable for use in a small aircraft or mini-UAV. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG microchip laser generates 6 microjoule, subnanosecond pulses at fire rates up to 22 kHz. A Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) breaks the 532 nm beam into a 10x10 array of Gaussian beamlets, each containing about 1 mW of laser power (50 nJ @ 20 kHz). The reflected radiation in each beamlet is imaged by the receive optics onto individual pixels of a high efficiency, 10x10 pixel, multistop detector. Each pixel is then input to one channel of a 100 channel, multistop timer demonstrated to have a 93 picosecond timing (1.4 cm range) resolution and an event recovery time of only 1.6 nsec. Thus, each green laser pulse produces a 100 pixel volumetric 3D image. The residual infrared energy at 1064 nm is used for polarimetry. The scan pattern and frequency of a dual wedge optical scanner, synchronized to the laser fire rate, are tailored to provide contiguous coverage of a ground scene in a single overflight. In both rooftop and preliminary flight tests, the lidar has produced high spatial resolution 3D images of terrain, buildings, tree structures, power lines, and bridges with a data acquisition rate up to 2.2 million multistop 3D pixels per second. Current tests are aimed at defining the lidar's ability to image through water columns and tree canopies.

  12. Single-photon pulsed-light indirect time-of-flight 3D ranging.

    PubMed

    Bellisai, S; Bronzi, D; Villa, F A; Tisa, S; Tosi, A; Zappa, F

    2013-02-25

    "Indirect" time-of-flight is one technique to obtain depth-resolved images through active illumination that is becoming more popular in the recent years. Several methods and light timing patterns are used nowadays, aimed at improving measurement precision with smarter algorithms, while using less and less light power. Purpose of this work is to present an indirect time-of-flight imaging camera based on pulsed-light active illumination and a 32 × 32 single-photon avalanche diode array with an improved illumination timing pattern, able to increase depth resolution and to reach single-photon level sensitivity. PMID:23482043

  13. Self-imaging effect in photonic quasicrystal waveguides: Application to 3 dB power splitter for terahertz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feixiang; Zou, Qiushun; Zhou, Quancheng; Wang, Tongbiao; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Nianhua

    2016-05-01

    We report that self-imaging effect still can be achieved in photonic quasicrystal waveguides (PtQCWs) just as it does in photonic crystal waveguides. As a possible application of the results, a new kind of compact 3 dB PtQCWs-based power splitters based on this effect for terahertz waves with symmetric interference is presented and analyzed. The finite element method is used to calculate the distributions of stable-state electric field and evaluate transmission efficiency of these structures. The calculated results show that the proposed device provides a new compact model for exporting efficiently THz wave with a broad bandwidth to two channels averagely and can be extended to new designs of PtQCW devices.

  14. The Photonic Band Gaps in the Two-Dimensional Plasma Photonic Crystals with Rhombus Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaiming; Sun, Dongsheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, under two different electromagnetic modes, the photonic band gaps (PBGs) in the two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) are theoretically investigated based on the plane wave expansion method. The proposed PPCs are arranged in rhombus lattices, in which the homogeneous unmagnetized plasma rods are immersed in the isotropic dielectric background. The computed results showed that PBGs can be easily tuned by the angle of rhombus lattices, and a cutoff frequency and a flatbands region can be observed under the TM and TE polarized waves, respectively. The relationships between the relative bandwidths of first PBGs and the parameters of PPCs in two such cases also are discussed. The numerical simulations showed that the PBGs can be manipulated obviously by the parameters as mentioned above. The proposed results can be used to design the waveguide and filter based on the PPCs.

  15. UV-VIS regime band gap in a 3-d photonic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ming; Arammash, Fouzi; Datta, Timir; Tsu, Ray

    2013-03-01

    Synthetic opals are self-organized bulk, close packed systems that are three-dimensionally ordered with periodicity determined by the sphere diameter. These materials have been used as templates for nano devices with novel properties. For example, in carbon inverse opals show quantum hall effect and related magneto electric responses. Inverse are also reported to show photonic band gap. It is expected that devices based on these materials will be an alternative to electronic devices. These opal specimens were hexagonal or face centered cubic crystals with silica sphere diameter ranging between 220 nm and 270nm. Here we will present results of structural and imaging studies such as SEM, AFM and XRD. In addition results of the (UV-VIS) optical behavior will be provided. The optical response will be analyzed in terms of photonic band gaps in the sub-micrometer optical and UV regime.

  16. Two-photon imaging of a magneto-fluorescent indicator for 3D optical magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hohjai; Brinks, Daan; Cohen, Adam E

    2015-10-19

    We developed an optical method to visualize the three-dimensional distribution of magnetic field strength around magnetic microstructures. We show that the two-photon-excited fluorescence of a chained donor-bridge-acceptor compound, phenanthrene-(CH2)12-O-(CH2)2-N,N-dimethylaniline, is sensitive to ambient magnetic field strength. A test structure is immersed in a solution of the magneto-fluorescent indicator and a custom two-photon microscope maps the fluorescence of this compound. The decay kinetics of the electronic excited state provide a measure of magnetic field that is insensitive to photobleaching, indicator concentration, or local variations in optical excitation or collection efficiency. PMID:26480460

  17. 3D Image Processing of Two-Photon Microscopy Images Depicting Nanoprobes in Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongo, Andrew E.

    Choosing a deconvolution algorithm can be beneficial when imaging nanoprobes in skin by means of two-photon microscopy. By design, deconvolution algorithms can increase the signal to noise ratio of the raw images and thus make it easier to identify discrete, subresolution nanoprobes from blurry two-photon image data. This poses the favorable benefit of knowing more precise locations of nanoprobes inside skin. This thesis demonstrates how the Expectation-Maximization deconvolution algorithm (EM algorithm) can be applied to three-dimensional, two-photon images depicting quantum dot nanoprobes inside human skin. This was accomplished in part by devising a way to deliver nanoprobes inside skin by means of low frequency ultrasound. Many nanoprobes become sparsely scattered inside skin when using this nanoprobe delivery methodology. The scattered nanoprobes resulting from the nanoprobe delivery pose a unique benefit in acquiring an experimental point spread function of the imaging system. This in turn gives an accurate representation of the point spread function that can be used as an input to the EM algorithm. The methodology of utilizing the EM algorithm in this manner is presented.

  18. Recent advances in two-photon 3D laser lithography with self-Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldeck, Patrice L.; Prabhakaran, Prem; Liu, Chao-Yuan; Bouriau, Michel; Gredy, Laetitia; Stephan, Olivier; Vergote, Thomas; Chaumeil, Hélène; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Lin, Chih-Lang; Lin, Chin-Te; Hsueh, Ya Hsun; Chung, Tien-Tung

    2013-09-01

    We review our recent results towards the development of a turnkey 3D laser printer, based on self-Q-switched microchip Nd:YAG lasers, with reproducible sub-100nm resolution, and with large-scale (cm) and fast-speed (cm/sec) capability at micron resolution. First of all, we report on line fabrication with 70nm lateral, and 150nm longitudinal resolutions without significant shrinking. This is due to the tight focusing with green visible wavelength, large numerical aperture, and excellent resin properties. Secondly, we report on two-photon sensitive photoacid generators that lead to efficient 3D microfabrication with epoxy SU-8 resin. Thirdly, we demonstrate high-speed microfabrication of large scale, millimeter size, scaffolds and cemtimeter height needle with high repetition rate (130Khz), and high average power (1W) amplified microchip laser. Finally we demonstrate the two-photon induced cross-linking of antibodies to determine the type of red blood cells in microfluidic channels.

  19. 3D photonic crystal-based biosensor functionalized with quantum dot-based aptamer for thrombine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Choi, Eunpyo; Park, Youngkyu; Park, Jungyul

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new technique for protein detection by using the enhancement of intensity in quantum dots (Qdot) whose emission is guided by 3D photonic crystal (PC) structures. For easy to use, we design the emitted light from the sensor can be recovered, when the chemical antibody (aptamer) conjugated with guard DNA (g-DNA) labeled with a quencher (Black FQ) hybridizes with the target proteins. In detail, we synthesis a Qdot-aptamer complex and then immobilize these complex on the PC surfaces. Next, we perform the hybridization of the Qdot-aptamer complex with g-DNA labeled with the quencher. It induces the quenching effect of fluoresce intensity in the Qdot-aptamer. In presence of target protein (thrombin), the Qdot-aptamer complex prefers to form the thrombin-aptamer complex: this results in the release of Black FQ-g-DNA and the quenched light intensity recovers into the original high intensity with Qdot. The intensity recovery varies quantitatively according to the level of the target protein concentration. This proposed sensor shows much higher detection sensitivity than the general fluorescent detection mechanism, which is functionalized on the flat surfaces because of the light guiding effect from 3D photonic crystal structures.

  20. Photons, Electrons and Positrons Transport in 3D by Monte Carlo Techniques

    2014-12-01

    Version 04 FOTELP-2014 is a new compact general purpose version of the previous FOTELP-2K6 code designed to simulate the transport of photons, electrons and positrons through three-dimensional material and sources geometry by Monte Carlo techniques, using subroutine package PENGEOM from the PENELOPE code under Linux-based and Windows OS. This new version includes routine ELMAG for electron and positron transport simulation in electric and magnetic fields, RESUME option and routine TIMER for obtaining starting random numbermore » and for measuring the time of simulation.« less

  1. Photons, Electrons and Positrons Transport in 3D by Monte Carlo Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    Version 04 FOTELP-2014 is a new compact general purpose version of the previous FOTELP-2K6 code designed to simulate the transport of photons, electrons and positrons through three-dimensional material and sources geometry by Monte Carlo techniques, using subroutine package PENGEOM from the PENELOPE code under Linux-based and Windows OS. This new version includes routine ELMAG for electron and positron transport simulation in electric and magnetic fields, RESUME option and routine TIMER for obtaining starting random number and for measuring the time of simulation.

  2. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover in a photonic lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Eran; Pugatch, Rami; Silberberg, Yaron

    2011-01-15

    We show that a periodic two-dimensional (2D) photonic lattice with Kerr nonlinearity exhibits a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) crossover associated with a vortex-unbinding transition. We find that averaging over random initial conditions is equivalent to Boltzmann thermal averaging with the discrete nonlinear Schro{center_dot}{center_dot}dinger Hamiltonian. By controlling the initial randomness we can continuously vary the effective temperature. Since this Hamiltonian is in the 2D XY universality class, a BKT transition ensues. We verify this prediction using experimentally accessible observables and find good agreement between theory and simulations. This opens the possibility of experimental access to interesting phase transitions known in condensed matter using nonlinear optics.

  3. Two-photon luminescence thermometry: towards 3D high-resolution thermal imaging of waveguides.

    PubMed

    He, Ruiyun; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Pedrola, Ginés Lifante; Chen, Feng; Jaque, Daniel

    2016-07-11

    We report on the use of the Erbium-based luminescence thermometry to realize high resolution, three dimensional thermal imaging of optical waveguides. Proof of concept is demonstrated in a 980-nm laser pumped ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide in Er:Yb phosphate glass. Multi-photon microscopy images revealed the existence of well confined intra-waveguide temperature increments as large as 200 °C for moderate 980-nm pump powers of 120 mW. Numerical simulations and experimental data reveal that thermal loading can be substantially reduced if pump events are separated more than the characteristic thermal time that for the waveguides investigated is in the ms time scale. PMID:27410882

  4. TART97 a coupled neutron-photon 3-D, combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E.

    1997-11-22

    TART97 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo transport code. This code can on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART97 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART97 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on- line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART97 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART97 and its data riles.

  5. Second generation airborne 3D imaging lidars based on photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John J.; Wells, David; Machan, Roman; Leventhal, Edward

    2007-09-01

    The first successful photon-counting airborne laser altimeter was demonstrated in 2001 under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). This "micro-altimeter" flew at altitudes up to 22,000 ft (6.7 km) and, using single photon returns in daylight, successfully recorded high resolution images of the underlying topography including soil, low-lying vegetation, tree canopies, water surfaces, man-made structures, ocean waves, and moving vehicles. The lidar, which operated at a wavelength of 532 nm near the peak of the solar irradiance curve, was also able to see the underlying terrain through trees and thick atmospheric haze and performed shallow water bathymetry to depths of a few meters over the Atlantic Ocean and Assawoman Bay off the Virginia coast. Sigma Space Corporation has recently developed second generation systems suitable for use in a small aircraft or mini UAV. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG microchip laser generates few microjoule, subnanosecond pulses at fire rates up to 22 kHz. A Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) breaks the transmit beam into a 10x10 array of quasi-uniform spots which are imaged by the receive optics onto individual anodes of a high efficiency 10x10 GaAsP segmented anode microchannel plate photomultiplier. Each anode is input to one channel of a 100 channel, multistop timer demonstrated to have a 100 picosecond timing (1.5 cm range) resolution and an event recovery time less than 2 nsec. The pattern and frequency of a dual wedge optical scanner, synchronized to the laser fire rate, are tailored to provide contiguous coverage of a ground scene in a single overflight.

  6. Hyperdiffusion of quantum waves in random photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iomin, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    A quantum-mechanical analysis of hyperfast (faster than ballistic) diffusion of a quantum wave packet in random optical lattices is presented. The main motivation of the presented analysis is experimental demonstrations of hyperdiffusive spreading of a wave packet in random photonic lattices [L. Levi et al., Nature Phys. 8, 912 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2463]. A rigorous quantum-mechanical calculation of the mean probability amplitude is suggested, and it is shown that the power-law spreading of the mean-squared displacement (MSD) is ˜tα , where 2 <α ≤3 . The values of the transport exponent α depend on the correlation properties of the random potential V (x ,t ) , which describes random inhomogeneities of the medium. In particular, when the random potential is δ correlated in time, the quantum wave packet spreads according Richardson turbulent diffusion with the MSD ˜t3 . Hyperdiffusion with α =12 /5 is also obtained for arbitrary correlation properties of the random potential.

  7. A Coupled Neutron-Photon 3-D Combinatorial Geometry Monte Carlo Transport Code

    1998-06-12

    TART97 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo transport code. This code can run on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART97 is also incredibly fast: if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system canmore » save you a great deal of time and energy. TART 97 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on-line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART97 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART97 and ist data files.« less

  8. Compensation of spherical aberration influences for two-photon polymerization patterning of large 3D scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichel, T.; Hecht, B.; Houbertz, R.; Sextl, G.

    2015-10-01

    Two-photon polymerization using femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 515 nm is used for three-dimensional patterning of photosensitive, biocompatible inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER®s). In order to fabricate millimeter-sized biomedical scaffold structures with interconnected pores, medium numerical aperture air objectives with long working distances are applied which allow voxel lengths of several micrometers and thus the solidification of large scaffolds in an adequate time. It is demonstrated that during processing the refraction of the focused laser beam at the air/material interface leads to strong spherical aberration which decreases the peak intensity of the focal point spread function along with shifting and severely extending the focal region in the direction of the beam propagation. These effects clearly decrease the structure integrity, homogeneity and the structure details and therefore are minimized by applying a positioning and laser power adaptation throughout the fabrication process. The results will be discussed with respect to the resulting structural homogeneity and its application as biomedical scaffold.

  9. Gold nanoparticle-mediated fluorescence enhancement by two-photon polymerized 3D microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aekbote, Badri L.; Schubert, Félix; Ormos, Pál; Kelemen, Lóránd

    2014-12-01

    Fluorescence enhancement achieved by functionalized microstructures made by two-photon polymerization (TPP) is reported for the first time. Microstructures of various shapes made of SU-8 photoresist were prepared and coated with gold nanoparticles (NP) of 80 nm. Localized fluorescence enhancement was demonstrated by microstructures equipped with tips of sub-micron dimensions. The enhancement was realized by positioning the NP-coated structures over fluorescent protein layers. Two fluorophores with their absorption in the red and in the green region of the VIS spectrum were used. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to quantify the enhancement. The enhancement factor was as high as 6 in areas of several square-micrometers and more than 3 in the case of local enhancement, comparable with literature values for similar nanoparticles. The structured pattern of the observed fluorescence intensity indicates a classic enhancement mechanism realized by standing waves over reflecting surfaces. With further development mobile microtools made by TPP and functionalized by metal NPs can be actuated by optical tweezers and position to any fluorescent micro-object, such as single cells to realize localized, targeted fluorescence enhancement.

  10. A 3D pencil-beam-based superposition algorithm for photon dose calculation in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillikainen, L.; Helminen, H.; Torsti, T.; Siljamäki, S.; Alakuijala, J.; Pyyry, J.; Ulmer, W.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, a novel three-dimensional superposition algorithm for photon dose calculation is presented. The dose calculation is performed as a superposition of pencil beams, which are modified based on tissue electron densities. The pencil beams have been derived from Monte Carlo simulations, and are separated into lateral and depth-directed components. The lateral component is modeled using exponential functions, which allows accurate modeling of lateral scatter in heterogeneous tissues. The depth-directed component represents the total energy deposited on each plane, which is spread out using the lateral scatter functions. Finally, convolution in the depth direction is applied to account for tissue interface effects. The method can be used with the previously introduced multiple-source model for clinical settings. The method was compared against Monte Carlo simulations in several phantoms including lung- and bone-type heterogeneities. Comparisons were made for several field sizes for 6 and 18 MV energies. The deviations were generally within (2%, 2 mm) of the field central axis dmax. Significantly larger deviations (up to 8%) were found only for the smallest field in the lung slab phantom for 18 MV. The presented method was found to be accurate in a wide range of conditions making it suitable for clinical planning purposes.

  11. Photolithographic fabrication of 3D Penrose-like quasi-photonic crystal polymeric templates utilizing lab-made phasemask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Lazos, Faraon

    Photonic crystals (PhC) have recently become of great interest because of their potential as replacement of electronics and/or supplement to semiconductors technology. The PhC's capability to make compact integrated optical circuits has already made possible the laboratory manufacture of an array of different types of optical waveguides, cavities and filters. The work presented here aimed to simultaneously fabricate a 3D-PhC templates employing six-beam holographic lithography. The basic procedures included recording gratings using interference field of laser sources in a photoresist coating on a glass substrate. The manufacturing method utilized only one optical element, a phasemask, drastically reducing the complexity of fabrication by eliminating the need multiple mirrors and beam splitters. Using this approach, a template can be created with a single exposure to laser source and just varying exposure times, increasing reproducibility.

  12. Electric transport in 3D photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Üpping, J.; Bielawny, A.; Lee, S.; Knez, M.; Carius, R.; Wehrspohn, R. B.

    2009-08-01

    The progress of 3D photonic intermediate reflectors for micromorph silicon tandem cells towards a first prototype cell is presented. Intermediate reflectors enhance the absorption of spectrally-selected light in the top cell and decrease the current mismatch between both junctions. A numerical method to predict filter properties for optimal current matching is presented. Our device is an inverted opal structure made of ZnO and fabricated using self-organized nanoparticles and atomic layer deposition for conformal coating. In particular, the influence of ZnO-doping and replicated cracks during drying of the opal is discussed with respect to conductivity and optical properties. A first prototype is compared to a state-of-the-art reference cell.

  13. Analysis of photonic logic gates based on single hexagonal-lattice photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Junzhen; Qiang, Zexuan; Xu, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiyao

    2011-01-01

    We devised a new configuration of optical logic gates based on a single hexagonal-lattice photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) composed of two-dimensional (2D) cylindrical silicon rods in air. The modal behavior of the proposed logic gates was comprehensively analyzed with a topology optimization technique based on the principle of beam interference and perturbation theory. It was then numerically verified by using a 2D finite-difference time-domain technique. The predictions have a very good agreement with the numerical results. This new single PCRR can really function as NOT and NOR gates. And the logic ``0'' and ``1'' of the hexagonal ring can be defined as less than 8% and greater than 86%, respectively, much better than earlier reported square-lattice results.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Boiling Two-Phase Flow in Tight-Lattice Rod Bundle by 3-Dimensional Two-Fluid Model Code ACE-3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Misawa, Takeharu; Takase, Kazuyuki

    Two-fluid model can simulate two-phase flow by computational cost less than detailed two-phase flow simulation method such as interface tracking method or particle interaction method. Therefore, two-fluid model is useful for thermal hydraulic analysis in large-scale domain such as a rod bundle. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) develops three dimensional two-fluid model analysis code ACE-3D that adopts boundary fitted coordinate system in order to simulate complex shape flow channel. In this paper, boiling two-phase flow analysis in a tight-lattice rod bundle was performed by ACE-3D code. The parallel computation using 126 CPUs was applied to this analysis. In the results, the void fraction, which distributes in outermost region of rod bundle, is lower than that in center region of rod bundle. The tendency of void fraction distribution agreed with the measurement results by neutron radiography qualitatively. To evaluate effects of two-phase flow model used in ACE-3D code, numerical simulation of boiling two-phase in tight-lattice rod bundle with no lift force model was also performed. From the comparison of calculated results, it was concluded that the effects of lift force model were not so large for overall void fraction distribution of tight-lattice rod bundle. However, the lift force model is important for local void fraction distribution of fuel bundles.

  15. Integration of a 3D hydrogel matrix within a hollow core photonic crystal fibre for DNA probe immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutowska, Monika S.; Garcia Gunning, Fatima C.; Kivlehan, Francine; Moore, Eric; Brennan, Des; Galvin, Paul; Ellis, Andrew D.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the integration of a 3D hydrogel matrix within a hollow core photonic crystal fibre (HC-PCF). In addition, we also show the fluorescence of Cy5-labelled DNA molecules immobilized within the hydrogel formed in two different types of HC-PCF. The 3D hydrogel matrix is designed to bind with the amino groups of biomolecules using an appropriate cross-linker, providing higher sensitivity and selectivity than the standard 2D coverage, enabling a greater number of probe molecules to be available per unit area. The HC-PCFs, on the other hand, can be designed to maximize the capture of fluorescence to improve sensitivity and provide longer interaction lengths. This could enable the development of fibre-based point-of-care and remote systems, where the enhanced sensitivity would relax the constraints placed on sources and detectors. In this paper, we will discuss the formation of such polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels within a HC-PCF, including their optical properties such as light propagation and auto-fluorescence.

  16. Effect of implementation of a Bragg reflector in the photonic band structure of the Suzuki-phase photonic crystal lattice.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis Javier; Alija, Alfonso Rodriguez; Postigo, Pablo Aitor; Galisteo-López, J F; Galli, Matteo; Andreani, Lucio Claudio; Seassal, Christian; Viktorovitch, Pierre

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the change of the photonic band structure of the Suzuki-phase photonic crystal lattice when the horizontal mirror symmetry is broken by an underlying Bragg reflector. The structure consists of an InP photonic crystal slab including four InAsP quantum wells, a SiO(2) bonding layer, and a bottom high index contrast Si/SiO(2) Bragg mirror deposited on a Si wafer. Angle- and polarization-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used for measuring the photonic band structure and for investigating the coupling to a polarized plane wave in the far field. A drastic change in the k-space photonic dispersion between the structure with and without Bragg reflector is measured. An important enhancement on the photoluminescence emission up to seven times has been obtained for a nearly flat photonic band, which is characteristic of the Suzuki-phase lattice. PMID:18545565

  17. Highly Compact Circulators in Square-Lattice Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Wang, Qiong; Lin, Mi; Wen, Guohua; Wang, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    We propose, demonstrate and investigate highly compact circulators with ultra-low insertion loss in square-lattice- square-rod-photonic-crystal waveguides. Only a single magneto- optical square rod is required to be inserted into the cross center of waveguides, making the structure very compact and ultra efficient. The square rods around the center defect rod are replaced by several right-angled-triangle rods, reducing the insertion loss further and promoting the isolations as well. By choosing a linear-dispersion region and considering the mode patterns in the square magneto-optical rod, the operating mechanism of the circulator is analyzed. By applying the finite-element method together with the Nelder-Mead optimization method, an extremely low insertion loss of 0.02 dB for the transmitted wave and ultra high isolation of 46 dB∼48 dB for the isolated port are obtained. The idea presented can be applied to build circulators in different wavebands, e.g., microwave or Tera-Hertz. PMID:25415417

  18. Highly compact circulators in square-lattice photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Wang, Qiong; Lin, Mi; Wen, Guohua; Wang, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    We propose, demonstrate and investigate highly compact circulators with ultra-low insertion loss in square-lattice- square-rod-photonic-crystal waveguides. Only a single magneto- optical square rod is required to be inserted into the cross center of waveguides, making the structure very compact and ultra efficient. The square rods around the center defect rod are replaced by several right-angled-triangle rods, reducing the insertion loss further and promoting the isolations as well. By choosing a linear-dispersion region and considering the mode patterns in the square magneto-optical rod, the operating mechanism of the circulator is analyzed. By applying the finite-element method together with the Nelder-Mead optimization method, an extremely low insertion loss of 0.02 dB for the transmitted wave and ultra high isolation of 46 dB∼48 dB for the isolated port are obtained. The idea presented can be applied to build circulators in different wavebands, e.g., microwave or Tera-Hertz. PMID:25415417

  19. Fabrication of 4, 5, or 6-fold symmetric 3D photonic structures using single beam and single reflective optical element based holographic lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D.; Lutkenhaus, J.; Lowell, D.; Philipose, U.; Zhang, H.; Poole, Z.; Chen, K.; Lin, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Here we present the holographic fabrication of large area 3D photonic structures using a single reflective optical element (ROE) with a single beam, single exposure process. The ROE consists of a 3D printed plastic support that houses 4, 5, or 6-fold symmetrically arranged reflecting surfaces which redirect a central beam into multiple side beams in an umbrella configuration to be used in multi-beam holography. With a circular polarized beam incident to silicon wafer reflecting surfaces at the Brewster angle, multiple linearly s-polarized side beams are generated. 3D photonic crystal structures of woodpile, Penrose quasi-crystal, and hexagonal symmetry were produced with ROEs that have 4+1, 5+1 and 6+1 beam configurations, respectively. Since the ROE design can be readily changed and implemented for different photonic crystal structures, this fabrication method is more versatile and cost effective than currently comparable single optical methods like prisms and phase masks.

  20. A 3D photon superposition/convolution algorithm and its foundation on results of Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, W.; Pyyry, J.; Kaissl, W.

    2005-04-01

    Based on previous publications on a triple Gaussian analytical pencil beam model and on Monte Carlo calculations using Monte Carlo codes GEANT-Fluka, versions 95, 98, 2002, and BEAMnrc/EGSnrc, a three-dimensional (3D) superposition/convolution algorithm for photon beams (6 MV, 18 MV) is presented. Tissue heterogeneity is taken into account by electron density information of CT images. A clinical beam consists of a superposition of divergent pencil beams. A slab-geometry was used as a phantom model to test computed results by measurements. An essential result is the existence of further dose build-up and build-down effects in the domain of density discontinuities. These effects have increasing magnitude for field sizes <=5.5 cm2 and densities <=0.25 g cm-3, in particular with regard to field sizes considered in stereotaxy. They could be confirmed by measurements (mean standard deviation 2%). A practical impact is the dose distribution at transitions from bone to soft tissue, lung or cavities. This work has partially been presented at WC 2003, Sydney.

  1. Two 3D network complexes of Y(III) and Ce(III) with 2-fold interpenetration and reversible desorption-adsorption behavior of lattice water

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Wenjuan; He Yong; Zhao Qinghuan; Fan Yaoting; Hou Hongwei

    2010-10-15

    Two novel inorganic-organic 3D network, namely{l_brace}[Ln(L){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O{r_brace}n [Ln=Y (1), Ce (2); Ln(L){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O [Ln=Y (1), Ce (2)], have been prepared through the assembly of the ligand 1,2-bis[3-(1,2,4-triazolyl)-4-amino-5-carboxylmethylthio]ethane (H{sub 2}L) and lanthanide (III) salts under hydrothermal condition and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions. In complexes 1 and 2, the L{sup 2-} anions adopt three different coordination fashions (bidentate chelate, bidentate bridging and bidentate chelate bridging) connecting Ln(III) ions via the oxygen atoms from carboxylate moieties. Both 1 and 2 exhibit 3D network structures with 2-fold interpenetration. Interestingly, the reversible desorption-adsorption behavior of lattice water is significantly observed in the two compounds. The result shows their potential application as late-model water absorbent in the field of adsorption material. - Graphical abstract: Two inorganic-organic 3D network, namely {l_brace}[Ln(L){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O{r_brace}n [Ln=Y (1), Ce (2)], have been prepared under hydrothermal condition and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Both 1 and 2 exhibit 3D network structures with 2-fold interpenetration. Interestingly, the reversible desorption-adsorption behavior of lattice water is significantly observed in the two compounds. The result shows their potential application as late-model water absorbent in the field of adsorption material.

  2. Large Area 2D and 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals Fabricated by a Roll-to-Roll Langmuir-Blodgett Method.

    PubMed

    Parchine, Mikhail; McGrath, Joe; Bardosova, Maria; Pemble, Martyn E

    2016-06-14

    We present our results on the fabrication of large area colloidal photonic crystals on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using a roll-to-roll Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) colloidal photonic crystals from silica nanospheres (250 and 550 nm diameter) with a total area of up to 340 cm(2) have been fabricated in a continuous manner compatible with high volume manufacturing. In addition, the antireflective properties and structural integrity of the films have been enhanced via the use of a second roll-to-roll process, employing a slot-die coating of an optical adhesive over the photonic crystal films. Scanning electron microscopy images, atomic force microscopy images, and UV-vis optical transmission and reflection spectra of the fabricated photonic crystals are analyzed. This analysis confirms the high quality of the 2D and 3D photonic crystals fabricated by the roll-to-roll LB technique. Potential device applications of the large area 2D and 3D colloidal photonic crystals on flexible PET film are briefly reviewed. PMID:27218474

  3. Probing photon correlations in the dark sites of geometrically frustrated cavity lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casteels, W.; Rota, R.; Storme, F.; Ciuti, C.

    2016-04-01

    We explore theoretically the driven-dissipative physics of geometrically frustrated lattices of cavity resonators with relatively weak nonlinearities, i.e., a photon-photon interaction smaller than the loss rate. In such systems, photon modes with zero probability at dark sites are present at the single-particle level due to interference effects. In particular, we study the behavior of a cell with three coupled resonators as well as extended Lieb lattices in one and two dimensions. By considering a partial pumping scheme, with the driving field not applied to the dark sites, we predict that even in the presence of relatively weak photon-photon interactions the nominally dark sites achieve a finite photonic population with strong correlations. We show that this is a consequence of biphoton and multiphoton states that in the absence of frustration would not be visible in the observables.

  4. Apodized structures for the integration of defect sites into photonic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Boguslawski, Martin Kelberer, Andreas; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia

    2014-09-15

    We introduce a versatile concept to optically induce photonic structures of local refractive index modulations as well as photonic lattices holding single defect sites. For a given structure, we develop a set of nondiffracting beams obtained by fractionalizing the corresponding spatial spectrum. By combining this set in a multiplexing procedure, we achieve an incoherent combination of all individual structures of the set resulting in a locally addressable refractive index manipulation. We exemplarily present experimental results for apodized, meaning locally confined index changes in a photorefractive crystal resembling a sixfold and a circular symmetric structure. By an additional multiplexing step, we furthermore create periodic photonic lattices featuring embedded defects.

  5. Competing anisotropies on 3d sub-lattice of YNi{sub 4–x}Co{sub x}B compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Rocco, D. L.; Reis, M. S.; Caldeira, L.; Coelho, A. A.

    2014-08-14

    The magnetic anisotropy of 3d sub-lattices has an important rule on the overall magnetic properties of hard magnets. Intermetallics alloys with boron (R-Co/Ni-B, for instance) belong to those hard magnets family and are useful objects to help to understand the magnetic behavior of 3d sub-lattice, specially when the rare earth ions R do not have magnetic nature, like YCo{sub 4}B ferromagnetic material. Interestingly, YNi{sub 4}B is a paramagnetic material and Ni ions do not contribute to the magnetic anisotropy. We focused therefore our attention to YNi{sub 4–x}Co{sub x}B series, with x = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. The magnetic anisotropy of these compounds is deeper described using statistical and preferential models of Co occupation among the possible Wyckoff positions into the CeCo{sub 4}B type hexagonal structure. We found that the preferential model is the most suitable to explain the magnetization experimental data.

  6. Design and fabrication of two-dimensional deterministic aperiodic photonic lattices by optical induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebel, F.; Boguslawski, M.; Lučić, Nemanja M.; Jović Savić, Dragana M.; Denz, C.

    2015-03-01

    Light propagation in structured photonic media covers many fascinating wave phenomena resulting from the band structure of the underlying lattice. Recently, the focus turned towards deterministic aperiodic structures exhibiting distinctive band gap properties. To experimentally study these effects, optical induction of photonic refractive index landscapes turned out to be the method of choice to fabricate these structures. In this contribution, we present a paradigm change of photonic lattice design by introducing a holographic optical induction method based on pixel-like spatially multiplexed single-site nondiffracting Bessel beams. This technique allows realizing a huge class of two-dimensional photonic structures, including deterministic aperiodic golden-angle Vogel spirals, as well as Fibonacci lattices.

  7. Adjoint Monte Carlo method for prostate external photon beam treatment planning: an application to 3D patient anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Brian; Goldstein, Moshe; Xu, X. George; Sahoo, Narayan

    2005-03-01

    Recently, the theoretical framework of the adjoint Monte Carlo (AMC) method has been developed using a simplified patient geometry. In this study, we extended our previous work by applying the AMC framework to a 3D anatomical model called VIP-Man constructed from the Visible Human images. First, the adjoint fluxes for the prostate (PTV) and rectum and bladder (organs at risk (OARs)) were calculated on a spherical surface of 1 m radius, centred at the centre of gravity of PTV. An importance ratio, defined as the PTV dose divided by the weighted OAR doses, was calculated for each of the available beamlets to select the beam angles. Finally, the detailed doses in PTV and OAR were calculated using a forward Monte Carlo simulation to include the electron transport. The dose information was then used to generate dose volume histograms (DVHs). The Pinnacle treatment planning system was also used to generate DVHs for the 3D plans with beam angles obtained from the AMC (3D-AMC) and a standard six-field conformal radiation therapy plan (3D-CRT). Results show that the DVHs for prostate from 3D-AMC and the standard 3D-CRT are very similar, showing that both methods can deliver prescribed dose to the PTV. A substantial improvement in the DVHs for bladder and rectum was found for the 3D-AMC method in comparison to those obtained from 3D-CRT. However, the 3D-AMC plan is less conformal than the 3D-CRT plan because only bladder, rectum and PTV are considered for calculating the importance ratios. Nevertheless, this study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of the AMC in selecting the beam directions as a part of a treatment planning based on the anatomical information in a 3D and realistic patient anatomy.

  8. Breaking time-reversal symmetry in interacting photon lattices using a superconducting on-chip circulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jens; Houck, A. A.; Girvin, S. M.; Le Hur, Karyn

    2010-03-01

    Recently, theoretical studies have advertised EM resonator arrays, coherently coupled to artificial atoms (e.g., superconducting qubits) as a new venue for constructing quantum simulators for strongly correlated states of matter [1]. Here, we explore the possibilities of breaking time-reversal symmetry in such interacting photon systems by coupling transmission line resonators via a superconducting circuit. We demonstrate that, given an external magnetic field and a mechanism for breaking particle-hole symmetry, such a circuit can produce complex phases in the hopping amplitudes for photons. Finally, we address the prospects of this scheme for studying new quantum phase transitions in interacting photon systems, and the realization of novel 2D lattices for photons, such as the Kagome lattice. [4pt] [1] M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, and M. B. Plenio, Laser & Photonics Review 2, 527 (2008), and references therein.

  9. Large-area metallic photonic lattices for military applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, Ting Shan

    2007-11-01

    In this project we developed photonic crystal modeling capability and fabrication technology that is scaleable to large area. An intelligent optimization code was developed to find the optimal structure for the desired spectral response. In terms of fabrication, an exhaustive survey of fabrication techniques that would meet the large area requirement was reduced to Deep X-ray Lithography (DXRL) and nano-imprint. Using DXRL, we fabricated a gold logpile photonic crystal in the <100> plane. For the nano-imprint technique, we fabricated a cubic array of gold squares. These two examples also represent two classes of metallic photonic crystal topologies, the connected network and cermet arrangement.

  10. Controlled soliton formation in tailored Bessel photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Diebel, Falko; Boguslawski, Martin; Dadalyan, Tigran; Drampyan, Rafael; Denz, Cornelia

    2016-06-13

    Azimuthally modulated higher order rotationally symmetric Bessel-like optical patterns were generated by coherent superposition of two co-propagating Bessel beams - either in or out of phase. By changing the distance between the beam centers, a whole variety of transition states can be realized. As one prominent example, a 4-fold symmetry quadrupole-like photonic structure was optically inducted in an SBN crystal and nonlinear beam propagation in such a photonic wave-guiding structure is investigated in both self-focusing and self-defocusing regimes. The proposed device serves as an all-optical 2d 1 × 4 photonic interconnect. PMID:27410312

  11. Photon Devil's staircase: photon long-range repulsive interaction in lattices of coupled resonators with Rydberg atoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J-Q; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil's staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence. PMID:26108705

  12. Photon Devil’s staircase: photon long-range repulsive interaction in lattices of coupled resonators with Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J.-Q.; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2015-06-01

    The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil’s staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence.

  13. Photon Devil’s staircase: photon long-range repulsive interaction in lattices of coupled resonators with Rydberg atoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J.-Q.; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil’s staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence. PMID:26108705

  14. Characterization of dilute optical lattices using pump-probe spectroscopy and photon correlation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Ethan; Ross, Preston; Rapp, Anthony; Cai, Hong; Reigle, Alex; Schlonsky, Eli; Lee, Hoseong; Clemens, James; Bali, Samir

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally investigate optical lattices using three different methods: pump-probe spectroscopy of vibrational energy levels, photon correlation of light scattered by cold atoms, and fluorescence imaging. Photon correlations of the scattered light can be used to measure lattice dwell times and crossover times between lattice sites. From this information we can derive the diffusion constant which can then be compared to direct measurement via fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, by Fourier transforming the time delayed photon correlations we can obtain the intensity spectrum which can be compared directly to pump-probe spectroscopy of the vibrational energy levels. We plan to carefully study situations in which the atomic transport properties deviate from Boltzman Gibbs statistics.

  15. Bending light via adiabatic optical transition in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bin; Xu, Lei; Dou, Yiling; Xu, Jingjun; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-01-01

    Bending light in a controllable way is desired in various applications such as beam steering, navigating and cloaking. Different from the conventional way to bend light by refractive index gradient, transformation optics or special beams through wavefront design such as Airy beams and surface plasmons, we proposed a mechanism to bend light via resonant adiabatic optical transition between Floquet-Bloch (FB) modes from different FB bands in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices. The band structure of longitudinally modulated photonic lattices was calculated by employing the concept of quasi-energy based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, showing the existence of band discontinuities at specific resonant points which cannot be revealed by the coupled-mode theory. Interestingly, different FB bands can be seamlessly connected at these resonant points in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices driven by adiabatically varying the longitudinal modulation period along the propagation direction, which stimulates the adiabatic FB mode transition between different FB bands. PMID:26511890

  16. Optimization and Design of 2d Honeycomb Lattice Photonic Crystal Modulated by Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Caihong; Zheng, Jihong; Gui, Kun; Zhang, Menghua; Zhuang, Songlin

    2013-12-01

    Photonic crystals (PCs) with infiltrating liquid crystals (LCs) have many potential applications because of their ability to continuously modulate the band-gaps. Using the plane-wave expansion method (PWM), we simulate the band-gap distribution of 2D honeycomb lattice PC with different pillar structures (circle, hexagonal and square pillar) and with different filling ratios, considering both when the LC is used as filling pillar material and semiconductors (Si, Ge) are used in the substrate, and when the semiconductors (Si, Ge) are pillar material and the LC is the substrate. Results show that unlike LC-based triangle lattice PC, optimized honeycomb lattice PC has the ability to generate absolute photonic band-gaps for fabricating optical switches. We provide optimization parameters for LC infiltrating honeycomb lattice PC structure based on simulation results and analysis.

  17. Large-eddy simulations of 3D Taylor-Green vortex: comparison of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Volume methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajzer, A.; Pozorski, J.; Szewc, K.

    2014-08-01

    In the paper we present Large-eddy simulation (LES) results of 3D Taylor- Green vortex obtained by the three different computational approaches: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM). The Smagorinsky model was chosen as a subgrid-scale closure in LES for all considered methods and a selection of spatial resolutions have been investigated. The SPH and LBM computations have been carried out with the use of the in-house codes executed on GPU and compared, for validation purposes, with the FVM results obtained using the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. A comparative study in terms of one-point statistics and turbulent energy spectra shows a good agreement of LES results for all methods. An analysis of the GPU code efficiency and implementation difficulties has been made. It is shown that both SPH and LBM may offer a significant advantage over mesh-based CFD methods.

  18. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Shahram Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Jiarui Yu, Faxin

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  19. The Harper–Hofstadter Hamiltonian and conical diffraction in photonic lattices with grating assisted tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Dubček, Tena; Lelas, Karlo; Jukić, Dario; Pezer, Robert; Soljačić, Marin; Buljan, Hrvoje

    2015-12-07

    Here we propose the realization of a grating assisted tunneling scheme for tunable synthetic magnetic fields in optically induced one- and two-dimensional dielectric photonic lattices. As a signature of the synthetic magnetic fields, we demonstrate conical diffraction patterns in particular realization of these lattices, which possess Dirac points in k-space. Lastly, we compare the light propagation in these realistic (continuous) systems with the evolution in discrete models representing the Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian, and obtain excellent agreement.

  20. The Harper–Hofstadter Hamiltonian and conical diffraction in photonic lattices with grating assisted tunneling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dubček, Tena; Lelas, Karlo; Jukić, Dario; Pezer, Robert; Soljačić, Marin; Buljan, Hrvoje

    2015-12-01

    We propose the realization of a grating assisted tunneling scheme for tunable synthetic magnetic fields in optically induced one- and two-dimensional dielectric photonic lattices. As a signature of the synthetic magnetic fields, we demonstrate conical diffraction patterns in particular realization of these lattices, which possess Dirac points in k-space. We compare the light propagation in these realistic (continuous) systems with the evolution in discrete models representing the Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian, and obtain excellent agreement.

  1. Monitoring synaptic and neuronal activity in 3D with synthetic and genetic indicators using a compact acousto-optic lens two-photon microscope☆

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alfonso, Tomás; Nadella, K.M. Naga Srinivas; Iacaruso, M. Florencia; Pichler, Bruno; Roš, Hana; Kirkby, Paul A.; Silver, R. Angus

    2014-01-01

    Background Two-photon microscopy is widely used to study brain function, but conventional microscopes are too slow to capture the timing of neuronal signalling and imaging is restricted to one plane. Recent development of acousto-optic-deflector-based random access functional imaging has improved the temporal resolution, but the utility of these technologies for mapping 3D synaptic activity patterns and their performance at the excitation wavelengths required to image genetically encoded indicators have not been investigated. New method Here, we have used a compact acousto-optic lens (AOL) two-photon microscope to make high speed [Ca2+] measurements from spines and dendrites distributed in 3D with different excitation wavelengths (800–920 nm). Results We show simultaneous monitoring of activity from many synaptic inputs distributed over the 3D arborisation of a neuronal dendrite using both synthetic as well as genetically encoded indicators. We confirm the utility of AOL-based imaging for fast in vivo recordings by measuring, simultaneously, visually evoked responses in 100 neurons distributed over a 150 μm focal depth range. Moreover, we explore ways to improve the measurement of timing of neuronal activation by choosing specific regions within the cell soma. Comparison with existing methods These results establish that AOL-based 3D random access two-photon microscopy has a wider range of neuroscience applications than previously shown. Conclusions Our findings show that the compact AOL microscope design has the speed, spatial resolution, sensitivity and wavelength flexibility to measure 3D patterns of synaptic and neuronal activity on individual trials. PMID:24200507

  2. Optical cone beam tomography of Cherenkov-mediated signals for fast 3D dosimetry of x-ray photon beams in water

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Adam K. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Gladstone, David J.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To test the use of a three-dimensional (3D) optical cone beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm, for estimation of the imparted 3D dose distribution from megavoltage photon beams in a water tank for quality assurance, by imaging the induced Cherenkov-excited fluorescence (CEF). Methods: An intensified charge-coupled device coupled to a standard nontelecentric camera lens was used to tomographically acquire two-dimensional (2D) projection images of CEF from a complex multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 600 MU/min. The resulting projections were used to reconstruct the 3D CEF light distribution, a potential surrogate of imparted dose, using a Feldkamp–Davis–Kress cone beam back reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the reconstructed light distributions were compared to the expected dose values from one-dimensional diode scans, 2D film measurements, and the 3D distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system using a gamma index analysis. A Monte Carlo derived correction was applied to the Cherenkov reconstructions to account for beam hardening artifacts. Results: 3D light volumes were successfully reconstructed over a 400 × 400 × 350 mm{sup 3} volume at a resolution of 1 mm. The Cherenkov reconstructions showed agreement with all comparative methods and were also able to recover both inter- and intra-MLC leaf leakage. Based upon a 3%/3 mm criterion, the experimental Cherenkov light measurements showed an 83%–99% pass fraction depending on the chosen threshold dose. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the use of optical cone beam computed tomography using CEF for the profiling of the imparted dose distribution from large area megavoltage photon beams in water.

  3. Optical cone beam tomography of Cherenkov-mediated signals for fast 3D dosimetry of x-ray photon beams in water

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Adam K.; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the use of a three-dimensional (3D) optical cone beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm, for estimation of the imparted 3D dose distribution from megavoltage photon beams in a water tank for quality assurance, by imaging the induced Cherenkov-excited fluorescence (CEF). Methods: An intensified charge-coupled device coupled to a standard nontelecentric camera lens was used to tomographically acquire two-dimensional (2D) projection images of CEF from a complex multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 600 MU/min. The resulting projections were used to reconstruct the 3D CEF light distribution, a potential surrogate of imparted dose, using a Feldkamp–Davis–Kress cone beam back reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the reconstructed light distributions were compared to the expected dose values from one-dimensional diode scans, 2D film measurements, and the 3D distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system using a gamma index analysis. A Monte Carlo derived correction was applied to the Cherenkov reconstructions to account for beam hardening artifacts. Results: 3D light volumes were successfully reconstructed over a 400 × 400 × 350 mm3 volume at a resolution of 1 mm. The Cherenkov reconstructions showed agreement with all comparative methods and were also able to recover both inter- and intra-MLC leaf leakage. Based upon a 3%/3 mm criterion, the experimental Cherenkov light measurements showed an 83%–99% pass fraction depending on the chosen threshold dose. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the use of optical cone beam computed tomography using CEF for the profiling of the imparted dose distribution from large area megavoltage photon beams in water. PMID:26133613

  4. Coupled double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters with lattice-displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Shuai, Yichen; Zhao, Deyin; Singh Chadha, Arvinder; Zhou, Weidong; Seo, Jung-Hun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yang, Hongjun; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-12-09

    We present here ultra-compact high-Q Fano resonance filters with displaced lattices between two coupled photonic crystal slabs, fabricated with crystalline silicon nanomembrane transfer printing and aligned e-beam lithography techniques. Theoretically, with the control of lattice displacement between two coupled photonic crystal slabs layers, optical filter Q factors can approach 211 000 000 for the design considered here. Experimentally, Q factors up to 80 000 have been demonstrated for a filter design with target Q factor of 130 000.

  5. Tunable subwavelength photonic lattices and solitons in periodically patterned graphene monolayer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changming; Ye, Fangwei; Sun, Zhipei; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-12-01

    We study linear and nonlinear mode properties in a periodically patterned graphene sheet. We demonstrate that a subwavelength one-dimensional photonic lattice can be defined across the graphene monolayer, with its modulation depth and correspondingly the associated photonic band structures being controlled rapidly, by an external gate voltage. We find the existences of graphene lattice solitons at the deep-subwavelength scales in both dimensions, thanks to the combination of graphene intrinsic self-focusing nonlinearity and the graphene plasmonic confinement effects. PMID:25606939

  6. Experimental realization of Bloch oscillations in a parity-time synthetic silicon photonic lattice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye-Long; Fegadolli, William S.; Gan, Lin; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Scherer, Axel; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    As an important electron transportation phenomenon, Bloch oscillations have been extensively studied in condensed matter. Due to the similarity in wave properties between electrons and other quantum particles, Bloch oscillations have been observed in atom lattices, photonic lattices, and so on. One of the many distinct advantages for choosing these systems over the regular electronic systems is the versatility in engineering artificial potentials. Here by utilizing dissipative elements in a CMOS-compatible photonic platform to create a periodic complex potential and by exploiting the emerging concept of parity-time synthetic photonics, we experimentally realize spatial Bloch oscillations in a non-Hermitian photonic system on a chip level. Our demonstration may have significant impact in the field of quantum simulation by following the recent trend of moving complicated table-top quantum optics experiments onto the fully integrated CMOS-compatible silicon platform. PMID:27095533

  7. Experimental realization of Bloch oscillations in a parity-time synthetic silicon photonic lattice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye-Long; Fegadolli, William S; Gan, Lin; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Scherer, Axel; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    As an important electron transportation phenomenon, Bloch oscillations have been extensively studied in condensed matter. Due to the similarity in wave properties between electrons and other quantum particles, Bloch oscillations have been observed in atom lattices, photonic lattices, and so on. One of the many distinct advantages for choosing these systems over the regular electronic systems is the versatility in engineering artificial potentials. Here by utilizing dissipative elements in a CMOS-compatible photonic platform to create a periodic complex potential and by exploiting the emerging concept of parity-time synthetic photonics, we experimentally realize spatial Bloch oscillations in a non-Hermitian photonic system on a chip level. Our demonstration may have significant impact in the field of quantum simulation by following the recent trend of moving complicated table-top quantum optics experiments onto the fully integrated CMOS-compatible silicon platform. PMID:27095533

  8. Experimental realization of Bloch oscillations in a parity-time synthetic silicon photonic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye-Long; Fegadolli, William S.; Gan, Lin; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Scherer, Axel; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-04-01

    As an important electron transportation phenomenon, Bloch oscillations have been extensively studied in condensed matter. Due to the similarity in wave properties between electrons and other quantum particles, Bloch oscillations have been observed in atom lattices, photonic lattices, and so on. One of the many distinct advantages for choosing these systems over the regular electronic systems is the versatility in engineering artificial potentials. Here by utilizing dissipative elements in a CMOS-compatible photonic platform to create a periodic complex potential and by exploiting the emerging concept of parity-time synthetic photonics, we experimentally realize spatial Bloch oscillations in a non-Hermitian photonic system on a chip level. Our demonstration may have significant impact in the field of quantum simulation by following the recent trend of moving complicated table-top quantum optics experiments onto the fully integrated CMOS-compatible silicon platform.

  9. Metal-nanoshelled three-dimensional photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Koshiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Kawata, Satoshi; Xia, Hong; Song, Jun-Feng; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2008-09-01

    Micronanostructures prepared by two-photon photopolymerization are utilized as templates for electroless plating of metals, giving rise to an approach for fabricating complex-shaped metal micronanostructures that are so far not achievable by other means. We show that when the coated-layer thickness of a metal coating is larger than a critical value (around 20 nm for silver at 2-3 microm wavelength) associated with the metal's skin depth, the photonic crystals exhibit optical properties more comparable to a solid metal structure than to their polymer counterparts. PMID:18758591

  10. Final LDRD report : enhanced spontaneous emission rate in visible III-nitride LEDs using 3D photonic crystal cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Arthur Joseph; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Coley, Anthony J.; Lee, Yun-Ju; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Luk, Ting Shan; Koleske, Daniel David; Fullmer, Kristine Wanta

    2009-09-01

    The fundamental spontaneous emission rate for a photon source can be modified by placing the emitter inside a periodic dielectric structure allowing the emission to be dramatically enhanced or suppressed depending on the intended application. We have investigated the relatively unexplored realm of interaction between semiconductor emitters and three dimensional photonic crystals in the visible spectrum. Although this interaction has been investigated at longer wavelengths, very little work has been done in the visible spectrum. During the course of this LDRD, we have fabricated TiO{sub 2} logpile photonic crystal structures with the shortest wavelength band gap ever demonstrated. A variety of different emitters with emission between 365 nm and 700 nm were incorporated into photonic crystal structures. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were performed to measure changes to the spontaneous emission rate. Both enhanced and suppressed emission were demonstrated and attributed to changes to the photonic density of states.

  11. Jigsaw phase III: a miniaturized airborne 3-D imaging laser radar with photon-counting sensitivity for foliage penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Mohan; Blask, Steven; Higgins, Thomas; Clifton, William; Davidsohn, Daniel; Carson, Ryan; Reynolds, Van; Pfannenstiel, Joanne; Cannata, Richard; Marino, Richard; Drover, John; Hatch, Robert; Schue, David; Freehart, Robert; Rowe, Greg; Mooney, James; Hart, Carl; Stanley, Byron; McLaughlin, Joseph; Lee, Eui-In; Berenholtz, Jack; Aull, Brian; Zayhowski, John; Vasile, Alex; Ramaswami, Prem; Ingersoll, Kevin; Amoruso, Thomas; Khan, Imran; Davis, William; Heinrichs, Richard

    2007-04-01

    Jigsaw three-dimensional (3D) imaging laser radar is a compact, light-weight system for imaging highly obscured targets through dense foliage semi-autonomously from an unmanned aircraft. The Jigsaw system uses a gimbaled sensor operating in a spot light mode to laser illuminate a cued target, and autonomously capture and produce the 3D image of hidden targets under trees at high 3D voxel resolution. With our MIT Lincoln Laboratory team members, the sensor system has been integrated into a geo-referenced 12-inch gimbal, and used in airborne data collections from a UH-1 manned helicopter, which served as a surrogate platform for the purpose of data collection and system validation. In this paper, we discuss the results from the ground integration and testing of the system, and the results from UH-1 flight data collections. We also discuss the performance results of the system obtained using ladar calibration targets.

  12. Persistent random walk on a site-disordered one-dimensional lattice: Photon subdiffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mirfaez; Sadjadi, Zeinab; Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim

    2006-03-01

    We study the persistent random walk of photons on a one-dimensional lattice of random transmittances. Transmittances at different sites are assumed independent, distributed according to a given probability density f(t) . Depending on the behavior of f(t) near t=0 , diffusive and subdiffusive transports are predicted by the disorder expansion of the mean square-displacement and the effective medium approximation. Monte Carlo simulations confirm the anomalous diffusion of photons. To observe photon subdiffusion experimentally, we suggest a dielectric film stack for realization of a distribution f(t) .

  13. Anderson localization and Brewster anomalies in photonic disordered quasiperiodic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes-Gomez, E.; Bruno-Alfonso, A.; Cavalcanti, S. B.; Oliveira, L. E.

    2011-09-15

    A comprehensive study of the properties of light propagation through one-dimensional photonic disordered quasiperiodic superlattices, composed of alternating layers with random thicknesses of air and a dispersive metamaterial, is theoretically performed. The superlattices consist of the successive stacking of N quasiperiodic Fibonacci or Thue-Morse heterostructures. The width of the slabs in the photonic superlattice may randomly fluctuate around its mean value, which introduces a structural disorder into the system. It is assumed that the left-handed layers have a Drude-type dispersive response for both the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability, and Maxwell's equations are solved for oblique incidence by using the transfer-matrix formalism. The influence of both quasiperiodicity and structural disorder on the localization length and Brewster anomalies are thoroughly discussed.

  14. Light trapping at Dirac point in 2D triangular Archimedean-like lattice photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qiuping; Xie, Kang; Hu, Lei; Li, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Wang, Erlei

    2016-04-20

    Optical cavities and waveguides are critical parts of modern optical devices. Traditionally, optical cavities and waveguides rely on photonic bandgaps, or total internal reflection, to achieve light trapping. It has been reported that a novel light trapping, which exists in triangular and honeycomb lattices, is attributed to the so-called Dirac point. Our analysis reveals that 2D triangular Archimedean-like lattice photonic crystals also can support this Dirac mode with similar characteristics. This is a new type of localized mode with a different algebraic field profile at a different specified Dirac frequency, which is also beyond any complete photonic bandgap. The new wave localization has different features and can be applied to the design of new optical devices. PMID:27140119

  15. Volumetric modulated arc planning for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using conventional and unflattened photon beams: a dosimetric comparison with 3D technique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Frequently, three-dimensional (3D) conformal beams are used in lung cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Recently, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was introduced as a new treatment modality. VMAT techniques shorten delivery time, reducing the possibility of intrafraction target motion. However dose distributions can be quite different from standard 3D therapy. This study quantifies those differences, with focus on VMAT plans using unflattened photon beams. Methods A total of 15 lung cancer patients previously treated with 3D or VMAT SBRT were randomly selected. For each patient, non-coplanar 3D, coplanar and non-coplanar VMAT and flattening filter free VMAT (FFF-VMAT) plans were generated to meet the same objectives with 50 Gy covering 95% of the PTV. Two dynamic arcs were used in each VMAT plan. The couch was set at ± 5° to the 0° straight position for the two non-coplanar arcs. Pinnacle version 9.0 (Philips Radiation Oncology, Fitchburg WI) treatment planning system with VMAT capabilities was used. We analyzed the conformity index (CI), which is the ratio of the total volume receiving at least the prescription dose to the target volume receiving at least the prescription dose; the conformity number (CN) which is the ratio of the target coverage to CI; and the gradient index (GI) which is the ratio of the volume of 50% of the prescription isodose to the volume of the prescription isodose; as well as the V20, V5, and mean lung dose (MLD). Paired non-parametric analysis of variance tests with post-tests were performed to examine the statistical significance of the differences of the dosimetric indices. Results Dosimetric indices CI, CN and MLD all show statistically significant improvement for all studied VMAT techniques compared with 3D plans (p < 0.05). V5 and V20 show statistically significant improvement for the FFF-VMAT plans compared with 3D (p < 0.001). GI is improved for the FFF-VMAT and the non-coplanar VMAT plans (p < 0.01 and p

  16. 3D-resolved fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetime imaging using temporal focusing wide-field two-photon excitation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejin; Tzeranis, Dimitrios S.; Cha, Jae Won; Clémenceau, Philippe; de Jong, Sander J. G.; van Geest, Lambertus K.; Moon, Joong Ho; Yannas, Ioannis V.; So, Peter T. C.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetime imaging are powerful techniques for studying intracellular protein interactions and for diagnosing tissue pathophysiology. While lifetime-resolved microscopy has long been in the repertoire of the biophotonics community, current implementations fall short in terms of simultaneously providing 3D resolution, high throughput, and good tissue penetration. This report describes a new highly efficient lifetime-resolved imaging method that combines temporal focusing wide-field multiphoton excitation and simultaneous acquisition of lifetime information in frequency domain using a nanosecond gated imager from a 3D-resolved plane. This approach is scalable allowing fast volumetric imaging limited only by the available laser peak power. The accuracy and performance of the proposed method is demonstrated in several imaging studies important for understanding peripheral nerve regeneration processes. Most importantly, the parallelism of this approach may enhance the imaging speed of long lifetime processes such as phosphorescence by several orders of magnitude. PMID:23187477

  17. Modeling of mass and charge transport in a solid oxide fuel cell anode structure by a 3D lattice Boltzmann approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Hedvig; Andersson, Martin; Sundén, Bengt

    2015-09-01

    A 3D model at microscale by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed for part of an anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to analyze the interaction between the transport and reaction processes and structural parameters. The equations of charge, momentum, heat and mass transport are simulated in the model. The modeling geometry is created with randomly placed spheres to resemble the part of the anode structure close to the electrolyte. The electrochemical reaction processes are captured at specific sites where spheres representing Ni and YSZ materials are present with void space. This work focuses on analyzing the effect of structural parameters such as porosity, and percentage of active reaction sites on the ionic current density and concentration of H2 using LBM. It is shown that LBM can be used to simulate an SOFC anode at microscale and evaluate the effect of structural parameters on the transport processes to improve the performance of the SOFC anode. It was found that increasing the porosity from 30 to 50 % decreased the ionic current density due to a reduction in the number of reaction sites. Also the consumption of H2 decreased with increasing porosity. When the percentage of active reaction sites was increased while the porosity was kept constant, the ionic current density increased. However, the H2 concentration was slightly reduced when the percentage of active reaction sites was increased. The gas flow tortuosity decreased with increasing porosity.

  18. Modeling of mass and charge transport in a solid oxide fuel cell anode structure by a 3D lattice Boltzmann approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Hedvig; Andersson, Martin; Sundén, Bengt

    2016-08-01

    A 3D model at microscale by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed for part of an anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to analyze the interaction between the transport and reaction processes and structural parameters. The equations of charge, momentum, heat and mass transport are simulated in the model. The modeling geometry is created with randomly placed spheres to resemble the part of the anode structure close to the electrolyte. The electrochemical reaction processes are captured at specific sites where spheres representing Ni and YSZ materials are present with void space. This work focuses on analyzing the effect of structural parameters such as porosity, and percentage of active reaction sites on the ionic current density and concentration of H2 using LBM. It is shown that LBM can be used to simulate an SOFC anode at microscale and evaluate the effect of structural parameters on the transport processes to improve the performance of the SOFC anode. It was found that increasing the porosity from 30 to 50 % decreased the ionic current density due to a reduction in the number of reaction sites. Also the consumption of H2 decreased with increasing porosity. When the percentage of active reaction sites was increased while the porosity was kept constant, the ionic current density increased. However, the H2 concentration was slightly reduced when the percentage of active reaction sites was increased. The gas flow tortuosity decreased with increasing porosity.

  19. Fabrication of PDMS (poly-dimethyl siloxane) molding and 3D structure by two-photon absorption induced by an ultrafast laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Shin Wook; Lee, Seong Ku; Cho, Mi Jung; Kong, Hong Jin; Yang, Dong-Yol; Park, Sang-hu; Lim, Tae-woo; Kim, Ran Hee; Lee, Kwang-Sup

    2004-12-01

    Multi-photon absorption phenomena induced by ultra fast laser have been considered for many applications of microfabrications such as metal ablation, glass etching and photopolymerization. Among the applications, the photopolymerization by two-photon absorption (TPA) has been regarded as a new microfabricating method. It is possible to be used in photo mask correcting, diffractive optical element and micro machining. The TPA photopolymerization is made possible to fabricate a complicated three dimensional structure which the conventional photomask technology has not been able to make. Furthermore the TPA photopolymerization process applied to a two dimensional structure fabrication may take shorter time than the old process since the absence of etching and deposition processes. Recently we have made a simple 3D structure and applied the technique to PDMS(poly-dimethyl siloxane) molding.

  20. Non-reciprocal transmission in photonic lattices based on unidirectional coherent perfect absorption.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    A method for realizing asymmetric (one-way) transmission of discretized light in modulated, linear, and purely passive optical lattices is suggested, which exploits the idea of unidirectional coherent perfect absorption. The system consists of a linear photonic lattice of coupled resonators or waveguides, side coupled to a chain of lossy elements, in which light can avoid the occupation of the dissipative sites when propagating in one way, but not in the opposite one. Non-reciprocity requires modulation of the resonator/waveguide parameters, realizing a dissipative optical Aharonov-Bohm diode with non-reciprocal behavior. PMID:25831312

  1. Bragg resonances and Zener tunneling in quasiperiodic two-dimensional optical lattices and photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shchesnovich, Valery S.

    2007-09-15

    Nonresonant Zener tunneling in decagonal quasiperiodic structures in two spatial dimensions is defined by its relation to Bragg resonance and is studied by direct numerical simulations and an analytical approach. It is shown that, in the shallow lattice limit, the tunneling dynamics about the Bragg resonances is described by the multilevel Landau-Zener-Majorana models, which capture the essential peaks of the complicated Fourier spectrum. The results have applications to dynamics of cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates in quasiperiodic optical lattices, light propagation in quasiperiodic photonic crystals, and ultrasonic experiments with quasiperiodic structures.

  2. Nano-spatial parameters from 3D to 2D lattice dimensionality by organic variant in [ZnCl4]- [R]+ hybrid materials: Structure, architecture-lattice dimensionality, microscopy, optical Eg and PL correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.

  3. Resonant tunneling effect in one-dimensional twinned lattice photonic crystal under total reflection conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi; Li, Hu; Yuxia, Tang

    2016-07-01

    Under total reflection conditions, it typically seems as though light waves will be reflected completely on the interface; in actuality, the waves can penetrate the medium as evanescent waves. In this paper, we present a twinned lattice photonic crystal with a unit cell composed of AB layers and their mirror. We assume that the refractive index n 0 of the input and output end is equal to n B and larger than n A . We first demonstrate the dependence of band structure on the incidence angle and normalized wavelength, in which the resonant tunneling bands are exposed. We then draw a comparison of bands between ABBA and AB. To conclude, we discuss the resonant tunneling effect in the twinned lattice photonic crystal under the total reflection conditions. As incidence angle increases, the resonant tunneling band ultimately vanishes completely.

  4. Photonic phase transition in circuit quantum electrodynamics lattices coupled to superconducting phase qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, YiMin; Jin, WuYin; You, JiaBin

    2014-11-01

    A hybrid quantum architecture was proposed to engineer a localization-delocalization phase transition of light in a two-dimension square lattices of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators, which are interconnected by current-biased Josephson junction phase qubits. We find that the competition between the on-site repulsion and the nonlocal photonic hopping leads to the Mott insulator-superfluid transition. By using the mean-field approach and the quantum master equation, the phase boundary between these two different phases could be obtained when the dissipative effects of superconducting resonators and phase qubit are considered. The good tunability of the effective on-site repulsion and photon-hopping strengths enable quantum simulation on condensed matter physics and many-body models using such a superconducting resonator lattice system. The experimental feasibility is discussed using the currently available technology in the circuit QED.

  5. ESRF-type lattice design and optimization for the High Energy Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Jiao, Yi; Peng, Yue-Mei

    2016-02-01

    A new generation of storage ring-based light sources, called diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), with emittance approaching the diffraction limit for multi-keV photons by means of multi-bend achromat lattices, has attracted extensive studies worldwide. Among various DLSR proposals, the hybrid multi-bend achromat concept developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) predicts an effective way of minimizing the emittance while keeping the required chromatic sextupole strengths to an achievable level. For the High Energy Photon Source planned to be built in Beijing, an ESRF-type lattice design consisting of 48 hybrid seven-bend achromats is proposed to reach emittance as low as 60 pm·rad with a circumference of about 1296 m. Sufficient dynamic aperture, allowing vertical on-axis injection, and moderate momentum acceptance are achieved simultaneously for a promising ring performance. Supported by NSFC (11475202, 11405187) and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (2015009)

  6. Functional outcome of patients with benign meningioma treated by 3D conformal irradiation with a combination of photons and protons

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Georges . E-mail: noel@ipno.in2p3.fr; Bollet, Marc A.; Calugaru, Valentin; Feuvret, Loic; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dhermain, Frederic; Ferrand, Regis; Boisserie, Gilbert; Beaudre, Anne; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Habrand, Jean-Louis

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate efficacy and tolerance of external fractionated combination of photon and proton radiation therapy (RT) for intracranial benign meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2002, 51 patients with intracranial meningiomas of the base of the skull were treated with a combination of photon and proton RT. Median total dose was 60.6 cobalt Gy equivalent (54-64). One hundred eight eye-related symptoms were collected; 80 other symptoms were noted and followed up. Results: Mean follow-up was 25.4 months. Acute tolerance was excellent. Out of the 108 eye-related symptoms, 106 (96%) were evaluated. Improvements were reported for 73 (68.8%) of them. Out of the 88 other miscellaneous symptoms, 81 (92%) were evaluated. Improvements were reported in 54 cases (67%). Median time to improvement ranged from 1 to 24 months after completion of the radiotherapy, depending on the symptom. We did not observe any worsening of primary clinical signs. Radiologically, 1 patient relapsed 4 months after the end of irradiation. Pathology revealed a malignant (Grade 3) transformation of the initial Grade 1 meningioma. Four-year local control and overall survival rates were, respectively, 98% and 100%. Stabilization of the tumor was observed in 38 cases (72%), volume reduction in 10 cases (20%), and intratumor necrosis in 3 cases. Two patients complained of Grade 3 side effects: 1 unilateral hearing loss requiring aid and 1 case of complete pituitary deficiency. Conclusion: These results stressed the clinical efficacy of fractionated-associated photon-proton RT in the treatment of meningiomas, especially on cranial nerve palsies, without severe toxicity in almost all patients.

  7. Aharonov-Bohm photonic cages in waveguide and coupled resonator lattices by synthetic magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Stefano

    2014-10-15

    We suggest a method for trapping photons in quasi-one-dimensional waveguide or coupled-resonator lattices, which is based on an optical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm cages for charged particles. Light trapping results from a destructive interference of Aharonov-Bohm type induced by a synthetic magnetic field, which is realized by periodic modulation of the waveguide/resonator propagation constants/resonances. PMID:25361112

  8. Anomalous Fluorescence Enhancement from Double Heterostructure 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals–A Multifunctional Fluorescence-Based Sensor Platform

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Kim, Tak H.; Gan, Zongsong; Cole, Ivan S.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Kielpinski, Dave; Gu, Min; Li, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Augmenting fluorescence intensity is of vital importance to the development of chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and miniature light sources. Here we report an unprecedented fluorescence enhancement with a novel architecture of multilayer three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals self-assembled from polystyrene spheres. The new technique uses a double heterostructure, which comprises a top and a bottom layer with a periodicity overlapping the excitation wavelength (E) of the emitters, and a middle layer with a periodicity matching the fluorescence wavelength (F) and a thickness that supports constructive interference for the excitation wavelength. This E-F-E double heterostructure displays direction-dependent light trapping for both excitation and fluorescence, coupling the modes of photonic crystal with multiple-beam interference. The E-F-E double heterostructure renders an additional 5-fold enhancement to the extraordinary FL amplification of Rhodamine B in monolithic E CPhCs, and 4.3-fold acceleration of emission dynamics. Such a self-assembled double heterostructue CPhCs may find significant applications in illumination, laser, chemical/biochemical sensing, and solar energy harvesting. We further demonstrate the multi-functionality of the E-F-E double heterostructure CPhCs in Hg (II) sensing. PMID:26400503

  9. A classical simulation of nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings and Rabi models in photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lara, B M; Soto-Eguibar, Francisco; Cárdenas, Alejandro Zárate; Moya-Cessa, H M

    2013-05-20

    The interaction of a two-level atom with a single-mode quantized field is one of the simplest models in quantum optics. Under the rotating wave approximation, it is known as the Jaynes-Cummings model and without it as the Rabi model. Real-world realizations of the Jaynes-Cummings model include cavity, ion trap and circuit quantum electrodynamics. The Rabi model can be realized in circuit quantum electrodynamics. As soon as nonlinear couplings are introduced, feasible experimental realizations in quantum systems are drastically reduced. We propose a set of two photonic lattices that classically simulates the interaction of a single two-level system with a quantized field under field nonlinearities and nonlinear couplings as long as the quantum optics model conserves parity. We describe how to reconstruct the mean value of quantum optics measurements, such as photon number and atomic energy excitation, from the intensity and from the field, such as von Neumann entropy and fidelity, at the output of the photonic lattices. We discuss how typical initial states involving coherent or displaced Fock fields can be engineered from recently discussed Glauber-Fock lattices. As an example, the Buck-Sukumar model, where the coupling depends on the intensity of the field, is classically simulated for separable and entangled initial states. PMID:23736508

  10. TART98 a coupled neutron-photon 3-D, combinatorial geometry time dependent Monte Carlo Transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E

    1998-11-22

    TART98 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo radiation transport code. This code can run on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART98 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART98 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on-line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART98 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART98 and its data files.

  11. Massive photons: An infrared regularization scheme for lattice QCD+QED

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Endres, Michael G.; Shindler, Andrea; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2016-08-10

    The commonly adopted approach for including electromagnetic interactions in lattice QCD simulations relies on using finite volume as the infrared regularization for QED. The long-range nature of the electromagnetic interaction, however, implies that physical quantities are susceptible to power-law finite volume corrections, which must be removed by performing costly simulations at multiple lattice volumes, followed by an extrapolation to the infinite volume limit. In this work, we introduce a photon mass as an alternative means for gaining control over infrared effects associated with electromagnetic interactions. We present findings for hadron mass shifts due to electromagnetic interactions (i.e., for the proton,more » neutron, charged and neutral kaon) and corresponding mass splittings, and compare the results with those obtained from conventional QCD+QED calculations. Results are reported for numerical studies of three flavor electroquenched QCD using ensembles corresponding to 800 MeV pions, ensuring that the only appreciable volume corrections arise from QED effects. The calculations are performed with three lattice volumes with spatial extents ranging from 3.4 - 6.7 fm. As a result, we find that for equal computing time (not including the generation of the lattice configurations), the electromagnetic mass shifts can be extracted from computations on a single (our smallest) lattice volume with comparable or better precision than the conventional approach.« less

  12. Full-vectorial finite element method based eigenvalue algorithm for the analysis of 2D photonic crystals with arbitrary 3D anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sen-Ming; Chang, Hung-Chun

    2007-11-26

    A full-vectorial finite element method based eigenvalue algorithm is developed to analyze the band structures of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PCs) with arbitray 3D anisotropy for in-planewave propagations, in which the simple transverse-electric (TE) or transverse-magnetic (TM) modes may not be clearly defined. By taking all the field components into consideration simultaneously without decoupling of the wave modes in 2D PCs into TE and TM modes, a full-vectorial matrix eigenvalue equation, with the square of the wavenumber as the eigenvalue, is derived. We examine the convergence behaviors of this algorithm and analyze 2D PCs with arbitrary anisotropy using this algorithm to demonstrate its correctness and usefulness by explaining the numerical results theoretically. PMID:19550864

  13. PEPX-type lattice design and optimization for the High Energy Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yi; Xu, Gang

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of storage ring-based light sources, called diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSR), with emittance approaching the diffraction limit for multi-keV photons by using multi-bend achromat lattice, has attracted worldwide and extensive studies of several laboratories, and been seriously considered as a means of upgrading existing facilities in the imminent future. Among various DLSR proposals, the PEPX design demonstrated that it is feasible to achieve sufficient ring acceptance for off-axis injection in a DLSR, by designing the lattice based on the ‘third-order achromat’ concept and with a special high-beta injection section. For the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS) planned to be built in Beijing, a PEPX-type lattice has been designed and continuously improved. In this paper, we report the evolution of the PEPX-type design for HEPS, and discuss the main issues relevant to the linear optics design and nonlinear optimization. Supported by NSFC (11475202, 11405187) and Youth Innovation Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2015009)

  14. Tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Qiao, Wen; Wan, Wenqiang; Liu, Yanhua; Ye, Yan; Wu, Shaolong; Chen, Linsen

    2016-08-01

    A continuously tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal cavity is demonstrated. The triangular-lattice resonator was initially fabricated through multiple interference exposure and was then replicated into a low refractive index polymer via UV-nanoimprinting. The blend of a blue-emitting conjugated polymer and a red-emitting one was used as the gain medium. Three periods in the scalene triangular-lattice structure yield stable tri-wavelength laser emission (625.5 nm, 617.4 nm and 614.3 nm) in six different directions. A uniformly aligned liquid crystal (LC) layer was incorporated into the cavity as the top cladding layer. Upon heating, the orientation of LC molecules and thus the effective refractive index of the lasing mode changes which continuously shifts the lasing wavelength. A maximum tuning range of 12.2 nm was observed for the lasing mode at 625.5 nm. This tunable tri-wavelength polymer laser is simple constructed and cost-effective. It may find application in the fields of biosensors and photonic integrated circuits.

  15. Multi-scale 3D X-ray Imaging Capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source - Current status and future direction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Xiao, X.; Khan, F.; Glowacki, A.; Schwarz, N.; Jacobsen, C.

    2013-12-01

    In x-ray computed μ-tomography (μ-XCT), a thin scintillator screen is coupled to a visible light lens and camera system to obtain micrometer-scale transmission imaging of specimens as large as a few millimeters. Recent advances in detector technology allow collecting these images at unprecedented frame rates. For a high x-ray flux density synchrotron facility like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the detector exposure time ranges from hundreds of milliseconds to hundreds of picoseconds, making possible to acquire a full 3D micrometer-resolution dataset in less than one second. The micron resolution limitation of parallel x-ray beam projection systems can be overcame by Transmission X-ray Microscopes (TXM) where part of the image magnification is done in x-ray regime using x-ray optics like capillary condensers and Fresnel zone plates. These systems, when installed on a synchrotron x-ray source, can generate 2D images with up to 20 nm resolution with second exposure time and collect a full 3D nano-resolution dataset in few minutes. μ-XCT and TXM systems available at the x-ray imaging beamlines of the APS are routinely used in material science and geoscience applications where high-resolution and fast 3D imaging are instrumental in extracting in situ four-dimensional dynamic information. In this presentation we describe the computational challenges associated with μ-XCT and TXM systems and present the framework and infrastructure developed at the APS to allow for routine multi-scale data integration between the two systems.

  16. Multi-scale 3D X-ray Imaging Capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source - Current status and future direction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Xiao, X.; Khan, F.; Glowacki, A.; Schwarz, N.; Jacobsen, C.

    2011-12-01

    In x-ray computed μ-tomography (μ-XCT), a thin scintillator screen is coupled to a visible light lens and camera system to obtain micrometer-scale transmission imaging of specimens as large as a few millimeters. Recent advances in detector technology allow collecting these images at unprecedented frame rates. For a high x-ray flux density synchrotron facility like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the detector exposure time ranges from hundreds of milliseconds to hundreds of picoseconds, making possible to acquire a full 3D micrometer-resolution dataset in less than one second. The micron resolution limitation of parallel x-ray beam projection systems can be overcame by Transmission X-ray Microscopes (TXM) where part of the image magnification is done in x-ray regime using x-ray optics like capillary condensers and Fresnel zone plates. These systems, when installed on a synchrotron x-ray source, can generate 2D images with up to 20 nm resolution with second exposure time and collect a full 3D nano-resolution dataset in few minutes. μ-XCT and TXM systems available at the x-ray imaging beamlines of the APS are routinely used in material science and geoscience applications where high-resolution and fast 3D imaging are instrumental in extracting in situ four-dimensional dynamic information. In this presentation we describe the computational challenges associated with μ-XCT and TXM systems and present the framework and infrastructure developed at the APS to allow for routine multi-scale data integration between the two systems.

  17. Imaging and Radiography with Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and Effective-Z (EZ-3D) Determination; SNM Detection Using Prompt Neutrons from Photon Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bertozzi, William; Hasty, Richard; Klimenko, Alexei; Korbly, Stephen E.; Ledoux, Robert J.; Park, William

    2009-03-10

    Four new technologies have been developed for use in non-intrusive inspection systems to detect nuclear materials, explosives and contraband. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) provides a three dimensional image of the isotopic content of a container. NRF determines the isotopic composition of a region and specifies the isotopic structure of the neighboring regions, thus providing the detailed isotopic composition of any threat. In transmission mode, NRF provides a two dimensional projection of the isotopic content of a container, much as standard X-ray radiography provides for density. The effective-Z method (EZ-3D) uses electromagnetic scattering processes to yield a three-dimensional map of the effective-Z and the density in a container. The EZ-3D method allows for a rapid discrimination based on effective Z and mass of materials such as those with high Z, as well as specifying regions of interest for other contraband. The energy spectrum of prompt neutrons from photon induced fission (PNPF) provides a unique identification of the presence of actinides and SNM. These four new technologies can be used independently or together to automatically determine the presence of hazardous materials or contraband. They can also be combined with other technologies to provide added specificity.

  18. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in 3-D Zr-Si organic-inorganic scaffolds produced by two-photon polymerization technique.

    PubMed

    Koroleva, Anastasia; Deiwick, Andrea; Nguyen, Alexander; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Narayan, Roger; Timashev, Peter; Popov, Vladimir; Bagratashvili, Viktor; Chichkov, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is applied for the fabrication of 3-D Zr-Si scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Zr-Si scaffolds with 150, 200, and 250 μm pore sizes are seeded with human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) and human adipose tissue derived stem cells (hASCs) and cultured in osteoinductive and control media for three weeks. Osteogenic differentiation of hASCs and hBMSCs and formation of bone matrix is comparatively analyzed via alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), calcium quantification, osteocalcin staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is observed that the 150 μm pore size Zr-Si scaffolds support the strongest matrix mineralization, as confirmed by calcium deposition. Analysis of ALP activity, osteocalcin staining and SEM observations of matrix mineralization reveal that mesenchymal stem cells cultured on 3-D scaffolds without osteogenic stimulation spontaneously differentiate towards osteogenic lineage. Nanoindentation measurements show that aging of the 2PP-produced Zr-Si scaffolds in aqueous or alcohol media results in an increase in the scaffold Young's modulus and hardness. Moreover, accelerated formation of bone matrix by hASCs is noted, when cultured on the scaffolds with lower Young's moduli and hardness values (non aged scaffolds) compared to the cells cultured on scaffolds with higher Young's modulus and hardness values (aged scaffolds). Presented results support the potential application of Zr-Si scaffolds for autologous bone tissue engineering. PMID:25706270

  19. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 3-D Zr-Si Organic-Inorganic Scaffolds Produced by Two-Photon Polymerization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Koroleva, Anastasia; Deiwick, Andrea; Nguyen, Alexander; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Narayan, Roger; Timashev, Peter; Popov, Vladimir; Bagratashvili, Viktor; Chichkov, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is applied for the fabrication of 3-D Zr-Si scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Zr-Si scaffolds with 150, 200, and 250 μm pore sizes are seeded with human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) and human adipose tissue derived stem cells (hASCs) and cultured in osteoinductive and control media for three weeks. Osteogenic differentiation of hASCs and hBMSCs and formation of bone matrix is comparatively analyzed via alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), calcium quantification, osteocalcin staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is observed that the 150 μm pore size Zr-Si scaffolds support the strongest matrix mineralization, as confirmed by calcium deposition. Analysis of ALP activity, osteocalcin staining and SEM observations of matrix mineralization reveal that mesenchymal stem cells cultured on 3-D scaffolds without osteogenic stimulation spontaneously differentiate towards osteogenic lineage. Nanoindentation measurements show that aging of the 2PP-produced Zr-Si scaffolds in aqueous or alcohol media results in an increase in the scaffold Young’s modulus and hardness. Moreover, accelerated formation of bone matrix by hASCs is noted, when cultured on the scaffolds with lower Young’s moduli and hardness values (non aged scaffolds) compared to the cells cultured on scaffolds with higher Young’s modulus and hardness values (aged scaffolds). Presented results support the potential application of Zr-Si scaffolds for autologous bone tissue engineering. PMID:25706270

  20. 2D photonic crystals on the Archimedean lattices (tribute to Johannes Kepler (1571 1630))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajić, R.; class="cross-out">D. Jovanović,

    2008-03-01

    Results of our research on 2D Archemedean lattice photonic crystals are presented. This involves the calculations of the band structures, band-gap maps, equifrequency contours and FDTD simulations of electromagnetic propagation through the structures as well as an experimental verification of negative refraction at microwaves. The band-gap dependence on dielectric contrast is established both for dielectric rods in air and air-holes in dielectric materials. A special emphasis is placed on possibilities of negative refraction and left-handedness in these structures. Together with the familiar Archimedean lattices like square, triangular, honeycomb and Kagome' ones, we consider also, the less known, (3 2, 4, 3, 4) (ladybug) and (3, 4, 6, 4) (honeycomb-ring) structures.

  1. Analogue of Rashba pseudo-spin-orbit coupling in photonic lattices by gauge field engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnik, Y.; Bandres, M. A.; Stützer, S.; Lumer, Y.; Rechtsman, M. C.; Szameit, A.; Segev, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present, theoretically and experimentally, the observation of the Rashba effect in photonic lattices, where the effect is brought about by an artificial gauge field, induced by the geometry of the system. In doing that, we demonstrate a particular form of coupling between pseudospin and momentum, resulting in spin-dependent shifts in the spectrum. Our system consists of two coupled, oppositely tilted waveguide arrays, where the evolution of an optical beam allows for probing the dynamics of the evolving wave packets, and the formation of spectral splitting. We show that the Rashba effect can be amplified or decreased through optical nonlinear effects, which correspond to mean-field interactions in various systems such as cold-atom lattices and exciton-polariton condensates.

  2. Massive Photons: An Infrared Regularization Scheme for Lattice QCD+QED.

    PubMed

    Endres, Michael G; Shindler, Andrea; Tiburzi, Brian C; Walker-Loud, André

    2016-08-12

    Standard methods for including electromagnetic interactions in lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations result in power-law finite-volume corrections to physical quantities. Removing these by extrapolation requires costly computations at multiple volumes. We introduce a photon mass to alternatively regulate the infrared, and rely on effective field theory to remove its unphysical effects. Electromagnetic modifications to the hadron spectrum are reliably estimated with a precision and cost comparable to conventional approaches that utilize multiple larger volumes. A significant overall cost advantage emerges when accounting for ensemble generation. The proposed method may benefit lattice calculations involving multiple charged hadrons, as well as quantum many-body computations with long-range Coulomb interactions. PMID:27563954

  3. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on large size square-lattice photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing, Pibin; Li, Zhongyang; Yuan, Sheng; Yao, Jianquan; Lu, Ying

    2016-04-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on large size square-lattice photonic crystal fiber has been designed and simulated by finite element method. The square-lattice airholes are first coated with a calcium fluoride layer to provide mode confinement, then a nanoscale gold layer is deposited to excite the plasmon mode, and finally, the sample is infiltrated into the holes. The numerical results reveal that the resonance properties are easily affected by many parameters. The refractive index resolution of corresponding sensor can reach 4.3 × 10-6 RIU when the optimum parameters are set as the radius of curvature of the airhole r = 2 μm, the thickness of the core struts c = 200 nm, the auxiliary dielectric layer s = 1 μm, and the gold film d = 40 nm. In addition, the effective area and nonlinear coefficient are calculated.

  4. On the steady-state solutions of a nonlinear photonic lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chungen; Ren, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the steady-state solutions of the following equation related with nonlinear photonic lattice model Δ u = /P u 1 + |u|2 + |v|2 + λ u , Δ v = /Q v 1 + |u|2 + |v|2 + λ v , where u, v are real-value function defined on R/(τ1Z) × R/(τ2Z). The existence and non-existence of non-constant semi-trivial (with only one component zero) solutions are considered.

  5. On the steady-state solutions of a nonlinear photonic lattice model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chungen E-mail: tjftp@mail.nankai.edu.cn; Ren, Qiang E-mail: tjftp@mail.nankai.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we consider the steady-state solutions of the following equation related with nonlinear photonic lattice model Δu=(Pu)/(1+|u|{sup 2}+|v|{sup 2}) +λu, Δv=(Qv)/(1+|u|{sup 2}+|v|{sup 2}) +λv, where u, v are real-value function defined on R/(τ{sub 1}Z) × R/(τ{sub 2}Z). The existence and non-existence of non-constant semi-trivial (with only one component zero) solutions are considered.

  6. Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lin, Pin-Tso; Sio, Kuan-Un; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2010-05-01

    We propose a point-shifted D0 nanocavity formed by locally modulating four central air holes in square lattice photonic crystal for optical sensing application. Three defect modes in this nanocavity, including monopole, whispering-gallery, and dipole modes, are identified in experiments. We also apply a chemical treatment on InGaAsP surface to form a 1-octadecanethiol linking monolayer, which enables the following protein adsorption. In experiments, the wavelength shifts of lasing modes in the D0 nanocavity due to the protein adsorption are observed and agree with the simulation results. This can be a practical tool for label-free molecule detection in biomedical researches.

  7. Optical NOR logic gate design on square lattice photonic crystal platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'souza, Nirmala Maria; Mathew, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    We numerically demonstrate a new configuration of all-optical NOR logic gate with square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The logic operations are based on interference effect of optical waves. We have determined the operating frequency range by calculating the band structure for a perfectly periodic PhC using plane wave expansion (PWE) method. Response time of this logic gate is 1.98 ps and it can be operated with speed about 513 GB/s. The proposed device consists of four linear waveguides and a square ring resonator waveguides on PhC platform.

  8. On the feasibility of polyurethane based 3D dosimeters with optical CT for dosimetric verification of low energy photon brachytherapy seeds

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Justus; Yang, Yun; Juang, Titania; Chisholm, Kelsey; Rankine, Leith; Adamovics, John; Yin, Fang Fang; Oldham, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of and challenges yet to be addressed to measure dose from low energy (effective energy <50 keV) brachytherapy sources (Pd-103, Cs-131, and I-125) using polyurethane based 3D dosimeters with optical CT. Methods: The authors' evaluation used the following sources: models 200 (Pd-103), CS-1 Rev2 (Cs-131), and 6711 (I-125). The authors used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP5, simulations with the ScanSim optical tomography simulation software, and experimental measurements with PRESAGE® dosimeters/optical CT to investigate the following: (1) the water equivalency of conventional (density = 1.065 g/cm3) and deformable (density = 1.02 g/cm3) formulations of polyurethane dosimeters, (2) the scatter conditions necessary to achieve accurate dosimetry for low energy photon seeds, (3) the change in photon energy spectrum within the dosimeter as a function of distance from the source in order to determine potential energy sensitivity effects, (4) the optimal delivered dose to balance optical transmission (per projection) with signal to noise ratio in the reconstructed dose distribution, and (5) the magnitude and characteristics of artifacts due to the presence of a channel in the dosimeter. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using both conventional and deformable dosimeter formulations. For verification, 2.8 Gy at 1 cm was delivered in 92 h using an I-125 source to a PRESAGE® dosimeter with conventional formulation and a central channel with 0.0425 cm radius for source placement. The dose distribution was reconstructed with 0.02 and 0.04 cm3 voxel size using the Duke midsized optical CT scanner (DMOS). Results: While the conventional formulation overattenuates dose from all three sources compared to water, the current deformable formulation has nearly water equivalent attenuation properties for Cs-131 and I-125, while underattenuating for Pd-103. The energy spectrum of each source is relatively stable within the first

  9. On the feasibility of polyurethane based 3D dosimeters with optical CT for dosimetric verification of low energy photon brachytherapy seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Justus Yang, Yun; Juang, Titania; Chisholm, Kelsey; Rankine, Leith; Yin, Fang Fang; Oldham, Mark; Adamovics, John

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of and challenges yet to be addressed to measure dose from low energy (effective energy <50 keV) brachytherapy sources (Pd-103, Cs-131, and I-125) using polyurethane based 3D dosimeters with optical CT. Methods: The authors' evaluation used the following sources: models 200 (Pd-103), CS-1 Rev2 (Cs-131), and 6711 (I-125). The authors used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP5, simulations with the ScanSim optical tomography simulation software, and experimental measurements with PRESAGE{sup ®} dosimeters/optical CT to investigate the following: (1) the water equivalency of conventional (density = 1.065 g/cm{sup 3}) and deformable (density = 1.02 g/cm{sup 3}) formulations of polyurethane dosimeters, (2) the scatter conditions necessary to achieve accurate dosimetry for low energy photon seeds, (3) the change in photon energy spectrum within the dosimeter as a function of distance from the source in order to determine potential energy sensitivity effects, (4) the optimal delivered dose to balance optical transmission (per projection) with signal to noise ratio in the reconstructed dose distribution, and (5) the magnitude and characteristics of artifacts due to the presence of a channel in the dosimeter. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using both conventional and deformable dosimeter formulations. For verification, 2.8 Gy at 1 cm was delivered in 92 h using an I-125 source to a PRESAGE{sup ®} dosimeter with conventional formulation and a central channel with 0.0425 cm radius for source placement. The dose distribution was reconstructed with 0.02 and 0.04 cm{sup 3} voxel size using the Duke midsized optical CT scanner (DMOS). Results: While the conventional formulation overattenuates dose from all three sources compared to water, the current deformable formulation has nearly water equivalent attenuation properties for Cs-131 and I-125, while underattenuating for Pd-103. The energy spectrum of each source is

  10. Eigenstate-Assisted Longitudinal Quantum State Transfer and Qubit Storage in Photonic and Spin Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Leija, Armando; Grafe, Markus; Heilmann, Rene; Keil, Robert; Stutzer, Simon; Weimann, Steffen; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Szameit, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Coherent transport of quantum information between distant nodes plays a role of paramount importance for developing fair quantum computing technologies. In that vein, in this contribution we propose a novel photonic lattice system allowing the perfect transmission of photon encoded quantum information. The basic idea is to use the stationary nature of the associated eigenstates in order to transfer quantum states over long distances with unit fidelity. The proposed system consists of an array of evanescently coupled waveguides obeying a parabolic law distribution for the coupling strength between neighboring elements. In such an optical system, the eigenstates are readily excited provided single sites are fed with single photons. After the eigenstates have been excited, they propagate for very long distances without any distortion. Once the eigenstate has reached the desired distance, it is transformed into a single-site state simetrically residing on the oposite site of the array, performing so a perfect transfer of the initial state. Using these same principles we demonstrated the possibility of storage qubit in spin chains by exploiting the intrinsic time-invariance of the system eigenstates.

  11. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  12. Ryukyu Subduction Zone: 3D Geodynamic Simulations of the Effects of Slab Shape and Depth on Lattice-Preferred Orientation (LPO) and Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlow, S.; Tan, E.; Billen, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    At the Ryukyu subduction zone, seismic anisotropy observations suggest that there may be strong trench-parallel flow within the mantle wedge driven by complex 3D slab geometry. However, previous simulations have either failed to account for 3D flow or used the infinite strain axis (ISA) approximation for LPO, which is known to be inaccurate in complex flow fields. Additionally, both the slab depth and shape of the Ryukyu slab are contentious. Development of strong trench-parallel flow requires low viscosity to decouple the mantle wedge from entrainment by the sinking slab. Therefore, understanding the relationship between seismic anisotropy and the accompanying flow field will better constrain the material and dynamic properties of the mantle near subduction zones. In this study, we integrate a kinematic model for calculation of LPO (D-Rex) into a buoyancy-driven, instantaneous 3D flow simulation (ASPECT), using composite non-Newtonian rheology to investigate the dependence of LPO on slab geometry and depth at the Ryukyu Trench. To incorporate the 3D flow effects, the trench and slab extends from the southern tip of Japan to the western edge of Taiwan and the model region is approximately 1/4 of a spherical shell extending from the surface to the core-mantle boundary. In the southern-most region we vary the slab depth and shape to test for the effects of the uncertainties in the observations. We also investigate the effect of adding locally hydrated regions above the slab that affect both the mantle rheology and development of LPO through the consequent changes in mantle flow and dominate (weakest) slip system. We characterize how changes in the simulation conditions affect the LPO within the mantle wedge, subducting slab and sub-slab mantle and relate these to surface observations of seismic anisotropy.

  13. Significance of functional hepatic resection rate calculated using 3D CT/99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin single-photon emission computed tomography fusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruga, Yosuke; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Shimada, Shingo; Wakayama, Kenji; Orimo, Tatsuya; Kakisaka, Tatsuhiko; Yokoo, Hideki; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of the functional hepatic resection rate (FHRR) calculated using 3D computed tomography (CT)/99mTc-galactosyl-human serum albumin (GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) fusion imaging for surgical decision making. METHODS: We enrolled 57 patients who underwent bi- or trisectionectomy at our institution between October 2013 and March 2015. Of these, 26 patients presented with hepatocellular carcinoma, 12 with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, six with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, four with liver metastasis, and nine with other diseases. All patients preoperatively underwent three-phase dynamic multidetector CT and 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy. We compared the parenchymal hepatic resection rate (PHRR) with the FHRR, which was defined as the resection volume counts per total liver volume counts on 3D CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images. RESULTS: In total, 50 patients underwent bisectionectomy and seven underwent trisectionectomy. Biliary reconstruction was performed in 15 patients, including hepatopancreatoduodenectomy in two. FHRR and PHRR were 38.6 ± 19.9 and 44.5 ± 16.0, respectively; FHRR was strongly correlated with PHRR. The regression coefficient for FHRR on PHRR was 1.16 (P < 0.0001). The ratio of FHRR to PHRR for patients with preoperative therapies (transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, radiation, radiofrequency ablation, etc.), large tumors with a volume of > 1000 mL, and/or macroscopic vascular invasion was significantly smaller than that for patients without these factors (0.73 ± 0.19 vs 0.82 ± 0.18, P < 0.05). Postoperative hyperbilirubinemia was observed in six patients. Major morbidities (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ 3) occurred in 17 patients (29.8%). There was no case of surgery-related death. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that FHRR is an important deciding factor for major hepatectomy, because FHRR and PHRR may be discrepant owing to insufficient hepatic inflow and congestion in patients with preoperative

  14. Interference based square lattice photonic crystal logic gates working with different wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'souza, Nirmala Maria; Mathew, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new configuration of interference based OR, XOR, NOT and AND optical logic gates on a two dimensional square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) platform. The working of these devices was analyzed by the FDTD method and the operating frequency range was explored using the plane wave expansion method. The XOR and NOT gates have high contrast ratio which is more than 35 dB between high and low logic states, for a particular wavelength. All these devices are operating with multiple wavelengths. The impact of structural parameter like radius on the operating wavelength and Contrast Ratio (CR) was analyzed. It is found that the optimization of structural parameters makes it possible to obtain the operating wavelength allowed by band structure. These proposed devices were made up of linear waveguides and square ring resonator waveguides, without using nonlinear materials, optical amplifiers and external phase shifters.

  15. Polarization filter characteristics of photonic crystal fibers with square lattice and selectively filled gold wires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan; Li, Shu-Guang; An, Guo-Wen; Fan, Zhen-Kai; Bao, Ya-Jie

    2014-04-10

    A novel design of Au-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with square lattice has been proposed in this paper. The resonance strength of the surface plasmon mode and the impacts of structural parameters of the PCF on the polarization filter characteristics are studied through the finite element method. Numerical results show that the sizes of Au wires and the symmetry of the air holes near the fiber core have a great effect on the polarization filter characteristics. In the optimization process, it was found that the resonance strengths can reach 279.10 and 399.18  dB/cm at wavelengths of 1.02 μm and 1.55 μm, respectively, which can be applied in many polarization filter devices. PMID:24787416

  16. 2D mapping of the MV photon fluence and 3D dose reconstruction in real time for quality assurance during radiotherapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrowaili, Z. A.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Carolan, M.; Fuduli, I.; Porumb, C.; Petasecca, M.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2015-09-01

    Summary: the photon irradiation response of a 2D solid state transmission detector array mounted in a linac block tray is used to reconstruct the projected 2D dose map in a homogenous phantom along rays that diverge from the X-ray source and pass through each of the 121 detector elements. A unique diode response-to-dose scaling factor, applied to all detectors, is utilised in the reconstruction to demonstrate that real time QA during radiotherapy treatment is feasible. Purpose: to quantitatively demonstrate reconstruction of the real time radiation dose from the irradiation response of the 11×11 silicon Magic Plate (MP) detector array operated in Transmission Mode (MPTM). Methods and Materials: in transmission mode the MP is positioned in the block tray of a linac so that the central detector of the array lies on the central axis of the radiation beam. This central detector is used to determine the conversion factor from measured irradiation response to reconstructed dose at any point on the central axis within a homogenous solid water phantom. The same unique conversion factor is used for all MP detector elements lying within the irradiation field. Using the two sets of data, the 2D or 3D dose map is able to be reconstructed in the homogenous phantom. The technique we have developed is illustrated here for different depths and irradiation field sizes, (5 × 5 cm2 to 40 × 40 cm2) as well as a highly non uniform irradiation field. Results: we find that the MPTM response is proportional to the projected 2D dose map measured at a specific phantom depth, the "sweet depth". A single factor, for several irradiation field sizes and depths, is derived to reconstruct the dose in the phantom along rays projected from the photon source through each MPTM detector element. We demonstrate that for all field sizes using the above method, the 2D reconstructed and measured doses agree to within ± 2.48% (2 standard deviation) for all in-field MP detector elements. Conclusions: a

  17. Monte Carlo investigation of the increased radiation deposition due to gold nanoparticles using kilovoltage and megavoltage photons in a 3D randomized cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, Michael; Bezak, Eva; Penfold, Scott

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Investigation of increased radiation dose deposition due to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using a 3D computational cell model during x-ray radiotherapy.Methods: Two GNP simulation scenarios were set up in Geant4; a single 400 nm diameter gold cluster randomly positioned in the cytoplasm and a 300 nm gold layer around the nucleus of the cell. Using an 80 kVp photon beam, the effect of GNP on the dose deposition in five modeled regions of the cell including cytoplasm, membrane, and nucleus was simulated. Two Geant4 physics lists were tested: the default Livermore and custom built Livermore/DNA hybrid physics list. 10{sup 6} particles were simulated at 840 cells in the simulation. Each cell was randomly placed with random orientation and a diameter varying between 9 and 13 {mu}m. A mathematical algorithm was used to ensure that none of the 840 cells overlapped. The energy dependence of the GNP physical dose enhancement effect was calculated by simulating the dose deposition in the cells with two energy spectra of 80 kVp and 6 MV. The contribution from Auger electrons was investigated by comparing the two GNP simulation scenarios while activating and deactivating atomic de-excitation processes in Geant4.Results: The physical dose enhancement ratio (DER) of GNP was calculated using the Monte Carlo model. The model has demonstrated that the DER depends on the amount of gold and the position of the gold cluster within the cell. Individual cell regions experienced statistically significant (p < 0.05) change in absorbed dose (DER between 1 and 10) depending on the type of gold geometry used. The DER resulting from gold clusters attached to the cell nucleus had the more significant effect of the two cases (DER {approx} 55). The DER value calculated at 6 MV was shown to be at least an order of magnitude smaller than the DER values calculated for the 80 kVp spectrum. Based on simulations, when 80 kVp photons are used, Auger electrons have a statistically insignificant (p

  18. Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Martin; Miri, Mohammed-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-12-01

    Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals exhibit unusual properties like secondary emissions and resonant restoration of PT symmetry. In addition, we present a versatile method for reconstructing the real and imaginary components of the band structure by directly monitoring the light evolution during a cycle of these oscillations.

  19. Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Martin; Miri, Mohammed-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals exhibit unusual properties like secondary emissions and resonant restoration of PT symmetry. In addition, we present a versatile method for reconstructing the real and imaginary components of the band structure by directly monitoring the light evolution during a cycle of these oscillations. PMID:26639941

  20. Transport and Anderson localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Tal; Bartal, Guy; Fishman, Shmuel; Segev, Mordechai

    2007-03-01

    One of the most interesting phenomena in solid-state physics is Anderson localization, which predicts that an electron may become immobile when placed in a disordered lattice. The origin of localization is interference between multiple scatterings of the electron by random defects in the potential, altering the eigenmodes from being extended (Bloch waves) to exponentially localized. As a result, the material is transformed from a conductor to an insulator. Anderson's work dates back to 1958, yet strong localization has never been observed in atomic crystals, because localization occurs only if the potential (the periodic lattice and the fluctuations superimposed on it) is time-independent. However, in atomic crystals important deviations from the Anderson model always occur, because of thermally excited phonons and electron-electron interactions. Realizing that Anderson localization is a wave phenomenon relying on interference, these concepts were extended to optics. Indeed, both weak and strong localization effects were experimentally demonstrated, traditionally by studying the transmission properties of randomly distributed optical scatterers (typically suspensions or powders of dielectric materials). However, in these studies the potential was fully random, rather than being 'frozen' fluctuations on a periodic potential, as the Anderson model assumes. Here we report the experimental observation of Anderson localization in a perturbed periodic potential: the transverse localization of light caused by random fluctuations on a two-dimensional photonic lattice. We demonstrate how ballistic transport becomes diffusive in the presence of disorder, and that crossover to Anderson localization occurs at a higher level of disorder. Finally, we study how nonlinearities affect Anderson localization. As Anderson localization is a universal phenomenon, the ideas presented here could also be implemented in other systems (for example, matter waves), thereby making it feasible

  1. An optochemically organized nonlinear waveguide lattice with primitive cubic symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Matthew R; Welch, Robert; Saravanamuttu, Kalaichelvi

    2013-02-25

    We describe the first example of a primitive cubic lattice assembled spontaneously from three mutually orthogonal and intersecting arrays of cylindrical, multimode waveguides. The lattice is generated in a single, room-temperature step with separate (mutually incoherent) incandescent light bulbs. To demonstrate its potential as a nonlinear photonic lattice, we generated a self-trapped lattice beam of incoherent white light. These two findings open entirely new experimental opportunities to study the behavior of spatially and temporally incoherent, polychromatic lattice solitons in 3-D Bravais lattices. PMID:23481954

  2. Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by simultaneous multidirectional etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitano, Keisuke; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Ishizaki, Kenji; Noda, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    We discuss three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals fabricated by simultaneous multidirectional plasma etching. First, we investigate a method for controlling the ion sheath used in reactive ion etching for obtaining multidirectional etching. We then discuss the fabrication tolerance from an analytical perspective. Based on our results, we demonstrate the fabrication of 3D photonic crystals with thicknesses of 1, 1.5, and 2 lattice periods in the surface-normal direction on single-crystalline silicon wafers, which show high reflectance (˜100 %) and low transmittance (-17 dB ) at optical communication wavelengths, suggesting the formation of a complete photonic band gap. We reveal that the shape of the etched holes limits the performance of 3D photonic crystals and suggest possible ways to improve the band-gap effect. Moreover, we show that 3D photonic crystals with short lattice constants show high reflectance (˜80 %) at visible to near-infrared wavelengths. By investigating the influence of absorption on the characteristics of 3D photonic crystals, we reveal that the reflectance remains as high as 94% in the photonic band-gap range even when the absorption of silicon is taken into account. We find that a unique increase of absorption occurs at several discrete wavelengths below the photonic band gap, suggesting the possibility of manipulating light absorption. These results not only simplify the fabrication of 3D photonic crystals, but also provide a basis for realizing 3D photonic nanostructures that include other materials.

  3. Light propagation inside `cavity' formed between nonlinear defect and interface of two dissimilar one-dimensional linear photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmanović, Slavica; Stojanović Krasić, Marija; Milović, Daniela; Miletić, Marjan; Radosavljević, Ana; Gligorić, Goran; Maluckov, Aleksandra; Stepić, Milutin

    2015-09-01

    Light propagation through composite photonic lattice containing a cavity bounded by the interface between two structurally different linear lattices and on-site nonlinear defect in one of them is investigated numerically. We find conditions under which dynamically stable bounded cavity modes can exist. We observe various cavity localized modes such as: single-hump, multi-hump, and moving breathing modes. Light propagation obstructions are phenomenologically related to the Fano resonances. Presented numerical findings may lead to interesting applications, such as blocking, filtering, and transporting of light beams through the optical medium.

  4. Pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} on amorphous dielectric layers towards monolithic 3D photonic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haofeng; Brouillet, Jeremy; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} crystallized on amorphous layers at <450 °C towards 3D Si photonic integration. We developed two approaches to seed the lateral single crystal growth: (1) utilize the Gibbs-Thomson eutectic temperature depression at the tip of an amorphous GeSn nanotaper for selective nucleation; (2) laser-induced nucleation at one end of a GeSn strip. Either way, the crystallized Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} is dominated by a single grain >18 μm long that forms optoelectronically benign twin boundaries with others grains. These pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} patterns are suitable for monolithic 3D integration of active photonic devices on Si.

  5. Tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with square-like Archimedean lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Shao-Bin E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Jiang, Yu-Chi

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, the tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional (2D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of homogeneous plasma and dielectric (GaAs) with square-like Archimedean lattices (ladybug and bathroom lattices) for TM wave are theoretically investigated based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The type-1 structure is dielectric rods immersed in the plasma background, and the complementary structure is named as type-2 PPCs. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that the both types of PPCs with square-like Archimedean lattices have some advantages in obtaining the higher cut-off frequency, the larger PBGs, more number of PBGs, and the relative bandwidths compared to the conventional square lattices as the filling factor or radius of inserted rods is same. The influences of plasma frequency and radius of inserted rod on the properties of PBGs for both types of PPCs also are discussed in detail. The calculated results show that PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. The possibilities of all-angle negative refraction in such two types of PPCs at low bands also are discussed. Our calculations reveal that the all-angle negative phenomena can be observed in the first two TM bands, and the frequency range of all-angle negative refraction can be tuned by changing plasma frequency. Those properties can be used to design the optical switching and sensor.

  6. Tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with square-like Archimedean lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Chi

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional (2D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of homogeneous plasma and dielectric (GaAs) with square-like Archimedean lattices (ladybug and bathroom lattices) for TM wave are theoretically investigated based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The type-1 structure is dielectric rods immersed in the plasma background, and the complementary structure is named as type-2 PPCs. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that the both types of PPCs with square-like Archimedean lattices have some advantages in obtaining the higher cut-off frequency, the larger PBGs, more number of PBGs, and the relative bandwidths compared to the conventional square lattices as the filling factor or radius of inserted rods is same. The influences of plasma frequency and radius of inserted rod on the properties of PBGs for both types of PPCs also are discussed in detail. The calculated results show that PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. The possibilities of all-angle negative refraction in such two types of PPCs at low bands also are discussed. Our calculations reveal that the all-angle negative phenomena can be observed in the first two TM bands, and the frequency range of all-angle negative refraction can be tuned by changing plasma frequency. Those properties can be used to design the optical switching and sensor.

  7. Fabrication technology of heterojunctions in the lattice of a 2D photonic crystal based on macroporous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zharova, Yu. A. Fedulova, G. V.; Astrova, E. V.; Baldycheva, A. V.; Tolmachev, V. A.; Perova, T. S.

    2011-08-15

    Design and fabrication technology of a microcavity structure based on a double heterojunction in macroporous silicon is suggested. The fabrication process of a strip of a 2D photonic crystal constituted by a finite number of lattice periods and the technique for defect formation by local opening of macropores on the substrate side, followed by filling of these macropores with a nematic liquid crystal, are considered.

  8. Soliton delivery of few-cycle optical gigawatt pulses in Kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Song-Jin; Husakou, Anton; Herrmann, Joachim

    2010-08-15

    We study the delivery of few-cycle soliton-like pulses at 800 nm with gigawatt power or microjoule energy through a hollow-core kagome-lattice photonic crystal fiber over 1 m with preserved temporal and spectral shape. We show that with optimized pressure of the argon filling, 5 fs input pulses are compressed up to 2.5 fs after 20 cm and restore their shape after 1 m propagation.

  9. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs. PMID:27356177

  10. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  11. All-optical controllable channel-drop filters in two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasihi, K.

    2016-05-01

    A novel all-optical controllable channel-drop filter in photonic crystals (PC) of square lattice is presented. We show that using a resonant-cavity-based add-drop filter with a wavelength-selective reflection feedback and a single-control switching module which is based on nonlinear PC microcavities, the dropped channel can be routed to the drop port or returned to the bus waveguide. Using the temporal coupled-mode theory and two-dimensional nonlinear finite-difference time-domain method, the performance of the proposed device is investigated and the simulation results show the validity of the proposed design.

  12. X , Y , and Z waves: extended structures in nonlinear lattices.

    PubMed

    Kevrekidis, P G; Gagnon, J; Frantzeskakis, D J; Malomed, B A

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new type of waveforms in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) discrete media-multilegged extended nonlinear structures (ENSs), built as arrays of lattice solitons (tiles and stones, in the 2D and 3D cases, respectively). We study the stability of the tiles and stones analytically, and then extend them numerically to complete ENS forms for both 2D and 3D lattices, aiming to single out stable ENSs. The predicted patterns can be realized in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in deep optical lattices, crystals built of microresonators, and 2D photonic crystals. In the latter case, the patterns provide for a technique for writing reconfigurable virtual partitions in multipurpose photonic devices. PMID:17358275

  13. X , Y , and Z waves: Extended structures in nonlinear lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Gagnon, J.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Malomed, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new type of waveforms in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) discrete media-multilegged extended nonlinear structures (ENSs), built as arrays of lattice solitons (tiles and stones, in the 2D and 3D cases, respectively). We study the stability of the tiles and stones analytically, and then extend them numerically to complete ENS forms for both 2D and 3D lattices, aiming to single out stable ENSs. The predicted patterns can be realized in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in deep optical lattices, crystals built of microresonators, and 2D photonic crystals. In the latter case, the patterns provide for a technique for writing reconfigurable virtual partitions in multipurpose photonic devices.

  14. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  15. Performance and field tests of a handheld Compton camera using 3-D position-sensitive scintillators coupled to multi-pixel photon counter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, A.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujita, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Okochi, H.; Ogata, H.; Kuroshima, H.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Adachi, S.; Uchiyama, T.; Suzuki, H.

    2014-11-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, radiation decontamination has become particularly urgent. To help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation, we have developed a novel Compton camera based on Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 scintillators and multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays. Even though its sensitivity is several times better than that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, we introduce a depth-of-interaction (DOI) method to further improve the angular resolution. For gamma rays, the DOI information, in addition to 2-D position, is obtained by measuring the pulse-height ratio of the MPPC arrays coupled to ends of the scintillator. We present the detailed performance and results of various field tests conducted in Fukushima with the prototype 2-D and DOI Compton cameras. Moreover, we demonstrate stereo measurement of gamma rays that enables measurement of not only direction but also approximate distance to radioactive hotspots.

  16. Quantum walks and wavepacket dynamics on a lattice with twisted photons

    PubMed Central

    Cardano, Filippo; Massa, Francesco; Qassim, Hammam; Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Paparo, Domenico; de Lisio, Corrado; Sciarrino, Fabio; Santamato, Enrico; Boyd, Robert W.; Marrucci, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The “quantum walk” has emerged recently as a paradigmatic process for the dynamic simulation of complex quantum systems, entanglement production and quantum computation. Hitherto, photonic implementations of quantum walks have mainly been based on multipath interferometric schemes in real space. We report the experimental realization of a discrete quantum walk taking place in the orbital angular momentum space of light, both for a single photon and for two simultaneous photons. In contrast to previous implementations, the whole process develops in a single light beam, with no need of interferometers; it requires optical resources scaling linearly with the number of steps; and it allows flexible control of input and output superposition states. Exploiting the latter property, we explored the system band structure in momentum space and the associated spin-orbit topological features by simulating the quantum dynamics of Gaussian wavepackets. Our demonstration introduces a novel versatile photonic platform for quantum simulations. PMID:26601157

  17. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  18. Wave propagation through photonic waveguide lattices in the presence of optical gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ardakani, Abbas Ghasempour

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effects of gain and loss on the light propagation through a lattice of coupled optical waveguides. We demonstrate that superdiffusive transport becomes diffusive in the presence of optical loss after a critical propagation distance as in [Phys. Rev. Lett.113, 123903 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.123903]. However, when optical gain is introduced in the lattice of coupled waveguides, the beam broadening slows down from a superdiffusive to a highly subdiffusive regime after another critical distance. The critical distance decreases with increase of loss or gain in the waveguide lattice. For equal gain and loss, the value of critical distance in the array of active waveguides is much smaller than that in the case of lattice of lossy waveguides. Furthermore, we find that the effective width in the case of lossy waveguides decreases with increase of loss at the same propagation distance. Our results confirm that the regime of beam broadening does not depend on whether the gain is introduced in the waveguides or in their surroundings. PMID:27140375

  19. Polymer lattices as mechanically tunable 3-dimensional photonic crystals operating in the infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Chernow, V. F.; Alaeian, H.; Dionne, J. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-09-07

    Broadly tunable photonic crystals in the near- to mid-infrared region could find use in spectroscopy, non-invasive medical diagnosis, chemical and biological sensing, and military applications, but so far have not been widely realized. We report the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals composed of polymer nanolattices with an octahedron unit-cell geometry. These photonic crystals exhibit a strong peak in reflection in the mid-infrared that shifts substantially and reversibly with application of compressive uniaxial strain. A strain of ∼40% results in a 2.2 μm wavelength shift in the pseudo-stop band, from 7.3 μm for the as-fabricated nanolattice to 5.1 μm when strained. We found a linear relationship between the overall compressive strain in the photonic crystal and the resulting stopband shift, with a ∼50 nm blueshift in the reflection peak position per percent increase in strain. These results suggest that architected nanolattices can serve as efficient three-dimensional mechanically tunable photonic crystals, providing a foundation for new opto-mechanical components and devices across infrared and possibly visible frequencies.

  20. Polymer lattices as mechanically tunable 3-dimensional photonic crystals operating in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernow, V. F.; Alaeian, H.; Dionne, J. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Broadly tunable photonic crystals in the near- to mid-infrared region could find use in spectroscopy, non-invasive medical diagnosis, chemical and biological sensing, and military applications, but so far have not been widely realized. We report the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals composed of polymer nanolattices with an octahedron unit-cell geometry. These photonic crystals exhibit a strong peak in reflection in the mid-infrared that shifts substantially and reversibly with application of compressive uniaxial strain. A strain of ˜40% results in a 2.2 μm wavelength shift in the pseudo-stop band, from 7.3 μm for the as-fabricated nanolattice to 5.1 μm when strained. We found a linear relationship between the overall compressive strain in the photonic crystal and the resulting stopband shift, with a ˜50 nm blueshift in the reflection peak position per percent increase in strain. These results suggest that architected nanolattices can serve as efficient three-dimensional mechanically tunable photonic crystals, providing a foundation for new opto-mechanical components and devices across infrared and possibly visible frequencies.

  1. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  2. Photon number statistics uncover the fluctuations in non-equilibrium lattice dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Martina; Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Giusti, Francesca; Randi, Francesco; Boschetto, Davide; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Floreanini, Roberto; Benatti, Fabio; Fausti, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuations of the atomic positions are at the core of a large class of unusual material properties ranging from quantum para-electricity to high temperature superconductivity. Their measurement in solids is the subject of an intense scientific debate focused on seeking a methodology capable of establishing a direct link between the variance of the atomic displacements and experimentally measurable observables. Here we address this issue by means of non-equilibrium optical experiments performed in shot-noise-limited regime. The variance of the time-dependent atomic positions and momenta is directly mapped into the quantum fluctuations of the photon number of the scattered probing light. A fully quantum description of the non-linear interaction between photonic and phononic fields is benchmarked by unveiling the squeezing of thermal phonons in α-quartz. PMID:26690958

  3. Parity-time-symmetry breaking in two-dimensional photonic crystals: Square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Adam

    2016-06-01

    We consider theoretically materials whose electromagnetic properties possess parity-time (PT ) symmetry and are periodic in two dimensions. When designed for optical frequencies such structures are commonly known as two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals. With the addition of PT symmetry the optical modes of 2D photonic crystals exhibit thresholdless spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking near the Brillouin zone boundary, which is analogous to what has previously been studied in PT -symmetric structures with one-dimensional periodicity. Consistent with previous work, we find that spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking occurs at band crossings in the photonic dispersion diagram. Due to the extra spatial degree of freedom in 2D periodic systems, their band structures contain more band crossings and higher-order degeneracies than their one-dimensional counterparts. This work provides a comprehensive theoretical analysis of spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking at these points in the band structure. We find that, as in the case of one-dimensional structures, photonic band gaps exist at k =0 . We also find that at points of degeneracy with order higher than 2, bands merge pairwise to form broken-PT -symmetry supermodes. If the degeneracy order is even, this means multiple pairs of bands can form distinct (nondegenerate) broken-symmetry supermodes. If the order of degeneracy is odd, at least one of the bands will have protected PT symmetry. At other points of degeneracy, we find that the PT symmetry of the modes may be protected and we provide a spatial mode symmetry argument to explain this behavior. Finally, we identify a point at which two broken-PT -symmetry supermodes become degenerate, creating a point of fourfold degeneracy in the broken-PT -symmetry regime.

  4. Photonic lattices in organic microcavities: Bloch states and control of lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischok, Andreas; Brückner, Robert; Fröb, Hartmut; Lyssenko, Vadim G.; Leo, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Organic microcavities comprising the host:guest emitter system Alq3:DCM offer an interesting playground to experimentally study the dispersion characteristics of laterally patterned microlasers due to the broad emission spectrum and large oscillator strength of the organic dye. By structuring of metallic or dielectric sublayers directly on top of the bottom mirror, we precisely manipulate the mode structure and influence the coherent emission properties of the device. Embedding silver layers into a microcavity leads to an interaction of the optical cavity-state in the organic layer and the neighboring metal which red-shifts the cavity resonance, creating a Tamm-plasmon-polariton state. A patterning of the metal can in turn be exploited to fabricate deep photonic wells of micron-size, efficiently confining light in lateral direction. In periodic arrays of silver wires, we create a Kronig-Penney-like optical potential in the cavity and in turn observe optical Bloch states spanning over several photonic wires. We modify the Kronig-Penney theory to analytically describe the full far-field emission dispersion of our cavities and show the emergence of either zero- , π-, or 2π- phase-locking in the system. By investigating periodic SiO2 patterns, we experimentally observe stimulated emission from the ground and different excited discrete states at room temperature and are able to directly control the laser emission from both extended and confined modes of the photonic wires at room-temperature.

  5. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  6. TH-E-BRE-01: A 3D Solver of Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation Based On a New Angular Discretization Method with Positivity for Photon Dose Calculation Benchmarked with Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, X; Gao, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation (LBTE) solved through statistical Monte Carlo (MC) method provides the accurate dose calculation in radiotherapy. This work is to investigate the alternative way for accurately solving LBTE using deterministic numerical method due to its possible advantage in computational speed from MC. Methods: Instead of using traditional spherical harmonics to approximate angular scattering kernel, our deterministic numerical method directly computes angular scattering weights, based on a new angular discretization method that utilizes linear finite element method on the local triangulation of unit angular sphere. As a Result, our angular discretization method has the unique advantage in positivity, i.e., to maintain all scattering weights nonnegative all the time, which is physically correct. Moreover, our method is local in angular space, and therefore handles the anisotropic scattering well, such as the forward-peaking scattering. To be compatible with image-guided radiotherapy, the spatial variables are discretized on the structured grid with the standard diamond scheme. After discretization, the improved sourceiteration method is utilized for solving the linear system without saving the linear system to memory. The accuracy of our 3D solver is validated using analytic solutions and benchmarked with Geant4, a popular MC solver. Results: The differences between Geant4 solutions and our solutions were less than 1.5% for various testing cases that mimic the practical cases. More details are available in the supporting document. Conclusion: We have developed a 3D LBTE solver based on a new angular discretization method that guarantees the positivity of scattering weights for physical correctness, and it has been benchmarked with Geant4 for photon dose calculation.

  7. Preparation, structural, and calorimetric characterization of bicomponent metallic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M. E.; Murthy, N. S.; Udod, I.; Khayrullin, I. I.; Baughman, R. H.; Zakhidov, A. A.

    2007-03-01

    We report preparation and characterization of novel bicomponent metal-based photonic crystals having submicron three-dimensional (3D) periodicity. Fabricated photonic crystals include SiO2 sphere lattices infiltrated interstitially with metals, carbon inverse lattices filled with metal or metal alloy spheres, Sb inverse lattices, and Sb inverse lattices filled with Bi spheres. Starting from a face centered SiO2 lattice template, these materials were obtained by sequences of either templating and template extraction or templating, template extraction, and retemplating. Surprising high fidelity was obtained for all templating and template extraction steps. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the structure and the effects of the structure on calorimetric properties. To the best of our knowledge, SAXS data on metallic photonic crystals were collected for first time.

  8. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  9. Properties of localization in silicon-based lattice periodicity breaking photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuquan; Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Yufang; Zhang, Guoquan; Fan, Wande; Cao, Xuewei; Wu, Yuanbin

    2013-11-15

    The light localization effects in silicon photonic crystal cavities at different disorder degrees have been studied using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method in this paper. Numerical results showed that localization occurs and enhancement can be gained in the region of the cavity under certain conditions. The stabilities of the localization effects due to the structural perturbations have been investigated too. Detailed studies showed that when the degree of structural disorder is small(about 10%), the localization effects are stable, the maximum enhancement factor can reach 16.5 for incident wavelength of 785 nm and 23 for 850 nm in the cavity, with the degree of disorder about 8%. The equivalent diameter of the localized spot is almost constant at different disorder degrees, approximating to λ/7, which turned out to be independent on the structural perturbation.

  10. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  11. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  12. Optimal arrangements of fiber optic probes to enhance the spatial resolution in depth for 3D reflectance diffuse optical tomography with time-resolved measurements performed with fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puszka, Agathe; Di Sieno, Laura; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Contini, Davide; Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto; Hervé, Lionel; Planat-Chrétien, Anne; Koenig, Anne; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2014-02-01

    Fiber optic probes with a width limited to a few centimeters can enable diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in intern organs like the prostate or facilitate the measurements on extern organs like the breast or the brain. We have recently shown on 2D tomographic images that time-resolved measurements with a large dynamic range obtained with fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) could push forward the imaged depth range in a diffusive medium at short source-detector separation compared with conventional non-gated approaches. In this work, we confirm these performances with the first 3D tomographic images reconstructed with such a setup and processed with the Mellin- Laplace transform. More precisely, we investigate the performance of hand-held probes with short interfiber distances in terms of spatial resolution and specifically demonstrate the interest of having a compact probe design featuring small source-detector separations. We compare the spatial resolution obtained with two probes having the same design but different scale factors, the first one featuring only interfiber distances of 15 mm and the second one, 10 mm. We evaluate experimentally the spatial resolution obtained with each probe on the setup with fast-gated SPADs for optical phantoms featuring two absorbing inclusions positioned at different depths and conclude on the potential of short source-detector separations for DOT.

  13. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  14. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  15. Method for making a single-step etch mask for 3D monolithic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Grishina, D A; Harteveld, C A M; Woldering, L A; Vos, W L

    2015-12-18

    Current nanostructure fabrication by etching is usually limited to planar structures as they are defined by a planar mask. The realization of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures by etching requires technologies beyond planar masks. We present a method for fabricating a 3D mask that allows one to etch three-dimensional monolithic nanostructures using only CMOS-compatible processes. The mask is written in a hard-mask layer that is deposited on two adjacent inclined surfaces of a Si wafer. By projecting in a single step two different 2D patterns within one 3D mask on the two inclined surfaces, the mutual alignment between the patterns is ensured. Thereby after the mask pattern is defined, the etching of deep pores in two oblique directions yields a three-dimensional structure in Si. As a proof of concept we demonstrate 3D mask fabrication for three-dimensional diamond-like photonic band gap crystals in silicon. The fabricated crystals reveal a broad stop gap in optical reflectivity measurements. We propose how 3D nanostructures with five different Bravais lattices can be realized, namely cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic and hexagonal, and demonstrate a mask for a 3D hexagonal crystal. We also demonstrate the mask for a diamond-structure crystal with a 3D array of cavities. In general, the 2D patterns on the different surfaces can be completely independently structured and still be in perfect mutual alignment. Indeed, we observe an alignment accuracy of better than 3.0 nm between the 2D mask patterns on the inclined surfaces, which permits one to etch well-defined monolithic 3D nanostructures. PMID:26581317

  16. Method for making a single-step etch mask for 3D monolithic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishina, D. A.; Harteveld, C. A. M.; Woldering, L. A.; Vos, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Current nanostructure fabrication by etching is usually limited to planar structures as they are defined by a planar mask. The realization of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures by etching requires technologies beyond planar masks. We present a method for fabricating a 3D mask that allows one to etch three-dimensional monolithic nanostructures using only CMOS-compatible processes. The mask is written in a hard-mask layer that is deposited on two adjacent inclined surfaces of a Si wafer. By projecting in a single step two different 2D patterns within one 3D mask on the two inclined surfaces, the mutual alignment between the patterns is ensured. Thereby after the mask pattern is defined, the etching of deep pores in two oblique directions yields a three-dimensional structure in Si. As a proof of concept we demonstrate 3D mask fabrication for three-dimensional diamond-like photonic band gap crystals in silicon. The fabricated crystals reveal a broad stop gap in optical reflectivity measurements. We propose how 3D nanostructures with five different Bravais lattices can be realized, namely cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic and hexagonal, and demonstrate a mask for a 3D hexagonal crystal. We also demonstrate the mask for a diamond-structure crystal with a 3D array of cavities. In general, the 2D patterns on the different surfaces can be completely independently structured and still be in perfect mutual alignment. Indeed, we observe an alignment accuracy of better than 3.0 nm between the 2D mask patterns on the inclined surfaces, which permits one to etch well-defined monolithic 3D nanostructures.

  17. 2D and 3D X-Ray Structural Microscopy Using Submicron-Resolution Laue Microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Budai, John D.; Yang, Wenge; Larson, Bennett C.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E.

    2010-11-10

    We have developed a scanning, polychromatic x-ray microscopy technique with submicron spatial resolution at the Advanced Photon Source. In this technique, white undulator radiation is focused to submicron diameter using elliptical mirrors. Laue diffraction patterns scattered from the sample are collected with an area detector and then analyzed to obtain the local crystal structure, lattice orientation, and strain tensor. These new microdiffraction capabilities have enabled both 2D and 3D structural studies of materials on mesoscopic length-scales of tenths-to-hundreds of microns. For thin samples such as deposited films, 2D structural maps are obtained by step-scanning the area of interest. For example, 2D x-ray microscopy has been applied in studies of the epitaxial growth of oxide films. For bulk samples, a 3D differential-aperture x-ray microscopy technique has been developed that yields the full diffraction information from each submicron volume element. The capabilities of 3D x-ray microscopy are demonstrated here with measurements of grain orientations and grain boundary motion in polycrystalline aluminum during 3D thermal grain growth. X-ray microscopy provides the needed, direct link between the experimentally measured 3D microstructural evolution and the results of theory and modeling of materials processes on mesoscopic length scales.

  18. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  19. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  20. Decoder for 3-D color codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kung-Chuan; Brun, Todd

    Transversal circuits are important components of fault-tolerant quantum computation. Several classes of quantum error-correcting codes are known to have transversal implementations of any logical Clifford operation. However, to achieve universal quantum computation, it would be helpful to have high-performance error-correcting codes that have a transversal implementation of some logical non-Clifford operation. The 3-D color codes are a class of topological codes that permit transversal implementation of the logical π / 8 -gate. The decoding problem of a 3-D color code can be understood as a graph-matching problem on a three-dimensional lattice. Whether this class of codes will be useful in terms of performance is still an open question. We investigate the decoding problem of 3-D color codes and analyze the performance of some possible decoders.

  1. Fabrication and demonstration of square lattice two-dimensional rod-type photonic bandgap crystal optical intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Selin H. G.; Liu, A. Q.; Yu, M. B.; Singh, J.

    2006-05-01

    This paper reports fabrication and demonstration of optical intersections in two-dimensional (2D) rod-type photonic crystal (PhC) structures. High resolution and aspect ratio 2D square lattice PhC waveguide intersections were designed and fabricated for application at the optical communication wavelengths centered at 1550 nm. In the silicon processing front, challenges resolved to overcome issues of drastically reduced process windows caused by the dense PhC rods arrays with critical dimensions (CDs) reduced to only a few hundred nanometers were addressed not only in terms of critical process flow design but also in the development of each processing module. In the lithographic process of deep ultraviolet laser system working at 248 nm, PhC rods of sub-lithographic wavelength CDs (115 nm in radii) were realized in high resolution, even near periphery regions where proximity errors were prone. In the deep etching module, stringent requirements on etch angle control and low sidewall scallops (undulations arising from time multiplexed etch and passivation actions) were satisfied, to prevent catastrophic etch failures, and enable optical quality facets. The successfully fabricated PhCs were also monolithically integrated with large scale optical testing fiber grooves that enabled macro optical fiber assisted coupling to the micro scale PhC devices. In the optical experiments, the transmission and crosstalk properties for the PhC intersection devices with different rod radii at the center of the PhC optical waveguides crossings were measured with repeatability. The properties of the PhC intersections were therefore optimized and verified to correspond well with first principle finite difference time domain simulations.

  2. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  3. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  4. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  5. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  6. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography-based 3D nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-06-01

    We report a 'top-down' 3D nanofabrication approach combining non-conventional inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL) with reactive ion etching (RIE), contact molding and 3D metal nanotransfer printing (nTP). This integration of processes enables the production and conformal transfer of 3D polymer nanostructures of varying heights to a variety of other materials including a silicon-based substrate, a silicone stamp and a metal gold (Au) thin film. The process demonstrates the potential of reduced fabrication cost and complexity compared to existing methods. Various 3D nanostructures in technologically useful materials have been fabricated, including symmetric and asymmetric nanolines, nanocircles and nanosquares. Such 3D nanostructures have potential applications such as angle-resolved photonic crystals, plasmonic crystals and biomimicking anisotropic surfaces. This integrated INIL-based strategy shows great promise for 3D nanofabrication in the fields of photonics, plasmonics and surface tribology.

  7. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  9. High birefringent rectangular-lattice photonic crystal fibers with low confinement loss employing different sizes of elliptical air holes in the cladding and the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jianfei; Sun, Junqiang

    2012-12-01

    Based on the full-vector finite element method with anisotropic perfectly matched layers, modal birefringence and confinement loss for the fundamental mode in rectangular-lattice photonic crystal fibers with different sizes of elliptical air holes in the cladding and the core are investigated numerically. The results show that the modal birefringence in this proposed photonic crystal fibers can be up to 5.64 × 10-2 at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. Moreover, when the birefringence is higher than 4 × 10-2, the confinement loss of x-polarized mode can be kept less than 0.005 dB/km at 1.55 μm. It means that the tradeoff between the high birefringence and the low confinement loss is overcome.

  10. Numerical study of the 3-D effect on FEL performance and its application to the APS LEUTL FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Y.C.

    1998-09-01

    A Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). In LEUTL periodic focusing is provided by external quadrupoles. This results in an elliptical beam with its betatron oscillation envelope varying along the undulators. The free-electron laser (FEL) interaction with such a beam will exhibit truly 3-D effects. Thus the investigation of 3-D effects is important in optimizing the FEL performance. The programs GINGER and TDA3D, coupled with theoretically known facts, have been used for this purpose. Both programs are fully 3-D in moving the particle, but model the interaction between particles and axially symmetric electromagnetic waves. Even though TDA3D can include a few azimuthal modes in the interaction, it is still not a fully 3-D FEL code. However, they show that these 2-D programs can still be used for an elliptical beam whose aspect ratio is within certain limits. The author presents numerical results of FEL performance for the circular beam, the elliptical beam, and finally for the beam in the realistic LEUTL lattice.

  11. Interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation processes allow a photonic crystal to replace an ionic crystal along lattice planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesegang, Moritz; Milke, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    of fossil shells replaced by opal-A reveals clues for the understanding of structural and chemical reorganization mechanisms behind silica pseudomorphism. Fundamental knowledge about the highly selective replacement process is absent so far, impeding an adequate interpretation of the observations. The replacement of calcitic shells by amorphous silica spheres (~300 nm in size) is a unique example for the transformation of an ionic to a photonic crystal accompanied by a large size contrast of ions and spheres, respectively, but preserving lattice planes. The observed replication of polysynthetic twinning and cleavage planes of calcite by opal-A spheres indicates that silicification occurs via dissolution of shell material and immediate precipitation of amorphous silica. This follows the interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism model (Putnis and Putnis, 2007), but requires some modification to allow for open space necessary to form spheres in the 100s-nm size range with a core-shell structure. While sphere growth by a gravitational ordering process is implausible, we assume that the ordered array of monodisperse spheres forms via layer-by-layer deposition. References: Putnis A. and Putnis C.V. (2007), J. Solid State Chem., 180, 1783-1786

  12. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  13. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  14. Progress in sorting individual atoms in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tsung-Yao; Kumar, Aishwarya; Wang, Yang; Weiss, David

    2016-05-01

    An exactly unity filled optical lattice is a desirable initial state for a neutral atom quantum computer. We have previously proposed an efficient way to compact a partially filled lattice into a perfectly filled one, by combining site-resolved imaging, site-selective qubit rotations and state-selective motion steps. We have previously demonstrated site-resolved imaging and site-selective rotations in our system of cesium atoms in a 40% filled 5x5x5 3D lattice. We have now demonstrated the final element, state-selective motion steps in 3D produced by rotating the polarizations of one of the lattice beams in each pair. We will present our progress in putting all the elements together to reach perfect unity filling. Supported by NSF.

  15. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  16. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  17. LLNL-Earth3D

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  18. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  19. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  20. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  1. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  2. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  3. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  5. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  6. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  7. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  8. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  9. Patterned illumination for analysing neuronal function in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, Mary Ann; Stricker, Christian; Redman, Steve; Bachor, Hans; Daria, Vincent R.

    2012-06-01

    We use patterned 3D multi-spot illumination to perform neuronal multi-site stimulation in rat brain tissue. Using a spatial light modulator, we holograpically project 3D light fields for multi-site two-photon photolysis of caged neurotransmitters to generate synaptic inputs to a neuron. Controlled photostimulation of multiple synapses from various locations in the dendritic tree provides a way to analyze how neurons integrate multiple inputs. Our holographic projection setup is incorporated into a two-photon 3D imaging microscope for visualization and for accurate positioning of specific uncaging sites along the neuron's dendritic tree. We show two-photon images and the neuron's response to holographic photostimulation of synapses along dendrites.

  10. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  11. Time domain topology optimization of 3D nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elesin, Y.; Lazarov, B. S.; Jensen, J. S.; Sigmund, O.

    2014-02-01

    We present an efficient parallel topology optimization framework for design of large scale 3D nanophotonic devices. The code shows excellent scalability and is demonstrated for optimization of broadband frequency splitter, waveguide intersection, photonic crystal-based waveguide and nanowire-based waveguide. The obtained results are compared to simplified 2D studies and we demonstrate that 3D topology optimization may lead to significant performance improvements.

  12. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  13. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  14. IMRT versus 3D-CRT for thyroid cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizynska, Marta K.; Zawadzka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    A 3D-CRT involving a 4-field (5-field, 6-field, etc.) technique (photon and electron beams) and an alternative IMRT 7-field technique with 6 MV photon fields for thyroid cancer were compared. The IMRT allows reduction in the dose to the spinal cord of about 12 Gy and permits better coverage of the target volume with smaller standard deviation (average 4.65% for 3D-CRT as compared with 1.81% for IMRT). The time needed to prepare therapy (TPS, dosimetry, preparing boluses and electron aperture) and the session time are about the same for both techniques.

  15. Interaction-dependent photon-assisted tunneling in optical lattices: a quantum simulator of strongly-correlated electrons and dynamical Gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, Alejandro; Porras, Diego

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a scheme that combines photon-assisted tunneling (PAT) by a moving optical lattice with strong Hubbard interactions, and allows for the quantum simulation of paradigmatic quantum many-body models. We show that, in a certain regime, this quantum simulator yields an effective Hubbard Hamiltonian with tunable bond-charge interactions, a model studied in the context of strongly-correlated electrons. In a different regime, we show how to exploit a correlated destruction of tunneling to explore Nagaoka ferromagnetism at finite Hubbard repulsion. By changing the photon-assisted tunneling parameters, we can also obtain a t-J model with independently controllable tunneling t, super-exchange interaction J, and even a Heisenberg-Ising anisotropy. Hence, the full phase diagram of this paradigmatic model becomes accessible to cold-atom experiments, departing from the region t\\gg J allowed by standard single-band Hubbard Hamiltonians in the strong-repulsion limit. We finally show that, by generalizing the PAT scheme, the quantum simulator yields models of dynamical Gauge fields, where atoms of a given electronic state dress the tunneling of the atoms with a different internal state, leading to Peierls phases that mimic a dynamical magnetic field.

  16. Light bullets in three-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with modulated Kummer-Gauss photonic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Si-Liu; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the existence of spatiotemporal necklace vortex solitons or light bullets in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with the modulated Kummer-Gauss (KG) external lattice potential and the spiraling phase of vorticities S=0,1 , and 2. We find localized vortex necklaces in a three-dimensional nonlinear medium, trapped by the KG external potential with different orders of vorticity. Stable and quasi-stable solitons form from input pulses with embedded vorticity. The stability is established by calculating growth rates of the perturbed eigenmodes. We establish that spatiotemporal necklace solitons may coexist in a large domain of the parameter space.

  17. 3D printing of functional biomaterials for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Ma, Xuanyi; Gou, Maling; Mei, Deqing; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-08-01

    3D printing is emerging as a powerful tool for tissue engineering by enabling 3D cell culture within complex 3D biomimetic architectures. This review discusses the prevailing 3D printing techniques and their most recent applications in building tissue constructs. The work associated with relatively well-known inkjet and extrusion-based bioprinting is presented with the latest advances in the fields. Emphasis is put on introducing two relatively new light-assisted bioprinting techniques, including digital light processing (DLP)-based bioprinting and laser based two photon polymerization (TPP) bioprinting. 3D bioprinting of vasculature network is particularly discussed for its foremost significance in maintaining tissue viability and promoting functional maturation. Limitations to current bioprinting approaches, as well as future directions of bioprinting functional tissues are also discussed. PMID:27043763

  18. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  19. High-throughput three-dimensional (3D) lithographic microfabrication in biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.

    2010-02-01

    Two-photon excitation microfabrication has been shown to be useful in the field of photonics and biomedicine. It generates 3D microstructures and provides sub-diffraction fabrication resolution. Nevertheless, laser direct writing, the most popular two-photon fabrication technique, has slow fabrication speed, and its applications are limited to prototyping. In this proceeding, we propose high-throughput 3D lithographic microfabrication system based on depthresolved wide-field illumination and build several 3D microstructures with SU-8. Through these fabrications, 3D lithographic microfabrication has scalable function and high-throughput capability. It also has the potential for fabricating 3D microstructure in biomedical applications, such as intertwining channels in 3D microfluidic devices for biomedical analysis and 3D cell patterning in the tissue scaffolds.

  20. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  1. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  2. Absolute frequency and isotope shift of the magnesium (3 s2) 1S0→(3 s 3 d ) 1D2 two-photon transition by direct frequency-comb spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E.; Reinhardt, S.; Hänsch, Th. W.; Udem, Th.

    2015-12-01

    We use a picosecond frequency-doubled mode-locked titanium sapphire laser to generate a frequency comb at 431 nm in order to probe the (3 s2) 1S0 →(3 s 3 d ) 1D2 transition in atomic magnesium. Using a second, self-referenced femtosecond frequency comb, the absolute transition frequency and the 24Mg and 26Mg isotope shift is determined relative to a global-positioning-system-referenced hydrogen maser. Our result for the transition frequency of the main isotope 24Mg of 1 391 128 606.14 (12 ) MHz agrees with previous measurements and reduces its uncertainty by four orders of magnitude. For the isotope shift we find δ ν26 ,24=3915.13 (39 ) MHz. Accurate values for transition frequencies in Mg are relevant in astrophysics and to test atomic structure calculations.

  3. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  4. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  5. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  6. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  7. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  8. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  9. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  10. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  11. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  12. A naturally grown three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianxiang; Lu, Dazhi; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-02-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion via three-dimensional (3D) quasi-phase matching (QPM) process is experimentally realized based on a Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 (BCT) crystal. The ferroelectric domains in BCT crystal are observed, and the results reveal that the antiparallel domains distribute in three dimensions and can provide 3D reciprocal lattice vectors for QPM processes. Broadband petal-like second-harmonic patterns are achieved, which are well consistent with the theoretical quasi-cubic model of 3D nonlinear photonic crystals. Our work not only promotes the development of QPM technique but also builds a platform for 3D nonlinear optics and quantum optics.

  13. 3D printing of natural organic materials by photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Joyce Laura; Valandro, Silvano Rodrigo; Wu, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Mettra, Bastien; Monnereau, Cyrille; Schmitt Cavalheiro, Carla Cristina; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Focsan, Monica; Lin, Chih-Lang; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2016-03-01

    In previous works, we have used two-photon induced photochemistry to fabricate 3D microstructures based on proteins, anti-bodies, and enzymes for different types of bio-applications. Among them, we can cite collagen lines to guide the movement of living cells, peptide modified GFP biosensing pads to detect Gram positive bacteria, anti-body pads to determine the type of red blood cells, and trypsin columns in a microfluidic channel to obtain a real time biochemical micro-reactor. In this paper, we report for the first time on two-photon 3D microfabrication of DNA material. We also present our preliminary results on using a commercial 3D printer based on a video projector to polymerize slicing layers of gelatine-objects.

  14. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  15. Etched distributed Bragg reflectors as three-dimensional photonic crystals: photonic bands and density of states.

    PubMed

    Pavarini, E; Andreani, L C

    2002-09-01

    The photonic band dispersion and density of states (DOS) are calculated for the three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal structure corresponding to a distributed Bragg reflector patterned with a 2D triangular lattice of circular holes. Results for the Si/SiO(2) and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As systems determine the optimal parameters for which a gap in the 2D plane occurs and overlaps the 1D gap of the multilayer. The DOS is considerably reduced in correspondence with the overlap of 2D and 1D gaps. Also, the local density of states (i.e., the DOS weighted with the squared electric field at a given point) has strong variations depending on the position. Both results imply substantial changes of spontaneous emission rates and patterns for a local emitter embedded in the structure and make this system attractive for the fabrication of a 3D photonic crystal with controlled radiative properties. PMID:12366275

  16. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  17. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  18. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  19. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  20. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  1. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  2. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  3. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  4. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  5. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  6. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  7. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-08-01

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy.

  8. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-01-01

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy. PMID:27501761

  9. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Yung, Winco K C; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-01-01

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy. PMID:27501761

  10. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  11. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  12. A parallel algorithm for solving the 3d Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, Michael; Yager-Elorriaga, David

    2010-08-20

    We describe a parallel algorithm for solving the time-independent 3d Schroedinger equation using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We introduce an optimized parallelization scheme that reduces communication overhead between computational nodes. We demonstrate that the compute time, t, scales inversely with the number of computational nodes as t {proportional_to} (N{sub nodes}){sup -0.95} {sup {+-} 0.04}. This makes it possible to solve the 3d Schroedinger equation on extremely large spatial lattices using a small computing cluster. In addition, we present a new method for precisely determining the energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions of quantum states based on a symmetry constraint on the FDTD initial condition. Finally, we discuss the usage of multi-resolution techniques in order to speed up convergence on extremely large lattices.

  13. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  14. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  15. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  16. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  17. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  18. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  19. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  20. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  1. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  2. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  3. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  4. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  5. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  6. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  7. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  8. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  9. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  10. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  11. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  12. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  13. Silvered three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals having a large mid-infrared stop band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebler, Stephen M.; Tal, Amir; Chen, Yun-Sheng

    2007-02-01

    Interest in three-dimensional (3D) metal photonic crystals (MPCs) has grown considerably given their potential applications in optics and photonics. Yet, experimental studies of such materials remain few because of the difficulties associated with fabricating 3D micron- and sub-micron-scale metallic structures. We report a route to MPCs based on metallization of 3D polymeric photonic crystals fabricated by multi-photon direct laser writing. Polymeric photonic crystals (PCs) having simple-cubic symmetry with periodicities varying from 1.6 to 3.2 microns were created using a cross-linkable acrylate pre-polymer. The resulting dielectric PCs were metallized by electroless deposition of silver. Analysis of the metallized structures in cross-section by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that silver deposited conformally onto the entire micro-porous lattice. The dielectric and metallized PCs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the (001) direction. The polymer photonic crystals exhibit a stop band resulting in circa 60% reflectance centered at 3.2 to 6.4 microns, depending upon the lattice period, with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 500 nm. Interestingly, FTIR spectra of the metallized PCs show widened stop bands of nearly 6 microns FWHM, while the center wavelengths were red shifted and ranged from 6 to 7 microns. The appreciable broadening of the stop band due to the presence of the deposited silver is a result consistent with previously reported theoretical and experimental data for all-metallic 3D PCs. Thus, the approach described here appears suitable for fabricating 3D MPCs of many symmetries and basis sets and provides a path for integrating such structures with other micron-scale optical elements.

  14. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  15. Plasmon-induced efficiency enhancement on dye-sensitized solar cell by a 3D TNW-AuNP layer.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yin-Cheng; Chen, Po-Hung; Chen, Jing-Zhi; Chen, Jau-An; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2015-01-28

    A new 3D TNW-AuNP plasmonic electrode consists of antireflective (AR) TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) (∼600 nm thickness) serving as light-harvesting antennae coupling with Au nanoparticles (NPs). A huge red-shift of 55 nm is observed in surface plasmon spectra for the Au (11 nm) plasmonic electrode that has 11 nm size Au NPs, whereby (111) lattice planes have a specific bonding with the TiO2 (101) planes. Remarkable red-shift is mainly attributed to the localized electric field improvement resulting from the plasmonic coupling effect between the Au NPs and the Au-TiO2 hybrids. After TiCl4 treatment, this favorable Au (11 nm) nanostructure takes advantage of harvesting photons to increase the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) from 6.25% to 9.73%. PMID:25548958

  16. 3D printed microfluidic devices: enablers and barriers.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Sidra; Cabot, Joan M; Macdonald, Niall P; Lewis, Trevor; Guijt, Rosanne M; Paull, Brett; Breadmore, Michael C

    2016-05-24

    3D printing has the potential to significantly change the field of microfluidics. The ability to fabricate a complete microfluidic device in a single step from a computer model has obvious attractions, but it is the ability to create truly three dimensional structures that will provide new microfluidic capability that is challenging, if not impossible to make with existing approaches. This critical review covers the current state of 3D printing for microfluidics, focusing on the four most frequently used printing approaches: inkjet (i3DP), stereolithography (SLA), two photon polymerisation (2PP) and extrusion printing (focusing on fused deposition modeling). It discusses current achievements and limitations, and opportunities for advancement to reach 3D printing's full potential. PMID:27146365

  17. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  18. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  19. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  20. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  1. Measuring Lattice Strain in Three Dimensions through Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) atomic structure of nanomaterials, including strain, is crucial to understand their properties. Here, we investigate lattice strain in Au nanodecahedra using electron tomography. Although different electron tomography techniques enabled 3D characterizations of nanostructures at the atomic level, a reliable determination of lattice strain is not straightforward. We therefore propose a novel model-based approach from which atomic coordinates are measured. Our findings demonstrate the importance of investigating lattice strain in 3D. PMID:26340328

  2. Cryogenic 3-D Detectors for Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. A.; Martinez-Galarce, D.; Rausch, A.; Shing, L.; Deiker, S.; Boerner, P.; Metcalf, T.; Cabrera, B.; Leman, S. W.; Brink, P.; Irwin, K.; Alexander, D.

    2005-05-01

    Cryogenic microcalorimeters operating in the sub-Kelvin temperature range provide non-dispersive energy resolution at optical through gamma ray energies (e.g, E/Δ E ~ 1500 at 6 keV). Microcalorimeters also have high time resolution (msec or better), and can be made into imaging arrays through SQUID multiplexing of individual pixels or employing position sensitive detector structures. The application of such "3-D" detector technology to solar physics will lead to significant advances in our understanding of magnetic reconnection in the Sun, including X-ray jet phenomena, and active region heating and dynamics. An Explorer-class solar mission within the next 5-10 years, based upon these detectors, is rapidly becoming technically feasible. LMSAL currently has an internally funded laboratory research program to investigate TES (Transition Edge Sensor) microcalorimeters; we recently saw our first X-ray photons using TES detectors supplied by NIST. In addition, we have recently been funded by NASA to begin work with NIST on position-sensitive X-ray strip detectors for solar physics applications. Finally, we are collaborating with with Stanford and NIST on a solar sounding rocket. In this presentation, we will discuss the current status of these programs and their applicability to future Explorer missions and Roadmap missions such as RAM.

  3. Yogi the rock - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  4. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  5. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  6. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  7. A method to fabricate disconnected silver nanostructures in 3D.

    PubMed

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Mazur, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The standard nanofabrication toolkit includes techniques primarily aimed at creating 2D patterns in dielectric media. Creating metal patterns on a submicron scale requires a combination of nanofabrication tools and several material processing steps. For example, steps to create planar metal structures using ultraviolet photolithography and electron-beam lithography can include sample exposure, sample development, metal deposition, and metal liftoff. To create 3D metal structures, the sequence is repeated multiple times. The complexity and difficulty of stacking and aligning multiple layers limits practical implementations of 3D metal structuring using standard nanofabrication tools. Femtosecond-laser direct-writing has emerged as a pre-eminent technique for 3D nanofabrication.(1,2) Femtosecond lasers are frequently used to create 3D patterns in polymers and glasses.(3-7) However, 3D metal direct-writing remains a challenge. Here, we describe a method to fabricate silver nanostructures embedded inside a polymer matrix using a femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm. The method enables the fabrication of patterns not feasible using other techniques, such as 3D arrays of disconnected silver voxels.(8) Disconnected 3D metal patterns are useful for metamaterials where unit cells are not in contact with each other,(9) such as coupled metal dot(10,11)or coupled metal rod(12,13) resonators. Potential applications include negative index metamaterials, invisibility cloaks, and perfect lenses. In femtosecond-laser direct-writing, the laser wavelength is chosen such that photons are not linearly absorbed in the target medium. When the laser pulse duration is compressed to the femtosecond time scale and the radiation is tightly focused inside the target, the extremely high intensity induces nonlinear absorption. Multiple photons are absorbed simultaneously to cause electronic transitions that lead to material modification within the focused region. Using this approach, one can

  8. 3D two-photon lithographic microfabrication system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.

    2011-03-08

    An imaging system is provided that includes a optical pulse generator for providing an optical pulse having a spectral bandwidth and includes monochromatic waves having different wavelengths. A dispersive element receives a second optical pulse associated with the optical pulse and disperses the second optical pulse at different angles on the surface of the dispersive element depending on wavelength. One or more focal elements receives the dispersed second optical pulse produced on the dispersive element. The one or more focal element recombine the dispersed second optical pulse at a focal plane on a specimen where the width of the optical pulse is restored at the focal plane.

  9. Topological order in an exactly solvable 3D spin model

    SciTech Connect

    Bravyi, Sergey; Leemhuis, Bernhard; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: RHtriangle We study exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest neighbor interactions on a 3D face centered cubic lattice. RHtriangle The ground space of the model exhibits topological quantum order. RHtriangle Elementary excitations can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. RHtriangle The ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. RHtriangle Logical operators acting on the encoded qubits are described in terms of closed strings and closed membranes. - Abstract: We study a 3D generalization of the toric code model introduced recently by Chamon. This is an exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest-neighbor interactions on an FCC lattice whose ground space exhibits topological quantum order. The elementary excitations of this model which we call monopoles can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. We prove that the creation of an isolated monopole separated from other monopoles by a distance R requires an operator acting on {Omega}(R{sup 2}) qubits. Composite particles that consist of two monopoles (dipoles) and four monopoles (quadrupoles) can be described as end-points of strings. The peculiar feature of the model is that dipole-type strings are rigid, that is, such strings must be aligned with face-diagonals of the lattice. For periodic boundary conditions the ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. We describe a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded qubits in terms of closed strings and closed membranes.

  10. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Yang, Feifei; Zhao, Haiming; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells.

  11. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Yang, FeiFei; Zhao, HaiMing; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, JianZhong

    2016-01-01

    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells. PMID:27436509

  12. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Yang, FeiFei; Zhao, HaiMing; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, JianZhong

    2016-01-01

    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells. PMID:27436509

  13. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  14. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  15. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  16. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  17. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  18. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  19. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  20. Cloud Property Retrieval and 3D Radiative Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Cloud thickness and photon mean-free-path together determine the scale of "radiative smoothing" of cloud fluxes and radiances. This scale is observed as a change in the spatial spectrum of cloud radiances, and also as the "halo size" seen by off beam lidar such as THOR and WAIL. Such of beam lidar returns are now being used to retrieve cloud layer thickness and vertical scattering extinction profile. We illustrate with recent measurements taken at the Oklahoma ARM site, comparing these to the-dependent 3D simulations. These and other measurements sensitive to 3D transfer in clouds, coupled with Monte Carlo and other 3D transfer methods, are providing a better understanding of the dependence of radiation on cloud inhomogeneity, and to suggest new retrieval algorithms appropriate for inhomogeneous clouds. The international "Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes" or I3RC, program is coordinating and evaluating the variety of 3D radiative transfer methods now available, and to make them more widely available. Information is on the Web at: http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Input consists of selected cloud fields derived from data sources such as radar, microwave and satellite, and from models involved in the GEWEX Cloud Systems Studies. Output is selected radiative quantities that characterize the large-scale properties of the fields of radiative fluxes and heating. Several example cloud fields will be used to illustrate. I3RC is currently implementing an "open source" 3d code capable of solving the baseline cases. Maintenance of this effort is one of the goals of a new 3DRT Working Group under the International Radiation Commission. It is hoped that the 3DRT WG will include active participation by land and ocean modelers as well, such as 3D vegetation modelers participating in RAMI.

  1. Investigation of anisotropic photonic band gaps in three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals containing the uniaxial material

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Kun

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, the dispersive properties of three-dimensional (3D) magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) composed of anisotropic dielectric (the uniaxial material) spheres immersed in homogeneous magnetized plasma background with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, as the Voigt effects of magnetized plasma are considered. The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and two flatbands regions can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, plasma frequency, and external magnetic field on the dispersive properties of the 3D MPPCs are investigated in detail, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in 3D MPPCs with fcc lattices and the complete PBGs can be found compared to the conventional 3D MPPCs doped by the isotropic material. The bandwidths of PBGs can be tuned by introducing the magnetized plasma into 3D PCs containing the uniaxial material. It is also shown that the anisotropic PBGs can be manipulated by the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, plasma frequency, and external magnetic field, respectively. The locations of flatbands regions cannot be manipulated by any parameters except for the plasma frequency and external magnetic field. Introducing the uniaxial material can obtain the complete PBGs as the 3D MPPCs with high symmetry and also provides a way to design the tunable devices.

  2. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  3. The Esri 3D city information model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

    2014-02-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

  4. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  5. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  6. Three-dimensional photon counting double-random-phase encryption.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungjin; Javidi, Bahram

    2013-09-01

    In this Letter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) photon counting double-random-phase encryption (DRPE) technique using passive integral imaging. A 3D photon counting DRPE can encrypt a 3D scene and provides more security and authentications due to photon counting Poisson nonlinear transformation on the encrypted image. In addition, 3D imaging allows verification of the 3D object at different depths. Preliminary results and performance evaluation have been presented. PMID:23988912

  7. UNIQUIMER 3D, a software system for structural DNA nanotechnology design, analysis and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinhao; Wei, Bryan; Yuan, Yuan; Mi, Yongli

    2009-01-01

    A user-friendly software system, UNIQUIMER 3D, was developed to design DNA structures for nanotechnology applications. It consists of 3D visualization, internal energy minimization, sequence generation and construction of motif array simulations (2D tiles and 3D lattices) functionalities. The system can be used to check structural deformation and design errors under scaled-up conditions. UNIQUIMER 3D has been tested on the design of both existing motifs (holiday junction, 4 × 4 tile, double crossover, DNA tetrahedron, DNA cube, etc.) and nonexisting motifs (soccer ball). The results demonstrated UNIQUIMER 3D's capability in designing large complex structures. We also designed a de novo sequence generation algorithm. UNIQUIMER 3D was developed for the Windows environment and is provided free of charge to the nonprofit research institutions. PMID:19228709

  8. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  9. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  10. Advanced 3D imaging lidar concepts for long range sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K. J.; Hiskett, P. A.; Lamb, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Recent developments in 3D imaging lidar are presented. Long range 3D imaging using photon counting is now a possibility, offering a low-cost approach to integrated remote sensing with step changing advantages in size, weight and power compared to conventional analogue active imaging technology. We report results using a Geiger-mode array for time-of-flight, single photon counting lidar for depth profiling and determination of the shape and size of tree canopies and distributed surface reflections at a range of 9km, with 4μJ pulses with a frame rate of 100kHz using a low-cost fibre laser operating at a wavelength of λ=1.5 μm. The range resolution is less than 4cm providing very high depth resolution for target identification. This specification opens up several additional functionalities for advanced lidar, for example: absolute rangefinding and depth profiling for long range identification, optical communications, turbulence sensing and time-of-flight spectroscopy. Future concepts for 3D time-of-flight polarimetric and multispectral imaging lidar, with optical communications in a single integrated system are also proposed.

  11. Synthetic dimensions in integrated photonics: From optical isolation to four-dimensional quantum Hall physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Goldman, Nathan; Zilberberg, Oded; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2016-04-01

    Recent technological advances in integrated photonics have spurred on the study of topological phenomena in engineered bosonic systems. Indeed, the controllability of silicon ring-resonator arrays has opened up new perspectives for building lattices for photons with topologically nontrivial bands and integrating them into photonic devices for practical applications. Here, we push these developments even further by exploiting the different modes of a silicon ring resonator as an extra dimension for photons. Tunneling along this synthetic dimension is implemented via an external time-dependent modulation that allows for the generation of engineered gauge fields. We show how this approach can be used to generate a variety of exciting topological phenomena in integrated photonics, ranging from a topologically-robust optical isolator in a spatially one-dimensional (1D) ring-resonator chain to a driven-dissipative analog of the 4D quantum Hall effect in a spatially 3D resonator lattice. Our proposal paves the way towards the use of topological effects in the design of novel photonic lattices supporting many frequency channels and displaying higher connectivities.

  12. Spectral plasmonic effect in the nano-cavity of dye-doped nanosphere-based photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ashish; Danesh, Mohammad; Zhong, Liubiao; Cheng, Gary J.; Jiang, Lin; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated three-dimensional PMMA-based photonic crystal (3D-PC) nanostructures attached to Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), which undergo self-organization into super lattice planes and enhance the fluorescence properties. This new structure exhibited interesting tunable spectral, peak broadening plasmonic behavior because of strong plasmonic interaction at high laser powers. The presented work provides an important tool to improve the efficiency of dye laser applications.

  13. Spectral plasmonic effect in the nano-cavity of dye-doped nanosphere-based photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ashish; Danesh, Mohammad; Zhong, Liubiao; Cheng, Gary J; Jiang, Lin; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-04-22

    We demonstrated three-dimensional PMMA-based photonic crystal (3D-PC) nanostructures attached to Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), which undergo self-organization into super lattice planes and enhance the fluorescence properties. This new structure exhibited interesting tunable spectral, peak broadening plasmonic behavior because of strong plasmonic interaction at high laser powers. The presented work provides an important tool to improve the efficiency of dye laser applications. PMID:26954366

  14. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  15. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  16. An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.

  17. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  18. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  19. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  20. Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539

  1. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields.

    PubMed

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain-reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. PMID:24012934

  2. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  3. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-06-28

    Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies. PMID:27183171

  4. Directing Matter: Towards Atomic Scale 3D Nanofabrication

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-01-01

    Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids,more » and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.« less

  5. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  6. Macroporous photonic crystal-based anti-ultraviolet and anti-near-infrared materials by doctor blade coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chang-Yun; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chen, Ying-Chu; Yang, Hongta

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we report a roll-to-roll compatible bottom-up self-assembly approach to fabricate double-multilayer macroporous polymer photonic crystals consisting of a multilayer of three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal close-packed (HCP) 200 nm spherical pores and a multilayer of 3D HCP 500 nm spherical pores. Both optical measurements and theoretical predictions reveal that the as-prepared polymer film exhibits anti-ultraviolet and anti-near-infrared properties caused by the Bragg's diffractive of incident ultraviolet radiation and near-infrared radiation from the crystalline lattice of air cavities in the polymer film.

  7. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  8. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  9. Generation and use of measurement-based 3-D dose distributions for 3-D dose calculation verification.

    PubMed

    Stern, R L; Fraass, B A; Gerhardsson, A; McShan, D L; Lam, K L

    1992-01-01

    A 3-D radiation therapy treatment planning system calculates dose to an entire volume of points and therefore requires a 3-D distribution of measured dose values for quality assurance and dose calculation verification. To measure such a volumetric distribution with a scanning ion chamber is prohibitively time consuming. A method is presented for the generation of a 3-D grid of dose values based on beam's-eye-view (BEV) film dosimetry. For each field configuration of interest, a set of BEV films at different depths is obtained and digitized, and the optical densities are converted to dose. To reduce inaccuracies associated with film measurement of megavoltage photon depth doses, doses on the different planes are normalized using an ion-chamber measurement of the depth dose. A 3-D grid of dose values is created by interpolation between BEV planes along divergent beam rays. This matrix of measurement-based dose values can then be compared to calculations over the entire volume of interest. This method is demonstrated for three different field configurations. Accuracy of the film-measured dose values is determined by 1-D and 2-D comparisons with ion chamber measurements. Film and ion chamber measurements agree within 2% in the central field regions and within 2.0 mm in the penumbral regions. PMID:1620042

  10. 3D sensor for indirect ranging with pulsed laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronzi, D.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Scarcella, C.; Bahgat Shehata, A.; Tosi, A.; Padovini, G.; Zappa, F.; Tisa, S.; Durini, D.; Weyers, S.; Brockherde, W.

    2012-10-01

    The growing interest for fast, compact and cost-effective 3D ranging imagers for automotive applications has prompted to explore many different techniques for 3D imaging and to develop new system for this propose. CMOS imagers that exploit phase-resolved techniques provide accurate 3D ranging with no complex optics and are rugged and costeffective. Phase-resolved techniques indirectly measure the round-trip return of the light emitted by a laser and backscattered from a distant target, computing the phase delay between the modulated light and the detected signal. Singlephoton detectors, with their high sensitivity, allow to actively illuminate the scene with a low power excitation (less than 10W with diffused daylight illumination). We report on a 4x4 array of CMOS SPAD (Single Photon Avalanche Diodes) designed in a high-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology, for pulsed modulation, in which each pixel computes the phase difference between the laser and the reflected pulse. Each pixel comprises a high-performance 30 μm diameter SPAD, an analog quenching circuit, two 9 bit up-down counters and memories to store data during the readout. The first counter counts the photons detected by the SPAD in a time window synchronous with the laser pulse and integrates the whole echoed signal. The second counter accumulates the number of photon detected in a window shifted with respect to the laser pulse, and acquires only a portion of the reflected signal. The array is readout with a global shutter architecture, using a 100 MHz clock; the maximal frame rate is 3 Mframe/s.

  11. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. PMID:27305061

  12. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary. PMID:22745004

  13. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  14. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  15. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  16. Stereoscopic Investigations of 3D Coulomb Balls

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander

    2005-10-31

    In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate 3D spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full 3D particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.

  17. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, W.

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  18. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  19. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  20. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  1. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  2. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  3. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  4. 3D Photofixation Lithography in Diels–Alder Networks

    PubMed Central

    Adzima, Brian J.; Kloxin, Christopher J.; DeForest, Cole A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2013-01-01

    3D structures were written and developed in a crosslinked polymer initially formed by a Diels–Alder reaction. Unlike conventional liquid resists, small features cannot sediment, as the reversible crosslinks function as a support, and the modulus of the material is in the MPa range at room temperature. The support structure, however, can be easily removed by heating the material which depolymerizes the polymer into a mixture of low-viscosity monomers. Complex shapes were written into the polymer network using two-photon techniques to spatially control the photoinitiation and subsequent thiol–ene reaction to selectively convert the Diels–Alder adducts into irreversible crosslinks. PMID:23080017

  5. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  6. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790

  7. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  8. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  9. Concentrated hydroxyapatite inks for direct-write assembly of 3-D periodic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Michna, Sarah; Wu, Willie; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2005-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with a 3-D periodic architecture and multiscale porosity have been fabricated by direct-write assembly. Concentrated HA inks with tailored viscoelastic properties were developed to enable the construction of complex 3-D architectures comprised of self-supporting cylindrical rods in a layer-by-layer patterning sequence. By controlling their lattice constant and sintering conditions, 3-D periodic HA scaffolds were produced with a bimodal pore size distribution. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was used to determine the characteristic pore size and volume associated with the interconnected pore channels between HA rods and the finer pores within the partially sintered HA rods. PMID:15878368

  10. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  11. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  12. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  13. New lattice Boltzmann method for the simulation of three-dimensional radiation transfer in turbid media.

    PubMed

    McHardy, Christopher; Horneber, Tobias; Rauh, Cornelia

    2016-07-25

    Based on the kinetic theory of photons, a new lattice Boltzmann method for the simulation of 3D radiation transport is presented. The method was successfully validated with Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport in optical thick absorbing and non-absorbing turbid media containing either isotropic or anisotropic scatterers. Moreover, for the approximation of Mie-scattering, a new iterative algebraic approach for the discretization of the scattering phase function was developed, ensuring full conservation of energy and asymmetry after discretization. It was found that the main error sources of the method are caused by linearization and ray effects and suggestions for further improvement of the method are made. PMID:27464152

  14. Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional infrared photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavieh, Lisa

    It has been predicted theoretically that photonic crystals can be used to control the propagation of light through dielectric media for wavelengths extending beyond the microwave to include the infrared and the visible. Fabrication of 3-D photonic crystals with a bandgap in the near infrared or visible would have application in the design of a new class of photonic devices that include optical mirrors, waveguides, and cavity resonators. Demonstrations of 3-D photonic crystals have been limited primarily to the microwave and infrared wavelength regimes because of the constraints imposed by the nanometer scale dimensions required for operation in the visible. This thesis presents a novel method of fabricating a simple cubic photonic crystal which potentially can be tailored to operate at any wavelength. Fabrication was broken down into several processing steps, each of which was investigated independently. Design of Experiment (DOE) was used in a parametric study to optimize dry etching conditions by which GaAs/AlxGa1--x As multilayer structures were etched with anisotropic profile and rapid etch rate. Also, the etching properties of diffusion controlled wet lateral etching of buried AlxGa1--xAs layers in hydrofluoric acid solutions (HF) were investigated. Using the results obtained from the etching studies, both dry and wet etching techniques were employed to fabricate the simple-cubic photonic structure. Following fabrication, the photonic crystal was characterized at normal angles and oblique incidence using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental results show strong correlation to theoretically predicted values. The simplicity of the process and positive results indicate that it may be possible to scale down the structure to obtain an photonic band lattice with a bandgap of 1.55 mum.

  15. Mechanical properties of 3D ceramic nanolattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Lucas

    Developments in advanced nanoscale fabrication techniques have allowed for the creation of 3-dimensional hierarchical structural meta-materials that can be designed with arbitrary geometry. These structures can be made on length scales spanning multiple orders of magnitude, from tens of nanometers to hundreds of microns. The smallest features are controllable on length scales where materials have been shown to exhibit size effects in their mechanical properties. Combining novel nanoscale mechanical properties with a 3-dimensional architecture enables the creation of new classes of materials with tunable and unprecedented mechanical properties. We present the fabrication and mechanical deformation of hollow tube alumina nanolattices that were fabricated using two-photon lithography direct laser writing (DLW), atomic layer deposition (ALD), and oxygen plasma etching. Nanolattices were designed in a number of different geometries including octet-truss, octahedron, and 3D Kagome. Additionally, a number of structural parameters were varied including tube wall thickness (t) , tube major axis (a) , and unit cell size (L) . The resulting nanolattices had a range of densities from ρ = 4 to 250 mg/cm3. Uniaxial compression and cyclic loading tests were performed on the nanolattices to obtain the yield strength and modulus. In these tests, a marked change in the deformation response was observed when the wall thickness was reduced below 20nm; thick-walled nanolattices (t>20nm) underwent catastrophic, brittle failure, which transitioned to a gradual, ductile-like deformation as wall thickness was reduced. Thick-walled nanolattices also exhibited no recovery after compression, while thin-walled structures demonstrated notable recovery, with some recovering by 98% after compression to 50% strain and by 80% when compressed to 90% strain. Across all geometries, unit cell sizes, and wall thicknesses, we found a consistent power law relation between strength and modulus with

  16. Mechanics of advanced fiber reinforced lattice composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hua-Lin; Zeng, Tao; Fang, Dai-Ning; Yang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Fiber reinforced lattice composites are light-weight attractive due to their high specific strength and specific stiffness. In the past 10 years, researchers developed three-dimensional (3D) lattice trusses and two-dimensional (2D) lattice grids by various methods including interlacing, weaving, interlocking, filament winding and molding hot-press. The lattice composites have been applied in the fields of radar cross-section reduction, explosive absorption and heat-resistance. In this paper, topologies of the lattice composites, their manufacturing routes, as well as their mechanical and multifunctional applications, were surveyed.

  17. Hadronic Interactions from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos

    2006-03-19

    In this talk I discuss a few recent results on lattice calculations of scattering lengths in hadronic processes. In particular, I present the scattering length of the pion-pion scattering in the I=2 channel and the nucleon-nucleon {sup 1}S{sub 0} channel and {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} coupled channels.

  18. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  19. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  20. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

  1. Heterogeneously Assembled Metamaterials and Metadevices via 3D Modular Transfer Printing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungwoo; Kang, Byungsoo; Keum, Hohyun; Ahmed, Numair; Rogers, John A.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Kim, Seok; Min, Bumki

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have made the exotic control of the flow of electromagnetic waves possible, which is difficult to achieve with natural materials. In recent years, the emergence of functional metadevices has shown immense potential for the practical realization of highly efficient photonic devices. However, complex and heterogeneous architectures that enable diverse functionalities of metamaterials and metadevices have been challenging to realize because of the limited manufacturing capabilities of conventional fabrication methods. Here, we show that three-dimensional (3D) modular transfer printing can be used to construct diverse metamaterials in complex 3D architectures on universal substrates, which is attractive for achieving on-demand photonic properties. Few repetitive processing steps and rapid constructions are additional advantages of 3D modular transfer printing. Thus, this method provides a fascinating route to generate flexible and stretchable 2D/3D metamaterials and metadevices with heterogeneous material components, complex device architectures, and diverse functionalities. PMID:27283594

  2. Heterogeneously Assembled Metamaterials and Metadevices via 3D Modular Transfer Printing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwoo; Kang, Byungsoo; Keum, Hohyun; Ahmed, Numair; Rogers, John A; Ferreira, Placid M; Kim, Seok; Min, Bumki

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have made the exotic control of the flow of electromagnetic waves possible, which is difficult to achieve with natural materials. In recent years, the emergence of functional metadevices has shown immense potential for the practical realization of highly efficient photonic devices. However, complex and heterogeneous architectures that enable diverse functionalities of metamaterials and metadevices have been challenging to realize because of the limited manufacturing capabilities of conventional fabrication methods. Here, we show that three-dimensional (3D) modular transfer printing can be used to construct diverse metamaterials in complex 3D architectures on universal substrates, which is attractive for achieving on-demand photonic properties. Few repetitive processing steps and rapid constructions are additional advantages of 3D modular transfer printing. Thus, this method provides a fascinating route to generate flexible and stretchable 2D/3D metamaterials and metadevices with heterogeneous material components, complex device architectures, and diverse functionalities. PMID:27283594

  3. Heterogeneously Assembled Metamaterials and Metadevices via 3D Modular Transfer Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwoo; Kang, Byungsoo; Keum, Hohyun; Ahmed, Numair; Rogers, John A.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Kim, Seok; Min, Bumki

    2016-06-01

    Metamaterials have made the exotic control of the flow of electromagnetic waves possible, which is difficult to achieve with natural materials. In recent years, the emergence of functional metadevices has shown immense potential for the practical realization of highly efficient photonic devices. However, complex and heterogeneous architectures that enable diverse functionalities of metamaterials and metadevices have been challenging to realize because of the limited manufacturing capabilities of conventional fabrication methods. Here, we show that three-dimensional (3D) modular transfer printing can be used to construct diverse metamaterials in complex 3D architectures on universal substrates, which is attractive for achieving on-demand photonic properties. Few repetitive processing steps and rapid constructions are additional advantages of 3D modular transfer printing. Thus, this method provides a fascinating route to generate flexible and stretchable 2D/3D metamaterials and metadevices with heterogeneous material components, complex device architectures, and diverse functionalities.

  4. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  5. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  6. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  7. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  8. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  10. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

  11. New method of 3-D object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, An-Zhi; Li, Qun Z.; Miao, Peng C.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, a new method of 3-D object recognition using optical techniques and a computer is presented. We perform 3-D object recognition using moire contour to obtain the object's 3- D coordinates, projecting drawings of the object in three coordinate planes to describe it and using a method of inquiring library of judgement to match objects. The recognition of a simple geometrical entity is simulated by computer and studied experimentally. The recognition of an object which is composed of a few simple geometrical entities is discussed.

  12. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  13. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  14. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  15. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  16. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  19. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  20. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs.

    PubMed

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-07-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson-Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  1. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Rack, Philip D.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-05-16

    Here we report that enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3Dmore » structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. Lastly, in this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.« less

  2. Photonic crystals: Theory and device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shanhui

    In this thesis, first-principle frequency-domain and time-domain methods are developed and applied to investigate various properties and device applications of photonic crystals. In Chapter 2, I discuss the two numerical methods used to investigate the properties of photonic crystals. The first solves Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain, while the second solves the equations in the time domain. The frequency-domain method yields the frequency, polarization, symmetry, and field distribution of every eigenmode of the system; the time-domain method allows one to determine the temporal behavior of the modes. In Chapter 3, a new class of three-dimensional photonic crystal structures is introduced that is amenable for fabrication at submicron-length scales. The structures give rise to a 3D photonic bandgap. They consist of a layered structure in which a series of cylindrical air holes are etched at normal incidence. The calculation demonstrates the existence of a gap as large as 14% of the mid-gap frequency using Si, SiO2, and air; and 23% using Si and air. In Chapter 4, the bandstructure and transmission properties of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals are presented. The metallodielectric crystals are modeled as perfect electrical conducting objects embedded in dielectric media. We investigate the face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice, and the diamond lattice. Partial gaps are predicted in the fcc lattice, in excellent agreement with recent experiments. Complete gaps are found in a diamond lattice of isolated metal spheres. The gaps appear between the second and third bands, and their sizes can be larger than 60% when the radius of the spheres exceeds 21% of the cubic unit cell size. In Chapter 5, I investigate the properties of resonant modes which arise from the introduction of local defects in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D photonic crystals. The properties of these modes can be controlled by changing the nature and the size of the defects. The

  3. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  4. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  5. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  6. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  7. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  8. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  9. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  10. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  11. 3D-patterned polymer brush surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuechang; Liu, Xuqing; Xie, Zhuang; Zheng, Zijian

    2011-12-01

    Polymer brush-based three-dimensional (3D) structures are emerging as a powerful platform to engineer a surface by providing abundant spatially distributed chemical and physical properties. In this feature article, we aim to give a summary of the recent progress on the fabrication of 3D structures with polymer brushes, with a particular focus on the micro- and nanoscale. We start with a brief introduction on polymer brushes and the challenges to prepare their 3D structures. Then, we highlight the recent advances of the fabrication approaches on the basis of traditional polymerization time and grafting density strategies, and a recently developed feature density strategy. Finally, we provide some perspective outlooks on the future directions of engineering the 3D structures with polymer brushes.

  12. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  13. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  14. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  15. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  16. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  17. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  18. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  19. Radiosity diffusion model in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin

    2001-11-01

    We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

  20. 3D-HST results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-HST survey is providing a comprehensive census of the distant Universe, combining HST WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy with a myriad of other ground- and space-based datasets. This talk constitutes an overview of science results from the survey, with a focus on ongoing work and ways to exploit the rich public release of the 3D-HST data.

  1. Magnetism In 3d Transition Metals at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Iota, V

    2006-02-09

    This research project examined the changes in electronic and magnetic properties of transition metals and oxides under applied pressures, focusing on complex relationship between magnetism and phase stability in these correlated electron systems. As part of this LDRD project, we developed new measurement techniques and adapted synchrotron-based electronic and magnetic measurements for use in the diamond anvil cell. We have performed state-of-the-art X-ray spectroscopy experiments at the dedicated high-pressure beamline HP-CAT (Sector 16 Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory), maintained in collaboration with of University of Nevada, Las Vegas and Geophysical Laboratory of The Carnegie Institution of Washington. Using these advanced measurements, we determined the evolution of the magnetic order in the ferromagnetic 3d transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) under pressure, and found that at high densities, 3d band broadening results in diminished long range magnetic coupling. Our experiments have allowed us to paint a unified picture of the effects of pressure on the evolution of magnetic spin in 3d electron systems. The technical and scientific advances made during this LDRD project have been reported at a number of scientific meetings and conferences, and have been submitted for publication in technical journals. Both the technical advances and the physical understanding of correlated systems derived from this LDRD are being applied to research on the 4f and 5f electron systems under pressure.

  2. A 3D image analysis tool for SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontos, Despina; Wang, Qiang; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Maurer, Alan H.; Knight, Linda C.; Kantor, Steve; Fisher, Robert S.; Simonian, Hrair P.; Parkman, Henry P.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed semi-automated and fully-automated tools for the analysis of 3D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The focus is on the efficient boundary delineation of complex 3D structures that enables accurate measurement of their structural and physiologic properties. We employ intensity based thresholding algorithms for interactive and semi-automated analysis. We also explore fuzzy-connectedness concepts for fully automating the segmentation process. We apply the proposed tools to SPECT image data capturing variation of gastric accommodation and emptying. These image analysis tools were developed within the framework of a noninvasive scintigraphic test to measure simultaneously both gastric emptying and gastric volume after ingestion of a solid or a liquid meal. The clinical focus of the particular analysis was to probe associations between gastric accommodation/emptying and functional dyspepsia. Employing the proposed tools, we outline effectively the complex three dimensional gastric boundaries shown in the 3D SPECT images. We also perform accurate volume calculations in order to quantitatively assess the gastric mass variation. This analysis was performed both with the semi-automated and fully-automated tools. The results were validated against manual segmentation performed by a human expert. We believe that the development of an automated segmentation tool for SPECT imaging of the gastric volume variability will allow for other new applications of SPECT imaging where there is a need to evaluate complex organ function or tumor masses.

  3. Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass.

    PubMed

    Bellec, Matthieu; Royon, Arnaud; Bousquet, Bruno; Bourhis, Kevin; Treguer, Mona; Cardinal, Thierry; Richardson, Martin; Canioni, Lionel

    2009-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) femtosecond laser direct structuring in transparent materials is widely used for photonic applications. However, the structure size is limited by the optical diffraction. Here we report on a direct laser writing technique that produces subwavelength nanostructures independently of the experimental limiting factors. We demonstrate 3D nanostructures of arbitrary patterns with feature sizes down to 80 nm, less than one tenth of the laser processing wavelength. Its ease of implementation for novel nanostructuring, with its accompanying high precision will open new opportunities for the fabrication of nanostructures for plasmonic and photonic devices and for applications in metamaterials. PMID:19506684

  4. Air-structured optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kevin; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Canning, John; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md. Arafat; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-09-01

    We report the first optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform. An air-structured polymer preform is printed using a modified butadiene plastic called Bendlay as opposed to the more-common Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). The preform is subsequently drawn to fibre form at a relatively low temperature of 160 °C and maintains its air-structured cladding holes. Such ability to freely-design and 3D-print complex preform structures, such as photonic bandgap and photonic crystal structures, opens up an exciting new front in optical fibre fabrication.

  5. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  6. 3D model reconstruction of underground goaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan

    2005-10-01

    Constructing 3D model of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and 3D model reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and 3D model construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A 3D model construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (triangulated irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf models is established. TIN object is the basic modeling element of goaf 3D model, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various 3D spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the model and algorithm proposed in this paper.

  7. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems. PMID:22752138

  8. DYNA3D example problem manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-10-10

    This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Full Core 3-D Simulation of a Partial MOX LWR Core

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bays; W. Skerjanc; M. Pope

    2009-05-01

    A comparative analysis and comparison of results obtained between 2-D lattice calculations and 3-D full core nodal calculations, in the frame of MOX fuel design, was conducted. This study revealed a set of advantages and disadvantages, with respect to each method, which can be used to guide the level of accuracy desired for future fuel and fuel cycle calculations. For the purpose of isotopic generation for fuel cycle analyses, the approach of using a 2-D lattice code (i.e., fuel assembly in infinite lattice) gave reasonable predictions of uranium and plutonium isotope concentrations at the predicted 3-D core simulation batch average discharge burnup. However, it was found that the 2-D lattice calculation can under-predict the power of pins located along a shared edge between MOX and UO2 by as much as 20%. In this analysis, this error did not occur in the peak pin. However, this was a coincidence and does not rule out the possibility that the peak pin could occur in a lattice position with high calculation uncertainty in future un-optimized studies. Another important consideration in realistic fuel design is the prediction of the peak axial burnup and neutron fluence. The use of 3-D core simulation gave peak burnup conditions, at the pellet level, to be approximately 1.4 times greater than what can be predicted using back-of-the-envelope assumptions of average specific power and irradiation time.

  10. Light-directing chiral liquid crystal nanostructures: from 1D to 3D.

    PubMed

    Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Li, Quan

    2014-10-21

    Endowing external, remote, and dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired functionalities is a principal driving force in the bottom-up nanofabrication of molecular devices. Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystal (LC) media capable of self-organizing into optically tunable one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) superstructures represent such an elegant system. As a consequence, photoresponsive cholesteric LCs (CLCs), i.e., self-organized 1D helical superstructures, and LC blue phases (BPs), i.e., self-organized 3D periodic cubic lattices, are emerging as a new generation of multifunctional supramolecular 1D and 3D photonic materials in their own right because of their fundamental academic interest and technological significance. These smart stimuli-responsive materials can be facilely fabricated from achiral LC hosts by the addition of a small amount of a light-driven chiral molecular switch or motor. The photoresponsiveness of these materials is a result of both molecular interaction and geometry changes in the chiral molecular switch upon light irradiation. The doped photoresponsive CLCs undergo light-driven pitch modulation and/or helix inversion, which has many applications in color filters, polarizers, all-optical displays, optical lasers, sensors, energy-saving smart devices, and so on. Recently, we have conceptualized and rationally synthesized different light-driven chiral molecular switches that have very high helical twisting powers (HTPs) and exhibit large changes in HTP in different states, thereby enabling wide phototunability of the systems by the addition of very small amounts of the molecular switches into commercially available achiral LCs. The light-driven chiral molecular switches are based on well-recognized azobenzene, dithienylcyclopentene, and spirooxazine derivatives. We have demonstrated high-resolution and lightweight photoaddressable displays without patterned electronics on

  11. Simulated Photoevaporative Mass Loss from Hot Jupiters in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Anjali; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2015-08-01

    Ionizing stellar photons heat the upper regions of planetary atmospheres, driving atmospheric mass loss. Gas escaping from several hot, hydrogen-rich planets has been detected using UV and X-ray transmission spectroscopy. Because these planets are tidally locked, and thus asymmetrically irradiated, escaping gas is unlikely to be spherically symmetric. In this paper, we focus on the effects of asymmetric heating on local outflow structure. We use the Athena code for hydrodynamics to produce 3D simulations of hot Jupiter mass loss that jointly model wind launching and stellar heating via photoionization. Our fiducial planet is an inflated, hot Jupiter with radius {R}{{p}}=2.14{R}{Jup} and mass {M}{{p}}=0.53{M}{Jup}. We irradiate the initially neutral, atomic hydrogen atmosphere with 13.6 eV photons and compute the outflow’s ionization structure. There are clear asymmetries in the atmospheric outflow, including a neutral shadow on the planet’s nightside. Given an incident ionizing UV flux comparable to that of the Sun, we find a steady-state mass loss rate of ˜ 2× {10}10 g s-1. The total mass loss rate and the outflow substructure along the substellar ray show good agreement with earlier 1D models, for two different fluxes. Our 3D data cube can be used to generate the outflow’s extinction spectrum during transit. As a proof of concept, we find absorption of stellar Lyα at Doppler-shifted velocities of up to ±50 km s-1. Our work provides a starting point for further 3D models that can be used to predict observable signatures of hot Jupiter mass loss.

  12. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care. PMID:25620087

  13. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-10-30

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D-a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool-designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  14. 3-D SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using 3-D target grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (3-D) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. 3-D SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of 3-D target grids aimed at the formation of 3-D SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The 3-D target grids capture the 3-D spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of 3-D SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.

  15. Rapid 360 degree imaging and stitching of 3D objects using multiple precision 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Thomas; Yin, Stuart; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Jiangan; Wu, Frank

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present the system architecture of a 360 degree view 3D imaging system. The system consists of multiple 3D sensors synchronized to take 3D images around the object. Each 3D camera employs a single high-resolution digital camera and a color-coded light projector. The cameras are synchronized to rapidly capture the 3D and color information of a static object or a live person. The color encoded structure lighting ensures the precise reconstruction of the depth of the object. A 3D imaging system architecture is presented. The architecture employs the displacement of the camera and the projector to triangulate the depth information. The 3D camera system has achieved high depth resolution down to 0.1mm on a human head sized object and 360 degree imaging capability.

  16. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  17. Direct single-layered fabrication of 3D concavo convex patterns in nano-stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, T. W.; Park, S. H.; Yang, D. Y.; Kong, H. J.; Lee, K. S.

    2006-09-01

    A nano-surfacing process (NSP) is proposed to directly fabricate three-dimensional (3D) concavo convex-shaped microstructures such as micro-lens arrays using two-photon polymerization (TPP), a promising technique for fabricating arbitrary 3D highly functional micro-devices. In TPP, commonly utilized methods for fabricating complex 3D microstructures to date are based on a layer-by-layer accumulating technique employing two-dimensional sliced data derived from 3D computer-aided design data. As such, this approach requires much time and effort for precise fabrication. In this work, a novel single-layer exposure method is proposed in order to improve the fabricating efficiency for 3D concavo convex-shaped microstructures. In the NSP, 3D microstructures are divided into 13 sub-regions horizontally with consideration of the heights. Those sub-regions are then expressed as 13 characteristic colors, after which a multi-voxel matrix (MVM) is composed with the characteristic colors. Voxels with various heights and diameters are generated to construct 3D structures using a MVM scanning method. Some 3D concavo convex-shaped microstructures were fabricated to estimate the usefulness of the NSP, and the results show that it readily enables the fabrication of single-layered 3D microstructures.

  18. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  19. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  20. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less