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Sample records for 3d polymer gel

  1. On the validity of 3D polymer gel dosimetry: III. MRI-related error sources.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-01-01

    In MRI (PAGAT) polymer gel dosimetry, there exists some controversy on the validity of 3D dose verifications of clinical treatments. The relative contribution of important sources of uncertainty in MR scanning to the overall accuracy and precision of 3D MRI polymer gel dosimetry is quantified in this study. The performance in terms of signal-to-noise and imaging artefacts was evaluated on three different MR scanners (two 1.5 T and a 3 T scanner). These include: (1) B₀-field inhomogeneity, (2) B₁-field inhomogeneity, (3) dielectric effects (losses and standing waves) and (4) temperature inhomogeneity during scanning. B₀-field inhomogeneities that amount to maximum 5 ppm result in dose deviations of up to 4.3% and deformations of up to 5 pixels. Compensation methods are proposed. B₁-field inhomogeneities were found to induce R₂ variations in large anthropomorphic phantoms both at 1.5 and 3 T. At 1.5 T these effects are mainly caused by the coil geometry resulting in dose deviations of up to 25%. After the correction of the R₂ maps using a heuristic flip angle-R₂ relation, these dose deviations are reduced to 2.4%. At 3 T, the dielectric properties of the gel phantoms are shown to strongly influence B₁-field homogeneity, hence R₂ homogeneity, especially of large anthropomorphic phantoms. The low electrical conductivity of polymer gel dosimeters induces standing wave patterns resulting in dose deviations up to 50%. Increasing the conductivity of the gel by adding NaCl reduces the dose deviation to 25% after which the post-processing is successful in reducing the remaining inhomogeneities caused by the coil geometry to within 2.4%. The measurements are supported by computational modelling of the B₁-field. Finally, temperature fluctuations of 1 °C frequently encountered in clinical MRI scanners result in dose deviations up to 15%. It is illustrated that with adequate temperature stabilization, the dose uncertainty is reduced to within 2.58%. PMID

  2. On the validity of 3D polymer gel dosimetry: III. MRI-related error sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-01-01

    In MRI (PAGAT) polymer gel dosimetry, there exists some controversy on the validity of 3D dose verifications of clinical treatments. The relative contribution of important sources of uncertainty in MR scanning to the overall accuracy and precision of 3D MRI polymer gel dosimetry is quantified in this study. The performance in terms of signal-to-noise and imaging artefacts was evaluated on three different MR scanners (two 1.5 T and a 3 T scanner). These include: (1) B0-field inhomogeneity, (2) B1-field inhomogeneity, (3) dielectric effects (losses and standing waves) and (4) temperature inhomogeneity during scanning. B0-field inhomogeneities that amount to maximum 5 ppm result in dose deviations of up to 4.3% and deformations of up to 5 pixels. Compensation methods are proposed. B1-field inhomogeneities were found to induce R2 variations in large anthropomorphic phantoms both at 1.5 and 3 T. At 1.5 T these effects are mainly caused by the coil geometry resulting in dose deviations of up to 25%. After the correction of the R2 maps using a heuristic flip angle-R2 relation, these dose deviations are reduced to 2.4%. At 3 T, the dielectric properties of the gel phantoms are shown to strongly influence B1-field homogeneity, hence R2 homogeneity, especially of large anthropomorphic phantoms. The low electrical conductivity of polymer gel dosimeters induces standing wave patterns resulting in dose deviations up to 50%. Increasing the conductivity of the gel by adding NaCl reduces the dose deviation to 25% after which the post-processing is successful in reducing the remaining inhomogeneities caused by the coil geometry to within 2.4%. The measurements are supported by computational modelling of the B1-field. Finally, temperature fluctuations of 1 °C frequently encountered in clinical MRI scanners result in dose deviations up to 15%. It is illustrated that with adequate temperature stabilization, the dose uncertainty is reduced to within 2.58%. Both authors contributed

  3. How do monomeric components of a polymer gel dosimeter respond to ionising radiation: A steady-state radiolysis towards preparation of a 3D polymer gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Ionising radiation-induced reactions of aqueous single monomer solutions and mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) in a steady-state condition are presented below and above gelation doses in order to highlight reactions in irradiated 3D polymer gel dosimeters, which are assigned for radiotherapy dosimetry. Both monomers are shown to undergo radical polymerisation and cross-linking, which result in the measured increase in molecular weight and radius of gyration of the formed polydisperse polymer coils. The formation of nanogels was also observed for Bis solutions at a low concentration. In the case of PEGDA-Bis mixtures, co-polymerisation is suggested as well. At a sufficiently high radiation dose, the formation of a polymer network was observed for both monomers and their mixture. For this reason a sol-gel analysis for PEGDA and Bis was performed gravimetrically and a proposition of an alternative to this method employing a nuclear magnetic resonance technique is made. The two monomers were used for preparation of 3D polymer gel dosimeters having the acronyms PABIG and PABIG nx. The latter is presented for the first time in this work and is a type of the formerly established PABIG polymer gel dosimeter. The elementary characteristics of the new composition are presented, underlining the ease of its preparation, low dose threshold, and slightly increased sensitivity but lower quasi-linear range of dose response in comparison to PABIG.

  4. Small-Field Measurements of 3D Polymer Gel Dosimeters through Optical Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Cheng-Ting; Lee, Yao-Ting; Wu, Shin-Hua; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    With advances in therapeutic instruments and techniques, three-dimensional dose delivery has been widely used in radiotherapy. The verification of dose distribution in a small field becomes critical because of the obvious dose gradient within the field. The study investigates the dose distributions of various field sizes by using NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter. The dosimeter consists of 5% gelatin, 5% monomers, 3% cross linkers, and 5 mM THPC. After irradiation, a 24 to 96 hour delay was applied, and the gel dosimeters were read by a cone beam optical computed tomography (optical CT) scanner. The dose distributions measured by the NIPAM gel dosimeter were compared to the outputs of the treatment planning system using gamma evaluation. For the criteria of 3%/3 mm, the pass rates for 5 × 5, 3 × 3, 2 × 2, 1 × 1, and 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 were as high as 91.7%, 90.7%, 88.2%, 74.8%, and 37.3%, respectively. For the criteria of 5%/5 mm, the gamma pass rates of the 5 × 5, 3 × 3, and 2 × 2 cm2 fields were over 99%. The NIPAM gel dosimeter provides high chemical stability. With cone-beam optical CT readouts, the NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter has potential for clinical dose verification of small-field irradiation. PMID:26974434

  5. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  6. 3D polymer gel dosimetry and Geant4 Monte Carlo characterization of novel needle based X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Sozontov, E.; Safronov, V.; Gutman, G.; Strumban, E.; Jiang, Q.; Li, S.

    2010-11-01

    In the recent years, there have been a few attempts to develop a low energy x-ray radiation sources alternative to conventional radioisotopes used in brachytherapy. So far, all efforts have been centered around the intent to design an interstitial miniaturized x-ray tube. Though direct irradiation of tumors looks very promising, the known insertable miniature x-ray tubes have many limitations: (a) difficulties with focusing and steering the electron beam to the target; (b)necessity to cool the target to increase x-ray production efficiency; (c)impracticability to reduce the diameter of the miniaturized x-ray tube below 4mm (the requirement to decrease the diameter of the x-ray tube and the need to have a cooling system for the target have are mutually exclusive); (c) significant limitations in changing shape and energy of the emitted radiation. The specific aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a new concept for an insertable low-energy needle x-ray device based on simulation with Geant4 Monte Carlo code and to measure the dose rate distribution for low energy (17.5 keV) x-ray radiation with the 3D polymer gel dosimetry.

  7. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  8. Comparison between Monte Carlo simulation and measurement with a 3D polymer gel dosimeter for dose distributions in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, T.; Maeyama, T.; Ishikawa, K. L.; Fukunishi, N.; Fukasaku, K.; Takagi, S.; Noda, S.; Himeno, R.; Hayashi, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we used a 135 MeV/nucleon carbon-ion beam to irradiate a biological sample composed of fresh chicken meat and bones, which was placed in front of a PAGAT gel dosimeter, and compared the measured and simulated transverse-relaxation-rate (R2) distributions in the gel dosimeter. We experimentally measured the three-dimensional R2 distribution, which records the dose induced by particles penetrating the sample, by using magnetic resonance imaging. The obtained R2 distribution reflected the heterogeneity of the biological sample. We also conducted Monte Carlo simulations using the PHITS code by reconstructing the elemental composition of the biological sample from its computed tomography images while taking into account the dependence of the gel response on the linear energy transfer. The simulation reproduced the experimental distal edge structure of the R2 distribution with an accuracy under about 2 mm, which is approximately the same as the voxel size currently used in treatment planning.

  9. Comparison between Monte Carlo simulation and measurement with a 3D polymer gel dosimeter for dose distributions in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Furuta, T; Maeyama, T; Ishikawa, K L; Fukunishi, N; Fukasaku, K; Takagi, S; Noda, S; Himeno, R; Hayashi, S

    2015-08-21

    In this research, we used a 135 MeV/nucleon carbon-ion beam to irradiate a biological sample composed of fresh chicken meat and bones, which was placed in front of a PAGAT gel dosimeter, and compared the measured and simulated transverse-relaxation-rate (R2) distributions in the gel dosimeter. We experimentally measured the three-dimensional R2 distribution, which records the dose induced by particles penetrating the sample, by using magnetic resonance imaging. The obtained R2 distribution reflected the heterogeneity of the biological sample. We also conducted Monte Carlo simulations using the PHITS code by reconstructing the elemental composition of the biological sample from its computed tomography images while taking into account the dependence of the gel response on the linear energy transfer. The simulation reproduced the experimental distal edge structure of the R2 distribution with an accuracy under about 2 mm, which is approximately the same as the voxel size currently used in treatment planning. PMID:26266894

  10. 3D dose verification with polymer gel detectors of brain-spine match line for proton pencil beam cranio-spinal: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, S.; Cardin, A.; Lin, L.; Kirk, M.; Kassaee, A.; Maryanski, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended as a preliminary study to demonstrate the quality assurance benefits from polymer gel detectors for proton pencil beam cranio-spinal treatments. A stable gel type was selected for protons to suppress the LET dependence at the end of the Bragg peak. The depth dose distributions in the gels were examined with regard of its dose dependences and compared to baseline measurements. The preliminary experimental results indicate polymer gel detectors may be able to verify dose in three dimensions along match line for proton therapy treatments.

  11. 3D dosimetry fundamentals: gels and plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, M.; Jordan, K.

    2010-11-01

    Many different materials have been developed for 3D radiation dosimetry since the Fricke gel dosimeter was first proposed in 1984. This paper is intended as an entry point into these materials where we provide an overview of the basic principles for the most explored materials. References to appropriate sources are provided such that the reader interested in more details can quickly find relevant information.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.; De Deene, Y.; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G.; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K. B.; Oldham, M.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented.

  13. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  14. 3D-patterned polymer brush surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuechang; Liu, Xuqing; Xie, Zhuang; Zheng, Zijian

    2011-12-01

    Polymer brush-based three-dimensional (3D) structures are emerging as a powerful platform to engineer a surface by providing abundant spatially distributed chemical and physical properties. In this feature article, we aim to give a summary of the recent progress on the fabrication of 3D structures with polymer brushes, with a particular focus on the micro- and nanoscale. We start with a brief introduction on polymer brushes and the challenges to prepare their 3D structures. Then, we highlight the recent advances of the fabrication approaches on the basis of traditional polymerization time and grafting density strategies, and a recently developed feature density strategy. Finally, we provide some perspective outlooks on the future directions of engineering the 3D structures with polymer brushes.

  15. Validation of high-resolution 3D patient QA for proton PBS and IMPT using laser CT of improved polymer gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardin, A.; Ding, X.; Kassaee, A.; Lin, L.; Maryanski, M. J.; Avery, S.

    2015-01-01

    Laser CT scanning of LET-independent BANG3-Pro2® polymer gel dosimeters has recently shown potential in proton dosimetry. However, raw materials' impurities impart some variability. This study aimed to validate a new method of compensating for this variability, and to validate the suitability of the improved dosimeter for patient-specific QA in pencil beam scanning (PBS) and IMPT. Six modifications of the BANG3-Pro2® gel dosimeter were analysed for their sensitivity to proton dose and to LET. One formulation was selected for a clinical QA feasibility study, in which one composite IMPT plan, two single-field IMPT plans, and one SFUD plan were delivered to identical gel phantoms. New commercial VOLQATM software (beta version) was used for data analysis. Both validations were successful.

  16. Comparison of 3D dose distributions for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources with normoxic polymer gel dosimetry and treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Senkesen, Oznur; Tezcanli, Evrim; Buyuksarac, Bora; Ozbay, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Radiation fluence changes caused by the dosimeter itself and poor spatial resolution may lead to lack of 3-dimensional (3D) information depending on the features of the dosimeter and quality assurance of dose distributions for high-dose rate (HDR) iridium-192 ((192)Ir) brachytherapy sources is challenging and experimental dosimetry methods used for brachytherapy sources are limited. In this study, we investigated 3D dose distributions of (192)Ir brachytherapy sources for irradiation with single and multiple dwell positions using a normoxic gel dosimeter and compared them with treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. For dose calibration purposes, 100-mL gel-containing vials were irradiated at predefined doses and then scanned in an magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit. Gel phantoms prepared in 2 spherical glasses were irradiated with (192)Ir for the calculated dwell positions, and MR scans of the phantoms were obtained. The images were analyzed with MATLAB software. Dose distributions and profiles derived with 1-mm resolution were compared with TPS calculations. Linearity was observed between the delivered dose and the reciprocal of the T2 relaxation time constant of the gel. The x-, y-, and z-axes were defined as the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes, respectively, the sagittal and axial planes were defined parallel to the long axis of the source while the coronal plane was defined horizontally to the long axis of the source. The differences between measured and calculated profile widths of 3-cm source length and point source for 70%, 50%, and 30% isodose lines were evaluated at 3 dose levels using 18 profiles of comparison. The calculations for 3-cm source length revealed a difference of > 3mm in 1 coordinate at 50% profile width on the sagittal plane and 3 coordinates at 70% profile width and 2 coordinates at 50% and 30% profile widths on the axial plane. Calculations on the coronal plane for 3-cm source length showed > 3-mm difference in 1 coordinate at

  17. Comparison of 3D dose distributions for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources with normoxic polymer gel dosimetry and treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Senkesen, Oznur; Tezcanli, Evrim; Buyuksarac, Bora; Ozbay, Ismail

    2014-10-01

    Radiation fluence changes caused by the dosimeter itself and poor spatial resolution may lead to lack of 3-dimensional (3D) information depending on the features of the dosimeter and quality assurance of dose distributions for high–dose rate (HDR) iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir) brachytherapy sources is challenging and experimental dosimetry methods used for brachytherapy sources are limited. In this study, we investigated 3D dose distributions of {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources for irradiation with single and multiple dwell positions using a normoxic gel dosimeter and compared them with treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. For dose calibration purposes, 100-mL gel-containing vials were irradiated at predefined doses and then scanned in an magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit. Gel phantoms prepared in 2 spherical glasses were irradiated with {sup 192}Ir for the calculated dwell positions, and MR scans of the phantoms were obtained. The images were analyzed with MATLAB software. Dose distributions and profiles derived with 1-mm resolution were compared with TPS calculations. Linearity was observed between the delivered dose and the reciprocal of the T2 relaxation time constant of the gel. The x-, y-, and z-axes were defined as the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes, respectively, the sagittal and axial planes were defined parallel to the long axis of the source while the coronal plane was defined horizontally to the long axis of the source. The differences between measured and calculated profile widths of 3-cm source length and point source for 70%, 50%, and 30% isodose lines were evaluated at 3 dose levels using 18 profiles of comparison. The calculations for 3-cm source length revealed a difference of > 3 mm in 1 coordinate at 50% profile width on the sagittal plane and 3 coordinates at 70% profile width and 2 coordinates at 50% and 30% profile widths on the axial plane. Calculations on the coronal plane for 3-cm source length showed > 3-mm difference in 1

  18. 3D gel printing for soft-matter systems innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kawakami, Masaru; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Saito, Azusa

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed, especially from Japan. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. We consider if various gel materials including such high-strength gels are 3D-printable, many new soft and wet systems will be developed since the most intricate shape gels can be printed regardless of the quite softness and brittleness of gels. Recently we have tried to develop an optical 3D gel printer to realize the free-form formation of gel materials. We named this apparatus Easy Realizer of Soft and Wet Industrial Materials (SWIM-ER). The SWIM-ER will be applied to print bespoke artificial organs, including artificial blood vessels, which will be possibly used for both surgery trainings and actual surgery. The SWIM-ER can print one of the world strongest gels, called Double-Network (DN) gels, by using UV irradiation through an optical fiber. Now we also are developing another type of 3D gel printer for foods, named E-Chef. We believe these new 3D gel printers will broaden the applications of soft-matter gels.

  19. Introducing gel dosimetry in a clinical environment: Customization of polymer gel composition and magnetic resonance imaging parameters used for 3D dose verifications in radiosurgery and intensity modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Crescenti, Remo A.; Scheib, Stefan G.; Schneider, Uwe; Gianolini, Stefano

    2007-04-15

    calculated and measured relative 3D dose distributions performed for radiosurgery and IMRT showed an acceptable overall correlation. The gamma criterion for the radiosurgery verification with a voxel size of 1.5x1.5x1.5 mm{sup 3} was passed by 96.8% of the voxels (1.5 mm distance, 8% in dose). For the IMRT verification using a voxel size of 1.25x1.25x5 mm{sup 3} the gamma criterion was passed by 50.3% of the voxels (3 mm distance, 3% dose uncertainty). Using dedicated data analysis and visualization software, MR based normoxic gel dosimetry was found to be a valuable tool for clinically based dose verification, provided that customized gel compositions and MR imaging parameters are used. While high dose precision was achieved, further work is required to achieve clinically acceptable dose accuracy.

  20. Introducing gel dosimetry in a clinical environment: customization of polymer gel composition and magnetic resonance imaging parameters used for 3D dose verifications in radiosurgery and intensity modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Crescenti, Remo A; Scheib, Stefan G; Schneider, Uwe; Gianolini, Stefano

    2007-04-01

    Radiation sensitive gels have been used as dosimeters for clinical dose verification of different radiation therapy modalities. However, the use of gels is not widespread, because careful techniques are required to achieve the dose precision and accuracy aimed for in clinical dose verification. Here, the introduction of gel dosimetry in a clinical environment is described, including the whole chain of customizations and preparations required to introduce magnetic resonance (MR) based gel dosimetry into clinical routine. In order to standardize gel dosimetry in dose verifications for radiosurgery and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), we focused on both the customization of the gel composition and of the MR imaging parameters to increase its precision. The relative amount of the components of the normoxic, methacrylic acid based gel (MAGIC) was changed to obtain linear and steep dose response relationships. MR imaging parameters were customized for the different dose ranges used in order to lower the relative standard deviation of the measured transversal relaxation rate (R2). An optimization parameter was introduced to quantify the change in the relative standard deviation of R2 (sigma(R2,rel)) taking the increase in MR time into account. A 9% methacrylic acid gel customized for radiosurgery was found to give a linear dose response up to 40 Gy with a slope of 0.94 Gy(-1) s(-1), while a 6% methacrylic acid gel customized for IMRT had a linear range up to 3 Gy with a slope of 1.86 Gy(-1) s(-1). With the help of an introduced optimization parameter, the mean sigma(R2,rel) was improved by 13% for high doses and by 55% for low doses, without increasing MR time to unacceptable values. A mean dose resolution of less than 0.13 Gy has been achieved with the gel and imaging parameters customized for IMRT and a dose resolution from 0.97 Gy (at 5 Gy) to 2.15 Gy (at 40 Gy) for the radiosurgery dose range. The comparisons of calculated and measured relative 3D dose

  1. Generation of 3D Collagen Gels with Controlled Diverse Architectures.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Rat tail collagen solutions have been used as polymerizable in vitro three dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) gels for single and collective cell migration assays as well as spheroid formation. Factors such as ECM concentration, pH, ionic concentration, and temperature can alter collagen polymerization and ECM architecture. This unit describes how to generate 3D collagen gels that have distinct architectures ranging from a highly reticular meshwork of short thin fibrils with small pores to a loose matrix consisting of stiff, parallel-bundled long fibrils by changing collagen polymerization temperature. This permits analysis of 3D cell migration in different ECM architectures found in vivo while maintaining a similar ECM concentration. Also included are collagen labeling techniques helpful for ECM visualization during live fluorescence imaging. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27580704

  2. 3D jet printer of edible gels for food creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serizawa, Ryo; Shitara, Mariko; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, aging is progressing in Japan. Elderly people can't swallow the food well. So, the need of soft food is increasing greatly with the aging of the population. There are so few satisfying foods for the elderly to enjoy a meal. An equipment of printing soft food gives the elderly a big dream and is promising. In this study, we aim at developing a 3D edible gel printer in order to make soft food for the elderly. We made a prototype of the 3D edible gel printer. The printer consists of syringe pump and dispenser. The syringe pump extrudes the solution. The dispenser allows to model threedimensional objects. We use agar solution as the ink to carry out the printing. Agar's gelation deeply depends on temperature. Therefore temperature control of the solution is important to mold optimal shapes because the physical crosslinking network of agar's solution is instable. We succeeded in making the gels and plate-shape gel using the 3D edible gel printer. Further more, in order to increase the gelation speed agar's solution, we changed the dispenser and the printing test is being done now. 4 kinds of soft food prepared from agar and gelatin were printed by the 3D edible gel printer. The compression tests of the printed soft food samples were done and their hardness is measured because the hardness is one of very important factors which influence the food texture greatly. In the future, the viscosity of the agar solution or other food ink should be adjusted to suitable for printing.

  3. 3D Printed PEG-Based Hybrid Nanocomposites Obtained by Sol-Gel Technique.

    PubMed

    Chiappone, Annalisa; Fantino, Erika; Roppolo, Ignazio; Lorusso, Massimo; Manfredi, Diego; Fino, Paolo; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-03-01

    In this work, three-dimensional (3D) structured hybrid materials were fabricated combining 3D printing technology with in situ generation of inorganic nanoparticles by sol-gel technique. Those materials, consisting of silica nanodomains covalently interconnected with organic polymers, were 3D printed in complex multilayered architectures, incorporating liquid silica precursors into a photocurable oligomer in the presence of suitable photoinitiators and exposing them to a digital light system. A post sol-gel treatment in acidic vapors allowed the in situ generation of the inorganic phase in a dedicated step. This method allows to build hybrid structures operating with a full liquid formulation without meeting the drawbacks of incorporating inorganic powders into 3D printable formulations. The influence of the generated silica nanoparticle on the printed objects was deeply investigated at macro- and nanoscale; the resulting light hybrid structures show improved mechanical properties and, thus, have a huge potential for applications in a variety of advanced technologies. PMID:26871993

  4. Dose rate dependency of micelle leucodye 3D gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, J.; Ghysel, S.; De Deene, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Recently a novel 3D radiochromic gel dosimeter was introduced which uses micelles to dissolve a leucodye in a gelatin matrix. Experimental results show that this 3D micelle gel dosimeter was found to be dose rate dependent. A maximum difference in optical dose sensitivity of 70% was found for dose rates between 50 cGy min-1 and 400 cGy min-1. A novel composition of 3D radiochromic dosimeter is proposed composed of gelatin, sodium dodecyl sulphate, chloroform, trichloroacetic acid and leucomalachite green. The novel gel dosimeter formulation exhibits comparable radio-physical properties in respect to the composition previously proposed. Nevertheless, the novel formulation was found to be still dose rate dependent. A maximum difference of 33% was found for dose rates between 50 cGy min-1 and 400 cGy min-1. On the basis of these experimental results it is concluded that the leucodye micelle gel dosimeter is still unsatisfactory for clinical radiation therapy dose verifications. Some insights in the physico-chemical mechanisms were obtained and are discussed.

  5. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  6. True 3D chemical dosimetry (gels, plastics): Development and clinical role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of volumetric chemical dosimetry with Fricke gel dosimeters in the 1980s, three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry has been a promising technique for the clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for 3D dose measurement of the complex conformal dose distributions achieved by modern techniques such as Intensity Modulated and Volumetric Arc Radiation Therapy. In the last decade, the potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced by the development of improved 3D dosimeters such as normoxic polymer gel systems, radiochromic plastics (such as PRESAGE) and, recently, newer radiochromic gel dosimeters. Some of these new 3D dosimetry systems were enabled by the availability of optical computed tomography imaging systems for fast dose readout. However, despite its promise, true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community. Its use has been confined primarily to select centres of expertise and to specialised quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. In this paper I review some of the current 3D chemical dosimeters available, discuss the requirements for their use and briefly review the roles that these systems can provide to complement the other dose delivery validation approaches available in the clinic. I conclude by describing two roles that may be uniquely served by 3D chemical dosimetry in end-to-end process testing and validation in the complex environment coming into play with the development of Image Guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy.

  7. GEM printer: 3D gel printer for free shaping of functional gel engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Muroi, Hisato; Yamamoto, Kouki; Serizawa, Ryo; Gong, Jin

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. The gels have both low surface friction and well permeability due to a large amount of water absorbed in the gels, which are superiority of the gels compering to the polyester fibers. It is, however, difficult for gels to be forked structure or cavity structure by using cutting or mold. Consequently, it is necessary to develop the additive manufacturing device to synthesize and mode freely gels at the same time. Here we try to develop an optical 3D gel printer that enables gels to be shaped precisely and freely. For the free forming of high-strength gels, the 1st gels are ground to particles and mixed with 2nd pregel solution, and the mixed solution is gelled by the irradiation of UV laser beam through an optical fiber. The use of the optical fiber makes one-point UV irradiation possible. Since the optical fiber is controlled by 3D-CAD, the precise and free molding in XYZ directions is easily realized. We successfully synthesized tough gels using the gel printer.

  8. Free forming of the gel by 3D gel printer SWIM-ER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Koji; Tase, Taishi; Saito, Azusa; Makino, Masato; Gong, Jin; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    Gels, soft and wet materials, have unique properties such as material permeability, biocompatibility and low friction, which are hardly found in hard and dry materials. These superior characteristics of hydrogels promise to expand the medical applications. In recent years, the optical 3D gel printer named SWIM-ER (Soft and Wet Industrial - Easy Realizer) was developed by our team in order to fabricate tough gels with free form. We are aiming to create artificial blood vessel of the gel material by 3D gel printer. Artificial blood vessel is expected to be used for vascular surgery practice. The artificial blood vessel made by 3D gel printer can be create to free form on the basis of the biological data of the patient. Therefore, we believe it is possible to contribute to increasing the success rate and safety of vascular surgery by creating artificial blood vessel with 3D gel printer. The modeling method of SWIM-ER is as follow. Pregel solution is polymerized by one-point UV irradiation with optical fiber. The irradiation area is controlled by computer program, so that exact 3D free forming is realized. In this study, synthesis conditions are re-examined in order to improve the degree of freedom of fabrication. The dimensional accuracy in height direction is improved by increasing the cross linker concentration. We examined the relationship of resolution to the pitch and UV irradiation time in order to improve the modeling accuracy.

  9. 3D Gel Map of Arabidopsis Complex I

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Katrin; Belt, Katharina; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Complex I has a unique structure in plants and includes extra subunits. Here, we present a novel study to define its protein constituents. Mitochondria were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures, leaves, and roots. Subunits of complex I were resolved by 3D blue-native (BN)/SDS/SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. Overall, 55 distinct proteins were found, seven of which occur in pairs of isoforms. We present evidence that Arabidopsis complex I consists of 49 distinct types of subunits, 40 of which represent homologs of bovine complex I. The nine other subunits represent special proteins absent in the animal linage of eukaryotes, most prominently a group of subunits related to bacterial gamma-type carbonic anhydrases. A GelMap http://www.gelmap.de/arabidopsis-3d-complex-i/ is presented for promoting future complex I research in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:23761796

  10. Microfluidic vascular channels in gels using commercial 3D printers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi; Attalla, Rana

    2016-03-01

    This paper details the development of a three dimensional (3D) printing system with a modified microfluidic printhead used for the generation of complex vascular tissue scaffolds. The print-head features an integrated coaxial nozzle that allows the fabrication of hollow, calcium-polymerized alginate tubes that can easily be patterned using 3Dbioprinting techniques. This microfluidic design allows the incorporation of a wide range of scaffold materials as well as biological constituents such as cells, growth factors, and ECM material. With this setup, gel constructs with embedded arrays of hollow channels can be created and used as a potential substitute for blood vessel networks.

  11. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  12. Polymer-Enriched 3D Graphene Foams for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun Kit; Xiong, Gordon Minru; Zhu, Minmin; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Castro Neto, Antonio Helio; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo

    2015-04-22

    Graphene foams (GFs) are versatile nanoplatforms for biomedical applications because of their excellent physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. However, the brittleness and inflexibility of pristine GF (pGF) are some of the important factors restricting their widespread application. Here, a chemical-vapor-deposition-assisted method was used to synthesize 3D GFs, which were subsequently spin-coated with polymer to produce polymer-enriched 3D GFs with high conductivity and flexibility. Compared to pGF, both poly(vinylidene fluoride)-enriched GF (PVDF/GF) and polycaprolactone-enriched GF (PCL/GF) scaffolds showed improved flexibility and handleability. Despite the presence of the polymers, the polymer-enriched 3D GF scaffolds retained high levels of electrical conductivity because of the presence of microcracks that allowed for the flow of electrons through the material. In addition, polymer enrichment of GF led to an enhancement in the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) compounds when the scaffolds were exposed to simulated body fluid. Between the two polymers tested, PCL enrichment of GF resulted in a higher in vitro mineralization nucleation rate because the oxygen-containing functional group of PCL had a higher affinity for Ca-P deposition and formation compared to the polar carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond in PVDF. Taken together, our current findings are a stepping stone toward future applications of polymer-enriched 3D GFs in the treatment of bone defects as well as other biomedical applications. PMID:25822669

  13. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure. PMID:26766139

  14. Engineering 3D Cellularized Collagen Gels for Vascular Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Meghezi, Sébastien; Seifu, Dawit G.; Bono, Nina; Unsworth, Larry; Mequanint, Kibret; Mantovani, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic materials are known to initiate clinical complications such as inflammation, stenosis, and infections when implanted as vascular substitutes. Collagen has been extensively used for a wide range of biomedical applications and is considered a valid alternative to synthetic materials due to its inherent biocompatibility (i.e., low antigenicity, inflammation, and cytotoxic responses). However, the limited mechanical properties and the related low hand-ability of collagen gels have hampered their use as scaffold materials for vascular tissue engineering. Therefore, the rationale behind this work was first to engineer cellularized collagen gels into a tubular-shaped geometry and second to enhance smooth muscle cells driven reorganization of collagen matrix to obtain tissues stiff enough to be handled. The strategy described here is based on the direct assembling of collagen and smooth muscle cells (construct) in a 3D cylindrical geometry with the use of a molding technique. This process requires a maturation period, during which the constructs are cultured in a bioreactor under static conditions (without applied external dynamic mechanical constraints) for 1 or 2 weeks. The “static bioreactor” provides a monitored and controlled sterile environment (pH, temperature, gas exchange, nutrient supply and waste removal) to the constructs. During culture period, thickness measurements were performed to evaluate the cells-driven remodeling of the collagen matrix, and glucose consumption and lactate production rates were measured to monitor the cells metabolic activity. Finally, mechanical and viscoelastic properties were assessed for the resulting tubular constructs. To this end, specific protocols and a focused know-how (manipulation, gripping, working in hydrated environment, and so on) were developed to characterize the engineered tissues. PMID:26132527

  15. Engineering 3D Cellularized Collagen Gels for Vascular Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Meghezi, Sébastien; Seifu, Dawit G; Bono, Nina; Unsworth, Larry; Mequanint, Kibret; Mantovani, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic materials are known to initiate clinical complications such as inflammation, stenosis, and infections when implanted as vascular substitutes. Collagen has been extensively used for a wide range of biomedical applications and is considered a valid alternative to synthetic materials due to its inherent biocompatibility (i.e., low antigenicity, inflammation, and cytotoxic responses). However, the limited mechanical properties and the related low hand-ability of collagen gels have hampered their use as scaffold materials for vascular tissue engineering. Therefore, the rationale behind this work was first to engineer cellularized collagen gels into a tubular-shaped geometry and second to enhance smooth muscle cells driven reorganization of collagen matrix to obtain tissues stiff enough to be handled. The strategy described here is based on the direct assembling of collagen and smooth muscle cells (construct) in a 3D cylindrical geometry with the use of a molding technique. This process requires a maturation period, during which the constructs are cultured in a bioreactor under static conditions (without applied external dynamic mechanical constraints) for 1 or 2 weeks. The "static bioreactor" provides a monitored and controlled sterile environment (pH, temperature, gas exchange, nutrient supply and waste removal) to the constructs. During culture period, thickness measurements were performed to evaluate the cells-driven remodeling of the collagen matrix, and glucose consumption and lactate production rates were measured to monitor the cells metabolic activity. Finally, mechanical and viscoelastic properties were assessed for the resulting tubular constructs. To this end, specific protocols and a focused know-how (manipulation, gripping, working in hydrated environment, and so on) were developed to characterize the engineered tissues. PMID:26132527

  16. Modeling chemoresponsive polymer gels.

    PubMed

    Kuksenok, Olga; Deb, Debabrata; Dayal, Pratyush; Balazs, Anna C

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive gels are vital components in the next generation of smart devices, which can sense and dynamically respond to changes in the local environment and thereby exhibit more autonomous functionality. We describe recently developed computational methods for simulating the properties of such stimuli-responsive gels in the presence of optical, chemical, and thermal gradients. Using these models, we determine how to harness light to drive shape changes and directed motion in spirobenzopyran-containing gels. Focusing on oscillating gels undergoing the Belousov-Zhabotinksy reaction, we demonstrate that these materials can spontaneously form self-rotating assemblies, or pinwheels. Finally, we model temperature-sensitive gels that encompass chemically reactive filaments to optimize the performance of this system as a homeostatic device for regulating temperature. These studies could facilitate the development of soft robots that autonomously interconvert chemical and mechanical energy and thus perform vital functions without the continuous need of external power sources. PMID:24498954

  17. Alternative imaging modalities for polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirasek, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    This review summarizes recent work in the area of imaging polymer gel dosimeters using x-ray CT imaging, ultrasound, and radiation-induced changes in gel mechanical properties. In addition, recent work in the area of Raman tomographic imaging of canine bone, in conjunction with past efforts in Raman imaging of polymer gel dosimeters, raises new possibilities for new polymer gel imaging techniques.

  18. Optical-CT scanning of polymer gels

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, M

    2006-01-01

    The application of optical-CT scanning to achieve accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry is a subject of current interest. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of past research and achievements in optical-CT polymer gel dosimetry, and to review current issues and challenges. The origins of optical-CT imaging of light-scattering polymer gels are reviewed. Techniques to characterize and optimize optical-CT performance are presented. Particular attention is given to studies of artifacts in optical-CT imaging, an important area that has not been well studied to date. The technique of optical-CT simulation by Monte-Carlo modeling is introduced as a tool to explore such artifacts. New simulation studies are presented and compared with experimental data. PMID:17082823

  19. Raman study of lower toxicity polymer gel for radiotherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenan, M. Z.; Ahmad, M.; Mohd Noor, N.; Deyhimihaghighi, N.; Saion, E.

    2014-11-01

    N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) monomer and N, N' - methylene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) crosslinker were used to synthesize polymer gel dosimeters for a reason that the monomer is lower toxicity which gives a significant advantage over the other polymer gel compositions. The gels were irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays at doses up to 21 Gy and the irradiated NIPAM polymer gels were used to investigate the dose response characteristics based on Raman spectroscopy analysis on the formation of the polymer gels and the consumptions of NIPAM and BIS co-monomers. From the findings, the polymerization was referred to an increment in Raman intensity at 815 cm-1, assigned for C-C stretching mode of NIPAM polymer gel, as the dose increased. The consumptions of the co-monomers were referred to a decrement in Raman intensities at 1025 cm-1 2353 cm-1 for C=C stretching modes of NIPAM and BIS respectively as the dose increased. The increment and decrement in Raman intensities of polymer and co-monomers respectively with increase of dose indicate that there is occurrence of polymerization of NIPAM polymer gels which could be applied in 3D dose distributions for radiotherapy treatment planning. The correlation factor kBIS is greater than kNIPAM showing that the reaction of BIS crosslinker is more efficient than NIPAM monomer to generate 37% of the NIPAM polymer gel.

  20. Fundamentals of Polymer Gel Dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuley, Kim B.

    2006-12-01

    The recent literature on polymer gel dosimetry contains application papers and basic experimental studies involving polymethacrylic-acid-based and polyacrylamide-based gel dosimeters. The basic studies assess the relative merits of these two most commonly used dosimeters, and explore the effects of tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC) antioxidant on dosimeter performance. Polymer gel dosimeters that contain THPC or other oxygen scavengers are called normoxic dosimeters, because they can be prepared under normal atmospheric conditions, rather than in a glove box that excludes oxygen. In this review, an effort is made to explain some of the underlying chemical phenomena that affect dosimeter performance using THPC, and that lead to differences in behaviour between dosimeters made using the two types of monomer systems. Progress on the development of new more effective and less toxic dosimeters is also reported.

  1. Improved MAGIC gel for higher sensitivity and elemental tissue equivalent 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Xuping; Reese, Timothy G.; Crowley, Elizabeth M.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Polymer-based gel dosimeter (MAGIC type) is a preferable phantom material for PET range verification of proton beam therapy. However, improvement in elemental tissue equivalency (specifically O/C ratio) is very desirable to ensure realistic time-activity measurements. Methods: Glucose and urea was added to the original MAGIC formulation to adjust the O/C ratio. The dose responses of the new formulations were tested with MRI transverse relaxation rate (R2) measurements. Results: The new ingredients improved not only the elemental composition but also the sensitivity of the MAGIC gel. The O/C ratios of our new gels agree with that of soft tissue within 1%. The slopes of dose response curves were 1.6-2.7 times larger with glucose. The melting point also increased by 5 deg. C. Further addition of urea resulted in a similar slope but with an increased intercept and a decreased melting point. Conclusions: Our improved MAGIC gel formulations have higher sensitivity and better elemental tissue equivalency for 3D dosimetry applications involving nuclear reactions.

  2. Improved MAGIC gel for higher sensitivity and elemental tissue equivalent 3D dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuping; Reese, Timothy G.; Crowley, Elizabeth M.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Polymer-based gel dosimeter (MAGIC type) is a preferable phantom material for PET range verification of proton beam therapy. However, improvement in elemental tissue equivalency (specifically O∕C ratio) is very desirable to ensure realistic time-activity measurements. Methods: Glucose and urea was added to the original MAGIC formulation to adjust the O∕C ratio. The dose responses of the new formulations were tested with MRI transverse relaxation rate (R2) measurements. Results: The new ingredients improved not only the elemental composition but also the sensitivity of the MAGIC gel. The O∕C ratios of our new gels agree with that of soft tissue within 1%. The slopes of dose response curves were 1.6–2.7 times larger with glucose. The melting point also increased by 5 °C. Further addition of urea resulted in a similar slope but with an increased intercept and a decreased melting point. Conclusions: Our improved MAGIC gel formulations have higher sensitivity and better elemental tissue equivalency for 3D dosimetry applications involving nuclear reactions. PMID:20175480

  3. Towards 3-D laser nano patterning in polymer optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Patricia J.; Perrie, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Progress towards 3-D subsurface structuring of polymers using femtosecond lasers is presented. Highly localised refractive index changes can be generated deep in transparent optical polymers without pre doping for photosensitisation or post processing by annealing. Understanding the writing conditions surpasses the limitations of materials, dimensions and chemistry, to facilitate unique structures entirely formed by laser-polymeric interactions to overcome materials, dimensional, refractive index and wavelength constraints.. Numerical aperture, fluence, temporal pulselength, wavelength and incident polarisation are important parameters to be considered, in achieving the desired inscription. Non-linear aspects of multiphoton absorption, plasma generation, filamentation and effects of incident polarisation on the writing conditions will be presented.

  4. Photo-induced locomotion of chemo-responsive polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Pratyush; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2009-03-01

    The need to translate chemical energy into a mechanical response, a characteristic of many biological processes, has motivated the study of stimuli-responsive polymer gels. Recently, it has been shown experimentally that by coupling the mechanical properties of the gel with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction it is possible to induce self-sustained oscillations in the gel. One of the means for controlling these chemical oscillations is using light as an external stimulus. To study the effect of light on the mechanical behavior of the gel, we use our recently developed a 3D gel lattice spring model (gLSM) which couples the BZ reaction kinetics to the gel dynamics. In this model, the polymer-solvent interactions were taken into account by adding a coupling term to the Flory-Huggins free energy. By virtue of this coupling term, the swelling---de-swelling behavior of the gel was captured in 3D. In order to include the effect of the polymer on the reaction kinetics, the Oregonator model for the photo-sensitive BZ reaction was also modified. Using gLSM model, we probed the effect of non-uniform light irradiation on the gel dynamics. We were able to manipulate the direction and velocity of locomotion of the gel using light as a control parameter. This ability to control the movement of the gel can be utilized in a variety of applications, ranging from bio-actuators to controlled drug release systems.

  5. Best fit refractive index of matching liquid for 3D NIPAM gel dosimeters using optical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Hsing; Wu, Jay; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung; Chen, De-Shiou; Wang, Tzu-Hwei; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The accuracy of an optical computed tomography (CT)-based dosimeter is significantly affected by the refractive index (RI) of the matching liquid. Mismatched RI induces reflection and refraction as the laser beam passes through the gel phantom. Moreover, the unwanted light rays collected by the photodetector produce image artifacts after image reconstruction from the collected data. To obtain the best image quality, this study investigates the best-fit RI of the matching liquid for a 3D NIPAM gel dosimeter. The three recipes of NIPAM polymer gel used in this study consisted of 5% gelatin, 5% NIPAM and 3% N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide, which were combined with three compositions (5, 10, and 20 mM) of Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride. Results were evaluated using a quantitative evaluation method of the gamma evaluation technique. Results showed that the best-fit RI for the non-irradiated NIPAM gel ranges from 1.340 to 1.346 for various NIPAM recipes with sensitivities ranging from 0.0113 to 0.0227. The greatest pass rate of 88.00% is achieved using best-fit RI=1.346 of the matching liquid. The adoption of mismatching RI decreases the gamma pass rate by 2.63% to 16.75% for all three recipes of NIPAM gel dosimeters. In addition, the maximum average deviation is less than 0.1% for the red and transparent matching liquids. Thus, the color of the matching liquid does not affect the measurement accuracy of the NIPAM gel dosimeter, as measured by optical CT.

  6. Evaluation of radiochromic gel dosimetry and polymer gel dosimetry in a clinical dose verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-09-01

    A quantitative comparison of two full three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry techniques was assessed in a clinical setting: radiochromic gel dosimetry with an in-house developed optical laser CT scanner and polymer gel dosimetry with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To benchmark both gel dosimeters, they were exposed to a 6 MV photon beam and the depth dose was compared against a diamond detector measurement that served as golden standard. Both gel dosimeters were found accurate within 4% accuracy. In the 3D dose matrix of the radiochromic gel, hotspot dose deviations up to 8% were observed which are attributed to the fabrication procedure. The polymer gel readout was shown to be sensitive to B0 field and B1 field non-uniformities as well as temperature variations during scanning. The performance of the two gel dosimeters was also evaluated for a brain tumour IMRT treatment. Both gel measured dose distributions were compared against treatment planning system predicted dose maps which were validated independently with ion chamber measurements and portal dosimetry. In the radiochromic gel measurement, two sources of deviations could be identified. Firstly, the dose in a cluster of voxels near the edge of the phantom deviated from the planned dose. Secondly, the presence of dose hotspots in the order of 10% related to inhomogeneities in the gel limit the clinical acceptance of this dosimetry technique. Based on the results of the micelle gel dosimeter prototype presented here, chemical optimization will be subject of future work. Polymer gel dosimetry is capable of measuring the absolute dose in the whole 3D volume within 5% accuracy. A temperature stabilization technique is incorporated to increase the accuracy during short measurements, however keeping the temperature stable during long measurement times in both calibration phantoms and the volumetric phantom is more challenging. The sensitivity of MRI readout to minimal temperature fluctuations is demonstrated which

  7. Polymer-Based Mesh as Supports for Multi-layered 3D Cell Culture and Assays

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Karen A.; Park, Kyeng Min; Mosadegh, Bobak; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Mazzeo, Aaron; Ngo, Phil M.; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems can mimic certain aspects of the cellular microenvironment found in vivo, but generation, analysis and imaging of current model systems for 3D cellular constructs and tissues remain challenging. This work demonstrates a 3D culture system – Cells-in-Gels-in-Mesh (CiGiM) – that uses stacked sheets of polymer-based mesh to support cells embedded in gels to form tissue-like constructs; the stacked sheets can be disassembled by peeling the sheets apart to analyze cultured cells—layer-by-layer—within the construct. The mesh sheets leave openings large enough for light to pass through with minimal scattering, and thus allowing multiple options for analysis—(i) using straightforward analysis by optical light microscopy, (ii) by high-resolution analysis with fluorescence microscopy, or (iii) with a fluorescence gel scanner. The sheets can be patterned into separate zones with paraffin film-based decals, in order to conduct multiple experiments in parallel; the paraffin-based decal films also block lateral diffusion of oxygen effectively. CiGiM simplifies the generation and analysis of 3D culture without compromising throughput, and quality of the data collected: it is especially useful in experiments that require control of oxygen levels, and isolation of adjacent wells in a multi-zone format. PMID:24095253

  8. Statistical physics of polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyukov, Sergei; Rabin, Yitzhak

    1996-05-01

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of the statistical mechanics of randomly cross-linked polymer gels, starting from a microscopic model of a network made of instantaneously cross-linked Gaussian chains with excluded volume, and ending with the derivation of explicit expressions for the thermodynamic functions and for the density correlation functions which can be tested by experiments. Using replica field theory we calculate the mean field density in replica space and show that this solution contains statistical information about the behavior of individual chains in the network. The average monomer positions change affinely with macroscopic deformation and fluctuations about these positions are limited to length scales of the order of the mesh size. We prove that a given gel has a unique state of microscopic equilibrium which depends on the temperature, the solvent, the average monomer density and the imposed deformation. This state is characterized by the set of the average positions of all the monomers or, equivalently, by a unique inhomogeneous monomer density profile. Gels are thus the only known example of equilibrium solids with no long-range order. We calculate the RPA density correlation functions that describe the statistical properties of small deviations from the average density, due to both static spatial heterogeneities (which characterize the inhomogeneous equilibrium state) and thermal fluctuations (about this equilibrium). We explain how the deformation-induced anisotropy of the inhomogeneous equilibrium density profile is revealed by small angle neutron scattering and light scattering experiments, through the observation of the butterfly effect. We show that all the statistical information about the structure of polymer networks is contained in two parameters whose values are determined by the conditions of synthesis: the density of cross-links and the heterogeneity parameter. We find that the structure of instantaneously cross

  9. 3D holographic polymer photonic crystal for superprism application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xiaonan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Sasa; Chen, Ray T.

    2007-02-01

    Photonic crystal based superprism offers a new way to design new optical components for beam steering and DWDM application. 3D photonic crystals are especially attractive as they could offer more control of the light beam based on the needs. A polygonal prism based holographic fabrication method has been demonstrated for a three-dimensional face-centered-cubic (FCC)-type submicron polymer photonic crystal using SU8 as the photo-sensitive material. Therefore antivibration equipment and complicated optical alignment system are not needed and the requirement for the coherence of the laser source is relaxed compared with the traditional holographic setup. By changing the top-cut prism structure, the polarization of the laser beam, the exposure and development conditions we can achieve different kinds of triclinic or orthorhombic photonic crystals on demand. Special fabrication treatments have been introduced to ensure the survivability of the fabricated large area (cm2) nano-structures. Scanning electron microscopy and diffraction results proved the good uniformity of the fabricated structures. With the proper design of the refraction prism we have achieved a partial bandgap for S+C band (1460-1565nm) in the [111] direction. The transmission and reflection spectra obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are in good agreement with simulated band structure. The superprism effects around 1550nm wavelength for the fabricated 3D polymer photonic crystal have been theoretically calculated and such effects can be used for beam steering purpose.

  10. Development and Characterization of NMR Measurements for Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Zachary; Whitney, Heather

    2012-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are systems of water, gelatin, and monomers which form polymers upon irradiation. The gelatin matrix retains dose distribution in 3D form, facilitating truly integrated measurements of complex dose plans for radiation therapy. Polymer gels have two proton pools coupled by exchange: free solvent protons and bound polymerized macromolecular protons. Measuring magnetization transfer (MT) and relaxation affords useful insights into particle rigidity and chemical exchange effects on relaxation in polymer gels. Polymer gel dose response has been previously quantified with several techniques, most often in terms of MRI parameters, usually at field strengths of 1.5 T and below. The research described here investigates the dose response of a revised MAGIC gel dosimeter via both high-field imaging and simpler nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This includes both transverse and longitudinal relaxation rates (R2 and R1) and quantitative MT parameters. We investigated estimating polymer molecular weight for a given applied dose using the Rouse model and R2 data from the imaging study. Finally, we began development of NMR methods for studying dose response, requiring adaption of NMR experiments to accommodate for radiation damping.

  11. 3D scanning of internal structure in gel engineering materials with visual scanning microscopic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yosuke; Gong, Jing; Masato, Makino; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-04-01

    The 3D printing technology, causing much attention from the beginning of 2013, will be possibly an alternative method to fabricate the biological soft tissues. Recently our group of Yamagata University has developed the world-first 3D Gel Printer to fabricate the complicated gel-materials with high-strength and biocompatibility. However, there are no 3D scanners that collect the data from the internal structure of complicated gel objects such as eye lens. It means that a new system for scanning the internal structure is needed now. In this study, firstly, we have tried to investigate the gel network of synthetic and biological gel with scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS). We calculated the Young's modulus of synthetic gels with the SMILS and with the tensile test, and precisely compared the results between them. The temperature dependences of the inside structure and the transparency are observed in the pig crystalline lens. The quantitative analysis indicates the importance of the internal structure of real object. Secondary, we show the new system named Gel-scanner that can provide the 2-dimentional data of the internal structure. From examining our findings, the scanning of internal structure will enable us to expect physical properties of the real object. We convince that the gelscanner will play major role in the various fields.

  12. New 3-D microarray platform based on macroporous polymer monoliths.

    PubMed

    Rober, M; Walter, J; Vlakh, E; Stahl, F; Kasper, C; Tennikova, T

    2009-06-30

    Polymer macroporous monoliths are widely used as efficient sorbents in different, mostly dynamic, interphase processes. In this paper, monolithic materials strongly bound to the inert glass surface are suggested as operative matrices at the development of three-dimensional (3-D) microarrays. For this purpose, several rigid macroporous copolymers differed by reactivity and hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties were synthesized and tested: (1) glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)), (2) glycidyl methacrylate-co-glycerol dimethacrylate (poly(GMA-co-GDMA)), (3) N-hydroxyphthalimide ester of acrylic acid-co-glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(HPIEAA-co-GMA-co-EDMA)), (4) 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(CEMA-co-EDMA)), and (5) 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(CEMA-co-HEMA-co-EDMA)). The constructed devices were used as platforms for protein microarrays construction and model mouse IgG-goat anti-mouse IgG affinity pair was used to demonstrate the potential of developed test-systems, as well as to optimize microanalytical conditions. The offered microarray platforms were applied to detect the bone tissue marker osteopontin directly in cell culture medium. PMID:19463569

  13. Arbitrary and Parallel Nanofabrication of 3D Metal Structures with Polymer Brush Resists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaojian; Xie, Zhuang; Wei, Xiaoling; Zheng, Zijian

    2015-12-01

    3D polymer brushes are reported for the first time as ideal resists for the alignment-free nanofabrication of complex 3D metal structures with sub-100 nm lateral resolution and sub-10 nm vertical resolution. Since 3D polymer brushes can be serially fabricated in parallel, this method is effective to generate arbitrary 3D metal structures over a large area at a high throughput. PMID:26439441

  14. Effect of polymer brushes on the Self Assembly of 3D Poly(Styrene-Methylmethacrylate) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lwoya, Baraka; Albert, Julie

    2015-03-01

    It would be instrumental to understand the self-assembly capabilities of polymers especially given their industrial capabilities of templating and membrane application .The ability of block copolymers to self assemble into different morphologies is determined by several factor including type of polymer blocks, volume fraction, substrate preference to a polymer and chain architecture . In this paper Poly(Styrene-Methylmethacrylate) (PS-PMMA) was chosen was chosen to further understand the effect polymer brushes on the substrate had on the self assembly of 3D structured PS-PMMA spin coated thin films (30-150 nm). The polymer brushes were grown using surface initiated atomic transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) with the optimal chain length being confirmed by gel permeation chromatography. By using ellipsometer and contact angle measurement the uniformity of the polymer brushes are characterized, while the morphology of the spin coated thin films after thermal annealing would be characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  15. Radiological properties of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Venning, A.J.; Nitschke, K.N.; Keall, P.J.; Baldock, C.

    2005-04-01

    The radiological properties of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeters MAGIC, MAGAS, and MAGAT [methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper; methacrylic acid gelatine gel with ascorbic acid; and methacrylic acid gelatine and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride, respectively] have been investigated. The radiological water equivalence was determined by comparing the polymer gel macroscopic photon and electron interaction cross sections over the energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV and by Monte Carlo modeling of depth doses. Normoxic polymer gel dosimeters have a high gelatine and monomer concentration and therefore mass density (kg m{sup -3}) up to 3.8% higher than water. This results in differences between the cross-section ratios of the normoxic polymer gels and water of up to 3% for the attenuation, energy absorption, and collision stopping power coefficient ratios through the Compton dominant energy range. The mass cross-section ratios were within 2% of water except for the mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients ratios, which showed differences with water of up to 6% for energies less than 100 keV. Monte Carlo modeling was undertaken for the polymer gel dosimeters to model the electron and photon transport resulting from a 6 MV photon beam. The absolute percentage differences between gel and water were within 1% and the relative percentage differences were within 3.5%. The results show that the MAGAT gel formulation is the most radiological water equivalent of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeters investigated due to its lower mass density measurement compared with MAGAS and MAGIC gels.

  16. Micro-structured materials and mechanical cues in 3D collagen gels.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James B; Brown, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Collagen gels provide a versatile and widely used substrate for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture. Here we describe how cell-seeded Type-I collagen gels can be adapted to provide powerful 3D models to support a wide range of research applications where cell/substrate alignment, density, stiffness/compliance, and strain are critical factors. In their fully hydrated form, rectangular collagen gels can be tethered such that endogenous forces generated as resident cells attach to and remodel the fibrillar collagen network can align the substrate in a controllable, predictable, and quantifiable manner. By removing water from collagen gels (plastic compression), their density increases towards that of body tissues, facilitating the engineering of a range of biomimetic constructs with controllable mechanical properties. This dense collagen can be used in combination with other components to achieve a range of functional properties from controlled perfusion, or tensile/compressive strength to new micro-structures. Detailed methodology is provided for the assembly of a range of 3D collagen materials including tethered aligned hydrogels and plastic compressed constructs. A range of techniques for analysing cell behaviour within these models, including microscopy and molecular analyses are described. These systems therefore provide a highly controllable mechanical and chemical micro-environment for investigating a wide range of cellular responses. PMID:21042973

  17. Modeling polymer gel that strengthen under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Santidan; Yashin, Victor V.; Balazs, Anna C.

    We develop a constitutive model of a responsive polymer gel, which can reversibly form additional crosslinks when under tension. We assume that the polymer chains incorporate the folded domains encompassing the reactive functional groups (cryptic sites). Under extension of the network, the domains unfold and expose the cryptic sites, which can then form labile bonds with the linker chains grafted to the network. Once the deformation is removed, the linkers detach from the cryptic sites, and unfolded domains go back to the folded configuration thus hiding the cryptic sites. The gel behavior under applied force is described by the equations of elasticity of the polymer network coupled to the kinetic equations for the folding and binding transitions. The developed model could be used for designing new polymer gel-based materials that exhibit self-strengthening in response to a mechanical action.

  18. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D.

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that π-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation. PMID:24586761

  19. Driven Polymer Translocation into a Crosslinked Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sean, David; Slater, Gary

    2015-03-01

    In a typical polymer translocation setup, a thin membrane is used to separate two chambers and a polyelectrolyte is driven by an electric field to translocate from one side of the membrane to the other via a small nanopore. However, the high translocation rate that results from the forces required to drive this process makes optical and/or electrical analysis of the translocating polymer challenging. Using coarse-grained Langevin Dynamics simulations we investigate how the translocation process can be slowed down by placing a crosslinked gel on the trans-side of the membrane. Since the driving electric field is localized in the neighborhood of the nanopore, electrophoretic migration is only achieved by a ``pushing'' action from the polymer segment residing in the nanopore. For the case of a flexible polymer we find that the polymer fills the gel pores via multiple ``herniation'' processes, whereas for a semi-flexible chain in a tight gel there are no hernias and the polymer follows a smooth curvilinear path. Moreover, for the case of a semi-flexible polymer the gel makes the translocation process more uniform by reducing the acceleration at the end of the process.

  20. Actuator device utilizing a conductive polymer gel

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Douglas A.; Irvin, David J.

    2004-02-03

    A valve actuator based on a conductive polymer gel is disclosed. A nonconductive housing is provided having two separate chambers separated by a porous frit. The conductive polymer is held in one chamber and an electrolyte solution, used as a source of charged ions, is held in the second chamber. The ends of the housing a sealed with a flexible elastomer. The polymer gel is further provide with electrodes with which to apply an electrical potential across the gel in order to initiate an oxidation reaction which in turn drives anions across the porous frit and into the polymer gel, swelling the volume of the gel and simultaneously contracting the volume of the electrolyte solution. Because the two end chambers are sealed the flexible elastomer expands or contracts with the chamber volume change. By manipulating the potential across the gel the motion of the elastomer can be controlled to act as a "gate" to open or close a fluid channel and thereby control flow through that channel.

  1. Ionic Conduction Mechanism of Polymer Gel Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yuria; Kataoka, Hiroshi

    2002-12-01

    Carrier migration mechanism of polymer gel electrolyte for lithium secondary batteries was investigated through the dynamic behavior of diffusion coefficient and conductivity. The gel prepared with PEO showed a homogeneous structure with any fraction of the electrolyte solution. The diffusion coefficient of the ionic species decreased with the increase in the polymer fraction in the gel. Cation migration is closely associated with the polymer, showing the reduced activation energy for diffusion with polymer in contrast to the increasing feature of the activation energy of the anion diffusion. The PVDF-gel electrolytes have a solid solubility limit due to the swelling saturation. The excess solution was then trapped in the cavities of the swollen polymer network. As a result, the diffusion showed two components. One is the fast migration of the carriers similar to that in the solution and the other is the relatively slow migration in the swollen region. The latter was influenced by the polymer due to the physical blocking and chemical interactive effects.

  2. Rapid 3D Printing of Multifunctional Calcium Alginate Gel Pipes using Coaxial Jet Extruder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Damle, Viraj

    2014-11-01

    Calcium alginate (CA) forms when solution containing sodium alginate (SA) comes in contact with a CaCl2 solution. The resulting gel is biocompatible as well as edible and is used in production of bio-scaffolds, artificial plant seeds, and edible substances. In the latter application, referred to in the culinary world as ``spherification,'' flavored liquids are mixed with the SA and dripped into CaCl2 solution to form gel encapsulated flavored ``marbles.'' Previously, crude 3D printing of CA structures has been achieved by stacking of such flavored liquid filled marbles. In turn, solid CA rods have been fabricated by properly mixing flow of the two solutions using a microfluidic device. Here we show that by using two circular cross-section coaxial nozzles to produce coaxial jets of the SA and CaCl2 solutions, liquid filled CA micro-to-mili scale gel pipes can be produced at speeds around ~ 150 mm/s. Such extrusion rate is compatible with most commercially available 3D printers, facilitating adoption of the CA pipe coaxial jet extruder. Here, the impact of inner and outer liquid properties and flow speeds on the gel pipe extrusion process is discussed. KR acknowledges startup funding from ASU.

  3. Fused filament 3D printing of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrico, James D.; Traeden, Nicklaus W.; Aureli, Matteo; Leang, Kam K.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new three-dimensional (3D) fused filament additive manufacturing (AM) technique in which electroactive polymer filament material is used to build soft active 3D structures, layer by layer. Specifically, the unique actuation and sensing properties of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are exploited in 3D printing to create electroactive polymer structures for application in soft robotics and bio-inspired systems. The process begins with extruding a precursor material (non-acid Nafion precursor resin) into a thermoplastic filament for 3D printing. The filament is then used by a custom-designed 3D printer to manufacture the desired soft polymer structures, layer by layer. Since at this stage the 3D-printed samples are not yet electroactive, a chemical functionalization process follows, consisting in hydrolyzing the precursor samples in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide and dimethyl sulfoxide. Upon functionalization, metal electrodes are applied on the samples through an electroless plating process, which enables the 3D-printed IPMC structures to be controlled by voltage signals for actuation (or to act as sensors). This innovative AM process is described in detail and the performance of 3D printed IPMC actuators is compared to an IPMC actuator fabricated from commercially available Nafion sheet material. The experimental results show comparable performance between the two types of actuators, demonstrating the potential and feasibility of creating functional 3D-printed IPMCs.

  4. Normoxic polymer gels: are they magic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, M. N.; Bonnett, D. E.; Horsfield, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years there has been considerable interest in the use of polymer gels to measure complex dose distributions in radiotherapy. Despite considerable advantages they are still not widely used in clinical situations. This is due primarily to the difficulty in manufacture, particularly the need to exclude oxygen both from the gel and the manufacturing process, the limited number of suitable phantom materials and the need for easy access to an MRI facility. The purpose of this paper is to report on an investigation of the basic properties of MAGIC gels namely: linearity of response, effects of temperature and stability.

  5. Infrared imaging of the polymer 3D-printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lindal, John M.; Post, Brian; Smith, Rachel J.; Love, Lonnie; Duty, Chad E.

    2014-05-01

    Both mid-wave and long-wave IR cameras are used to measure various temperature profiles in thermoplastic parts as they are printed. Two significantly different 3D-printers are used in this study. The first is a small scale commercially available Solidoodle 3 printer, which prints parts with layer thicknesses on the order of 125μm. The second printer used is a "Big Area Additive Manufacturing" (BAAM) 3D-printer developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The BAAM prints parts with a layer thicknesses of 4.06 mm. Of particular interest is the temperature of the previously deposited layer as the new hot layer is about to be extruded onto it. The two layers are expected have a stronger bond if the temperature of the substrate layer is above the glass transition temperature. This paper describes the measurement technique and results for a study of temperature decay and substrate layer temperature for ABS thermoplastic with and without the addition of chopped carbon fibers.

  6. 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    The formation of 3D objects composed of shape memory polymers for flexible electronics is described. Layer-by-layer photopolymerization of methacrylated semicrystalline molten macromonomers by a 3D digital light processing printer enables rapid fabrication of complex objects and imparts shape memory functionality for electrical circuits. PMID:26402320

  7. Gel Permeation Chromatography of Fluoroether Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korus, Roger A.; Rosser, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    A Method is described for determining the molecular weight distribution of fluorinated polymers by gel permeation chromatography. Porous silica-packed columns are used with Freon 113 as the chromatographic solvent. Fluoroether oligomers are used for column calibration in the molecular weight range of 1400 to 12000.

  8. Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J

    2006-04-21

    Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow ( approximately 9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry. PMID:16585845

  9. 3D Assembly of All-Inorganic Colloidal Nanocrystals into Gels and Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Sayevich, Vladimir; Cai, Bin; Benad, Albrecht; Haubold, Danny; Sonntag, Luisa; Gaponik, Nikolai; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2016-05-17

    We report an efficient approach to assemble a variety of electrostatically stabilized all-inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) by their linking with appropriate ions into multibranched gel networks. These all-inorganic non-ordered 3D assemblies benefit from strong interparticle coupling, which facilitates charge transport between the NCs with diverse morphologies, compositions, sizes, and functional capping ligands. Moreover, the resulting dry gels (aerogels) are highly porous monolithic structures, which preserve the quantum confinement of their building blocks. The inorganic semiconductor aerogel made of 4.5 nm CdSe colloidal NCs capped with I(-) ions and bridged with Cd(2+) ions had a large surface area of 146 m(2)  g(-1) . PMID:27100131

  10. SU-E-T-105: Development of 3D Dose Verification System for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Using Improved Polyacrylamide-Based Gel Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, K; Fujimoto, S; Akagi, Y; Hirokawa, Y; Hayashi, S; Miyazawa, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this dosimetric study was to develop 3D dose verification system for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using polyacrylamide-based gel (PAGAT) dosimeter improved the sensitivity by magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}). Methods: PAGAT gel containing MgCl{sub 2} as a sensitizer was prepared in this study. Methacrylic-acid-based gel (MAGAT) was also prepared to compare the dosimetric characteristics with PAGAT gel. The cylindrical glass vials (4 cm diameter, 12 cm length) filled with each polymer gel were irradiated with 6 MV photon beam using Novalis Tx linear accelerator (Varian/BrainLAB). The irradiated polymer gel dosimeters were scanned with Signa 1.5 T MRI system (GE), and dose calibration curves were obtained using T{sub 2} relaxation rate (R{sub 2} = 1/T{sub 2}). Dose rate (100-600 MU min{sup −1}) and fractionation (1-8 fractions) were varied. In addition, a cubic acrylic phantom (10 × 10 × 10 cm{sup 3}) filled with improved PAGAT gel inserted into the IMRT phantom (IBA) was irradiated with VMAT (RapidArc). C-shape structure was used for the VMAT planning by the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The dose comparison of TPS and measurements with the polymer gel dosimeter was accomplished by the gamma index analysis, overlaying the dose profiles for a set of data on selected planes using in-house developed software. Results: Dose rate and fractionation dependence of improved PAGAT gel were smaller than MAGAT gel. A high similarity was found by overlaying the dose profiles measured with improved PAGAT gel dosimeter and the TPS dose, and the mean pass rate of the gamma index analysis using 3%/3 mm criteria was achieved 90% on orthogonal planes for VMAT using improved PAGAT gel dosimeter. Conclusion: In-house developed 3D dose verification system using improved polyacrylamide-based gel dosimeter had a potential as an effective tool for VMAT QA.

  11. Polymer physics of chromosome large-scale 3D organisation

    PubMed Central

    Chiariello, Andrea M.; Annunziatella, Carlo; Bianco, Simona; Esposito, Andrea; Nicodemi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomes have a complex architecture in the cell nucleus, which serves vital functional purposes, yet its structure and folding mechanisms remain still incompletely understood. Here we show that genome-wide chromatin architecture data, as mapped by Hi-C methods across mammalian cell types and chromosomes, are well described by classical scaling concepts of polymer physics, from the sub-Mb to chromosomal scales. Chromatin is a complex mixture of different regions, folded in the conformational classes predicted by polymer thermodynamics. The contact matrix of the Sox9 locus, a region linked to severe human congenital diseases, is derived with high accuracy in mESCs and its molecular determinants identified by the theory; Sox9 self-assembles hierarchically in higher-order domains, involving abundant many-body contacts. Our approach is also applied to the Bmp7 locus. Finally, the model predictions on the effects of mutations on folding are tested against available data on a deletion in the Xist locus. Our results can help progressing new diagnostic tools for diseases linked to chromatin misfolding. PMID:27405443

  12. Polymer physics of chromosome large-scale 3D organisation.

    PubMed

    Chiariello, Andrea M; Annunziatella, Carlo; Bianco, Simona; Esposito, Andrea; Nicodemi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomes have a complex architecture in the cell nucleus, which serves vital functional purposes, yet its structure and folding mechanisms remain still incompletely understood. Here we show that genome-wide chromatin architecture data, as mapped by Hi-C methods across mammalian cell types and chromosomes, are well described by classical scaling concepts of polymer physics, from the sub-Mb to chromosomal scales. Chromatin is a complex mixture of different regions, folded in the conformational classes predicted by polymer thermodynamics. The contact matrix of the Sox9 locus, a region linked to severe human congenital diseases, is derived with high accuracy in mESCs and its molecular determinants identified by the theory; Sox9 self-assembles hierarchically in higher-order domains, involving abundant many-body contacts. Our approach is also applied to the Bmp7 locus. Finally, the model predictions on the effects of mutations on folding are tested against available data on a deletion in the Xist locus. Our results can help progressing new diagnostic tools for diseases linked to chromatin misfolding. PMID:27405443

  13. Polymer physics of chromosome large-scale 3D organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiariello, Andrea M.; Annunziatella, Carlo; Bianco, Simona; Esposito, Andrea; Nicodemi, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Chromosomes have a complex architecture in the cell nucleus, which serves vital functional purposes, yet its structure and folding mechanisms remain still incompletely understood. Here we show that genome-wide chromatin architecture data, as mapped by Hi-C methods across mammalian cell types and chromosomes, are well described by classical scaling concepts of polymer physics, from the sub-Mb to chromosomal scales. Chromatin is a complex mixture of different regions, folded in the conformational classes predicted by polymer thermodynamics. The contact matrix of the Sox9 locus, a region linked to severe human congenital diseases, is derived with high accuracy in mESCs and its molecular determinants identified by the theory; Sox9 self-assembles hierarchically in higher-order domains, involving abundant many-body contacts. Our approach is also applied to the Bmp7 locus. Finally, the model predictions on the effects of mutations on folding are tested against available data on a deletion in the Xist locus. Our results can help progressing new diagnostic tools for diseases linked to chromatin misfolding.

  14. Electroacoustics of Particles Dispersed in Polymer Gel

    SciTech Connect

    Bhosale, Prasad S.; Chun, Jaehun; Berg, John C.

    2011-06-27

    This study examines the acoustic electrophoresis of particles dispersed in polymer hydrogels, with the particle size either less than or greater than the gel mesh size. When the particles are smaller than the gel mesh size, their acoustic vibration is resisted by only the background water medium, and the measured dynamic electrophoretic mobility, μd (obtained in terms of colloid vibration current, CVI), is the same as in water. For the case of particles larger than the gel mesh size, μd is decreased due to trapping, and the net decrease depends on the viscoelastic properties of the gel. The gel mesh size was varied by varying its crosslink density, the latter being characterized as the storage modulus, G’. The dependence of mobility on G’, for systems of a given particle size, and on particle size, for gels of a given G’, are investigated. The measured mobility remains constant as G’ is increased (i.e., mesh size is decreased) up to a value of approximately 300 Pa, beyond which it decreases. In the second set of measurements, the trapped particle size was increased in a gel medium of constant mesh size, with G’ approximately 100 Pa. In this case, the measured μd is found to be effectively constant over the particle size range studied (14-120 nm), i.e., it is independent of the degree of trapping as expressed by the ratio of the particle size to the mesh size.

  15. Mechanical properties and morphology of polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliozberg, Yelena; Sirk, Timothy; Brennan, John; Andzelm, Jan; Mrozek, Randy; Lenhart, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Understanding morphology and mechanical response of polymeric gels is of particular importance to design materials with required energy dissipation characteristics. We will present our latest results for polymer gels based on 1) self-assembled block copolymers and 2) chemically cross-linked polymers. The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) was used to predict morphology in good agreement with atomic force microscopy. We have performed DPD non-equilibrium oscillatory shear calculations predicting elastic modulus of unentangled gels that correlates well with experimental rheology data. However, this methodology fails to predict mechanics of entangled polymer networks due to unphysical chain crossing brought by the soft potentials used in DPD simulations. Recently, we have introduced an improved segmental repulsion potential that removes the bond crossing allowing for reptation dynamics. The improved DPD method was used in simulations for entangled gels to explore impact of branched architecture of solvent on the mechanical response to the tensile deformation. Novel architectures of solvent resulting in a dramatic increase of the elastic modulus were identified. The topological analysis was applied to understand contributions of chemical cross-links and entanglements to the stress.

  16. Study of a non-diffusing radiochromic gel dosimeter for 3D radiation dose imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Craig Michael

    2000-12-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of a new radiation gel dosimeter, based on nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBTZ) suspended in a gelatin mold. Unlike all Fricke based gel dosimeters this dosimeter does not suffer from diffusive loss of image stability. Images are obtained by an optical tomography method. Nitro blue tetrazolium is a common biological indicator that when irradiated in an aqueous medium undergoes reduction to a highly colored formazan, which has an absorbance maximum at 525nm. Tetrazolium is water soluble while the formazan product is insoluble. The formazan product sticks to the gelatin matrix and the dose image is maintained for three months. Methods to maximize the sensitivity of the system were evaluated. It was found that a chemical detergent, Triton X-100, in combination with sodium formate, increased the dosimeter sensitivity significantly. An initial G-value of formazan production for a dosimeter composed of 1mM NBTZ, gelatin, and water was on the order of 0.2. The addition of Triton and formate produced a G-value in excess of 5.0. The effects of NBTZ, triton, formate, and gel concentration were all investigated. All the gels provided linear dose vs. absorbance plots for doses from 0 to >100 Gy. It was determined that gel concentration had minimal if any effect on sensitivity. Sensitivity increased slightly with increasing NBTZ concentration. Triton and formate individually and together provided moderate to large increases in dosimeter sensitivity. The dosimeter described in this work can provide stable 3D radiation dose images for all modalities of radiation therapy equipment. Methods to increase sensitivity are developed and discussed.

  17. Microfluidic Generation of Haptotactic Gradients through 3D Collagen Gels for Enhanced Neurite Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaghavan, Harini G.; Masand, Shirley N.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We adapted a microfluidic system used previously to generate durotactic gradients of stiffness in a 3D collagen gel, to produce haptotactic gradients of adhesive ligands through the collagen gel. Oligopeptide sequences that included bioactive peptide sequences from laminin, YIGSR, or IKVAV, were grafted separately onto type I collagen using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Solutions of peptide-grafted collagen and untreated collagen were then used as source and sink input solutions, respectively, in an H-shaped microfluidic network fabricated using traditional soft lithography. One-dimensional gradients of the peptide-grafted collagen solution were generated in the channel that connected the source and sink channels, and these gradients became immobilized upon self-assembly of the collagen into a 3D fibrillar gel. The slope and average concentration of the gradients were adjusted by changing the concentration of the source solutions and by changing the length of the cross-channel. A separate, underlying channel in the microfluidic construct allowed the introduction of a chick embryo dorsal root ganglion into the network. Neurites from these explants grew significantly longer up steep gradients of YIGSR, but shallow gradients of IKVAV in comparison to untreated collagen controls. When these two gradients were presented in combination, the bias in growth acceleration was the largest and most consistent. No differences were observed in the number of neurites choosing to grow up or down the gradients in any condition. These results suggest that the incorporation of distinct gradients of multiple bioactive ligands can improve directional acceleration of regenerating axons. PMID:21473683

  18. Electroactive polymer gels based on epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samui, A. B.; Jayakumar, S.; Jayalakshmi, C. G.; Pandey, K.; Sivaraman, P.

    2007-04-01

    Five types of epoxy gels have been synthesized from common epoxy resins and hardeners. Fumed silica and nanoclay, respectively, were used as fillers and butyl methacrylate/acrylamide were used as monomer(s) for making interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) in three compositions. Swelling study, tensile property evaluation, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and electroactive property evaluation were done. The gels have sufficient mechanical strength and the time taken for bending to 20° was found to be 22 min for forward bias whereas it was just 12 min for reverse bias.

  19. Two photon polymerization lithography for 3D microfabrication of single wall carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushiba, Shota; Shoji, Satoru; Kuray, Preeya; Masui, Kyoko; Kono, Junichiro; Kawata, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Two photon polymerization (TPP) lithography has been established as a powerful tool to develop 3D fine structures of polymer materials, opening up a wide range applications such as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). TPP lithography is also promising for 3D micro fabrication of nanocomposites embedded with nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles. Here, we make use of TPP lithography to fabricate 3D micro structural single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/polymer composites. SWCNTs exhibit remarkable mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, which leads to enhance performances of polymers by loading SWCNTs. SWCNTs were uniformly dispersed in an acrylate UV-curable monomer including a few amounts of photo-initiator and photo-sensitizer. A femtosecond pulsed laser emitting at 780 nm was focused onto the resin, resulting in the photo-polymerization of a nanometric volume of the resin through TPP. By scanning the focus spot three dimensionally, arbitrary 3D structures were created. The spatial resolution of the fabrication was sub-micrometer, and SWCNTs were embedded in the sub-micro sized structures. The fabrication technique enables one to fabricate 3D micro structural SWCNT/polymer composites into desired shapes, and thus the technique should open up the further applications of SWCNT/polymer composites such as micro sized photomechanical actuators.

  20. Carbon Redox-Polymer-Gel Hybrid Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Melinte, S.; Gohy, J.-F.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy storage devices that provide high specific power without compromising on specific energy are highly desirable for many electric-powered applications. Here, we demonstrate that polymer organic radical gel materials support fast bulk-redox charge storage, commensurate to surface double layer ion exchange at carbon electrodes. When integrated with a carbon-based electrical double layer capacitor, nearly ideal electrode properties such as high electrical and ionic conductivity, fast bulk redox and surface charge storage as well as excellent cycling stability are attained. Such hybrid carbon redox-polymer-gel electrodes support unprecedented discharge rate of 1,000C with 50% of the nominal capacity delivered in less than 2 seconds. Devices made with such electrodes hold the potential for battery-scale energy storage while attaining supercapacitor-like power performances.

  1. Carbon Redox-Polymer-Gel Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Vlad, A; Singh, N; Melinte, S; Gohy, J-F; Ajayan, P M

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage devices that provide high specific power without compromising on specific energy are highly desirable for many electric-powered applications. Here, we demonstrate that polymer organic radical gel materials support fast bulk-redox charge storage, commensurate to surface double layer ion exchange at carbon electrodes. When integrated with a carbon-based electrical double layer capacitor, nearly ideal electrode properties such as high electrical and ionic conductivity, fast bulk redox and surface charge storage as well as excellent cycling stability are attained. Such hybrid carbon redox-polymer-gel electrodes support unprecedented discharge rate of 1,000C with 50% of the nominal capacity delivered in less than 2 seconds. Devices made with such electrodes hold the potential for battery-scale energy storage while attaining supercapacitor-like power performances. PMID:26917470

  2. Carbon Redox-Polymer-Gel Hybrid Supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Melinte, S.; Gohy, J.-F.; Ajayan, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage devices that provide high specific power without compromising on specific energy are highly desirable for many electric-powered applications. Here, we demonstrate that polymer organic radical gel materials support fast bulk-redox charge storage, commensurate to surface double layer ion exchange at carbon electrodes. When integrated with a carbon-based electrical double layer capacitor, nearly ideal electrode properties such as high electrical and ionic conductivity, fast bulk redox and surface charge storage as well as excellent cycling stability are attained. Such hybrid carbon redox-polymer-gel electrodes support unprecedented discharge rate of 1,000C with 50% of the nominal capacity delivered in less than 2 seconds. Devices made with such electrodes hold the potential for battery-scale energy storage while attaining supercapacitor-like power performances. PMID:26917470

  3. Gamma Knife 3-D dose distribution near the area of tissue inhomogeneities by normoxic gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Isbakan, Fatih; Uelgen, Yekta; Bilge, Hatice; Ozen, Zeynep; Agus, Onur; Buyuksarac, Bora

    2007-05-15

    The accuracy of the Leksell GammaPlan registered , the dose planning system of the Gamma Knife Model-B, was evaluated near tissue inhomogeneities, using the gel dosimetry method. The lack of electronic equilibrium around the small-diameter gamma beams can cause dose calculation errors in the neighborhood of an air-tissue interface. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of inhomogeneity near the paranosal sinuses cavities. The homogeneous phantom was a spherical glass balloon of 16 cm diameter, filled with MAGIC gel; i.e., the normoxic polymer gel. Two hollow PVC balls of 2 cm radius, filled with N{sub 2} gas, represented the air cavities inside the inhomogeneous phantom. For dose calibration purposes, 100 ml gel-containing vials were irradiated at predefined doses, and then scanned in a MR unit. Linearity was observed between the delivered dose and the reciprocal of the T2 relaxation time constant of the gel. Dose distributions are the results of a single shot of irradiation, obtained by collimating all 201 cobalt sources to a known target in the phantom. Both phantoms were irradiated at the same dose level at the same coordinates. Stereotactic frames and fiducial markers were attached to the phantoms prior to MR scanning. The dose distribution predicted by the Gamma Knife planning system was compared with that of the gel dosimetry. As expected, for the homogeneous phantom the isodose diameters measured by the gel dosimetry and the GammaPlan registered differed by 5% at most. However, with the inhomogeneous phantom, the dose maps in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes were spatially different. The diameters of the 50% isodose curves differed 43% in the X axis and 32% in the Y axis for the Z=90 mm axial plane; by 44% in the X axis and 24% in the Z axis for the Y=90 mm coronal plane; and by 32% in the Z axis and 42% in the Y axis for the X=92 mm sagittal plane. The lack of ability of the GammaPlan registered to predict the rapid dose fall off, due

  4. Gamma Knife 3-D dose distribution near the area of tissue inhomogeneities by normoxic gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Isbakan, Fatih; Ulgen, Yekta; Bilge, Hatice; Ozen, Zeynep; Agus, Onur; Buyuksarac, Bora

    2007-05-01

    The accuracy of the Leksell GammaPlan, the dose planning system of the Gamma Knife Model-B, was evaluated near tissue inhomogeneities, using the gel dosimetry method. The lack of electronic equilibrium around the small-diameter gamma beams can cause dose calculation errors in the neighborhood of an air-tissue interface. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of inhomogeneity near the paranosal sinuses cavities. The homogeneous phantom was a spherical glass balloon of 16 cm diameter, filled with MAGIC gel; i.e., the normoxic polymer gel. Two hollow PVC balls of 2 cm radius, filled with N2 gas, represented the air cavities inside the inhomogeneous phantom. For dose calibration purposes, 100 ml gel-containing vials were irradiated at predefined doses, and then scanned in a MR unit. Linearity was observed between the delivered dose and the reciprocal of the T2 relaxation time constant of the gel. Dose distributions are the results of a single shot of irradiation, obtained by collimating all 201 cobalt sources to a known target in the phantom. Both phantoms were irradiated at the same dose level at the same coordinates. Stereotactic frames and fiducial markers were attached to the phantoms prior to MR scanning. The dose distribution predicted by the Gamma Knife planning system was compared with that of the gel dosimetry. As expected, for the homogeneous phantom the isodose diameters measured by the gel dosimetry and the GammaPlan differed by 5% at most. However, with the inhomogeneous phantom, the dose maps in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes were spatially different. The diameters of the 50% isodose curves differed 43% in the X axis and 32% in the Y axis for the Z =90 mm axial plane; by 44% in the X axis and 24% in the Z axis for the Y=90 mm coronal plane; and by 32% in the Z axis and 42% in the Y axis for the X=92 mm sagittal plane. The lack of ability of the GammaPlan to predict the rapid dose fall off, due to the air cavities behind or near the

  5. Fabrication of 3D metal/polymer microstructures by site-selective metal coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeyasu, N.; Tanaka, T.; Kawata, S.

    2008-02-01

    Three-dimensional silver/polymer conjugated microstructures were fabricated by site-selective metal deposition on photopolymer structures in the sub-micrometer scale. Photopolymerizable resins with and without an amide group were independently prepared, and a three-dimensional polymer structure was fabricated with those resins by means of the two-photon-induced photopolymerization technique to confine the photopolymerization to a sub-micrometer volume. Silver was selectively deposited on the surface of the amide-containing polymer parts by electroless plating. This method can provide 3D arbitrary silver/polymer composite microstructures with sub-micrometer resolution.

  6. Performance of 18 polymers in aluminum citrate colloidal dispersion gels

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal dispersion gels are made up of low concentrations of polymer and aluminum citrate in water. These gels, which are mixed as a homogeneous solution at the surface, provide a valuable tool for in-depth blockage of high permeability regions of rock in heterogeneous reservoirs. Performance of colloidal dispersion gels depends strongly on the type and quality of polymer used. This paper provides an overview of the performance of 18 different polymers in colloidal dispersion gels. 14 of the polymers were partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides or AMPS polymers in dry crystalline form with varying degrees of hydrolysis and molecular weight. The group also includes one cationic polyacrylamide, one carboxymethyl cellulose, one partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide in emulsion form and one polysaccharide in dry form. Gels were mixed with the polymers at two polymer concentrations, three polymer:aluminum ratios and in different concentrations of potassium chloride. The gels were quantitatively tested at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after crosslinking using the transition pressure test, which is a screen flow resistance test. Of the six polymer types tested, only the dry partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides and AMPS polymers formed colloidal dispersion gels. Gel strength generally increased with increasing anionic charge and molecular weight; however, the manner in which the polymer is manufactured and the impurities present in the polymer also play roles which are more significant than originally expected.

  7. Pattern Transformation of Heat-Shrinkable Polymer by Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in conventional heat-shrinkable polymers is to produce controllable microstructures. Here we report that the polymer material fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has a heat-shrinkable property, whose initial microstructure can undergo a spontaneous pattern transformation under heating. The underlying mechanism is revealed by evaluating internal strain of the printed polymer from its fabricating process. It is shown that a uniform internal strain is stored in the polymer during the printing process and can be released when heated above its glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the internal strain can be used to trigger the pattern transformation of the heat-shrinkable polymer in a controllable way. Our work provides insightful ideas to understand a novel mechanism on the heat-shrinkable effect of printed material, but also to present a simple approach to fabricate heat-shrinkable polymer with a controllable thermo-structural response. PMID:25757881

  8. 3D optical printing of piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kanguk; Zhu, Wei; Qu, Xin; Aaronson, Chase; McCall, William R; Chen, Shaochen; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    Here we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be optically printed into three-dimensional (3D) microstructures using digital projection printing. Piezoelectric polymers were fabricated by incorporating barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO) nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate and exposing to digital optical masks that could be dynamically altered to generate user-defined 3D microstructures. To enhance the mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the composites, the BTO nanoparticles were chemically modified with acrylate surface groups, which formed direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. The composites with a 10% mass loading of the chemically modified BTO nanoparticles showed piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)) of ∼ 40 pC/N, which were over 10 times larger than composites synthesized with unmodified BTO nanoparticles and over 2 times larger than composites containing unmodified BTO nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes to boost mechanical stress transfer efficiencies. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but lay the groundwork for creating highly efficient piezoelectric polymer materials via nanointerfacial tuning. PMID:25046646

  9. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, E. J. J.; Sathiyaraj, P.; Deena, T.; Kumar, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer.

  10. Rapid 3D µ-printing of polymer optical whispering-gallery mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jushuai; Guo, Xin; Zhang, A Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2015-11-16

    A novel microfabrication method for rapid printing of polymer optical whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators is presented. A 3D micro-printing technology based on high-speed optical spatial modulator (SLM) and high-power UV light source is developed to fabricate suspended-disk WGM resonator array using SU-8 photoresist. The optical spectral responses of the fabricated polymer WGM resonators were measured with a biconically tapered optical fiber. Experimental results reveal that the demonstrated method is very flexible and time-saving for rapid fabrication of complex polymer WGM resonators. PMID:26698452

  11. Pt-Free Counter Electrodes with Carbon Black and 3D Network Epoxy Polymer Composites

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Gyeongho; Choi, Jongmin; Park, Taiho

    2016-01-01

    Carbon black (CB) and a 3D network epoxy polymer composite, representing dual functions for conductive corrosion protective layer (CCPL) and catalytic layer (CL) by the control of CB weight ratio against polymer is developed. Our strategy provides a proper approach which applies high catalytic ability and chemical stability of CB in corrosive triiodide/iodide (I3−/I−) redox electrolyte system. The CB and a 3D network epoxy polymer composite coated on the stainless steel (SS) electrode to alternate counter electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A two-step spray pyrolysis process is used to apply a solution containing epoxy monomers and a polyfunctional amine hardener with 6 wt% CB to a SS substrate, which forms a CCPL. Subsequently, an 86 wt% CB is applied to form a CL. The excellent catalytic properties and corrosion protective properties of the CB and 3D network epoxy polymer composites produce efficient counter electrodes that can replace fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) with CCPL/SS and Pt/FTO with CL/CCPL/SS in DSSCs. This approach provides a promising approach to the development of efficient, stable, and cheap solar cells, paving the way for large-scale commercialization. PMID:26961256

  12. Pt-Free Counter Electrodes with Carbon Black and 3D Network Epoxy Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Gyeongho; Choi, Jongmin; Park, Taiho

    2016-03-01

    Carbon black (CB) and a 3D network epoxy polymer composite, representing dual functions for conductive corrosion protective layer (CCPL) and catalytic layer (CL) by the control of CB weight ratio against polymer is developed. Our strategy provides a proper approach which applies high catalytic ability and chemical stability of CB in corrosive triiodide/iodide (I3‑/I‑) redox electrolyte system. The CB and a 3D network epoxy polymer composite coated on the stainless steel (SS) electrode to alternate counter electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A two-step spray pyrolysis process is used to apply a solution containing epoxy monomers and a polyfunctional amine hardener with 6 wt% CB to a SS substrate, which forms a CCPL. Subsequently, an 86 wt% CB is applied to form a CL. The excellent catalytic properties and corrosion protective properties of the CB and 3D network epoxy polymer composites produce efficient counter electrodes that can replace fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) with CCPL/SS and Pt/FTO with CL/CCPL/SS in DSSCs. This approach provides a promising approach to the development of efficient, stable, and cheap solar cells, paving the way for large-scale commercialization.

  13. Pt-Free Counter Electrodes with Carbon Black and 3D Network Epoxy Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gyeongho; Choi, Jongmin; Park, Taiho

    2016-01-01

    Carbon black (CB) and a 3D network epoxy polymer composite, representing dual functions for conductive corrosion protective layer (CCPL) and catalytic layer (CL) by the control of CB weight ratio against polymer is developed. Our strategy provides a proper approach which applies high catalytic ability and chemical stability of CB in corrosive triiodide/iodide (I3(-)/I(-)) redox electrolyte system. The CB and a 3D network epoxy polymer composite coated on the stainless steel (SS) electrode to alternate counter electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A two-step spray pyrolysis process is used to apply a solution containing epoxy monomers and a polyfunctional amine hardener with 6 wt% CB to a SS substrate, which forms a CCPL. Subsequently, an 86 wt% CB is applied to form a CL. The excellent catalytic properties and corrosion protective properties of the CB and 3D network epoxy polymer composites produce efficient counter electrodes that can replace fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) with CCPL/SS and Pt/FTO with CL/CCPL/SS in DSSCs. This approach provides a promising approach to the development of efficient, stable, and cheap solar cells, paving the way for large-scale commercialization. PMID:26961256

  14. Transfer printing of 3D hierarchical gold structures using a sequentially imprinted polymer stamp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee

    2008-10-15

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures on polymeric materials are fabricated through a process referred to as sequential imprinting. In this work, the sequentially imprinted polystyrene film is used as a soft stamp to replicate hierarchical structures onto gold (Au) films, and the Au structures are then transferred to a substrate by transfer printing at an elevated temperature and pressure. Continuous and isolated 3D structures can be selectively fabricated with the assistance of thermo-mechanical deformation of the polymer stamp. Hierarchical Au structures are achieved without the need for a corresponding three-dimensionally patterned mold. PMID:21832645

  15. Novel 3D bismuth-based coordination polymers: Synthesis, structure, and second harmonic generation properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wibowo, Arief C.; Smith, Mark D.; Yeon, Jeongho; Halasyamani, P. Shiv; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur

    2012-11-15

    Two new 3D bismuth containing coordination polymers are reported along with their single crystal structures and SHG properties. Compound 1: Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}(pydc) (pydc=pyridine-2, 5-dicarboxylate), crystallizes in the monoclinic, polar space group, P2{sub 1} (a=9.6479(9) A, b=4.2349(4) A, c=11.9615(11) A, {beta}=109.587(1) Degree-Sign ), which contains Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2} chains that are connected into a 3D structure via the pydc ligands. Compound 2: Bi{sub 4}Na{sub 4}(1R3S-cam){sub 8}(EtOH){sub 3.1}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3.4} (1R3S cam=1R3S-camphoric acid) crystallizes in the monoclinic, polar space group, P2{sub 1} (a=19.0855(7) A, b=13.7706(5) A, c=19.2429(7) A, {beta}=90.701(1) Degree-Sign ) and is a true 3D coordination polymer. These are two example of SHG compounds prepared using unsymmetric ligands (compound 1) or chiral ligands (compound 2), together with metals that often exhibit stereochemically-active lone pairs, such as Bi{sup 3+}, a synthetic approach that resulted in polar, non-centrosymmetric, 3D metal-organic coordination polymer. - Graphical Abstract: Structures of two new, polar, 3D Bismuth(III)-based coordination polymers: Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}(pydc) (compound 1), and Bi{sub 4}Na{sub 4}(1R3S-cam){sub 8}(EtOH){sub 3.1}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3.4} (compound 2). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New, polar, 3D Bismuth(III)-based coordination polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First polar bismuth-based coordination polymers synthesized via a 'hybrid' strategy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of stereochemically-active lone pairs and unsymmetrical or chiral ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of class C-SHG materials based on Kurtz-Perry categories.

  16. Tetrapeptide-coumarin conjugate 3D networks based on hydrogen-bonded charge transfer complexes: gel formation and dye release.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zongxia; Gong, Ruiying; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Xiaobo

    2015-08-14

    Oligopeptide-based derivatives are important synthons for bio-based functional materials. In this article, a Gly-(L-Val)-Gly-(L-Val)-coumarin (GVGV-Cou) conjugate was synthesized, which forms 3D networks in ethanol. The gel nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and TEM. It is suggested that the formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes between the coumarin moieties is the main driving force for the gel formation. The capability of the gel to encapsulate and release dyes was explored. Both Congo Red (CR) and Methylene Blue (MB) can be trapped in the CT gel matrix and released over time. The present gel might be used as a functional soft material for guest encapsulation and release. PMID:26138931

  17. Disulfide-Based Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels: A Wholly-Synthetic Thermoreversible 3D Matrix for Sheet-Based Cultures.

    PubMed

    Simon, Karen A; Warren, Nicholas J; Mosadegh, Bobak; Mohammady, Marym R; Whitesides, George M; Armes, Steven P

    2015-12-14

    It is well-known that 3D in vitro cell cultures provide a much better model than 2D cell cultures for understanding the in vivo microenvironment of cells. However, significant technical challenges in handling and analyzing 3D cell cultures remain, which currently limits their widespread application. Herein, we demonstrate the application of wholly synthetic thermoresponsive block copolymer worms in sheet-based 3D cell culture. These worms form a soft, free-standing gel reversibly at 20-37 °C, which can be rapidly converted into a free-flowing dispersion of spheres on cooling to 5 °C. Functionalization of the worms with disulfide groups was found to be essential for ensuring sufficient mechanical stability of these hydrogels to enable long-term cell culture. These disulfide groups are conveniently introduced via statistical copolymerization of a disulfide-based dimethacrylate under conditions that favor intramolecular cyclization and subsequent thiol/disulfide exchange leads to the formation of reversible covalent bonds between adjacent worms within the gel. This new approach enables cells to be embedded within micrometer-thick slabs of gel with good viability, permits cell culture for at least 12 days, and facilitates recovery of viable cells from the gel simply by incubating the culture in buffer at 4 °C (thus, avoiding the enzymatic degradation required for cell harvesting when using commercial protein-based gels, such as Matrigel). PMID:26509930

  18. 3D conformal MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy: results of gel phantom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; McCormick, S.; Bronskill, M.; Chopra, R.

    2011-09-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Previous in-vivo studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing conservative treatments using real-time temperature feedback to control accurately the establishment of coagulative lesions within circumscribed prostate regions. This in-vitro study tested device configuration and control options for achieving full prostate treatments. A multi-channel MRI compatible ultrasound therapy system was evaluated in gel phantoms using 3 canine prostate models. Prostate profiles were 5 mm-step-segmented from T2-weighted MR images performed during previous in-vivo experiments. During ultrasound exposures, each ultrasound element was controlled independently by the 3D controller. Decisions on acoustic power, frequency, and device rotation rate were made in real time based on MR thermometry feedback and prostate radii. Low and high power treatment approaches using maximum acoustic powers of 10 or 20 W.cm-2 were tested as well as single and dual-frequency strategies (4.05/13.10 MHz). The dual-frequency strategy used either the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component, depending on the prostate radius. The 20 W.cm-2 dual frequency approach was the most efficient configuration in achieving full prostate treatments. Treatment times were about half the duration of those performed with 10 W.cm-2 configurations. Full prostate coagulations were performed in 16.3±6.1 min at a rate of 1.8±0.2 cm3.min-1, and resulted in very little undertreated tissue (<3%). Surrounding organs positioned beyond a safety distance of 1.4±1.0 mm from prostate boundaries were not damaged, particularly rectal wall tissues. In this study, a 3D, MR-thermometry-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy was validated in vitro in a tissue-mimicking phantom for performing full prostate treatment. A dual-frequency configuration with 20 W.cm-2 ultrasound intensity exposure showed good

  19. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments. PMID:26203364

  20. Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented. The 3D structure of biosamples can be recognized without fluorescence. The cubic platform employs two types of hydrogels that are compatible with conventional culture dishes or well plates, facilitating growth in culture, ease of handling, and viewing at multiple angles. PMID:27128576

  1. 3D scaffold alters cellular response to graphene in a polymer composite for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Azam, Dilkash; Raj, Shammy; Kolanthai, Elayaraja; Vasu, K S; Sood, A K; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-05-01

    Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites are being studied for biomedical applications. Polymer nanocomposites can be processed differently to generate planar two-dimensional (2D) substrates and porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. The objective of this work was to investigate potential differences in biological response to graphene in polymer composites in the form of 2D substrates and 3D scaffolds. Polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating 1% of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). GO increased modulus and strength of PCL by 44 and 22% respectively, whereas RGO increased modulus and strength by 22 and 16%, respectively. RGO increased the water contact angle of PCL from 81° to 87° whereas GO decreased it to 77°. In 2D, osteoblast proliferated 15% more on GO composites than on PCL whereas RGO composite showed 17% decrease in cell proliferation, which may be attributed to differences in water wettability. In 3D, initial cell proliferation was markedly retarded in both GO (36% lower) and RGO (55% lower) composites owing to increased roughness due to the presence of the protruding nanoparticles. Cells organized into aggregates in 3D in contrast to spread and randomly distributed cells on 2D discs due to the macro-porous architecture of the scaffolds. Increased cell-cell contact and altered cellular morphology led to significantly higher mineralization in 3D. This study demonstrates that the cellular response to nanoparticles in composites can change markedly by varying the processing route and has implications for designing orthopedic implants such as resorbable fracture fixation devices and tissue scaffolds using such nanocomposites. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 732-749, 2016. PMID:26482196

  2. Feasibility of quantitative PET/CT dosimetry for proton therapy using polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidan, O. A.; Hsi, W. C.; Lopatiuk-Tirpak, O.; Sriprisan, S. I.; Meeks, S. L.; Kupelian, P. A.; Li, Z.; Palta, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    A feasibility study of proton beam PET/CT off-line quantitative dosimetry using polymer gels is presented. A newly developed proton-sensitive polymer gel dosimeter (BANG(®)3-Pro2) is used as a dosimeter and a tissue-equivalent phantom medium for this study. We explore a new approach to correlating measured proton 3-dimensional (3D) dose distributions directly to measured positron emission from in the gel medium using PET/CT imaging. A large cylindrical volume (2.2 Litres) of the gel was irradiated with a clinical modulated proton beam using irregular-shaped aperture geometry. The gel was imaged in a nearby PET/CT unit immediately (<3 min) after irradiation. Dose distribution in the gel was generated using an optical tomography scanning system. Direct 3D spatial comparison of dose and positron emission distributions was then performed. Profiles along the beam path show that the distal fall-off of the dose is nearly 2 cm deeper than the activity profile which is comparable to previous studies with plastic phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations of activity distributions. Planar PET and dose distributions at depth and perpendicular to beam axis show a strong one-to-one spatial correlation. This phantom study demonstrates that the gel medium could be potentially useful for quantifying various physical factors that can influence the PET activity range verification method in patients.

  3. 3D printed sensing patches with embedded polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubel, Michal G.; Sugden, Kate; Saez-Rodriguez, D.; Nielsen, K.; Bang, O.

    2016-05-01

    The first demonstration of a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating (POFBG) embedded in a 3-D printed structure is reported. Its cyclic strain performance and temperature characteristics are examined and discussed. The sensing patch has a repeatable strain sensitivity of 0.38 pm/μepsilon. Its temperature behaviour is unstable, with temperature sensitivity values varying between 30-40 pm/°C.

  4. Optical CT scanner for in-air readout of gels for external radiation beam 3D dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ramm, Daniel; Rutten, Thomas P; Shepherd, Justin; Bezak, Eva

    2012-06-21

    Optical CT scanners for a 3D readout of externally irradiated radiosensitive hydrogels currently require the use of a refractive index (RI) matching liquid bath to obtain suitable optical ray paths through the gel sample to the detector. The requirement for a RI matching liquid bath has been negated by the design of a plastic cylindrical gel container that provides parallel beam geometry through the gel sample for the majority of the projection. The design method can be used for various hydrogels. Preliminary test results for the prototype laser beam scanner with ferrous xylenol-orange gel show geometric distortion of 0.2 mm maximum, spatial resolution limited to beam spot size of about 0.4 mm and 0.8% noise (1 SD) for a uniform irradiation. Reconstruction of a star pattern irradiated through the cylinder walls demonstrates the suitability for external beam applications. The extremely simple and cost-effective construction of this optical CT scanner, together with the simplicity of scanning gel samples without RI matching fluid increases the feasibility of using 3D gel dosimetry for clinical external beam dose verifications. PMID:22644104

  5. How to scan polymer gels with MRI?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The absorbed radiation dose fixated in a polymer gel dosimeter can be read out by several methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical CT, X-ray CT and ultrasound with MRI being the first method that was explored. Although MRI was considered as an elegant scanning technique, readily available in most hospitals, it was later found that using a non-optimized imaging protocol may result in unacceptable deviations in the obtained dose distribution. Although most medical physicists have an understanding of the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the optimization of quantitative imaging sequences and protocols is often perceived as the work of MRI experts. In this paper, we aim at providing the reader with some easy guidelines in how to obtain reliable quantitative MRI maps.

  6. Facile 3D Metal Electrode Fabrication for Energy Applications via Inkjet Printing and Shape Memory Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R. C.; Wu, J.; Hau, N. Y.; Chang, Y. H.; Feng, S. P.; Li, D. C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a simple 3D metal electrode fabrication technique via inkjet printing onto a thermally contracting shape memory polymer (SMP) substrate. Inkjet printing allows for the direct patterning of structures from metal nanoparticle bearing liquid inks. After deposition, these inks require thermal curing steps to render a stable conductive film. By printing onto a SMP substrate, the metal nanoparticle ink can be cured and substrate shrunk simultaneously to create 3D metal microstructures, forming a large surface area topology well suited for energy applications. Polystyrene SMP shrinkage was characterized in a laboratory oven from 150-240°C, resulting in a size reduction of 1.97-2.58. Silver nanoparticle ink was patterned into electrodes, shrunk, and the topology characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Zinc-Silver Oxide microbatteries were fabricated to demonstrate the 3D electrodes compared to planar references. Characterization was performed using 10M potassium hydroxide electrolyte solution doped with zinc oxide (57g/L). After a 300s oxidation at 3Vdc, the 3D electrode battery demonstrated a 125% increased capacity over the reference cell. Reference cells degraded with longer oxidations, but the 3D electrodes were fully oxidized for 4 hours, and exhibited a capacity of 5.5mA-hr/cm2 with stable metal performance.

  7. Precision polymers and 3D DNA nanostructures: emergent assemblies from new parameter space.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Christopher J; Edwardson, Thomas G W; Chidchob, Pongphak; Carneiro, Karina M M; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2014-11-01

    Polymer self-assembly and DNA nanotechnology have both proved to be powerful nanoscale techniques. To date, most attempts to merge the fields have been limited to placing linear DNA segments within a polydisperse block copolymer. Here we show that, by using hydrophobic polymers of a precisely predetermined length conjugated to DNA strands, and addressable 3D DNA prisms, we are able to effect the formation of unprecedented monodisperse quantized superstructures. The structure and properties of larger micelles-of-prisms were probed in depth, revealing their ability to participate in controlled release of their constituent nanostructures, and template light-harvesting energy transfer cascades, mediated through both the addressability of DNA and the controlled aggregation of the polymers. PMID:25325677

  8. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies. PMID:26677949

  9. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies.

  10. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies. PMID:26677949

  11. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    PubMed

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    On page 4449, D. Cohn, S. Magdassi, and co-workers describe a general and facile method based on 3D printing of methacrylated macromonomers to fabricate shape-memory objects that can be used in flexible and responsive electrical circuits. Such responsive objects can be used in the fabrication of soft robotics, minimal invasive medical devices, sensors, and wearable electronics. The use of 3D printing overcomes the poor processing characteristics of thermosets and enables complex geometries that are not easily accessible by other techniques. PMID:27273436

  12. 3D printed polymers toxicity profiling: a caution for biodevice applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Skommer, Joanna; Friedrich, Timo; Kaslin, Jan; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    A recent revolution in additive manufacturing technologies and access to 3D Computer Assisted Design (CAD) software has spurred an explosive growth of new technologies in biomedical engineering. This includes biomodels for diagnosis, surgical training, hard and soft tissue replacement, biodevices and tissue engineering. Moreover, recent developments in high-definition additive manufacturing systems such as Multi-Jet Modelling (MJM) and Stereolithography (SLA), capable of reproducing feature sizes close to 100 μm, promise brand new capabilities in fabrication of optical-grade biomicrofluidic Lab-on-a-Chip and MEMS devices. Compared with other rapid prototyping technologies such as soft lithography and infrared laser micromachining in PMMA, SLA and MJM systems can enable user-friendly production of prototypes, superior feature reproduction quality and comparable levels of optical transparency. Prospectively they can revolutionize fabrication of microfluidic devices with complex geometric features and eliminate the need to use clean room environment and conventional microfabrication techniques. In this work we demonstrate preliminary data on toxicity profiling of a panel of common polymers used in 3D printing applications. The main motivation of our work was to evaluate toxicity profiles of most commonly used polymers using standardized biotests according to OECD guidelines for testing of chemic risk assessment. Our work for the first time provides a multispecies view of potential dangers and limitation for building biocompatible devices using FDM, SLA and MJM additive manufacturing systems. Our work shows that additive manufacturing holds significant promise for fabricating LOC and MEMS but requires caution when selecting systems and polymers due to toxicity exhibited by some 3D printing polymers.

  13. Design and Construction of an Optical Computed Tomography Scanner for Polymer Gel Dosimetry Application

    PubMed Central

    Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mesbahi, Asghar; Keshtkar, Ahmad; Azimirad, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeter is the only accurate three dimensional (3D) dosimeter that can measure the absorbed dose distribution in a perfect 3D setting. Gel dosimetry by using optical computed tomography (OCT) has been promoted by several researches. In the current study, we designed and constructed a prototype OCT system for gel dosimetry. First, the electrical system for optical scanning of the gel container using a Helium-Neon laser and a photocell was designed and constructed. Then, the mechanical part for two rotational and translational motions was designed and step motors were assembled to it. The data coming from photocell was grabbed by the home-built interface and sent to a personal computer. Data processing was carried out using MATLAB software. To calibrate the system and tune up the functionality of it, different objects was designed and scanned. Furthermore, the spatial and contrast resolution of the system was determined. The system was able to scan the gel dosimeter container with a diameter up to 11 cm inside the water phantom. The standard deviation of the pixels within water flask image was considered as the criteria for image uniformity. The uniformity of the system was about ±0.05%. The spatial resolution of the system was approximately 1 mm and contrast resolution was about 0.2%. Our primary results showed that this system is able to obtain two-dimensional, cross-sectional images from polymer gel samples. PMID:24761377

  14. Development of a 3D polymer reinforced calcium phosphate cement scaffold for cranial bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alge, Daniel L.

    The repair of critical-sized cranial bone defects represents an important clinical challenge. The limitations of autografts and alloplastic materials make a bone tissue engineering strategy desirable, but success depends on the development of an appropriate scaffold. Key scaffold properties include biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, sufficient strength to maintain its structure, and resorbability. Furthermore, amenability to rapid prototyping fabrication methods is desirable, as these approaches offer precise control over scaffold architecture and have the potential for customization. While calcium phosphate cements meet many of these criteria due to their composition and their injectability, which can be leveraged for scaffold fabrication via indirect casting, their mechanical properties are a major limitation. Thus, the overall goal of this work was to develop a 3D polymer reinforced calcium phosphate cement scaffold for use in cranial bone tissue engineering. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) setting cements are of particular interest because of their excellent resorbability. We demonstrated for the first time that DCPD cement can be prepared from monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)/hydroxyapatite (HA) mixtures. However, subsequent characterization revealed that MCPM/HA cements rapidly convert to HA during degradation, which is undesirable and led us to choose a more conventional formulation for scaffold fabrication. In addition, we developed a novel method for calcium phosphate cement reinforcement that is based on infiltrating a pre-set cement structure with a polymer, and then crosslinking the polymer in situ. Unlike prior methods of cement reinforcement, this method can be applied to the reinforcement of 3D scaffolds fabricated by indirect casting. Using our novel method, composites of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) reinforced DCPD were prepared and demonstrated as excellent candidate scaffold materials, as they had increased strength and ductility

  15. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites

    PubMed Central

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6–8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005–0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites. PMID:26940381

  16. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6–8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005–0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  17. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Castles, F; Isakov, D; Lui, A; Lei, Q; Dancer, C E J; Wang, Y; Janurudin, J M; Speller, S C; Grovenor, C R M; Grant, P S

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity-which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications-may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites. PMID:26940381

  18. Functional 3D Neural Mini-Tissues from Printed Gel-Based Bioink and Human Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Lozano, Rodrigo; Chen, Yu; Kapsa, Robert M; Zhou, Qi; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    Direct-write printing of stem cells within biomaterials presents an opportunity to engineer tissue for in vitro modeling and regenerative medicine. Here, a first example of constructing neural tissue by printing human neural stem cells that are differentiated in situ to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia is reported. The supporting biomaterial incorporates a novel clinically relevant polysaccharide-based bioink comprising alginate, carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose. The printed bioink rapidly gels by stable cross-linking to form a porous 3D scaffold encapsulating stem cells for in situ expansion and differentiation. Differentiated neurons form synaptic contacts, establish networks, are spontaneously active, show a bicuculline-induced increased calcium response, and are predominantly gamma-aminobutyric acid expressing. The 3D tissues will facilitate investigation of human neural development, function, and disease, and may be adaptable for engineering other 3D tissues from different stem cell types. PMID:27028356

  19. Mesoscale 3D manufacturing: varying focusing conditions for efficient direct laser writing of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonušauskas, Linas; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report a novel approach for efficient fabrication of mesoscale polymer 3D microstructures. It is implemented by direct laser writing varying exposure beam focusing conditions. By carefully optimizing the fabrication parameters (laser intensity, scanning velocity/exposure time, changing objective lens) complex 3D geometries of the microstructures can be obtained rapidly. Additionally, we demonstrate this without the use of the photoinitiator as photosensitizer doped in the pre-polymer material (SZ2080). At femtosecond pulsed irradiation ~TW/cm² intensities the localized free radical polymerization is achieved via avalanche induced bond braking. Such microstructures have unique biocompatibility and optical transparency as well as optical damage threshold value. By creating the bulk part of the structure using low-NA (0.45) objective and subsequently fabricating the fine features using oil immersion high-NA (1.4) objective the manufacturing time is reduced dramatically (30x is demonstrated). Using this two objective method a prototype of functional microdevice was produced: 80 and 85 µm diameter microfluidic tubes with the fine filter consisting of 4 µm period grating structure that has 400 nm wide threads, which corresponds to a feature precision aspect ratio of ~200. Therefore, such method has great potential as a polymer fabrication tool for mesoscale optical, photonic and biomedical applications as well as highly integrated 3D µ-systems. Furthermore, the proposed approach is not limited to lithography and can be implemented in a more general type of laser writing, such as inscription within transparent materials or substractive manufacturing by ablation.

  20. A new pillared-layer 3D coordination polymer involving in situ generated formate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yu-Pei; Li, Yun-Wu; Li, Da-Cheng; Du, Yu-Chang; Yao, Qing-Xia; Dou, Jian-Min

    2015-02-01

    A new Cd-based coordination polymer, [Cd(cpt)(HCOO)]n (1), has been synthesized from 1-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazole) ligand (Hcpt). The structure was characterized through X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, and IR spectrum. Compound 1 presents a three-dimensional (3D) pillared-layer structure constructed by metal-formate layers and cpt- ligands. Moreover, the unusual formate anions are generated in situ from the decomposition of DMF precursors. The fluorescence property of 1 in solid state was also researched.

  1. Elastomeric Photopolymers: Shaping Polymer Gels with Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornfield, Julia

    2008-03-01

    Polymer gels that possess a latent ability to change shape, which can be triggered in a spatially resolved manner using light---``elastomeric photopolymers''---have been developed to meet the need for materials that can be reshaped without direct contact, e.g., to non-invasively adjust an implanted lens in the human eye. The physics of diffusion and swelling in elastomers are applied to create a transparent silicone suitable for making a foldable intraocular lens that can be reshaped using near ultraviolet light. A crosslinked silicone matrix dictates the initial shape of the lens, while ``macromers''--short silicone chains with polymerizable end groups—and photoinitiator enable shape adjustment using light: polymerization of the macromer in the irradiated regions, followed by diffusion of free macromer causes local swelling. To predict shape change directly from irradiation profile, a theoretical treatment is presented that captures 1. shape change with no external forces, 2. coupling between diffusion and deformation, and 3. connection between thermodynamics, constitutive equations and equations of motion. Using continuum mechanics complemented with thermodynamics within the auspices of the finite element method, we develop a steady-state model which successfully captures the coupling between diffusion and deformation. Parameter values are drawn from our prior experimental studies of the mechanical properties, equilibrium swelling, penetrant diffusivities and interaction parameters in systematically varied polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) networks and acrylate endcapped PDMS macromers. Preliminary computational studies show qualitative agreement with experimentally observed phenomena.

  2. Polymer gel dosimetry of an electron beam in the presence of a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, J.; De Deene, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The effect of a strong external magnetic field on 4 MeV electron beam was measured with polymer gel dosimetry. The measured entrance dose distribution was compared with a calculated fluence map. The magnetic field was created by use of two permanent Neodymium (NdFeB) magnets that were positioned perpendicular to the electron beam. The magnetic field between the magnets was measured with Hall sensors. Based on the magnetic field measurement and the law of Biot-Savart, the magnetic field distribution was extrapolated. Electron trajectories were calculated using a relativistic Lorentz force operator. Although the simplified computational model that was applied, the shape and position of the calculated entrance fluence map are found to be in good agreement with the measured dose distribution in the first layer of the phantom. In combination with the development of low density polymer gel dosimeters, these preliminary results show the potential of 3D gel dosimetry in MRI-linac applications.

  3. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility study on laser 3D microstructurable polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Baltriukiene, Daiva; Kraniauskas, Antanas; Danilevicius, Paulius; Jarasiene, Rasa; Sirmenis, Raimondas; Zukauskas, Albertas; Balciunas, Evaldas; Purlys, Vytautas; Gadonas, Roaldas; Bukelskiene, Virginija; Sirvydis, Vytautas; Piskarskas, Algis

    2012-09-01

    Films and microstructured scaffolds have been fabricated using direct laser writing out of different polymers: hybrid organic-inorganic ORMOCORE b59, acrylate-based AKRE23, novel organic-inorganic Zr containing hybrid SZ2080, and biodegradable PEG-DA-258. Adult myogenic stem cells were grown on these surfaces in vitro. Their adhesion, growth, and viability test results suggest good potential applicability of the materials in biomedical practice. Pieces of these polymers were implanted in rat's paravertebral back tissue. Histological examination of the implants and surrounding tissue ex vivo after 3 weeks of implantation was conducted and results show the materials to be at least as biocompatible as surgical clips or sutures. The applied direct laser writing technique seems to offer good future prospects in a polymeric 3D scaffold design for artificial tissue engineering with autologous stem cells.

  4. Dosimetry study of diagnostic X-ray using doped iodide normoxic polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. R.; Chang, Y. J.; Hsieh, L. L.; Liu, M. H.; Liu, J. S.; Chu, C. H.; Hsieh, B. T.

    2014-11-01

    In radiotherapy, polymer gel dosimeters are used for three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution. However, the doses are within the Gy range. In this study, we attempted to develop a low-dose 3D dosimeter within the mGy range for diagnostic radiology. The effect of the iodinated compound was used as a dose enhancement sensitizer to enhance the dose sensitivity of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters. This study aims to use N-isopropylacrylamide(NIPAM)-based and methacrylic acid (MAGAT)-based gels to evaluate the potential dose enhancement sensitizer, as well as to compare two gels that may be suitable for measuring diagnostic radiation doses. The suitable formulation of NIPAM gel [5% (w/w) gelatin, 5% (w/w) NIPAM, 3% (w/w) N,N‧-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS), 5 mM tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC), and 87% (w/w) deionized distilled water] and MAGAT gel (4% MAA, 9% gelatin, 87% deionized water, and 10 mM THPC) were used and loaded with clinical iodinated contrast medium agent (Iobitridol, Xenetix® 350). Irradiation was conducted using X-ray computed tomography. The irradiation doses ranged from 0 mGy to 80 mGy. Optical computed tomography was the employed gel measurement system. The results indicate that the iodinated contrast agent yields a quantifiable dose enhancement ratio. The dose enhancement ratios of NIPAM and MAGAT gels are 3.35±0.6 and 1.36±0.3, respectively. The developed NIPAM gel in this study could be suitable for measuring diagnostic radiation doses.

  5. New radiochromic gel for 3D dosimetry based on Turnbull blue: basic properties.

    PubMed

    Solc, Jaroslav; Spevácek, Václav

    2009-09-01

    The recently developed new radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull blue dye formed by irradiation (the TBG dosimeter) does not exhibit dose pattern degradation due to diffusion effects as observed in the Fricke-gel dosimeter with xylenol orange incorporated into the gel matrix (the FXG dosimeter). The TBG dosimeter can be easily prepared and its optical properties enable evaluation of the gel's response using the cone-beam optical computed tomography technique. The preparation procedure is described in the paper along with the basic characteristics of the gel, including dose response, dose sensitivity, ageing under different storage conditions, diffusion rates of Turnbull blue and gel density. The measurement of diffusion is described in more detail. The same method was applied to the FXG dosimeter for direct comparison. It was found that the diffusion coefficient of the TBG dosimeter stored at 24 degrees C is less than 4 x 10(-3) mm(2) h(-1) (1sigma confidence level), compared to the value of 7.3 x 10(-1) mm(2) h(-1) (1sigma) of the FXG dosimeter measured at the same temperature. Although the TBG dosimeter is less sensitive than the FXG dosimeter, its diffusion coefficient is practically negligible and, therefore, it offers large potential as a three-dimensional dosimeter for applications encompassing sharp dose gradients such as high-dose-rate brachytherapy. PMID:19652291

  6. Polymer networks and gels: Simulation and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkare, Nirupama Ramamurthy

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand the molecular origins of the dynamic and swelling properties of polymer networks and gels. Our approach has been to apply computer simulations techniques to off-lattice, near-perfect, trifunctional and tetrafunctional network models. The networks are constructed by endlinking freely-jointed, tangent-hard-sphere chains. Equilibrium discontinuous molecular dynamics techniques are employed to simulate the relaxation of large networks of chain lengths ranging from N = 20 to N = 150 at a packing fraction of 0.43. The simulation trajectories are used to calculate the radius of gyration and end-to-end distance of the network chains, the static structure factor of the crosslinks, the mean-squared displacement of the crosslinks and chain inner segments, the intermediate scattering function of the chains and the elastic modulus of the network. The structure and properties of the networks are shown to depend heavily on the manner in which the network is initially constructed. The dynamics of the network crosslinks and chain inner segments are similar to those of melt chains at short times and show evidence of spatial localization at long times. The results from the elastic moduli and long-time crosslink and chain displacement calculations indicate that entanglement constraints act in conjunction with crosslink constraints to reduce crosslink and chain mobility. The presence of entanglements appears to cause the magnitude of the elastic modulus to be larger than the affine/phantom model predictions. The pressure-volume behavior and the chain configurational properties of deformed networks are investigated over a range of packing fractions. The variation of network pressure with density is found to be similar to that of uncrosslinked chain systems of the same chain length, except at low densities where the network pressures become negative due to elastic effects. We derive a simple, mean-field network equation of state in which the

  7. High resolution polymer gel dosimetry for small beam irradiation using a 7T micro-MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xuanfeng; Olsen, John; Best, Ryan; Bennett, Marcus; McGowin, Inna; Dorand, Jennifer; Link, Kerry; Bourland, J. Daniel

    2010-11-01

    The use of small field radiation beams has greatly increased with advanced radiation therapy techniques such as IMRT, rotational IMRT, and stereotactic body radiotherapy. In this work small field 3D dose distributions have been measured with high spatial resolution using polymer gels and 7T micro-MR imaging. A MAGIC (Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin Initiated by Copper) polymer gel [1] phantom was used to capture the 3D dose distributions for two small field (5 × 5 mm2 and 10 × 10 mm2) for a 6MV x-ray beam. High resolution 3D T2 maps were obtained with 7T micro-MRI (0.156mm × 0.156mm × 1mm, MSME pulse sequence). For comparison T2 maps, the gel phantom was scanned in a 3T MRI clinical scanner (0.254mm × 0.254mm × 2mm, FSE pulse sequence). Normalized 3D dose maps were calculated in Matlab. Results show that 7T micro-MRI 3D gel dosimetry measurements are much more stable, less noisy, and have higher spatial resolution than those obtained using a 3T clinical scanner for the same amount of scan time. In general, 3D gel dosimetry results also agree with simultaneously-obtained radiochromic film dosimetry. This study indicates that the MAGIC polymer gel with 7T micro-MRI for 3D dose readout could potentially be used for small radiation beams, including measurements for micro-beams (field size ~ 100um).

  8. A polymer-based Fabry-Perot filter integrated with 3-D MEMS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ping (Cerina); Le, Kevin; Malalur-Nagaraja-Rao, Smitha; Hsu, Lun-Chen; Chiao, J.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Polymers have been considered as one of the most versatile materials in making optical devices for communication and sensor applications. They provide good optical transparency to form filters, lenses and many optical components with ease of fabrication. They are scalable and compatible in dimensions with requirements in optics and can be fabricated on inorganic substrates, such as silicon and quartz. Recent polymer synthesis also made great progresses on conductive and nonlinear polymers, opening opportunities for new applications. In this paper, we discussed hybrid-material integration of polymers on silicon-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. The motivation is to combine the advantages of demonstrated silicon-based MEMS actuators and excellent optical performance of polymers. We demonstrated the idea with a polymer-based out-of-plane Fabry-Perot filter that can be self-assembled by scratch drive actuators. We utilized a fabrication foundry service, MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Process), to demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of integration. The polysilicon, used as the structural material for construction of 3-D framework and actuators, has high absorption in the visible and near infrared ranges. Therefore, previous efforts using a polysilicon layer as optical interfaces suffer from high losses. We applied the organic compound materials on the silicon-based framework within the optical signal propagation path to form the optical interfaces. In this paper, we have shown low losses in the optical signal processing and feasibility of building a thin-film Fabry-Perot filter. We discussed the optical filter designs, mechanical design, actuation mechanism, fabrication issues, optical measurements, and results.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of gels with integrated channels using 3D printing with microfluidic nozzle for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Attalla, R; Ling, C; Selvaganapathy, P

    2016-02-01

    The lack of a simple and effective method to integrate vascular network with engineered scaffolds and tissue constructs remains one of the biggest challenges in true 3D tissue engineering. Here, we detail the use of a commercially available, low-cost, open-source 3D printer modified with a microfluidic print-head in order to develop a method for the generation of instantly perfusable vascular network integrated with gel scaffolds seeded with cells. The print-head features an integrated coaxial nozzle that allows the fabrication of hollow, calcium-polymerized alginate tubes that can be easily patterned using 3D printing techniques. The diameter of the hollow channel can be precisely controlled and varied between 500 μm - 2 mm by changing applied flow rates or print-head speed. These channels are integrated into gel layers with a thickness of 800 μm - 2.5 mm. The structural rigidity of these constructs allows the fabrication of multi-layered structures without causing the collapse of hollow channels in lower layers. The 3D printing method was fully characterized at a range of operating speeds (0-40 m/min) and corresponding flow rates (1-30 mL/min) were identified to produce precise definition. This microfluidic design also allows the incorporation of a wide range of scaffold materials as well as biological constituents such as cells, growth factors, and ECM material. Media perfusion of the channels causes a significant viability increase in the bulk of cell-laden structures over the long-term. With this setup, gel constructs with embedded arrays of hollow channels can be created and used as a potential substitute for blood vessel networks. PMID:26842949

  10. Microfluidics 3D gel-island chip for single cell isolation and lineage-dependent drug responses study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhixiong; Chen, Yu-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Heng; Luan, Yi; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-07-01

    3D cell culture in the extracellular matrix (ECM), which not only provides structural support to cellular constituents, but also initiates regulatory biochemical cues for a variety of important cell functions in tissue, has become more and more important in understanding cancer pathology and drug testing. Although the ECM-gel has been used in cell culture both in bulk and on-chip, previous studies focused on collective cell behavior rather than single-cell heterogeneity. To track the behavior of each individual cell, we have developed a gel-island chip, which can form thousands of islands containing single cells encapsulated by the desired ECM. Optimized by Poisson's distribution, the device can attain 34% single cell capture efficiency of the exact number of single cells per island. A good culture media exchange rate and high cell viability can be achieved in the gel-islands. The cells in the islands can be automatically counted for high-throughput analysis. As a proof of concept, we monitored the proliferation and differentiation of single Notch+ (stem-like) T47D breast cancer cells. The 3D collagen gel environment was found to be favorable for the stem-like phenotype through better self-renewal and de-differentiation (Notch- to Notch+ transition). More interestingly, we found that the Notch- de-differentiated cells were more resistant to doxorubicin and cisplatin than the Notch+ cells. Combining the 3D ECM culture and single cell resolution, the presented platform can automatically analyze the individual cell behaviors of hundreds of cells using a small amount of drug and reagents. PMID:27270563

  11. Creeping proteins in microporous structures: polymer brush-assisted fabrication of 3D gradients for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gunnewiek, Michel Klein; Di Luca, Andrea; Bollemaat, Hermannes Z; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Vancso, G Julius; Moroni, Lorenzo; Benetti, Edmondo M

    2015-06-01

    Coupling of rapid prototyping techniques and surface-confined polymerizations allows the fabrication of 3D multidirectional gradients of biomolecules within microporous scaffolds. The compositional gradients can be tailored by polymer-brush-assisted diffusion of protein solutions. This technique allows spatial control over stem cells manipulation within 3D environments. PMID:25676461

  12. Sequential Self-Folding Structures by 3D Printed Digital Shape Memory Polymers.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yiqi; Yu, Kai; Isakov, Michael S; Wu, Jiangtao; Dunn, Martin L; Jerry Qi, H

    2015-01-01

    Folding is ubiquitous in nature with examples ranging from the formation of cellular components to winged insects. It finds technological applications including packaging of solar cells and space structures, deployable biomedical devices, and self-assembling robots and airbags. Here we demonstrate sequential self-folding structures realized by thermal activation of spatially-variable patterns that are 3D printed with digital shape memory polymers, which are digital materials with different shape memory behaviors. The time-dependent behavior of each polymer allows the temporal sequencing of activation when the structure is subjected to a uniform temperature. This is demonstrated via a series of 3D printed structures that respond rapidly to a thermal stimulus, and self-fold to specified shapes in controlled shape changing sequences. Measurements of the spatial and temporal nature of self-folding structures are in good agreement with the companion finite element simulations. A simplified reduced-order model is also developed to rapidly and accurately describe the self-folding physics. An important aspect of self-folding is the management of self-collisions, where different portions of the folding structure contact and then block further folding. A metric is developed to predict collisions and is used together with the reduced-order model to design self-folding structures that lock themselves into stable desired configurations. PMID:26346202

  13. Sequential Self-Folding Structures by 3D Printed Digital Shape Memory Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yiqi; Yu, Kai; Isakov, Michael S.; Wu, Jiangtao; Dunn, Martin L.; Jerry Qi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Folding is ubiquitous in nature with examples ranging from the formation of cellular components to winged insects. It finds technological applications including packaging of solar cells and space structures, deployable biomedical devices, and self-assembling robots and airbags. Here we demonstrate sequential self-folding structures realized by thermal activation of spatially-variable patterns that are 3D printed with digital shape memory polymers, which are digital materials with different shape memory behaviors. The time-dependent behavior of each polymer allows the temporal sequencing of activation when the structure is subjected to a uniform temperature. This is demonstrated via a series of 3D printed structures that respond rapidly to a thermal stimulus, and self-fold to specified shapes in controlled shape changing sequences. Measurements of the spatial and temporal nature of self-folding structures are in good agreement with the companion finite element simulations. A simplified reduced-order model is also developed to rapidly and accurately describe the self-folding physics. An important aspect of self-folding is the management of self-collisions, where different portions of the folding structure contact and then block further folding. A metric is developed to predict collisions and is used together with the reduced-order model to design self-folding structures that lock themselves into stable desired configurations. PMID:26346202

  14. Sequential Self-Folding Structures by 3D Printed Digital Shape Memory Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yiqi; Yu, Kai; Isakov, Michael S.; Wu, Jiangtao; Dunn, Martin L.; Jerry Qi, H.

    2015-09-01

    Folding is ubiquitous in nature with examples ranging from the formation of cellular components to winged insects. It finds technological applications including packaging of solar cells and space structures, deployable biomedical devices, and self-assembling robots and airbags. Here we demonstrate sequential self-folding structures realized by thermal activation of spatially-variable patterns that are 3D printed with digital shape memory polymers, which are digital materials with different shape memory behaviors. The time-dependent behavior of each polymer allows the temporal sequencing of activation when the structure is subjected to a uniform temperature. This is demonstrated via a series of 3D printed structures that respond rapidly to a thermal stimulus, and self-fold to specified shapes in controlled shape changing sequences. Measurements of the spatial and temporal nature of self-folding structures are in good agreement with the companion finite element simulations. A simplified reduced-order model is also developed to rapidly and accurately describe the self-folding physics. An important aspect of self-folding is the management of self-collisions, where different portions of the folding structure contact and then block further folding. A metric is developed to predict collisions and is used together with the reduced-order model to design self-folding structures that lock themselves into stable desired configurations.

  15. New 3-D coordination polymers based on semi-rigid V-shape tetracarboxylates

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jing-Jing; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yan-Ning; Yu, Jie-Hui; Zhang, Ping; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2015-03-15

    Under the hydrothermal conditions, the reactions of transition-metal salts, tetracarboxylic acids and N,N′-donor ligands yielded three new coordination polymers as [Cu{sub 4}(fph){sub 2}(bpe){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O (fph=4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalate, bpe=1,2-bis(pyridyl)ethylene) 1, [Co{sub 2}(fph)(bpa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O (bpa=1,2-bis(pyridyl)ethylane) 2, and [Ni(H{sub 2}O)(H{sub 2}oph)(bpa)] (oph=4,4′-oxydiphthalate) 3. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis revealed that the title three compounds all possess the three-dimensional (3-D) network structures. For compound 1, the fph molecules first link the Cu{sup 2+} ions into a two-dimensional (2-D) wave-like layer with a (4,4) topology. The bpe molecules act as the second linkers, extending the 2-D layers into a 3-D network. For compound 2, the fph molecules still serve as the first connectors, linking the Co{sup 2+} ions into a one-dimensional (1-D) tube-like chain. Then the bpa molecules propagate the chains into a 3-D (4,4,4)-connected network. In the formation of the 3-D network of compound 3, the oph molecule does not play a role. The bpa molecules as well as the water molecules act as a mixed bridge. Only a kind of 4-connected metal node is observed in compound 3. The magnetic properties of compounds 1–3 were investigated and all exhibit the predominant antiferromegnetic magnetic behaviors. - Graphical abstract: Structures of three semi-rigid V-shape tetracarboxylate-based coordination polymers were reported, and their magnetic properties were investigated. - Highlights: • Structures of three tetracarboxylate-based coordination polymers were reported. • Role of organic bases in metal–tetracarboxylate compounds was discussed. • Characters of V-shape and semi-rigidity for tetracarboxylate play a key role in crystal growth. • Their magnetic properties were investigated.

  16. Plasmon assisted 3D microstructuring of gold nanoparticle-doped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonušauskas, Linas; Lau, Marcus; Gruber, Peter; Gökce, Bilal; Barcikowski, Stephan; Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    3D laser lithography of a negative photopolymer (zirconium/silicon hybrid solgel SZ2080) doped with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is performed with a 515 nm and 300 fs laser system and the effect of doping is explored. By varying the laser-generated Au NP doping concentration from 4.8 · 10-6 wt% to 9.8 · 10-3 wt% we find that the fabricated line widths are enlarged by up to 14.8% compared to structures achieved in pure SZ2080. While implicating a positive effect on the photosensitivity, the doping has no adverse impact on the mechanical quality of intricate 3D microstructures produced from the doped nanocompound. Additionally, we found that SZ2080 increases the long term (˜months) colloidal stability of Au NPs in isopropanol. By discussing the nanoparticle-light interaction in the 3D polymer structures we provide implications that our findings might have on other fields, such as biomedicine and photonics.

  17. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers – digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications.

  18. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L; Qi, H Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers - digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications. PMID:27071543

  19. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers – digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications. PMID:27071543

  20. Polymer optical fibers integrated directly into 3D orthogonal woven composites for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Tamer; Seyam, Abdel-Fattah M.; Peters, Kara

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates that standard polymer optical fibers (POF) can be directly integrated into composites from 3D orthogonal woven preforms during the weaving process and then serve as in-situ sensors to detect damage due to bending or impact loads. Different composite samples with embedded POF were fabricated of 3D orthogonal woven composites with different parameters namely number of y-/x-layers and x-yarn density. The signal of POF was not affected significantly by the preform structure. During application of resin using VARTM technique, significant drop in backscattering level was observed due to pressure caused by vacuum on the embedded POF. Measurements of POF signal while in the final composites after resin cure indicated that the backscattering level almost returned to the original level of un-embedded POF. The POF responded to application of bending and impact loads to the composite with a reduction in the backscattering level. The backscattering level almost returned back to its original level after removing the bending load until damage was present in the composite. Similar behavior occurred due to impact events. As the POF itself is used as the sensor and can be integrated throughout the composite, large sections of future 3D woven composite structures could be monitored without the need for specialized sensors or complex instrumentation.

  1. Plasmon assisted 3D microstructuring of gold nanoparticle-doped polymers.

    PubMed

    Jonušauskas, Linas; Lau, Marcus; Gruber, Peter; Gökce, Bilal; Barcikowski, Stephan; Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr

    2016-04-15

    3D laser lithography of a negative photopolymer (zirconium/silicon hybrid solgel SZ2080) doped with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is performed with a 515 nm and 300 fs laser system and the effect of doping is explored. By varying the laser-generated Au NP doping concentration from 4.8 · 10(-6) wt% to 9.8 · 10(-3) wt% we find that the fabricated line widths are enlarged by up to 14.8% compared to structures achieved in pure SZ2080. While implicating a positive effect on the photosensitivity, the doping has no adverse impact on the mechanical quality of intricate 3D microstructures produced from the doped nanocompound. Additionally, we found that SZ2080 increases the long term (∼months) colloidal stability of Au NPs in isopropanol. By discussing the nanoparticle-light interaction in the 3D polymer structures we provide implications that our findings might have on other fields, such as biomedicine and photonics. PMID:26925538

  2. 3D-printed silicate porous bioceramics using a non-sacrificial preceramic polymer binder.

    PubMed

    Zocca, A; Elsayed, H; Bernardo, E; Gomes, C M; Lopez-Heredia, M A; Knabe, C; Colombo, P; Günster, J

    2015-06-01

    Silicate bioceramics possess an excellent bioactivity; however, shaping them into complex geometries is still challenging. Therefore, this paper aims to present a new strategy for the shaping of a bioglass-ceramic with controlled geometry and properties starting from a glass powder combined with a preceramic polymer, i.e. a silicon resin, and reactive fillers. The powder-based three-dimensional (3D)-printing of wollastonite (CaSiO3)-based silicate bioceramic parts was demonstrated in this work. The resin plays a dual role, as it not only acts as a non-sacrificial binder for the filler powders in the printing process but it also reacts with the fillers to generate the desired bioceramic phases. The mechanical and physical properties, i.e. ball-on-three-balls test, density, porosity and morphology, were evaluated in 3D-printed discs. These samples possessed a total porosity around 64 vol% and a biaxial flexural strength around 6 MPa. The raw materials used in this work also enabled the 3D-printing of scaffolds possessing a designed multi-scale porosity, suitable bioceramic phase assemblage and a compressive strength of 1 MPa (for cylindrical scaffolds with total porosity ~80 vol%). Solubility in TRIS/HCl and in vitro assays, i.e. viability, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays, were also performed. In vitro tests indicated good cell viability and no cytotoxicity effect on the cells. PMID:26000907

  3. Fabrication, modeling and optimization of an ionic polymer gel actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Choonghee; Naguib, Hani E.; Kwon, Roy H.

    2011-04-01

    The modeling of the electro-active behavior of ionic polymer gel is studied and the optimum conditions that maximize the deflection of the gel are investigated. The bending deformation of polymer gel under an electric field is formulated by using chemo-electro-mechanical parameters. In the modeling, swelling and shrinking phenomena due to the differences in ion concentration at the boundary between the gel and solution are considered prior to the application of an electric field, and then bending actuation is applied. As the driving force of swelling, shrinking and bending deformation, differential osmotic pressure at the boundary of the gel and solution is considered. From this behavior, the strain or deflection of the gel is calculated. To find the optimum design parameter settings (electric voltage, thickness of gel, concentration of polyion in the gel, ion concentration in the solution, and degree of cross-linking in the gel) for bending deformation, a nonlinear constrained optimization model is formulated. In the optimization model, a bending deflection equation of the gel is used as an objective function, and a range of decision variables and their relationships are used as constraint equations. Also, actuation experiments are conducted using poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) gel and the optimum conditions predicted by the proposed model have been verified by the experiments.

  4. Monte Carlo verification of polymer gel dosimetry applied to radionuclide therapy: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gear, J. I.; Charles-Edwards, E.; Partridge, M.; Flux, G. D.

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluates the dosimetric performance of the polymer gel dosimeter 'Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin, initiated by Copper' and its suitability for quality assurance and analysis of I-131-targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry. Four batches of gel were manufactured in-house and sets of calibration vials and phantoms were created containing different concentrations of I-131-doped gel. Multiple dose measurements were made up to 700 h post preparation and compared to equivalent Monte Carlo simulations. In addition to uniformly filled phantoms the cross-dose distribution from a hot insert to a surrounding phantom was measured. In this example comparisons were made with both Monte Carlo and a clinical scintigraphic dosimetry method. Dose-response curves generated from the calibration data followed a sigmoid function. The gels appeared to be stable over many weeks of internal irradiation with a delay in gel response observed at 29 h post preparation. This was attributed to chemical inhibitors and slow reaction rates of long-chain radical species. For this reason, phantom measurements were only made after 190 h of irradiation. For uniformly filled phantoms of I-131 the accuracy of dose measurements agreed to within 10% when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. A radial cross-dose distribution measured using the gel dosimeter compared well to that calculated with Monte Carlo. Small inhomogeneities were observed in the dosimeter attributed to non-uniform mixing of monomer during preparation. However, they were not detrimental to this study where the quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution of polymer gel dosimetry were far superior to that calculated using scintigraphy. The difference between Monte Carlo and gel measurements was of the order of a few cGy, whilst with the scintigraphic method differences of up to 8 Gy were observed. A manipulation technique is also presented which allows 3D scintigraphic dosimetry measurements to be compared to polymer

  5. Beating polymer gels coupled with a nonlinear chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Ryo; Kokufuta, Etsuo; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    1999-06-01

    We report on a beating polymer gel that exhibits periodical volume changes (swelling and deswelling) in a closed solution without external stimuli, like autonomous heartbeat. The mechanical oscillation is driven by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. The gel is a copolymer gel of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) in which ruthenium tris(2,2'-bipyridine) [Ru(bpy)3], known as a catalyst of the BZ reaction, is covalently bonded to the polymer chain. The poly[NIPAAm-co-Ru(bpy)3] gel provides an open system where the BZ reaction proceeds, when immersed in an aqueous solution containing the reactants of the BZ reaction (with the exception of a catalyst). The chemical oscillation in the BZ reaction generates the periodical changes of the charge of Ru(bpy)3 in the gel network between reduced [Ru(II)] and oxidized [Ru(III)] states. The gel swells at the oxidized state because the hydrophilicity of the polymer chains increases, while at the reduced state the gel deswells. Thus, the chemical energy is transduced into the mechanical energy to drive the polymer gel oscillation with a period of about 5 min, depending on the composition of the surrounding solution. The oscillation mode of the gel depends on its size scaled by the wavelength of the BZ pattern. Sufficiently small bead-like gels demonstrate isotropic beating. A large rectangular gel shows mechanical oscillation with a peristaltic motion coupled with the propagating chemical waves. The dynamic behavior of the chemical and mechanical oscillations have been analyzed with a model simulation.

  6. Permeability modification in 3D porous media due to polymer retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Shima; Sizaret, Hubert; Weitz, David

    2015-11-01

    We combine confocal microscopy and bulk transport measurements to quantify the changes in the permeability of a model porous media after flow of a polymer solution. The 3D micromodel is made of closely packed glass beads with diameter of 150 micrometers. By matching the index of refraction of the fluid with beads we are able to measure the fluid velocities at pore level deep in the medium using particle image velocimetry. Our measurement shows that the medium permeability decreases 60% after flow of multiple pore volumes of polymer solution and then flushing with water. At constant flow rate we estimate that the pore velocity increases almost 23% due to this reduction in permeability. Our microscopic measurements of the velocities in pores shows that the average velocity increases considerably more than estimated bulk value. Also the distribution of velocities has a slower decay indicating somewhat higher probability of large velocities in the medium after retention of polymer. These changes in velocities are not uniform and depends on the pore size.

  7. Poroelastic toughening in polymer gels: A theoretical and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noselli, Giovanni; Lucantonio, Alessandro; McMeeking, Robert M.; DeSimone, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    We explore the Mode I fracture toughness of a polymer gel containing a semi-infinite, growing crack. First, an expression is derived for the energy release rate within the linearized, small-strain setting. This expression reveals a crack tip velocity-independent toughening that stems from the poroelastic nature of polymer gels. Then, we establish a poroelastic cohesive zone model that allows us to describe the micromechanics of fracture in gels by identifying the role of solvent pressure in promoting poroelastic toughening. We evaluate the enhancement in the effective fracture toughness through asymptotic analysis. We confirm our theoretical findings by means of numerical simulations concerning the case of a steadily propagating crack. In broad terms, our results explain the role of poroelasticity and of the processes occurring in the fracturing region in promoting toughening of polymer gels.

  8. 3D Tissue Culturing: Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 13/2016).

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented by M. Hagiwara and co-workers on page 1566. 3D recognition of a sample structure can be achieved by facilitating multi-directional views using a standard microscope without a laser system. The cubic platform has the potential to promote 3D culture studies, offering easy handling and compatibility with commercial culture plates at a low price tag. PMID:27384934

  9. Simulation of Polymer Dynamics in Gels and Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heukelum, Alexander

    2003-12-01

    I have worked on computer simulations of lattice polymer models. Those models describe a polymer as a long chain of segments, connecting neighboring lattice sites. Polymers show interesting behavior if their freedom of movement is restricted, for example if the polymers move through a gel. The gel forms a three-dimensional structure that blocks sideways movements of the polymers. The polymer can only move by diffusion of stored length from one end of the chain to the other end. This is called reptation. We have extended an existing model for a polymer in a gel to simulate a DNA fragment in a gel under the influence of an applied electric field. In weak fields, long fragments move slower than short ones. In this way, fragments of different length can be separated. If the field strength is increased, the fragments orientate themselves parallel to the field, and shorter and longer fragments move with the same velocity. In strong fields, fragments can get trapped in a U-shape, in which the applied field pulls on both ends of the fragment, while the middle cannot move in the direction of the field because of the gel. We also introduce a new lattice polymer model for polymer solutions (melts). In this model, we simulate many polymers, mutually restricting their freedom of motion. We have investigated a mixture of two mutually repelling polymer types. At high temperatures the polymers are homogeneously distributed but if the temperature is lowered, phase separation sets in. The polymer model turns out to be highly efficient, and is the first where the growth of the phase domains can be directly observed. We have also investigated the composition of the two phases after full phase separation. Each phase consists mostly of one type of polymer, but there is always a small contamination with the other polymer type. If the polymers of one type are not all of equal length, then the shorter polymers will occur more often in the rare phase than the long ones. This is called

  10. Electrochemical stimulation and control of electroactive polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guelch, Rainer W.; Holdenried, Jens; Weible, Andrea; Wallmersperger, Thomas; Kroeplin, Bernd

    2001-07-01

    Direct effects of electrical currents on polyelectrolyte gels are always associated with changes in their Donnan potential. Thus electrical stimulation of gels can be only completely understood if the direct effect of electric fields on the potential profile within the gels are known. The purpose of this study is to present recordings of Donnan potentials in electroactive gels of various compositions, especially under the influence of electric fields. An important finding is that opposite alterations in the Donnan potential simultaneously occur at the current inflow and outflow region of the gel. In anionic gels hyperpolarization, i.e. higher negativity, is induced on the anode-side of the gel, whereas depolarization is found on the cathode-side. As these shifts in the potential are supposed to affect swelling or deswelling of polyelectrolyte gels, they will primarily promote bending motions of the gel. To demonstrate the opposite bending behavior of anionic and cationic polymer gels under the influence of an electric field a short video sequence of an EAP gripper in action is presented. It is made exclusively of polyelectrolyte gel strips taking advantage of the fact that anionic and cationic polyacrylamide gels can be attached firmly to each other without any adhesive.

  11. Dose evaluation of an NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter using gamma index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Jen; Lin, Jing-Quan; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Chin-Hsing

    2014-11-01

    An N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel dosimeter has great potential in clinical applications. However, its three-dimensional dose distribution must be assessed. In this work, a quantitative evaluation of dose distributions was performed to evaluate the NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter using gamma analysis. A cylindrical acrylic phantom filled with NIPAM gel measuring 10 cm (diameter) by 10 cm (height) by 3 mm (thickness) was irradiated by a 4×4 cm2 square light field. The irradiated gel phantom was scanned using an optical computed tomography (optical CT) scanner (OCTOPUS™, MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT, USA) at 1 mm resolution. The projection data were transferred to an image reconstruction program, which was written using MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). The program reconstructed the image of the optical density distribution using the algorithm of a filter back-projection. Three batches of replicated gel phantoms were independently measured. The average uncertainty of the measurements was less than 1%. The gel was found to have a high degree of spatial uniformity throughout the dosimeter and good temporal stability. A comparison of the line profiles of the treatment planning system and of the data measured by optical CT showed that the dose was overestimated in the penumbra region because of two factors. The first is light scattering due to changes in the refractive index at the edge of the irradiated field. The second is the edge enhancement caused by free radical diffusion. However, the effect of edge enhancement on the NIPAM gel dosimeter is not as significant as that on the BANG gel dosimeter. Moreover, the dose uncertainty is affected by the inaccuracy of the gel container positioning process. To reduce the uncertainty of 3D dose distribution, improvements in the gel container holder must be developed.

  12. Radiological properties of MAGIC normoxic polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljamal, M.; Zakaria, A.; Shamsuddin, S.

    2013-04-01

    For a polymer gel dosimeter to be of use in radiation dosimetry, it should display water-equivalent radiological properties. In this study, the radiological properties of the MAGIC (Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin Initiated by Copper) normoxic polymer gels were investigated. The mass density (ρ) was determined based on Archimedes' principle. The weight fraction of elemental composition and the effective atomic number (Zeff) were calculated. The electron density was also measured with 90° scattering angle at room temperature. The linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of unirradiated gel, irradiated gel, and water were determined using Am-241 based on narrow beam geometry. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate the depth doses response of MAGIC gel and water for 6MV photon beam. The weight fractions of elements composition of MAGIC gel were close to that for water. The mass density was found to be 1027 ± 2 kg m-3, which is also very close to mass density of muscle tissue (1030 kg m-3) and 2.7% higher than that of water. The electron density (ρe) and atomic number (Zeff) were found to be 3.43 × 1029 e m-3 and 7.105, respectively. The electron density measured was 2.6% greater than that for water. The atomic number was very close to that for water. The prepared MAGIC gel was found to be water equivalent based on the study of element composition, mass density, electron density and atomic number. The linear attenuation coefficient of unirradiated gel was very close to that of water. The μ of irradiated gel was found to be linear with dose 2-40 Gy. The depth dose response for MAGIC gel from a 6 MV photon beam had a percentage dose difference to water of less than 1%. Therefore it satisfies the criteria to be a good polymer gel dosimeter for radiotherapy.

  13. Laser 3D micro/nanofabrication of polymers for tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilevičius, P.; Rekštytė, S.; Balčiūnas, E.; Kraniauskas, A.; Širmenis, R.; Baltriukienė, D.; Bukelskienė, V.; Gadonas, R.; Sirvydis, V.; Piskarskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we applied a constructed multi-photon polymerization system based on diode-pumped solid state femtosecond Yb:KGW laser used as pulsed irradiation light source (300 fs, 1030 nm, 200 kHz) in combination with large area high sample translation velocity (up to 300 mm/s) linear motor-driven stages (100×100×50 mm3) designed for high resolution and throughput 3D micro/nanofabrication. It enables rapid prototyping out of most polymers up to cm in scale with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. This can be used for production of three-dimensional artificial polymeric scaffolds applied for cell growth and expansion experiments as well as tissue engineering. Biocompatibilities of different acrylate, hybrid organic-inorganic and biodegradable polymeric materials were evaluated experimentally in vitro. Various in size and form scaffolds of biocompatible photopolymers were successfully fabricated having intricate 3D geometry, thus demonstrating the potential of the applied method. Adult rabbit myogenic stem cell proliferation tests show artificial scaffolds to be applicable for biomedical practice. Additionally, a micromolding technique was used for a rapid multiplication of adequate laser manufactured structures.

  14. A basic study of some normoxic polymer gel dosimeters.

    PubMed

    De Deene, Y; Hurley, C; Venning, A; Vergote, K; Mather, M; Healy, B J; Baldock, C

    2002-10-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters offer a wide range of potential applications in the three-dimensional verification of complex dose distribution such as in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Until now, however, polymer gel dosimeters have not been widely used in the clinic. One of the reasons is that they are difficult to manufacture. As the polymerization in polymer gels is inhibited by oxygen, all free oxygen has to be removed from the gels. For several years this was achieved by bubbling nitrogen through the gel solutions and by filling the phantoms in a glove box that is perfused with nitrogen. Recently another gel formulation was proposed in which oxygen is bound in a metallo-organic complex thus removing the problem of oxygen inhibition. The proposed gel consists of methacrylic acid, gelatin, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone and copper(II)sulphate and is given the acronym MAGIC gel dosimeter. These gels are fabricated under normal atmospheric conditions and are therefore called 'normoxic' gel dosimeters. In this study, a chemical analysis on the MAGIC gel was performed. The composition of the gel was varied and its radiation response was evaluated. The role of different chemicals and the reaction kinetics are discussed. It was found that ascorbic acid alone was able to bind the oxygen and can thus be used as an anti-oxidant in a polymer gel dosimeter. It was also found that the anti-oxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium were effective in scavenging the oxygen. However, the rate of oxygen scavenging is dependent on the anti-oxidant and its concentration with tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium being the most reactive anti-oxidants. Potentiometric oxygen measurements in solution provide an easy way to get a first impression on the rate of oxygen scavenging. It is shown that cupper(II)sulphate operates as a catalyst in the oxidation of ascorbic acid. We, therefore, propose some new normoxic gel formulations that have a less complicated chemical

  15. Radio-physical properties of micelle leucodye 3D integrating gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, J.; Ghysel, S.; Baete, S. H.; De Deene, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Recently, novel radiochromic leucodye micelle hydrogel dosimeters were introduced in the literature. In these studies, gel measured electron depth dose profiles were compared with ion chamber depth dose data, from which it was concluded that leucocrystal violet-type dosimeters were independent of dose rate. Similar conclusions were drawn for leucomalachite green-type dosimeters, only after pre-irradiating the samples to a homogeneous radiation dose. However, in our extensive study of the radio-physical properties of leucocrystal violet- and leucomalachite green-type dosimeters, a significant dose rate dependence was found. For a dose rate variation between 50 and 400 cGy\\,min^{-1}, a maximum difference of 75% was found in optical dose sensitivity for the leucomalachite green-type dosimeter. Furthermore, the measured optical dose sensitivity of the leucomalachite green-type dosimeter was four times lower than the value previously reported in the literature. For the leucocrystal violet-type dosimeter, a maximum difference in optical dose sensitivity of 55% was found between 50 and 400 cGy\\,min^{-1}. A modified composition of the leucomalachite green-type dosimeter is proposed. This dosimeter is composed of gelatin, sodium dodecyl sulfate, chloroform, trichloroacetic acid and leucomalachite green. The optical dose sensitivity amounted to 4.375 \\times 10^{-5} \\,cm^{-1}\\; cGy^{-1} (dose rate 400 cGy\\,min^{-1}). No energy dependence for photon energies between 6 and 18 MV was found. No temperature dependence during readout was found notwithstanding a temperature dependence during irradiation of 1.90 cGy °C-1 increase on a total dose of 100 cGy. The novel gel dosimeter formulation exhibits an improved spatial stability (2.45 \\times 10^{-7} \\,cm^{2}\\; s^{-1} (= 0.088 mm^2 \\; h^{-1})) and good water/soft tissue equivalence. Nevertheless, the novel formulation was also found to have a significant, albeit reduced, dose rate dependence, as a maximum difference of 33

  16. Dynamics of self-oscillating cilia designed from active polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Pratyush; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2012-02-01

    Using theory and simulations, we design active synthetic surfaces which are capable of replicating functionalities of biological cilia. In order to design such exquisite biomimetic systems we harness unique properties of polymer gels that undergo photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Powered by internalized BZ reaction these polymer gels swell and de-swell autonomously by chemo-mechanical transduction and therefore are ideal materials for designing our system. In order to simulate the dynamics of the BZ cilia in surrounding fluid we have developed a nonlinear hybrid 3D model which captures elasto-dynamics of polymer gel and diffusive exchange of BZ reagents between the gel and the fluid. Here we show that the geometrical arrangement of cilia and the distribution of BZ activator in the fluid determine the dynamic response of the cilia. We further show that using light as an external stimulus we can sequentially modulate height of individual cilium and thereby create the ``piano effect''. Finally, we demonstrate that synchronized oscillations in the cilia result from the distribution of BZ-activator in the surrounding fluid. Our findings can be used to design active surfaces which can be remotely tuned depending upon the magnitude of external stimuli.

  17. Polymer gel as a barrier for ground oil spill containment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, E.

    1996-12-31

    The specific problem that is of concern here is to stop or at least significantly retard the migration of oil spill and other waste fluids into groundwater. Stopping or slowing migration of contaminants will allow remediation of the source of the contaminants, or at least provide more time for the required remediation technology to be developed and applied. The solution proposed is to employ a polymer gel barrier that is highly impermeable to the contaminants of interest. The barrier will be formed by injection into the ground of ungelled polymer, which will then gel in controlled fashion in situ. The importance and innovation of this proposed technique lies in {open_quote}ungelled{close_quote}. The material to be injected via drill holes will have a viscosity and density close to water, hence the pump power and costs will be very low compared with other methods. Several promising polymer gels have been identified and tested for the purpose of forming effective barriers. The permeability of this gel barrier is very low, in the order of 10{sup {minus}8} - 10{sup {minus}9} cm/sec, which is much lower than 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec - the criterion for an ideal barrier. Further, gelation time, which is an important factor in constructing a gel barrier, can be easily controlled by varying the pH of the ungelled polymer-crosslinking agent mixture.

  18. The feasibility assessment of radiation dose of movement 3D NIPAM gel by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chih-Ming; Leung, Joseph Hang; Ng, Yu-Bun; Cheng, Chih-Wu; Sun, Jung-Chang; Lin, Ping-Chin; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2015-11-01

    NIPAM dosimeter is widely accepted and recommended for its 3D distribution and accuracy in dose absorption. Up to the moment, most research works on dose measurement are based on a fixed irradiation target without the consideration of the effect from physiological motion. We present a study to construct a respiratory motion simulating patient anatomical and dosimetry model for the study of dosimetic effect of organ motion. The dose on fixed and motion targets was measured by MRI after a dose adminstration of 1, 2, 5, 8, and 10 Gy from linear accelerator. Comparison of two situations is made. The average sensitivity of fixed NIPAM was 0.1356 s-1/Gy with linearity R2=0.998. The average sensitivity of movement NIPAM was 0.1366 s-1/Gy with linearity R2=0.998 both having only 0.001 of the sensitivity difference. The difference between the two based on dose rate dependency, position and depth was not significant. There was thus no apparent impact on NIPAM dosimeter from physiological motion. The high sensitivity, linearity and stability of NIPAM dosimeter proved to be an ideal apparatus in the dose measurement in these circumstances.

  19. Development of 3D carbon nanotube interdigitated finger electrodes on polymer substrate for flexible capacitive sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chih-Fan; Wang, Jhih-Yu; Liu, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Ming-Han; Fang, Weileun

    2013-11-01

    This study reports a novel approach to the implementation of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) interdigitated finger electrodes on flexible polymer, and the detection of strain, bending curvature, tactile force and proximity distance are demonstrated. The merits of the presented CNT-based flexible sensor are as follows: (1) the silicon substrate is patterned to enable the formation of 3D vertically aligned CNTs on the substrate surface; (2) polymer molding on the silicon substrate with 3D CNTs is further employed to transfer the 3D CNTs to the flexible polymer substrate; (3) the CNT-polymer composite (˜70 μm in height) is employed to form interdigitated finger electrodes to increase the sensing area and initial capacitance; (4) other structures such as electrical routings, resistors and mechanical supporters are also available using the CNT-polymer composite. The preliminary fabrication results demonstrate a flexible capacitive sensor with 50 μm high CNT interdigitated electrodes on a poly-dimethylsiloxane substrate. The tests show that the typical capacitance change is several dozens of fF and the gauge factor is in the range of 3.44-4.88 for strain and bending curvature measurement; the sensitivity of the tactile sensor is 1.11% N-1 a proximity distance near 2 mm away from the sensor can be detected.

  20. Hydrothermal reactions: From the synthesis of ligand to new lanthanide 3D-coordination polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Fausthon Fred da; Fernandes de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto; Lago Falcão, Eduardo Henrique; Gatto, Claudia Cristina; Bezerra da Costa, Nivan; Oliveira Freire, Ricardo; Chojnacki, Jarosław; Alves Júnior, Severino

    2013-11-15

    The organic ligand 2,5-piperazinedione-1,4-diacetic acid (H{sub 2}PDA) was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions starting from the iminodiacetic acid and catalyzed by oxalic acid. The X-ray powder diffraction data indicates that the compound crystallizes in the P2{sub 1}/c monoclinic system as reported in the literature. The ligand was also characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic nuclear resonance, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Two new coordination networks based on lanthanide ions were obtained with this ligand using hydrothermal reaction. In addition to single-crystal X-ray diffraction, the compounds were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Single-crystal XRD showed that the compounds are isostructural, crystallizing in P2{sub 1}/n monoclinic system with chemical formula [Ln(PDA){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}O){sub 3} (Ln=Gd{sup 3+}(1) and Eu{sup 3+}(2)).The luminescence properties of both compounds were studied. In the compound (1), a broad emission band was observed at 479 nm, redshifted by 70 nm in comparison of the free ligand. In (2), the typical f–f transition was observed with a maximum peak at 618 nm, related with the red emission of the europium ions. Computational methods were performed to simulate the crystal structure of (2). The theoretical calculations of the intensity parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values. - Graphical abstract: Scheme of obtaining the ligand 2,5-piperazinedione-1,4-diacetic acid (H{sub 2}PDA) and two new isostructural 3D-coordination polymers [Ln(PDA){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}O){sub 3} (Ln=Gd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) by hydrothermal synthesis. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The ligand 2,5-piperazinedione-1,4-diacetic acid was synthetized using the hydrothermic method and characterized. • Two new 3D-coordination polymers with this ligand containing Gd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions

  1. Using Polymer Confinement for Stem Cell Differentiation: 3D Printed vs Molded Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailovich, Miriam

    Additive manufacturing technologies are increasingly being used to replace standard extrusion or molding methods in engineering polymeric biomedical implants, which can be further seeded with cells for tissue regeneration. The principal advantage of this new technology is the ability to print directly from a scan and hence produce parts which are an ideal fit for an individual, eliminating much of the sizing and fitting associated with standard manufacturing methods. The question though arises whether devices which may be macroscopically similar, serve identical functions and are produced from the same material, interact in the same manner with cells and living tissue. Here we show that fundamental differences can exist between 3-D printed and extruded scaffolds which can impact stem cell differentiation and lineage selection. We will show how polymer confinement inherent in these methods affect the printed features on multiple length scales. We will also and how the differentiation of stem cells is affected by substrate heterogeneity in both morphological and mechanical features. NSF-Inspire award # 1344267.

  2. Polymer Crosslinked 3-D Assemblies of Nanoparticles: Mechanically Strong Lightweight Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    In analogy to supramolecular assemblies, which are pursued because of properties above and beyond those of the individual molecules, self-standing monolithic three-dimensional assemblies of nanoparticles also have unique properties attributed to their structure. For example, ultra low-density 3-D assemblies of silica nanoparticles, known as silica aerogels, are characterized by large internal void space, high surface area and very low thermal conductivity. Aerogels, however, are also extremely fragile materials, limiting their application to a few specialized environments, e.g., in nuclear reactors as Cerenkov radiation detectors, in space (refer to NASA's Stardust Program) and aboard certain planetary vehicles (thermal insulators on Mars Rovers in 1997 and 2004). The fragility problem is traced to well-defined weak points in the aerogel skeletal framework, the interparticle necks. Using the surface functionality of the nanoparticle building blocks as a focal point, we have directed attachment of a conformal polymer coating over the entire framework, rendering all necks wider. Thus, although the bulk density may increase only by 3x, the mesoporosity (pores in the range 2-50 nm) remains unchanged, while the strength of the material increases by up to 300... Having addressed the fragility problem, aerogels are now robust materials, and a variety of applications, ranging from thermal/acoustic insulators to catalyst supports, to platform for sensors, and dielectrics are all within reach. Our approach employs molecular science to manipulate nanoscopic matter for achieving useful macroscopic properties, and in our view it resides at the core of what defines nanotechnology. In that spirit, this technology is expandable in three directions. Thus, we have already crosslinked successfully amine-modified silica, and we anticipate that more rich chemistry will be realized by been creative with the nanoparticle surface modifiers. On the other hand, although we do not expect

  3. Synthesis and studies of Zn-doped LaMnO3+d nanoperovskite by sol-gel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemi, A. A.; Karimpour, E.; Shokri, H.

    Nanoparticles with high surface area of LaMn1-xZnxO3+d (LMZ) (0.0≤;x≤;0.38) were synthesized by the Pechini-type polymerizable complex technique based on in situ polyesterification between citric acid (CA) and ethylene glycol (EG). Heating at 90 °C of a mixed solution of CA, EG, H2O, and nitrates of La, Mn, and Zn, gave a polymeric resin. The polymeric resin or citrate-derived gel was preheated at 450 °C for 2 h to give a powdered precursor of LMZ. The final heat treatment of the powdered precursor was done in static air at a temperature range 700-800 °C for 6 h. After calcinations of the dried gels, the products were characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction technique, Fourier transform infrared analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The products are of considerable interest both for utilization as catalysts and for their exceptional magnetotransport properties.

  4. Creating Reconfigurable Materials Using ``Colonies'' of Oscillating Polymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Debabrata; Dayal, Pratyush; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Species ranging from single-cell organisms to social insects can undergo auto-chemotaxis, where the entities move towards a chemo-attractant that they themselves emit. This mode of signaling allows the organisms to form large-scale structures. Using computational modeling, we show that millimeter-sized polymer gels can display similar auto-chemotaxis. In particular, we demonstrate that gels undergoing the self-oscillating Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction not only respond to a chemical signal from the surrounding solution, but also emit this signal and thus, multiple gel pieces can spontaneously self-aggregate. We focus on the collective behavior of ``colonies'' of BZ gels and show that communication between the individual pieces critically depends on all the neighboring gels. We isolate the conditions at which the BZ gels can undergo a type of self-recombining: if a larger gel is cut into distinct pieces that are moved relatively far apart, then their auto-chemotactic behavior drives them to move and autonomously recombine into a structure resembling the original, uncut sample. These findings reveal that the BZ gels can be used as autonomously moving building blocks to construct multiple structures and thus, provide a new route for creating dynamically reconfigurable materials.

  5. Large deformation of self-oscillating polymer gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Shingo; Kato, Terukazu; Otsuka, Yuji; Hosoya, Naoki; Cianchetti, Matteo; Laschi, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    A self-oscillating gel is a system that generates an autonomous volume oscillation. This oscillation is powered by the chemical energy of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, which demonstrates metal ion redox oscillation. A self-oscillating gel is composed of Poly-N -isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm) with a metal ion. In this study, we found that the displacement of the volume oscillation in a self-oscillating gel could be controlled by its being subjected to a prestraining process. We also revealed the driving mechanism of the self-oscillating gel from the point of view of thermodynamics. We observed that the polymer-solvent interaction parameter χ is altered by the redox changes to the metal ion incorporated in the self-oscillating gel. The prestraining process leads to changes in χ and changes in enthalpy and entropy when the self-oscillating gel is in a reduced and oxidized state. We found that nonprestrained gel samples oscillate in a poor solution (χ >0.5 ) and prestrained gel samples oscillate in a good solution (χ <0.5 ).

  6. Rheology and Relaxation Timescales of ABA Triblock Polymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andrew; Lodge, Timothy

    When dissolved in a midblock selective solvent, ABA polymers form gels composed of aggregated end block micelles bridged by the midblocks. While much effort has been devoted to the study of the structure of these systems, the dynamics of these systems has received less attention. We examine the underlying mechanism of shear relaxation of ABA triblock polymer gels, especially as a function of chain length, composition, and concentration. Recent work using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering of polystyrene (PS)-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP) in squalane has elucidated many aspects of the dynamics of diblock chain exchange. By using rheology to study bulk relaxation phenomena of the triblock equivalent, PS-PEP-PS, we apply the knowledge gained from the chain exchange studies to bridge the gap between the molecular and macroscopic relaxation phenomena in PS-PEP-PS triblock gels.

  7. Development of the flow behavior model for 3D scaffold fabrication in the polymer deposition process by a heating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Young; Park, Jung Kyu; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Kwon, Tai Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2009-10-01

    The flow behavior model for 3D scaffold fabrication in the polymer deposition process by the heating method was developed for enhanced efficiency of the deposition process. The analysis of the polymer flow property is very important in the fabrication process of precise micro-structures such as scaffolds. In this study, a deposition model considering fluid mechanics and heat transfer phenomena was built up and introduced for the estimation of the fluid behavior of molten polymer. The effectiveness of the simulation model was verified through comparison with the experimental result in the case of PCL biomaterial. In addition, the effects of various parameters, such as pressure, temperature and nozzle size, were predicted through simulation before experimental approaches. Through the fabrication of 3D scaffold, it is concluded that this model is useful in predicting the flow behavior characteristics in the micro-structure fabrication process, which is based on the heating method.

  8. Performance of electric double layer capacitors with polymer gel electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Masashi; Kishino, Takahiro; Katada, Naoji; Morita, Masayuki

    2000-07-01

    Polymer gel electrolytes consisting of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF{sub 4}), and propylene carbonate (PC) as a plasticizer have been investigated for electric double layer capacitors. The PVdF gel electrolytes showed high ionic conductivity (ca. 6 mS/cm at 298 K). To assemble model capacitors with the PVdF gel electrolytes and activated carbon fiber cloth electrodes, a pair of the fixed electrodes was soaked in a precursor solution containing PC, PVdF, and TEABF{sub 4}, followed by evaporation of the PC solvent in a vacuum oven. The resulting gel electrolytes were in good contact with the electrodes. The model capacitors with the PVdF gel electrolytes showed a large value of capacitance and high coulombic efficiency in operation voltage ranges of 1--2 and 1--3 V. It is worth noting that the capacitors with the PVdF electrolytes showed long voltage retention in a self-discharge test. These good characteristics of the gel capacitors were comparable to those of typical double layer capacitors with a liquid organic electrolyte containing PC and TEABF{sub 4}; rather, the voltage retentivity of the PVdF gel capacitors was much superior to that of the capacitors with the organic electrolyte.

  9. Polymer gel dosimeter based on itaconic acid.

    PubMed

    Mattea, Facundo; Chacón, David; Vedelago, José; Valente, Mauro; Strumia, Miriam C

    2015-11-01

    A new polymeric dosimeter based on itaconic acid and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide was studied. The preparation method, compositions of monomer and crosslinking agent and the presence of oxygen in the dosimetric system were analyzed. The resulting materials were irradiated with an X-ray tube at 158cGy/min, 226cGymin and 298cGy/min with doses up to 1000Gy. The dosimeters presented a linear response in the dose range 75-1000Gy, sensitivities of 0.037 1/Gyat 298cGy/min and an increase in the sensitivity with lower dose rates. One of the most relevant outcomes in this study was obtaining different monomer to crosslinker inclusion in the formed gel for the dosimeters where oxygen was purged during the preparation method. This effect has not been reported in other typical dosimeters and could be attributed to the large differences in the reactivity among these species. PMID:26275817

  10. Ice-Templated Assembly Strategy to Construct 3D Boron Nitride Nanosheet Networks in Polymer Composites for Thermal Conductivity Improvement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaoliang; Yao, Yimin; Gong, Zhengyu; Wang, Fangfang; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jianbin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the growing heat removal issue of modern electronic devices, polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have drawn much attention in the past few years. However, a traditional method to enhance the thermal conductivity of the polymers by addition of inorganic fillers usually creates composite with not only limited thermal conductivity but also other detrimental effects due to large amount of fillers required. Here, novel polymer composites are reported by first constructing 3D boron nitride nanosheets (3D-BNNS) network using ice-templated approach and then infiltrating them with epoxy matrix. The obtained polymer composites exhibit a high thermal conductivity (2.85 W m(-1) K(-1)), a low thermal expansion coefficient (24-32 ppm K(-1)), and an increased glass transition temperature (T(g)) at relatively low BNNSs loading (9.29 vol%). These results demonstrate that this approach opens a new avenue for design and preparation of polymer composites with high thermal conductivity. The polymer composites are potentially useful in advanced electronic packaging techniques, namely, thermal interface materials, underfill materials, molding compounds, and organic substrates. PMID:26479262

  11. Calcium phosphate cement reinforcement by polymer infiltration and in situ curing: a method for 3D scaffold reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Alge, Daniel L; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    This study describes a novel method of calcium phosphate cement reinforcement based on infiltrating a pre-set cement with a reactive polymer and then cross-linking the polymer in situ. This method can be used to reinforce 3D calcium phosphate cement scaffolds, which we demonstrate using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as a model reinforcing polymer. The compressive strength of a 3D scaffold comprised of orthogonally intersecting beams was increased from 0.31 +/- 0.06 MPa to 1.65 +/- 0.13 MPa using PEGDA 600. In addition, the mechanical properties of reinforced cement were characterized using three PEGDA molecular weights (200, 400, and 600 Da) and three cement powder to liquid (P/L) ratios (0.8, 1.0, and 1.43). Higher molecular weight increased reinforcement efficacy, and P/L controlled cement porosity and determined the extent of polymer incorporation. Although increasing polymer incorporation resulted in a transition from brittle, cement-like behavior to ductile, polymer-like behavior, maximizing polymer incorporation was not advantageous. Polymerization shrinkage produced microcracks in the cement, which reduced the mechanical properties. The most effective reinforcement was achieved with P/L of 1.43 and PEGDA 600. In this group, flexural strength increased from 0.44 +/- 0.12 MPa to 7.04 +/- 0.51 MPa, maximum displacement from 0.05 +/- 0.01 mm to 1.44 +/- 0.17 mm, and work of fracture from 0.64 +/- 0.10 J/m(2) to 677.96 +/- 70.88 J/m(2) compared to non-reinforced controls. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of our novel reinforcement method, as well as its potential for fabricating reinforced 3D calcium phosphate cement scaffolds useful for bone tissue engineering. PMID:20186776

  12. Structure and Properties of Polysaccharide Based BioPolymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K.

    2000-03-01

    Nature uses the pyranose ring as the basic building unit for a wideclass of biopolymers. Because of their biological origin these biopolymers naturally find application as food additives, rheology modifiers. These polymers range from being rigid skeletal material, such as cellulose that resist dissolution in water, to water soluble polymers, such as guar or carrageenan. The flexibility of the basic pyranose ring structure to provide materials with such a wide range of properties comes from the specific interactions that can be engineered by nature into the structure. We will present several examples of specific interactions for these systems: hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and specific ion interactions. The relationship between molecular interations and rheology will be emphasized. Hydrogen bonding mediated by steric interference is used to control of solubility of starch and the rheology of guar gels. A more interesting example is the hydrogen bonding induced by chemical modification in konjac glucomannan that results in a gel that melts upon cooling. Hydrogen bonding interactions in xanthan lead to gel formation at very low polymer concentrations which is a result of the fine tuning of the polymer persistence length and total contour length. Given the function of xanthan in nature its molecular architecture has been optimized. Hydrophobic interactions in methylcellulose show a reverse temperature dependence arising from solution entropy. Carrageenan gelation upon the addition of specific cations will be addressed to show the interplay of polymer secondary structure on chemical reactivity. And finally the cis-hydroxyls on galactomannans permit crosslinking by a variety of metal ions some of which lead to "living gels" and some of which lead to permanently crosslinked networks.

  13. Pushing the boundaries of spatial resolution in dosimetry using polymer gels and radiochromic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilemann, G.; Georg, D.; Berg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced radiotherapy and brachytherapy techniques are raising the bar for detectors with respect to high spatial resolution. Dosimetry based on most point-like dosimeters, e.g. diamond detectors or small volume ionization chambers cannot be used efficiently and accurately for detecting 2 or 3D-dose variations at millimeter scale. Hence radiochromic films and polymer gels with high two/three-dimensional resolution provide a good verification tool for measuring dose distributions of very small collimated beams. In this study the performance of film and gel detectors in detecting the very fine dose distributions generated from collimation holes of four different sizes is investigated. Pencil beams with diameters down to 0.455 mm could be resolved by both detector types comparably.

  14. All-solid-state proton battery using gel polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Kuldeep; Pundir, S. S.; Rai, D. K.

    2014-04-24

    A proton conducting gel polymer electrolyte system; PMMA+NH{sub 4}SCN+EC/PC, has been prepared. The highest ionic conductivity obtained from the system is 2.5 × 10−4 S cm{sup −1}. The optimized composition of the gel electrolyte has been used to fabricate a proton battery with Zn/ZnSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O anode and MnO{sub 2} cathode. The open circuit voltage of the battery is 1.4 V and the highest energy density is 5.7 W h kg−1 for low current drain.

  15. Photon and neutron kerma coefficients for polymer gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khayatt, A. M.; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2015-08-01

    Neutron and gamma ray kerma coefficients were calculated for 17 3D dosimeters, for the neutron and gamma ray energy ranges extend from 2.53×10-8 to 29 MeV and from 1.0×10-3 to 20 MeV, respectively. The calculated kermas given here for discrete energies and the kerma coefficients are referred to as "point-wise data". Curves of gamma ray kermas showed slight dips at about 60 keV for most 3D dosimeters. Also, a noticeable departure between thermal and epithermal neutrons kerma sets for water and polymers has been observed. Finally, the obtained results could be useful for dose estimation in the studied 3D dosimeters.

  16. Synthesis and Application of Novel 3D Magnetic Chlorogenic Acid Imprinted Polymers Based on a Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Composite.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Yin, Yuli; Lv, Piaopiao; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Long, Fang

    2016-04-20

    A novel three-dimensional (3D) magnetic chlorogenic acid (CGA) imprinted polymer (MMIP) was prepared with novel carbon hybrid nanocomposite as the carrier, chlorogenic acid as the template molecule, and methacrylic acid as the functional monomer. The 3D MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, vibrating sample magnetometer, and UV spectrometry in detail. The results showed that the imprinted layer was attached successfully on the surface of a 3D magnetic carbon hybrid nanocomposite. The adsorption performance of the 3D MMIPs was investigated, and the results showed that the 3D MMIPs exhibited high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate toward CGA with a maximum adsorption capacity of 10.88 mg g(-1). The extraction conditions involving washing solvent, the pH of eluent solvent, elution volume, and desorption time were also investigated in detail. Combined with high-performance liquid chromatography, the 3D MMIPs have been applied to successfully extract CGA from Eucommia leaf extract samples. PMID:27049929

  17. Amino resins crosslinked polymer gels for permeability profile control

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a process for closing pores in a hydrocarbonaceous fluid bearing formation to obtain improved sweep efficiency during a waterflood oil recovery operation which comprises injecting a gellable composition comprising: (a) water; (b) 0.2 to 5.0 wt. percent of a cross linkable polymer which is a member selected from the group consisting of xanthan biopolymers, heteropolysaccharide S-130, poly (acrylamide-co-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonate), and acrylamide modified polyvinyl alcohol; and (c) 0.02 to 50.0 wt. percent of a partially methylated aminoplast resin which cross links with the polymer thereby forming a gel in the absence of a salt which is acid generating upon the application of heat which gel is of a strength sufficient to close pores in one or more permeable zones of the formation.

  18. Fabrication of a polymer battery based on polypyrrole electrodes and a polymer gel electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, J.G.; Coffey, B.M.; Poehler, T.O.; Searson, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    The electronic conductivity and redox behavior of conjugated polymers make them suitable for charge storage applications. The authors present preliminary results for an all polymer system consisting of a p-doped polypyrrole cathode and pseudo n-doped polypyrrole/polystyrenesulfonate anode. Using a thin film construction technique, electrodes were assembled into cells using a polymer gel electrolyte based on polyacrylonitrile, which has a high room temperature conductivity. Charge capacities of 13 mAh g{sup {minus}1} based on the mass of the electroactive polymer in the cathode have been obtained for over 100 cycles.

  19. Design of electro-active polymer gels as actuator materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Suzana

    Smart materials, alternatively called active or adaptive, differ from passive materials in their sensing and activation capability. These materials can sense changes in environment such as: electric field, magnetic field, UV light, pH, temperature. They are capable of responding in numerous ways. Some change their stiffness properties (electro-rheological fluids), other deform (piezos, shape memory alloys, electrostrictive materials) or change optic properties (electrochromic polymers). Polymer gels are one of such materials which can change the shape, volume and even optical properties upon different applied stimuli. Due to their low stiffness property they are capable of having up to 100% of strain in a short time, order of seconds. Their motion resembles the one of biosystems, and they are often seen as possible artificial muscle materials. Despite their delicate nature, appropriate design can make them being used as actuator materials which can form controllable surfaces and mechanical switches. In this study several different groups of polymer gel material were investigated: (a) acrylamide based gels are sensitive to pH and electric field and respond in volume change, (b) polyacrylonitrile (PAN) gel is sensitive to pH and electric field and responds in axial strain and bending, (c) polyvinylalcohol (PVA) gel is sensitive to electric field and responds in axial strain and bending and (d) perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane, Nafion RTM, is sensitive to electric field and responds in bending. Electro-mechanical and chemo-mechanical behavior of these materials is a function of a variety of phenomena: polymer structure, affinity of polymer to the solvent, charge distribution within material, type of solvent, elasticity of polymer matrix, etc. Modeling of this behavior is a task aimed to identify what is driving mechanism for activation and express it in a quantitative way in terms of deformation of material. In this work behavior of the most promising material as

  20. Optical laser scanning of a leucodye micelle gel: preliminary results of a 3D dose verification of an IMRT treatment for a brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, J.; De Deene, Y.

    2013-06-01

    In the present study an in-house developed leucodye micelle gel was used in combination with an in-house developed optical laser scanner for the 3D dose verification of an IMRT treatment of a pituitary adenoma. In an initial prospective study, a gel measured depth dose distribution of a square 6 MV photon beam was compared with an ion chamber measurement. In a second experiment, the gel and scanner were used to verify a clinical dose distribution on a recently installed linear accelerator. The calibration procedure is identified as the major source of dose deviations.

  1. Electroactive artificial muscle: nonionic polymer gels and elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Toshihiro; Uddin, Md. Zulhash; Zheng, Jianming; Watanabe, Masashi; Shirai, Hirofusa

    2003-10-01

    Non-ionic dielectric polymers have not been considered adequate for electroactive actuator materials because of their poor reaction to the electric field. As electroactive polymeric materials, the polyelectrolytes and conductive polymers have been investigated intensively, since they can show large deformation in aqueous media or in the presence of water as an additive. In this paper, the author will show the non-ionic polymeric materials can be used as electrically active materials. The electrically induced deformation phenomena that will be shown are contraction and relaxation, bending by solvent drag in the gel, crawling deformation, and "electrotactic" amoeba-like creep deformation. And the controlling factors of bending of elatomers. The materials that will be treated in this presentation covers from highly swollen dielectric gels through plasticized polymers to non-solvent type elastomers. Characteristics of the actuations are particularly large deformation or huge strain under much smaller energy dissipation compared to the conventional polyelectrolyte or conductive polymer actuators. Applications of the materials for pumping, valve, artificial pupil etc. will be demonstrated.

  2. High-resolution gel dosimetry of a HDR brachytherapy source using normoxic polymer gel dosimeters: Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, C.; McLucas, C.; Pedrazzini, G.; Baldock, C.

    2006-09-01

    Polymer gel dosimetry has been shown to be an effective tool in the analysis of radiotherapy treatments in cancer therapy, being used to map the dose distribution around an irradiation pattern of a polymer gel dosimeter. Combined with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), polymer gel dosimetry can be an effective dosimetry tool to map dose distributions with high spatial resolution (˜100 μm). Previously polyacrylamide polymer gel dosimetry required a strict hypoxic environment to protect the gel from oxygen infiltration as oxygen inhibits the polymerization reaction used to correlate to absorbed dose. However, with the advent of normoxic polymer gels, a strict hypoxic environment is not required. Normoxic polymer gel dosimeters can be manufactured under normal atmospheric conditions. This study assessed the use of a MAGIC normoxic polymer gel dosimeter to accurately map the dose distribution of a single-line irradiation and a point source irradiation from a brachytherapy radiation source administered through a nylon catheter inserted into the gel dosimeter. The phantoms were irradiated to a dose of 10 Gy at 2 mm from the source center and imaged using high-resolution MRI with an in-plane pixel size of 0.1055 mm/pixel. Good agreement was found between the dose points predicted by the computer treatment-planning system and the measured normalized dose profiles in the gel dosimeter. The use of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters with high-resolution MRI evaluation shows promise as an effective tool in applications requiring accurate dose distributions in high resolution, such as intravascular brachytherapy.

  3. Polymer sol-gel composite inverse opal structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Blanchard, G J

    2015-03-25

    We report on the formation of composite inverse opal structures where the matrix used to form the inverse opal contains both silica, formed using sol-gel chemistry, and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. We find that the morphology of the inverse opal structure depends on both the amount of PEG incorporated into the matrix and its molecular weight. The extent of organization in the inverse opal structure, which is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical reflectance data, is mediated by the chemical bonding interactions between the silica and PEG constituents in the hybrid matrix. Both polymer chain terminus Si-O-C bonding and hydrogen bonding between the polymer backbone oxygens and silanol functionalities can contribute, with the polymer mediating the extent to which Si-O-Si bonds can form within the silica regions of the matrix due to hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:25734614

  4. Adaptive mean filtering for noise reduction in CT polymer gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hilts, Michelle; Jirasek, Andrew

    2008-01-15

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) as a method of extracting 3D dose information from irradiated polymer gel dosimeters is showing potential as a practical means to implement gel dosimetry in a radiation therapy clinic. However, the response of CT contrast to dose is weak and noise reduction is critical in order to achieve adequate dose resolutions with this method. Phantom design and CT imaging technique have both been shown to decrease image noise. In addition, image postprocessing using noise reduction filtering techniques have been proposed. This work evaluates in detail the use of the adaptive mean filter for reducing noise in CT gel dosimetry. Filter performance is systematically tested using both synthetic patterns mimicking a range of clinical dose distribution features as well as actual clinical dose distributions. Both low and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations are examined. For all cases, the effects of filter kernel size and the number of iterations are investigated. Results indicate that adaptive mean filtering is a highly effective tool for noise reduction CT gel dosimetry. The optimum filtering strategy depends on characteristics of the dose distributions and image noise level. For low noise images (SNR {approx}20), the filtered results are excellent and use of adaptive mean filtering is recommended as a standard processing tool. For high noise images (SNR {approx}5) adaptive mean filtering can also produce excellent results, but filtering must be approached with more caution as spatial and dose distortions of the original dose distribution can occur.

  5. Coronates, spherical containers, bowl-shaped surfaces, porous 1D-, 2D-, 3D-metallo-coordination polymers, and metallodendrimers.

    PubMed

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular coordination cages and polymers bear exceptional advantages over their organic counterparts. They are available in one-pot reactions and in high yields and display physical properties that are generally inaccessible with organic species. Moreover, their weak, reversible, noncovalent bonding interactions facilitate error checking and self-correction. This review emphasizes the achievements in supramolecular coordination container as well as polymer chemistry initiated by serendipity and their materialization based on rational design. The recognition of similarities in the synthesis of different supramolecular assemblies allows prediction of potential structures in related cases. The combination of detailed symmetry considerations with the basic rules of coordination chemistry has only recently allowed for the design of rational strategies for the construction of a variety of nanosized spherical containers, bowls, 1D-, 2D-, and 3D-coordination polymers with specified size and shape. PMID:22160460

  6. Raman imaging of polymer gels and elastomer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Rainer

    2000-12-01

    The incorporation of high-resolution optics in a Raman spectrometer allows sampling from areas less than one micron in diameter. The addition of a confocal microscope improves the axial resolution to a couple of microns. The fast data collection combined with high lateral and vertical resolutions makes possible scanning experiments in which the specimen is advanced in micron size steps. Analysis of the spectra provides information on the spatial composition of the sample. For macroporous N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel the temperature induced evolution of the pore structures is characterized. This model is used to explain surface roughness of the gels and characteristics of a NIPA- acrylamide (PAAM) interface. At room temperature, the average sizes of the pores and the width of polymer-rich areas are 75 μm and 20 μm, respectively. At higher temperatures polymer chains bunch together and this process accelerates rapidly near the volume phase transition temperature (34°C). The porous structure of the NIPA extends to the gel's boundary causing surface roughness, which, like the bulk material, is temperature dependent. A shrinking process results in a dense shell on the surface. Also, the surface becomes smoother due to hydrophobic interactions between isopropyl groups in the NIPA gel. For a polymer-polymer interface we showed that different drying and diffusion times affect the topography of the interfacial region. Phase separation in binary mixtures of two polymers, polyisobutadiene (BR) and brominated poly(isobuthylene- co-para-methylstyrene) (BIMS), is studied for different compositions of the blends. Binary blends of BIMS and BR do mix better in the presence of precipitated silica and domain sizes decrease from approximate 5 μm to less than 1μm. Blend components with polar groups like BIMS, silica, and zinc stearate can be found in close proximity to each other. The blend morphology of the uncured samples is dependent upon temperature. Increased temperature

  7. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  8. Thermal Conductivity of 3D CNT-Polymer Composites with Controlled Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klittich, Mena; Wang, Xue; Dhinojwala, Ali

    The high thermal conductivity of isolated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has inspired its use as a thermal filler for insulative polymers. However, the performance of these composites has consistently been sub par. Extensive analyses of these complex systems have resulted in the conclusion that resistance at the CNT/polymer interface due to phonon mismatch and poor physical binding, as well as the weakly bonded tube-tube interactions restrict the effectiveness of CNTs in practice. Experimental comparisons of CNT treatments, coatings, functionalization, and interactions with various polymers have proved challenging, due to the interconnected nature of the composite properties. Here, we have reversed the paradigm and used a constant CNT structure that is then modified post-growth to allow for direct comparisons of polymer composites.

  9. 3D Printing of Human Tissue Mimics via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polymer/Hydrogel Biopapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringeisen, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The foundations of tissue engineering were built on two fundamental areas of research: cells and scaffolds. Multipotent cells and their derivatives are traditionally randomly seeded into sophisticated polymer or hydrogel scaffolds, ultimately with the goal of forming a tissue-like material through cell differentiation and cell-material interactions. One problem with this approach is that no matter how complex or biomimetic the scaffold is, the cells are still homogeneously distributed throughout this three dimensional (3D) material. Natural tissue is inherently heterogeneous on both a microscopic and macroscopic level. It also contains different types of cells in close proximity, extracellular matrix, voids, and a complex vascularized network. Recently developed 3D cell and organ printers may be able to enhance traditional tissue engineering experiments by building scaffolds layer-by-layer that are crafted to mimic the microscopic and macroscopic structure of natural tissue or organs. Over the past decade, my laboratory has developed a capillary-free, live cell printer termed biological laser printing, or BioLP. We find that printed cells do not express heat shock protein and retain >99% viability. Printed cells also incur no DNA strand fracture and preserve their ability to differentiate. Recent work has used a layer-by-layer approach, stacking sheets of hybrid polymer/hydrogel biopapers in conjunction with live cell printing to create 3D tissue structures. Our specific work is now focused on the blood-brain-barrier and air-lung interface and will be described during the presentation.

  10. Molecular structure effects on the post irradiation diffusion in polymer gel dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Mattea, Facundo; Romero, Marcelo R; Vedelago, José; Quiroga, Andrés; Valente, Mauro; Strumia, Miriam C

    2015-06-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters have specific advantages for recording 3D radiation dose distribution in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. But, even in systems where the 3D structure is usually maintained for long periods of time after irradiation, it is still not possible to eliminate the diffusion of the different species in the regions of dose gradients within the gel. As a consequence, information of the dose loses quality over time. In the pursuit of a solution and to improve the understanding of this phenomenon a novel system based on itaconic acid and N-N'-methylene-bisacrylamide (BIS) is hereby proposed. Effects of changes in the chemical structure of the monomers over the dosimetric sensitivity and over the post-irradiation diffusion of species was studied. In this study, one of the carboxylic groups of the itaconic acid molecule was modified with aniline to obtain molecules with similar reactivity but different molecular sizes. Then, dosimeters based on these modified species and on the original ITA molecules were irradiated in an X-ray tomography apparatus at different doses up to 173Gy. Afterwards, the resulting dosimeters were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and optical absorbance in order to study their feasibility and capabilities as dosimetric systems, and by optical-CT to analyze the post irradiation diffusion. PMID:25773266

  11. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  12. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  13. Microstructure of 3D-Printed Polymer Composites Investigated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Tae Hui; Compton, Brett G.; Heller, William T.; Urban, Voker S.; Duty, Chad E.; Do, Changwoo

    Polymer composites printed from the large scale printer at Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). For the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)/Carbon Fiber (CF) composites, the microstructure of polymer domains and the alignment of CF have been characterized across the layer from the printed piece. CF shows strong anisotropic alignment along the printing direction due to the flow of polymer melt at the nozzle. Order parameter of the anisotropy which ranges from -0.11 to -0.06 exhibits strong correlation with the position within the layer: stronger alignment near the layer interface. It is also confirmed that the existence of CF reduces the polymer domain correlation length significantly and reinforces the mechanical strength of the polymer composites. For the Epoxy/nano-clay platelet composites, the effect of processing condition, nozzle size, and the addition of the another filler, Silicon Carbide (SC), have been investigated by SANS. Nano-clay platelet shows strong anisotropic alignment along the printing direction as well. Order parameter of the anisotropy varies according to nozzle size and presence of the SC, and difference disappears at high Q region. Scientific User Facilities Division and Materials Sciences and Energy Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Direct laser writing of 3D polymer micro/nanostructures on metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekštytė, Sima; Žukauskas, Albertas; Purlys, Vytautas; Gordienko, Yuri; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2013-04-01

    Spectra of fields for applications of polymeric 3D micro/nanostructures are rapidly widening thus demanding the development of versatile precise and efficient fabrication methods that can be used to process a variety of materials and could be implemented to form tiny devices on a variety of surfaces without influencing their structural quality. We present the latest results obtained using laser lithography approach: 3D polymeric structures with submicrometer spatial resolution on different opaque surfaces such as semiconductors (Si) and various metals (Cr, Al, Fe and Ti). The photostructuring was performed using a range of photosensitive materials such as acrylate based AKRE23, acrylated biodegradable PEG-DA-258, epoxy based mr-NIL 6000, hybrid organic-inorganic SZ2080 and Ormocore b59.

  15. 3D Conducting Polymer Platforms for Electrical Control of Protein Conformation and Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Alwin Ming-Doug; Inal, Sahika; Williams, Tiffany; Wang, Karin; Leleux, Pierre; Estevez, Luis; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Fischbach, Claudia; Malliaras, George G.; Gourdon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) macroporous scaffolds made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) via an ice-templating method. The scaffolds offer tunable pore size and morphology, and are electrochemically active. When a potential is applied to the scaffolds, reversible changes take place in their electrical doping state, which in turn enables precise control over the conformation of adsorbed proteins (e.g., fibronectin). Additionally, the scaffolds support the growth of mouse fibroblasts (3T3-L1) for 7 days, and are able to electrically control cell adhesion and pro-angiogenic capability. These 3D matrix-mimicking platforms offer precise control of protein conformation and major cell functions, over large volumes and long cell culture times. As such, they represent a new tool for biological research with many potential applications in bioelectronics, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. PMID:26413300

  16. Hybrid Macro-Porous Titanium Ornamented by Degradable 3D Gel/nHA Micro-Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Bo; Ma, Pei; Chen, Jun; Wang, Hai; Wu, Gui; Li, Bo; Li, Qiang; Huang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Porous titanium is a kind of promising material for bone substitution, while its bio-inert property results in demand of modifications to improve the osteointegration capacity. In this study, gelatin (Gel) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to construct 3D micro-scaffolds in the pores of porous titanium in the ratios of Gel:nHA = 1:0, Gel:nHA = 1:1, and Gel:nHA = 1:3, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation, and gene and protein expression levels of osteogenic markers were evaluated in MC3T3-E1 cells, followed by bone regeneration assessment in a rabbit radius defect model. All hybrid scaffolds with different composition ratio were found to have significant promotional effects in cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, in which the group with Gel:nHA = 1:1 showed the best performance in vitro, as well as the most bone regeneration volume in vivo. This 3D micro-scaffolds modification may be an innovative method for porous titanium ornamentation and shows potential application values in clinic. PMID:27092492

  17. Laser-Micro/Nanofabricated 3D Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilevičius, P.; Žukauskas, A.; Bičkauskaitė, G.; Purlys, V.; Rutkauskas, M.; Gertus, T.; Paipulas, D.; Matukaitė, J.; Baltriukienė, D.; Malinauskas, M.

    2011-01-01

    A multi-photon polymerization system has been designed based on a pulsed irradiation light source (diode-pumped solid state femtosecond laser Yb:KGW, 300 fs, 1030 nm, 1-200 kHz) in combination with large working area and high precision linear motor driven stages (100×100×50 mm3). The system is intended for high resolution and throughput 3D micro- and nanofabrication and enables manufacturing the polymeric templates up to 1 cm2 areas with sub-micrometer resolution. These can be used for producing 3D artificial polymeric scaffolds to be applied for growing cells, specifically, in the tissue engineering. The bio-compatibility of different acrylate, hybrid organic-inorganic and biodegradable polymeric materials is evaluated experimentally in vitro. Variously sized and shaped polymeric scaffolds of biocompatible photopolymers with intricate 3D geometry were successfully fabricated. Proliferation tests for adult rabbit myogenic stem cells have shown the applicability of artificial scaffolds in biomedicine practice.

  18. Analytical solution for one-dimensional chemo-mechanical coupling behavior of intelligent polymer gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingsheng; Tian, Hui

    2011-11-01

    As an intelligent material, polymer gel is able to respond to external stimulus, including temperature, chemical concentration, pH, etc. The theoretical framework of chemo-mechanical coupling behavior for intelligent polymer gel is emphasized in this paper. Analytical solutions of the displacement and concentration function are found for one dimensional chemo-mechanical coupling problem. It is shown that the present chemo-mechanical theory can be applied to model chemo-mechanical coupling behavior of intelligent polymer gel. This study has important significance to reveal the mechanism of chemo-mechanical coupling behavior of the polymer gel.

  19. Analytical solution for one-dimensional chemo-mechanical coupling behavior of intelligent polymer gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingsheng; Tian, Hui

    2012-04-01

    As an intelligent material, polymer gel is able to respond to external stimulus, including temperature, chemical concentration, pH, etc. The theoretical framework of chemo-mechanical coupling behavior for intelligent polymer gel is emphasized in this paper. Analytical solutions of the displacement and concentration function are found for one dimensional chemo-mechanical coupling problem. It is shown that the present chemo-mechanical theory can be applied to model chemo-mechanical coupling behavior of intelligent polymer gel. This study has important significance to reveal the mechanism of chemo-mechanical coupling behavior of the polymer gel.

  20. An Air-Stable Semiconducting Polymer Containing Dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]arsole.

    PubMed

    Green, Joshua P; Han, Yang; Kilmurray, Rebecca; McLachlan, Martyn A; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Heeney, Martin

    2016-06-13

    Arsole-containing conjugated polymers are a practically unexplored class of materials despite the high interest in their phosphole analogues. Herein we report the synthesis of the first dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]arsole derivative, and demonstrate that it is stable to ambient oxidation in its +3 oxidation state. A soluble copolymer is obtained by a palladium-catalyzed Stille polymerization and demonstrated to be a p-type semiconductor with promising hole mobility, which was evaluated by field-effect transistor measurements. PMID:27121536

  1. 3D printing of soft and wet systems benefit from hard-to-soft transition of transparent shape memory gels (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, Md. Hasnat

    2014-04-01

    Recently we successfully developed novel transparent shape memory gels. The SMG memorize their original shapes during the gelation process. In the room temperature, the SMG are elastic and show plasticity (yielding) under deformation. However when heated above about 50˚C, the SMG induce hard-to-soft transition and go back to their original shapes automatically. We focus on new soft and wet systems made of the SMG by 3-D printing technology.

  2. Fabrication of 3D polymer photonic crystals for near-IR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Peng; Qiu, Liang; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J.; Prather, Dennis W.; Sharkawy, Ahmed; Kelmelis, Eric

    2008-02-01

    Photonic crystals[1, 2] have stirred enormous research interest and became a growing enterprise in the last 15 years. Generally, PhCs consist of periodic structures that possess periodicity comparable with the wavelength that the PhCs are designed to modulate. If material and periodic pattern are properly selected, PhCs can be applied to many applications based on their unique properties, including photonic band gaps (PBG)[3], self-collimation[4], super prism[5], etc. Strictly speaking, PhCs need to possess periodicity in three dimensions to maximize their advantageous capabilities. However, many current research is based on scaled two-dimensional PhCs, mainly due to the difficulty of fabrication such three-dimensional PhCs. Many approaches have been explored for the fabrication of 3D photonic crystals, including layer-by-layer surface micromachining[6], glancing angle deposition[7], 3D micro-sculpture method[8], self-assembly[9] and lithographical methods[10-12]. Among them, lithographic methods became increasingly accepted due to low costs and precise control over the photonic crystal structure. There are three mostly developed lithographical methods, namely X-ray lithography[10], holographic lithography[11] and two-photon polymerization[12]. Although significant progress has been made in developing these lithography-based technologies, these approaches still suffer from significant disadvantages. X-ray lithography relies on an expensive radiation source. Holographic lithography lacks the flexibility to create engineered defects, and multi-photon polymerization is not suitable for parallel fabrication. In our previous work, we developed a multi-layer photolithography processes[13, 14] that is based on multiple resist application and enhanced absorption upon exposure. Using a negative lift-off resist (LOR) and 254nm DUV source, we have demonstrated fabrication of 3D arbitrary structures with feature size of several microns. However, severe intermixing problem

  3. Heterobimetallic coordination polymers involving 3d metal complexes and heavier transition metals cyanometallates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresypkina, Eugenia V.; Samsonenko, Denis G.; Vostrikova, Kira E.

    2015-04-01

    The results of the first steps in the design of coordination polymers based on penta- and heptacyanometallates of heavier d transitions metals are presented. The 2D structure of the coordination polymers: [{Mn(acacen)}2Ru(NO)(CN)5]n and two complexes composed of different cyanorhenates, [Ni(cyclam)]2[ReO(OH)(CN)4](ClO4)2(H2O)1.25 and [Cu(cyclam)]2[Re(CN)7](H2O)12, was confirmed by single crystal XRD study, the rhenium oxidation state having been proved by the magnetic measurements. An amorphism of [M(cyclam)]3[Re(CN)7]2 (M=Ni, Cu) polymers does not allow to define strictly their dimensionality and to model anisotropic magnetic behavior of the compounds. However, with high probability a honey-comb like layer structure could be expected for [M(cyclam)]3[Re(CN)7]2 complexes, studied in this work, because such an arrangement is the most common among the bimetallic assemblies of hexa- and octacyanometallates with a ratio [M(cyclam)]/[M(CN)n]=3/2. For the first time was prepared and fully characterized a precursor (n-Bu4N)2[Ru(NO)(CN)5], soluble in organic media.

  4. Application of liquid crystal polymer films for photolithographic fabrication of 3D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Anna E.; Fontecchio, Adam K.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a silicon etching application of a holographically formed polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) photomask. H-PDLC is a periodically nanostructured material consisting of stratified layers of polymer and liquid crystal. Due to the natural random alignment of the liquid crystal axes with respect to the polymer layers, an index of refraction mismatch exists and a reflection occurs. Application of bias across the film aligns the liquid crystals and eliminates the index mismatch causing the film to become transparent. H-PDLC films have been shown to sufficiently attenuate the UV exposure dose in the photolithographic process when in the unbiased state, and can be electrically controlled to modulate the amount of UV transmission when electric field is applied. We show etch depth profiles of patterns masked on a silicon substrate using the H-PDLC photomask device compared with etch profiles of similar structures patterned with more conventional ink jet printed photomasks and chrome on quartz glass photomasks. We investigate reactive ion etching technique and potassium hydroxide wet etch technique.

  5. Tracking and quantifying polymer therapeutic distribution on a cellular level using 3D dSTORM.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jonathan M; Zhang, Rui; Gudheti, Manasa; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2016-06-10

    We used a single-molecule localization technique called direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to quantify both colocalization and spatial distribution on a cellular level for two conceptually different N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates. Microscopy images were acquired of entire cells with resolutions as high as 25nm revealing the nanoscale distribution of the fluorescently labeled therapeutic components. Drug-free macromolecular therapeutics consisting of two self-assembling nanoconjugates showed slight increase in nanoclusters on the cell surface with time. Additionally, dSTORM provided high resolution images of the nanoscale organization of the self-assembling conjugates at the interface between two cells. A conjugate designed for treating ovarian cancer showed that the model drug (Cy3) and polymer bound to Cy5 were colocalized at an early time point before the model drug was enzymatically cleaved from the polymer. Using spatial descriptive statistics it was found that the drug was randomly distributed after 24h while the polymer bound dye remained in clusters. Four different fluorescent dyes were used and two different therapeutic systems were tested to demonstrate the versatility and possible general applicability of dSTORM for use in studying drug delivery systems. PMID:26855050

  6. Polymer optical devices made by reverse and 3D nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehagias, Nikolaos; Zelsmann, Marc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.

    2005-06-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), with its apparent simplicity and resolution down to 6 nm, has become an attractive flexible and low-cost technique for nanopatterning of thin films, which themselves act as a mask for further nanofabrication steps, or which can be used as-printed thanks to the functionality of the thin film itself. In this work, we focus on the latter approach and report on our experiments carried out to fabricate organic photonic devices. Silicon stamps, with figures down to 100 nm, are fabricated using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Different fabricated stamps include waveguides, gratings, splitters and interferometers. New fabrication techniques are investigated, namely the combination of NIL with optical lithography and reverse NIL. These two techniques allow producing three-dimensional structures. For the combination of NIL with optical lithography, an original approach is used consisting of a polymer stamp on top of a quartz + metal optical mask. In the case of reverse imprint and multilevel structures, particular attention is paid to adhesion between the stamp, the polymer and the substrate on which the layer is reported. These two techniques are very promising for the fabrication of complex polymer optical devices, like distributed feedback structures, in one step.

  7. Spontaneous wrinkling in azlactone-based functional polymer thin films in 2D and 3D geometries for guided nanopatterning

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Messman, Jamie M.; Stafford, Christopher M.; Kilbey II, S. Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple, one step process for developing wrinkling patterns in azlactone-based polymer thin films and brushes in 2D and 3D surfaces. The polymer used in this work wrinkles spontaneously upon deposition and solidification on a substrate without applying any external strain to the substrate, with the mode of deposition defining the direction of the wrinkles. Wrinkle formation is shown to occur on a variety of substrates over large areas. We also find that a very thin brush-like layer of an azlactone-containing block copolymer also exhibits wrinkled topology. Given the spontaneity and versatility of wrinkle formation, we further demonstrate two proofs-of-concept, i) that these periodic wrinkled structures are not limited to planar surfaces, but are also developed in complex geometries including tubes, cones and other 3D structures; and ii) that this one-step wrinkling process can be used to guide the deposition of metal nanoparticles and quantum dots, creating a periodic, nanopatterned film.

  8. Development of patterned carbon nanotubes on a 3D polymer substrate for the flexible tactile sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chih-Fan; Su, Wang-Shen; Fang, Weileun

    2011-11-01

    This study reports an improved approach to implement a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible tactile sensor, which is integrated with a flexible print circuit (FPC) connector and is capable of detecting normal and shear forces. The merits of the presented tactile sensor by the integration process are as follows: (1) 3D polymer tactile bump structures are naturally formed by the use of an anisotropically etched silicon mold; (2) planar and 3D distributed CNTs are adopted as piezoresistive sensing elements to enable the detection of shear and normal forces; (3) the processes of patterning CNTs and metal routing can be easily batch fabricated on rigid silicon instead of flexible polymer; (4) robust electrical routing is realized using parylene encapsulation to avoid delamination; (5) patterned CNTs, electrical routing and FPC connector are integrated and transferred to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate by a molding process. In application, the CNT-based flexible tactile sensor and its integration with the FPC connector are implemented. Preliminary tests show the feasibility of detecting both normal and shear forces using the presented flexible sensor.

  9. Heterobimetallic coordination polymers involving 3d metal complexes and heavier transition metals cyanometallates

    SciTech Connect

    Peresypkina, Eugenia V.; Samsonenko, Denis G.; Vostrikova, Kira E.

    2015-04-15

    The results of the first steps in the design of coordination polymers based on penta- and heptacyanometallates of heavier d transitions metals are presented. The 2D structure of the coordination polymers: [(Mn(acacen)){sub 2}Ru(NO)(CN){sub 5}]{sub n} and two complexes composed of different cyanorhenates, [Ni(cyclam)]{sub 2}[ReO(OH)(CN){sub 4}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.25} and [Cu(cyclam)]{sub 2}[Re(CN){sub 7}](H{sub 2}O){sub 12}, was confirmed by single crystal XRD study, the rhenium oxidation state having been proved by the magnetic measurements. An amorphism of [M(cyclam)]{sub 3}[Re(CN){sub 7}]{sub 2} (M=Ni, Cu) polymers does not allow to define strictly their dimensionality and to model anisotropic magnetic behavior of the compounds. However, with high probability a honey-comb like layer structure could be expected for [M(cyclam)]{sub 3}[Re(CN){sub 7}]{sub 2} complexes, studied in this work, because such an arrangement is the most common among the bimetallic assemblies of hexa- and octacyanometallates with a ratio [M(cyclam)]/[M(CN){sub n}]=3/2. For the first time was prepared and fully characterized a precursor (n-Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}[Ru(NO)(CN){sub 5}], soluble in organic media. - Graphical abstract: The very first results in the design of 2D coordination polymers based on penta- and heptacyanometallates of 4d and5d transitions metals are presented. - Highlights: • Design of coordination polymers based on penta- and heptacyanometallates. • New Ru and Re cyanide based heterobimetallic coordination complexes. • Hydrolysis and ox/red processes involving [Re(CN){sub 7}]{sup 3+} during crystallization. • High magnetic anisotropy of [M(cyclam)]{sub 3}[Re(CN){sub 7}]{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub n}, M=Cu, Ni, complexes.

  10. Calibration of laser tomography as a new optical diagnostic tool applied to dosimetric polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwan, R.; Guermeur, F.; Bailly, Y.; Simonin, L.; Svoboda, J.; Makovicka, L.; Martin, E.

    2008-03-01

    Numerous medical applications, as radiotherapy for example, require accurate and reproducible three-dimensional dose measurements with high spatial resolution. A solution of great interest and which has been exploited for many years is the use of dosimetric gels based on different physico-chemical principles, as Fricke's gels or polymer gels. Fricke's gels take advantage of the oxidation of ferrous ions in ferric while polymer gels are the result of the synthesis of polyacrylamide hydrogel from monomer and cross-linking agent. Fricke's gels have particular limitations not encountered with polymer gel dosimeters: the time delay between irradiation and measurement must be reduced in order to limit the diffusion of ferric ions which may remove the spatial dose information. That's why, during the past decade, many compositions of polymer gels have been studied (PAG, MAGIC, …), elaborated and even commercialized (BANG gels). However the gel composition remains of great interest regarding its physical properties. In this work, the authors propose a new optical diagnostic tool more flexible and less expensive in comparison with existing techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Optical-CT. This technique is based on light scattering behaviour occurring in an irradiated polymer gel (note that light scattering in Fricke's gels is very feeble, the latter being essentially absorbant).

  11. Characterization of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and its frequency dependence in a polymer gel dosimeter.

    PubMed

    Crescenti, Remo A; Bamber, Jeffrey C; Partridge, Mike; Bush, Nigel L; Webb, Steve

    2007-11-21

    Research on polymer-gel dosimetry has been driven by the need for three-dimensional dosimetry, and because alternative dosimeters are unsatisfactory or too slow for that task. Magnetic resonance tomography is currently the most well-developed technique for determining radiation-induced changes in polymer structure, but quick low-cost alternatives remain of significant interest. In previous work, ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound were found to change as a function of absorbed radiation dose in polymer-gel dosimeters, although the investigations were restricted to one ultrasound frequency. Here, the ultrasound attenuation coefficient mu in one polymer gel (MAGIC) was investigated as a function of radiation dose D and as a function of ultrasonic frequency f in a frequency range relevant for imaging dose distributions. The nonlinearity of the frequency dependence was characterized, fitting a power-law model mu = af(b); the fitting parameters were examined for potential use as additional dose readout parameters. In the observed relationship between the attenuation coefficient and dose, the slopes in a quasi-linear dose range from 0 to 30 Gy were found to vary with the gel batch but lie between 0.0222 and 0.0348 dB cm(-1) Gy(-1) at 2.3 MHz, between 0.0447 and 0.0608 dB cm(-1) Gy(-1) at 4.1 MHz and between 0.0663 and 0.0880 dB cm(-1) Gy(-1) at 6.0 MHz. The mean standard deviation of the slope for all samples and frequencies was 15.8%. The slope was greater at higher frequencies, but so were the intra-batch fluctuations and intra-sample standard deviations. Further investigations are required to overcome the observed variability, which was largely associated with the sample preparation technique, before it can be determined whether any frequency is superior to others in terms of accuracy and precision in dose determination. Nevertheless, lower frequencies will allow measurements through larger samples. The fit parameter a of the frequency dependence, describing the

  12. A 3D sphere culture system containing functional polymers for large-scale human pluripotent stem cell production.

    PubMed

    Otsuji, Tomomi G; Bin, Jiang; Yoshimura, Azumi; Tomura, Misayo; Tateyama, Daiki; Minami, Itsunari; Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Aiba, Kazuhiro; Heuser, John E; Nishino, Taito; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Nakatsuji, Norio

    2014-05-01

    Utilizing human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in cell-based therapy and drug discovery requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up conventional adherent cultures presents challenges of maintaining a uniform high quality at low cost. In this regard, suspension cultures are a viable alternative, because they are scalable and do not require adhesion surfaces. 3D culture systems such as bioreactors can be exploited for large-scale production. However, the limitations of current suspension culture methods include spontaneous fusion between cell aggregates and suboptimal passaging methods by dissociation and reaggregation. 3D culture systems that dynamically stir carrier beads or cell aggregates should be refined to reduce shearing forces that damage hPSCs. Here, we report a simple 3D sphere culture system that incorporates mechanical passaging and functional polymers. This setup resolves major problems associated with suspension culture methods and dynamic stirring systems and may be optimal for applications involving large-scale hPSC production. PMID:24936458

  13. Electrically credible polymer gel for controlled release of drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ick Chan; Bae, You Han; Kim, Sung Wan

    1991-11-01

    NEW controlled drug-delivery systems are being explored to overcome the disadvantages of conventional dosage forms1. For example, stimulated drug-delivery has been used to overcome the tolerance problems that occur with a constant delivery rate, to mimic the physiological pattern of hormonal concentration and to supply drugs on demand1,2. Stimuli-sensitive polymers, which are potentially useful for pulsed drug delivery, experience changes in either their structure or their chemical properties in response to changes in environmental conditions2. Environmental stimuli include temperature3,4, pH5,6, light (ultraviolet7 or visible8), electric field9-12 or certain chemicals13. Volume changes of stimuli-sensitive gel networks are particularly responsive to external stimuli, but swelling is slow to occur14,15. As well as being useful in the controlled release of drugs, such systems also provide insight into intermolecular interactions16. Here we report on a novel polymeric system, which rapidly changes from a solid state to solution in response to small electric currents, by disintegration of the solid polymer complex into two water-soluble polymers. We show that the modulated release of insulin, and by extension other macromolecules, can be achieved with this polymeric system.

  14. 3D Mapping of Polymer Crosslink Density with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Herberg, J L; Gjersing, E L; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S

    2005-03-11

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques have been used to detect areas of low crosslink density in damaged silicone parts in an effort to develop a QA/QC protocol to be used in the development of new parts. Model materials of varying crosslink density first demonstrated the applicability of the method. Analysis of damaged pads has been shown to be clearly distinguishable by MRI. It is our belief that both the T{sub 2} weighted SPI NMR and the T{sub 2} weighted water/fat suppression MRI experiments can be used to map out the location of different cross-linking densities, ultimately determining the quality or homogeneity in polymers.

  15. TU-C-BRE-04: 3D Gel Dosimetry Using ViewRay On-Board MR Scanner: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Du, D; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Wooten, H; Xiao, Z; Yang, D; Hu, Y; Li, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: MR based 3D gel has been proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry. However, access to MR scanner has been one of the limiting factors for its wide acceptance. Recent commercialization of an on-board MR-IGRT device (ViewRay) may render the availability issue less of a concern. This work reports our attempts to simulate MR based dose measurement accuracy on ViewRay using three different gels. Methods: A spherical BANG gel dosimeter was purchased from MGS Research. Cylindrical MAGIC gel and Fricke gel were fabricated in-house according to published recipes. After irradiation, BANG and MAGIC were imaged using a dual-echo spin echo sequence for T2 measurement on a Philips 1.5T MR scanner, while Fricke gel was imaged using multiple spin echo sequences. Difference between MR measured and TPS calculated dose was defined as noise. The noise power spectrum was calculated and then simulated for the 0.35 T magnetic field associated with ViewRay. The estimated noise was then added to TG-119 test cases to simulate measured dose distributions. Simulated measurements were evaluated against TPS calculated doses using gamma analysis. Results: Given same gel, sequence and coil setup, with a FOV of 180×90×90 mm3, resolution of 3×3×3 mm3, and scanning time of 30 minutes, the simulated measured dose distribution using BANG would have a gamma passing rate greater than 90% (3%/3mm and absolute). With a FOV 180×90×90 mm3, resolution of 4×4×5 mm3, and scanning time of 45 minutes, the simulated measuremened dose distribution would have a gamma passing rate greater than 97%. MAGIC exhibited similar performance while Fricke gel was inferior due to much higher noise. Conclusions: The simulation results demonstrated that it may be feasible to use MAGIC and BANG gels for 3D dose verification using ViewRay low-field on-board MRI scanner.

  16. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of a series of 3D lanthanide coordination polymers with tripodal semirigid ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Junsheng; Du Dongying; Chen Lei; Sun Xiuyun; Lan Yaqian; Su Zhongmin

    2011-02-15

    Reactions of the tripodal bridging ligand 5-(4-carboxy-phenoxy)-isophthalic acid (abbreviated as H{sub 3}cpia) with lanthanide salts lead to the formation of a family of different coordination polymers, that is, [Ln(cpia)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Ce (1), Pr (2), Nd (3), Sm (4), Eu (5), Gd (6), Dy (7), Er (8), Tm (9) and Y (10)) in the presence of formic acid or diethylamine, which are characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XRPD spectrum and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-10 are isostructural and exhibit three-dimensional microporous frameworks. Furthermore, the photoluminescent properties of 4, 5 and 7 have been studied in detail. -- Graphical abstract: Reactions of the tripodal bridging ligand (H{sub 3}cpia) with lanthanide ions lead to the formation of a series of coordination polymers in the presence of formic acid or diethylamine. Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields} Ten new lanthanides-based coordination polymers (1-10) have been synthesized. {yields} 1-10 exhibit 3D (4,8)-connected fluorite topology networks with 1D channel parallel to the b-axis. {yields} Compounds 4, 5 and 7 exhibit characteristic luminescence of Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions, respectively.

  17. Synthesis, structure and fluorescence properties of a novel 3D Sr(II) coordination polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Hui; Xu, Qing; Gu, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Ji-Xing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Yang, Chang-Shan; Tang, Yun-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    Solvothermal reaction of 2,2‧-bipyridine-5,5‧-dicarboxylic acid (H2bpdc) and SrCl2 affords a novel coordination polymer [Sr(Hbpdc)2]n1. X-ray structure determination shows that 1 exhibits a novel three-dimensional network. The unique Sr II cation sits on a two-fold axis and coordinated by four O-atom donors from four Hbptc- ligands and four N-atom donors from two Hbptc- ligands in distorted dodecahedral geometry. In 1 each Sr II cation connects to six different Hbptc- ligands and each Hbptc- ligand bridges three different Sr II cations which results in the formation of a three-dimensional polymeric structure. Corresponding to the free ligand, the fluorescent emission of complex 1 display remarkable "Einstain" shifts, which may be attributed to the coordination interaction of Sr atoms, thus reduce the rigidity of pyridyl rings.

  18. Tensile strengths of polyamide based 3D printed polymers in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, P.; Shoemake, E. D.; Adam, P.; Leachman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in additive manufacturing technology have made 3D printing a viable solution for many industries, allowing for the manufacture of designs that could not be made through traditional subtractive methods. Applicability of additive manufacturing in cryogenic applications is hindered, however, by a lack of accurate material properties information. Nylon is available for printing using fused deposition modeling (FDM) and selective laser sintering (SLS). We selected 5 SLS (DuraForm® EX, DuraForm® HST, DuraForm® PA, PA 640-GSL, and PA 840-GSL) and 2 FDM (Nylon 12, ULTEM) nylon variants based on the bulk material properties and printed properties at room temperature. Tensile tests were performed on five samples of each material while immersed in liquid nitrogen at approximately 77 Kelvin. Samples were tested in XY and, where available, Z printing directions to determine influence on material properties. Results show typical SLS and FDM nylon ultimate strength retention at 77 K, when compared to (extruded or molded) nylon ultimate strength.

  19. A novel supramolecular polymer gel constructed by crosslinking pillar[5]arene-based supramolecular polymers through metal-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pi; Xing, Hao; Xia, Danyu; Ji, Xiaofan

    2015-12-21

    A novel heteroditopic A-B monomer was synthesized and used to construct linear supramolecular polymers utilizing pillar[5]arene-based host-guest interactions. Specifically, upon addition of Cu(2+) ions, the supramolecular polymer chains are crosslinked through metal-ligand interactions, resulting in the formation of a supramolecular polymer gel. Interestingly, this self-organized supramolecular polymer can be used as a novel fluorescent sensor for detecting Cu(2+) ions. PMID:26466511

  20. Three-dimensional dosimetry of TomoTherapy by MRI-based polymer gel technique.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Gopishankar, N

    2011-01-01

    Verification of the dose calculation model and the software used for treatment planning is an important step for accurate radiation delivery in radiation therapy. Using BANG3 polymer gel dosimeter with a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, we examined the accuracy of TomoTherapy treatment planning and radiation delivery. We evaluated one prostate treatment case and found the calculated three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions agree with the measured 3D dose distributions with an exception in the regions where the dose was much smaller (25% or less) than the maximum dose (2.5 Gy). The analysis using the gamma-index (3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement) for a volume of 12 cm × 11 cm × 9 cm containing the planning target volume showed that the gamma values were smaller than unity for 53% of the voxels. Our measurement protocol and analysis tools can be easily applied to the evaluation of other newer complex radiation delivery techniques, such as intensity-modulated arc therapy, with a reasonably low financial investment. PMID:21330972

  1. 3D printed sample holder for in-operando EPR spectroscopy on high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Niemöller, Arvid; Jakes, Peter; Kayser, Steffen; Lin, Yu; Lehnert, Werner; Granwehr, Josef

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical cells contain electrically conductive components, which causes various problems if such a cell is analyzed during operation in an EPR resonator. The optimum cell design strongly depends on the application and it is necessary to make certain compromises that need to be individually arranged. Rapid prototyping presents a straightforward option to implement a variable cell design that can be easily adapted to changing requirements. In this communication, it is demonstrated that sample containers produced by 3D printing are suitable for EPR applications, with a particular emphasis on electrochemical applications. The housing of a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEFC) with a phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membrane was prepared from polycarbonate by 3D printing. Using a custom glass Dewar, this fuel cell could be operated at temperatures up to 140°C in a standard EPR cavity. The carbon-based gas diffusion layer showed an EPR signal with a characteristic Dysonian line shape, whose evolution could be monitored in-operando in a non-invasive manner. PMID:27323280

  2. Multi-shape memory polymers achieved by the spatio-assembly of 3D printable thermoplastic building blocks.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongze; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Yingwu

    2016-04-01

    Multi-shape memory polymers were prepared by the macroscale spatio-assembly of building blocks in this work. The building blocks were methyl acrylate-co-styrene (MA-co-St) copolymers, which have the St-block-(St-random-MA)-block-St tri-block chain sequence. This design ensures that their transition temperatures can be adjusted over a wide range by varying the composition of the middle block. The two St blocks at the chain ends can generate a crosslink network in the final device to achieve strong bonding force between building blocks and the shape memory capacity. Due to their thermoplastic properties, 3D printing was employed for the spatio-assembly to build devices. This method is capable of introducing many transition phases into one device and preparing complicated shapes via 3D printing. The device can perform a complex action via a series of shape changes. Besides, this method can avoid the difficult programing of a series of temporary shapes. The control of intermediate temporary shapes was realized via programing the shapes and locations of building blocks in the final device. PMID:26924759

  3. 3D printed sample holder for in-operando EPR spectroscopy on high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemöller, Arvid; Jakes, Peter; Kayser, Steffen; Lin, Yu; Lehnert, Werner; Granwehr, Josef

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical cells contain electrically conductive components, which causes various problems if such a cell is analyzed during operation in an EPR resonator. The optimum cell design strongly depends on the application and it is necessary to make certain compromises that need to be individually arranged. Rapid prototyping presents a straightforward option to implement a variable cell design that can be easily adapted to changing requirements. In this communication, it is demonstrated that sample containers produced by 3D printing are suitable for EPR applications, with a particular emphasis on electrochemical applications. The housing of a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEFC) with a phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membrane was prepared from polycarbonate by 3D printing. Using a custom glass Dewar, this fuel cell could be operated at temperatures up to 140 °C in a standard EPR cavity. The carbon-based gas diffusion layer showed an EPR signal with a characteristic Dysonian line shape, whose evolution could be monitored in-operando in a non-invasive manner.

  4. Hot-melt extruded filaments based on pharmaceutical grade polymers for 3D printing by fused deposition modeling.

    PubMed

    Melocchi, Alice; Parietti, Federico; Maroni, Alessandra; Foppoli, Anastasia; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Zema, Lucia

    2016-07-25

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a 3D printing technique based on the deposition of successive layers of thermoplastic materials following their softening/melting. Such a technique holds huge potential for the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products and is currently under extensive investigation. Challenges in this field are mainly related to the paucity of adequate filaments composed of pharmaceutical grade materials, which are needed for feeding the FDM equipment. Accordingly, a number of polymers of common use in pharmaceutical formulation were evaluated as starting materials for fabrication via hot melt extrusion of filaments suitable for FDM processes. By using a twin-screw extruder, filaments based on insoluble (ethylcellulose, Eudragit(®) RL), promptly soluble (polyethylene oxide, Kollicoat(®) IR), enteric soluble (Eudragit(®) L, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate) and swellable/erodible (hydrophilic cellulose derivatives, polyvinyl alcohol, Soluplus(®)) polymers were successfully produced, and the possibility of employing them for printing 600μm thick disks was demonstrated. The behavior of disks as barriers when in contact with aqueous fluids was shown consistent with the functional application of the relevant polymeric components. The produced filaments were thus considered potentially suitable for printing capsules and coating layers for immediate or modified release, and, when loaded with active ingredients, any type of dosage forms. PMID:27215535

  5. Investigation on Tissue Equivalent Normoxic Polymer Gel Dosimeter using In-house Laser CT scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, D.; Jebaseelan Samuel, E. James

    2010-11-01

    Optical Computed Tomography has wide applications in the treatment of cancer. In continuation of this, an in-house Laser CT scanner has been built for "3D gel dosimetry". The Laser CT (LCT) scanner plays a major for Gel dosimeter or phantom readout and in clinical radiation therapy as a 3-Dimensional Radiation Dosimetry. A gel dosimeter which absorbs dose in a tissue-equivalent manner and allows the measurement of spatial distribution of the deposited dose is required. The normoxic PAGAT (Polyacrylamide Gelatin and Tetrakis) gel is used as a dosimeter for this analysis. When laser passes through this gel phantom, absorption and scattering takes place and combined to attenuation. The optical attenuation coefficient of the laser can be obtained by measuring its intensity after passing through the gel by means of a sensor. Reconstruction using Mat Lab algorithm provides 3D dose distribution.

  6. Strong and fast-recovery organic/inorganic hybrid AuNPs-supramolecular gels based on loofah-like 3D networks.

    PubMed

    He, Huiwen; Chen, Si; Tong, Xiaoqian; Chen, Yining; Wu, Bozhen; Ma, Meng; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Xu

    2016-01-21

    Super strong and fast-recovery organic/inorganic hybrid gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-supramolecular gels based on a three-dimensional loofah-like nanoscale network self-assembled by polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core supramolecular gelators are reported for the first time. Two series of POSS core organic/inorganic hybrid gelators, POSS-BOC-l-Homophenylalanine (POSS-Hpy) and POSS-Boc-Cys(Bzl)-OH (POSS-Cys), with two types of peripherals having different abilities for driving the self-assembly of AuNPs in gels were designed and synthesized, both of which self-assembled into three-dimensional loofah-like nanoscale gel networks producing hybrid physical gels with fast-recovery behaviors. The mechanical properties of the resultant hybrid gels were dramatically increased by as much as 100 times in the system of sulfur containing POSS-Cys gelators without destroying the fast-recovery behaviors, with the addition of AuNPs, which had direct interaction with AuNPs to give S-Au non-covalent driving force to lead AuNPs self-assemble onto the 3D loofah-like network nanofibres in the supramolecular hybrid gel system. However, in the POSS-Hpy gelator system without sulfur, no strong interaction with AuNPs existed and the POSS-Hpy nanocomposites showed no clear changes in morphology, thermal stability or rheological properties, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tube-inversion and rotational rheometer measurements. This indicated that the organic/inorganic hybrid gelator POSS-Cys could be applied to the formation of soft materials in which AuNPs were self-assembled and closely arranged into three-dimensional nanoscale networks. This hybrid material has great potential for applications in self-recovery, nano- and micron-scale electronic devices, because it has both a large mechanical strength and a fast-recovery capability. PMID:26568047

  7. Development of electric environment to control mollusk-shaped gel robots made of electroactive polymer PAMPS gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Mihoko; Inaba, Masayuki; Inoue, Hirochika

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of electric fields to actuate mollusk-shaped robots made entirely of PAMPS gel, which is a kind of electro-active polymer (EAP). The purpose of this study is to develop a system to control the shape of both simulated and real gel robots using electric fields. We present a modeling framework and experimental results using a prototype mollusk-shaped EAP robot that locomotes by changing the shape of its whole body.

  8. Conductive polymer-mediated 2D and 3D arrays of Mn3O4 nanoblocks and mesoporous conductive polymers as their replicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshitaka; Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Riho; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2015-11-01

    Orientation-controlled 2D and 3D microarrays of Mn3O4 nanocuboids that were mediated by a conductive polymer were fabricated by evaporation-induced self-assembly of the oxide nanoblocks and subsequent polymerization of pyrrole in the interparticle spaces. Free-standing mesoporous polypyrroles (PPy) having chain- and square-grid-like nanovoid arrays were obtained as replicas of the composite assemblies by dissolving the oxide nanoblocks. The PPy-mediated manganese oxide arrays exhibited stable electrochemical performance as an ultrathin anode of a lithium-ion secondary battery.Orientation-controlled 2D and 3D microarrays of Mn3O4 nanocuboids that were mediated by a conductive polymer were fabricated by evaporation-induced self-assembly of the oxide nanoblocks and subsequent polymerization of pyrrole in the interparticle spaces. Free-standing mesoporous polypyrroles (PPy) having chain- and square-grid-like nanovoid arrays were obtained as replicas of the composite assemblies by dissolving the oxide nanoblocks. The PPy-mediated manganese oxide arrays exhibited stable electrochemical performance as an ultrathin anode of a lithium-ion secondary battery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05912g

  9. MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry for validating plans with multiple matrices in Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Gopishankar, N; Watanabe, Yoichi; Subbiah, Vivekanandhan

    2011-01-01

    One of treatment planning techniques with Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) for Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) uses multiple matrices with multiple dose prescriptions. Computational complexity increases when shots are placed in multiple matrices with different grid sizes. Hence, the experimental validation of LGP calculated dose distributions is needed for those cases. For the current study, we used BANG3 polymer gel contained in a head-sized glass bottle to simulate the entire treatment process of GKSRS. A treatment plan with three 18 mm shots and one 8 mm shot in separate matrices was created with LGP. The prescribed maximum dose was 8 Gy to three shots and 16 Gy to one of the 18 mm shots. The 3D dose distribution recorded in the gel dosimeter was read using a Siemens 3T MRI scanner. The scanning parameters of a CPMG pulse sequence with 32 equidistant echoes were as follows: TR = 7 s, echo step = 13.6 ms, field-of-view = 256 mm × 256 mm, and pixel size = 1 mm × 1 mm. Interleaved acquisition mode was used to obtain 15 to 45 2-mm-thick slices. Using a calibration relationship between absorbed dose and the spin-spin relaxation rate (R2), we converted R2 images to dose images. MATLAB-based in-house programs were used for R2 estimation and dose comparison. Gamma-index analysis for the 3D data showed gamma values less than unity for 86% of the voxels. Through this study we accomplished the first application of polymer gel dosimetry for a true comparison between measured 3D dose distributions and LGP calculations for plans using multiple matrices for multiple targets. PMID:21587176

  10. Construction of 3D polymer brushes by dip-pen nanodisplacement lithography: understanding the molecular displacement for ultrafine and high-speed patterning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaojian; Zhou, Xuechang; Xie, Zhuang; Gao, Tingting; Zheng, Zijian

    2015-02-01

    Dip-pen nanodisplacement lithography (DNL) is a versatile scanning probe-based technique that can be employed for fabricating ultrafine 3D polymer brushes under ambient conditions. Many fundamental studies and applications require the large-area fabrication of 3D structures. However, the fabrication throughput and uniformity are still far from satisfactory. In this work, the molecular displacement mechanism of DNL is elucidated by systematically investigating the synergistic effect of z extension and contact time. The in-depth understanding of molecular displacement results in the successful achievement of ultrafine control of 3D structures and high-speed patterning at the same time. Remarkably, one can prepare arbitrary 3D polymer brushes on a large area (1.3 mm × 1.3 mm), with <5% vertical and lateral size variations, and a patterning speed as much as 200-fold faster than the current state-of-the-art. PMID:25256006

  11. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as a functional monomer and acidic ionic liquid based on a mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 (EMImCl-AlCl3, 1-1.5, in molar ratio) as a plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time via free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully achieved using a polymer gel electrolyte containing 80 wt% ionic liquid. The polymer gel electrolytes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries. PMID:26511160

  12. Polymer gels with associating side chains and their interaction with surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordievskaya, Yulia D.; Rumyantsev, Artem M.; Kramarenko, Elena Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Conformational behaviour of hydrophobically modified (HM) polymer gels in solutions of nonionic surfactants is studied theoretically. A HM gel contains hydrophobic side chains (stickers) grafted to its subchains. Hydrophobic stickers are capable to aggregate into joint micelles with surfactant molecules. Micelles containing more than one sticker serve as additional physical cross-links of the network, and their formation causes gel shrinking. In the proposed theoretical model, the interior of the gel/surfactant complex is treated as an array of densely packed spherical polymer brushes consisting of gel subchains tethered to the surface of the spherical sticker/surfactant micelles. Effect of stickers length and grafting density, surfactant concentration and hydrophobicity on gel swelling as well as on hydrophobic association inside it is analyzed. It is shown that increasing surfactant concentration can result in a gel collapse, which is caused by surfactant-induced hydrophobic aggregation of stickers, and a successive gel reswelling. The latter should be attributed to a growing fraction of surfactants in joint aggregates and, hence, increasing number of micelles containing only one sticker and not participating in gel physical cross-linking. In polyelectrolyte (PE) gels hydrophobic aggregation is opposed by osmotic pressure of mobile counterions, so that at some critical ionization degree hydrophobic association is completely suppressed. Hydrophobic modification of polymers is shown to open new ways for controlling gel responsiveness. In particular, it is discussed that incorporation of photosensitive groups into gel subchains and/or surfactant tail could give a possibility to vary the gel volume by light. Since hydrophobic aggregation regularities in gels and solutions are common, we hope our findings will be useful for design of polymer based self-healing materials as well.

  13. Polymer gels with associating side chains and their interaction with surfactants.

    PubMed

    Gordievskaya, Yulia D; Rumyantsev, Artem M; Kramarenko, Elena Yu

    2016-05-14

    Conformational behaviour of hydrophobically modified (HM) polymer gels in solutions of nonionic surfactants is studied theoretically. A HM gel contains hydrophobic side chains (stickers) grafted to its subchains. Hydrophobic stickers are capable to aggregate into joint micelles with surfactant molecules. Micelles containing more than one sticker serve as additional physical cross-links of the network, and their formation causes gel shrinking. In the proposed theoretical model, the interior of the gel/surfactant complex is treated as an array of densely packed spherical polymer brushes consisting of gel subchains tethered to the surface of the spherical sticker/surfactant micelles. Effect of stickers length and grafting density, surfactant concentration and hydrophobicity on gel swelling as well as on hydrophobic association inside it is analyzed. It is shown that increasing surfactant concentration can result in a gel collapse, which is caused by surfactant-induced hydrophobic aggregation of stickers, and a successive gel reswelling. The latter should be attributed to a growing fraction of surfactants in joint aggregates and, hence, increasing number of micelles containing only one sticker and not participating in gel physical cross-linking. In polyelectrolyte (PE) gels hydrophobic aggregation is opposed by osmotic pressure of mobile counterions, so that at some critical ionization degree hydrophobic association is completely suppressed. Hydrophobic modification of polymers is shown to open new ways for controlling gel responsiveness. In particular, it is discussed that incorporation of photosensitive groups into gel subchains and/or surfactant tail could give a possibility to vary the gel volume by light. Since hydrophobic aggregation regularities in gels and solutions are common, we hope our findings will be useful for design of polymer based self-healing materials as well. PMID:27179504

  14. Strategies for the crystallization of viruses: using phase diagrams and gels to produce 3D crystals of Grapevine fanleaf virus.

    PubMed

    Schellenberger, Pascale; Demangeat, Gérard; Lemaire, Olivier; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Bergdoll, Marc; Oliéric, Vincent; Sauter, Claude; Lorber, Bernard

    2011-05-01

    The small icosahedral plant RNA nepovirus Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is specifically transmitted by a nematode and causes major damage to vineyards worldwide. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the recognition between the surface of its protein capsid and cellular components of its vector, host and viral proteins synthesized upon infection, the wild type GFLV strain F13 and a natural mutant (GFLV-TD) carrying a Gly₂₉₇Asp mutation were purified, characterized and crystallized. Subsequently, the geometry and volume of their crystals was optimized by establishing phase diagrams. GFLV-TD was twice as soluble as the parent virus in the crystallization solution and its crystals diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 2.7 Å. The diffraction limit of GFLV-F13 crystals was extended from 5.5 to 3 Å by growth in agarose gel. Preliminary crystallographic analyses indicate that both types of crystals are suitable for structure determination. Keys for the successful production of GFLV crystals include the rigorous quality control of virus preparations, crystal quality improvement using phase diagrams, and crystal lattice reinforcement by growth in agarose gel. These strategies are applicable to the production of well-diffracting crystals of other viruses and macromolecular assemblies. PMID:21352920

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of 3-D hydrated bismuth oxalate coordination polymers with open-channel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinxiang; Cao, Yanning; Zhang, Hanhui; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Xuehuan; Chai, Xiaochuan

    2008-05-01

    Two new 3-D porous bismuth coordination polymers, (C 5NH 6) 2[Bi 2(H 2O) 2(C 2O 4) 4]·2H 2O 1 and (NH 4)[Bi(C 2O 4) 2]·3H 2O 2, have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic symmetry, P2 1/ c space group with a=10.378(2) Å, b=17.285(3) Å, c=16.563(5) Å, α=90°, β=119.66(2)°, γ=90°, V=2581.8(10) Å 3, Z=4, R1=0.0355 and w R2=0.0658 for unique 4713 reflections I >2 σ( I). Compound 2 crystallizes in the tetragonal symmetry, I4 1/ amd space group with a=11.7026(17) Å, b=11.7026(17) Å, c=9.2233(18) Å, α=90°, β=90°, γ=90°, V=1263.1(4) Å 3, Z=32, R1=0.0208 and w R2=0.0518 for unique 359 reflections I> 2 σ( I). Compounds 1 and 2 are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6 6 uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers, study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH 4+ by K + on potassium ion exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the open-channel frameworks are thermally stable up to 200 °C, and other characterizations are also described by elemental analysis, IR and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectionintegral spectrum (UV-Vis DRIS).

  16. A 3D Heterometallic Coordination Polymer Constructed by Trimeric {NiDy2} Single-Molecule Magnet Units.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaowei; Li, Han; Duan, Eryue; Han, Zongsu; Li, Leilei; Tang, Jinkui; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The solvothermal reaction of DyCl3·6H2O, Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, and H4abtc ligands (H4abtc = 3,3',5,5'-azobenzene-tetracarboxylic acid) in the mixed DMF/H2O solvents (DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) produced a three-dimensional (3D) Ni(II)-Dy(III) heterometallic coordination polymer (HCP) formulated as {[NH2(CH3)2]2[NiDy2(HCOO)2(abtc)2]}n (1). In 1, Dy(III) and Ni(II) ions interconnect through carboxylic O donors of abtc(4-) ligands to generate a linear trimer "Hourglass"-type {NiDy2} cluster, and the adjacent trinuclear {NiDy2} units are bridged by HCOO(-) groups to give a 1D "ladder" chain, which is further bridged by abtc(4-) ligands to form a new topology and named as "zsw3". Alternating-current magnetic susceptibility results indicate that 1 exhibits frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals with two relaxation processes, which suggests that it shows single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior and represents the first example by using an SMM cluster as the building block to create a 3D Ni-Ln HCP, to the best of our knowledge. The energy barriers for 1 under a 1000 Oe applied direct current magnetic field are estimated from Arrhenius plots to be 40 and 42 K at higher and lower frequencies, respectively. Additionally, the crystalline structure of 1 could be stable to at least 310 °C, supported by thermogravimetric analyses and in situ variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction patterns. PMID:26751740

  17. IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Fowler

    2004-11-30

    This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir

  18. Does nitrogen gas bubbled through a low density polymer gel dosimeter solution affect the polymerization process?

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi; Keshtkar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: On account of the lower electron density in the lung tissue, the dose distribution in the lung cannot be verified with the existing polymer gel dosimeters. Thus, the aims of this study are to make a low density polymer gel dosimeter and investigate the effect of nitrogen gas bubbles on the R2 responses and its homogeneity. Materials and Methods: Two different types of low density polymer gel dosimeters were prepared according to a composition proposed by De Deene, with some modifications. In the first type, no nitrogen gas was perfused through the gel solution and water. In the second type, to expel the dissolved oxygen, nitrogen gas was perfused through the water and gel solution. The post-irradiation times in the gels were 24 and 5 hours, respectively, with and without perfusion of nitrogen gas through the water and gel solution. Results: In the first type of gel, there was a linear correlation between the doses and R2 responses from 0 to 12 Gy. The fabricated gel had a higher dynamic range than the other low density polymer gel dosimeter; but its background R2 response was higher. In the second type, no difference in R2 response was seen in the dose ranges from 0 to 18 Gy. Both gels had a mass density between 0.35 and 0.45 g.cm-3 and CT values of about -650 to -750 Hounsfield units. Conclusion: It appeared that reactions between gelatin-free radicals and monomers, due to an increase in the gel temperature during rotation in the household mixer, led to a higher R2-background response. In the second type of gel, it seemed that the collapse of the nitrogen bubbles was the main factor that affected the R2-responses. PMID:26015914

  19. Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

  20. MAGIC polymer gel for dosimetric verification in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Heikkinen, Sami; Kotiluoto, Petri; Serén, Tom; Seppälä, Tiina; Auterinen, Iiro; Savolainen, Sauli

    2007-01-01

    Radiation sensitive polymer gels are among the most promising three-dimensional dose verification tools developed to date. Polymer gel dosimeter known by the acronym MAGIC has been tested for evaluation of its use in boron neutron capture (BNCT) dosimetry. We irradiated a large (diameter 10 cm, length 20 cm) cylindrical gel phantom in the epithermal neutron beam of the Finnish BNCT facility at the FiR 1 nuclear reactor. Neutron irradiation was simulated with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP. Gel samples from the same production batch were also irradiated with 6 MV photons from a medical linear accelerator to compare dose response in the two different types of beams. Irradiated gel phantoms were imaged using MRI to determine their relaxation rate R2 maps. The measured and normalized dose distribution in the epithermal neutron beam was compared to the dose distribution calculated by computer simulation. The results support the feasibility MAGIC gel in BNCT dosimetry. PMID:17592463

  1. Novel Stable Gel Polymer Electrolyte: Toward a High Safety and Long Life Li-Air Battery.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jin; Liu, Xizheng; Guo, Shaohua; Zhu, Kai; Xue, Hailong; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-10-28

    Nonaqueous Li-air battery, as a promising electrochemical energy storage device, has attracted substantial interest, while the safety issues derived from the intrinsic instability of organic liquid electrolytes may become a possible bottleneck for the future application of Li-air battery. Herein, through elaborate design, a novel stable composite gel polymer electrolyte is first proposed and explored for Li-air battery. By use of the composite gel polymer electrolyte, the Li-air polymer batteries composed of a lithium foil anode and Super P cathode are assembled and operated in ambient air and their cycling performance is evaluated. The batteries exhibit enhanced cycling stability and safety, where 100 cycles are achieved in ambient air at room temperature. The feasibility study demonstrates that the gel polymer electrolyte-based polymer Li-air battery is highly advantageous and could be used as a useful alternative strategy for the development of Li-air battery upon further application. PMID:26452054

  2. Polymer dynamics of DOC networks and gel formation in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, Pedro; Santschi, Peter H.

    2010-08-01

    The ocean plays a major role in global biogeochemical carbon cycling; it holds an important reservoir of reduced organic carbon, mostly in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and processes about one-half of the total primary production of the planet. Dissolved molecules present between living and assimilable size extremes (˜1000 nm -1 nm), constitute the most abundant form of remnant biochemicals in the ocean, outweighing the total living biomass by a factor of roughly 200. Because DOC is the fundamental substrate for marine microorganisms, and is primarily composed by small refractory biopolymers, this prompted the idea that the ocean might function as a huge repository of recalcitrant carbon. The missing link that elucidates this paradox and explains how the rich and vast stock of DOC becomes available to bacteria was the discovery that DOC throughout the water column remains in reversible assembly/dispersion equilibrium forming porous microscopic gels (Chin et al., Nature 391, 568-572, 1998). This abiotic DOC-POM shunt yields a microgel pool containing ˜70 gigatons of carbon forming discrete patches of high nutrient concentration that can be readily colonized by microorganisms. The presence of this huge gel mass in seawater extending far into the dark ocean has ramifications that might well scale nonlinearly through the microbial loop to the World Ocean and global climate system and it is fundamentally changing how oceanographers think about processes linking the microbial loop and biological pump to the rest of the biosphere and the geosphere. Even if a small fraction of DOC remains self-assembled, marine scientists will have to revise the rationale of established aquatic paradigms ranging from trace metal chelation, size-reactivity relationships, the microbial loop, the biological pump, colloid pumping, and humification. A ubiquitous, reversible DOC assembly/dispersion process implies a dynamic "patchiness" spanning from the molecular to the micron

  3. Ionic conduction properties of PVDF-HFP type gel polymer electrolytes with lithium imide salts

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Yuria; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Capiglia, C.; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2000-03-09

    Conduction properties of gel polymer electrolytes composed of lithium imide salts, LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiN(C{sub 2}F{sub 5}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, and PVDF-HFP copolymer were investigated using the pulsed-field gradient NMR and complex impedance techniques. The diffusion coefficients of the gel decreased with an increase in the polymer fraction in the gel. Carrier concentration exhibited 3 orders of magnitude variation in the fraction change in polymer from 80% to 20%. These results suggest that the polymer interacts with the electrolyte to affect the carrier concentration and mobility of the gel electrolytes. The interactive effect of polymer would be detected in the measurements of spin-lattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}). The deviation of the symmetric curve of the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} could be divided into two components, one was consistent with the component of solution and independent of the polymer fraction and the other depended on the polymer fraction in the gel.

  4. Novel method to dynamically load cells in 3D-gel culture for primary blast injury studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sory, David; Cepa-Areias, Anabela; Overby, Darryl; Proud, William; Institute of Shock Physics, Department of Bioengineering; Royal British Legion CentreBlast I Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    For at least a century explosive devices have been reported as one of the most important causes of injuries on battlefield in military conflicts as well as in terrorist attacks. Although significant experimental and modelling efforts have been focussed on blast injury at the organ or tissue level, few studies have investigated the mechanism of blast injury at the cellular level. This paper introduces an in vitro method compatible with living cells to examine the effects of high stress and short-duration pulses similar to those observed in blast waves. The experimental phase involved high strain rate axial compression of biological cylindrical specimens within a hermetically sealed sample holder made of a biocompatible polymer. Numerical simulations were performed in order to characterize the loading path within the sample and assess the loading conditions. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding primary blast injury at the cellular level. The Institute of Shock Physics acknowledges the support of AWE, Aldermaston, UK and Imperial College London. The Centre for Blast Injury Studies acknowledges the support of the Royal British Legion and Imperial College London.

  5. "JCE" Classroom Activity Connections: NaCl or CaCl[subscript 2], Smart Polymer Gel Tells More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yueh-Huey; Lin, Jia-Ying; Wang, Yu-Chen; Yaung, Jing-Fun

    2010-01-01

    This classroom activity connection demonstrates the differences between the effects of NaCl (a salt of monovalent metal ions) and CaCl[subscript 2] (a salt of polyvalent metal ions) on swollen superabsorbent polymer gels. Being ionic compounds, NaCl and CaCl[subscript 2] both collapse the swollen polymer gels. The gel contracted by NaCl reswells…

  6. Contact mechanics studies of polymer gels with the quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunalee, Frank Nelson

    This thesis examines the surfaces of polymer gels using a novel technique that combines the contact mechanics approach of Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts (JKR) with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Polymer gels are well-suited for a variety of applications, but their surface compositions often depend on their environmental surroundings due to the activity of the gel solvent. The JKR technique is sensitive to bulk mechanical properties and surface adhesive forces, while the QCM is sensitive to surface mechanical properties. In this thesis, the combined JKR-QCM technique is used to study the surfaces of polymer gels. In a typical JKR-QCM experiment, a hemispherical gel is brought into and out of contact with the QCM surface at a controlled velocity, and the resulting load, displacement, contact area, and complex resonant frequency of the QCM are measured. It is shown that the changes in complex resonant frequency of the QCM in such an experiment are related to the material's surface mechanical properties, which include its high frequency viscosity. Existing QCM theory is not intended to account for a changing interfacial contact area, which is a common feature in JKR experiments. Equations are presented to account for variable coverage of the QCM by considering the radial sensitivity profile across the quartz crystal. QCM theory is also modified for experiments involving a growing contact area between a viscoelastic material and the crystal surface when submerged in a liquid. JKR-QCM studies of a model polymer gel, composed of a physically crosslinked triblock copolymer swollen by mineral oil, reveal a concentrated oil layer at the gel's surface that is transferred to the quartz crystal after loading and subsequent detachment of the gel. The same features are noted for the model gel submerged in water. A different model gel, composed of a chemically crosslinked polymer swollen by water, reveals evidence of a surface water layer when brought into contact with a

  7. Utilizing ATRP to Design Self-Regenerating Polymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Xin; Averick, Saadyah; Kuksenok, Olga; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Using newly developed computational approaches, we design a gel system capable of re-growth after a substantial section of the material was cut away. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is utilized to form gels with preserved ``living'' chain ends and residual unreacted cross-linking groups. When this ``living'' gel is cut, these active species are exposed to a solution containing monomer, crosslinker, initiator and catalyst. A ``repairing'' polymerization occurs from both the new initiators introduced in the outer solution and the reactive chain ends present at the cut site. This new polymerization results in a covalent linkage between the initial living gel and the new gel prepared in the outer solution, and the connection is promoted by the presence of residual cross-linking groups. By measuring the diffusion of the outer solution into the cut gel and characterizing the width and strength of the interface between the initial and new gels, we identify the optimum parameters that yield a strong interface between the gel layers. Our simulations results are in good agreement with our experimental studies. This strategy not only regenerates ``injured'' gels, but also offers a novel means to engineer multi-layered composite gels.

  8. 3D-printed polylactic acid supports for enhanced ionization efficiency in desorption electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of liquid and gel samples.

    PubMed

    Elviri, Lisa; Foresti, Ruben; Bianchera, Annalisa; Silvestri, Marco; Bettini, Ruggero

    2016-08-01

    The potential of 3D printing technology was here exploited to prepare tailored polylactic acid (PLA) supports for desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) experiments. PLA rough solid supports presenting wells of different shape (i.e. cylindrical, cubic and hemispherical cavities) were designed to accommodate samples of different physical state. The potentials of such supports in terms of sample loading capacity, sensitivity, signal stability were tested by analysing a peptide (i.e. insulin) and an aminoglycoside antibiotic (i.e. gentamicin sulphate) from solution and a chitosan-based gel. The results obtained were compared with those obtained by using a traditional polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) support and discussed. By using PLA support on the flat side, signal intensity improved almost twice with respect to PTFE support, whereas with spherical wells a five times improved signal sensitivity and good stability (RSD<6%) were obtained for the analysis of two model molecules. Limits of detection were in the 3-10nM range and linearity was demonstrated for both analytes in the 0.05-0.5μM range for semi-quantitative or quantitative purposes. The use of a well and the set-up of optimal source parameters allowed the analysis of samples in a gel state with good precision (RSD<10%) and accuracy (86±6-102±9%), otherwise difficult to analyse on a flat smooth surface. These findings are of great interest and stimulus to exploit the advantages of 3D printing technology for the development of devices for a DESI source, presenting different shapes or configuration as a function of the sample types. PMID:27216689

  9. Effective Infiltration of Gel Polymer Electrolyte into Silicon-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers as Anodes for Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Gaind P; Klankowski, Steven A; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Wu, Judy; Rojeski, Ronald A; Li, Jun

    2015-09-23

    This study demonstrates the full infiltration of gel polymer electrolyte into silicon-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (Si-VACNFs), a high-capacity 3D nanostructured anode, and the electrochemical characterization of its properties as an effective electrolyte/separator for future all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Two fabrication methods have been employed to form a stable interface between the gel polymer electrolyte and the Si-VACNF anode. In the first method, the drop-casted gel polymer electrolyte is able to fully infiltrate into the open space between the vertically aligned core-shell nanofibers and encapsulate/stabilize each individual nanofiber in the polymer matrix. The 3D nanostructured Si-VACNF anode shows a very high capacity of 3450 mAh g(-1) at C/10.5 (or 0.36 A g(-1)) rate and 1732 mAh g(-1) at 1C (or 3.8 A g(-1)) rate. In the second method, a preformed gel electrolyte film is sandwiched between an Si-VACNF electrode and a Li foil to form a half-cell. Most of the vertical core-shell nanofibers of the Si-VACNF anode are able to penetrate into the gel polymer film while retaining their structural integrity. The slightly lower capacity of 2800 mAh g(-1) at C/11 rate and ∼1070 mAh g(-1) at C/1.5 (or 2.6 A g(-1)) rate have been obtained, with almost no capacity fade for up to 100 cycles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy does not show noticeable changes after 110 cycles, further revealing the stable interface between the gel polymer electrolyte and the Si-VACNFs anode. These results show that the infiltrated flexible gel polymer electrolyte can effectively accommodate the stress/strain of the Si shell due to the large volume expansion/contraction during the charge-discharge processes, which is particularly useful for developing future flexible solid-state lithium-ion batteries incorporating Si-anodes. PMID:26325385

  10. Preparation of polymer gel dosimeters based on less toxic monomers and gellan gum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, A.; Sato, Y.; Nagasawa, N.; Ohta, A.; Seito, H.; Yamabayashi, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Taguchi, M.; Tamada, M.; Kojima, T.

    2013-10-01

    New polymer gel dosimeters consisting of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), triethylene glycol monoethyl ether monomethacrylate (TGMEMA), polyethylene glycol 400 dimethacrylate (9G), tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride as an antioxidant, and gellan gum as a gel matrix were prepared. They were optically analyzed by measuring absorbance to evaluate a dose response. The absorbance of the polymer gel dosimeters that were exposed to 60Co γ-rays increased with increasing dose. The dosimeters comprising HEMA and 9G showed a linear increase in absorbance in the dose range from 0 to 10 Gy. The dose response depended on the 9G concentration. For others comprising HEMA, 9G and TGMEMA, the absorbance of the polymer gel dosimeters drastically increased above a certain dose, and then leveled off up to 10 Gy. The optical variations in these polymer gel dosimeters were also induced by x-irradiation from Cyberknife radiotherapy equipment. Furthermore, the exposed region of the latter polymer gel dosimeter exhibited a thermo-responsive behavior.

  11. New design for a safe lithium-ion gel polymer battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takaya; Banno, Kimiyo; Maruo, Tatsuya; Nozu, Ryutaro

    We present a new design of a lithium-ion gel polymer battery which is fabricated using a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) type gel polymer and LiCoO 2, covered by an ion conductive polyurethane. A 7 wt.% solution of a semi-IPN gel polymer, composed of a fully cyanoethylated cellulose derivative and multifunctional poly(oxyethylene)methacrylate has an ionic conductivity of 2.7 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at 25 °C, and has a higher degree of control of liquid electrolyte evaporation when compared with conventional fluoride polymer gels. Another ion conductive polymer, a caprolactone segmented polyurethane, arranged on the surface of the cathode active material in order to increase the start temperature of the thermal runaway reaction worked as planned, raising the exothermic decomposition temperature by 50 °C. A large (2500 mAh) cell showed good discharge performance and improved safety characteristics as judged by a nail penetration test. Furthermore, this battery system exhibited a unique phenomenon, that of preventing overcharging. The new design of this lithium-ion gel polymer battery could be promising for large batteries that must be inherently safe, such as batteries for mobile applications.

  12. Smad signal pathway regulates angiogenesis via endothelial cell in an adipose-derived stromal cell/endothelial cell co-culture, 3D gel model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiyu; Xie, Jing; Gong, Tao; Shi, Sirong; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Na; Lin, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Co-implantation of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) can markedly expedite the formation of functional microvascular beds and provides possible methods for cell-based revascularization therapies to treat various diseases. Furthermore, we investigated the role of TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway for angiogenesis in a three-dimensional (3D) collagen gel model established in vitro with co-culture between ASCs and ECs. We found that angiogenesis was attenuated in the co-culture gels after inhibition of ALK5/Smad2/3 with SB431542. Genes coding for VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VE-ca, FGF-1, PDGF, BMP-4, and BMP-7 were significantly reduced in both mono-cultured and co-cultured ECs. Furthermore, the decrease in co-cultured ECs was prominent relative to mono-cultured ECs. Taken together, these findings suggest that in the co-culture between ASCs and ECs, TGFβ/Smad signal pathway regulates angiogenesis via ECs; moreover, the findings that the co-cultured ECs were regulated more significantly than mono-cultured ECs suggest that suppression of Smad signal pathway may regulate the paracrine secretion of ASCs to further modulate angiogenesis of ECs. PMID:26694166

  13. Honeycomb-like porous gel polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium ion batteries with enhanced safety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Sun, Bing; Huang, Xiaodan; Chen, Shuangqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have shown great potential in applications as power sources for electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage. However, the direct uses of flammable organic liquid electrolyte with commercial separator induce serious safety problems including the risk of fire and explosion. Herein, we report the development of poly(vinylidene difluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) polymer membranes with multi-sized honeycomb-like porous architectures. The as-prepared polymer electrolyte membranes contain porosity as high as 78%, which leads to the high electrolyte uptake of 86.2 wt%. The PVDF-HFP gel polymer electrolyte membranes exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.03 mS cm(-1) at room temperature, which is much higher than that of commercial polymer membranes. Moreover, the as-obtained gel polymer membranes are also thermally stable up to 350 °C and non-combustible in fire (fire-proof). When applied in lithium ion batteries with LiFePO4 as cathode materials, the gel polymer electrolyte demonstrated excellent electrochemical performances. This investigation indicates that PVDF-HFP gel polymer membranes could be potentially applicable for high power lithium ion batteries with the features of high safety, low cost and good performance. PMID:25168687

  14. Honeycomb-like porous gel polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium ion batteries with enhanced safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Sun, Bing; Huang, Xiaodan; Chen, Shuangqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-08-01

    Lithium ion batteries have shown great potential in applications as power sources for electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage. However, the direct uses of flammable organic liquid electrolyte with commercial separator induce serious safety problems including the risk of fire and explosion. Herein, we report the development of poly(vinylidene difluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) polymer membranes with multi-sized honeycomb-like porous architectures. The as-prepared polymer electrolyte membranes contain porosity as high as 78%, which leads to the high electrolyte uptake of 86.2 wt%. The PVDF-HFP gel polymer electrolyte membranes exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.03 mS cm-1 at room temperature, which is much higher than that of commercial polymer membranes. Moreover, the as-obtained gel polymer membranes are also thermally stable up to 350°C and non-combustible in fire (fire-proof). When applied in lithium ion batteries with LiFePO4 as cathode materials, the gel polymer electrolyte demonstrated excellent electrochemical performances. This investigation indicates that PVDF-HFP gel polymer membranes could be potentially applicable for high power lithium ion batteries with the features of high safety, low cost and good performance.

  15. Honeycomb-like porous gel polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium ion batteries with enhanced safety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Sun, Bing; Huang, Xiaodan; Chen, Shuangqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have shown great potential in applications as power sources for electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage. However, the direct uses of flammable organic liquid electrolyte with commercial separator induce serious safety problems including the risk of fire and explosion. Herein, we report the development of poly(vinylidene difluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) polymer membranes with multi-sized honeycomb-like porous architectures. The as-prepared polymer electrolyte membranes contain porosity as high as 78%, which leads to the high electrolyte uptake of 86.2 wt%. The PVDF-HFP gel polymer electrolyte membranes exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.03 mS cm−1 at room temperature, which is much higher than that of commercial polymer membranes. Moreover, the as-obtained gel polymer membranes are also thermally stable up to 350°C and non-combustible in fire (fire-proof). When applied in lithium ion batteries with LiFePO4 as cathode materials, the gel polymer electrolyte demonstrated excellent electrochemical performances. This investigation indicates that PVDF-HFP gel polymer membranes could be potentially applicable for high power lithium ion batteries with the features of high safety, low cost and good performance. PMID:25168687

  16. Photo-crosslinkable hydrogel-based 3D microfluidic culture device.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youlee; Lee, Jong Min; Bae, Pan-Kee; Chung, Il Yup; Chung, Bong Hyun; Chung, Bong Geun

    2015-04-01

    We developed the photo-crosslinkable hydrogel-based 3D microfluidic device to culture neural stem cells (NSCs) and tumors. The photo-crosslinkable gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) polymer was used as a physical barrier in the microfluidic device and collagen type I gel was employed to culture NSCs in a 3D manner. We demonstrated that the pore size was inversely proportional to concentrations of GelMA hydrogels, showing the pore sizes of 5 and 25 w/v% GelMA hydrogels were 34 and 4 μm, respectively. It also revealed that the morphology of pores in 5 w/v% GelMA hydrogels was elliptical shape, whereas we observed circular-shaped pores in 25 w/v% GelMA hydrogels. To culture NSCs and tumors in the 3D microfluidic device, we investigated the molecular diffusion properties across GelMA hydrogels, indicating that 25 w/v% GelMA hydrogels inhibited the molecular diffusion for 6 days in the 3D microfluidic device. In contrast, the chemicals were diffused in 5 w/v% GelMA hydrogels. Finally, we cultured NSCs and tumors in the hydrogel-based 3D microfluidic device, showing that 53-75% NSCs differentiated into neurons, while tumors were cultured in the collagen gels. Therefore, this photo-crosslinkable hydrogel-based 3D microfluidic culture device could be a potentially powerful tool for regenerative tissue engineering applications. PMID:25641332

  17. A study of normoxic polymer gel using monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Ishak, Siti Atiqah; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Moktar, Mohd; Min, Ung Ngie

    2015-04-24

    The aim of this study is to determine the sensitivity of HEMA-polymer gel mixture consist of monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with different types of composition. Several composition of HEMA-polymer gel were fabricated and the gels were irradiated with radiation dose between 10 cGy to 100cGy by using x-ray machine and 100 cGy to 1400 cGy by using 6 MV photon beam energy of linear accelerator. The degree of polymerization was evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with dependence of R2-dose response. Polymer gel consists of cross-linker, anti-oxidant Tetrakis(Hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride solution (THPC) and oxygen scavenger hydroquinone shows a stable sensitivity with highest dose dependency. Besides, the results shows the stage polymerization consist of induction, propagation, termination, and chain transfer were dependence with type of chemical mixture and radiation dose. Thus, normoxic HEMA-polymer gel with the different gel formulations can have a better dose resolution and an appropriate recipe must be selected to increase of the sensitivity required and the stability of the dosimeter.

  18. A study of normoxic polymer gel using monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Siti Atiqah; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Moktar, Mohd; Min, Ung Ngie

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the sensitivity of HEMA-polymer gel mixture consist of monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with different types of composition. Several composition of HEMA-polymer gel were fabricated and the gels were irradiated with radiation dose between 10 cGy to 100cGy by using x-ray machine and 100 cGy to 1400 cGy by using 6 MV photon beam energy of linear accelerator. The degree of polymerization was evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with dependence of R2-dose response. Polymer gel consists of cross-linker, anti-oxidant Tetrakis(Hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride solution (THPC) and oxygen scavenger hydroquinone shows a stable sensitivity with highest dose dependency. Besides, the results shows the stage polymerization consist of induction, propagation, termination, and chain transfer were dependence with type of chemical mixture and radiation dose. Thus, normoxic HEMA-polymer gel with the different gel formulations can have a better dose resolution and an appropriate recipe must be selected to increase of the sensitivity required and the stability of the dosimeter.

  19. Quantifying the effects of cyclic defects on the mechanical properties of polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Zhong, Mingjiang; Kawamoto, Ken; Johnson, Jeremiah; Olsen, Bradley

    Understanding the correlation between the topology and properties of polymer gels is an outstanding challenge in polymer science. Classical theories of gel elasticity assume acyclic tree-like network topology; however, all polymer gels inevitably possess cyclic defects: loops that have profound, yet previously unpredictable, effect on gel properties. Here, we develop a modified phantom network theory that describes the effects of loops on the modulus of polymer gels. We demonstrate that small loops (primary and secondary loops) have vital effect on the modulus; whereas this negative impact decreases rapidly as the loop order increases, especially for networks with higher junction functionalities. Loop effect is non-local, which can propagate to its neighborhood strands. We show that adjacent loops weaken the network cooperatively, resulting in the nonlinear decrease of the dimensionless modulus (G/vkT, where v is the total density of polymer strands) with the loop fraction. The theory is in good agreement with the experimental data without any fitting parameters.

  20. Stable Lithium Deposition Generated from Ceramic-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Anode.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chih-Hao; Hsiao, Yang-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Han; Kuo, Ping-Lin

    2016-06-22

    In this work, a composite gel electrolyte comprising ceramic cross-linker and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix is shown to have superior resistance to lithium dendrite growth and be applicable to gel polymer lithium batteries. In contrast to pristine gel electrolyte, these nanocomposite gel electrolytes show good compatibility with liquid electrolytes, wider electrochemical window, and a superior rate and cycling performance. These silica cross-linkers allow the PEO to form the lithium ion pathway and reduce anion mobility. Therefore, the gel not only features lower polarization and interfacial resistance, but also suppresses electrolyte decomposition and lithium corrosion. Further, these nanocomposite gel electrolytes increase the lithium transference number to 0.5, and exhibit superior electrochemical stability up to 5.0 V. Moreover, the lithium cells feature long-term stability and a Coulombic efficiency that can reach 97% after 100 cycles. The SEM image of the lithium metal surface after the cycling test shows that the composite gel electrolyte with 20% silica cross-linker forms a uniform passivation layer on the lithium surface. Accordingly, these features allow this gel polymer electrolyte with ceramic cross-linker to function as a high-performance lithium-ionic conductor and reliable separator for lithium metal batteries. PMID:27247991

  1. Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircan, H.; Seshadri, V.; Padilla, J.; Invernale, M.; Otero, T. F.; Sotzing, G. A.

    2008-08-01

    The dual polymer configuration is commonly used when constructing electrochromic devices (ECDs) due to the expected electrochemical stability and enhanced optical properties. In this configuration, two different polymers are used which are optically complementary. Herein we report the construction and characterization of dual-type ECDs using poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly[3, 6-bis(2-(3, 4-ethylenedioxy)thienyl)-N-methylcarbazole] (PBEDOT-NMCz) as the two complementary electrochromic polymers for the device. A variety of gel electrolyte solutions were prepared and evaluated for these devices. The use of ionic liquids within these gels imparted interesting properties, including long lifetimes, and thermal stability of devices. Switching speeds for the various devices, as well as optical contrasts, were also obtained for the gel electrolytes containing different amounts of ionic liquid as plasticizer.

  2. Sci—Fri PM: Dosimetry—01: Radiation-induced refraction artefacts in the optical CT readout of polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Warren G; Jirasek, Andrew; Wells, Derek M

    2014-08-15

    Polymer gel dosimeters (PGDs) are a desirable tool for the verification of advanced radiotherapy treatments. Fully 3D, deformable, and tissue-equivalent, the PGD polymerizes wherever it absorbs dose. To measure the dose absorbed by a PGD, optical computed tomography (CT) can be used to evaluate, in full 3D, the opacity distribution that coincides with polymerization. In addition to an increase in opacity with dose, an increase in refractive index (RI) is also known to occur in irradiated polymer gels. The increase in RI is slight and was previously assumed insignificant. This work reveals the effects that radiation-induced RI changes can have on the optical CT readout of PGDs. A fan-beam optical CT scanner was used to image a cylindrical PGD irradiated by a pair of 3×3 cm{sup 2}, 6 MV photon beams in an orthogonal arrangement. Investigative scans were performed to evaluate refraction errors occurring: i) within the plane, and ii) out of the plane of the fan-beam. In-plane refraction was shown to cause distinct streaking artefacts along dose gradients (i.e. RI gradients) due to higher intensity rays being refracted into more opaque regions. Out-of-plane refraction was shown to produce severe, widespread artefacts due to rays missing the detector array. An iterative Savitzky-Golay filtering technique was developed to reduce both types of artefacts by specifically targeting structured errors in sinogram space. Results introduce a new category of imaging artefacts to be aware of when using optical CT for PGD readout.

  3. Multi-Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Materials: Particles, Films, and Bulk Gels.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zi-Quan; Wang, Guo-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Stimuli-responsive polymers have received tremendous attention from scientists and engineers for several decades due to the wide applications of these smart materials in biotechnology and nanotechnology. Driven by the complex functions of living systems, multi-stimuli-responsive polymer materials have been designed and developed in recent years. Compared with conventional single- or dual-stimuli-based polymer materials, multi-stimuli-responsive polymer materials would be more intriguing since more functions and finer modulations can be achieved through more parameters. This critical review highlights the recent advances in this area and focuses on three types of multi-stimuli-responsive polymer materials, namely, multi-stimuli-responsive particles (micelles, micro/nanogels, vesicles, and hybrid particles), multi-stimuli-responsive films (polymer brushes, layer-by-layer polymer films, and porous membranes), and multi-stimuli-responsive bulk gels (hydrogels, organogels, and metallogels) from recent publications. Various stimuli, such as light, temperature, pH, reduction/oxidation, enzymes, ions, glucose, ultrasound, magnetic fields, mechanical stress, solvent, voltage, and electrochemistry, have been combined to switch the functions of polymers. The polymer design, preparation, and function of multi-stimuli-responsive particles, films, and bulk gels are comprehensively discussed here. PMID:27153184

  4. Formulation development and evaluation of innovative two-polymer (SR-2P) bioadhesive vaginal gel.

    PubMed

    Podaralla, Satheesh; Alt, Carsten; Shankar, Gita N

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to study the feasibility of developing a vaginal bioadhesive microbicide using a SRI's proprietary two-polymer gel platform (SR-2P). Several formulations were prepared with different combinations of temperature-sensitive polymer (Pluronic® F-127) and mucoadhesive polymer (Noveon® AA-1), producing gels of different characteristics. Prototype polymeric gels were evaluated for pH, osmolality, buffering capacity, and viscosity under simulated vaginal semen dilutions, and bioadhesivity using ex vivo mini pig vaginal tissues and texture analyzer. The pH of the polymeric gel formulations ranged from 5.1 to 6.4; the osmolality varied from 13 to 173 mOsm. Absolute viscosity ranged from 513 to 3,780 cPs, and was significantly reduced (1.5- to 3-fold) upon incubation with simulated vaginal and semen fluid mixture. Among the tested gels (indicated in the middle row as a molar ratio of a mixture of Noveon vs. Pluronic), only SR-2P retained gel structure upon dilution with simulated fluids and mild simulated coital stress. The pH of the SR-2P gel was maintained at about 4.6 in simulated vaginal fluid and also showed high peak force of adhesion in mini pig vaginal tissue. Furthermore, SR-2P gel caused no or only minimal irritation in a mouse vaginal irritation model. The results of this preliminary study demonstrated the potential application of SR-2P gel as a vaginal microbicide vehicle for delivery of anti-HIV agents. PMID:24781671

  5. Noncanonical roles of membranous lysyl-tRNA synthetase in transducing cell-substrate signaling for invasive dissemination of colon cancer spheroids in 3D collagen I gels

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seo Hee; Kim, Doyeun; Lee, Mi-Sook; Lee, Doohyung; Kwak, Tae Kyoung; Kang, Minkyung; Ryu, Jihye; Kim, Hye-Jin; Song, Haeng Eun; Choi, Jungeun; Lee, Gyu-Ho; Kim, Sang-Yeob; Park, Song Hwa; Kim, Dae Gyu; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Kim, Tai Young; Thiery, Jean Paul; Kim, Sunghoon; Lee, Jung Weon

    2015-01-01

    The adhesion properties of cells are involved in tumor metastasis. Although KRS at the plasma membrane is shown important for cancer metastasis, additionally to canonical roles of cytosolic KRS in protein translation, how KRS and its downstream effectors promote the metastatic migration remains unexplored. Disseminative behaviors (an earlier metastatic process) of colon cancer cell spheroids embedded in 3D collagen gels were studied with regards to cell adhesion properties, and relevance in KRS−/+ knocked-down animal and clinical colon cancer tissues. Time-lapse imaging revealed KRS-dependent cell dissemination from the spheroids, whereas KRS-suppressed spheroids remained static due to the absence of outbound movements supported by cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. While keeping E-cadherin at the outward disseminative cells, KRS caused integrin-involved intracellular signaling for ERK/c-Jun, paxillin, and cell-ECM adhesion-mediated signaling to modulate traction force for crawling movement. KRS-suppressed spheroids became disseminative following ERK or paxillin re-expression. The KRS-dependent intracellular signaling activities correlated with the invasiveness in clinical colon tumor tissues and in KRS−/+ knocked-down mice tissues. Collectively, these observations indicate that KRS at the plasma membrane plays new roles in metastatic migration as a signaling inducer, and causes intracellular signaling for cancer dissemination, involving cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, during KRS-mediated metastasis. PMID:26091349

  6. Harnessing Interfacially-Active Nanorods to Regenerate Severed Polymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Xin; Kuksenok, Olga; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna

    2014-03-01

    With newly developed computational approaches, we design a nanocomposite that enables self-regeneration of the gel matrix when a significant portion of the material is severed. The cut instigates the dynamic cascade of cooperative events leading to the re-growth. Specifically, functionalized nanorods localize at the new interface and initiate Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization with monomers and cross-linkers in the outer solution. The reaction propagates to form a new cross-linked gel, which can be tuned to resemble the uncut material.

  7. Water equivalence of NIPAM based polymer gel dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity for x-ray CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Bosi, Stephen; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive

    2013-10-01

    Two new formulations of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) based three dimensional (3D) gel dosimeters have recently been developed with improved sensitivity to x-ray CT readout, one without any co-solvent and the other one with isopropanol co-solvent. The water equivalence of the NIPAM gel dosimeters was investigated using different methods to calculate their radiological properties including: density, electron density, number of electrons per grams, effective atomic number, photon interaction probabilities, mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients, electron collisional, radiative and total mass stopping powers and electron mass scattering power. Monte Carlo modelling was also used to compare the dose response of these gel dosimeters with water for kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beams and for megavoltage electron beams. We found that the density and electron density of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter are more water equivalent with less than a 2.6% difference compared to a 5.7% difference for the isopropanol gel dosimeter. Both the co-solvent free and isopropanol solvent gel dosimeters have lower effective atomic numbers than water, differing by 2.2% and 6.5%, respectively. As a result, their photoelectric absorption interaction probabilities are up to 6% and 19% different from water, respectively. Compton scattering and pair production interaction probabilities of NIPAM gel with isopropanol differ by up to 10% from water while for the co-solvent free gel, the differences are 3%. Mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter and the isopropanol gel dosimeter are up to 7% and 19% lower than water, respectively. Collisional and total mass stopping powers of both gel dosimeters differ by less than 2% from those of water. The dose response of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter is water equivalent (with <1% discrepancy) for dosimetry of x-rays with energies <100 keV while the discrepancy increases (up to 5%) for the

  8. Polymer Physics Prize: Designing ''Materials that Compute'': Exploiting the Properties of Self-oscillating Polymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazs, Anna

    Lightweight, deformable materials that can sense and respond to human touch and motion can be the basis of future wearable computers, where the material itself will be capable of performing computations. To facilitate the creation of ''materials that compute'', we draw from two emerging modalities for computation: chemical computing, which relies on reaction-diffusion mechanisms to perform operations, and oscillatory computing, which performs pattern recognition through synchronization of coupled oscillators. Chemical computing systems, however, suffer from the fact that the reacting species are coupled only locally; the coupling is limited by diffusion as the chemical waves propagate throughout the system. Additionally, oscillatory computing systems have not utilized a potentially wearable material. To address both these limitations, we develop the first model for coupling self-oscillating polymer gels to a piezoelectric (PZ) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize. The oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling. Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling ''materials that compute''.

  9. Comparison of non-electrophoresis grade with electrophoresis grade BIS in NIPAM polymer gel preparation

    PubMed Central

    Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khajeali, Azim; Farajollahi, Ali Reza; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Raeisi, Noorallah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The main objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing electrophoresis cross-linker with non-electrophoresis N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel and its possible effect on dose response. Methods: NIPAM polymer gel was prepared from non-electrophoresis grade BIS and the relaxation rate (R2) was measured by MR imaging after exposing the gel to gamma radiation from Co-60 source. To compare the response of this gel with the one that contains electrophoresis grade BIS, two sets of NIPAM gel were prepared using electrophoresis and non-electrophoresis BIS and irradiated to different gamma doses. Results: It was found that the dose–response of NIPAM gel made from the non-electrophoresis grade BIS is coincident with that of electrophoresis grade BIS. Conclusion:Taken all, it can be concluded that the non-electrophoresis grade BIS not only is a suitable alternative for the electrophoresis grade BIS but also reduces the cost of gel due to its lower price. PMID:26457250

  10. Optical and NMR dose response of N-isopropylacrylamide normoxic polymer gel for radiation therapy dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Mesbahi, Asghar; Jafarzadeh, Vahid; Gharehaghaji, Nahideh

    2012-01-01

    Background Application of less toxic normoxic polymer gel of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) for radiation therapy has been studied in recent years. Aim In the current study the optical and NMR properties of NIPAM were studied for radiation therapy dosimetry application. Materials and methods NIPAM normoxic polymer gel was prepared and irradiated by 9 MV photon beam of a medical linac. The optical absorbance was measured using a conventional laboratory spectrophotometer in different wavelengths ranging from 390 to 860 nm. R2 measurements of NIPAM gels were performed using a 1.5 T scanner and R2–dose curve was obtained. Results Our results showed R2 dose sensitivity of 0.193 ± 0.01 s−1 Gy−1 for NIPAM gel. Both R2 and optical absorbance showed a linear relationship with dose from 1.5 to 11 Gy for NIPAM gel dosimeter. Moreover, absorbance–dose response varied considerably with light wavelength and highest sensitivity was seen for the blue part of the spectrum. Conclusion Our results showed that both optical and NMR approaches have acceptable sensitivity and accuracy for dose determination with NIPAM gel. However, for optical reading of the gel, utilization of an optimum optical wavelength is recommended. PMID:24377016

  11. NOTE: The potential use of polymer gel dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajollahi, A. R.; Bonnett, D. E.; Tattam, D.; Green, S.

    2000-04-01

    Polymer gels with and without 60 ppm of 10 B were exposed to an epithermal neutron beam produced by the Dynamitron at the University of Birmingham on two separate occasions. Eight vials containing the gel, four with and four without boron, were irradiated in pairs in a water phantom for 5 h. The maximum dose was calculated to be 9 Gy in A-150 tissue equivalent plastic, 4 cm deep in the phantom. Measurements were made of the variation of relaxation rates of the gels with depth in a phantom. These were compared with calculations using the MCNP Monte Carlo program and the gel response followed the general trend of the results of the calculations. The calculations showed that the absence of boron gave 66.1% and 44.3% of the absorbed dose with boron and the measurements showed the response of the gel without boron to give 65±2% and 41±6% of the response with boron for the two halves of the first vial. All the gel measurements showed an enhancement in absorbed dose when boron was added. These results indicate that polymer gels may have a role in measuring the enhancement of absorbed dose due to boron in an epithermal or thermal neutron.

  12. trans-cis Configuration regulated supramolecular polymer gels and chirality transfer based on a bolaamphiphilic histidine and dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunfeng; Wang, Tianyu; Fu, Yunzhi; Liu, Minghua

    2016-01-25

    Supramolecular polymer gels based on the co-assembly of bolaamphiphilic l-histidine(BolaHis) and dicarboxylic acids are dependent on the molar ratios, flexibility and cis-trans configuration of acid molecules. Thus, oligomerized rigid cis-maleic acid or flexible trans-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid can form chiral supramolecular polymer gels with l-BolaHis. PMID:26617194

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

    2003-11-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on

  14. 3D printing of textile-based structures by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) with different polymer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikova, R.; Ehrmann, A.; Finsterbusch, K.

    2014-08-01

    3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing, i.e. creating objects by sequential layering, for pre-production or production. After creating a 3D model with a CAD program, a printable file is used to create a layer design which is printed afterwards. While often more expensive than traditional techniques like injection moulding, 3D printing can significantly enhance production times of small parts produced in small numbers, additionally allowing for large flexibility and the possibility to create parts that would be impossible to produce with conventional techniques. The Fused Deposition Modelling technique uses a plastic filament which is pushed through a heated extrusion nozzle melting the material. Depending on the material, different challenges occur in the production process, and the produced part shows different mechanical properties. The article describes some standard and novel materials and their influence on the resulting parts.

  15. Enhancement in dose sensitivity of polymer gel dosimeters composed of radiation-crosslinked gel matrix and less toxic monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, A.; Yamashita, S.; Taguchi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters based on radiation-crosslinked hydroxypropyl cellulose gel were prepared, which comprised 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and polyethylene glycol #400 dimethacrylate (9G) as less toxic monomers and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) as an antioxidant. The dosimeters exposed to 60Co γ-rays became cloudy at only 1 Gy. The irradiated dosimeters were optically analyzed by using a UV- vis spectrophotometer to evaluate dose response. Absorbance of the dosimeters linearly increased in the dose range from 0 to 10 Gy, in which dose sensitivity increased with increasing 9G concentration. The dose sensitivity of the dosimeters with 2 wt% HEMA and 3 wt% 9G was also enhanced by increment in THPC.

  16. Muscle contraction and polymer-gel phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Gerald H.

    2000-06-01

    Artificial muscles typically contrast by a phase-transition. Muscle is thought to contract by a different mechanism - a filament-sliding mechanism in which one set of filaments is driven past another by the action of cyclically rotating cross-bridges. The concept is much like the mechanism of rowing. The evidence, however, is equally consistent with a mechanism in which the filaments themselves contract, much like the condensation of polymers during a phase-transition. Muscle contains three principal polymer types organized neatly into a characteristic framework All three polymers can shorten. The contributions of each filament may be designed to confer versatility, as well as sped and strength, on this biological machine. The principles of natural contraction may be useful in establishing optimal design principles for artificial muscles.

  17. Preliminary investigation of the NMR, optical and x-ray CT dose-response of polymer gel dosimeters incorporating cosolvents to improve dose sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeva, V. I.; Olding, T.; Jirasek, A.; Schreiner, L. J.; McAuley, K. B.

    2009-05-01

    This study reports on efforts to increase the dose sensitivity of polymer gel dosimeters used in 3D radiation dosimetry. The potential of several different cosolvents is investigated, with the aim of increasing the solubility of N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide crosslinker in polymer gel dosimeters. Glycerol and isopropanol increase the limit for the crosslinker solubility from approximately 3% to 5% and 10% by weight, respectively. This enables the manufacture of polymer gel dosimeters with much higher levels of crosslinking than was previously possible. New dosimeter recipes containing up to 5 wt% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide were subjected to spatially uniform radiation and were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as x-ray and optical CT techniques. The resulting dosimeters exhibit dose sensitivities that are up to 2.7 times higher than measured for a typical dosimeters with 3% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide without the addition of cosolvent. Two additional cosolvents (n-propanol and sec-butanol) were deemed unsuitable for practical dosimeters due to incompatibility with gelatin, cloudiness prior to irradiation, and immiscibility with water when large quantities of cosolvent were used. The dosimeters with high N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide content that used isopropanol or glycerol as cosolvents had high optical clarity prior to irradiation, but did not produce suitable optical CT results for non-uniformly irradiated gels due to polymer development outside of the high dose regions of the pencil beams and significant light scatter. Further experiments are required to determine whether cosolvents can be used to manufacture gels with sufficiently high dose sensitivity for readout using x-ray computed tomography.

  18. Mechanical, Electromagnetic, and X-ray Shielding Characterization of a 3D Printable Tungsten-Polycarbonate Polymer Matrix Composite for Space-Based Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemelya, Corey M.; Rivera, Armando; Perez, Angel Torrado; Rocha, Carmen; Liang, Min; Yu, Xiaoju; Kief, Craig; Alexander, David; Stegeman, James; Xin, Hao; Wicker, Ryan B.; MacDonald, Eric; Roberson, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Material-extrusion three-dimensional (3D) printing has recently attracted much interest because of its process flexibility, rapid response to design alterations, and ability to create structures "on-the-go". For this reason, 3D printing has possible applications in rapid creation of space-based devices, for example cube satellites (CubeSat). This work focused on fabrication and characterization of tungsten-doped polycarbonate polymer matrix composites specifically designed for x-ray radiation-shielding applications. The polycarbonate-tungsten polymer composite obtained intentionally utilizes low loading levels to provide x-ray shielding while limiting effects on other properties of the material, for example weight, electromagnetic functionality, and mechanical strength. The fabrication process, from tungsten functionalization to filament extrusion and material characterization, is described, including printability, determination of x-ray attenuation, tensile strength, impact resistance, and gigahertz permittivity, and failure analysis. The proposed materials are uniquely advantageous when implemented in 3D printed structures, because even a small volume fraction of tungsten has been shown to substantially alter the properties of the resulting composite.

  19. Partitioning and diffusion of proteins and linear polymers in polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, J; Anderson, J L

    1996-01-01

    The equilibrium partition coefficient (K) and diffusion coefficient (Dgel) of two proteins and two linear polymers were measured as a function of polymer content of a 2.7% cross-linked polyacrylamide (PA) gel. The gel concentration, expressed as a volume percentage of PA in the gel (phi), varied between 0 and 14%. The measurements were made by fluorescence spectroscopy; fluorescent dyes were covalently attached to the macromolecules. The dependence of K on phi for the proteins agrees with a model of the gel network as randomly placed, impenetrable rods. The diffusion data are interpreted in terms of an effective medium theory for the mobility of a sphere in a Brinkman fluid. Using values of the Brinkman parameter in the literature, the effective medium model with no adjustable parameters fits the diffusion data for the proteins very well but underpredicts Dgel for the linear polymers. The gel effect on partitioning is significantly greater than that on diffusion. The permeability (KDgel) of bovine serum albumin decreased by 10(3) over the range phi = 0 --> 8%, and the ratio of permeabilities for ribonuclease compared to BSA increased from 2 to 30. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8785307

  20. Peculiarities in gel permeation chromatography of flexible-chain polymers on macroporous swelling sorbents.

    PubMed

    Belenkii, B G; Vilenchik, L Z; Nesterov, V V; Kolegov, V J; Frenkel, S Y

    1975-06-18

    In gel permeation chromatography on macroporous swelling sorbents, deviations from the Benoit principle of universal calibration were observed. It is suggested that these are caused by different degrees of thermodynamic compatibility of the eluted polymers with the sorbent matrix. PMID:1150817

  1. Lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels as super-absorbent polymers for nonpolar organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Takahiro; Shinkai, Seiji; Sada, Kazuki

    2007-06-01

    Polyelectrolyte gels that are known as super-absorbent polymers swell and absorb water up to several hundred times their dried weights and have become ubiquitous and indispensable materials in many applications. Their superior swelling abilities originate from the electrostatic repulsion between the charges on the polymer chains and the osmotic imbalance between the interior and exterior of the gels. However, no super-absorbent polymers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and especially for nonpolar organic solvents (ɛ<10) have been reported, because common polyelectrolyte gels collapse in such solvents owing to the formation of a higher number of aggregates of ions and ion pairs. Here, we report that a novel class of polyelectrolyte gels bearing tetra-alkylammonium tetraphenylborate as a lipophilic and bulky ionic group swell in some nonpolar organic solvents up to 500 times their dry size. Dissociation of the ionic groups even in low-dielectric media (3<ɛ<10) enhances the swelling ability by expansion of the polymer networks. This expands the potential of polyelectrolytes that have been used only in aqueous solutions or highly polar solvents, and provides soft materials that swell in a variety of media. These materials could find applications as protective barriers for VOCs spilled in the environment and as absorbents for waste oil.

  2. Dosimetric characterization of CyberKnife radiosurgical photon beams using polymer gels

    SciTech Connect

    Pantelis, E.; Antypas, C.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Karaiskos, P.; Papagiannis, P.; Kozicki, M.; Georgiou, E.; Sakelliou, L.; Seimenis, I.

    2008-06-15

    Dose distributions registered in water equivalent, polymer gel dosimeters were used to measure the output factors and off-axis profiles of the radiosurgical photon beams employed for CyberKnife radiosurgery. Corresponding measurements were also performed using a shielded silicon diode commonly employed for CyberKnife commissioning, the PinPoint ion chamber, and Gafchromic EBT films, for reasons of comparison. Polymer gel results of this work for the output factors of the 5, 7.5, and 10 mm diameter beams are (0.702{+-}0.029), (0.872{+-}0.039), and (0.929{+-}0.041), respectively. Comparison of polymer gel and diode measurements shows that the latter overestimate output factors of the two small beams (5% for the 5 mm beam and 3% for the 7.5 mm beams). This is attributed to the nonwater equivalence of the high atomic number silicon material of the diode detector. On the other hand, the PinPoint chamber is found to underestimate output factors up to 10% for the 5 mm beam due to volume averaging effects. Polymer gel and EBT film output factor results are found in close agreement for all beam sizes, emphasizing the importance of water equivalence and fine detector sensitive volume for small field dosimetry. Relative off-axis profile results are in good agreement for all dosimeters used in this work, with noticeable differences observed only in the PinPoint estimate of the 80%-20% penumbra width, which is relatively overestimated.

  3. Novel composition of polymer gel dosimeters based on N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide for radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Belal; Rabaeh, Khalid A.; Almousa, Akram A.

    2015-07-01

    A new composition of polymer gel dosimeters is developed based on radiation induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 20 Gy. The polymerization occurs and increases with increasing absorbed dose. The dose response of polymer gel dosimeters was studied using nuclear magnetic imaging (NMR) for relaxation rate (R2) of water proton. Dose rate, energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed.

  4. On the mechanical characterization and modeling of polymer gel brain substitute under dynamic rotational loading.

    PubMed

    Fontenier, B; Hault-Dubrulle, A; Drazetic, P; Fontaine, C; Naceur, H

    2016-10-01

    The use of highly sensitive soft materials has become increasingly apparent in the last few years in numerous industrial fields, due to their viscous and damping nature. Unfortunately these materials remain difficult to characterize using conventional techniques, mainly because of the very low internal forces supported by these materials especially under high strain-rates of deformation. The aim of this work is to investigate the dynamic response of a polymer gel brain analog material under specific rotational-impact experiments. The selected polymer gel commercially known as Sylgard 527 has been studied using a specific procedure for its experimental characterization and numerical modeling. At first an indentation experiment was conducted at several loading rates to study the strain rate sensitivity of the Sylgard 527 gel. During the unloading several relaxation tests were performed after indentation, to assess the viscous behavior of the material. A specific numerical procedure based on moving least square approximation and response surface method was then performed to determine adequate robust material parameters of the Sylgard 527 gel. A sensitivity analysis was assessed to confirm the robustness of the obtained material parameters. For the validation of the obtained material model, a second experiment was conducted using a dynamic rotational loading apparatus. It consists of a metallic cylindrical cup filled with the polymer gel and subjected to an eccentric transient rotational impact. Complete kinematics of the cup and the large strains induced in the Sylgard 527 gel, have been recorded at several patterns by means of optical measurement. The whole apparatus was modeled by the Finite Element Method using explicit dynamic time integration available within Ls-dyna(®) software. Comparison between the physical and the numerical models of the Sylgard 527 gel behavior under rotational choc shows excellent agreements. PMID:27341290

  5. Muscle contraction as a polymer-gel phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Gerald H.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper I argue that the mechanism of muscle contraction is similar to the mechanism of contraction in most artificial muscles. Artificial muscles typically contract by a phase- transition. Muscle is thought to contract by a sliding- filament mechanism in which one set of filaments is driven past another by the action of cyclically rotating cross- bridges -- much like the mechanism of rowing. However, the evidence is equally consistent with a mechanism in which the filaments themselves contract, much like the collapse of polymers during a phase-transition. Muscle contains three principal polymer types, organized neatly within a framework. There is evidence that all three can contract. It appears that the relative contributions of each filament are designed to confer strength, speed and versatility on this natural machine. The principles of natural contraction may be useful in establishing optimal design principles for artificial muscles.

  6. Syntheses, crystal structures and properties of two unusual pillared-layer 3d-4f Ln-Cu heterometallic coordination polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Leqing; Wu Jihuai; Huang Yunfang

    2011-09-15

    Two unusual pillared-layer 3d-4f Ln-Cu heterometallic coordination polymers, {l_brace}[Ln{sub 2}Cu{sub 5}Br{sub 4}(IN){sub 7}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (Ln=Eu (1) and Gd (2), HIN=isonicotinic acid), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, thermal analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure determination reveals that 1 and 2 are isostructural and feature a novel three-dimensional pillared-layer hetrometallic structure built upon the linkages of one-dimensional (1D) linear Ln-carboxylate chains, zero-dimensional (0D) Ln-carboxylate Ln{sub 2}(IN){sub 8} dimers, rare 1D zigzag [Cu{sub 5}Br{sub 4}]{sub n} inorganic chains and IN{sup -} pillars. In both 3D structures, there are Ln-carboxylate layers resulted from the connections of 1D Ln-carboxylate chains and 0D Ln{sub 2}(IN){sub 8} dimers through O-H...O hydrogen bondings. The luminescent properties of 1 have been investigated. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have also been studied. - Graphical abstract: Two unusual pillared-layer Eu (Gd)-Cu heterometallic coordination polymers have been hydrothermally synthesized. The luminescent properties of Eu-Cu compound and magnetic properties of both compounds are investigated. Highlights: > Two unusual 3D pillared-layer Eu (Gd)-Cu heterometallic coordination polymers have been synthesized. > 1D and 0D Ln-carboxylate motifs construct layers by O-H...O hydrogen bondings. > In both the structures, there are rare 1D zigzag Cu/Br inorganic chains. > Luminescent properties of Eu-Cu compound and magnetic properties of both the compounds are investigated.

  7. Calibration and conformational studies in radiation dosimetry using polymer gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Richard L.

    2001-11-01

    The polymer gel dosimeter made its debut in the early 90's and dosimetrists and medical physicists alike were excited about the prospect of using the gel dosimeter as an effective and useful three-dimensional modeling tool. Research in the early to mid-90's brought on better polymer mixtures with greater sensitivity and shelf life. Nearly a decade later, these gels are not being used in a clinical setting. The question is, why are they not being routinely used in the clinical setting for modeling and quality assurance of radiation instrumentation and computer generated treatment plans? There are three main reasons and we address these reasons directly in this investigation. First, every promising experiment performed on these gels were done in ideal conditions. The problem ideal experimentation is that the conditions in a clinical setting are unpredictable hence these idealized protocols could not be easily used in practice. Second, attempts to use the gels in clinical settings had mixed results. There was no real consistency with the results based on calibration curves generated by the gel manufacturer and even based on additional calibration studies performed by the medical physicists. Third, there were no consistent and effective calculation programs that were flexible, rigorous, and consistent to use. Due to these main problems, medical physicists have begun to dismiss the gel dosimeter and reverted to traditional 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional verification methods. What we developed in this study is a means to put the polymer gel dosimeter back into the forefront of dosimetry. First, we performed experiments under a clinical setting. Then, we investigated three different calibration methods, including our very own normalized calibration protocol to identify calibration problems and offer up a solution to this problem. Finally, we also generated a good data processing program that is flexible, rigorous, and consistent to use in any setting. In addition to

  8. Polymer gel dosimetry applied to beta particles, electrons and 300 kV X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Md. Nurul

    Polymer gels were used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions for beta particles, electron and x-rays beams that are used in radiotherapy. The manufacturing processes and calibration procedures for two dosimeters (hypoxic PAG and normoxic MAGIC gels) were investigated. The response of both gels was energy independent over a range of electron and photon energies commonly used for radiotherapy. However, dose response of both gels was dependent on the temperature at the time of MR scanning, while MAGIC was also dependent on the temperature at the time of irradiation, which had not been previously reported. Results suggest that MAGIC gel is superior to PAG, since it is easier to manufacture and unaffected by oxygen diffusion through wall materials. The potential usefulness of both types of gel in different areas of radiotherapy was studied, including vascular brachytherapy. Results were compared with doses measured using radio- chromic film, confirming that dose distributions for vascular brachytherapy sources with a high dose gradient can be measured using PAG. However, because of the disadvantages of the gel manufacturing process and the need for access to a high-resolution scanner, it was concluded that radio-chromic film would be the method of choice for routine quality assurance in brachytherapy. PAG and MAGIC gels were also used for dosimetry across the junction of 6MV photon and 12MeV electron fields that are often used in radiotherapy. Different photon field configurations were studied, and dose profiles were measured. For each configuration either significant "hot" or "cold spots" were measured, with good agreement between the MAGIC and PAG and radio- chromic film. This work has confirmed the usefulness of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy in general, and in beta and electron dosimetry in particular. In addition, these studies have quantified the advantages of normoxic gels over the hypoxic PAG.

  9. In-phantom dosimetry for BNCT with Fricke and normoxic-polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambarini, G.; Agosteo, S.; Carrara, M.; Gay, S.; Mariani, M.; Pirola, L.; Vanossi, E.

    2006-05-01

    Measurements of in-phantom dose distributions and images are important for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy treatment planning. The method for spatial determination of absorbed doses in thermal or epithermal neutron fields, based on Fricke-xylenol-orange-infused gel dosimeters in form of layers, has revealed to be very reliable, as gel layer dosimeters give the possibility of obtaining spatial dose distributions and measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields, by means of a properly studied procedure. Quite recently, BNCT has been applied to treat liver metastases; in this work the results of in-phantom dosimetry for explanted liver in BNCT treatments are described. Moreover, polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeters in which a polymerization process appears as a consequence of absorbed dose, have been recently tested, because of their characteristic absence of diffusion. In fact, due to the diffusion of ferric ions, Fricke-gel dosimeters require prompt analysis after exposure to avoid spatial information loss. In this work the preliminary results of a study about the reliability of polymer gel in BNCT dosimetry are also discussed. Gel layers have been irradiated in a phantom exposed in the thermal column of the TRIGA MARK II reactor (Pavia). The results obtained with the two kinds of gel dosimeter have been compared.

  10. Responsive Hydrogels and Ion Gels by Self-Assembly of ABA and ABC Triblock Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Gels - polymeric networks swollen with a substantial amount of solvent - represent a fascinating class of soft materials, with wide-ranging applications in fields as diverse as biomedicine, pharmaceutics, personal care products, foods, sensors, actuators, flexible electronics, oil recovery, and adhesives. Physical gels are held together by non-covalent interactions, which may be as specific as hydrogen bonds, or as general as solvophobic association of insoluble blocks. Among the attractive features of physical gels are reversibility, stimuli-responsiveness, and tunability of macroscopic properties. In this talk two classes of physical gels will be highlighted. In one, the ability of ABC block terpolymers to form novel structures will be demonstrated, where blocks A and C are mutually immiscible and solvophobic, while B is solvophilic. In particular, the formation of gels by sequential association (first A, then C) leads to a remarkably sharp gelation transition, at a relatively low polymer concentration, compared to analogous gels formed from ABA systems. In the second class, gels formed by self-assembly of a variety of ABA systems in ionic liquids will be described, and in particular how gelation can be controlled through factors such as block chemistry, temperature, choice of ionic liquid, and application of light.

  11. Syntheses, structures and properties of four 3D microporous lanthanide coordination polymers based on 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylate and oxalate ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Juan; Wang, Ji-Jiang; Hu, Huai-Ming; Wu, Qing-Ran; Xie, Juan; Dong, Fa-Xin; Yang, Meng-Lin; Xue, Gang-Lin

    2014-04-01

    Four three-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with reversible structural interconversions, [Ln{sub 2}(Hpdc){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O [Ln=Sm (1), Eu (2), Tb (3) and Dy (4)], have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions of lanthanide nitrates with 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylic (H{sub 3}pdc) and oxalic acids. It is noteworthy that there is an in situ reaction in 1, in which H{sub 3}pdc was decomposed into (ox){sup 2−} with Cu(II)–Sm(III) synergistic effect under hydrothermal conditions. These compounds are isostructural and crystallized in the monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c space group. The Ln(III) ions are eight-coordinated with dodecahedron coordination geometry. These polyhedra are linked by oxalate groups to form 1D zigzag chain, which are further connected by 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylate to extend similar 3D frameworks with channels along c-axis in 1–4. These coordination polymers display the characteristic emission bands of the Ln(III) ions in the solid state and possess good thermal stabilities. - Graphical abstract: Four 3D microporous lanthanide coordination polymers with reversible structural interconversion have been synthesized. They exhibit characteristic emission bands of the lanthanide ions and possess great thermal stability. - Highlights: • Four lanthanide coordination polymers have been hydrothermal synthesized. • There is an in situ reaction in 1 in which H{sub 3}pdc was decomposed into (ox){sup 2−} with the Cu(II)–Sm(III) synergistic effect under hydrothermal conditions. • TGA and XRD studies reveal that upon hydration–dehydration, compounds 1–4 undergo a reversible structural interconversion process through a cooling-heating cycle. • Compounds 1–4 exhibit characteristic lanthanide-centered luminescence.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc(II)-phosphonate coordination polymers with different dimensionality (0D, 2D, 3D) and dimensionality change in the solid phase (0D→3D) induced by temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Zapico, Eva; Montejo-Bernardo, Jose; Fernández-González, Alfonso; García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-05-01

    Three new zinc(II) coordination polymers, [Zn(HO3PCH2CH2COO)(C12H8N2)(H2O)] (1), [Zn3(O3PCH2CH2COO)2(C12H8N2)](H2O)3.40 (2) and [Zn5(HO3PCH2CH2COO)2(O3PCH2CH2COO)2(C12H8N2)4](H2O)0.32 (3), with different structural dimensionality (0D, 2D and 3D, respectively) have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system (P21/c) forming discrete dimeric units bonded through H-bonds, while compounds 2 and 3 crystallize in the triclinic (P-1) and the monoclinic (C2/c) systems, respectively. Compound 3, showing three different coordination numbers (4, 5 and 6) for the zinc atoms, has also been obtained by thermal treatment of 1 (probed by high-temperature XRPD experiments). The crystalline features of these compounds, related to the coordination environments for the zinc atoms in each structure, provoke the increase of the relative fluorescence for 2 and 3, compared to the free phenanthroline. Thermal analysis (TG and DSC) and XPS studies have been also carried out for all compounds.

  13. Investigation of the PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venning, A. J.; Hill, B.; Brindha, S.; Healy, B. J.; Baldock, C.

    2005-08-01

    Investigation of the normoxic PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter has been undertaken. The concentrations of the chemical components of the gel were varied and its response to ionizing radiation evaluated. Using MRI, the formulation to give the maximum change in the transverse relaxation rate R2 was determined to be 4.5% N, N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (bis), 4.5% acrylamide (AA), 5% gelatine, 5 mM tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC), 0.01 mM hydroquinone (HQ) and 86% H2O. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post-irradiation imaging times were both determined to be 12 h. The R2-dose response was linear up to 7 Gy with R2-dose sensitivities of (0.183 ± 0.005) s-1 Gy-1, (0.182 ± 0.005) s-1 Gy-1 and (0.192 ± 0.005) s-1 Gy-1 when imaged at 12 h, 7 days and 24 days post-irradiation, respectively. The R2-dose sensitivities were within the range of previously published values for the hypoxic PAG formulations. For the imaging parameters used in this study the optimum dose resolution was achieved for low doses. The normalized R2 edge response showed a high degree of spatial stability over a 24 day period. This study has shown that the normoxic PAGAT polymer gel has the properties of a dosimetric tool, which can be used in clinical radiotherapy. The PAGAT polymer gel has been shown to have similar qualities to the PAG polymer gel, while offering the significant advantage of simplification of the manufacturing procedure.

  14. Amino resin modified xanthan polymer gels for permeability profile control

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.

    1988-01-05

    A process for closing pores in a hydrocarbonaceous fluid bearing formation to obtain improved sweep efficiency during a water flood oil recovery operation wherein the process comprises injecting into the formation a gellable composition is described comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross linkable polysaccharide biopolymer having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the biopolymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in the formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  15. Development of an on-column affinity smart polymer gel glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2011-06-10

    An on-column affinity smart polymer gel glucose sensor was developed as a non-enzymatic glucose sensor. A copolymer of 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid and acrylamide, the so called "smart polymer", was synthesized in situ in a 5 cm long capillary tube with a detection window to provide the on-column detection. The optical density of this semitransparent affinity smart polymer gel, coated inside the tube, decreased with increasing glucose concentration and was detected using a UV-vis detector at 500 nm. The capillary tube was incorporated into a flow injection system. Under optimum conditions, a linear dynamic range of 0.5-16.0mM with a limit of detection of 0.5mM (S/N ≥ 3) was obtained. A single coated affinity smart polymer gel had good stability for up to 250 consecutive injections with relative standard deviation of less than 5%. The analysis time for each injection was 6 min. Ten glucose samples prepared in distilled water were analyzed by the developed method and the results compared well with those obtained from the conventional dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method (P>0.05). Real urine samples with known glucose levels were analyzed and the developed sensor provided comparable results to those from the normal strip test technique. Acceptable percentage recoveries, ranging from 88 ± 2% to 103 ± 4% from the spiked urine sample, were obtained. PMID:21601037

  16. Highly compliant shape memory polymer gels for tunable damping and reversible adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozek, Randy A.; Berg, Michael C.; Gold, Christopher S.; Leighliter, Brad; Morton, Jeffrey T.; Lenhart, Joseph L.

    2016-02-01

    Materials that can dynamically change their properties to better adapt to the local environment have potential utility in robotics, aerospace, and coatings. For some of these applications, most notably robotics, it is advantageous for these responsive materials to be highly compliant in an effort to provide dynamic changes in adhesion and mechanical damping within a broad temperature operational environment. In this report, non-aqueous, highly compliant shape-memory polymer gels are developed by incorporating a low density of chemical cross-links into a physically cross-linked thermoplastic elastomer gel. Chemical cross-linkers were evaluated by varying there size and degree of functionality to determine the impact on the mechanical and adhesive properties. As a result of the chemical cross-linking, the gels exhibit modulus plateaus around room temperature and at elevated temperatures above 100 °C, where the thermoplastic elastomer gel typically melts. The materials were designed so that moduli in the plateaued regions were above and below the Dahlquist criteria of 4 × 104 Pa, respectively, where materials with a modulus below this value typically exhibit an increase in adhesion. The shape memory polymer gels were also integrated into fiber-reinforced composites to determine the temperature-dependent changes in mechanical damping. It is anticipated that this work will provide insight into materials design to provide dynamic changes in adhesion and damping to improve robotic appendage manipulation and platform mobility.

  17. Application of polymer gels for profile modification and sweep improvement of gas flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Raible, C.; Zhu, T.

    1992-12-01

    Early CO{sub 2} breakthrough can be a serious problem during miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2} flooding of reservoirs with heterogeneous formations. One potential method to reduce the problem of gas channeling is the use of a gel to restrict flow of fluids into the high-permeability zones. This study included evaluation of several different candidates for their potential as gelled polymer treatments for in situ profile modification. The objective of gel treatments is to restrict flow through fractures and high permeability zones without significantly damaging the adjacent oil productive zones. This involves injection of viscous polymer solution, hopefully into a high-permeability zone. In this study, layered sandpacks were used to show the effect of gelant mobility on gel penetration and placement. X-ray computerized tomography (CT) was used to visualize the flow path of the injected gelant and the location of gel placement. A conventional gel of xanthan and Cr(III) as a crosslinking agent was used for experimental model studies. The results of experimental model studies demonstrated the effects of viscous crossflow which may damage the oil productive strata. More specifically these studies of layered models showed that unless there is a very high-permeability contrast, such as a fractured zone, a considerable volume of viscous crossflow will occur with damage to oil productive strata. These results indicated the need for injection and placement of a low viscosity gelant prior to gelation.

  18. Application of polymer gels for profile modification and sweep improvement of gas flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Raible, C.; Zhu, T.

    1992-12-01

    Early CO[sub 2] breakthrough can be a serious problem during miscible and immiscible CO[sub 2] flooding of reservoirs with heterogeneous formations. One potential method to reduce the problem of gas channeling is the use of a gel to restrict flow of fluids into the high-permeability zones. This study included evaluation of several different candidates for their potential as gelled polymer treatments for in situ profile modification. The objective of gel treatments is to restrict flow through fractures and high permeability zones without significantly damaging the adjacent oil productive zones. This involves injection of viscous polymer solution, hopefully into a high-permeability zone. In this study, layered sandpacks were used to show the effect of gelant mobility on gel penetration and placement. X-ray computerized tomography (CT) was used to visualize the flow path of the injected gelant and the location of gel placement. A conventional gel of xanthan and Cr(III) as a crosslinking agent was used for experimental model studies. The results of experimental model studies demonstrated the effects of viscous crossflow which may damage the oil productive strata. More specifically these studies of layered models showed that unless there is a very high-permeability contrast, such as a fractured zone, a considerable volume of viscous crossflow will occur with damage to oil productive strata. These results indicated the need for injection and placement of a low viscosity gelant prior to gelation.

  19. A Comprehensive Evaluation of NIPAM Polymer Gel Dosimeters on Three Orthogonal Planes and Temporal Stability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Cheng-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters have been proven useful for dose evaluation in radiotherapy treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated that using a polymer gel dosimeter requires a 24 h reaction time to stabilize and further evaluate the measured dose distribution in two-dimensional dosimetry. In this study, the short-term stability within 24 h and feasibility of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel dosimeters for use in three-dimensional dosimetry were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). NIPAM gels were used to measure the dose volume in a clinical case of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). For dose readouts, MR images of irradiated NIPAM gel phantoms were acquired at 2, 5, 12, and 24 h after dose delivery. The mean standard errors of dose conversion from using dose calibration curves (DRC) were calculated. The measured dose volumes at the four time points were compared with those calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS). The mean standard errors of the dose conversion from using the DRCs were lower than 1 Gy. Mean pass rates of 2, 5, 12, and 24 h axial dose maps calculated using gamma evaluation with 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria were 83.5% ± 0.9%, 85.9% ± 0.6%, 98.7% ± 0.3%, and 98.5% ± 0.9%, respectively. Compared with the dose volume histogram of the TPS, the absolute mean relative volume differences of the 2, 5, 12, and 24 h measured dose volumes were lower than 1% for the irradiated region with an absorbed dose higher than 2.8 Gy. It was concluded that a 12 h reaction time was sufficient to acquire accurate dose volume using the NIPAM gels with MR readouts. PMID:27192217

  20. Three-dimensional dose verification of the clinical application of gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery using polymer gel and MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiannis, P.; Karaiskos, P.; Kozicki, M.; Rosiak, J. M.; Sakelliou, L.; Sandilos, P.; Seimenis, I.; Torrens, M.

    2005-05-01

    This work seeks to verify multi-shot clinical applications of stereotactic radiosurgery with a Leksell Gamma Knife model C unit employing a polymer gel-MRI based experimental procedure, which has already been shown to be capable of verifying the precision and accuracy of dose delivery in single-shot gamma knife applications. The treatment plan studied in the present work resembles a clinical treatment case of pituitary adenoma using four 8 mm and one 14 mm collimator helmet shots to deliver a prescription dose of 15 Gy to the 50% isodose line (30 Gy maximum dose). For the experimental dose verification of the treatment plan, the same criteria as those used in the clinical treatment planning evaluation were employed. These included comparison of measured and GammaPlan calculated data, in terms of percentage isodose contours on axial, coronal and sagittal planes, as well as 3D plan evaluation criteria such as dose-volume histograms for the target volume, target coverage and conformity indices. Measured percentage isodose contours compared favourably with calculated ones despite individual point fluctuations at low dose contours (e.g., 20%) mainly due to the effect of T2 measurement uncertainty on dose resolution. Dose-volume histogram data were also found in a good agreement while the experimental results for the percentage target coverage and conformity index were 94% and 1.17 relative to corresponding GammaPlan calculations of 96% and 1.12, respectively. Overall, polymer gel results verified the planned dose distribution within experimental uncertainties and uncertainty related to the digitization process of selected GammaPlan output data.

  1. Polymer Coatings in 3D-Printed Fluidic Device Channels for Improved Cellular Adherence Prior to Electrical Lysis.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bethany C; Anderson, Kari B; Meisel, Jayda E; McNitt, Megan I; Spence, Dana M

    2015-06-16

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a polyjet-based three-dimensional (3D)-printed fluidic device where poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) or polystyrene (PS) were used to coat the sides of a fluidic channel within the device to promote adhesion of an immobilized cell layer. The device was designed using computer-aided design software and converted into an .STL file prior to printing. The rigid, transparent material used in the printing process provides an optically transparent path to visualize endothelial cell adherence and supports integration of removable electrodes for electrical cell lysis in a specified portion of the channel (1 mm width × 0.8 mm height × 2 mm length). Through manipulation of channel geometry, a low-voltage power source (500 V max) was used to selectively lyse adhered endothelial cells in a tapered region of the channel. Cell viability was maintained on the device over a 5 day period (98% viable), though cell coverage decreased after day 4 with static media delivery. Optimal lysis potentials were obtained for the two fabricated device geometries, and selective cell clearance was achieved with cell lysis efficiencies of 94 and 96%. The bottleneck of unknown surface properties from proprietary resin use in fabricating 3D-printed materials is overcome through techniques to incorporate PDMS and PS. PMID:25973637

  2. Faraday waves on finite thickness smectic A liquid crystal and polymer gel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ovando-Vazquez, C.; Rodriguez, O. Vazquez; Hernandez-Contreras, M.

    2008-11-13

    We studied with linear stability theory the Faraday waves on the surface of a smectic A liquid crystal and polymer gel-vapor systems of finite thicknesses. Model smectic A material exhibits alternating subharmonic-harmonic patterns of stability curves in a plot of driving acceleration versus wave number. For the case of highly viscoelastic gel media there are coexisting surface modes of harmonic and subharmonic types that correspond to peaks in the plot of the critical acceleration as a function of wave frequency. Larger frequencies lead to subsequent peaks of coexisting subharmonic waves only.

  3. Modeling of mesoscale dispersion effect on the piezoresistivity of carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites via 3D computational multiscale micromechanics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiang; Chaurasia, Adarsh K.; Oliva-Avilés, Andrés I.; Ku-Herrera, José J.; Seidel, Gary D.; Avilés, Francis

    2015-06-01

    In uniaxial tension and compression experiments, carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer nanocomposites have demonstrated exceptional mechanical and coupled electrostatic properties in the form of piezoresistivity. In order to better understand the correlation of the piezoresistive response with the CNT dispersion at the mesoscale, a 3D computational multiscale micromechanics model based on finite element analysis is constructed to predict the effective macroscale piezoresistive response of CNT/polymer nanocomposites. The key factors that may contribute to the overall piezoresistive response, i.e. the nanoscale electrical tunneling effect, the inherent CNT piezoresistivity and the CNT mesoscale network effect are incorporated in the model based on a 3D multiscale mechanical-electrostatic coupled code. The results not only explain how different nanoscale mechanisms influence the overall macroscale piezoresistive response through the mesoscale CNT network, but also give reason and provide bounds for the wide range of gauge factors found in the literature offering insight regarding how control of the mesoscale CNT networks can be used to tailor nanocomposite piezoresistive response.

  4. Enhancing Osteoconductivity of Fibrin Gels with Apatite-Coated Polymer Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Hillary E.; Binder, Bernard Y.K.; Schaecher, Phillip; Yakoobinsky, Dana D.; Bhat, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin gels are a promising material for use in promoting bone repair and regeneration due to their ease of implant formation, tailorability, biocompatibility, and degradation by natural processes. However, these materials lack necessary osteoconductivity to nucleate calcium, integrate with surrounding bone, and promote bone formation. Polymeric substrata formed from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) are widely used in bone tissue engineering. A carbonated apatite layer of bone-like mineral can be successfully grown on the surface of PLG microspheres after a multiday incubation process in modified simulated body fluid. Such coatings improve the osteoconductivity of the polymer, provide nucleation sites for cell-secreted calcium, and enhance the potential osseointegration with host tissue. We examined the capacity of mineralized polymeric microspheres suspended within fibrin hydrogels to enhance the osteoconductivity of fibrin gels and increase the osteogenic potential of these materials. The inclusion of microparticles, both nonmineralized and mineralized, reduced the capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to contract the gel. When cultured in osteogenic media, we detected a near linear increase in both calcium and phosphate incorporation in gels containing mineralized microspheres and entrapped MSCs. The osteoconductivity of acellular fibrin gels with mineralized and nonmineralized microspheres was assessed in a rodent calvarial bone defect over 12 weeks. Compared to untreated rodent calvarial bone defects, we detected significant increases in early vascularization when treated with fibrin gels, with greater vascularization, on average, occurring with gels containing microspheres. We detected a trend for increased bone mineral density in gels containing mineralized microspheres after 12 weeks. These findings demonstrate that the osteoconductivity of fibrin gels can be increased by inclusion of mineralized microspheres, but additional signals may be required to

  5. Structural variation from 1D to 3D: effects of ligands and solvents on the construction of lead(II)-organic coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Guo-Dong; Cao, Jun-Jun; Yue, Qi; Li, Guang-Hua; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    A series of Pb(II) coordination polymers [Pb(ndc)(dpp)] (1), [Pb(ndc)(ptcp)].0.5 H2O (2), [Pb(ndc)(dppz)] (3), [Pb(ndc)(tcpn)(2)] (4), [Pb2(ndc)2(tcpp)] (5), [Pb(Hndc)2].H2O (6), [Pb(ndc)(dma)] (7), [Pb(bdc)(dma)] (8), [Pb(trans-chdc)(H2O)] (9), and [Pb2(cis-chdc)2].NH(CH3)2 (10), where ndc=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate, dpp=4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, ptcp=2-phenyl-1H-1,3,7,8-tetraazacyclopenta[l]phenanthrene, dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, tcpn=2-(1H-1,3,7,8-tetraazacyclopenta[l]phenanthren-2-yl)naphthol, tcpp=4-(1H-1,3,7,8-tetraazacyclopenta[l]phenanthren-2-yl)phenol, dma=N,N-dimethylacetamide, bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, and chdc=1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate, have been synthesized from a hydrothermal or solvothermal reaction system by varying the ligands or the solvents. Compounds 1-5 crystallize with an N-donor chelating ligand and an aromatic dicarboxylate linker. Compounds 1-4 are 1D polymers with different pi-pi stacking interactions, whereas compound 5 consists of 2D layers. The structures of compounds 7, 8, and 10 are 3D frameworks formed by connection of the Pb(II) centers by organic acid ligands. Compound 7 is chiral although the ndc ligand is achiral, while the framework of 8 is a typical 3D (3,4)-connected net. Compound 10 is the first example of Pb(II) wheel cluster [Pb(8)O(8)] units bridged by carboxylate groups. Compound 6 contains 1D chains which are further extended to a 3D structure by pi-pi interactions. Compound 9 consists of a 2D network constructed by Pb(II) centers and trans-chdc ligands. The structural differences between 7 and 8 and between 9 and 10 indicate the importance of solvents for framework formation of the coordination polymers. By varying the solvent the cis and trans conformations of H(2)chdc in 9 and 10 were separated completely. The photoluminescence and nonlinear optical properties of the coordination polymers have also been investigated. PMID:17212363

  6. Novel polythreaded coordination polymer: from an armed-polyrotaxane sheet to a 3D polypseudorotaxane array, photo- and thermochromic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qing-Xia; Ju, Zhan-Feng; Jin, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Jie

    2009-02-16

    A novel coordination compound, {[Cd(BDC)(Bpybc)(1.5)].10H(2)O}(n), obtained by the reaction of CdCl(2) with 1,1'-bis(4-carboxybenzyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride (H(2)BpybcCl(2)) and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H(2)BDC), contains 1D polymeric chains that are comprised of alternating rings and rods and dangling lateral arms. These 1D polymeric motifs are interlaced via rotaxane-like mechanical linkages to give 2D armed-polyrotaxane sheets, which are further mutually polythreaded via pseudorotaxane-like mechanical linkages to form a 3D polypseudorotaxane array. Notably, a sandwich-type donor-acceptor-donor stacking is formed within each ring as a consequence of both types of polythreading in this species, and photoinduced and thermal-induced reduction of bipyridinium occurs with a color change from light yellow to blue. PMID:19166285

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc(II)-phosphonate coordination polymers with different dimensionality (0D, 2D, 3D) and dimensionality change in the solid phase (0D→3D) induced by temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Zapico, Eva; Montejo-Bernardo, Jose; Fernández-González, Alfonso; García, José R. García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-05-15

    Three new zinc(II) coordination polymers, [Zn(HO{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO)(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)] (1), [Zn{sub 3}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})](H{sub 2}O){sub 3.40} (2) and [Zn{sub 5}(HO{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2}){sub 4}](H{sub 2}O){sub 0.32} (3), with different structural dimensionality (0D, 2D and 3D, respectively) have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system (P2{sub 1}/c) forming discrete dimeric units bonded through H-bonds, while compounds 2 and 3 crystallize in the triclinic (P−1) and the monoclinic (C2/c) systems, respectively. Compound 3, showing three different coordination numbers (4, 5 and 6) for the zinc atoms, has also been obtained by thermal treatment of 1 (probed by high-temperature XRPD experiments). The crystalline features of these compounds, related to the coordination environments for the zinc atoms in each structure, provoke the increase of the relative fluorescence for 2 and 3, compared to the free phenanthroline. Thermal analysis (TG and DSC) and XPS studies have been also carried out for all compounds. - Graphical abstract: Three new coordination compounds of zinc with 2-carboxyethylphosphonic acid (H{sub 2}PPA) and phenanthroline have been obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. The crystalline structure depends on the different coordination environments of the zinc atoms (see two comparative Zn{sub 6}-moieties). The influence of the different coordination modes of H{sub 2}PPA with the central atom in all structures have been studied, being found new coordination modes for this ligand. Several compounds show a significant increase in relative fluorescence with respect to the free phenanthroline. - Highlights: • Compounds have been obtained modifying the reaction time and the rate of

  8. Polymer gel dosimetry for neutron beam in the Neutron Exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, H.; Sato, H.; Hamano, T.; Suda, M.; Yoshii, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether gel dosimetry could be used to measure neutron beams. We irradiated a BANG3-type polymer gel dosimeter using neutron beams in the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. First, the polymer gels were irradiated from 0 to 7.0 Gy to investigate the dose-R2 responses. Irradiated gels were evaluated using 1.5-T magnetic resonance R2 images. Second, the polymer gels were irradiated to 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 Gy to acquire a depth-R2 response curve. The dose-R2 response curve was linear up to approximately 7 Gy, with a slope of 1.25 Gy-1·s-1. Additionally, compared with the photon- irradiated gels, the neutron-irradiated gels had lower R2 values. The acquired depth-R2 curves of the central axis from the 3.0- and 5.0-Gy neutron dose-irradiated gels exhibited an initial build-up. Although, a detailed investigation is needed, polymer gel dosimetry is effective for measuring the dose-related R2 linearity and depth-R2 relationships of neutron beams.

  9. Studies of plastic crystal gel polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambali, D.; Zainuddin, Z.; Supa'at, I.; Osman, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we have prepared systems of poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile) (PVdC-co-AN) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which are single plasticized-GPEs and double plasticized-GPEs. Both systems comprised plastic crystal succinonitrile SN to form plastic crystal gel polymer electrolyte (PGPE) films. The ionic conductivity of the PGPE films were analysed by means of a.c. impedance spectroscopy at room temperature as well as at the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K. The temperature dependence ionic conductivity was found to obey the VTF rule. To study the interactions among the constituents in the PGPEs, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out and hence, the complexation between them has also been confirmed.

  10. Radiological characteristics of MRI-based VIP polymer gel under carbon beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeyama, T.; Fukunishi, N.; Ishikawa, K. L.; Furuta, T.; Fukasaku, K.; Takagi, S.; Noda, S.; Himeno, R.; Fukuda, S.

    2015-02-01

    We study the radiological characteristics of VIP polymer gel dosimeters under carbon beam irradiation with energy of 135 and 290 AMeV. To evaluate dose response of VIP polymer gels, the transverse (or spin-spin) relaxation rate R2 of the dosimeters measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), rather than penetration depth, as is usually done in previous reports. LET is evaluated by use of the particle transport simulation code PHITS. Our results reveal that the dose response decreases with increasing dose-averaged LET and that the dose response-LET relation also varies with incident carbon beam energy. The latter can be explained by taking into account the contribution from fragmentation products.

  11. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G.

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P13TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li imide salt (LiTFSI) in P13TFSI ionic liquid and then mixing the electrolyte solution with poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. Adding small amounts of ethylene carbonate to the polymer gel electrolytes dramatically improves the ionic conductivity, net Li ion transport concentration, and Li ion transport kinetics of these electrolytes. They are thus favorable and offer good prospects in the application to rechargeable Li batteries including open systems like Li/air batteries, as well as more “conventional” rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. PMID:20354587

  12. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-04-03

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.

  13. Five novel transition metal coordination polymers with 2D/3D framework structure based on flexible H{sub 2}tzda and ancillary ligand bpe

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuting; Xu Yan; Fan Yaoting; Hou Hongwei

    2009-10-15

    Five new transition metal coordination polymers based on H{sub 2}tzda and co-ligand bpe, {l_brace}[M(tzda)(bpe)].H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} [M=Zn(1), Cd(2), Mn(3), Co(4)] and [Ni{sub 2}(tzda){sub 2}(bpe){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (5) [H{sub 2}tzda=(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-diyldithio)diacetic acid, bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane], have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Compounds 1-4 feature a 2D-layered architecture generated from [M(tzda)]{sub n} moiety with double-chain structure cross-linking bpe spacers. However, the conformations bpe adopts in 3 and 4 are different from those in 1 and 2 due to the rotation of C-C single bond in bpe. Polymer 5 exhibits an interesting 3D porous framework with 2-fold interpenetration, in which intriguing 1D double helix chains are observed. The photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 in the solid-state at room temperature are investigated. In addition, variable-temperature magnetic data show weak antiferromagnetic behavior in 3-5. - Graphical abstract: Five new transition metal coordination polymers based on flexible H{sub 2}tzda and bpe have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, luminescent emission spectra and low-temperature magnetic measurements, respectively.

  14. 3D printed titanium micro-bore columns containing polymer monoliths for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vipul; Talebi, Mohammad; Deverell, Jeremy; Sandron, Sara; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Heery, Brendan; Thompson, Fletcher; Beirne, Stephen; Wallace, Gordon G; Paull, Brett

    2016-03-01

    The potential of 3D selective laser melting (SLM) technology to produce compact, temperature and pressure stable titanium alloy chromatographic columns is explored. A micro bore channel (0.9 mm I.D. × 600 mm long) was produced within a 5 × 30 × 30 mm titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) cuboid, in form of a double handed spiral. A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate) (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic stationary phase was thermally polymerised within the channel for application in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The prepared monolithic column was applied to the liquid chromatographic separation of intact proteins and peptides. Peak capacities of 69-76 (for 6-8 proteins respectively) were observed during isothermal separation of proteins at 44 °C which were further increased to 73-77 using a thermal step gradient with programmed temperature from 60 °C to 35 °C using an in-house built direct-contact heater/cooler platform based upon matching sized Peltier thermoelectric modules. Rapid temperature gradients were possible due to direct-contact between the planar metal column and the Peltier module, and the high thermal conductivity of the titanium column as compared to a similar stainless steel printed column. The separation of peptides released from a digestion of E.coli was also achieved in less than 35 min with ca. 40 distinguishable peaks at 210 nm. PMID:26873472

  15. Detection of human genome mutations associated with pregnancy complications using 3-D microarray based on macroporous polymer monoliths.

    PubMed

    Glotov, A S; Sinitsyna, E S; Danilova, M M; Vashukova, E S; Walter, J G; Stahl, F; Baranov, V S; Vlakh, E G; Tennikova, T B

    2016-01-15

    Analysis of variations in DNA structure using a low-density microarray technology for routine diagnostic in evidence-based medicine is still relevant. In this work the applicability of 3-D macroporous monolithic methacrylate-based platforms for detection of different pathogenic genomic substitutions was studied. The detection of nucleotide replacements in F5 (Leiden G/A, rs6025), MTHFR (C/T, rs1801133) and ITGB3 (T/C, rs5918), involved in coagulation, and COMT (C/G, rs4818), TPH2 (T/A, rs11178997), PON1 (T/A rs854560), AGTR2 (C/A, rs11091046) and SERPINE1 (5G/4G, rs1799889), associated with pregnancy complications, was performed. The effect of such parameters as amount and type of oligonucleotide probe, amount of PCR product on signal-to-noise ratio, as well as mismatch discrimination was analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of mutation detections were coincided and equal to 98.6%. The analysis of SERPINE1 and MTHFR genotypes by both NGS and developed microarray was performed and compared. PMID:26592644

  16. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability

  17. A mathematical model to predict extraction behavior of metal ions between a polymer gel and an aqueous phase

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Kenji

    1999-03-01

    A mathematical model to predict the extraction behavior of metal ion between a polymer gel and an aqueous solution was proposed. It consists of the Flory-Huggins formula for evaluating thermodynamically the physico-chemical properties of polymer gel, the modified Stokes-Einstein equation to evaluate the mass transfer rate of metal ion into polymer gel and the equation to evaluate the extraction equilibrium. The extraction of lanthanide elements, Nd(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III), from an aqueous solution containing nitrate ion was carried out by the use of SDB (styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer) gel swollen with a bidentate organophosphorus compound, CMP (dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylpohosphonate). The binary extraction and the effect of the crosslinking degree of SDB gel on the extraction rate were examined. These experimental results were in agreement with the predictions calculated by the proposed model. It was confirmed that the extraction behavior of lanthanide ions into the SDB gel was predicted accurately, when the physico-chemical properties of SDB gel, such as the affinity between SDB and CMP ({chi}) and the crosslinking degree ({nu}{sub e}), and a coefficient defined in the modified Stokes-Einstein equation (K{sub 0}) were known. This model is available as a tool to design an extraction chromatographic process using polymer gel.

  18. The application of polymer gel dosimeters to dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Gear, J I; Flux, G D; Charles-Edwards, E; Partridge, M; Cook, G; Ott, R J

    2006-07-21

    There is a lack of standardized methodology to perform dose calculations for targeted radionuclide therapy and at present no method exists to objectively evaluate the various approaches employed. The aim of the work described here was to investigate the practicality and accuracy of calibrating polymer gel dosimeters such that dose measurements resulting from complex activity distributions can be verified. Twelve vials of the polymer gel dosimeter, 'MAGIC', were uniformly mixed with varying concentrations of P-32 such that absorbed doses ranged from 0 to 30 Gy after a period of 360 h before being imaged on a magnetic resonance scanner. In addition, nine vials were prepared and irradiated using an external 6 MV x-ray beam. Magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time, T2, maps were obtained using a multi-echo spin echo sequence and converted to R2 maps (where T2 = 1/R2). Absorbed doses for P-32 irradiated gel were calculated according to the medical internal radiation dose schema using EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations. Here the energy deposited in cylinders representing the irradiated vials was scored. A relationship between dose and R(2) was determined. Effects from oxygen contamination were present in the internally irradiated vials. An increase in O2 sensitivity over those gels irradiated externally was thought to be a result of the longer irradiation period. However, below the region of contamination dose response appeared homogenous. Due do a drop-off of dose at the periphery of the internally irradiated vials, magnetic resonance ringing artefacts were observed. The ringing did not greatly affect the accuracy of calibration, which was comparable for both methods. The largest errors in calculated dose originated from the initial activity measurements, and were approximately 10%. Measured R2 values ranged from 5-35 s(-1) with an average standard deviation of 1%. A clear relationship between R2 and dose was observed, with up to 40% increased sensitivity for

  19. Huperzine A-phospholipid complex-loaded biodegradable thermosensitive polymer gel for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoqing; Luan, Yuxia; Jiang, Yue; Song, Aixin; Shao, Wei; Li, Zhonghao; Zhao, Zhongxi

    2012-08-20

    The huperzine A-phospholipid complex loaded biodegradable thermosensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA polymer gel was studied as injectable implant system for controlled release of huperzine-A (HA). First, HA molecules were successfully incorporated into the soybean phosphatidylcholine (SP) molecules to form the huperzine-A-soybean phosphatidylcholine complexes (HA-SPC), which was proved by FT-IR, DSC, XRD, solubility study, TEM, etc. The results indicated that hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interaction between HA and SP molecules play an important role in the formation of HA-SPC. Secondly, the HA-SPC was loaded into biodegradable PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermosensitive gel as injectable implant material to control the release of HA. The in vitro and in vivo drug release behaviors of the prepared products were studied. The in vitro release studies demonstrated that the HA-SPC-loaded gel significantly reduced the initial burst of drug release and extended the release period to about 2 weeks. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study of HA-SPC-loaded gel in rabbits showed that plasma concentration of HA (2.54-0.15ng/mL) was detected for nearly 2 weeks from delivery systems upon single subcutaneous injection. What's more, the in vitro release pattern correlated well with the in vivo pharmacokinetics profile. The present study indicates that HA-SPC loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermal gel may be an attractive candidate vehicle for controlled HA release. PMID:22583846

  20. Development of cellulosic polymer based gel of novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate for buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Sinha, Priyam; Mishra, Nidhi; Luqman, Suaib; Dwivedi, Harinath; Kymonil, Koshy M; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2014-03-15

    Aim of the present investigation was to develop cellulosic polymer based mucoadhesive antifungal gel comprising novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate (MN) for buccal delivery. Crosslinking of gel was made by adjusting pH with triethanolamine (TEA) and gel formulation was optimized on the basis of flux of MN (0.562-1.751 mg/cm(2)/h) calculated from ex vivo permeation study. Based on statistically validated polynomial equation and plotted response surfaces, B17 was found to be the optimum batch. Texture profile in terms of adhesiveness (3.24 ± 0.012 g), firmness (10.83 ± 0.067 g), spreadability (3.63 ± 0.033 mJ) and extrudability (35.6 ± 0.1 mJ) of B17 was evaluated using a novel instrumental approach. The texture parameters were found to be consistent over 90 days. Ternary mixture containing gel showed broader zone of growth inhibition (32.67-47.33 mm) in comparison to marketed formulation containing pure MN (17.50-40.33 mm) against selected strains of fungi. In conclusion, consistent and effective mucoadhesive antifungal gel of MN with extended residence time in oral mucosa was developed. PMID:24528709

  1. Organic carboxylate ligands tuned structural variations of two new Cd(II) coordination polymers: From 2D layer to 3D framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chang-Wei; Li, Jing; Liu, Yan-Wu; Li, Xia; Yuan, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    Two new Cd(II) coordination polymers, namely [Cd(4,4‧-sdb) (biimpy)]n·1.5n(H2O) (1) and [Cd2(Htci)2(biimpy)2]n (2) (4,4‧-H2sdb = 4,4‧-sulfonyldibenzoate, H3tci = tri(2-carboxyethyl)isocyanurate and biimpy = 2,6-bis(1-imdazoly)pyridine), have been synthesized by the hydrothermal reactions of Cd(NO3)2 and the mixed ligands of 4,4‧-H2sdb and biimpy or H3tci and biimpy. Single crystal X-ray structural analyses reveal that compound 1 features a 2D layered structure with 3-connected topology, and compound 2 features a 3D framework with 6-connected 6T8 topology. In addition, the thermal stabilities and luminescent properties of compounds 1 and 2 were also investigated.

  2. A Step-by-Step Assembly of a 3D Coordination Polymer in the Solid-State by Desolvation and [2+2] Cycloaddition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Medishetty, Raghavender; Tandiana, Rika; Wu, Jien; Bai, Zhaozhi; Du, Yonghua; Vittal, Jagadese J

    2015-08-17

    Two solid-state structural transformations that occur in a stepwise and a controlled manner are described. A combination of desolvation and cycloaddition reactions has been employed to synthesise a 3D coordination polymer (CP) from 1D CP [Cd(bdc)(4-spy)2 (H2 O)]⋅2 H2 O⋅2 DMF (bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, 4-spy=4-styrylpyridine) presumably via a 2D layered structure, [Cd2 (bdc)2 (4-spy)4 ]. In the absence of single crystals to follow the course of the photocycloaddition reaction, thermogravimetry, XAFS and NOESY NMR experiments were used to propose the formation of layered and pillared layered structures. Further, the present strategy enables us to synthesise new multidimensional architectures that are otherwise inaccessible by the self-assembly process. PMID:26150356

  3. Graphene Oxide-Based Electrode Inks for 3D-Printed Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Wang, Yibo; Yan, Chaoyi; Yao, Yonggang; Chen, Yanan; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven; Wang, Yanbin; Wan, Jiayu; Li, Tian; Wang, Zhengyang; Xu, Yue; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-04-01

    All-component 3D-printed lithium-ion batteries are fabricated by printing graphene-oxide-based composite inks and solid-state gel polymer electrolyte. An entirely 3D-printed full cell features a high electrode mass loading of 18 mg cm(-2) , which is normalized to the overall area of the battery. This all-component printing can be extended to the fabrication of multidimensional/multiscale complex-structures of more energy-storage devices. PMID:26833897

  4. Synthesis, structure and properties of a 3D plywood-like nickel(II) hexaazamacrocyclic coordination polymer constructed from weak Ni\\ctdot O interactions and hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Jiang, Xiang; Xia, Hua; Cheng, Hefa

    2012-03-01

    A 3D plywood-like nickel(II) hexaazamacrocyclic coordination polymer {[Ni(hto)(H2btec]}n (2) (hto = 1,3,6,9,11,14-hexaazatricyclo[12.2.1.16,9]octadecane, H4btec = 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid) was synthesized by a slow diffusion method and characterized by X-ray crystallography and spectroscopic methods. The structure of 2 is made up of [Ni(hto)]2+ cation and H2btec2- anion in a molecular ratio of 1:1. The nickel(II) ions in the complex are bridged by the H2btec2- ligand based on weak Ni⋯O coordination interactions to form a 1D chain. The alternate cross-like 1D chains are packed in a plywood-like structure and interconnected with each other by hydrogen bonding to form a 3D network. Complex 2 exhibits fluorescent emission in the solid state at room temperature.

  5. MAGIC-type polymer gel for three-dimensional dosimetry: intensity-modulated radiation therapy verification.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Helen; Karlsson, Anna; Bäck, Sven A J; Olsson, Lars E; Haraldsson, Pia; Engström, Per; Nyström, Håkan

    2003-06-01

    A new type of polymer gel dosimeter, which responds well to absorbed dose even when manufactured in the presence of normal levels of oxygen, was recently described by Fong et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 3105-3113 (2001)] and referred to by the acronym MAGIC. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using this new type of gel for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) verification. Gel manufacturing was carried out in room atmosphere under normal levels of oxygen. IMRT inverse treatment planning was performed using the Helios software. The gel was irradiated using a linear accelerator equipped with a dynamic multileaf collimator, and intensity modulation was achieved using sliding window technique. The response to absorbed dose was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Measured and calculated dose distributions were compared with regard to in-plane isodoses and dose volume histograms. In addition, the spatial and dosimetric accuracy was evaluated using the gamma formalism. Good agreement between calculated and measured data was obtained. In the isocenter plane, the 70% and 90% isodoses acquired using the different methods are mostly within 2 mm, with up to 3 mm disagreement at isolated points. For the planning target volume (PTV), the calculated mean relative dose was 96.8 +/- 2.5% (1 SD) and the measured relative mean dose was 98.6 +/- 2.2%. Corresponding data for an organ at risk was 34.4 +/- 0.9% and 32.7 +/- 0.7%, respectively. The gamma criterion (3 mm spatial/3% dose deviation) was fulfilled for 94% of the pixels in the target region. Discrepancies were found in hot spots the upper and lower parts of the PTV, where the measured dose was up to 11% higher than calculated. This was attributed to sub optimal scatter kernels used in the treatment planning system dose calculations. Our results indicate great potential for IMRT verification using MAGIC-type polymer gel. PMID:12852552

  6. A dosimetric study of small photon fields using polymer gel and Gafchromic EBT films

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, Hossein; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Zahmatkesh, Mohammad Hassan; Shirani, Kaveh

    2014-04-01

    The use of small field sizes is increasingly becoming important in radiotherapy particularly since the introduction of stereotactic radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques. The reliable measurement of delivered dose from such fields with conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chambers, is a challenging task. In this work, methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper polymer gel dosimeters are employed to measure dose in 3 dimensions. Field sizes of 5 × 5 mm{sup 2}, 10 × 10 mm{sup 2}, 20 × 20 mm{sup 2}, and 30 × 30 mm{sup 2} are investigated for a 6-MV x-rays. The results show an agreement with Gafchromic film, with some variation in measured doses near the edge of the fields, where the film data decrease more rapidly than the other methods. Dose penumbra widths obtained with gel dosimeters and Gafchormic film were generally in agreement with each other. The results of this work indicate that polymer gel dosimetry could be invaluable for the quantification of the 3-dimensional dose distribution in small field size.

  7. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds processed using a TBA-based freeze-gel casting/polymer sponge technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Young; Lee, Jung Min; Yoon, Seog Young; Park, Hong Chae

    2010-05-01

    A novel freeze-gel casting/polymer sponge technique has been introduced to fabricate porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds with controlled "designer" pore structures and improved compressive strength for bone tissue engineering applications. Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) was used as a solvent in this work. The merits of each production process, freeze casting, gel casting, and polymer sponge route were characterized by the sintered microstructure and mechanical strength. A reticulated structure with large pore size of 180-360 microm, which formed on burn-out of polyurethane foam, consisted of the strut with highly interconnected, unidirectional, long pore channels (approximately 4.5 microm in dia.) by evaporation of frozen TBA produced in freeze casting together with the dense inner walls with a few, isolated fine pores (<2 microm) by gel casting. The sintered porosity and pore size generally behaved in an opposite manner to the solid loading, i.e., a high solid loading gave low porosity and small pore size, and a thickening of the strut cross section, thus leading to higher compressive strengths. PMID:20099009

  8. Magnetization transfer proportion: a simplified measure of dose response for polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Heather M.; Gochberg, Daniel F.; Gore, John C.

    2008-12-01

    The response to radiation of polymer gel dosimeters has most often been described by measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation rate as a function of dose. This approach is highly dependent upon the choice of experimental parameters, such as the echo spacing time for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill-type pulse sequences, and is difficult to optimize in imaging applications where a range of doses are applied to a single gel, as is typical for practical uses of polymer gel dosimetry. Moreover, errors in computing dose can arise when there are substantial variations in the radiofrequency (B1) field or resonant frequency, as may occur for large samples. Here we consider the advantages of using magnetization transfer imaging as an alternative approach and propose the use of a simplified quantity, the magnetization transfer proportion (MTP), to assess doses. This measure can be estimated through two simple acquisitions and is more robust in the presence of some sources of system imperfections. It also has a dependence upon experimental parameters that is independent of dose, allowing simultaneous optimization at all dose levels. The MTP is shown to be less susceptible to B1 errors than are CPMG measurements of R2. The dose response can be optimized through appropriate choices of the power and offset frequency of the pulses used in magnetization transfer imaging.

  9. Structure and Hydrogen Bonding of Water in Polyacrylate Gels: Effects of Polymer Hydrophilicity and Water Concentration.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sriramvignesh; Khabaz, Fardin; Godbole, Rutvik V; Hedden, Ronald C; Khare, Rajesh

    2015-12-10

    The ability to tune the hydrophilicity of polyacrylate copolymers by altering their composition makes these materials attractive candidates for membranes used to separate alcohol-water mixtures. The separation behavior of these polyacrylate membranes is governed by a complex interplay of factors such as water and alcohol concentrations, water structure in the membrane, polymer hydrophilicity, and temperature. We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effect of polymer hydrophilicity and water concentration on the structure and dynamics of water molecules in the polymer matrix. Samples of poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA), poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA), and a 50/50 copolymer of BA and HEA were synthesized in laboratory, and their properties were measured. Model structures of these systems were validated by comparing the simulated values of their volumetric properties with the experimental values. Molecular simulations of polyacrylate gels swollen in water and ethanol mixtures showed that water exhibits very different affinities toward the different (carbonyl, alkoxy, and hydroxyl) functional groups of the polymers. Water molecules are well dispersed in the system at low concentrations and predominantly form hydrogen bonds with the polymer. However, water forms large clusters at high concentrations along with the predominant formation of water-water hydrogen bonds and the acceleration of hydrogen bond dynamics. PMID:26514915

  10. Molecular theory of strain hardening of a polymer gel: Application to gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, Robert D.; Bot, Arjen; Agterof, Wim G. M.

    1996-06-01

    The elasticity of gelatin gels at large deformation has been measured for various experimental conditions. The general pattern is that stress increases with strain in a nonlinear way up to the point where the gel fails. To interpret this nonlinear stress increase, we studied a number of molecular models by Monte Carlo simulation and by mean-field methods. The effect of finite polymer length is studied via the FENE model (finite extensible nonlinear polymer connections) and via the exact statistics of Kramers' model (chains of freely rotating stiff rods) for a small number of elements per chain. To investigate the effect of fractal connections, the end-point distribution that comes forward from scaling theory has been generalized to arbitrary fractal dimension. Finally we studied a heterogeneous network model: connections formed by rods and coils. We also discuss the consequence of microphase separation. Combining experiment and theory we conclude the following: (i) The elastically active network connections in gelatin are most certainly not Gaussian. (ii) Strain hardening in gelatin can be attributed to either: (a) finite polymer length (the chain length between connection points should be some 2.5 times the persistence length), or (b) a fractal structure of the polymer strands (the fractal dimension should be roughly df=1.3-1.5), or (c) the presence of both stiff rods and flexible coils (the length of the rods should be 1.4-4.4 times the radius of gyration of the coils). (iii) Models b and c describe the experimental data significantly better than model a. From a single parameter (the fractal dimension) the fractal model correctly describes (1) the nonlinearity of the stress-strain curve, (2) the scaling of Young's modulus with polymer concentration, (3) the scaling of neutron scattering intensity with wave number, and (4) it predicts the scaling exponent of the linear dynamic modulus with frequency in the glassy transition zone (no experimental data available

  11. Theoretical study of polymers: Flow-induced deformation in nanochannels and reptation dynamics in heterogeneous gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Sylvain

    In 1992, B. Smith, L. Finzi and C. Bustamante were the first to directly observe the behaviour of a single DNA molecule with the help of video fluorescence microscopy. Their results greatly improved our understanding of the static and dynamic properties of a single isolated chain which represents the foundation of polymer physics. A series of experimental results and theoretical models followed the work of Smith et al. Current theoretical approaches to study polymers involve many techniques: thermodynamic analysis, field theory, scaling, renormalization group theory and computer simulations. In Chapter 2, we present a Molecular Dynamics study of the effect of strong lateral confinement on the properties of a tethered polymer pulled at constant velocity. Our results are compared with recent theoretical predictions and experimental results. One can also ask questions about the behaviour of dilute polymer solutions, or even concentrated solutions such as melts or gels, where the interactions among the polymers are important. For instance, gel electrophoresis (GE) is one of the most common analytical tools used in biology. Since the introduction of GE in 1937, molecular biology has grown substantially. Indeed, GE has shown to be an excellent separation method for DNA molecules since in free solution, the electrophoretic mobility of a DNA molecule is independent of its size. Because of that, most of the theoretical developments in the field have been aimed at improving DNA electrophoretic separation tools. In 1993, Zimm and Lumpkin proposed a new reptation model to explain gel electrophoresis of polyelectrolytes in irregular matrices. Following this work, we propose in Chapter 3 a more detailed model of this problem where the well-known memory effects of the standard reptation theory are taken into account. Our results are in qualitative agreement with available experimental results and disagree with those of Zimm and Lumpkin. In Chapter 4, we examine the reptation of a

  12. Characterization of a new polymer gel for radiosurgery dosimetry using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrokokkinos, L.; Kozicki, M.; Pantelis, E.; Antypas, C.; Fijuth, J.; Karaiskos, P.; Sakelliou, L.; Seimenis, I.

    2009-06-01

    The VIPAR polymer gel dosimeter formulation was modified in an effort to eliminate the need for deoxygenation in the manufacturing procedure while preserving its favorable characteristics of dose rate independence and a wide dose response range. Aiming at an adequate dose sensitivity and the extension of dose response in the low dose region to facilitate the dose verification of radiosurgery applications where narrow beams are employed and steep dose gradients are involved, the new formulation consists of 8% N-Vinylpyrrolidone, 7.5% gelatine, 4% N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, as well as of 0.0008% Copper Sulfate and 0.007% Ascorbic Acid as oxygen scavengers. To study the dose-R2 response, dose rate dependence and ``edge effect'' behaviour of the new formulation, one batch of two gel filled glass vials was prepared. Before MR Imaging, one vial was irradiated with a brachytherapy source while the other one was irradiated using circular CyberKnife radiation fields of 60, 10, 7.5 and 5 mm in diameter. Results of this study suggest that the new gel dosimeter responds linearly in the dose range of about 3 to 30 Gy, whilst the full dose response range exceeds the maximum delivered dose of 50 Gy. No dose rate dependence was observed for the new gel, while Cyberknife dosimetry results in the form of stereotactic field size and penumbra measurements suggest that the new formulation could be effective in the dose verification of demanding radiosurgery techniques.

  13. Chaotic behavior of ion exchange phenomena in polymer gel electrolytes through irradiated polymeric membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Sangeeta; Saha, Barnamala; Prasad, Awadhesh; Chandra, Amita

    2012-05-01

    A desktop experiment has been done to show the nonlinearity in the I-V characteristics of an ion conducting electrochemical micro-system. Its chaotic dynamics is being reported for the first time which has been captured by an electronic circuit. Polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte comprising of a combination of plasticizers (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) and salts have been prepared to study the exchange of ions through porous polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The nonlinearity of this system is due to the ion exchange of the polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) through a porous membrane. The different regimes of spiking and non-spiking chaotic motions are being presented. The possible applications are highlighted.

  14. Superspreading on Immersed Gel Surfaces for the Confined Synthesis of Thin Polymer Films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengchao; Zhang, Feilong; Zhao, Chuangqi; Wang, Shutao; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Liquid spreading is of significant interest in science and technology. Although surface topography engineering and liquid surface-tension regulating can facilitate spreading, the spreading layers in these strategies are inevitably inhomogeneous or contaminated with surfactants. Herein, we show a general strategy to realize the superspreading of liquids on mutually soluble gel surfaces. The cooperation of the hydraulic pressure under liquid phase and liquid-like property of gel surfaces can dramatically eliminate the local pinning effect and enhance the advancement of three-phase contact line, thus forming stable and homogeneous superspreading liquid layers. Such liquid layers can be converted into various functional thin polymer films with controlled thicknesses (nm- to µm-scale) through one-step polymerization of the reactants. Our strategy offers opportunities for large-scale synthesis of versatile functional thin films for various applications. PMID:26880685

  15. Determine the Dose Distribution Using Ultrasound Parameters in MAGIC-f Polymer Gels

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Hossein; Arbabi, Azim; Bakhshandeh, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, using methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper (MAGIC-f) polymer gel after megavoltage energy exposure, the sensitivity of the ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient dose-dependent parameters was evaluated. The MAGIC-f polymer gel was irradiated under 1.25 MeV cobalt-60, ranging from 0 to 60 Gy in 2-Gy steps, and received dose uniformity and accuracy of ±2%. After calibration of the ultrasonic systems with a frequency of 500 kHz, the parameters of ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient of the irradiated gel samples were measured. According to the dose–response curve, the ability of ultrasonic parameters was evaluated in dose rate readings. Based on a 4-order polynomial curve, fitted on the dose–response parameters of ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient and observed at 24 hours after irradiation, ultrasonic parameters had more sensitivity. The sensitivity of the dose–velocity and dose-attenuation coefficient curves was observed as 50 m/s/Gy and 0.06 dB/MHz/Gy over the linear range of 4 to 44 Gy, respectively. The ultrasonic parameters at 5°C, 15°C, and 25°C on the gel dosimeter after 0 to 60 Gy irradiation showed that readings at 25°C have higher sensitivity compared to 15°C and 5°C. Maximum sensitivity time and temperature readings of the MAGIC-f ultrasonic parameters were concluded 24 hours after irradiation and at a temperature of 25°C. PMID:26924952

  16. Small field dose delivery evaluations using cone beam optical computed tomography-based polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Olding, Timothy; Holmes, Oliver; DeJean, Paul; McAuley, Kim B.; Nkongchu, Ken; Santyr, Giles; Schreiner, L. John

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the combination of cone beam optical computed tomography with an N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based polymer gel dosimeter for three-dimensional dose imaging of small field deliveries. Initial investigations indicate that cone beam optical imaging of polymer gels is complicated by scattered stray light perturbation. This can lead to significant dosimetry failures in comparison to dose readout by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For example, only 60% of the voxels from an optical CT dose readout of a 1 l dosimeter passed a two-dimensional Low's gamma test (at a 3%, 3 mm criteria, relative to a treatment plan for a well-characterized pencil beam delivery). When the same dosimeter was probed by MRI, a 93% pass rate was observed. The optical dose measurement was improved after modifications to the dosimeter preparation, matching its performance with the imaging capabilities of the scanner. With the new dosimeter preparation, 99.7% of the optical CT voxels passed a Low's gamma test at the 3%, 3 mm criteria and 92.7% at a 2%, 2 mm criteria. The fitted interjar dose responses of a small sample set of modified dosimeters prepared (a) from the same gel batch and (b) from different gel batches prepared on the same day were found to be in agreement to within 3.6% and 3.8%, respectively, over the full dose range. Without drawing any statistical conclusions, this experiment gives a preliminary indication that intrabatch or interbatch NIPAM dosimeters prepared on the same day should be suitable for dose sensitivity calibration. PMID:21430853

  17. SU-E-T-243: MonteCarlo Simulation Study of Polymer and Radiochromic Gel for Three-Dimensional Proton Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M; Jung, H; Kim, G; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Park, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate the three dimensional dose distributions in a polymer gel and a radiochromic gel by comparing with the virtual water phantom exposed to proton beams by applying Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: The polymer gel dosimeter is the compositeness material of gelatin, methacrylic acid, hydroquinone, tetrakis, and distilled water. The radiochromic gel is PRESAGE product. The densities of polymer and radiochromic gel were 1.040 and 1.0005 g/cm3, respectively. The shape of water phantom was a hexahedron with the size of 13 × 13 × 15 cm3. The proton beam energies of 72 and 116 MeV were used in the simulation. Proton beam was directed to the top of the phantom with Z-axis and the shape of beam was quadrangle with 10 × 10 cm2 dimension. The Percent depth dose and the dose distribution were evaluated for estimating the dose distribution of proton particle in two gel dosimeters, and compared with the virtual water phantom. Results: The Bragg-peak for proton particles in two gel dosimeters was similar to the virtual water phantom. Bragg-peak regions of polymer gel, radiochromic gel, and virtual water phantom were represented in the identical region (4.3 cm) for 72 MeV proton beam. For 116 MeV proton beam, the Bragg-peak regions of polymer gel, radiochromic gel, and virtual water phantom were represented in 9.9, 9.9 and 9.7 cm, respectively. The dose distribution of proton particles in polymer gel, radiochromic gel, and virtual water phantom was approximately identical in the case of 72 and 116 MeV energies. The errors for the simulation were under 10%. Conclusion: This work indicates the evaluation of three dimensional dose distributions by exposing proton particles to polymer and radiochromic gel dosimeter by comparing with the water phantom. The polymer gel and the radiochromic gel dosimeter show similar dose distributions for the proton beams.

  18. A hybrid gel-solid-state polymer electrolyte for long-life lithium oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Bin; Chou, Shu-Lei; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Kang, Yong-Mook; Zhai, Yu-Chun; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2015-05-14

    A hybrid gel-solid-state polymer electrolyte has been used as the separator and an electrolyte for lithium oxygen batteries. It can not only avoid electrolyte evaporation but also protect the lithium metal anode during reactions over long-term cycling. Due to its high ionic conductivity and low activation energy, excellent cycling performance is demonstrated, in which the terminal voltage is higher than 2.2 V after 140 cycles at 0.4 mA cm(-2), with a capacity of 1000 mA h g(composite)(-1). PMID:25874974

  19. Stem Cell Bioprinting: Functional 3D Neural Mini-Tissues from Printed Gel-Based Bioink and Human Neural Stem Cells (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 12/2016).

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Lozano, Rodrigo; Chen, Yu; Kapsa, Robert M; Zhou, Qi; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    On page 1429 G. G. Wallace, J. M. Crook, and co-workers report the first example of fabricating neural tissue by 3D bioprinting human neural stem cells. A novel polysaccharide based bioink preserves stem cell viability and function within the printed construct, enabling self-renewal and differentiation to neurons and supporting neuroglia. Neurons are predominantly GABAergic, establish networks, are spontaneously active, and show a bicuculline induced increased calcium response. PMID:27333401

  20. Compliant random fields in gels formed from side-chain liquid crystalline polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbart, Paul; Ye, Fangfu; Lu, Bing; Xing, Xiangjun

    2013-03-01

    Localized polymer-chain backbones in gels formed from side-chain liquid crystalline polymers serve to create random fields that induce local orientational order of the nematogenic pendants of the side chains. These random fields differ, however, from conventional ones, in that they are compliant, and thus themselves undergo thermal fluctuations. We develop a free energy that describes local nematic ordering in presence of such compliant random fields. In particular, we show that, as a result of this compliance, the free energy has a qualitatively new structure, unattainable via truly static random fields. We discuss the physical implications this free energy, focusing on the consequences of the compliant nature of the random fields.

  1. Titania-based molecularly imprinted polymer for sulfonic acid dyes prepared by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Li, Rong; Tan, Jin; Jiang, Zi-Tao

    2013-03-30

    A novel titania-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized through sol-gel process with sunset yellow (Sun) as template, without use of functional monomer. MIP was used as a solid-phase extraction material for the isolation and enrichment of sulfonic acid dyes in beverages. The results showed that MIP exhibited better selectivity, higher recovery and adsorption capacity for the sulfonic acid dyes compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP). MIP presented highest extraction selectivity to Sun when pH less than or equal to 3. The adsorption capacity was 485.9 mg g(-1), which was larger than that of NIP (384.7 mg g(-1)). The better clean-up ability demonstrated the capability of MIP for the isolation and enrichment of sulfonic acid dyes in complicated food samples. The mean recoveries for the sulfonic acid dyes on MIP were from 81.9% to 97.2% in spiked soft drink. PMID:23598213

  2. Electrophoresis of DNA-protein complexes in polymer solutions: from free-flow to gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Gary W.; Desruisseaux, Claude; Drouin, Guy

    2000-03-01

    We previously showed that labeling one of the ends of single-stranded DNA molecules with a neutral label like the protein streptavidin increases the interband separation of these hybrid molecules when they are electrophoresed in gels because of strong steric trapping effects. In 1999, we also demonstrated that these labeled DNA molecules can be sequenced in free-solution, a novel separation process that we called ELFSE. Here, we examine the fascinating intermediate regime where the streptavidin-DNA molecules are electrophoresed in polymer solutions of increasing concentrations, from ultra-dilute to fully entangled conditions. Our capillary electrophoresis results clarify the respective roles of friction, polymer capture,reptation and steric trapping. In some cases, two separation regimes coexist and the mobility becomes a non-monotonic function of the DNA size. A universal relationship is found to relate the mobility of labeled and unlabeled DNA molecules for all systems.

  3. Sensitivity calibration procedures in optical-CT scanning of BANG 3 polymer gel dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Wuu, Cheng-Shie; Maryanski, Marek J

    2010-02-01

    The dose response of the BANG 3 polymer gel dosimeter (MGS Research Inc., Madison, CT) was studied using the OCTOPUS laser CT scanner (MGS Research Inc., Madison, CT). Six 17 cm diameter and 12 cm high Barex cylinders, and 18 small glass vials were used to house the gel. The gel phantoms were irradiated with 6 and 10 MV photons, as well as 12 and 16 MeV electrons using a Varian Clinac 2100EX. Three calibration methods were used to obtain the dose response curves: (a) Optical density measurements on the 18 glass vials irradiated with graded doses from 0 to 4 Gy using 6 or 10 MV large field irradiations; (b) optical-CT scanning of Barex cylinders irradiated with graded doses (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 Gy) from four adjacent 4 x 4 cm2 photon fields or 6 x 6 cm2 electron fields; and (c) percent depth dose (PDD) comparison of optical-CT scans with ion chamber measurements for 6 x 6 cm2, 12 and 16 MeV electron fields. The dose response of the BANG3 gel was found to be linear and energy independent within the uncertainties of the experimental methods (about 3%). The slopes of the linearly fitted dose response curves (dose sensitivities) from the four field irradiations (0.0752 +/- 3%, 0.0756 +/- 3%, 0.0767 +/- 3%, and 0.0759 +/- 3% cm(-1) Gy(-1)) and the PDD matching methods (0.0768 +/- 3% and 0.0761 +/- 3% cm(-1) Gy(-1)) agree within 2.2%, indicating a good reproducibility of the gel dose response within phantoms of the same geometry. The dose sensitivities from the glass vial approach are different from those of the cylindrical Barex phantoms by more than 30%, owing probably to the difference in temperature inside the two types of phantoms during gel formation and irradiation, and possible oxygen contamination of the glass vial walls. The dose response curve obtained from the PDD matching approach with 16 MeV electron field was used to calibrate the gel phantom irradiated with the 12 MeV, 6 x 6 cm2 electron field. Three-dimensional dose distributions from the gel measurement

  4. Sol-gel synthesis, phase composition, morphological and structural characterization of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2: XRD, FTIR, SEM, 3D SEM and solid-state NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareiva, Simonas; Klimavicius, Vytautas; Momot, Aleksandr; Kausteklis, Jonas; Prichodko, Aleksandra; Dagys, Laurynas; Ivanauskas, Feliksas; Sakirzanovas, Simas; Balevicius, Vytautas; Kareiva, Aivaras

    2016-09-01

    Aqueous sol-gel chemistry route based on ammonium-hydrogen phosphate as the phosphorus precursor, calcium acetate monohydrate as source of calcium ions, and 1,2-ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), or 1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetracetic acid (DCTA), or tartaric acid (TA), or ethylene glycol (EG), or glycerol (GL) as complexing agents have been used to prepare calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, CHAp). The phase transformations, composition, and structural changes in the polycrystalline samples were studied by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The local short-range (nano- and mezo-) scale effects in CHAp were studied using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The spatial 3D data from the SEM images of CHAp samples obtained by TA, EG and GL sol-gel routes were recovered for the first time to our knowledge.

  5. Synthesis of a 3D graphite microball using a microfluidic droplet generator and its polymer composite with core-shell structure.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong Ju; Jung, Jae Hwan; Choi, Jong Seob; Kim, Yong Tae; Seo, Tae Seok

    2013-10-21

    Spherical 3D graphite microballs (3D GMs) and their nanohybrids (3D GM-Fe3O4 nanoparticles) were synthesized by using a microfluidic droplet generator and a thermal evaporation-induced capillary compression method. Using the 3D GM-Fe3O4 nanoparticle as a support for polymerization, 3D GM-polypyrrole composites were produced with a unique core-shell structure. PMID:23921454

  6. Characterization of dose-dependent Young's modulus for a radiation-sensitive polymer gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescenti, Remo A.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Bush, Nigel L.; Webb, Steve

    2009-02-01

    Radiation-sensitive polymer gels for clinical dosimetry have been intensively investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because the transversal magnetic relaxation time is dependent on irradiation dose. MRI is expensive and not easily available in most clinics. For this reason, low-cost, quick and easy-to-use potential alternatives such as optical computed tomography (CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound attenuation CT have also been studied by others. Here, we instead evaluate the dose dependence of the elastic material property, Young's modulus and the dose response of the viscous relaxation of radiation-sensitive gels to discuss their potential for dose imaging. Three batches of a radiation-sensitive polymer gel (MAGIC gel) samples were homogeneously irradiated to doses from 0 Gy to 45.5 Gy. Young's modulus was computed from the measured stress on the sample surface and the strain applied to the sample when compressing it axially, and the viscous relaxation was determined from the stress decay under sustained compression. The viscous relaxation was found not to change significantly with dose. However, Young's modulus was dose dependent; it approximately doubled in the gels between 0 Gy and 20 Gy. By fitting a second-order polynomial to the Young's modulus-versus-dose data, 99.4% of the variance in Young's modulus was shown to be associated with the change in dose. The precision of the gel production, irradiation and Young's modulus measurement combined was found to be 4% at 2 Gy and 3% at 20 Gy. Potential sources of measurement error, such as those associated with the boundary conditions in the compression measurement, inhomogeneous polymerization, temperature (up to 1% error) and the evaporation of water from the sample (up to 1% error), were estimated and discussed. It was concluded that Young's modulus could be used for dose determination. Imaging techniques such as elastography may help to achieve this if they can provide a local measurement of Young

  7. Characterization of dose-dependent Young's modulus for a radiation-sensitive polymer gel.

    PubMed

    Crescenti, Remo A; Bamber, Jeffrey C; Bush, Nigel L; Webb, Steve

    2009-02-21

    Radiation-sensitive polymer gels for clinical dosimetry have been intensively investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because the transversal magnetic relaxation time is dependent on irradiation dose. MRI is expensive and not easily available in most clinics. For this reason, low-cost, quick and easy-to-use potential alternatives such as optical computed tomography (CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound attenuation CT have also been studied by others. Here, we instead evaluate the dose dependence of the elastic material property, Young's modulus and the dose response of the viscous relaxation of radiation-sensitive gels to discuss their potential for dose imaging. Three batches of a radiation-sensitive polymer gel (MAGIC gel) samples were homogeneously irradiated to doses from 0 Gy to 45.5 Gy. Young's modulus was computed from the measured stress on the sample surface and the strain applied to the sample when compressing it axially, and the viscous relaxation was determined from the stress decay under sustained compression. The viscous relaxation was found not to change significantly with dose. However, Young's modulus was dose dependent; it approximately doubled in the gels between 0 Gy and 20 Gy. By fitting a second-order polynomial to the Young's modulus-versus-dose data, 99.4% of the variance in Young's modulus was shown to be associated with the change in dose. The precision of the gel production, irradiation and Young's modulus measurement combined was found to be 4% at 2 Gy and 3% at 20 Gy. Potential sources of measurement error, such as those associated with the boundary conditions in the compression measurement, inhomogeneous polymerization, temperature (up to 1% error) and the evaporation of water from the sample (up to 1% error), were estimated and discussed. It was concluded that Young's modulus could be used for dose determination. Imaging techniques such as elastography may help to achieve this if they can provide a local measurement of Young

  8. Self-assembled 3D heterometallic Cu(II)/Fe(II) coordination polymers with octahedral net skeletons: structural features, molecular magnetism, thermal and oxidation catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Karabach, Yauhen Y; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Kopylovich, Maximilian N; Gil-Hernández, Beatriz; Sanchiz, Joaquin; Kirillov, Alexander M; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2010-12-01

    The new three-dimensional (3D) heterometallic Cu(II)/Fe(II) coordination polymers [Cu(6)(H(2)tea)(6)Fe(CN)(6)](n)(NO(3))(2n)·6nH(2)O (1) and [Cu(6)(Hmdea)(6)Fe(CN)(6)](n)(NO(3))(2n)·7nH(2)O (2) have been easily generated by aqueous-medium self-assembly reactions of copper(II) nitrate with triethanolamine or N-methyldiethanolamine (H(3)tea or H(2)mdea, respectively), in the presence of potassium ferricyanide and sodium hydroxide. They have been isolated as air-stable crystalline solids and fully characterized including by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The latter reveal the formation of 3D metal-organic frameworks that are constructed from the [Cu(2)(μ-H(2)tea)(2)](2+) or [Cu(2)(μ-Hmdea)(2)](2+) nodes and the octahedral [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) linkers, featuring regular (1) or distorted (2) octahedral net skeletons. Upon dehydration, both compounds show reversible escape and binding processes toward water or methanol molecules. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of 1 and 2 reveal strong antiferromagnetic [J = -199(1) cm(-1)] or strong ferromagnetic [J = +153(1) cm(-1)] couplings between the copper(II) ions through the μ-O-alkoxo atoms in 1 or 2, respectively. The differences in magnetic behavior are explained in terms of the dependence of the magnetic coupling constant on the Cu-O-Cu bridging angle. Compounds 1 and 2 also act as efficient catalyst precursors for the mild oxidation of cyclohexane by aqueous hydrogen peroxide to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone (homogeneous catalytic system), leading to maximum total yields (based on cyclohexane) and turnover numbers (TONs) up to about 22% and 470, respectively. PMID:21028781

  9. Controlling sensitivity and stability of ferrous-xylenol orange-gelatin 3D gel dosimeters by doping with phenanthroline-type ligands and glyoxal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penev, Kalin I.; Mequanint, Kibret

    2013-03-01

    The ferrous-xylenol orange-gelatin (FXG) dosimeter is widely used for three-dimensional ionizing radiation field mapping through optical scanning. Upon irradiation, the ferrous iron (Fe2+) is oxidized to ferric iron (Fe3+), which forms an intensely coloured complex with xylenol orange (XO). XO also acts as a diffusion-limiting additive; however, its presence may cause rapid auto-oxidation of Fe2+ during storage and low stability of the dose response. In this work, phenanthroline-type ligands were added to FXG system in a bid to bind the ferrous iron in a stable complex and minimize the rate of the auto-oxidation, whereas glyoxal was used as a chemical cross-linker, aiming to minimize the ferric iron diffusion. It was found that addition of either 1,10-phenanthroline or 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline can improve the auto-oxidation behaviour of the gels. However, the initial background absorbance was slightly increased, and the sensitivity of the dosimeters was decreased. Doping with glyoxal led to a moderate decrease of the diffusion only in those gels that also contained a phenanthroline-type ligand, and did not affect the initial dose response. Glyoxal also afforded an extended period of stable background absorbance level after an initial period of bleaching of the gel. Following re-irradiation, most glyoxal-containing dosimeters showed an excellent linearity of the dose response, albeit at a decreased sensitivity. We recommend further testing of FXG dosimeters, doped with phenanthroline-type ligands and glyoxal as a means for controlling the dose response and improving the long-term storage properties of the gels and the potential for dose fractionation.

  10. A multiple-responsive self-healing supramolecular polymer gel network based on multiple orthogonal interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiayi; Zhang, Mingming; Zhou, Mi; Liu, Bin; Chen, Dong; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Qiu, Huayu; Yin, Shouchun

    2014-08-01

    Supramolecular polymer networks have attracted considerable attention not only due to their topological importance but also because they can show some fantastic properties such as stimuli-responsiveness and self-healing. Although various supramolecular networks are constructed by supramolecular chemists based on different non-covalent interactions, supramolecular polymer networks based on multiple orthogonal interactions are still rare. Here, a supramolecular polymer network is presented on the basis of the host-guest interactions between dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8) and dibenzylammonium salts (DBAS), the metal-ligand coordination interactions between terpyridine and Zn(OTf)2 , and between 1,2,3-triazole and PdCl2 (PhCN)2 . The topology of the networks can be easily tuned from monomer to main-chain supramolecular polymer and then to the supramolecular networks. This process is well studied by various characterization methods such as (1) H NMR, UV-vis, DOSY, viscosity, and rheological measurements. More importantly, a supramolecular gel is obtained at high concentrations of the supramolecular networks, which demonstrates both stimuli-responsiveness and self-healing properties. PMID:24943122

  11. Capability of NIPAM polymer gel in recording dose from the interaction of (10)B and thermal neutron in BNCT.

    PubMed

    Khajeali, Azim; Reza Farajollahi, Ali; Kasesaz, Yaser; Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khalili, Assef; Naseri, Alireza

    2015-11-01

    The capability of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel to record the dose resulting from boron neutron capture reaction in BNCT was determined. In this regard, three compositions of the gel with different concentrations of (10)B were prepared and exposed to gamma radiation and thermal neutrons. Unlike irradiation with gamma rays, the boron-loaded gels irradiated by neutron exhibited sensitivity enhancement compared with the gels without (10)B. It was also found that the neutron sensitivity of the gel increased by the increase of concentration of (10)B. It can be concluded that NIPAM gel might be suitable for the measurement of the absorbed dose enhancement due to (10)B and thermal neutron reaction in BNCT. PMID:26356043

  12. Interfacial water structure at polymer gel/quartz interfaces investigated by sum frequency generation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hidenori; Hiroshi, Minowa; Tominaga, Taiki; Gong, Jian Ping; Osada, Yoshihito; Uosaki, Kohei

    2008-08-28

    Interfacial structures of water at polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly(2-acrylamido-2-methypropane) sulfonic acid sodium salt (PNaAMPS)/quartz interfaces were investigated by sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. Two broad peaks were observed in OH stretching region at 3200 and 3400 cm(-1), corresponding to the symmetric OH stretching of tetrahedrally coordinated, i.e., strongly hydrogen bonded "ice-like" water, and the asymmetric OH stretching of water in a more random arrangement, i.e., weakly hydrogen bonded "liquid-like" water, respectively, in both cases. The "liquid-like" water became dominant when the PVA gel was pressed against the quartz surface. The relative intensity of the SFG signal due to the "liquid-like" water to that due to the "ice-like water" at the quartz surface modified with a self-assembled monolayer of aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) became higher when the negatively charged PNaMPS gel was contacted to the APS modified quartz surface in a solution of pH = 12, where the surface was negatively charged and electrostatic repulsive interaction and low friction were present between the PNaMPS gel and the APS modified surface. It, however, did not change in a solution of pH = 2, where the surface was positively charged and electrostatic attractive interaction and very high friction were present between the PNaMPS gel and the APS modified surface. These results suggest the important role of water structure for small friction at the polymer gel/solid interface. PMID:18688544

  13. Mechanochemical and thermal formation of 1H-benzotriazole coordination polymers and complexes of 3d-transition metals with intriguing dielectric properties.

    PubMed

    Brede, Franziska A; Mühlbach, Friedrich; Sextl, Gerhard; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus

    2016-07-14

    Liquid-assisted grinding (LAG) reactions have been successfully applied to achieve a series of complexes and coordination polymers based on divalent 3d-transition metal chlorides (TM chlorides) and the aromatic ligand 1H-benzotriazole (BtzH). The obtained substances were investigated via single crystal X-ray, powder X-ray determination and simultaneous DTA/TG analysis as model compounds for structural and chemical influences on their dielectric properties. Depending on the synthesis method, different constitutions and structures are observed. Two polymorphous forms of the 1D polymer [MnCl2(BtzH)2] (1 and 2) as well as the complexes [ZnCl2(BtzH)2]·BtzH (3) and [CoCl2(BtzH)2]·BtzH (4) have been obtained as phase-pure bulk substances via the mechanochemical LAG route, and even single crystals are available. For comparison, thermal reactions were also carried out and have led to the formation of the neutral complexes: [CoCl2(BtzH)2] (5) and [CoCl2(BtzH)4]·4BtzH (6), [ZnCl2(BtzH)2] (7) and the anionic complex BtzH2[CoCl3BtzH] (8). In addition, thermal treatment of 3 yields the benzotriazolium salt {(BtzH)2H}Cl (9). The transition metal compounds were additionally analysed regarding their dielectric properties by frequency-dependent as well as temperature-dependent permittivity investigations. It is intriguing that compounds 1 and 3 show remarkably low dielectric constants and loss factors up to 50 °C highlighting them as potential "low-k materials". PMID:27265300

  14. Gel polymer electrolytes based on polyacrylonitrile and a novel quaternary ammonium salt for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guiqiang . E-mail: wgqiang@iccas.ac.cn; Zhou Xiaowen; Li Mingyu; Zhang Jinbo; Kang Junjia; Lin Yuan . E-mail: a1703@iccas.ac.cn; Fang Shibi; Xiao Xurui

    2004-11-02

    Gel polymer electrolytes were prepared by incorporating polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in a mixture of polysiloxane with quaternary ammonium side groups (PSQAS), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and iodine. The influence of PAN content on the ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes and the charge-transfer kinetic performance in counterelectrode-electrolyte interface was investigated. The dye-sensitized solar cell with the gel polymer electrolyte containing 5 wt.% PAN showed the best photovoltaic performance; a maximum incident photon conversion efficiency of 63% at 520 nm was obtained, the short-circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}), the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and the fill factor (FF) were 7 mA cm{sup -2}, 0.565 V and 0.65, respectively. The corresponding overall conversion efficiency ({eta}) is 4.3%.

  15. The Effect of Polymer Composition on the Gelation Behavior of PLGA-g-PEG Biodegradable Thermoreversible Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Gutowska, Anna; Li, Xiaohong S.; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2009-04-01

    Graft copolymers consisting of a poly(DL-lactic acid–co–glycolic acid) backbone grafted with polyethyelene glycol (PLGA-g-PEG) side chains were synthesized and formed thermoreversible gels in aqueous solutions which exhibited solution behavior at low temperature and sol-gel transitions at higher temperature. The composition of the polymer and relative amounts of polylactic acid (LA), glycolic acid (GA), and ethylene glycol (EG) could be varied by controlling the precursor concentrations and reaction temperature. The gelation temperature could be systematically tailored from 15°C to 34°C by increasing the concentration of PEG in the graft copolymer. The gelation temperature decreased with increasing polymer molecular weight and decreasing polymer concentration. This work has importance for the development of water soluble gels with tailored compositions and gelation temperatures for use in tissue engineering and as injectable depots for drug delivery.

  16. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures. PMID:27189842

  17. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-05-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures.

  18. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures. PMID:27189842

  19. In vitro permeation studies of phenolics from horse chestnut seed gels prepared with different polyacrylic acid polymer derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zelbienė, Eglė; Draksiene, Gailute; Savickas, Arunas; Kopustinskiene, Dalia; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyacrylic acid polymers (Ultrez 10, Ultrez 20, Carbopol 980, and Carbopol 940) on the viscosity and the in vitro permeation of phenolic compounds from the gel prepared from natural horse chestnut seed extract. Experiments were performed in the presence and in the absence of peppermint oil (Mentha piperita). Our results showed that peppermint oil decreased the viscosity of the gels and permeation of phenolic compounds from all gel samples. Results show that the highest content of phenolic compounds (1.758 μg cm(-2)) permeated in vitro from gel based on Carbopol Ultrez 20 without peppermint oil added (p<0.05 vs. other tested polymers). PMID:26011934

  20. Cheap glass fiber mats as a matrix of gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yusong; Wang, Faxing; Liu, Lili; Xiao, Shiyin; Yang, Yaqiong; Wu, Yuping

    2013-11-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are going to play more important roles in electric vehicles and smart grids. The safety of the current LIBs of large capacity has been remaining a challenge due to the existence of large amounts of organic liquid electrolytes. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have been tried to replace the organic electrolyte to improve their safety. However, the application of GPEs is handicapped by their poor mechanical strength and high cost. Here, we report an economic gel-type composite membrane with high safety and good mechanical strength based on glass fiber mats, which are separator for lead-acid batteries. The gelled membrane exhibits high ionic conductivity (1.13 mS cm-1), high Li+ ion transference number (0.56) and wide electrochemical window. Its electrochemical performance is evaluated by LiFePO4 cathode with good cycling. The results show this gel-type composite membrane has great attraction to the large-capacity LIBs requiring high safety with low cost.

  1. Cheap glass fiber mats as a matrix of gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yusong; Wang, Faxing; Liu, Lili; Xiao, Shiyin; Yang, Yaqiong; Wu, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are going to play more important roles in electric vehicles and smart grids. The safety of the current LIBs of large capacity has been remaining a challenge due to the existence of large amounts of organic liquid electrolytes. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have been tried to replace the organic electrolyte to improve their safety. However, the application of GPEs is handicapped by their poor mechanical strength and high cost. Here, we report an economic gel-type composite membrane with high safety and good mechanical strength based on glass fiber mats, which are separator for lead-acid batteries. The gelled membrane exhibits high ionic conductivity (1.13 mS cm−1), high Li+ ion transference number (0.56) and wide electrochemical window. Its electrochemical performance is evaluated by LiFePO4 cathode with good cycling. The results show this gel-type composite membrane has great attraction to the large-capacity LIBs requiring high safety with low cost. PMID:24216756

  2. Cheap glass fiber mats as a matrix of gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yusong; Wang, Faxing; Liu, Lili; Xiao, Shiyin; Yang, Yaqiong; Wu, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are going to play more important roles in electric vehicles and smart grids. The safety of the current LIBs of large capacity has been remaining a challenge due to the existence of large amounts of organic liquid electrolytes. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have been tried to replace the organic electrolyte to improve their safety. However, the application of GPEs is handicapped by their poor mechanical strength and high cost. Here, we report an economic gel-type composite membrane with high safety and good mechanical strength based on glass fiber mats, which are separator for lead-acid batteries. The gelled membrane exhibits high ionic conductivity (1.13 mS cm(-1)), high Li(+) ion transference number (0.56) and wide electrochemical window. Its electrochemical performance is evaluated by LiFePO4 cathode with good cycling. The results show this gel-type composite membrane has great attraction to the large-capacity LIBs requiring high safety with low cost. PMID:24216756

  3. [Synthesis, crystal structure and spectral properties study of a 3D netlike coordination polymer [Zn(HBIDC) x H2O]n].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu-Wei; Fan, Rui-Qing; Wang, Ping; Wang, Li-Yuan; Yang, Yu-Lin

    2013-02-01

    The 3D netlike coordination polymer of Zn II with benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid (H3BIDC), [Zn(HBIDC) x H2O]n was synthesized by the hydrothermal method through self-assembling. The crystal structure of complex 1 was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis and IR spectra, and we also studied the fluorescence properties of complex 1 in DMSO and in the solid state with UV-Vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime. Complex 1 has blue luminescence in solutions of DMSO with emission band at 481 nm; and has blue luminescence in the solid state at room temperature with a strong emission band at 493 nm, and these all can be attributed to the pi* --> pi transition based on the benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxy acid. The experimental results indicate that complex 1 displays higher fluorescence quantum efficiency and can be used as a potential blue luminescence material. PMID:23697137

  4. The spatial resolution in dosimetry with normoxic polymer-gels investigated with the dose modulation transfer approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bayreder, Christian; Schoen, Robert; Wieland, M.; Georg, Dietmar; Moser, Ewald; Berg, Andreas

    2008-05-15

    The verification of dose distributions with high dose gradients as appearing in brachytherapy or stereotactic radiotherapy for example, calls for dosimetric methods with sufficiently high spatial resolution. Polymer gels in combination with a MR or optical scanner as a readout device have the potential of performing the verification of a three-dimensional dose distribution within a single measurement. The purpose of this work is to investigate the spatial resolution achievable in MR-based polymer gel dosimetry. The authors show that dosimetry on a very small spatial scale (voxel size: 94x94x1000 {mu}m{sup 3}) can be performed with normoxic polymer gels using parameter selective T2 imaging. In order to prove the spatial resolution obtained we are relying on the dose-modulation transfer function (DMTF) concept based on very fine dose modulations at half periods of 200 {mu}m. Very fine periodic dose modulations of a {sup 60}Co photon field were achieved by means of an absorption grid made of tungsten-carbide, specifically designed for quality control. The dose modulation in the polymer gel is compared with that of film dosimetry in one plane via the DMTF concept for general access to the spatial resolution of a dose imaging system. Additionally Monte Carlo simulations were performed and used for the calculation of the DMTF of both, the polymer gel and film dosimetry. The results obtained by film dosimetry agree well with those of Monte Carlo simulations, whereas polymer gel dosimetry overestimates the amplitude value of the fine dose modulations. The authors discuss possible reasons. The in-plane resolution achieved in this work competes with the spatial resolution of standard clinical film-scanner systems.

  5. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer with 7-chloroethyl-theophylline-immobilized silica gel as template and its molecular recognition function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuhui; Tong, Aijun; Li, Longdi

    2004-01-01

    By reaction of 7-chloroethyl-theophylline with aminopropylsilanized silica gel we synthesized a 7-chloroethyl-theophylline-immobilized silica gel as template molecule and prepared a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP-Si), which had special recognition sites to 7-chloroethyl-theophylline. A conventional molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) using 7-chloroethyl-theophylline as template was also prepared for comparison. Binding abilities to 7-chloroethyl-theophylline and its structural analogs revealed that the MIP-Si shows much higher binding speed and much more binding capacity than the MIP does.

  6. SU-F-BRE-15: Verification of Energy Dependence of MAGAT Polymer Gel at Orthovoltage Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Roed, Y; Tailor, R; Ibbott, G; Pinsky, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Investigation of dose response curves of methacrylic acid-based “MAGAT” gel at different effective energies to verify an energy dependence of polymer-gel dosimeters for orthovoltage energy x-rays. Methods: Six small cylindrical MAGAT gel phantoms were exposed to different dose levels; one phantom was unirradiated for background subtraction. This experiment was repeated for three different effective beam energies.24 h post irradiation the spin-spin relaxation times (T2) were measured with a 4.7 T Bruker MR scanner at 2 cm depth inside the gel. The T2 values were converted to relaxation rates (R2) and plotted against the respective dose levels corresponding to the different effective energies. The resulting dose response curves were compared for a 250 kVp beam, the 250 kVp beam filtered by 6 cm of water, and a 125 kVp beam. Results: The passage of the 250 kVp beam through water resulted in a half-value-layer (HVL) change from 1.05 mm Cu to 1.32 mm Cu at 6 cm depth with a change in effective energy from 81.3 keV to 89.5 keV, respectively. The dose response curves showed a shift to higher relaxation rates for the harder beam. The dose response measurements for the 125 kVp beam (HVL: 3.13 mm Al, effective energy: 33.9 keV) demonstrated even higher relaxation rates than for either of the other beams. Conclusion: The MAGAT dose response curves for three different effective energies demonstrate a complex energy dependence, with an apparent decrease in sensitivity at 89.5 keV effective energy. This energy dependence is consistent with observed discrepancies of depth dose data compared with ion-chamber data. For future investigations of larger volumes, an energy-dependent sensitivity function is needed to properly assess 3-dimensional dose distributions.

  7. Influence of the Ionic Liquid Type on the Gel Polymer Electrolytes Properties.

    PubMed

    Tafur, Juan P; Santos, Florencio; Romero, Antonio J Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) composed by ZnTf₂ salt, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), and different ionic liquids are synthesized using n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent. Three different imidazolium-based ionic liquids containing diverse cations and anions have been explored. Structural and electrical properties of the GPEs varying the ZnTf₂ concentration are analyzed by ATR-FTIR, DSC, TG, and cyclic voltammetry. Free salt IL-GPEs present distinct behavior because they are influenced by the different IL cations and anions composition. However, inclusion of ZnTf₂ salt inside the polymers provide GPEs with very similar characteristics, pointing out that ionic transport properties are principally caused by Zn(2+) and triflate movement. Whatever the IL used, the presence of NMP solvent inside the polymer's matrix turns out to be a key factor for improving the Zn(2+) transport inside the GPE due to the interaction between Zn(2+) cations and carbonyl groups of the NMP. High values of ionic conductivity, low activation energy values, and good voltammetric reversibility obtained regardless of the ionic liquid used enable these GPEs to be applied in Zn batteries. Capacities of 110-120 mAh·g(-1) have been obtained for Zn/IL-GPE/MnO₂ batteries discharged at -1 mA·cm(-2). PMID:26610580

  8. Radiation detection with CdTe quantum dots in sol-gel glass and polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manickaraj, Kavin; Wagner, Brent K.; Kang, Zhitao

    2013-05-01

    Optically based radiation detectors in various fields of science still suffer from low resolution, sensitivity and efficiency that restrict their overall performance. Quantum dots (QD) are well-suited for such detectors due to their unique optical properties. CdTe QDs show fast luminescence decay times, high conversion efficiencies, and have band gaps strongly dependent on the particle radius. Since QD particle sizes are well below the wavelengths of their emissions, they remain optically transparent when incorporated in both polymer and sol-gel based silica glass due to negligible optical scattering. In addition, as these composite materials can greatly improve the mechanical robustness of alpha-particle detectors, conventionally known to have delicate components, CdTe QDs show high promise for radiation sensing applications. These properties are especially advantageous for alpha-particle and potentially neutron detection. In this work, CdTe QD-based glass or polymer matrix nanocomposites were synthesized for use as alpha-particle detection scintillators.. The fast photo-response and decay times provide excellent time resolution. The radiation responses of such nanocomposites in polymer or glass matrices were investigated.

  9. [The use of polymer gel dosimetry to measure dose distribution around metallic implants].

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Tomomasa; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Monzen, Hajime; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2014-10-01

    A semi-solid polymer dosimetry system using agar was developed to measure the dose distribution close to metallic implants. Dosimetry of heterogeneous fields where electron density markedly varies is often problematic. This prompted us to develop a polymer gel dosimetry technique using agar to measure the dose distribution near substance boundaries. Varying the concentration of an oxygen scavenger (tetra-hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride) showed the absorbed dose and transverse relaxation rate of the magnetic resonance signal to be linear between 3 and 12 Gy. Although a change in the dosimeter due to oxidization was observed in room air after 24 hours, no such effects were observed in the first 4 hours. The dose distribution around the metal implants was measured using agar dosimetry. The metals tested were a lead rod, a titanium hip joint, and a metallic stent. A maximum 30% dose increase was observed near the lead rod, but only a 3% increase in the absorbed dose was noted near the surface of the titanium hip joint and metallic stent. Semi-solid polymer dosimetry using agar thus appears to be a useful method for dosimetry around metallic substances. PMID:25327426

  10. Sol-gel metal oxide and metal oxide/polymer multilayers applied by meniscus coating

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Thomas, I.M.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing a meniscus coating process for manufacturing large-aperture dielectric multilayer high reflectors (HR`s) at ambient conditions from liquid suspensions. Using a lab-scale coater capable of coating 150 mm square substrates, we have produced several HR`s which give 99% + reflection with 24 layers and with edge effects confined to about 10 mm. In calendar 1993 we are taking delivery of an automated meniscus coating machine capable of coating substrates up to 400 mm wide and 600 mm long. The laser-damage threshold and failure stress of sol-gel thin films can be substantially increased through the use of soluble polymers which act as binders for the metal oxide particles comprising the deposited film. Refractive index control of the film is also possible through varying the polymer/oxide ratio. Much of our present effort present is in optimizing oxide particle/binder/solvent formulations for the high-index material. Films from colloidal zirconia strengthened with polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) have given best results to date. An increase in the laser damage threshold (LDT) for single layers has been shown to significantly increase with increased polymer loading, but as yet the LDT for multilayer stacks remains low.

  11. Formation of 3D graphene foams on soft templated metal monoliths.

    PubMed

    Tynan, Michael K; Johnson, David W; Dobson, Ben P; Coleman, Karl S

    2016-07-21

    Graphene foams are leading contenders as frameworks for polymer thermosets, filtration/pollution control and for use as an electrode material in energy storage devices, taking advantage of graphene's high electrical conductivity and the porous structure of the foam. Here we demonstrate a simple synthesis of a macroporous 3D graphene material templated from a dextran/metal salt gel, where the metal was cobalt, nickel, copper, and iron. The gel was annealed to form a metal oxide foam prior to a methane chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Cobalt metal gels were shown to afford the highest quality material as determined by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. PMID:27341076

  12. A novel injectable thermoresponsive and cytocompatible gel of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with layered double hydroxides facilitates siRNA delivery into chondrocytes in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsiao-yin; van Ee, Renz J; Timmer, Klaas; Craenmehr, Eric G M; Huang, Julie H; Öner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Kragten, Angela H M; Willems, Nicole; Grinwis, Guy C M; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Papen-Botterhuis, Nicole E; Creemers, Laura B

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid hydrogels composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAM) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are presented in this study as novel injectable and thermoresponsive materials for siRNA delivery, which could specifically target several negative regulators of tissue homeostasis in cartilaginous tissues. Effectiveness of siRNA transfection using pNIPAAM formulated with either MgAl-LDH or MgFe-LDH platelets was investigated using osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as an endogenous model gene to evaluate the extent of silencing. No significant adverse effects of pNIPAAM/LDH hydrogels on cell viability were noticed. Cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled siRNA was greatly enhanced (>75%) in pNIPAAM/LDH hydrogel constructs compared to alginate, hyaluronan and fibrin gels, and was absent in pNIPAAM hydrogel without LDH platelets. When using siRNA against GAPDH, 82-98% reduction of gene expression was found in both types of pNIPAAM/LDH hydrogel constructs after 6 days of culturing. In the pNIPAAM/MgAl-LDH hybrid hydrogel, 80-95% of GAPDH enzyme activity was reduced in parallel with gene. Our findings show that the combination of a cytocompatible hydrogel and therapeutic RNA oligonucleotides is feasible. Thus it might hold promise in treating degeneration of cartilaginous tissues by providing supporting scaffolds for cells and interference with locally produced degenerative factors. PMID:26022968

  13. Coordination polymer gels: soft metal-organic supramolecular materials and versatile applications.

    PubMed

    Sutar, Papri; Maji, Tapas Kumar

    2016-06-21

    In recent times, significant attention has been paid to the development of functional coordination polymer gels (CPGs) from rationally designed low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) and metal ions. Coordination of metal ions to LMWGs provides an opportunity to emulate metal based redox, optical, electronic and magnetic properties in soft CPG materials. The metal-LMWG interactions allow controlled growth of CPGs with different nanostructures such as fibers, tubes, rings, ribbons and vesicles. Furthermore, the nanoscale periodicity of metal ions and LWMGs in CPGs is of paramount importance for different optoelectronic applications. The easy processability and dynamic nature of CPGs are explored for application in diverse fields, including drug-delivery, gas storage, optoelectronics, chemo-sensing, self-healing, etc. Also, by taking advantage of dynamic metal-ligand coordination bonds various stimuli-responsive multi-functional CPGs are developed. In this feature article, we cover important examples of newly developed CPGs, which show potential applications in different fields. PMID:27203359

  14. Rheological and textural properties of microemulsion-based polymer gels with indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Anna; Osmałek, Tomasz; Kunstman, Paweł; Roszak, Rafał; Białas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present novel microemulsion (ME)-based semisolid polymer gels designed for topical administration of poorly water soluble non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Indomethacin (IND) was used as a model compound. The ME consisted of castor oil, water, Tween®80 as a surfactant and ethanol as cosurfactant. To obtain the desired consistency of the formulations Carbopol®960 was applied as a thickening agent. The aim of the study was to analyze in detail the mechanical properties of the obtained systems, with special attention paid to the features crucial for topical application. The rheological and textural experiments performed for samples with and without the incorporated drug clearly indicate that flow characteristics, viscoelastic properties and texture profiles were affected by the presence of IND. Novel semisolid formulations with IND described for the first time in this paper can be considered as an alternative for commercially available conventional topical dosage forms. PMID:26204348

  15. Ionic transport and electrochemical stability of PVDF-HFP based gel polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosdi, A.; Zainol, N. H.; Osman, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) samples consisting of polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) with different concentrations of magnesium triflate salt, Mg(CF3SO3)2 were prepared using the solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity of the GPEs was studied by using a.c impedance spectroscopy and the sample containing 20 wt% salt exhibited the highest conductivity of 5.11 × l0-3 Scm-1. Ionic transport number of the GPEs shows that the samples contain ionic species as main charge carrier while cationic transport number for the highest conducting sample was found to be 0.27. The electrochemical properties of the GPEs were studied using Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The GPEs show high electrochemical stability ˜3.5V (versus Mg2+/Mg) where the highest conducting sample exhibited the highest stability.

  16. pH-responsive supramolecular polymer gel as an enteric elastomer for use in gastric devices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiyi; Bellinger, Andrew M.; Glettig, Dean L.; Barman, Ross; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Zhu, Jiahua; Cleveland, Cody; Montgomery, Veronica A; Gu, Li; Nash, Landon D.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Devices resident in the stomach -- which are used for a variety of clinical applications including nutritional modulation for bariatrics, ingestible electronics for diagnosis and monitoring, and gastric retentive dosage forms for prolonged drug delivery -- typically incorporate elastic polymers to compress the devices during delivery through the esophagus and other narrow orifices in the digestive system. However, in the event of accidental device fracture or migration, the non-degradable nature of these materials risks intestinal obstruction. Here, we show that an elastic, pH-responsive supramolecular gel remains stable and elastic in the acidic environment of the stomach but can be dissolved in the neutral-pH environment of the small and large intestines. In a large animal model, prototype devices with these materials as the key component demonstrated prolonged gastric retention and safe passage. These enteric elastomers should increase the safety profile for a wide range of gastric retentive devices. PMID:26213897

  17. Incorporating multislice imaging into x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, H.; Hilts, M.; Jirasek, A.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate multislice computed tomography (CT) scanning for fast and reliable readout of radiation therapy (RT) dose distributions using CT polymer gel dosimetry (PGD) and to establish a baseline assessment of image noise and uniformity in an unirradiated gel dosimeter. Methods: A 16-slice CT scanner was used to acquire images through a 1 L cylinder filled with water. Additional images were collected using a single slice machine. The variability in CT number (N{sub CT}) associated with the anode heel effect was evaluated and used to define a new slice-by-slice background subtraction artifact removal technique for CT PGD. Image quality was assessed for the multislice system by evaluating image noise and uniformity. The agreement in N{sub CT} for slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array was also examined. Further study was performed to assess the effects of increasing x-ray tube load on the constancy of measured N{sub CT} and overall scan time. In all cases, results were compared to the single slice machine. Finally, images were collected throughout the volume of an unirradiated gel dosimeter to quantify image noise and uniformity before radiation is delivered. Results: Slice-by-slice background subtraction effectively removes the variability in N{sub CT} observed across images acquired simultaneously using the multislice scanner and is the recommended background subtraction method when using a multislice CT system. Image noise was higher for the multislice system compared to the single slice scanner, but overall image quality was comparable between the two systems. Further study showed N{sub CT} was consistent across image slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array for each detector configuration of the slice thicknesses examined. In addition, the multislice system was found to eliminate variations in N{sub CT} due to increasing x-ray tube load and reduce scanning time by a factor of 4 when compared to

  18. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:26883390

  19. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  20. Aspects of radiation beam quality and their effect on the dose response of polymer gels: Photons, electrons and fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Andreas; Bayreder, Christian; Georg, Dietmar; Bankamp, Achim; Wolber, Gerd

    2009-05-01

    Polymer gels are generally assumed to exhibit no significant dependence of the dose response on the energy or type of irradiation for clinically used beam qualities. Based on reports on differences in dose response for low energy photons and particle beams with high linear energy transfer (LET) we here investigate the dose response and energy dependence for a normoxic methacrylic acid polymer gel (MAGAT) for X-rays (100 kV), high energy photon beams (E = 1.2 MeV (60Co), 6 MV and 15 MV) and for three different electron energies (4, 12 and 20 MeV). Due to the possible impact also the sensitivity of the dose response to the dose rate is reported. A reduction in polymer gel relaxation rate has been observed for proton and carbon beams due to the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of these types of radiations. We here report on the dose response of an acryl-amide polymer gel (PAG) in a fast neutron field along with collimation as proposed for Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

  1. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Sprayable Polymer Gel Against Crucifer Flea Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Canola.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2016-08-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), is a key pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in the northern Great Plains of North America. The efficacies of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.), a sprayable polymer gel, and a combination of both were assessed on canola for flea beetle management. Plots were treated soon after colonization by adult flea beetles, when canola was in the cotyledon to one-leaf stage. Ten plants along a 3.6-m section of row were selected and rated at pre-treatment and 7 and 14 d post treatment using the damage-rating scheme advanced by the European Plant Protection Organization, where 1 = 0%, 2 = 2%, 3 = 5%, 4 = 10%, and 5 = 25% leaf area injury. Under moderate flea beetle feeding pressure (1-3.3% leaf area damaged), seeds treated with Gaucho 600 (Bayer CropScience LP Raleigh, NC) (imidacloprid) produced the highest yield (843.2 kg/ha). Meanwhile, Barricade (Barricade International, Inc. Hobe Sound, FL) (polymer gel; 1%) + Scanmask (BioLogic Company Inc, Willow Hill, PA) (Steinernema feltiae) resulted in the highest yields: 1020.8 kg/ha under high (2.0-5.3% leaf area damaged), and 670.2 kg/ha at extremely high (4.3-8.6 % leaf area damaged) feeding pressure. Our results suggest that Barricade (1%) + Scanmask (S. feltiae) can serve as an alternative to the conventional chemical seed treatment. Moreover, Scanmask (S. feltiae) can be used to complement the effects of seed treatment after its protection has run out. PMID:27329629

  2. Narrow stereotactic beam profile measurements using N-vinylpyrrolidone based polymer gels and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, E.; Seimenis, I.; Angelopoulos, A.; Georgolopoulou, P.; Kamariotaki-Paparigopoulou, M.; Maris, T.; Sakelliou, L.; Sandilos, P.; Vlachos, L.

    2001-03-01

    In this work, polymer gel-MRI dosimetry (using VIPAR gels), radiographic film and a PinPoint ion chamber were used for profile measurements of 6 MV x-ray stereotactic beams of 5 and 10 mm diameter. The VIPAR gel-MRI method exhibited a linear dose response up to 32 Gy. VIPAR gels were found to resolve the penumbra region quite accurately, provided that the in-plane image resolution of the related T2-map is adequate (≤0.53 mm). T2-map slice thickness had no significant effect on beam profile data. VIPAR measurements performed with a spatial resolution of 0.13 mm provided penumbra widths (80%-20% distance) of 1.34 and 1.70 mm for the 5 and 10 mm cones respectively. These widths were found to be significantly smaller than those obtained with the film (2.23 mm for the 5 mm cone, 2.45 mm for the 10 mm cone) and PinPoint (2.25 mm for the 5 mm cone, 2.52 mm for the 10 mm cone) methods. Regarding relative depth dose measurements, good correlation between VIPAR gel and PinPoint data was observed. In conclusion, polymer gel-MRI dosimetry can provide relatively accurate profile data for very small beams used in stereotactic radiosurgery since it can overcome, to some extent, the problems related to the finite size of conventional detectors.

  3. The use of normoxic polymer gel for measuring dose distributions of 1, 4 and 30 mm cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. C.; Wu, J. F.; Chang, K. P.; Chu, C. H.; Wey, S. P.; Liu, H. L.; Tung, C. J.; Wu, S. W.; Chao, T. C.

    2014-11-01

    This study demonstrates the use of normoxic polymer gel for measuring dose distributions of small fields that lack lateral electronic equilibrium. Two different types of normoxic polymer gel, MAGAT and PAGAT, are studied in a larger field (10 cm×10 cm) and 1, 4 and 30 mm cones to obtain cone factors, dose profiles and percentage depth doses. These results were then compared to KODAK XV film measurements and BEAMnrc Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the sensitivity of PAGAT gel is 0.090±0.074 s-1 Gy-1, which may not be suitable for small-field dosimetry with a 0.3 mm resolution scanned using a 3 T MR imager in a dose range lower than 2.5 Gy. There are good agreements between cone factors estimated using KODAK XV film and MAGAT gel. In a dose profile comparison, good dose agreement among MAGAT gel, XV film and MC simulation can be seen in the central area for a 30 mm cone. In penumbra, the distance to agreement is at most 1.2 mm (4 pixel), and less than 0.3 mm (1 pixel) for 4 and 1 mm cones. In a percentage depth dose comparison, there were good agreements between MAGAT and MC up to a depth of 8 cm. Possible factors for gel uncertainty such as MRI magnetic field inhomogeneity and temperature were also investigated.

  4. Influence of the Ionic Liquid Type on the Gel Polymer Electrolytes Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tafur, Juan P.; Santos, Florencio; Fernández Romero, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) composed by ZnTf2 salt, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), and different ionic liquids are synthesized using n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent. Three different imidazolium-based ionic liquids containing diverse cations and anions have been explored. Structural and electrical properties of the GPEs varying the ZnTf2 concentration are analyzed by ATR-FTIR, DSC, TG, and cyclic voltammetry. Free salt IL-GPEs present distinct behavior because they are influenced by the different IL cations and anions composition. However, inclusion of ZnTf2 salt inside the polymers provide GPEs with very similar characteristics, pointing out that ionic transport properties are principally caused by Zn2+ and triflate movement. Whatever the IL used, the presence of NMP solvent inside the polymer’s matrix turns out to be a key factor for improving the Zn2+ transport inside the GPE due to the interaction between Zn2+ cations and carbonyl groups of the NMP. High values of ionic conductivity, low activation energy values, and good voltammetric reversibility obtained regardless of the ionic liquid used enable these GPEs to be applied in Zn batteries. Capacities of 110–120 mAh·g−1 have been obtained for Zn/IL-GPE/MnO2 batteries discharged at −1 mA·cm−2. PMID:26610580

  5. Brownian dynamic simulations of electrophoresis and electro-stretching of DNA molecules in polymer gels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Ronald; Graham, Richard

    2006-03-01

    We derive a model for the motion of long DNA chains entangled in a concentrated gel matrix in the presence of a strong electric field. The model is adapted from a tube-based slip-link approach, which was originally intended to model the rheology of entangled polymer fluids, and is suitable for solution by Brownian dynamic simulation. We account for the constraining effect of the surrounding matrix, motion due to the electric field and finite extensibility of the DNA chain. We are able investigate the effect of molecular weight and field strength on the DNA drift velocity in a constant electric field, along with molecular stretching in an oscillating field. Both examples have applications in DNA separation and sequencing. Our approach includes a detailed treatment of the chain end motion through the matrix, which our simulations demonstrate has a significant role in the DNA dynamics, particularly in oscillating fields. The model provides a convenient formalism for further refinements. For example, large fields may tend to cause hernia-like chain loops to protrude from the main tube. Furthermore, to model matrices comprised of linear polymers we can include the effect of constraint release, in which the confinement experienced by the DNA is diminished by the motion of the matrix chains.

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cell with natural gel polymer electrolytes and f-MWCNT as counter-electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of DSSCs were made with gel polymer electrolytes using agar, gelatin and DNA as the polymer hosts. Anthocyanine dye from Hildegardia barteri flower is used to sensitize the TiO2 electrode, and the spectrum of the dye indicates strong absorptions in the blue region of the solar spectrum. The XRD pattern of the TiO2 shows that the adsorption of the dye did not affect the crystallinity of the electrode. The f-MWCNT indicates graphite structure of the MWCNTs were acid oxidized without significant damage. Efficiencies of 3.38 and 0.1% were obtained using gelatin and DNA gel polymer electrolytes, respectively, for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells.

  7. Gel-like elasticity in glass-forming side-chain liquid-crystal polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, O.; Collin, D.; Finkelmann, H.; Rogez, D.; Martinoty, P.

    2009-09-01

    We study the complex shear modulus G of two side-chain liquid-crystal polymers (SCLCPs), a methoxy-phenylbenzoate substituted polyacrylate (thereafter called PAOCH3 ), and a cyanobiphenyl substituted polyacrylate supplied by Merck (thereafter called LCP105) using a piezoelectric rheometer. Two methods of filling the cell are used: (a) a capillary method, which can be used only at high temperature because of the low value of the viscosity, and (b) the classical one, thereafter called compression method, which consists in placing the sample between the two slides of the cell and to bring them closer. By filling the cell at high temperature either with the compression or the capillary method, we show that the response of both compounds is liquidlike ( G'˜f2 and G″˜f , where f is the frequency) for temperatures higher than a certain temperature T0 and gel-like (G'˜const,G″˜f) below T0 . This change in behavior from the conventional flow response to a gel-like response, when approaching the glass transition, is observed for nonsliding conditions and for very weak-imposed shear strains. It can be explained by a percolation-type mechanism of preglassy elastic clusters, which correspond to long-range and long-lived density fluctuations that are frozen at the time scale of the experiment. The sample response is therefore the sum of two contributions: one is due to the flow response of the polymer melt and the other to the elastic response of the network formed by the preglassy elastic clusters. By filling the cell below T0 with the compression method, both compounds exhibit a gel-type behavior by gently bringing closer the slides of the cell and an anomalous low-frequency behavior characterized by G'=const and G″=const by increasing the pressure used to bring closer the slides of the cell. A compression-assisted aggregation of the preglassy elastic clusters can explain both the increase in the low-frequency elastic plateau when the sample thickness is decreased

  8. Design, synthesis, and optimization of nanostructured calcium phosphates (NanoCaPs) and natural polymer based 3-D non-viral gene delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hsu-Feng

    Sustained delivery of therapeutic genes from a three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold and subsequent gene expression capable of triggering the regeneration of damaged tissues is a tissue engineering strategy that has been gaining increased attention. Nanostructured calcium phosphates (NanoCaPs) are biocompatible and non-toxic biomaterials. Furthermore, their efficient transfection in vitro have rendered them attractive gene delivery carriers compared to other viral- or lipid-based agents that tend to be immunogenic or cytotoxic, leading to undesirable responses when utilized above a critical threshold. However, NanoCaPs are typically characterized by variable transfection and short shelf life due to particle aggregation. A viable solution to this problem is the incorporation of NanoCaPs into 3-D scaffolds. The main objectives of this research are therefore two-fold: (1) Examination of the potential of achieving optimized transfection of NanoCaPs via anionic substitution and (2) high throughput synthesis and screening of non-viral gene delivery systems (GDS) comprised of naturally-derived polymers as scaffolds containing NanoCaPs gene carriers. Results indicated that in addition to the excellent transfection levels exhibited by NanoCaPs in vitro, an additional 20-30% increase was observed for NanoCaPs with 10-25 mol% anion substitution. In contrast, high anion substitution (>60%) yielded a drastic decline in transfection. Structural characterizations verified successful anion substitution with a noticeable increase in lattice parameters indicative of an expanded unit cell due to ionic substitution. All of the anion substituted calcium phosphates exhibited the primary phase of hydroxyapatite. For the first time, GDS composed of various concentrations of alginate (AA), fibronectin (FN), and NanoCaPs-DNA complexes were demonstrated. The presence of AA and FN was effective in immobilizing NanoCaPs and reducing the aggregation. High throughput synthesis and screening

  9. Sol-gel transition of nanoparticles/polymer mixtures for sustained delivery of exenatide to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keun Sang; Kim, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Byeong Deok; Lee, Minae; Kim, Heejoo; Kim, Michelle; Seo, Jae Hong; Yuk, Soon Hong

    2014-11-01

    The sol-gel transition of nanoparticles (NPs)/polymer mixture in aqueous medium was investigated for the sustained delivery of exenatide to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exenatide-loaded multilayer NPs were prepared using a layer-by-layer approach which utilized the interaction between Pluronics and lipid bilayers as the main driving force for the construction of the multilayer. Pluronic F-127 was the polymer used, and it forms a gel at body temperature. Although the antidiabetic effects of exenatide-loaded multilayer NPs have been demonstrated previously in an animal model, in this work, the attempt was made to demonstrate the extended duration of antidiabetic effects, which was accomplished by localizing the exenatide-loaded NPs in muscular areas in the body through the gelation of Pluronic F-127. Transmittance electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to examine the morphology of the multilayer NPs/polymer mixture. A change in the release pattern of exenatide was observed after gel formation at body temperature, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis was performed using native exenatide and a reference biomarker as control to observe whether exenatide extracted from the multilayer NPs and the multilayer NPs/Pluronic F-127 mixture degraded or not. We then observed the antidiabetic effect of exenatide-loaded multilayer NPs/Pluronic F-127 mixture by monitoring blood-glucose levels in db/db mice. In vitro and in vivo correlation was discussed regarding structural variation in the delivery vehicles. PMID:25152212

  10. Image reconstruction of optical computed tomography by using the algebraic reconstruction technique for dose readouts of polymer gel dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cheng-Ting; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chang, Shu-Jun; Wu, Jay

    2015-12-01

    Optical computed tomography (optical CT) has been proven to be a useful tool for dose readouts of polymer gel dosimeters. In this study, the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) for image reconstruction of gel dosimeters was used to improve the image quality of optical CT. Cylindrical phantoms filled with N-isopropyl-acrylamide polymer gels were irradiated using a medical linear accelerator. A circular dose distribution and a hexagonal dose distribution were produced by applying the VMAT technique and the six-field dose delivery, respectively. The phantoms were scanned using optical CT, and the images were reconstructed using the filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm and the ART. For the circular dose distribution, the ART successfully reduced the ring artifacts and noise in the reconstructed image. For the hexagonal dose distribution, the ART reduced the hot spots at the entrances of the beams and increased the dose uniformity in the central region. Within 50% isodose line, the gamma pass rates for the 2 mm/3% criteria for the ART and FBP were 99.2% and 88.1%, respectively. The ART could be used for the reconstruction of optical CT images to improve image quality and provide accurate dose conversion for polymer gel dosimeters. PMID:26165178

  11. Development and manufacture of printable next-generation gel polymer ionic liquid electrolyte for Zn/MnO2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, R.; Wu, C. H.; Wang, Z.; Kim, B.; Keif, M.; Evans, J.; Wright, P.

    2013-12-01

    While much energy storage research focuses on the performance of individual components, such as the electrolyte or a single electrode, few investigate the electrochemical system as a whole. This research reports on the design, composition, and performance of a Zn/MnO2 battery as affected by the manufacturing method and next-generation gel polymer electrolyte composed of the ionic liquid [BMIM][Otf], ZnOtf salt, and PVDF-HFP polymer binder. Materials and manufacturing tests are discussed with a focus on water concentration, surface features as produced by printing processes, and the effect of including a gel polymer phase. Cells produced for this research generated open circuit voltages from 1.0 to 1.3 V. A dry [BMIM][Otf] electrolyte was found to have 87.3 ppm of H2O, while an electrolyte produced in ambient conditions contained 12400 ppm of H2O. Cells produced in a dry, Ar environment had an average discharge capacity of 0.0137 mAh/cm2, while one produced in an ambient environment exhibited a discharge capacity at 0.05 mAh/cm2. Surface features varied significantly by printing method, where a doctor blade produced the most consistent features. The preliminary results herein suggest that water, surface roughness, and the gel polymer play important roles in affecting the performance of printed energy storage.

  12. Novel configuration of poly(vinylidenedifluoride)-based gel polymer electrolyte for application in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasciani, Chiara; Panero, Stefania; Hassoun, Jusef; Scrosati, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Herein we propose a novel poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVdF)-based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) for application in lithium-ion batteries, LIBs. The GPE is prepared under air as a dry, flexible film and directly gelled during LIB assembly with a conventional liquid organic electrolyte. The dry-gel here originally reported maintains its structural integrity due to the presence of crystallized EC-solvent within its matrix that avoids structural collapse, as demonstrated by TGA analysis. By avoiding the use of controlled atmosphere, the GPE is easy to handle and suitable for roll-to-roll scaling-up, i.e. characteristics missed by the common gel membranes. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) evidences a micrometric polymer network of the dry membrane precursor acting as the support matrix for the gelation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and galvanostatic tests suggest a good stability of the lithium electrode/gel electrolyte interface and a satisfactory lithium transference number. Cycling tests of gel-electrolyte-based lithium half-cells using lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) and graphite (C), respectively, as counter electrodes, as well as of a full C/LFP lithium-ion battery confirm the suitability of the GPE developed in this work for application in stable, low cost and environmentally friendly energy storage systems.

  13. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  14. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  15. Experimental and theoretical investigation of time-setting polymer gels in porous media. [Xanthan/Chromium gel

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, S.; Roberts, L.J.; Sorbie, K.S. )

    1988-11-01

    This paper comprises studies of the kinetics of the xanthan/chromium gel system. The central objective of this work is to perform well-characterized core flow experiments with a simple gelling system that may then be mathematically simulated to obtain a detailed knowledge of the processes that are occurring. Gamma-labeled /sup 51/Cr is used so that in-situ chromium profiles may be observed during gel emplacement. These are required to distinguish between different kinetic/transport models because effluent profiles alone are insufficient for this purpose. A generalized multicomponent transport equation including terms describing the crosslinking reaction is used to simulate the experiments.

  16. Formation of 3D graphene foams on soft templated metal monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynan, Michael K.; Johnson, David W.; Dobson, Ben P.; Coleman, Karl S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene foams are leading contenders as frameworks for polymer thermosets, filtration/pollution control and for use as an electrode material in energy storage devices, taking advantage of graphene's high electrical conductivity and the porous structure of the foam. Here we demonstrate a simple synthesis of a macroporous 3D graphene material templated from a dextran/metal salt gel, where the metal was cobalt, nickel, copper, and iron. The gel was annealed to form a metal oxide foam prior to a methane chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Cobalt metal gels were shown to afford the highest quality material as determined by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and Raman spectroscopy.Graphene foams are leading contenders as frameworks for polymer thermosets, filtration/pollution control and for use as an electrode material in energy storage devices, taking advantage of graphene's high electrical conductivity and the porous structure of the foam. Here we demonstrate a simple synthesis of a macroporous 3D graphene material templated from a dextran/metal salt gel, where the metal was cobalt, nickel, copper, and iron. The gel was annealed to form a metal oxide foam prior to a methane chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Cobalt metal gels were shown to afford the highest quality material as determined by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Raman, EDX, PXRD, TGA, electrical conductivity data and SEM. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02455f

  17. Gel polymer electrolyte lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Behar, A.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Yu, J.-S.; Alamgir, M.

    For a number of NASA's future planetary and terrestrial applications, high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries that can operate at very low temperature are desired. In the pursuit of developing Li-ion batteries with improved low temperature performance, we have also focused on assessing the viability of using gel polymer systems, due to their desirable form factor and enhanced safety characteristics. In the present study we have evaluated three classes of promising liquid low-temperature electrolytes that have been impregnated into gel polymer electrolyte carbon-LiMn 2O 4-based Li-ion cells (manufactured by LG Chem. Inc.), consisting of: (a) binary EC + EMC mixtures with very low EC-content (10%), (b) quaternary carbonate mixtures with low EC-content (16-20%), and (c) ternary electrolytes with very low EC-content (10%) and high proportions of ester co-solvents (i.e., 80%). These electrolytes have been compared with a baseline formulation (i.e., 1.0 M LiPF 6 in EC + DEC + DMC (1:1:1%, v/v/v), where EC, ethylene carbonate, DEC, diethyl carbonate, and DMC, dimethyl carbonate). We have performed a number of characterization tests on these cells, including: determining the rate capacity as a function of temperature (with preceding charge at room temperature and also at low temperature), the cycle life performance (both 100% DOD and 30% DOD low earth orbit cycling), the pulse capability, and the impedance characteristics at different temperatures. We have obtained excellent performance at low temperatures with ester-based electrolytes, including the demonstration of >80% of the room temperature capacity at -60 °C using a C/20 discharge rate with cells containing 1.0 M LiPF 6 in EC + EMC + MB (1:1:8%, v/v/v) (MB, methyl butyrate) and 1.0 M LiPF 6 in EC + EMC + EB (1:1:8%, v/v/v) (EB, ethyl butyrate) electrolytes. In addition, cells containing the ester-based electrolytes were observed to support 5 C pulses at -40 °C, while still maintaining a voltage >2.5 V at

  18. Final Technical Report for 'Investigations of the Role of Protozoa in Transformations of Marine Biopolymers using Phaeocytis Polymer Gels as a Model'

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, Evelyn

    2003-04-01

    OAK B188 Biopolymers and biopolymer gels are major components of the organic carbon and nitrogen pools in the ocean. The overall goal of this project was to better understand the chemical and physical transformations of polymers and polymer gels in coastal waters that are mediated by protists and bacteria. Bacteria are thought to be the major consumers of marine biopolymers, but direct consumption by protists, and the interactions of bacteria and protists, may also be important but largely unexplored pathways of biopolymer cycling. Phaeocystis is a colonial prymnesiophyte alga that produces large amounts of polymer gels that have similar properties to those found in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool namely, they are tangled networks of polymers held together by calcium bridges. We used the polymers and polymer gels produced by two species of Phaeocystis (from the North Atlantic and Antarctica) as models to examine the consumption, degradation and alteration of algal polymer gels by protists and bacteria. We developed several novel methods and approaches to examine polymer gel transformations. One tool was an immunoassay (ELISA) using a polyclonal antibody specific to Phaeocystis polymers that allowed us to track the polymer gels in situ and in laboratory experiments. We successfully tested the ability of the immunoassay to detect and quantify Phaeocystis polymer carbon in water from the Ross Sea, Gulf of Alaska and North Water (Greenland). This exciting new approach demonstrates the usefulness of antibodies for detecting and quantifying a specific component of the DOM pool in natural samples and provides a method for following the sources and sinks of that component. We also developed a fluorescent immunoassay procedure with the antibody to visualize and quantify ingested polymers in single protist cells. In experiments with polymer gels as the sole organic source (no prey), prey plus polymer gels, and prey without polymer gels, we determined that some

  19. Effects of refractive index mismatch in optical CT imaging of polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki S, Sharath; Kanhirodan, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Proposing an image reconstruction technique, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc). The proposed method takes care of refractive index mismatches present in gel dosimeter scanner at the boundary, and also corrects for the interior ray refraction. Polymer gel dosimeters with high dose regions have higher refractive index and optical density compared to the background medium, these changes in refractive index at high dose results in interior ray bending. Methods: The inclusion of the effects of refraction is an important step in reconstruction of optical density in gel dosimeters. The proposed ray tracing algorithm models the interior multiple refraction at the inhomogeneities. Jacob’s ray tracing algorithm has been modified to calculate the pathlengths of the ray that traverses through the higher dose regions. The algorithm computes the length of the ray in each pixel along its path and is used as the weight matrix. Algebraic reconstruction technique and pixel based reconstruction algorithms are used for solving the reconstruction problem. The proposed method is tested with numerical phantoms for various noise levels. The experimental dosimetric results are also presented. Results: The results show that the proposed scheme ART-rc is able to reconstruct optical density inside the dosimeter better than the results obtained using filtered backprojection and conventional algebraic reconstruction approaches. The quantitative improvement using ART-rc is evaluated using gamma-index. The refraction errors due to regions of different refractive indices are discussed. The effects of modeling of interior refraction in the dose region are presented. Conclusions: The errors propagated due to multiple refraction effects have been modeled and the improvements in reconstruction using proposed model is presented. The refractive index of the dosimeter has a mismatch with the surrounding medium (for dry air or water scanning). The algorithm

  20. Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Cellulose Gels as a Flexible Reinforcement Matrix for Polymer Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhuqun; Huang, Junchao; Liu, Chuanjun; Ding, Beibei; Kuga, Shigenori; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lina

    2015-10-21

    With the world's focus on utilization of sustainable natural resources, the conversion of wood and plant fibers into cellulose nanowhiskers/nanofibers is essential for application of cellulose in polymer nanocomposites. Here, we present a novel fabrication method of polymer nanocomposites by in-situ polymerization of monomers in three-dimensionally nanoporous cellulose gels (NCG) prepared from aqueous alkali hydroxide/urea solution. The NCG have interconnected nanofibrillar cellulose network structure, resulting in high mechanical strength and size stability. Polymerization of the monomer gave P(MMA/BMA)/NCG, P(MMA/BA)/NCG nanocomposites with a volume fraction of NCG ranging from 15% to 78%. SEM, TEM, and XRD analyses show that the NCG are finely distributed and preserved well in the nanocomposites after polymerization. DMA analysis demonstrates a significant improvement in tensile storage modulus E' above the glass transition temperature; for instance, at 95 °C, E' is increased by over 4 orders of magnitude from 0.03 MPa of the P(MMA/BMA) up to 350 MPa of nanocomposites containing 15% v/v NCG. This reinforcement effect can be explained by the percolation model. The nanocomposites also show remarkable improvement in solvent resistance (swelling ratio of 1.3-2.2 in chloroform, acetone, and toluene), thermal stability (do not melt or decompose up to 300 °C), and low coefficients of thermal expansion (in-plane CTE of 15 ppm·K(-1)). These nanocomposites will have great promising applications in flexible display, packing, biomedical implants, and many others. PMID:26397710

  1. Supramolecular liquid-crystal gels formed by polyfluorene-based π-conjugated polymer for switchable anisotropic scattering device.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Wei; Huang, Chiu-Chang; Chao, Chih-Yu

    2014-05-14

    To overcome the problem of high driving voltage and low contrast ratio in the switchable scattering device of conventional liquid-crystal (LC) physical gel, a new type of supramolecular LC physical gel has been developed and fabricated through the fibrous self-assembly of the polyfluorene-based π-conjugated polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), in nematic LC mixture E7. It was found that the rubbed interface between the LC molecules and polyimide layer can induce the LC physical gels to demonstrate fantastic light scattering characteristic. The gels with oriented self-assembled supramolecular structures exhibiting significant anisotropic light scattering in the main-chain direction of the F8BT molecules under an extremely low driving voltage (ca. 2.7 V) are reported for the first time. In addition, the contrast ratio can be reached exceeding 1000. In contrast to conventional LC physical gels, the large reduction of driving voltages of the supramolecular gel provides great possibility for application in various electro-optical devices such as tunable polarizers, transflective displays, and polarized light modulators. PMID:24724859

  2. Cosolvent-free polymer gel dosimeters with improved dose sensitivity and resolution for x-ray CT dose response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, J. N. M.; Jirasek, A.; Schreiner, L. J.; McAuley, K. B.

    2011-04-01

    This study reports new N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel recipes with increased dose sensitivity and improved dose resolution for x-ray CT readout. NIPAM can be used to increase the solubility of N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) in aqueous solutions from approximately 3% to 5.5% by weight, enabling the manufacture of dosimeters containing up to 19.5%T, which is the total concentration of NIPAM and Bis by weight. Gelatin is shown to have a mild influence on dose sensitivity when gels are imaged using x-ray CT, and a stronger influence when gels are imaged optically. Phantoms that contain only 3% gelatin and 5 mM tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride are sufficiently stiff for dosimetry applications. The best cosolvent-free gel formulation has a dose sensitivity in the linear range (~0.88 H Gy-1) that is a small improvement compared to the best NIPAM-based gels that incorporate isopropanol as a cosolvent (~0.80 H Gy-1). This new gel formulation results in enhanced dose resolution (~0.052 Gy) for x-ray CT readout, making clinical applications of this imaging modality more feasible.

  3. Highly branched and loop-rich gels via formation of metal-organic cages linked by polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukhovitskiy, Aleksandr V.; Zhong, Mingjiang; Keeler, Eric G.; Michaelis, Vladimir K.; Sun, Jessie E. P.; Hore, Michael J. A.; Pochan, Darrin J.; Griffin, Robert G.; Willard, Adam P.; Johnson, Jeremiah A.

    2016-01-01

    Gels formed via metal-ligand coordination typically have very low branch functionality, f, as they consist of ˜2-3 polymer chains linked to single metal ions that serve as junctions. Thus, these materials are very soft and unable to withstand network defects such as dangling ends and loops. We report here a new class of gels assembled from polymeric ligands and metal-organic cages (MOCs) as junctions. The resulting ‘polyMOC’ gels are precisely tunable and may feature increased branch functionality. We show two examples of such polyMOCs: a gel with a low f based on a M2L4 paddlewheel cluster junction and a compositionally isomeric one of higher f based on a M12L24 cage. The latter features large shear moduli, but also a very large number of elastically inactive loop defects that we subsequently exchanged for functional ligands, with no impact on the gel's shear modulus. Such a ligand substitution is not possible in gels of low f, including the M2L4-based polyMOC.

  4. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Based Non-Volatile Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid

    PubMed Central

    Khanmirzaei, Mohammad Hassan; Ramesh, S.; Ramesh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes using imidazolium based ionic liquids have attracted much attention in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium iodide (NaI), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as ionic liquid (IL), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are used for preparation of non-volatile gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system (HPC:EC:PC:NaI:MPII) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The highest ionic conductivity of 7.37 × 10−3 S cm−1 is achieved after introducing 100% of MPII with respect to the weight of HPC. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes is studied in this work. XRD patterns of gel polymer electrolytes are studied to confirm complexation between HPC polymer, NaI and MPII. Thermal behavior of the GPEs is studied using simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSSCs are fabricated using gel polymer electrolytes and J-V centeracteristics of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells were analyzed. The gel polymer electrolyte with 100 wt.% of MPII ionic liquid shows the best performance and energy conversion efficiency of 5.79%, with short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.73 mA cm−2, 610 mV and 69.1%, respectively. PMID:26659087

  5. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Based Non-Volatile Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Khanmirzaei, Mohammad Hassan; Ramesh, S; Ramesh, K

    2015-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes using imidazolium based ionic liquids have attracted much attention in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium iodide (NaI), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as ionic liquid (IL), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are used for preparation of non-volatile gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system (HPC:EC:PC:NaI:MPII) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The highest ionic conductivity of 7.37 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) is achieved after introducing 100% of MPII with respect to the weight of HPC. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes is studied in this work. XRD patterns of gel polymer electrolytes are studied to confirm complexation between HPC polymer, NaI and MPII. Thermal behavior of the GPEs is studied using simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSSCs are fabricated using gel polymer electrolytes and J-V centeracteristics of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells were analyzed. The gel polymer electrolyte with 100 wt.% of MPII ionic liquid shows the best performance and energy conversion efficiency of 5.79%, with short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.73 mA cm(-2), 610 mV and 69.1%, respectively. PMID:26659087

  6. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Based Non-Volatile Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanmirzaei, Mohammad Hassan; Ramesh, S.; Ramesh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes using imidazolium based ionic liquids have attracted much attention in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium iodide (NaI), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as ionic liquid (IL), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are used for preparation of non-volatile gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system (HPC:EC:PC:NaI:MPII) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The highest ionic conductivity of 7.37 × 10-3 S cm-1 is achieved after introducing 100% of MPII with respect to the weight of HPC. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes is studied in this work. XRD patterns of gel polymer electrolytes are studied to confirm complexation between HPC polymer, NaI and MPII. Thermal behavior of the GPEs is studied using simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSSCs are fabricated using gel polymer electrolytes and J-V centeracteristics of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells were analyzed. The gel polymer electrolyte with 100 wt.% of MPII ionic liquid shows the best performance and energy conversion efficiency of 5.79%, with short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.73 mA cm-2, 610 mV and 69.1%, respectively.

  7. Determination of the interaction using FTIR within the composite gel polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yun; Ma, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xu; Liang, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    In the previous research, the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) which consisted of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix, propylene carbonate (PC), LiClO4 and OREC (Rectorite modified with dodecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), achieved satisfactory properties. In the paper, the interaction between components was quantitatively determined. Characterization of interaction of Cdbnd O in PC and PMMA with Li+ and OH group on OREC surface has been thoroughly examined using FTIR, respectively. The quantitative analysis of FTIR shows that the absorptivity coefficient a of PMMA/LiClO4, PC/LiClO4, PC/OREC and PMMA/OREC is 0.902, 0.113, 0.430 and 0.753, respectively, which means that the Li+ or OH bonded Cdbnd O is more sensitive than the free Cdbnd O in FTIR spectra. The limit value of bonded Cdbnd O equivalent fraction of PMMA/LiClO4, PC/LiClO4, PC/OREC and PMMA/OREC is 17%, 94%, 57% and 20%, respectively, which implies that all the interaction within the components is reversible and the intensity of interaction is ordered as PC/LiClO4, PC/OREC, PMMA/OREC and PMMA/LiClO4.

  8. Gel polymer electrolytes based on nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dul-Sun; Woo, Jang Chang; Youk, Ji Ho; Manuel, James; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate membranes were prepared by electrospinning. • Trimethylolpropane triacrylate was used as a crosslinking agent of fibers. • The GPE based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Nanofibrous membranes for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at weight ratios of 1/0.5 and 1/1. TMPTA is used to achieve crosslinking of fibers thereby improving mechanical strength. The average fiber diameters increased with increasing TMPTA concentration and the mechanical strength was also improved due to the enhanced crosslinking of fibers. GPEs based on electrospun membranes were prepared by soaking them in a liquid electrolyte of 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1, v/v). The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate (weight ratio; 1/1 and 1/0.5) were investigated. Ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN–acrylate was the highest for PAN/acrylate (1/0.5) due to the proper swelling of fibers and good affinity with liquid electrolyte. Both GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate membranes show good oxidation stability, >5.0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Cells with GPEs based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed remarkable cycle performance with high initial discharge capacity and low capacity fading.

  9. Hydrogel-based reinforcement of 3D bioprinted constructs.

    PubMed

    Melchels, Ferry P W; Blokzijl, Maarten M; Levato, Riccardo; Peiffer, Quentin C; Ruijter, Mylène de; Hennink, Wim E; Vermonden, Tina; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Progress within the field of biofabrication is hindered by a lack of suitable hydrogel formulations. Here, we present a novel approach based on a hybrid printing technique to create cellularized 3D printed constructs. The hybrid bioprinting strategy combines a reinforcing gel for mechanical support with a bioink to provide a cytocompatible environment. In comparison with thermoplastics such as [Formula: see text]-polycaprolactone, the hydrogel-based reinforcing gel platform enables printing at cell-friendly temperatures, targets the bioprinting of softer tissues and allows for improved control over degradation kinetics. We prepared amphiphilic macromonomers based on poloxamer that form hydrolysable, covalently cross-linked polymer networks. Dissolved at a concentration of 28.6%w/w in water, it functions as reinforcing gel, while a 5%w/w gelatin-methacryloyl based gel is utilized as bioink. This strategy allows for the creation of complex structures, where the bioink provides a cytocompatible environment for encapsulated cells. Cell viability of equine chondrocytes encapsulated within printed constructs remained largely unaffected by the printing process. The versatility of the system is further demonstrated by the ability to tune the stiffness of printed constructs between 138 and 263 kPa, as well as to tailor the degradation kinetics of the reinforcing gel from several weeks up to more than a year. PMID:27431861

  10. Water shutoff through fullbore placement of polymer gel in faulted and in hydraulically fractured producers of the Prudhoe Bay field

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, R.H.; Sanders, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Selective shutoff of undesired water influx by nonselective (fullbore) placement of treating chemicals has been successfully demonstrated in production wells of the Prudhoe Bay field. This was accomplished through: (1) careful choice of candidates with known high conductivity water influx pathways (fault, hydraulic fracture, thief), (2) placement that exploited conductivity differences without zonal isolation, and (3) use of established polymer gel chemistry with previously demonstrated ability to shut off water preferentially to oil.

  11. High power, gel polymer lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance for NASA and DoD applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Yu, Ji-Sang; Plichta, Edward P.

    2004-01-01

    Both NASA and the U.S. Army have interest in developing secondary energy storage devices that are capable of meeting the demanding performance requirements of aerospace and man-portable applications. In order to meet these demanding requirements, gel-polymer electrolyte-based lithium-ion cells are being actively considered, due to their promise of providing high specific energy and enhanced safety aspects.

  12. Natural macromolecule based carboxymethyl cellulose as a gel polymer electrolyte with adjustable porosity for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. S.; Xiao, S. Y.; Li, M. X.; Chang, Z.; Wang, F. X.; Gao, J.; Wu, Y. P.

    2015-08-01

    A porous membrane of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from natural macromolecule as a host of a gel polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries is reported. It is prepared, for the first time, by a simple non-solvent evaporation method and its porous structure is fine-adjusted by varying the composition ratio of the solvent and non-solvent mixture. The electrolyte uptake of the porous membrane based on CMC is 75.9%. The ionic conductivity of the as-prepared gel membrane saturated with 1 mol L-1 LiPF6 electrolyte at room temperature can be up to 0.48 mS cm-1. Moreover, the lithium ion transference in the gel membrane at room temperature is as high as 0.46, much higher than 0.27 for the commercial separator Celgard 2730. When evaluated by using LiFePO4 cathode, the prepared gel membrane exhibits very good electrochemical performance including higher reversible capacity, better rate capability and good cycling behaviour. The obtained results suggest that this porous polymer membrane shows great attraction to the lithium ion batteries requiring high safety, low cost and environmental friendliness.

  13. Radiation-induced refraction artifacts in the optical CT readout of polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Warren G.; Jirasek, Andrew; Wells, Derek M.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to demonstrate imaging artifacts that can occur during the optical computed tomography (CT) scanning of polymer gel dosimeters due to radiation-induced refractive index (RI) changes in polyacrylamide gels. Methods: A 1 L cylindrical polyacrylamide gel dosimeter was irradiated with 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} square beams of 6 MV photons. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner was used to image the dosimeter. Investigative optical CT scans were performed to examine two types of rayline bending: (i) bending within the plane of the fan-beam and (ii) bending out the plane of the fan-beam. To address structured errors, an iterative Savitzky–Golay (ISG) filtering routine was designed to filter 2D projections in sinogram space. For comparison, 2D projections were alternatively filtered using an adaptive-mean (AM) filter. Results: In-plane rayline bending was most notably observed in optical CT projections where rays of the fan-beam confronted a sustained dose gradient that was perpendicular to their trajectory but within the fan-beam plane. These errors caused distinct streaking artifacts in image reconstructions due to the refraction of higher intensity rays toward more opaque regions of the dosimeter. Out-of-plane rayline bending was observed in slices of the dosimeter that featured dose gradients perpendicular to the plane of the fan-beam. These errors caused widespread, severe overestimations of dose in image reconstructions due to the higher-than-actual opacity that is perceived by the scanner when light is bent off of the detector array. The ISG filtering routine outperformed AM filtering for both in-plane and out-of-plane rayline errors caused by radiation-induced RI changes. For in-plane rayline errors, streaks in an irradiated region (>7 Gy) were as high as 49% for unfiltered data, 14% for AM, and 6% for ISG. For out-of-plane rayline errors, overestimations of dose in a low-dose region (∼50 cGy) were as high as 13 Gy for

  14. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  15. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  16. Preparation and characterization of cross-linked collagen-phospholipid polymer hybrid gels.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kwangwoo; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kishida, Akio

    2007-01-01

    2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-immobilized collagen gel was developed. Using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), we cross-linked a collagen film in 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid (MES) buffer (EN gel). EN gel was prepared under both pH 4.5 and pH 9.0 in order to observe changes in cross-linking ability. To cross-link MPC to collagen gel, poly(MPC-co-methacrylic acid) (PMA) having a carboxyl group side chain was chosen. E/N gel was added to the MES buffer having pre-NHS activated PMA to make MPC-immobilized collagen gel (MiC gel). MiC gel was prepared under both acidic and alkaline conditions to observe the changes in the cross-linking ability of PMA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the PMA was cross-linked with collagen under both acidic and alkaline conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the shrinkage temperature increased for the MiC gels and that the increase would be greater for the MiC gel prepared under alkaline conditions. The data showed that swelling would be less when the MiC gel was prepared under alkaline conditions. The biodegradation caused by collagenase was suppressed for the MiC gel prepared under alkaline conditions due to stable inter- and intrahelical networks. PMID:16959313

  17. Design of Advanced MnO/N-Gr 3D Walls through Polymer Cross-Linking for High-Performance Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Quang; Kang, Bong Kyun; Tiruneh, Sintayehu Nibret; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-01-26

    Three-dimensional, vertically aligned MnO/nitrogen-doped graphene (3D MnO/N-Gr) walls were prepared through facile solution-phase synthesis followed by thermal treatment. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was strategically added to generate cross-links to simultaneously form 3D wall structures and to incorporate nitrogen atoms into the graphene network. The unique wall features of the as-prepared 3D MnO/N-Gr hybirdes provide a large surface area (91.516 m(2) g(-1)) and allow for rapid diffusion of the ion electrolyte, resulting in a high specific capacitance of 378 F g(-1) at 0.25 A g(-1) and an excellent charge/discharge stability (93.7% capacity retention after 8000 cycles) in aqueous 1 m Na2 SO4 solution as electrolyte. Moreover, the symmetric supercapacitors that were rationally designed by using 3D MnO/N-Gr hybrids exhibit outstanding electrochemical performance in an organic electrolyte with an energy density of 90.6 Wh kg(-1) and a power density of 437.5 W kg(-1). PMID:26689298

  18. Scaling of the kinetics of slow aggregation and gel formation for a fluorinated polymer colloid.

    PubMed

    Sandkühler, Peter; Sefcik, Jan; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2005-03-01

    The aggregation and gelation kinetics in moderately concentrated (0.004 polymer particles has been studied. The aggregation was adjusted to proceed slowly enough to allow a convenient characterization of the kinetics through static and dynamic light scattering on quenched and diluted samples. A population balance model based on second-order aggregation rates is developed to compute the time evolution of the cluster mass distribution, from which we calculate the values of the average radii and structure factor measured by light scattering, so as to allow a direct comparison between measured and calculated quantities. The model suggests the introduction of a dimensionless time which allows the scaling of all the aggregation data on unique master curves defined by only two parameters: the exponent of the power-law aggregation kernel, lambda, and the aggregate fractal dimension, d(f). The predicted master curves were observed experimentally, which confirms the validity of the aggregation model and allows the unique determination of the kinetic and structural parameters of the aggregation process. The cluster growth behavior, although significantly slower than DLCA, shows power-law kinetics rather than the exponential one typical of RLCA and the cluster structure is characterized by an unexpectedly small fractal dimension, d(f) = 1.7. The occurrence of gelation has been characterized using small amplitude oscillatory shearing to monitor the time evolution of the elastic modulus. It is found that also these curves, together with the gel time value, scale with the stability ratio of primary particles for a given solid volume fraction. We further use the model to calculate the cumulative occupied volume fraction of the growing aggregates and quantify in this way the increasing space filling, which is solid volume fraction dependent. The experimentally determined dimensionless gel times, which are also solid volume

  19. Sol-gel deposited gallium-doped zinc oxide electrode for polymer light-emitting diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Ha, Jaeheung; Lee, Changhee; Hong, Yongtaek

    2012-09-01

    We have made a sol-gel deposited gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) film as a transparent conductive anode in polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) applications. The GZO films were obtained by spin-coating GZO precursor solutions followed by consecutive thermal annealing in the air and in the hydrogen-rich atmosphere. The resistance of GZO film was reduced to ~100 Ω/□ after thermal annealing in the hydrogen environment. Its surface roughness was sufficiently low (1.159 nm RMS) for depositing other polymer layers. We have fabricated PLEDs with quartz substrate / solution-processed GZO electrode (anode) / PEDOT:PSS (HITL) / SPG-01T (Green polymer light-emitting material purchased from Merck, EML) / Ca (EIL) / Al (Cathode). The fabricated devices showed current efficiency of 3.06 cd/A and power efficiency of 1.25 lm/W at luminance of 1000 cd/m2.

  20. Printable ion-gel gate dielectrics for low-voltage polymer thin-film transistors on plastic.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jiyoul; Xia, Yu; Kim, BongSoo; He, Yiyong; Renn, Michael J; Lodge, Timothy P; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2008-11-01

    An important strategy for realizing flexible electronics is to use solution-processable materials that can be directly printed and integrated into high-performance electronic components on plastic. Although examples of functional inks based on metallic, semiconducting and insulating materials have been developed, enhanced printability and performance is still a challenge. Printable high-capacitance dielectrics that serve as gate insulators in organic thin-film transistors are a particular priority. Solid polymer electrolytes (a salt dissolved in a polymer matrix) have been investigated for this purpose, but they suffer from slow polarization response, limiting transistor speed to less than 100 Hz. Here, we demonstrate that an emerging class of polymer electrolytes known as ion gels can serve as printable, high-capacitance gate insulators in organic thin-film transistors. The specific capacitance exceeds that of conventional ceramic or polymeric gate dielectrics, enabling transistor operation at low voltages with kilohertz switching frequencies. PMID:18931674

  1. A Novel Method of Estimating Dose Responses for Polymer Gels Using Texture Analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy Images

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Cheng-Ting; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Han, Rou-Ping; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung; Chang, Shu-Jun; Wu, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Polymer gels are regarded as a potential dosimeter for independent validation of absorbed doses in clinical radiotherapy. Several imaging modalities have been used to convert radiation-induced polymerization to absorbed doses from a macro-scale viewpoint. This study developed a novel dose conversion mechanism by texture analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The modified N-isopropyl-acrylamide (NIPAM) gels were prepared under normoxic conditions, and were administered radiation doses from 5 to 20 Gy. After freeze drying, the gel samples were sliced for SEM scanning with 50×, 500×, and 3500× magnifications. Four texture indices were calculated based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The results showed that entropy and homogeneity were more suitable than contrast and energy as dose indices for higher linearity and sensitivity of the dose response curves. After parameter optimization, an R2 value of 0.993 can be achieved for homogeneity using 500× magnified SEM images with 27 pixel offsets and no outlier exclusion. For dose verification, the percentage errors between the prescribed dose and the measured dose for 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy were −7.60%, 5.80%, 2.53%, and −0.95%, respectively. We conclude that texture analysis can be applied to the SEM images of gel dosimeters to accurately convert micro-scale structural features to absorbed doses. The proposed method may extend the feasibility of applying gel dosimeters in the fields of diagnostic radiology and radiation protection. PMID:23843998

  2. Polymer gels impregnated with gold nanoparticles implemented for measurements of radiation dose enhancement in synchrotron and conventional radiotherapy type beams.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Wan Nordiana; Wong, Christopher James; Ackerly, Trevor; Yagi, Naoto; Geso, Moshi

    2012-09-01

    Normoxic type polyacrylamide gel (nPAG) dosimeters are established for dose quantification in three-dimensions for radiotherapy and hence represent an adequate dosimeter for quantification of the dose variation due to the existence of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the target during irradiation. This work compared the degree of polymerisation in gel doped with nanoparticles (nPAG-AuNP) with control gel samples when irradiated by various sources. Samples were irradiated with a synchrotron radiation source of mean energy 125 keV, 80 kV X-ray beams from superficial therapy machine (SXRT), 6 MV X-rays and 6 MeV electron beams from linear accelerator. Analysis of the dose-response relation was used to determine a dose enhancement factor (DEF) of 1.76 ± 0.34 and 1.64 ± 0.44 obtained for samples irradiated with kilovoltage X-rays energy from synchrotron source and SXRT respectively. Similarly, including AuNPs in gel results in a DEF of approximately 1.37 ± 0.35 when irradiated by an electron beam and 1.14 ± 0.28 for high energy X-ray beams. The results demonstrate the use of AuNPs embedded in polymer gels for measuring the enhancement of radiation caused by metallic nanoparticles. PMID:22892958

  3. Assessment and characterization of the total geometric uncertainty in Gamma Knife radiosurgery using polymer gels

    SciTech Connect

    Moutsatsos, A.; Karaiskos, P.; Pantelis, E.; Georgiou, E.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Sakelliou, L.; Torrens, M.; Seimenis, I.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: This work proposes and implements an experimental methodology, based on polymer gels, for assessing the total geometric uncertainty and characterizing its contributors in Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery. Methods: A treatment plan consisting of 26, 4-mm GK single shot dose distributions, covering an extended region of the Leksell stereotactic space, was prepared and delivered to a polymer gel filled polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) head phantom (16 cm diameter) used to accurately reproduce every link in the GK treatment chain. The center of each shot served as a 'control point' in the assessment of the GK total geometric uncertainty, which depends on (a) the spatial dose delivery uncertainty of the PERFEXION GK unit used in this work, (b) the spatial distortions inherent in MR images commonly used for target delineation, and (c) the geometric uncertainty contributor associated with the image registration procedure performed by the Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) treatment planning system (TPS), in the case that registration is directly based on the apparent fiducial locations depicted in each MR image by the N-shaped rods on the Leksell localization box. The irradiated phantom was MR imaged at 1.5 T employing a T2-weighted pulse sequence. Four image series were acquired by alternating the frequency encoding axis and reversing the read gradient polarity, thus allowing the characterization of the MR-related spatial distortions. Results: MR spatial distortions stemming from main field (B{sub 0}) inhomogeneity as well as from susceptibility and chemical shift phenomena (also known as sequence dependent distortions) were found to be of the order of 0.5 mm, while those owing to gradient nonlinearities (also known as sequence independent distortions) were found to increase with distance from the MR scanner isocenter extending up to 0.47 mm at an Euclidean distance of 69.6 mm. Regarding the LGP image registration procedure, the corresponding average contribution to the total

  4. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Electroactive Polymer Gels and Their Behavior in DC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Li; Krause, Sonja

    2000-03-01

    We have reported the bending deformation of swollen crosslinked partially sulfonated triblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene) (S-SEBS) hydrogels in DC electric fields in previous APS meetings(Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 43 (1), 598, 1998 and 44 (1), 757, 1999). However, very little force was generated from the bending of the S-SEBS gel due to the low modulus of this highly elastic material. For the present study, partially sulfonated crosslinked polystyrene gels (XL-S-PS) were prepared. The gel bending behavior of XL-S-PS gels was studied in four different sulfonated solutions with varied cations including Na^+, Cs^+, (CH_3)_4NH^+ and (Bu)_4NH^+. Comparison of gel bending of S-SEBS and XL-S-PS gels indicated qualitative similarities and quantitative differences. The bending motion of the XL-S-PS gels in electric fields was slower than that of the S-SEBS gels but more force was generated in the XL-S-PS gel system. Nanoparticles were used as fillers in some of the XL-S-PS gels to modify their mechanical properties which will be discussed in the presentation.

  6. Mechanical stability analysis of carrageenan-based polymer gel for magnetic resonance imaging liver phantom with lesion particles.

    PubMed

    In, Eunji; Naguib, Hani; Haider, Masoom

    2014-10-01

    Medical imaging is an effective technique used to detect and prevent disease in cancer research. To optimize medical imaging, a calibration medium or phantom with tissue-mimicking properties is required. Although the feasibility of various polymer gel materials has previously been studied, the stability of the gels' properties has not been investigated. In this study, we fabricated carrageenan-based polymer gel to examine the stability of its properties such as density, conductivity, permittivity, elastic modulus, and [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] relaxation times over six weeks. We fabricated eight samples with different carrageenan and agar concentrations and found that the density, elastic modulus, and compressive strength fluctuated with no specific pattern. The elastic modulus in sample 4 with 3 wt. % carrageenan and 1.5 wt. % agar fluctuated from 0.51 to 0.64 MPa in five weeks. The [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] relaxation times also varied by 23% to 29%. We believe that the fluctuation of these properties is related to the change in water content of the sample due to cycles of water expulsion and absorption in their containers. The fluctuation of the properties should be minimized to achieve accurate calibration over the shelf life of the phantom and to serve as the standard for quality assurance. Furthermore, a full liver phantom with spherical lesion particles was fabricated to demonstrate the potential for phantom production. PMID:26158073

  7. 3D graphene oxide-polymer hydrogel: near-infrared light-triggered active scaffold for reversible cell capture and on-demand release.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Wang, Jiasi; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2013-12-10

    An active cell scaffold based on a graphene-polymer hydrogel has been successfully fabricated. The macroporous hydrogel can efficiently capture cells not only through the bioadhesive ligand RGD but also through on-demand release of cells with an NIR light stimulus. The latter process shows better dynamic control over cells than traditional passive-hydrogel-based cell depots. PMID:24123218

  8. Dynamic and static fluctuations in polymer gels studied by neutron spin-echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, T.; Takahashi, N.; Nishida, K.; Seto, H.; Nagao, M.; Takeba, Y.

    2006-11-01

    We report neutron spin-echo measurements on three types of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gels. The first is PVA gel in a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water with volume ratio 60/40, the second is PVA gel in an aqueous borax solution and the third is chemically cross-linked PVA gel. The observed normalized intermediate scattering functions I( Q, t)/ I( Q,0) were very different among them. The I( Q, t)/ I( Q,0) of the first and third gels showed a non-decaying component in addition to a decaying component, but the second one did not have the non-decaying one. This clearly indicates that the fluctuations in the first and third PVA gels consist of static and dynamic fluctuations whereas the second PVA gel does include only the dynamic fluctuations. The dynamic and static fluctuations of the PVA gels were analyzed in terms of a restricted motion in the gel network and the Zimm motion, respectively.

  9. Review on recent and advanced applications of monoliths and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Mercedes; Paull, Brett

    2010-06-01

    This review critically summarises recent novel and advanced achievements in the application of monolithic materials and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices appearing within the literature over the period of the last 5 years (2005-2010). The range of monolithic materials has developed rapidly over the past decade, with a diverse and highly versatile class of materials now available, with each exhibiting distinct porosities, pore sizes, and a wide variety of surface functionalities. A major advantage of these materials is their ease of preparation in micro-fluidic channels by in situ polymerisation, leading to monolithic materials being increasingly utilised for a larger variety of purposes in micro-fluidic platforms. Applications of porous polymer monoliths, silica-based monoliths and related homogeneous porous polymer gels in the preparation of separation columns, ion-permeable membranes, preconcentrators, extractors, electrospray emitters, micro-valves, electrokinetic pumps, micro-reactors and micro-mixers in micro-fluidic devices are discussed herein. Procedures used in the preparation of monolithic materials in micro-channels, as well as some practical aspects of the micro-fluidic chip fabrication are addressed. Recent analytical/bioanalytical and catalytic applications of the final micro-fluidic devices incorporating monolithic materials are also reviewed. PMID:20493286

  10. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  11. Technical Note: Preliminary investigations into the use of a functionalised polymer to reduce diffusion in Fricke gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S. T. Masters, K.-S.; Hosokawa, K.; Blinco, J. P.; Trapp, J. V.; Crowe, S. B.; Kairn, T.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: A modification of the existing PVA-FX hydrogel has been made to investigate the use of a functionalised polymer in a Fricke gel dosimetry system to decrease Fe{sup 3+} diffusion. Methods: The chelating agent, xylenol orange, was chemically bonded to the gelling agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to create xylenol orange functionalised PVA (XO-PVA). A gel was created from the XO-PVA (20% w/v) with ferrous sulfate (0.4 mM) and sulfuric acid (50 mM). Results: This resulted in an optical density dose sensitivity of 0.014 Gy{sup −1}, an auto-oxidation rate of 0.0005 h{sup −1}, and a diffusion rate of 0.129 mm{sup 2} h{sup −1}; an 8% reduction compared to the original PVA-FX gel, which in practical terms adds approximately 1 h to the time span between irradiation and accurate read-out. Conclusions: Because this initial method of chemically bonding xylenol orange to polyvinyl alcohol has inherently low conversion, the improvement on existing gel systems is minimal when compared to the drawbacks. More efficient methods of functionalising polyvinyl alcohol with xylenol orange must be developed for this system to gain clinical relevance.

  12. Mechanochemical Synthesis of 3d Transition-Metal-1,2,4-Triazole Complexes as Precursors for Microwave-Assisted and Thermal Conversion to Coordination Polymers with a High Influence on the Dielectric Properties.

    PubMed

    Brede, Franziska A; Heine, Johanna; Sextl, Gerhard; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    The complexes [MCl2 (TzH)4 ] (M=Mn (1), Fe (2); TzH=1,2,4-1H-triazole) and [ZnCl2 (TzH)2 ] (3) have been obtained by mechanochemical reactions of the corresponding divalent metal chloride and 1,2,4-1H-triazole. They were successfully used as precursors for the formation of coordination polymers either by a microwave-assisted reaction or by thermal conversion. For manganese, the conversion directly yielded 1∞ [MnCl2 TzH] (4), whereas for the iron-containing precursor, 1∞ [FeCl2 TzH] (6), was formed via the intermediate coordination polymer 1∞ [FeCl(TzH)2 ]Cl (5). For cobalt, the isotypic polymer 1∞ [CoCl(TzH)2 ]Cl (7) was obtained, but exclusively by a microwave-induced reaction directly from CoCl2 . The crystal structures were resolved from single crystals and powders. The dielectric properties were determined and revealed large differences in permittivity between the precursor complexes and the rigid chain-like coordination polymers. Whereas the monomeric complexes exhibit very different dielectric behaviour, depending on the transition metal, from "low-k" to "high-k" with the permittivity ranging from 4.3 to >100 for frequencies of up to 1000 Hz, the coordination polymers and complexes with strong intermolecular interactions are all close to "low-k" materials with very low dielectric constants up to 50 °C. Therefore, the conversion procedures can be used to deliberately influence the dielectric properties from complex to polymer and for different 3d transition-metal ions. PMID:26797710

  13. Separation of long linear polymers in gel electrophoresis with alternating electric fields: A theoretical study using the necklace model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, G. R.; Mártin, H. O.; Aldao, C. M.

    2012-06-01

    The necklace model, which mimics the reptation of a chain of N beads in a square lattice, is used to study the drift velocity of charged linear polymers in gels under an applied electric field that periodically changes its direction. The characteristics of the model allow us to determine the effects of the alternating electric field on the chains’ dynamics. We explain why chains of different N can be made to move in opposite directions with a nonuniform electric field with certain values of intensity and frequency. The key point is that, when alternating electric fields are applied, longer chains spend more time out of the steady-state regime than lower chains. Numerical results are obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulations and they are qualitatively in agreement with experiments of DNA migration in gel electrophoresis.

  14. Design of Stable and Powerful Nanobiocatalysts, Based on Enzyme Laccase Immobilized on Self-Assembled 3D Graphene/Polymer Composite Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ormategui, Nerea; Veloso, Antonio; Leal, Gracia Patricia; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Tomovska, Radmila

    2015-07-01

    Graphene-based materials appear as a suitable answer to the demand for novel nanostructured materials for effective nanobiocatalytic systems design. In this work, a design of stable and efficient nanobiocatalysts made of enzyme laccase immobilized on composite hydrogels [reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polymer] is presented. The composite hydrogel supports were synthesized by self-assembly of graphene oxide nanoplatelets in the frame of a polymer latex matrix, where the polymer nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the GO surface, creating hybrid nanoplatelets. These hybrids self-assembled when ascorbic acid was added as a GO reducing agent and formed three-dimensional porous structures, greatly swollen with water, e.g., the composite hydrogels. The hydrogels were used as a support for covalent immobilization of the laccase. The performance of the nanobiocatalysts was tested in the oxidative degradation of the recalcitrant synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R in aqueous solutions. The biocatalysts showed strong dye discoloration ability and high stability as they preserved their catalytic action in four successive batches of dye degradation. The presented biocatalysts offer possibilities for overcoming the main disadvantages of the enzyme catalysts (fragile nature, high cost, and high loading of the enzyme), which would lead to a step forward toward their industrial application. PMID:26075472

  15. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  16. Preliminary study of MAGAT polymer gel dosimetry for boron-neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shin-ichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Uchida, Ryohei; Suzuki, Minoru; Usui, Shuji; Tominaga, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    MAGAT gel dosimeter with boron is irradiated in Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility (HWNIF) of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR). The cylindrical gel phantoms are exposed to neutron beams of three different energy spectra (thermal neutron rich, epithermal and fast neutron rich and the mixed modes) in air. Preliminary results corresponding to depth-dose responses are obtained as the transverse relaxation rate (R2=1/T2) from magnetic resonance imaging data. As the results MAGAT gel dosimeter has the higher sensitivity on thermal neutron than on epi-thermal and fast neutron, and the gel with boron showed an enhancement and a change in the depth-R2 response explicitly. From these results, it is suggested that MAGAT gel dosimeter can be an effective tool in BNCT dosimetry.

  17. Biomaterials for integration with 3-D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Aleksander; Atala, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Bioprinting has emerged in recent years as an attractive method for creating 3-D tissues and organs in the laboratory, and therefore is a promising technology in a number of regenerative medicine applications. It has the potential to (i) create fully functional replacements for damaged tissues in patients, and (ii) rapidly fabricate small-sized human-based tissue models, or organoids, for diagnostics, pathology modeling, and drug development. A number of bioprinting modalities have been explored, including cellular inkjet printing, extrusion-based technologies, soft lithography, and laser-induced forward transfer. Despite the innovation of each of these technologies, successful implementation of bioprinting relies heavily on integration with compatible biomaterials that are responsible for supporting the cellular components during and after biofabrication, and that are compatible with the bioprinting device requirements. In this review, we will evaluate a variety of biomaterials, such as curable synthetic polymers, synthetic gels, and naturally derived hydrogels. Specifically we will describe how they are integrated with the bioprinting technologies above to generate bioprinted constructs with practical application in medicine. PMID:25476164

  18. Assembly of 1D, 2D and 3D lanthanum(iii) coordination polymers with perchlorinated benzenedicarboxylates: positional isomeric effect, structural transformation and ring-opening polymerisation of glycolide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chun; Dai, An-Qi; Huang, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Ai-Jun; He, Ming-Yang; Chen, Qun

    2016-02-28

    Utilizing a series of positional isomers of tetrachlorinated benzenedicarboxylic acid ligands, seven La(iii)-based coordination polymers were solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Their structural dimensionalities varying from 1D double chains, to the 2D 3,4,5-connected network, to 3D 6-connected pcu topological nets are only governed by the positions of carboxyl groups on the tetrachlorinated benzene ring. A comprehensive analysis and comparison reveals that the size of the carbonyl solvent molecules (DMF, DEF, DMA, and NMP) can affect the coordination geometries around the La(iii) ions, the coordination modes of carboxylate groups, the packing arrangements, and the void volumes of the overall crystal lattices. One as-synthesized framework further shows an unprecedented structural transformation from a 3D 6-connected network to a 3D 4,5-connected net through the dissolution and reformation pathway in water, suggesting that these easily hydrolyzed lanthanide complexes may serve as precursors to produce new high-dimensional frameworks. The bulk solvent-free melt polymerisation of glycolide utilizing these La(iii) complexes as initiators has been reported herein for the first time. All complexes were found to promote the polymerization of glycolide over a temperature range of 200 to 220 °C, producing poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) with a molecular weight up to 93,280. Under the same experimental conditions, the different catalytic activities for these complexes may result from their structural discrepancy. PMID:26811117

  19. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  20. A composite membrane based on a biocompatible cellulose as a host of gel polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, S. Y.; Yang, Y. Q.; Li, M. X.; Wang, F. X.; Chang, Z.; Wu, Y. P.; Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    A composite polymer membrane is prepared by coating poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) on the surface of a membrane based on methyl cellulose (MC) which is environmentally friendly and cheap. Its characteristics are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The outer PVDF layers are porous which results in high electrolyte uptake and the lithium ion transference number is much larger than that of the pure MC. Moreover, the cell based on Li//LiFePO4 delivers high discharge capacity and good rate behavior in the range of 4.2-2.5 V when the composite membrane is used as the separator and the host of a gel polymer electrolyte, lithium as the counter and reference electrode, and LiFePO4 as cathode. The obtained results suggest that this unique composite membrane shows great attraction in the lithium ion batteries with high safety and low cost.

  1. From discrete to infinite 3D coordination polymer: Sonochemical syntheses and structural characterization of a new nano flower lead (II) coordination compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jin-Hwan; Min, Bong-Ki; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2014-11-01

    Nano flower of a new discrete Pb (II) coordination compound, [Pb(pcih)2] (1), (pcih = 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde isonicotinoylhy-drazonate), have been synthesized by a sonochemical process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analyses. Structural determination of compound 1 reveals the Pb (II) ion is six coordinated, bonded to four nitrogen and two oxygen atoms from two “pcih” ligands. Through strong π-π interactions, the overall structure of 1 is 1D supramolecular chain and with other directional intermolecular interactions, it is further extended into a three dimensional (3D) supramolecular structure. Density functional theory calculations (B3LYP functional) have been performed on complex 1 to provide a qualitative theoretical interpretation of their structural parameters, charge distributions and IR spectra. PbO nanoparticles are obtained by thermolysis of 1 at 180 °C with oleic acid as a surfactant.

  2. The influence of polymer content on early gel-layer formation in HPMC matrices: The use of CLSM visualisation to identify the percolation threshold.

    PubMed

    Mason, Laura Michelle; Campiñez, María Dolores; Pygall, Samuel R; Burley, Jonathan C; Gupta, Pranav; Storey, David E; Caraballo, Isidoro; Melia, Colin D

    2015-08-01

    Percolation theory has been used for several years in the design of HPMC hydrophilic matrices. This theory predicts that a minimum threshold content of polymer is required to provide extended release of drug, and that matrices with a lower polymer content will exhibit more rapid drug release as a result of percolation pathways facilitating the faster penetration of the aqueous medium. At present, percolation thresholds in HPMC matrices have been estimated solely through the mathematical modelling of dissolution data. This paper examines whether they can be also identified in a novel way: through the use of confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (CLSM) to observe the morphology of the emerging gel layer during the initial period of polymer hydration and early gel formation at the matrix surface. In this study, matrices have been prepared with a polymer content of 5-30% w/w HPMC 2208 (Methocel K4M), with a mix of other excipients (a soluble drug (caffeine), lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate) to provide a typical industrially realistic formulation. Dissolution studies, undertaken in water using USP apparatus 2 (paddle) at 50rpm, provided data for the calculation of the percolation threshold through relating dissolution kinetic parameters to the excipient volumetric fraction of the dry matrix. The HPMC percolation threshold estimated this way was found to be 12.8% v/v, which was equivalent to a matrix polymer content of 11.5% w/w. The pattern of polymer hydration and gel layer growth during early gel layer formation was examined by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (CLSM). Clear differences in gel layer formation were observed. At polymer contents above the estimated threshold a continuous gel layer was formed within 15min, whereas matrices with polymer contents below the threshold were characterised by irregular gel layer formation with little evidence of HPMC particle coalescence. According to percolation theory, this

  3. Syntheses, structures and properties of 3D inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks constructed from lanthanide polymer and Keggin-type tungstosilicate

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yuanzhe; Xu Yanqing; Han Zhangang; Li Chunhong; Cui, Fengyun; Chi Yingnan; Hu Changwen

    2010-05-15

    Inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks, namely [Ce(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(pdc)]{sub 4}[SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}].6H{sub 2}O 1, [M(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}(pdc)]{sub 4}[SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}].2H{sub 2}O (M=Ce for 2a, La for 2b, Nd for 2c; H{sub 2}pdc=pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) were assembled through incorporation of Keggin-type heteropolyanion [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} within the voids of lanthanides-pdc network as pillars or guests under hydrothermal condition. Single-crystal X-ray analyses of these crystals reveal that compound 1 presents 3D pillar-layered framework with the [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} anions located on the square voids of the two-dimensional Ce-pdc bilayer. Compounds 2a-c are isostructural and constructed from 3D Ln-pdc-based metal-organic framework (MOF) incorporating noncoordinating guests Keggin structure [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-}. Solid-state properties of compounds 1 and 2a-c such as thermal stability and photoluminescence have been further investigated. - Graphical abstract: Two types of new inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks through incorporation of Keggin-type heteropolyanion [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} within the voids of lanthanides-pdc network as pillars or guests under hydrothermal condition were successfully assembled. Solid-state properties of compounds 1 and 2a such as thermal stability and photoluminescence have been further investigated.

  4. Influence of intraparticle mass transfer on the activity of a gel-form polymer bound transition metal catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Roucis, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to investigate the influence of substrate intraparticle mass transport limitations on the hydrogenation rate of cyclohexene and cyclooctene at 25 to 50 C, one atm hydrogen pressure, over RhCl(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 3/ bound to polystyrene-divinylbenzene (DVB) polymer beads. Effective substrate diffusion coefficients were determined by studying the diffusion of cyclic hydrocarbons within benzene-swollen, polystyrene-DVB gel-type beads at 25 C. Diffusion coefficients were calculated assuming Fick's law diffusion, and were found to depend on the polymer volume fraction for solute concentrations less than 6.3 x 10/sup -2/M and polymer volume fractions less than 0.6. The dependence suggested that the polymer network acted as a physical obstruction to solute transport. Studies indicated that the solute-solvent interactions affecting diffusion were the same in the solvent-swollen polymer as in the pure benzene solvent. Solute concentrations less than 0.16 M were used for the reaction rate studies. Intraparticle transport limitations were determined to be negligible within the 200-400 mesh, 1, 2, and 3% DVB catalyst beads under the reaction conditions employed. Changes in the reduction rate of cyclooctene relative to cyclohexene were not caused by differences in intraparticle diffusion rates. Alterations in selectivity were related to the catalyst bead swelling ratio implying that steric effects induced by the presence of the polymer support in the vicinity of active rhodium affected intrinsic activity. The mathematical model was found to predict the rate for a mass transport influenced reaction regime, the reduction of cyclohexene at 50 C over an 18-20 mesh, 3% DVB catalyst.

  5. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  6. The marine sponge-derived inorganic polymers, biosilica and polyphosphate, as morphogenetically active matrices/scaffolds for the differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells: potential application in 3D printing and distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Grebenjuk, Vladislav; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Mailänder, Volker; Steffen, Renate; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-02-01

    , supplemented with polyP and/or biosilica, is a suitable biomaterial that promotes the growth and differentiation of hMSCs and might be beneficial for application in 3D tissue printing of hMSCs and for the delivery of hMSCs in fractures, surgically created during distraction osteogenesis. PMID:24566262

  7. The Marine Sponge-Derived Inorganic Polymers, Biosilica and Polyphosphate, as Morphogenetically Active Matrices/Scaffolds for the Differentiation of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells: Potential Application in 3D Printing and Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C.; Grebenjuk, Vladislav; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Mailänder, Volker; Steffen, Renate; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2014-01-01

    , supplemented with polyP and/or biosilica, is a suitable biomaterial that promotes the growth and differentiation of hMSCs and might be beneficial for application in 3D tissue printing of hMSCs and for the delivery of hMSCs in fractures, surgically created during distraction osteogenesis. PMID:24566262

  8. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability. PMID:27080134

  9. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability. PMID:27080134

  10. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability.

  11. Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMC) hydrogel-filled 3-D scaffold: Preliminary study through a 3-D antiproliferative activity of Centella asiatica extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizad, Syazwan; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the effects of using the water extract from Centella asiatica on the mortality of human lung cancer cells (A549) with the use of novel 3-D scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel. A biodegradable polymer, poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was used in this study as 3-D scaffolds, with some modifications made by introducing the gel structure on its pore, which provides a great biomimetic microenvironment for cells to grow apart from increasing the interaction between the cells and cell-bioactive extracts. The CMC showed a good hydrophilic characteristic with mean contact angle of 24.30 ± 22.03°. To ensure the CMC gel had good attachments with the scaffolds, a surface treatment was made before the CMC gel was infused into the scaffolds. The results showed that these modified scaffolds contained 42.41 ± 0.14% w/w of CMC gel, which indicated that the gel had already filled up the entire pore of 3-D scaffolds. Besides, the infused hydrogel scaffolds took only 24 hours to be saturated when absorbing the water. The viability of cancer cells by MTS assay after being treated with Centella asiatica showed that the scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel had the cell viability of 46.89 ± 1.20% followed by porous 3-D model with 57.30 ± 1.60% of cell viability, and the 2-D model with 67.10 ± 1.10% of cell viability. The inhibitory activity in cell viability between 2-D and 3-D models did not differ significantly (p>0.05) due to the limitation of time in incubating the extract with the cell in the 3-D model microenvironment. In conclusion, with the application of 3-D scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel, the extracts of Centella asiatica has been proven to have the ability to kill cancer cells and have a great potential to become one of the alternative methods in treating cancer patients.

  12. Mechanical stability analysis of carrageenan-based polymer gel for magnetic resonance imaging liver phantom with lesion particles

    PubMed Central

    In, Eunji; Naguib, Hani; Haider, Masoom

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Medical imaging is an effective technique used to detect and prevent disease in cancer research. To optimize medical imaging, a calibration medium or phantom with tissue-mimicking properties is required. Although the feasibility of various polymer gel materials has previously been studied, the stability of the gels’ properties has not been investigated. In this study, we fabricated carrageenan-based polymer gel to examine the stability of its properties such as density, conductivity, permittivity, elastic modulus, and T1 and T2 relaxation times over six weeks. We fabricated eight samples with different carrageenan and agar concentrations and found that the density, elastic modulus, and compressive strength fluctuated with no specific pattern. The elastic modulus in sample 4 with 3 wt. % carrageenan and 1.5 wt. % agar fluctuated from 0.51 to 0.64 MPa in five weeks. The T1 and T2 relaxation times also varied by 23% to 29%. We believe that the fluctuation of these properties is related to the change in water content of the sample due to cycles of water expulsion and absorption in their containers. The fluctuation of the properties should be minimized to achieve accurate calibration over the shelf life of the phantom and to serve as the standard for quality assurance. Furthermore, a full liver phantom with spherical lesion particles was fabricated to demonstrate the potential for phantom production. PMID:26158073

  13. Self-Construction from 2D to 3D: One-Pot Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Graphene Oxide Sheets Held Together by Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohamed B; Li, Cuiling; Ji, Qingmin; Jiang, Bo; Tominaka, Satoshi; Ide, Yusuke; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-07-11

    Deposition of Ni-based cyanide bridged coordination polymer (NiCNNi) flakes onto the surfaces of graphene oxide (GO) sheets, which allows precise control of the resulting lamellar nanoarchitecture by in situ crystallization, is reported. GO sheets are utilized as nucleation sites that promote the optimized crystal growth of NiCNNi flakes. The NiCNNi-coated GO sheets then self-assemble and are stabilized as ordered lamellar nanomaterials. Regulated thermal treatment under nitrogen results in a Ni3 C-GO composite with a similar morphology to the starting material, and the Ni3 C-GO composite exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxygen reduction reaction. PMID:27167720

  14. Two cases of reciprocal relations for electric and hydrodynamic currents: A rigid polymer in a nano-channel and a polyelectrolyte gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowghanian, Payam; Grosberg, Alexander Y.

    2013-07-01

    We illustrate an Onsager-type linear response theory of electrohydrodynamic coupling for two examples, namely, a long nano-channel blocked partially by a rigid polymer and a gel of semi-flexible polyelectrolyte chains. We calculate the hydrodynamic and electric currents driven by an external voltage and pressure and the corresponding Onsager coefficients for these systems. Our consideration clarifies the effect of the electro-osmotic flow on the effective charge of the polymer inside the channel. It also makes it possible to explore the dependence of the currents through the gel on the electric screening radius and salt concentration.

  15. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of porous PCL-PLLA 3D polymer scaffolds fabricated via salt leaching method for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Sadiasa, Alexander; Nguyen, Thi Hiep; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional porous scaffolds composed of various ratios of polycaprolactone and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were prepared using salt leaching method for bone regeneration applications. Surfaces of the scaffolds were visualized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the combination of the polymers was confirmed by FT-IR. Addition of PLLA increased the porosity and pore sizes of the scaffolds and also the scaffolds' compressive strength initially. Osteoblast-like cells were used and it was found that the samples' cell biocompatibility was further promoted with the increase in PLLA content as observed via cell proliferation assays using MTT, gene expression with RT-PCR, and micrographs from SEM and confocal microscopy. Samples were then implanted into male rabbits for 2 months, and histological staining and micro-CT histomorphometry show that new bone formations were detected in the site containing the implants of the scaffolds and that bone regeneration was further promoted with the increased concentration of PLLA in the scaffold. PMID:24138179

  17. Enhanced conductivity of sol-gel silica cladding for efficient poling in electro-optic polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulators.

    PubMed

    Enami, Yasufumi; Jouane, Youssef; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2014-12-01

    We report the enhanced conductivity of sol-gel silica under-cladding for efficient poling of electro-optic (EO) polymer in a hybrid EO polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulator. The electrical volume conductivity of sol-gel silica cladding increases approximately 30 times when the calcining time of the cladding layer is critically reduced to 45 minutes, which increases the in-device EO coefficient of the 600-nm-thick EO polymer film in modulators and reduces the lower halfwave voltage (Vπ) of the modulators. The lowest driving voltage (Vπ) of the TiO2 slot waveguide modulator is 2.0 V for an electrode length (Le) of 10 mm and wavelength of 1550 nm (VπLe = 2.0 V·cm) for the low-index guest-host EO polymer SEO125. The optical propagation loss is reduced to 7 dB/cm. PMID:25606950

  18. Enhancement of the propagation of human embryonic stem cells by modifications in the gel architecture of PMEDSAH polymer coatings

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xu; Villa-Diaz, Luis G.; Kumar, Ramya; Lahann, Joerg; Krebsbach, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined culture conditions are essential for realizing the full potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in regenerative medicine where large numbers of cells are required. Synthetic polymers, such as poly[2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide] (PMEDSAH), offer multiple advantages over mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and Matrigel™ for hESC culture and expansion. However, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms by which hESCs are propagated on synthetic polymers coatings. Here, the effects of PMEDSAH gel architecture on hESC self-renewal were determined. By increasing the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) reaction time, the thickness of PMEDSAH was increased and its internal hydrogel architecture was modified, while maintaining its overall chemical structure. A 105 nm thick ATRP PMEDSAH coating showed a significant increase in the expansion rate of hESCs. Theoretical calculations suggested that 20,000 hESCs cultured on this substrate could be expanded up to 4.7×109 undifferentiated cells in five weeks. In addition, hESCs grown on ATRP PMEDSAH coatings retained pluripotency and displayed a normal karyotype after long-term culture. These data demonstrate the importance of polymer physical properties in hESC expansion. This and similar modifications of PMEDSAH coatings may be used to obtain large populations of hESCs required for many applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:25189518

  19. Verification of dose volume histograms in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy using polymer gel and MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šemnická, Jitka; Novotný, Josef, Jr.; Spěváček, Václav; Garčic, Jirí; Steiner, Martin; Judas, Libor

    2006-12-01

    In this work we focus on dose volume histograms (DVHs) measurement in stereotactic radiosurgery (SR) performed with the Leksell gamma knife (ELEKTA Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) performed with linear accelerator 6 MV Varian Clinac 2100 C/D (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) in conjunction with BrainLAB stereotactic system (BrainLAB, Germany) using modified BANG gel and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the experiments was to investigate a method for acquiring entire dose volume information from irradiated gel dosimeter and calculate DVHs.

  20. Note: Utilization of polymer gel as a bolus compensator and a dosimeter in the near-surface buildup region for breast-conserving therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuse, Hiraku; Shinoda, Kazuya; Inohira, Masaya; Kawamura, Hiraku; Miyamoto, Katsumi; Sakae, Takeji; Fujisaki, Tatsuya

    2015-09-01

    Tangential beam radiotherapy is routinely used for radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. A tissue-equivalent bolus placed on the irradiated area shifts the depth of the dose distribution; this bolus provides uniform dose distribution to the breast. The gel bolus made by the BANG-Pro® polymer gel and in an oxygen non-transmission pack was applicable as a dosimeter to measure dose distribution in near-surface buildup region. We validated the use of the gel bolus to improve in the whole-breast/chest wall, including the near-surface buildup region.

  1. Fabrication and Normal/Shear Stress Responses of Tactile Sensors of Polymer/Si Cantilevers Embedded in PDMS and Urethane Gel Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu Ming; Sohgawa, Masayuki; Yamashita, Kaoru; Kanashima, Takeshi; Okuyama, Masanori; Noda, Minoru; Noma, Haruo

    Cantilever-type tactile sensors of silicon-polymer beam structures were fabricated by surface micromachining and covering with elastomers. Two kinds of elastomers with different Young's modulus PDMS and urethane gel have been used to control deflection of the cantilevers and adjust the sensitivity cantilever-type tactile sensors. The resistance change of the sensor with PDMS has linear dependence on normal and shear stresses, but that of the sensor with urethane gel is nonliner to normal and shear stresses. However, the sensitivity of urethane gel type sensor is about 30 times larger than PDMS type sensor.

  2. Note: Utilization of polymer gel as a bolus compensator and a dosimeter in the near-surface buildup region for breast-conserving therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fuse, Hiraku Inohira, Masaya; Kawamura, Hiraku; Fujisaki, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Kazuya; Miyamoto, Katsumi; Sakae, Takeji

    2015-09-15

    Tangential beam radiotherapy is routinely used for radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. A tissue-equivalent bolus placed on the irradiated area shifts the depth of the dose distribution; this bolus provides uniform dose distribution to the breast. The gel bolus made by the BANG-Pro{sup ®} polymer gel and in an oxygen non-transmission pack was applicable as a dosimeter to measure dose distribution in near-surface buildup region. We validated the use of the gel bolus to improve in the whole-breast/chest wall, including the near-surface buildup region.

  3. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-06-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  4. Tomotherapy dose distribution verification using MAGIC-f polymer gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pavoni, J. F.; Pike, T. L.; Snow, J.; DeWerd, L.; Baffa, O.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: This paper presents the application of MAGIC-f gel in a three-dimensional dose distribution measurement and its ability to accurately measure the dose distribution from a tomotherapy unit. Methods: A prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation was simulated in the gel phantom and the treatment was delivered by a TomoTherapy equipment. Dose distribution was evaluated by the R2 distribution measured in magnetic resonance imaging. Results: A high similarity was found by overlapping of isodoses of the dose distribution measured with the gel and expected by the treatment planning system (TPS). Another analysis was done by comparing the relative absorbed dose profiles in the measured and in the expected dose distributions extracted along indicated lines of the volume and the results were also in agreement. The gamma index analysis was also applied to the data and a high pass rate was achieved (88.4% for analysis using 3%/3 mm and of 96.5% using 4%/4 mm). The real three-dimensional analysis compared the dose-volume histograms measured for the planning volumes and expected by the treatment planning, being the results also in good agreement by the overlapping of the curves. Conclusions: These results show that MAGIC-f gel is a promise for tridimensional dose distribution measurements.

  5. Assessment of release kinetics, stability and polymer interaction of poloxamer 407-based thermosensitive gel of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Sun, Hongying; Chen, Shuqing

    2014-05-01

    Sustained delivery of proteins from polymer-based thermosensitive gel has achieved considerable attention since last decade. In our previous work, we developed a formulation for sustained delivery of IL-1Ra-loaded poloxamer 407 formulation and investigated its in vitro and in vivo characteristics. In the present work, we extended this approach to investigate stability of IL-1Ra from poloxamer 407 formulation stored at 4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C for 3 months. Samples were taken and in vitro drug release kinetics was studied. Percent of drug content was measured using the BCA method. DSC and SDS-PAGE were used to assess the conformational stability of IL-1Ra. FTIR spectroscopy was performed to investigate the drug-polymer interaction. From the results, it was found that gelation temperature, viscosity and in vitro release pattern of IL-1Ra from poloxamer 407 formulation at 4 °C were almost same throughout the stability study period. DSC profiles of IL-1Ra loaded in poloxamer 407 formulation increased the thermostability of IL-1Ra significantly in poloxamer 407 formulation. There were no apparent changes in the entire FTIR spectrum of the IL-1Ra that would suggest that there was no effect of the polymer on the structure of IL-1Ra. Moreover, results of SDS-PAGE confirmed the stability of IL-1Ra in poloxamer 407 formulation. These results provided evidence that poloxamer 407 is a promising polymer not only for sustained delivery of IL-1Ra but also provides conformational stability for extended time. PMID:23506246

  6. Organic silicone sol-gel polymer as a noncovalent carrier of receptor proteins for label-free optical biosensor application.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Wang, Linghua; Han, Xiuyou; Cheng, Jianfang; Lv, Huanlin; Wang, Jinyan; Jian, Xigao; Zhao, Mingshan; Jia, Lingyun

    2013-01-23

    Optical biosensing techniques have become of key importance for label-free monitoring of biomolecular interactions in the current proteomics era. Together with an increasing emphasis on high-throughput applications in functional proteomics and drug discovery, there has been demand for facile and generally applicable methods for the immobilization of a wide range of receptor proteins. Here, we developed a polymer platform for microring resonator biosensors, which allows the immobilization of receptor proteins on the surface of waveguide directly without any additional modification. A sol-gel process based on a mixture of three precursors was employed to prepare a liquid hybrid polysiloxane, which was photopatternable for the photocuring process and UV imprint. Waveguide films were prepared on silicon substrates by spin coating and characterized by atomic force microscopy for roughness, and protein adsorption. The results showed that the surface of the polymer film was smooth (rms = 0.658 nm), and exhibited a moderate hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 97°. Such a hydrophobic extent could provide a necessary binding strength for stable immobilization of proteins on the material surface in various sensing conditions. Biological activity of the immobilized Staphylococcal protein A and its corresponding biosensing performance were demonstrated by its specific recognition of human Immunoglobulin G. This study showed the potential of preparing dense, homogeneous, specific, and stable biosensing surfaces by immobilizing receptor proteins on polymer-based optical devices through the direct physical adsorption method. We expect that such polymer waveguide could be of special interest in developing low-cost and robust optical biosensing platform for multidimensional arrays. PMID:23259485

  7. Multiple patterns of polymer gels in microspheres due to the interplay among phase separation, wetting, and gelation

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Miho; Nigorikawa, Shinpei; Sakaue, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Kei; Tokita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    We report the spontaneous patterning of polymer microgels by confining a polymer blend within microspheres. A poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and gelatin solution was confined inside water-in-oil (W/O) microdroplets coated with a layer of zwitterionic lipids: dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (PC). The droplet confinement affected the kinetics of the phase separation, wetting, and gelation after a temperature quench, which determined the final microgel pattern. The gelatin-rich phase completely wetted to the PE membrane and formed a hollow microcapsule as a stable state in the PE droplets. Gelation during phase separation varied the relation between the droplet size and thickness of the capsule wall. In the case of the PC droplets, phase separation was completed only for the smaller droplets, wherein the microgel partially wetted the PC membrane and had a hemisphere shape. In addition, the temperature decrease below the gelation point increased the interfacial tension between the PEG/gelatin phases and triggered a dewetting transition. Interestingly, the accompanying shape deformation to minimize the interfacial area was only observed for the smaller PC droplets. The critical size decreased as the gelatin concentration increased, indicating the role of the gel elasticity as an inhibitor of the deformation. Furthermore, variously patterned microgels with spherically asymmetric shapes, such as discs and stars, were produced as kinetically trapped states by regulating the incubation time, polymer composition, and droplet size. These findings demonstrate a way to regulate the complex shapes of microgels using the interplay among phase separation, wetting, and gelation of confined polymer blends in microdroplets. PMID:25349417

  8. A novel 3D Cu(I) coordination polymer based on Cu6Br2 and Cu2(CN)2 SBUs: in situ ligand formation and use as a naked-eye colorimetric sensor for NB and 2-NT.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiang-Feng; Li, Yang; Zhou, Rui-Sha; Hu, Tuo-Ping; Wen, Yan-Liang; Shao, Jia; Cui, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-14

    A novel coordination polymer with the chemical formula [Cu4Br(CN)(mtz)2]n (mtz = 5-methyl tetrazole) (), has been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, the Cu(i), CN(-) and mtz(-) in compound are all generated from an in situ translation of the original precursors: Cu(2+), acetonitrile and 1-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (Hmnt). The in situ ring-to-ring conversion of Hmnt into mtz(-) was found for the first time. Structural analysis reveals that compound is a novel 3D tetrazole-based Cu(i) coordination polymer, containing both metal halide cluster Cu6Br2 and metal pseudohalide cluster Cu2(CN)2 secondary building units (SBUs), which shows an unprecedented (3,6,10)-connected topology. Notably, a pseudo-porphyrin structure with 16-membered rings constructed by four mtz(-) anions and four copper(i) ions was observed in compound . The fluorescence properties of compound were investigated in the solid state and in various solvent emulsions, the results show that compound is a highly sensitive naked-eye colorimetric sensor for NB and 2-NT (NB = nitrobenzene and 2-NT = 2-nitrotoluene). PMID:26600452

  9. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  10. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  11. A green and environment-friendly gel polymer electrolyte with higher performances based on the natural matrix of lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Sheng-Dong; Huang, Yun; Cao, Hai-Jun; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Li, Yang; Tang, Shui-Hua; Wang, Ming-Shan; Li, Xing

    2016-03-01

    In order to explore one truly green and environment-friendly gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), the natural biopolymer of lignin is firstly all over the world used as matrix to prepare GPE. The electrolyte membrane based on lignin can be easily fabricated just with lignin, liquid electrolyte and distilled water. Through comprehensive investigation of obtained GPE, it is found that the liquid electrolyte uptake reaches up to 230 wt.%; before 100 °C, GPE does not lose any weight and is thermal stable; at room temperature the ion conductivity is 3.73 mS cm-1; the amazing property of lithium ion transference number is high up to 0.85; GPE expresses complete electrochemical stability before 7.5 V and favorable compatibility with lithium anode; the outstanding cell performance of C-rate and cycle capacity. All these remarkably excellent performances endow lignin with application potential in GPE used in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with higher performances.

  12. A pH-responsive supramolecular polymer gel as an enteric elastomer for use in gastric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiyi; Bellinger, Andrew M.; Glettig, Dean L.; Barman, Ross; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Zhu, Jiahua; Cleveland, Cody; Montgomery, Veronica A.; Gu, Li; Nash, Landon D.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Devices resident in the stomach--used for a variety of clinical applications including nutritional modulation for bariatrics, ingestible electronics for diagnosis and monitoring, and gastric-retentive dosage forms for prolonged drug delivery--typically incorporate elastic polymers to compress the devices during delivery through the oesophagus and other narrow orifices in the digestive system. However, in the event of accidental device fracture or migration, the non-degradable nature of these materials risks intestinal obstruction. Here, we show that an elastic, pH-responsive supramolecular gel remains stable and elastic in the acidic environment of the stomach but can be dissolved in the neutral-pH environment of the small and large intestines. In a large animal model, prototype devices with these materials as the key component demonstrated prolonged gastric retention and safe passage. These enteric elastomers should increase the safety profile for a wide range of gastric-retentive devices.

  13. A pH-responsive supramolecular polymer gel as an enteric elastomer for use in gastric devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiyi; Bellinger, Andrew M; Glettig, Dean L; Barman, Ross; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Zhu, Jiahua; Cleveland, Cody; Montgomery, Veronica A; Gu, Li; Nash, Landon D; Maitland, Duncan J; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Devices resident in the stomach-used for a variety of clinical applications including nutritional modulation for bariatrics, ingestible electronics for diagnosis and monitoring, and gastric-retentive dosage forms for prolonged drug delivery-typically incorporate elastic polymers to compress the devices during delivery through the oesophagus and other narrow orifices in the digestive system. However, in the event of accidental device fracture or migration, the non-degradable nature of these materials risks intestinal obstruction. Here, we show that an elastic, pH-responsive supramolecular gel remains stable and elastic in the acidic environment of the stomach but can be dissolved in the neutral-pH environment of the small and large intestines. In a large animal model, prototype devices with these materials as the key component demonstrated prolonged gastric retention and safe passage. These enteric elastomers should increase the safety profile for a wide range of gastric-retentive devices. PMID:26213897

  14. A pH-responsive supramolecular polymer gel as an enteric elastomer for use in gastric devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shiyi; Bellinger, Andrew M.; Glettig, Dean L.; Barman, Ross; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Zhu, Jiahua; Cleveland, Cody; Montgomery, Veronica A.; Gu, Li; Nash, Landon D.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2015-07-27

    Devices resident in the stomach used for a variety of clinical applications including nutritional modulation for bariatrics, ingestible electronics for diagnosis and monitoring, and gastric-retentive dosage forms for prolonged drug delivery typically incorporate elastic polymers to compress the devices during delivery through the oesophagus and other narrow orifices in the digestive system. In the event of accidental device fracture or migration, the non-degradable nature of these materials risks intestinal obstruction. Here, we show that an elastic, pH-responsive supramolecular gel remains stable and elastic in the acidic environment of the stomach but can be dissolved in the neutral-pH environment of the small and large intestines. In a large animal model, prototype devices with these materials as the key component demonstrated prolonged gastric retention and safe passage. We determine that these enteric elastomers should increase the safety profile for a wide range of gastricretentive devices.

  15. A pH-responsive supramolecular polymer gel as an enteric elastomer for use in gastric devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shiyi; Bellinger, Andrew M; Glettig, Dean L; Barman, Ross; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Zhu, Jiahua; Cleveland, Cody; Montgomery, Veronica A; Gu, Li; Nash, Landon D; Maitland, Duncan J; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Devices resident in the stomach used for a variety of clinical applications including nutritional modulation for bariatrics, ingestible electronics for diagnosis and monitoring, and gastric-retentive dosage forms for prolonged drug delivery typically incorporate elastic polymers to compress the devices during delivery through the oesophagus and other narrow orifices in the digestive system. However, in the event of accidental device fracture or migration, the non-degradable nature of these materials risks intestinal obstruction. Here, we show that an elastic, pH-responsive supramolecular gel remains stable and elastic in the acidic environment of the stomach but can be dissolved in the neutral-pH environment of the small and large intestines. In a large animal model, prototype devices with these materials as the key component demonstrated prolonged gastric retention and safe passage. These enteric elastomers should increase the safety profile for a wide range of gastricretentive devices.

  16. A pH-responsive supramolecular polymer gel as an enteric elastomer for use in gastric devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Shiyi; Bellinger, Andrew M.; Glettig, Dean L.; Barman, Ross; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Zhu, Jiahua; Cleveland, Cody; Montgomery, Veronica A.; Gu, Li; Nash, Landon D.; et al

    2015-07-27

    Devices resident in the stomach used for a variety of clinical applications including nutritional modulation for bariatrics, ingestible electronics for diagnosis and monitoring, and gastric-retentive dosage forms for prolonged drug delivery typically incorporate elastic polymers to compress the devices during delivery through the oesophagus and other narrow orifices in the digestive system. In the event of accidental device fracture or migration, the non-degradable nature of these materials risks intestinal obstruction. Here, we show that an elastic, pH-responsive supramolecular gel remains stable and elastic in the acidic environment of the stomach but can be dissolved in the neutral-pH environment of themore » small and large intestines. In a large animal model, prototype devices with these materials as the key component demonstrated prolonged gastric retention and safe passage. We determine that these enteric elastomers should increase the safety profile for a wide range of gastricretentive devices.« less

  17. High resolution dosimetry in monoenergetic proton beam therapy on a normoxic polymer gel: the importance of high spatial resolution for reduced Bragg-Peak-quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Naumann, J.; Jaekel, O.

    2013-06-01

    Proton ion beam therapy demands for high resolution dosimetry due to the high dose gradients present in lateral confinement and final Bragg-peak. In polymer gels the reduction of the linear dose response in the area of the Bragg-peak is reported (Bragg-peak quenching), which is assumed to be mainly due to the high linear energy transfer (LET). We here investigate the impact of the spatial resolution in T2-mapping for accurate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-based polymer gel dosimetry in the Bragg-peak for monoenergetic ion beams. We implemented MR-protocols for T2-mapping at microscopic resolution on a High-Field 7T human MR-scanner using an insert gradient system and sensitive rf-coils. The best results are obtained for an optimzed polymer gel based on THPC with an optimized MR-protocol for reduced measurement time and sufficient SNR at 0,547 mm pixel size. The dose in the fine Bragg-peak could be measured correctly for a monoenergetic proton beam as confirmed by Monte Carlo dose simulations. Such high spatial resolutions at minimum are necessary for an accurate measurement of the dose in the sharp Bragg-peak for monoenergetic ion beams. We demonstrate that at higher pixel size the dose levels may be underestimated due to spatial averaging in MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry.

  18. High performance of transferring lithium ion for polyacrylonitrile-interpenetrating crosslinked polyoxyethylene network as gel polymer electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ping-Lin; Wu, Ching-An; Lu, Chung-Yu; Tsao, Chin-Hao; Hsu, Chun-Han; Hou, Sheng-Shu

    2014-03-12

    A polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-interpenetrating cross-linked polyoxyethylene (PEO) network (named XANE) was synthesized acting as separator and as gel polymer electrolytes simultaneously. SEM images show that the surface of the XANE membrane is nonporous, comparing to the surface of the commercial separator to be porous. This property results in excellent electrolyte uptake amount (425 wt %), and electrolyte retention for XANE membrane, significantly higher than that of commercial separator (200 wt %). The DSC result indicates that the PEO crystallinity is deteriorated by the cross-linked process and was further degraded by the interpenetration of the PAN. The XANE membrane shows significantly higher ionic conductivity (1.06-8.21 mS cm(-1)) than that of the commercial Celgard M824 separator (0.45-0.90 mS cm(-1)) ascribed to the high electrolyte retention ability of XANE (from TGA), the deteriorated PEO crystallinity (from DSC) and the good compatibility between XANE and electrode (from measuring the interfacial-resistance). For battery application, under all charge/discharge rates (from 0.1 to 3 C), the specific half-cell capacities of the cell composed of the XANE membrane are all higher than those of the aforementioned commercial separator. More specifically, the cell composed of the XANE membrane has excellent cycling stability, that is, the half-cell composed of the XANE membrane still exhibited more than 97% columbic efficiency after 100 cycles at 1 C. The above-mentioned advantageous properties and performances of the XANE membrane allow it to act as both an ionic conductor as well as a separator, so as to work as separator-free gel polymer electrolytes. PMID:24521309

  19. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energ