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Sample records for 3d position-sensitive detectors

  1. READOUT ASIC FOR 3D POSITION-SENSITIVE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; VERNON, E.; ACKLEY, K.; DRAGONE, A.; FRIED, J.; OCONNOR, P.; HE, Z.; HERMAN, C.; ZHANG, F.

    2007-10-27

    We describe an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position-sensitive detectors. It was optimized for pixelated CZT sensors, and it measures, corresponding to an ionizing event, the energy and timing of signals from 121 anodes and one cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping, along with peak- and timing-detection. The cathode's timing can be measured in three different ways: the first is based on multiple thresholds on the charge amplifier's voltage output; the second uses the threshold crossing of a fast-shaped signal; and the third measures the peak amplitude and timing from a bipolar shaper. With its power of 2 mW per channel the ASIC measures, on a CZT sensor Connected and biased, charges up to 100 fC with an electronic resolution better than 200 e{sup -} rms. Our preliminary spectral measurements applying a simple cathode/mode ratio correction demonstrated a single-pixel resolution of 4.8 keV (0.72 %) at 662 keV, with the electronics and leakage current contributing in total with 2.1 keV.

  2. Position-sensitive superconductor detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurakado, M.; Taniguchi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors and superconducting transition- edge sensors (TESs) are representative superconductor detectors having energy resolutions much higher than those of semiconductor detectors. STJ detectors are thin, thereby making it suitable for detecting low-energy X rays. The signals of STJ detectors are more than 100 times faster than those of TESs. By contrast, TESs are microcalorimeters that measure the radiation energy from the change in the temperature. Therefore, signals are slow and their time constants are typically several hundreds of μs. However, TESs possess excellent energy resolutions. For example, TESs have a resolution of 1.6 eV for 5.9-keV X rays. An array of STJs or TESs can be used as a pixel detector. Superconducting series-junction detectors (SSJDs) comprise multiple STJs and a single-crystal substrate that acts as a radiation absorber. SSJDs are also position sensitive, and their energy resolutions are higher than those of semiconductor detectors. In this paper, we give an overview of position-sensitive superconductor detectors.

  3. Characterization of a sub-assembly of 3D position sensitive cadmium zinc telluride detectors and electronics from a sub-millimeter resolution PET system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Gu, Yi; Reynolds, Paul D.; Levin, Craig S.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) offers key advantages for small animal positron emission tomography (PET), including high spatial and energy resolution and simple metal deposition for fabrication of very small pixel arrays. Previous studies have investigated the intrinsic spatial, energy, and timing resolution of an individual sub-millimeter resolution CZT detector. In this work we present the first characterization results of a system of these detectors. The 3D position sensitive dual-CZT detector module and readout electronics developed in our lab was scaled up to complete a significant portion of the final PET system. This sub-system was configured as two opposing detection panels containing a total of twelve 40~\\text{mm}× 40~\\text{mm}× 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals for proof of concept. System-level characterization studies, including optimizing the trigger threshold of each channel’s comparators, were performed. 68Ge and 137Cs radioactive isotopes were used to characterize the energy resolution of all 468 anode channels in the sub-system. The mean measured global 511 keV photopeak energy resolution over all anodes was found to be 7.35+/- 1.75 % FWHM after correction for photon interaction depth-dependent signal variation. The measured global time resolution was 37 ns FWHM, a parameter to be further optimized, and the intrinsic spatial resolution was 0.76 mm FWHM.

  4. High speed curved position sensitive detector

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Robert W.; Wilson, Jack W.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed curved position sensitive porportional counter detector for use in x-ray diffraction, the detection of 5-20 keV photons and the like. The detector employs a planar anode assembly of a plurality of parallel metallic wires. This anode assembly is supported between two cathode planes, with at least one of these cathode planes having a serpentine resistive path in the form of a meander having legs generally perpendicular to the anode wires. This meander is produced by special microelectronic fabrication techniques whereby the meander "wire" fans outwardly at the cathode ends to produce the curved aspect of the detector, and the legs of the meander are small in cross-section and very closely spaced whereby a spatial resolution of about 50 .mu.m can be achieved. All of the other performance characteristics are about as good or better than conventional position sensitive proportional counter type detectors. Count rates of up to 40,000 counts per second with 0.5 .mu.s shaping time constants are achieved.

  5. Two-dimensional position sensitive radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1994-02-22

    Nuclear reaction detectors capable of position sensitivity with submillimeter resolution in two dimensions are each provided by placing arrays of scintillation or wavelength shifting optical fibers formed of a plurality of such optical fibers in a side-by-side relationship in X and Y directions with a layer of nuclear reactive material operatively associated with surface regions of the optical fiber arrays. Each nuclear reaction occurring in the layer of nuclear reactive material produces energetic particles for simultaneously providing a light pulse in a single optical fiber in the X oriented array and in a single optical fiber in the Y oriented array. These pulses of light are transmitted to a signal producing circuit for providing signals indicative of the X-Y coordinates of each nuclear event. 6 figures.

  6. Two-dimensional position sensitive radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear reaction detectors capable of position sensitivity with submillimeter resolution in two dimensions are each provided by placing arrays of scintillation or wave length shifting optical fibers formed of a plurality of such optical fibers in a side-by-side relationship in X and Y directions with a layer of nuclear reactive material operatively associated with surface regions of the optical fiber arrays. Each nuclear reaction occurring in the layer of nuclear reactive material produces energetic particles for simultaneously providing a light pulse in a single optical fiber in the X oriented array and in a single optical fiber in the Y oriented array. These pulses of light are transmitted to a signal producing circuit for providing signals indicative of the X-Y coordinates of each nuclear event.

  7. Emulation workbench for position sensitive gaseous scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, L.; Margato, L. M. S.; Morozov, A.; Solovov, V.; Fraga, F. A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Position sensitive detectors based on gaseous scintillation proportional counters with Anger-type readout are being used in several research areas such as neutron detection, search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Design and optimization of such detectors are complex and time consuming tasks. Simulations, while being a powerful tool, strongly depend on the light transfer models and demand accurate knowledge of many parameters, which are often not available. Here we describe an alternative approach based on the experimental evaluation of a detector using an isotropic point-like light source with precisely controllable light emission properties, installed on a 3D positioning system. The results obtained with the developed setup at validation conditions, when the scattered light is strongly suppressed show good agreement with simulations.

  8. Position-sensitive CZT detector module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, James L.; Duttweiler, Fred; Huszar, George L.; Leblanc, Philippe C.; Skelton, Robert E.; Stephan, Edwin A.; Hink, Paul L.; Dowkontt, Paul F.; Slavis, Kimberly R.; Tumer, Tumay O.; Kravis, Scott D.

    1998-07-01

    Coded mask imagers for future high energy x-ray astronomy missions will require detector planes with areas of hundreds to thousands of cm(superscript 2) and position resolutions < 1 mm. Such detectors will enable coded mask imagers to discover and study thousands of high energy x-ray sources. The UCSD/WU/UCR/NOVA collaboration has been developing CZT detector systems with crossed-strip readout to meet these requirements. We report progress on a compact detector module with 41 cm(superscript 2) area and 0.5 mm spatial resolution. The design includes the bias network and ASIC readout electronics, and allows modules to be combined in large area arrays with very high live-area factors. Results from laboratory and balloon flight tests are presented.

  9. Position sensitive detector for fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokazov, Y.; Turbin, E.; Weber, A.; Hartig, R.; Zuschratter, W.

    2014-12-01

    We present a detector system with a microchannel plate based photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) and its application for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) in visible light. A capacity coupled imaging technique (charge image) combined with a charge division anode is employed for the positional readout. Using an artificial neural network's (ANN) computation model we are able to reconstruct the position of the incident photon as precise as 20 microns over the detector active area of 25 mm diameter. Thus, the resulting image quality corresponds roughly to a megapixel conventional CCD camera. Importantly, it is feasible to reach such resolution using only 9 charge acquisition channels supporting the anode structure of 14 interconnected readout electrodes. Additionally, the system features better than 50 ps temporal resolution allowing single photon counting FLIM acquisition with a regular fluorescence wide-field microscope.

  10. Position sensitivity of MAMA detectors. [Multi-Anode Microchannel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. S.; Slater, D. S.; Timothy, J. G.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1988-01-01

    The results of laboratory and telescopic measurements of the position sensitivity of a visible MAMA detector utilizing a 'coarse-fine' array are presented. The photometric accuracy of this detector was determined under point source illumination. It was found that computed centroid positions are accurate across the entire array to within 0.04 pixels.

  11. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  12. Silicon position sensitive detectors for the HELIOS (NA34) experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Beuttenmuller, R.; Bisi, V.; Chesi, E.; Di Nardo, R.P.; Esten, M.J.; Giubellino, P.; Kraner, H.W.; Ludlam, T.W.; Meddi, F.; Piuz, F.

    1986-03-01

    Silicon detectors having both ''pad'' and strip position sensitive configurations have been fabricated for the HELIOS experiment which requires an elaborate pulse height-dependent trigger as well as one dimensional silicon strip position sensing. The trigger detector is a 400 element, 30 mm diameter detector with readout connections from a ceramic overlay board. Tests with full prototype detectors have shown essentially 100% detection efficiency and excellent pulse height resolution well capable of delineating 0, 1 or 2 hits per pad. Strip detectors with 25 ..mu..m pitch and a varying readout pitch have been tested, which utilize both capacitive and resistive charge division. Techniques for realization of required interstrip resistors will be discussed and results which may compare these readout methods will be reported. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Spectroscopy of Actinide Nuclei - Perspectives with Position Sensitive HPGe Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Kotthaus, T.

    Recent advances in in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy of actinide nuclei are based on highly efficient arrays of escape-suppressed spectrometers. The sensitivity of these detector arrays is greatly enhanced by the combination with powerful mass separators or particle detector systems. This technique is demonstrated by an experiment to investigate excited states in 234U after the one-neutron-transfer reaction 235U(d,t). In coincidence with the outgoing tritons, γ-rays were detected with the highly efficient MINIBALL spectrometer. In the near future an even enhanced sensitivity will be achieved by utilizing position sensitive HPGe detectors which will exploit the novel detection method of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented germanium detectors. An example for this novel approach is the investigation neutron-rich actinide Th and U nuclei after multi nucleon transfer reactions employing the AGATA demonstrator and PRISMA setup at LNL, Italy. A primary 136Xe beam hitting a 238U target was used to produce the nuclei of interest. Beam-like reaction products after neutron transfer were selected by the PRISMA spectrometer. Coincident γ-rays from excited states in beam and target like particles were measured with the position sensitive AGATA HPGe detectors. Improved Doppler correction and quality of the γ-spectra is based on the novel γ-ray tracking technique, which was successfully exploited in this region.

  14. Position-Sensitive Nuclear Spectroscopy with Pixel Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Granja, Carlos; Vykydal, Zdenek; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav

    2007-10-26

    State-of-the-art hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors such as Medipix2 are suitable for energy- and position-sensitive nuclear spectroscopy. In addition to excellent energy- and spatial-resolution, these devices can operate in spectroscopic, single-quantum counting and/or on-line tracking mode. A devoted compact USB-readout interface provides functionality and ease of operation. The compact and versatile Medipix2/USB radiation camera provides visualization, vacuum and room-temperature operation as a real-time portable active nuclear emulsion.

  15. CdZnTe position-sensitive drift detectors with thicknesses up to 5 cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Chen, E.; Cheng, S.; Cui, Y.; Gul, R.; Gallagher, R.; Dedic, V.; De Geronimo, G.; Ocampo Giraldo, L.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; MacKenzie, J. M.; Sellin, P.; Taherion, S.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; El-hanany, U.; James, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the feasibility of long-drift-time CdZnTe (CZT) gamma-ray detectors, fabricated from CZT material produced by Redlen Technologies. CZT crystals with cross-section areas of 5 × 5 mm2 and 6 × 6 mm2 and thicknesses of 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-mm were configured as 3D position-sensitive drift detectors and were read out using a front-end ASIC. By correcting the electron charge losses caused by defects in the crystals, we demonstrated high performance for relatively thick detectors fabricated from unselected CZT material.

  16. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: New test and analysis of position-sensitive-silicon-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lang; Ge, Yu-Cheng; Wang, He; Fan, Feng-Ying; Qiao, Rui; Lu, Fei; Song, Yu-Shou; Zheng, Tao; Ye, Yan-Lin

    2009-01-01

    We have tested and analyzed the properties of two-dimensional Position-Sensitive-silicon-Detector (PSD) with new integrated preamplifiers. The test demonstrates that the best position resolution for 5.5 MeV α particles is 1.7 mm (FWHM), and the best energy resolution is 2.1%, which are notably better than the previously reported results. A scaling formula is introduced to make the absolute position calibration.

  17. Position sensitive and energy dispersive x-ray detector based on silicon strip detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.; Fink, J.; Fiutowski, T.; Krane, H.-G.; Loyer, F.; Schwamberger, A.; Świentek, K.; Venanzi, C.

    2015-04-01

    A new position sensitive detector with a global energy resolution for the entire detector of about 380 eV FWHM for 8.04 keV line at ambient temperature is presented. The measured global energy resolution is defined by the energy spectra summed over all strips of the detector, and thus it includes electronic noise of the front-end electronics, charge sharing effects, matching of parameters across the channels and other system noise sources. The target energy resolution has been achieved by segmentation of the strips to reduce their capacitance and by careful optimization of the front-end electronics. The key design aspects and parameters of the detector are discussed briefly in the paper. Excellent noise and matching performance of the readout ASIC and negligible system noise allow us to operate the detector with a discrimination threshold as low as 1 keV and to measure fluorescence radiation lines of light elements, down to Al Kα of 1.49 keV, simultaneously with measurements of the diffraction patterns. The measurement results that demonstrate the spectrometric and count rate performance of the developed detector are presented and discussed in the paper.

  18. 3D IC for Future HEP Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, J.; Lipton, R.; Heintz, U.; Johnson, M.; Narain, M.; Badman, R.; Spiegel, L.; Triphati, M.; Deptuch, G.; Kenney, C.; Parker, S.; Ye, Z.; Siddons, D.

    2014-11-07

    Three dimensional integrated circuit technologies offer the possibility of fabricating large area arrays of sensors integrated with complex electronics with minimal dead area, which makes them ideally suited for applications at the LHC upgraded detectors and other future detectors. Here we describe ongoing R&D efforts to demonstrate functionality of components of such detectors. This also includes the study of integrated 3D electronics with active edge sensors to produce "active tiles" which can be tested and assembled into arrays of arbitrary size with high yield.

  19. Simulation of 3D diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcolin, G. T.; Oh, A.; Murphy, S. A.

    2017-02-01

    3D diamond detectors present an interesting prospect for future Particle Physics experiments. They have been studied in detail at beam tests with 120 GeV protons and 4 MeV protons. To understand the observations that have been made, simulations have been carried out using Synopsys TCAD in order to explain the movement of charge carriers within the sample, as well as the effects of charge sharing. Reasonable agreement has been observed between simulation and experiment.

  20. Time of flight elastic recoil detection analysis with a position sensitive detector

    SciTech Connect

    Siketic, Zdravko; Radovic, Iva Bogdanovic; Jaksic, Milko; Skukan, Natko

    2010-03-15

    A position sensitive detection system based on the microchannel plate detector has been constructed and installed at the existing time of flight (TOF) spectrometer in order to perform a kinematic correction and improve the surface time/depth resolution of elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) system. The position resolution of the detector has been tested for different types of ions and anode voltages. TOF spectra of recoiled O ions from SiO{sub 2} and F from CaF{sub 2} were collected in coincidence with position sensitive detector signal. Kinematic correction of TOF spectra improved surface time/depth resolution by {approx}20% for our system; however even higher improvements could be obtained in larger solid angle TOF-ERDA systems.

  1. Powder diffraction by fixed incident angle reflection using a curved position-sensitive detector

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, Ryan P.; Sarin, Pankaj; Bérar, Jean-Francois; Apostolov, Zlatomir D.; Kriven, Waltraud M.

    2010-05-25

    As curved position-sensitive detectors improve in angular resolution, the effects that fixed incident angle reflection have on X-ray diffraction peaks become more apparent. In this study the effects of sample transparency, incident beam height, detector resolution and sample displacement on the intensity, location, width and shape of powder diffraction peaks were examined. The functions describing each of these phenomena are presented and were successfully used to quantitatively model the diffraction peaks collected in this geometry. Three distinct regimes of diffraction peak resolution were identified from the phenomena that limit the peak variance. Pertinent criteria based on experimental parameters have been outlined to classify fixed incident angle reflection experiments into each regime. Guidelines for improvement of experimental resolution and for conducting analysis of data acquired using fixed incident angle reflection geometry and curved position-sensitive detectors are also provided.

  2. Position-sensitive CdTe detector using improved crystal growth method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a position-sensitive CdTe detector array for astronomical observations in the hard X-ray, soft gamma ray region is demonstrated. In principle, it was possible to improve the resolution capability for imaging measurements in this region by orders of magnitude over what is now possible through the use of CdTe detector arrays. The objective was to show that CdTe crystals of the quality, size and uniformity required for this application can be obtained with a new high pressure growth technique. The approach was to fabricate, characterize and analyze a 100 element square array and several single-element detectors using crystals from the new growth process. Results show that detectors fabricated from transversely sliced, 7 cm diameter wafers of CdTe exhibit efficient counting capability and a high degree of uniformity over their entire areas. A 100 element square array of 1 sq mm detectors was fabricated and operated.

  3. Laser processing in 3D diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. A.; Booth, M.; Li, L.; Oh, A.; Salter, P.; Sun, B.; Whitehead, D.; Zadoroshnyj, A.

    2017-02-01

    A technique for electrode production within diamond using a femtosecond laser system is described. Diagnosis tests to quantify the stress, the diamond to graphite ratio, and the resistivity of these electrodes are discussed. A 3D electronic grade single crystal diamond detector produced using this technique is shown, and the electrodes have a resistivity of O(1 Ω cm). An improvement to the technique through the use of an adaptive wavefront shows a reduction of the diamond to graphite ratio, and smaller, higher quality electrodes were manufactured.

  4. Exploring the spatial resolution of position-sensitive microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Blake; Siwal, Davinder; Desouza, Romualdo

    2016-03-01

    High amplification and excellent timing make microchannel plate (MCP) detectors excellent devices for detection of photons, electrons, and ions. In addition to providing sub-nanosecond time resolution MCP detectors can also provide spatial resolution, thus making them useful in imaging applications. Use of a resistive anode (RA) is a routinely used approach to make an MCP position-sensitive. The spatial resolution of the RA associated with detection of a single incident electron was determined. Factors impacting the spatial resolution obtained with the RA will be discussed and the achieved spatial resolution of 64 μm (FWHM) will be presented. Recently, a novel approach has been developed to provide position-sensitivity for an MCP detector. In this approach, namely the induced signal approach, the position of the incident particle is determined by sensing the electron cloud emanating from a MCP stack. By utilizing the zero-crossing point of the inherently bipolar signals, a spatial resolution of 466 μm (FWHM) has been achieved. Work to improve the spatial resolution of the induced signal approach further will be presented. Supported by the US DOE NNSA under Award No. DE-NA0002012.

  5. Compton imaging with a highly-segmented, position-sensitive HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, T.; Hirsch, R.; Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Bruyneel, B.; Eberth, J.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Lewandowski, L.; Maier, L.; Schlarb, M.; Weiler, B.; Winkel, M.

    2017-02-01

    A Compton camera based on a highly-segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) was developed, tested, and put into operation; the origin of γ radiation was determined successfully. The Compton camera is operated in two different modes. Coincidences from Compton-scattered γ-ray events between DSSD and HPGe detector allow for best angular resolution; while the high-efficiency mode takes advantage of the position sensitivity of the highly-segmented HPGe detector. In this mode the setup is sensitive to the whole 4π solid angle. The interaction-point positions in the 36-fold segmented large-volume HPGe detector are determined by pulse-shape analysis (PSA) of all HPGe detector signals. Imaging algorithms were developed for each mode and successfully implemented. The angular resolution sensitively depends on parameters such as geometry, selected multiplicity and interaction-point distances. Best results were obtained taking into account the crosstalk properties, the time alignment of the signals and the distance metric for the PSA for both operation modes. An angular resolution between 13.8° and 19.1°, depending on the minimal interaction-point distance for the high-efficiency mode at an energy of 1275 keV, was achieved. In the coincidence mode, an increased angular resolution of 4.6° was determined for the same γ-ray energy.

  6. High-Efficiency CdZnTe Position-Sensitive VFG Gamma-Ray Detectors for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Vernon, E.; Camarda, G. S.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Indusi, J.; Boyer, Brian

    2015-09-30

    The goal of this project is to incorporate a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detector (with 1% or better resolution) into a bench-top prototype for isotope identification and related safeguards applications. The bench-top system is based on a 2x2 array of 6x6x20 mm3 position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid (VFG) CZT detectors. The key features of the array are that it allows for the use of average-grade CZT material with a moderate content of defects, and yet it provides high energy resolution, 1% FWHM at 662 keV, large effective area, and low-power consumption. The development of this type of 3D detector and new instruments incorporating them is motivated by the high cost and low availability of large, > 1 cm3, CZT crystals suitable for making multi-pixel detectors with acceptable energy resolution and efficiency.

  7. An improved method of energy calibration for position-sensitive silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming-Dao; Huang, Tian-Heng; Liu, Zhong; Ding, Bing; Yang, Hua-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Guo; Ma, Long; Yu, Lin; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Gan, Zai-Guo; Xiao-Hong, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Energy calibration of resistive charge division-based position-sensitive silicon detectors is achieved by parabolic fitting in the traditional method, where the systematic variations of vertex and curvature of the parabola with energy must be considered. In this paper we extend the traditional method in order to correct the fitting function, simplify the procedure of calibration and improve the experimental data quality. Instead of a parabolic function as used in the traditional method, a new function describing the relation of position and energy is introduced. The energy resolution of the 8.088 MeV α decay of 213Rn is determined to be about 87 keV (FWHM), which is better than the result of the traditional method, 104 keV (FWHM). The improved method can be applied to the energy calibration of resistive charge division-based position-sensitive silicon detectors with various performances. Supported by ‘100 Person Project’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405224 and 11435014)

  8. Position-sensitive ``movie'' in situ neutron detector for the UCN τ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; UCNTau Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Precision measurements of neutron β-decay parameters provide tests of fundamental theories in elementary particle physics and cosmology such as the Standard Model and Big Bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, the UCN τ experiment aims to measure the mean lifetime of ultracold neutrons confined in an asymmetric magneto-gravitational trap using an in situ neutron detector. This detector consists of a 20 nm film of 10B on top of a ZnS:Ag scintillating screen. The screen is readout using two photomultipliers which view an array of wavelength shifting fibers optically coupled to the scintillator. When the detector is lowered into the loaded trap, light is emitted due to the charged particles recoiling into the ZnS:Ag when neutrons absorb on the 10B. Phase space evolution in the stored neutron population can lead to apparent shifts in the measured neutron lifetime with the detector height. In order to quantify this systematic uncertainty, we are implementing a supplemental 64-channel position-sensitive PMT module with high quantum efficiency and fast time response to image the entire detector in situ during measurements. We have characterized a prototype using a ZnS screen and an α-particle source along with a prototype lens system and will report the results and future plans.

  9. Fourier synthesis image reconstruction by use of one-dimensional position-sensitive detectors.

    PubMed

    Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Makishima, Kazuo; Okada, Yuu; Negoro, Hitoshi; Terada, Yukikatsu; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oda, Minoru

    2003-07-10

    An improvement of Fourier synthesis optics for hard x-ray imaging is described, and the basic performance of the new optics is confirmed through numerical simulations. The original concept of the Fourier synthesis imager utilizes nonposition-sensitive hard x-ray detectors coupled to individual bigrid modulation collimators. The improved concept employs a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector (such as a CdTe strip detector) instead of the second grid layer of each bigrid modulation collimator. This improves the imaging performance in several respects over the original design. One performance improvement is a two-fold increase in the average transmission, from 1/4 to 1/2. The second merit is that both the sine and cosine components can be derived from a single grid-detector module, and hence the number of imaging modules can be halved. Furthermore, it provides information along the depth direction simultaneously. This in turn enables a three-dimensional imaging hard x-ray microscope for medical diagnostics, incorporating radioactive tracers. A conceptual design of such a microscope is presented, designed to provide a field of view of 4 mm and a spatial resolution of 400 microm.

  10. Development of Position-sensitive Transition-edge Sensor X-ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. J.; Bandler, S. R.; Brekosky, R. P.; Brown, A.-D.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckard, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. s.; Sad (eor. K/ E/); Figueroa-Feliciano, E.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of position-sensitive transition-edge sensors (PoST's) for future x-ray astronomy missions such as the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), currently under study by NASA and ESA. PoST's consist of multiple absorbers each with a different thermal coupling to one or more transition-edge sensor (TES). This differential thermal coupling between absorbers and TES's results in different characteristic pulse shapes and allows position discrimination between the different pixels. The development of PoST's is motivated by a desire to achieve maximum focal-plane area with the least number of readout channels and as such. PoST's are ideally suited to provide a focal-plane extension to the Constellation-X microcalorimeter array. We report the first experimental results of our latest one and two channel PoST's, which utilize fast thermalizing electroplated Au/Bi absorbers coupled to low noise Mo/Au TES's - a technology already successfully implemented in our arrays of single pixel TES's. We demonstrate 6 eV energy resolution coupled with spatial sensitivity in the keV energy range. We also report on the development of signal processing algorithms to optimize energy and position sensitivity of our detectors.

  11. A multiplexed TOF and DOI capable PET detector using a binary position sensitive network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Cates, J. W.; Levin, C. S.

    2016-11-01

    Time of flight (TOF) and depth of interaction (DOI) capabilities can significantly enhance the quality and uniformity of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Many proposed TOF/DOI PET detectors require complex readout systems using additional photosensors, active cooling, or waveform sampling. This work describes a high performance, low complexity, room temperature TOF/DOI PET module. The module uses multiplexed timing channels to significantly reduce the electronic readout complexity of the PET detector while maintaining excellent timing, energy, and position resolution. DOI was determined using a two layer light sharing scintillation crystal array with a novel binary position sensitive network. A 20 mm effective thickness LYSO crystal array with four 3 mm  ×  3 mm silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) read out by a single timing channel, one energy channel and two position channels achieved a full width half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of 180  ±  2 ps with 10 mm of DOI resolution and 11% energy resolution. With sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs read out by a single timing channel, one energy channel and four position channels a coincidence time resolution 204  ±  1 ps was achieved with 10 mm of DOI resolution and 15% energy resolution. The methods presented here could significantly simplify the construction of high performance TOF/DOI PET detectors.

  12. A multiplexed TOF and DOI capable PET detector using a binary position sensitive network.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Cates, J W; Levin, C S

    2016-11-07

    Time of flight (TOF) and depth of interaction (DOI) capabilities can significantly enhance the quality and uniformity of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Many proposed TOF/DOI PET detectors require complex readout systems using additional photosensors, active cooling, or waveform sampling. This work describes a high performance, low complexity, room temperature TOF/DOI PET module. The module uses multiplexed timing channels to significantly reduce the electronic readout complexity of the PET detector while maintaining excellent timing, energy, and position resolution. DOI was determined using a two layer light sharing scintillation crystal array with a novel binary position sensitive network. A 20 mm effective thickness LYSO crystal array with four 3 mm  ×  3 mm silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) read out by a single timing channel, one energy channel and two position channels achieved a full width half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of 180  ±  2 ps with 10 mm of DOI resolution and 11% energy resolution. With sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs read out by a single timing channel, one energy channel and four position channels a coincidence time resolution 204  ±  1 ps was achieved with 10 mm of DOI resolution and 15% energy resolution. The methods presented here could significantly simplify the construction of high performance TOF/DOI PET detectors.

  13. Experience with position sensitive neutron detectors at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.K.; Haumann, J.R.; Schultz, A.J.; Felcher, G.P.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Montague, D.G.; Dejus, R.J.

    1990-05-07

    At the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) pulses of protons accelerated in a synchrotron produce pulses of fast neutrons via the spallation process in an enriched uranium target. After moderation, the resulting pulses of slow neutrons are directed into beams which serve a variety of neutron scattering instruments. Currently there are thirteen neutron scattering instruments in operation or under development at IPNS, and six of these use position-sensitive neutron detectors (PSDs). These PSDs are: a 30 cm {times} 30 cm, {approximately}3 mm resolution, neutron Anger camera area PSD with {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator; a 2.5 cm dia, {approximately}0.7 mm resolution, microchannel-plate area PSD with {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator; a 20 cm {times} 20 cm, {approximately}5 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter area PSD; a 40 cm {times} 40 cm, {approximately}4 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter area PSD; a flat 20 cm long, {approximately}1.6 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter linear PSD; and 160 cylindrical {sup 3}He proportional counter linear PSDs, each of which is 1.27 cm in dia 60 cm long and has {approximately}14 mm resolution. These detectors, in addition to being position-sensitive, resolve the time of the neutron capture with {approximately}1 {mu}s precision for neutron time-of-flight measurements. This paper will discuss these various PSDs with emphasis on the instrumental specifications and the reasons for the selection of the different types of PSDs, and will also discuss the observed performances of these PSDs. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Experience with position-sensitive neutron detectors at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, R. K.; Haumann, J. R.; Epperson, J. E.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Schultz, A. J.; Felcher, G. P.; Montague, D. G.; Dejus, R. J.

    1990-12-01

    At the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory, pulses of protons accelerated in a synchrotron produce pulses of fast neutrons via the spallation process in an enriched uranium target. After moderation, the resulting pulses of slow neutrons are directed into beams which serve a variety of neutron-scattering instruments. Currently there are thirteen neutron-scattering instruments in operation or under development at IPNS, and six of these use position-sensitive neutron detectors (PSDs). These PSDs are: a 30 cm × 30 cm, ˜3 mm resolution, neutron Anger camera area PSD with 6Li-glass scintillator; a 2.5 cm diameter, ˜0.7 mm resolution, microchannel-plate area PSD with 6Li-glass scintillator; a 20 cm × 20 cm, ˜5 mm resolution, 3He proportional-counter area PSD; a 40 cm × 40 cm, ˜4 mm resolution, 3He proportional-counter area PSD; a flat 20 cm long, ˜1.6 mm resolution, 3He proportional-counter linear PSD; and 160 cylindrical 3He proportional-counter linear PSDs, each of which is 1.27 cm in diameter and 60 cm long and has ˜14 mm resolution. These detectors, in addition to being position-sensitive, resolve the time of the neutron capture with ˜1 μs precision for neutron time-of-flight measurements. This paper will discuss these various PSDs with emphasis on the instrumental specifications and the reasons for the selection of the different types of PSDs, and will also discuss the observed performances of these PSDs.

  15. Performance characteristics of a compact position-sensitive LSO detector module.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, J J; Seidel, J; Siegel, S; Gandler, W R; Green, M V

    1998-12-01

    We assembled a compact detector module comprised of an array of small, individual crystals of lutetium oxyorthosilicate:Ce (LSO) coupled directly to a miniature, metal-can, position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). We exposed this module to sources of 511-keV annihilation radiation and beams of 30- and 140-keV photons and measured spatial linearity; spatial variations in module gain, energy resolution, and event positioning; coincidence timing; the accuracy and sensitivity of identifying the crystal-of-first-interaction at 511 keV; and the effects of intercrystal scatter and LSO background radioactivity. The results suggest that this scintillator/phototube combination should be highly effective in the coincidence mode and can be used, with some limitations, to image relatively low-energy single photon emitters. Photons that are completely absorbed on their first interaction at 511 keV are positioned by the module at the center of a crystal. Intercrystal scatter events, even those that lead to total absorption of the incident photon, are placed by the module in a regular "connect-the-dot" pattern that joins crystal centers. As a result, the accuracy of event positioning can be made to exceed 90%, though at significantly reduced sensitivity, by retaining only events that occur within small regions-of-interest around each crystal center and rejecting events that occur outside these regions in the connect-the-dot pattern.

  16. High spatial resolution two-dimensional position sensitive detector for the performance of coincidence experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ceolin, D.; Chaplier, G.; Lemonnier, M.; Garcia, G.A.; Miron, C.; Nahon, L.; Simon, M.; Leclercq, N.; Morin, P.

    2005-04-01

    A position sensitive detector (PSD) adapted to the technical and mechanical specifications of our angle and energy resolved electron-ion(s) coincidence experiments is described in this article. The device, whose principle is very similar to the one detailed by J. H. D. Eland [Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1501 (1994)], is composed by a set of microchannel plates and a delay line anode. The originality comes from the addition in front of the encoding surface of a ceramic disk covered by a resistive surface. The capacitive coupling between the anode and the resistive plane has the double advantage of eliminating the spatial modulations due to the lattice of the anode and also of sensitizing a greater number of electrodes, increasing thus considerably the accuracy of the position measurements. The tests carried out with a time to digital conversion module of 250 ps resolution showed that a spatial resolution better than 50 {mu}m and a dead time of 160 ns can be achieved. Typical images obtained with the help of the EPICEA and DELICIOUS coincidence setups are also shown.

  17. Improvement of the position linearity in a comb-type one-dimensional position sensitive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jiuyao; Huang, Meizhen; Kim, Hoseob

    2002-09-01

    In a conventional, strip-type one-dimensional (1-D) position sensitive detector (PSD) the sensitive area and the position resistance area are combined together, the contact structure of the device is handicapped, so its accuracy and linearity is affected adversely. The sensitive area and the position resistance area in a new, comb-type 1-D PSD are separated to become the comb teeth and the comb ridge area respectively, moreover the position resistance area is made very narrow, thus the doping uniformity of that area is greatly improved. On the other hand, its position resistance can be largely increased owing to its narrower shape, if doping level is kept the same, so the restriction that is imposed on the contact structure previously can be lifted. Our measurements made on a strip-type 1-D PSD and a comb type 1-D PSD confirmed this difference, and showed that the accuracy and linearity of the comb type 1-D PSD has been increased markedly, especially the RMS nonlinearity of the comb type 1-D PSD is reduced to 0.090% from that of the strip-type 1-D PSD, 0.94%.

  18. First fabrication of full 3D-detectors at SINTEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Thor-Erik; Kok, Angela; Hansen, Trond A.; Lietaer, Nicolas; Mielnik, Michal; Storås, Preben; Da'Via, Cinzia; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Parker, Sherwood

    2009-03-01

    3D-detectors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire substrates have drawn great interests for high energy physics and medical imaging applications. Since its introduction by C. Kenney et al in 1995, many laboratories have begun research on different 3D-detector structures to simplify and industrialise the fabrication process. SINTEF MiNaLab joined the 3D collaboration in 2006 and started the first 3D fabrication run in 2007. This is the first step in an effort to fabricate affordable 3D-detectors in small to medium size production volumes. The first run was fully completed in February 2008 and preliminary results are promising. Good p-n junction characteristics have been shown on selected devices at the chip level with a leakage current of less than 0.5 nA per pixel. Thus SINTEF is the second laboratory in the world after the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility that has succeeded in demonstrating full 3D-detectors with active edge. A full 3D-stacked detector system were formed by bump-bonding the detectors to the ATLAS readout electronics, and successful particle hit maps using an Am-241 source were recorded. Most modules, however, showed largely increased leakage currents after assembly, which is due to the active edge and p-spray acting as part of the total chip pn-junction and not as a depletion stop. This paper describes the first fabrication and the encountered processing issues. The preliminary measurements on both the individual detector chips and the integrated 3D-stacked modules are discussed. A new lot has now been started on p-type wafers, which offers a more robust configuration with the active edge acting as depletion stop instead of part of the pn-junction.

  19. Complex microcalorimeter models and their application to position-sensitive detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2006-06-01

    We present a general formalism for calculating the linear response, noise spectrum, and energy resolution of complex calorimeters. Using this formalism calorimeters with arbitrary numbers of distinct linked heat capacity systems and/or coupled thermometers can be analyzed. We use this formalism to derive the theoretical resolution of an imaging microcalorimeter called a position- sensitive transition-edge sensor.

  20. A 3D diamond detector for particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bergonzo, P.; Caylar, B.; Forcolin, G.; Haughton, I.; Hits, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Li, L.; Oh, A.; Phan, S.; Pomorski, M.; Smith, D. S.; Tyzhnevyi, V.; Wallny, R.; Whitehead, D.

    2015-06-01

    A novel device using single-crystal chemical vapour deposited diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk forming a 3D diamond detector is presented. The electrodes of the device were fabricated with laser assisted phase change of diamond into a combination of diamond-like carbon, amorphous carbon and graphite. The connections to the electrodes of the device were made using a photo-lithographic process. The electrical and particle detection properties of the device were investigated. A prototype detector system consisting of the 3D device connected to a multi-channel readout was successfully tested with 120 GeV protons proving the feasibility of the 3D diamond detector concept for particle tracking applications for the first time.

  1. 3D sensitive voxel detector of ionizing radiation based on Timepix device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, P.; Jakubek, J.; Vykydal, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors are evolving towards higher segmentation geometries from 0D (single pad) over 1D (strip) to 2D (pixel) detectors. Each step has brought up substantial expansion in the field of applications. The next logical step in this evolution is to design a 3D, i.e. voxel detector. The voxel detector can be constructed from 2D volume element detectors arranged in layers forming a 3D matrix of sensitive elements — voxels. Such detectors can effectively record tracks of energetic particles. By proper analysis of these tracks it is possible to determine the type, direction and energy of the primary particle. One of the prominent applications of such device is in the localization and identification of gamma and neutron sources in the environment. It can be also used for emission and transmission radiography in many fields where standard imagers are currently utilized. The qualitative properties of current imagers such as: spatial resolution, efficiency, directional sensitivity, energy sensitivity and selectivity (background suppression) can be improved. The first prototype of a voxel detector was built using a number of Timepix devices. Timepix is hybrid semiconductor detector consisting of a segmented semiconductor sensor bump-bonded to a readout chip. Each sensor contains 256x256 square pixels of 55 μm size. The voxel detector prototype was successfully tested to prove the concept functionality. The detector has a modular architecture with a daisy chain connection of the individual detector layers. This permits easy rearrangement due to its modularity, while keeping a single readout system for a variable number of detector layers. A limitation of this approach is the relatively large inter-layer distance (4 mm) compared to the pixel thickness (0.3 mm). Therefore the next step in the design is to decrease the space between the 2D detectors.

  2. Position sensitive detectors for synchrotron radiation studies: the tortoise and the hare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Rob

    2003-11-01

    The huge gulf between the high photon fluxes available from synchrotrons and the capabilities of detectors to measure the resulting photon, electron or ion signals is well known. Whilst accelerator technology continues to advance at a rapid pace, it is detector performance which represents the limiting factor for many synchrotron experiments. In some cases there are still single channel counting detectors based on 40-year-old designs operational on synchrotron beamlines. The dream of many researchers is a detector which is able to simultaneously image and perform spectroscopy at the required data rates. A solution is the massive integration of parallel electronics into detectors on a pixel by pixel basis. These ideas have been in gestation for very many years awaiting sufficient funding, nevertheless, several prototypes are now at the testing stage. The current status of these and other detector developments targeted at synchrotron science are briefly reviewed.

  3. Fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry using a spherical moderator with position-sensitive detectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Taosheng; Yang, Lianzhen; Ma, Jizeng; Fang, Dong

    2007-01-01

    A neutron spectrometry and dosimetry measurement system has been developed based on a different design of the divided regions for a sphere, with three position-sensitive counters. The characteristics of the measurement system have been investigated in the reference radiation fields of Am-Be and (252)Cf sources. When realistic input spectra are used for the unfolding, the overall deviations of the calculated results for four dosimetric quantities are less than +/-10%. The results of other input spectra are also discussed in this report.

  4. Integrating 2-D position sensitive X-ray detectors with low-density alkali halide storage targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H.-G.; Hoheisel, W.; Hiller, P.

    1986-05-01

    For the use in scattering experiments with synchrotron radiation, integrating position sensitive X-ray detectors are discussed. These detectors store the photon number equivalent charge (PNEC) in low-density alkali halide targets. Performance tests are given for a detector which uses a Gd 2O 2S fluorescence screen for X-ray detection and the low-density KCl storage target of a television SEC vidicon tube for photon integration. Rather than directly by X-rays, this target is charged by 6 keV electrons from the image intensifier section of the vidicon. Its excellent storage capability allows measurements of extremely high-contrast, high-flux X-ray patterns with the same accuracy as achieved with any single photon detection system if the discussed readout techniques are applied.

  5. Sealed position sensitive hard X-ray detector having large drift region for all sky camera with high angular resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Perlman, D.; Parsignault, D.; Burns, R.

    1979-01-01

    A sealed position sensitive proportional counter filled with two atmospheres of 95% xenon and 5% methane, and containing a drift region of 24 atm cm, has operated in a stable manner for many months. The detector contains G-10 frames to support the anode and cathode wires. The detector was sealed successfully by a combination of vacuum baking the G-10 frames at 150 C for two weeks followed by assembly into the detector in an environment of dry nitrogen, and the use of passive internal getters. The counter is intended for use with a circumferential cylindrical collimator. Together they provide a very broad field of view detection system with the ability to locate cosmic hard X-ray and soft gamma ray sources to an angular precision of a minute of arc. A set of instruments based on this principle have been proposed for satellites to detect and precisely locate cosmic gamma ray bursts.

  6. CVD-diamond-based position sensitive photoconductive detector for high-flux x-rays and gamma rays.

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.

    1999-04-19

    A position-sensitive photoconductive detector (PSPCD) using insulating-type CVD diamond as its substrate material has been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Several different configurations, including a quadrant pattern for a x-ray-transmitting beam position monitor (TBPM) and 1-D and 2-D arrays for PSPCD beam profilers, have been developed. Tests on different PSPCD devices with high-heat-flux undulator white x-ray beam, as well as with gamma-ray beams from {sup 60}Co sources have been done at the APS and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It was proven that the insulating-type CVD diamond can be used to make a hard x-ray and gamma-ray position-sensitive detector that acts as a solid-state ion chamber. These detectors are based on the photoconductivity principle. A total of eleven of these TBPMs have been installed on the APS front ends for commissioning use. The linear array PSPCD beam profiler has been routinely used for direct measurements of the undulator white beam profile. More tests with hard x-rays and gamma rays are planned for the CVD-diamond 2-D imaging PSPCD. Potential applications include a high-dose-rate beam profiler for fourth-generation synchrotrons radiation facilities, such as free-electron lasers.

  7. Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, N.

    2016-12-01

    Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.

  8. Simple technique for measuring the Goos-Hänchen effect with polarization modulation and a position-sensitive detector.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Hervé; Girard, Sylvain; Hamel, Joseph

    2002-08-15

    An original approach to directly measuring the Goos-Hänchen longitudinal shift between TE and TM polarization states during a total internal reflection is introduced. The technique is based on the modulation of the polarization state of a laser by an electro-optic modulator combined with a precise measurement of the resulting spatial displacement with a position-sensitive detector. This method presents many advantages over other techniques and allows measurements at different wavelengths over a broad range for the incident angle.

  9. Comparison of various stopping gases for 3He-based position sensitive neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumas, A.; Smith, G. C.

    2012-05-01

    A range of solid state, scintillator and gas based detectors are being developed for use at the next generation of high flux neutron facilities. Since gas detectors are expected to continue to play a key role in future specific thermal neutron experiments, a comparison of the performance characteristics of prospective stopping gases is beneficial. Gas detectors typically utilize the reaction 3He(n,p)t to detect thermal neutrons; the 3He gas is used in a mixture containing a particular stopping gas in order to maintain relatively short ranges for the proton and triton pair emitted from the n-3He reaction. Common stopping gases include hydrocarbons (e.g. propane), carbon tetrafluoride, and noble gases such as argon and xenon. For this study, we utilized the Monte Carlo simulation code "Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter" to analyze the expected behavior of argon, xenon, carbon dioxide, difluoroethane and octafluoropropane as stopping gases for thermal neutron detectors. We also compare these findings to our previously analyzed performance of propane, butane and carbon tetrafluoride. A discussion of these gases includes their behavior in terms of proton and triton range, ionization distribution and straggle.

  10. Initial results from new 3D neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendicino, R.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Laidani, N.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report the initial results from our second generation of 3D silicon detectors for neutrons. The devices are briefly described and the first functional characterization tests carried out in laboratory before coupling to neutron converter material are reported. Particular emphasis is given to the read-out system used for the suppression of signals induced by γ-rays, that is one of the main issues in neutron detection. Experimental results are discussed with the aid of TCAD simulations.

  11. Two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors for small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    McElhaney, S.A.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, various detectors available for small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are discussed, along with some current developments being actively pursued. A section has been included to outline the various methodologies of position encoding/decoding with discussions on trends and limitations. Computer software/hardware vary greatly from institute and experiment and only a general discussion is given to this area. 85 refs., 33 figs.

  12. Advanced data readout technique for Multianode Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube applicable in radiation imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the best performing PSPMT tubes from Hamamatsu and Burle are designed with a pad-matrix anode layout. However, for obtaining a high resolution, a small-sized anode photomultiplier tubes are preferable; these tubes may have 64, 256 or 1024 anodes per tube. If the tubes are used in array to get a larger area detector, the number of analog channels may range from hundreds to thousands. Multichannel analog readout requires special electronics ICs, ASICs etc., which are attached to multichannel DAQ system. As a result, the data file and data processing time will be increased. Therefore, this readout could not be performed in a small project. Usually, most of radiation imaging applications allow the use of analog data processing in front-end electronics, significantly reducing the number of the detector's output lines to data acquisition without reducing the image quality. The idea of pad-matrix decoupling circuit with gain correction was invented and intensively tested in JLab. Several versions of PSPMT readout electronics were produced and studied. All developments were done and optimized specifically for radiation imaging projects. They covered high resolution SPECT, high speed PET, fast neutron imaging, and single tube and multi tube array systems. This paper presents and discusses the summary of the observed results in readout electronics evaluation with different PSPMTs and radiation imaging systems, as well as the advantages and limitations of the developed approach to radiation imaging detectors readout.

  13. Evaluation of the x-ray response of a position-sensitive microstrip detector with an integrated readout chip

    SciTech Connect

    Rossington, C.; Jaklevic, J.; Haber, C.; Spieler, H. ); Reid, J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-08-01

    The performance of an SVX silicon microstrip detector and its compatible integrated readout chip have been evaluated in response to Rh K{alpha} x-rays (average energy 20.5 keV). The energy and spatial discrimination capabilities, efficient data management and fast readout rates make it an attractive alternative to the CCD and PDA detectors now being offered for x-ray position sensitive diffraction and EXAFS work. The SVX system was designed for high energy physics applications and thus further development of the existing system is required to optimize it for use in practical x-ray experiments. For optimum energy resolution the system noise must be decreased to its previously demonstrated low levels of 2 keV FWHM at 60 keV or less, and the data handling rate of the computer must be increased. New readout chips are now available that offer the potential of better performance. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Development of a Position Sensitive Liquid Scintillator Bar-type Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atencio, Ariella; Cizewski, Jolie; Walter, David; Chipps, Kelly; Febbraro, Michael; Pain, Steven; Smith, Karl; Thornsberry, Cory

    2016-09-01

    The ability to detect neutrons is important for both nuclear reactions and beta decay. Liquid scintillators have the useful property of Pulse Shape Discrimination(PSD), which can be used to separate gamma-ray-induced events when the scintillators are used as neutron detectors. Because of their ability to apply PSD, these liquid scintillators will have many applications in neutron detection, such as a recent experiment conducted at the University of Notre Dame. The liquid scintillators use a xylene based liquid made in-house at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Naphthalene in the liquid scintillator improves the light output properties of the scintillator. An optimized method for the purification of naphthalene will be discussed as well as the first implementation of an array of these detectors. This work is supported in part by the NSF and the U.S. DOE. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Thermal Neutron Imaging Using A New Pad-Based Position Sensitive Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dioszegi I.; Vanier P.E.; Salwen C.; Chichester D.L.; Watson S.M.

    2016-10-29

    Thermal neutrons (with mean energy of 25 meV) have a scattering mean free path of about 20 m in air. Therefore it is feasible to find localized thermal neutron sources up to ~30 m standoff distance using thermal neutron imaging. Coded aperture thermal neutron imaging was developed in our laboratory in the nineties, using He-3 filled wire chambers. Recently a new generation of coded-aperture neutron imagers has been developed. In the new design the ionization chamber has anode and cathode planes, where the anode is composed of an array of individual pads. The charge is collected on each of the individual 5x5 mm2 anode pads, (48x48 in total, corresponding to 24x24 cm2 sensitive area) and read out by application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The high sensitivity of the ASICs allows unity gain operation mode. The new design has several advantages for field deployable imaging applications, compared to the previous generation of wire-grid based neutron detectors. Among these are the rugged design, lighter weight and use of non-flammable stopping gas. For standoff localization of thermalized neutron sources a low resolution (11x11 pixel) coded aperture mask has been fabricated. Using the new larger area detector and the coarse resolution mask we performed several standoff experiments using moderated californium and plutonium sources at Idaho National Laboratory. In this paper we will report on the development and performance of the new pad-based neutron camera, and present long range coded-aperture images of various thermalized neutron sources.

  16. Intermediate Energies for Nuclear Astrophysics and the Development of a Position Sensitive Microstrip Detector System

    SciTech Connect

    Sobotka, Lee G.; Blackmon, J.; Bertulani, C.

    2015-12-30

    The chemical elements are made at astrophysical sites through a sequence of nuclear reactions often involving unstable nuclei. The overarching aim of this project is to construct a system that allows for the inverse process of nucleosynthesis (i.e. breakup of heavier nuclei into lighter ones) to be studied in high efficiency. The specific problem to be overcome with this grant is inadequate dynamic range and (triggering) threshold to detect the products of the breakup which include both heavy ions (with large energy and large deposited energy in a detector system) and protons (with little energy and deposited energy.) Early on in the grant we provided both TAMU and RIKEN (the site of the eventual experiments) with working systems based on the existing technology. This technology could be used with either an external preamplifier that was to be designed and fabricated by our RIKEN collaborators or upgraded by replacing the existing chip with one we designed. The RIKEN external preamplifier project never can to completion but our revised chip was designed, fabricated, used in a test experiment and performs as required.

  17. Large angle solid state position sensitive x-ray detector system

    DOEpatents

    Kurtz, D.S.; Ruud, C.O.

    1998-03-03

    A method and apparatus for x-ray measurement of certain properties of a solid material are disclosed. In distinction to known methods and apparatus, this invention employs a specific fiber-optic bundle configuration, termed a reorganizer, itself known for other uses, for coherently transmitting visible light originating from the scintillation of diffracted x-radiation from the solid material gathered along a substantially one dimensional linear arc, to a two-dimensional photo-sensor array. The two-dimensional photodetector array, with its many closely packed light sensitive pixels, is employed to process the information contained in the diffracted radiation and present the information in the form of a conventional x-ray diffraction spectrum. By this arrangement, the angular range of the combined detector faces may be increased without loss of angular resolution. Further, the prohibitively expensive coupling together of a large number of individual linear diode photodetectors, which would be required to process signals generated by the diffracted radiation, is avoided. 7 figs.

  18. Large angle solid state position sensitive x-ray detector system

    DOEpatents

    Kurtz, D.S.; Ruud, C.O.

    1998-07-21

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for x-ray measurement of certain properties of a solid material. In distinction to known methods and apparatus, this invention employs a specific fiber-optic bundle configuration, termed a reorganizer, itself known for other uses, for coherently transmitting visible light originating from the scintillation of diffracted x-radiation from the solid material gathered along a substantially one dimensional linear arc, to a two-dimensional photo-sensor array. The two-dimensional photodetector array, with its many closely packed light sensitive pixels, is employed to process the information contained in the diffracted radiation and present the information in the form of a conventional x-ray diffraction spectrum. By this arrangement, the angular range of the combined detector faces may be increased without loss of angular resolution. Further, the prohibitively expensive coupling together of a large number of individual linear diode photodetectors, which would be required to process signals generated by the diffracted radiation, is avoided. 7 figs.

  19. Large angle solid state position sensitive x-ray detector system

    DOEpatents

    Kurtz, David S.; Ruud, Clay O.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for x-ray measurement of certain properties of a solid material. In distinction to known methods and apparatus, this invention employs a specific fiber-optic bundle configuration, termed a reorganizer, itself known for other uses, for coherently transmitting visible light originating from the scintillation of diffracted x-radiation from the solid material gathered along a substantially one dimensional linear arc, to a two-dimensional photo-sensor array. The two-dimensional photodetector array, with its many closely packed light sensitive pixels, is employed to process the information contained in the diffracted radiation and present the information in the form of a conventional x-ray diffraction spectrum. By this arrangement, the angular range of the combined detector faces may be increased without loss of angular resolution. Further, the prohibitively expensive coupling together of a large number of individual linear diode photodetectors, which would be required to process signals generated by the diffracted radiation, is avoided.

  20. A zero dead-time multi-particle time and position sensitive detector based on correlation between brightness and amplitude.

    PubMed

    Urbain, X; Bech, D; Van Roy, J-P; Géléoc, M; Weber, S J; Huetz, A; Picard, Y J

    2015-02-01

    A new multi-particle time and position sensitive detector using only a set of microchannel plates, a waveform digitizer, a phosphor screen, and a CMOS camera is described. The assignment of the timing information, as taken from the microchannel plates by fast digitizing, to the positions, as recorded by the camera, is based on the COrrelation between the BRightness of the phosphor screen spots, defined as their integrated intensity and the Amplitude of the electrical signals (COBRA). Tests performed by observing the dissociation of HeH, the fragmentation of H3 into two or three fragments, and the photo-double-ionization of Xenon atoms are presented, which illustrate the performances of the COBRA detection scheme.

  1. A zero dead-time multi-particle time and position sensitive detector based on correlation between brightness and amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Urbain, X. Bech, D.; Van Roy, J.-P.; Géléoc, M.; Weber, S. J.

    2015-02-15

    A new multi-particle time and position sensitive detector using only a set of microchannel plates, a waveform digitizer, a phosphor screen, and a CMOS camera is described. The assignment of the timing information, as taken from the microchannel plates by fast digitizing, to the positions, as recorded by the camera, is based on the COrrelation between the BRightness of the phosphor screen spots, defined as their integrated intensity and the Amplitude of the electrical signals (COBRA). Tests performed by observing the dissociation of HeH, the fragmentation of H{sub 3} into two or three fragments, and the photo-double-ionization of Xenon atoms are presented, which illustrate the performances of the COBRA detection scheme.

  2. Fast x-ray scattering measurements on molten alumina using a 120° curved position sensitive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennet, Louis; Thiaudière, Dominique; Gailhanou, Marc; Landron, Claude; Coutures, Jean-Pierre; Price, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Fast x-ray scattering measurements on molten alumina were performed on the H10 beam line at the DCI Synchrotron of LURE (Orsay, France). A high-temperature chamber with a levitation device was coupled with the four-circle goniometer of the beam line. A 100 W CO2 laser was used to melt the sample and the temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer operating at 0.85 μm. Usually, measurements of the total structure factor S(Q) on molten materials are performed using a fixed detector scanned over an angular range. In this work, in order to reduce the total scan duration, x-ray scattered intensities were measured with a 120° position sensitive detector (INEL CPS120). We performed several measurements with different acquisition times varying from 10 s to 5 min. In 5 min it was possible to obtain a good determination of S(Q) with a usable signal up to the Q range limit (13 Å-1). The intensity was comparable with a 1 h measurement with a NaI (Tl) scintillator scanned over the 120° 2θ range. On reducing the counting time the statistics are degraded and the data are noisier, especially in the high Q region. Nevertheless, even with 10 s, the S(Q) data remain usable and give good results. Performing the Fourier transformation of S(Q), we obtain similar reliable pair-correlation functions with both 5 min and 10 s acquisition times.

  3. New beam line for time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering with large area position sensitive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, M. K.; Hallén, A.; Åström, J.; Primetzhofer, D.; Legendre, S.; Possnert, G.

    2012-09-01

    A new beam line for medium energy ion mass scattering (MEIS) has been designed and set up at the Ångström laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. This MEIS system is based on a time-of-flight (ToF) concept and the electronics for beam chopping relies on a 4 MHz function generator. Repetition rates can be varied between 1 MHz and 63 kHz and pulse widths below 1 ns are typically obtained by including beam bunching. A 6-axis goniometer is used at the target station. Scattering angle and energy of backscattered ions are extracted from a time-resolved and position-sensitive detector. Examples of the performance are given for three kinds of probing ions, 1H+, 4He+, and 11B+. Depth resolution is in the nanometer range and 1 and 2 nm thick Pt layers can easily be resolved. Mass resolution between nearby isotopes can be obtained as illustrated by Ga isotopes in GaAs. Taking advantage of the large size detector, a direct imaging (blocking pattern) of crystal channels are shown for hexagonal, 4H-SiC. The ToF-MEIS system described in this paper is intended for use in semiconductor and thin film areas. For example, depth profiling in the sub nanometer range for device development of contacts and dielectric interfaces. In addition to applied projects, fundamental studies of stopping cross sections in this medium energy range will also be conducted.

  4. Development of a 3D CZT detector prototype for Laue Lens telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroli, Ezio; Auricchio, Natalia; Del Sordo, Stefano; Abbene, Leonardo; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Casini, Fabio; Curado da Silva, Rui M.; Kuvvetlli, Irfan; Milano, Luciano; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Quadrini, Egidio M.; Stephen, John B.; Ubertini, Pietro; Zanichelli, Massimiliano; Zappettini, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    We report on the development of a 3D position sensitive prototype suitable as focal plane detector for Laue lens telescope. The basic sensitive unit is a drift strip detector based on a CZT crystal, (~19×8 mm2 area, 2.4 mm thick), irradiated transversally to the electric field direction. The anode side is segmented in 64 strips, that divide the crystal in 8 independent sensor (pixel), each composed by one collecting strip and 7 (one in common) adjacent drift strips. The drift strips are biased by a voltage divider, whereas the anode strips are held at ground. Furthermore, the cathode is divided in 4 horizontal strips for the reconstruction of the third interaction position coordinate. The 3D prototype will be made by packing 8 linear modules, each composed by one basic sensitive unit, bonded on a ceramic layer. The linear modules readout is provided by a custom front end electronics implementing a set of three RENA-3 for a total of 128 channels. The front-end electronics and the operating logics (in particular coincidence logics for polarisation measurements) are handled by a versatile and modular multi-parametric back end electronics developed using FPGA technology.

  5. A high count rate one-dimensional position sensitive detector and a data acquisition system for time resolved X-ray scattering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernot, P.; Kahn, R.; Fourme, R.; Leboucher, P.; Million, G.; Santiard, J. C.; Charpak, G.

    1982-10-01

    A curved multiwire proportional drift chamber has been built as a general purpose instrument for X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction experiments with synchrotron radiation. This parallax-free one-dimensional linear position sensitive detector has a parallel readout with a double hit logic. The data acquisition system, installed as a part of the D11 camera at LURE-DCI, is designed to perform time slicing and cyclic experiments; it has been used with either the fast multiwire chamber or a standard position sensitive detector with delay line readout.

  6. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  7. A data acquisition system for two-dimensional position sensitive micropattern gas detectors with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanu, A. R.; Prestwich, W. V.; Byun, S. H.

    2015-04-01

    We present a data acquisition (DAQ) system for two-dimensional position sensitive micropattern gas detectors using the delay-line method for readout. The DAQ system consists of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) as the main data processor and our time-to-digital (TDC) mezzanine card for making time measurements. We developed the TDC mezzanine card around the Acam TDC-GPX ASIC and it features four independent stop channels referenced to a common start, a typical timing resolution of ~81 ps, and a 17-bit measurement range, and is compliant with the VITA 57.1 standard. For our DAQ system, we have chosen the Xilinx SP601 development kit which features a single Spartan 6 FPGA, 128 MB of DDR2 memory, and a serial USB interface for communication. Output images consist of 1024×1024 square pixels, where each pixel has a 32-bit depth and corresponds to a time difference of 162 ps relative to its neighbours. When configured for a 250 ns acquisition window, the DAQ can resolve periodic event rates up to 1.8×106 Hz without any loses and will report a maximum event rate of 6.11×105 Hz for events whose arrival times follow Poisson statistics. The integral and differential non-linearities have also been measured and are better than 0.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Unlike commercial units, our DAQ system implements the delay-line image reconstruction algorithm entirely in hardware and is particularly attractive for its modularity, low cost, ease of integration, excellent linearity, and high throughput rate.

  8. A two-dimensional position sensitive charged-particle detector for the magnetic spectrograph ``Big Karl'' of the Jülich Cyclotron ``Jülich''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Müller, K. D.; Stoff, H.; Teske, M.; Berg, G. P. A.; Hardt, A.; Martin, S.; Mayer-Böricke, C.; Meißburger, J.

    1980-09-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive detector with an area of 300 mm × 40 mm and a charged-particle spatial resolution of ΔX = ΔY ⩽ 0.5 mm is described. Some test results point out the detector properties. Results of the experiments 102Ru(d,p) 103Ru and 208Pb(p,p') 208Pb done at 45 MeV incident particle energy using the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL are shown with sections of the proton spectra.

  9. Development of a Position Sensitive Microstrip Detector System and its Readout Electronics Using ASICs Technologies for SAMURAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saastamoinen, A.; Baba, H.; Blackmon, J. C.; Elson, J.; Kurokawa, M.; McCleskey, M.; Otsu, H.; Rasco, B. C.; Roeder, B. T.; Sobotka, L. G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Yoneda, K.; Zenihiro, J.

    We are building a Si detector tracker system for the SAMURAI spectrometer. Characterizing the behavior of the detectors and associated electronics is essential for properly analyzing the future experimental results. We have performed test experiments to study the detector system response to heavy ion and proton beams of various energies. In this contribution we present some of the results and give an outlook of the future plans.

  10. A 3D diamond detector for particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artuso, M.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bartosik, M.; Beacham, J.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Bentele, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bes, A.; Brom, J.-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Cerv, M.; Chau, C.; Chiodini, G.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Collot, J.; Costa, S.; Cumalat, J.; Dabrowski, A.; D`Alessandro, R.; de Boer, W.; Dehning, B.; Dobos, D.; Dünser, M.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Forcolin, G.; Forneris, J.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Gan, K. K.; Gastal, M.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gonella, L.; Gorišek, A.; Graber, L.; Grigoriev, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gui, B.; Guthoff, M.; Haughton, I.; Hidas, D.; Hits, D.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hofmann, T.; Hosslet, J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hügging, F.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Kagan, H.; Kanxheri, K.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R.; Kassel, F.; Kis, M.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lacoste, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Lo Giudice, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Mandic, I.; Mathieu, C.; McFadden, N.; McGoldrick, G.; Menichelli, M.; Mikuž, M.; Morozzi, A.; Moss, J.; Mountain, R.; Murphy, S.; Oh, A.; Olivero, P.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Picollo, F.; Pomorski, M.; Potenza, R.; Quadt, A.; Re, A.; Riley, G.; Roe, S.; Sapinski, M.; Scaringella, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Schreiner, T.; Sciortino, S.; Scorzoni, A.; Seidel, S.; Servoli, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shimchuk, G.; Smith, D. S.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanier, S.; Stenson, K.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Taylor, A.; Traeger, M.; Tromson, D.; Trischuk, W.; Tuve, C.; Uplegger, L.; Velthuis, J.; Venturi, N.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, S.; Wallny, R.; Wang, J. C.; Weilhammer, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiss, C.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Yamouni, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, results towards the development of a 3D diamond sensor are presented. Conductive channels are produced inside the sensor bulk using a femtosecond laser. This electrode geometry allows full charge collection even for low quality diamond sensors. Results from testbeam show that charge is collected by these electrodes. In order to understand the channel growth parameters, with the goal of producing low resistivity channels, the conductive channels produced with a different laser setup are evaluated by Raman spectroscopy.

  11. 3-D Spreadsheet Simulation of a Modern Particle Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    A spreadsheet simulation of a modern particle detector has been developed and can be readily used as an instructional tool in the physics classroom. The spreadsheet creates a three-dimensional model that can be rotated and helical trajectories can be highlighted. An associated student worksheet is also presented.

  12. Detailed 3D Simulation of the GEM-based detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Majumdar, N.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2016-10-01

    The operation of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) has often suffered from effects such as distortion of the electric field due to space charge, despite their widespread use in particle-physics and nuclear-physics experiments, astro-particle research, medical imaging, material science etc. To keep distortions due to space-charge at a manageable level, a lower ion feedback is required while maintaining substantial detector gain and good resolution. Thus, a proper optimization of the detector geometry, field configuration and gas mixtures are required to have a higher electron transparency and lower ion backflow. In our work, Garfield simulation framework has been adopted as a tool to evaluate the fundamental features of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). Our study begins with the computation of electrostatic field and its variation with different geometrical and electrical parameters using the neBEM toolkit. Different efficient algorithms have been implemented to increase the computational efficiency of the field solver. Finally, ion backflow and electron transparency of single and quadruple GEMs with different geometry and field configurations suitable for the ALICE-TPC, have been studied.

  13. Pixel detectors in 3D technologies for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, G.; Demarteau, M.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Shenai, A.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports on the current status of the development of International Linear Collider vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics. Initial testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second embodiment of the prototype data-pushed readout concept developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  14. 3D Dose Verification Using Tomotherapy CT Detector Array

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Ke; Jones, Ryan; Yang Wensha; Saraiya, Siddharth; Schneider, Bernard; Chen Quan; Sobering, Geoff; Olivera, Gustavo; Read, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a three-dimensional dose verification method based on the exit dose using the onboard detector of tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study included 347 treatment fractions from 24 patients, including 10 prostate, 5 head and neck (HN), and 9 spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cases. Detector sonograms were retrieved and back-projected to calculate entrance fluence, which was then forward-projected on the CT images to calculate the verification dose, which was compared with ion chamber and film measurement in the QA plans and with the planning dose in patient plans. Results: Root mean square (RMS) errors of 2.0%, 2.2%, and 2.0% were observed comparing the dose verification (DV) and the ion chamber measured point dose in the phantom plans for HN, prostate, and spinal SBRT patients, respectively. When cumulative dose in the entire treatment is considered, for HN patients, the error of the mean dose to the planning target volume (PTV) varied from 1.47% to 5.62% with a RMS error of 3.55%. For prostate patients, the error of the mean dose to the prostate target volume varied from -5.11% to 3.29%, with a RMS error of 2.49%. The RMS error of maximum doses to the bladder and the rectum were 2.34% (-4.17% to 2.61%) and 2.64% (-4.54% to 3.94%), respectively. For the nine spinal SBRT patients, the RMS error of the minimum dose to the PTV was 2.43% (-5.39% to 2.48%). The RMS error of maximum dose to the spinal cord was 1.05% (-2.86% to 0.89%). Conclusions: An excellent agreement was observed between the measurement and the verification dose. In the patient treatments, the agreement in doses to the majority of PTVs and organs at risk is within 5% for the cumulative treatment course doses. The dosimetric error strongly depends on the error in multileaf collimator leaf opening time with a sensitivity correlating to the gantry rotation period.

  15. Algorithms for calculating detector efficiency normalization coefficients for true coincidences in 3D PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, R. D.; Lodge, M. A.; Marsden, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate normalization of lines of response in 3D PET is a prerequisite for quantitative reconstruction. Most current methods are component based, calculating a series of geometric and intrinsic detector efficiency factors. We have reviewed the theory behind several existing algorithms for calculating detector efficiency factors in 2D and 3D PET, and have extended them to create a range of new algorithms. Three of the algorithms described are `fully 3D' in that they make use of data from all detector rings for the calculation of the efficiencies of any one line of response. We have assessed the performance of the new and existing methods using simulated and real data, and have demonstrated that the fully 3D algorithms allow the rapid acquisition of crystal efficiency normalization data using low-activity sources. Such methods enable the use of scatter-free scanning line sources or the use of very short acquisitions of cylindrical sources for routine normalization.

  16. The 10B based Jalousie neutron detector - An alternative for 3He filled position sensitive counter tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henske, M.; Klein, M.; Köhli, M.; Lennert, P.; Modzel, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decades 3He filled proportional counter tubes were the working horse employed to serve as neutron counters especially in cases where large area coverage was required. Today the lack of 3He demands the development of an alternative technology. Here we present a prototype neutron detector that is based on a concept with solid 10B as neutron converter and aims for large area neutron detection applications. We report on first experimental results obtained with this prototype to demonstrate the feasibility and operational readiness of our concept.

  17. Note: A large open ratio, time, and position sensitive detector for time of flight measurements in UHV.

    PubMed

    Lupone, S; Damoy, S; Husseen, A; Briand, N; Debiossac, M; Tall, S; Roncin, P

    2015-12-01

    We report on the construction of an UHV compatible 40 mm active diameter detector based on micro channel plates and assembled directly on the feed-throughs of a DN63CF flange. It is based on the charge division technique and uses a standard 2 inch Si wafer as a collector. The front end electronic is placed directly on the air side of the flange allowing excellent immunity to noise and a very good timing signal with reduced ringing. The important aberrations are corrected empirically providing an absolute positioning accuracy of 500 μm while a 150 μm resolution is measured in the center.

  18. Note: A large open ratio, time, and position sensitive detector for time of flight measurements in UHV

    SciTech Connect

    Lupone, S.; Damoy, S.; Husseen, A.; Briand, N.; Debiossac, M.; Tall, S.; Roncin, P.

    2015-12-15

    We report on the construction of an UHV compatible 40 mm active diameter detector based on micro channel plates and assembled directly on the feed-throughs of a DN63CF flange. It is based on the charge division technique and uses a standard 2 inch Si wafer as a collector. The front end electronic is placed directly on the air side of the flange allowing excellent immunity to noise and a very good timing signal with reduced ringing. The important aberrations are corrected empirically providing an absolute positioning accuracy of 500 μm while a 150 μm resolution is measured in the center.

  19. Position-sensitive multi-wavelength photon detectors based on epitaxial InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbold, T.; Antonelli, M.; Cautero, G.; Menk, R. H.; Cucini, R.; Biasiol, G.

    2015-09-01

    Beam monitoring in synchrotron radiation or free electron laser facilities is extremely important for calibration and diagnostic issues. Here we propose an in-situ detector showing fast response and homogeneity for both diagnostics and calibration purposes. The devices are based on In0.75Ga0.25As/In0.75Al0.25As QWs, which offer several advantages due to their direct, low-energy band gap and high electron mobility at room temperature. A pixelation structure with 4 quadrants was developed on the back surface of the device, in order to fit commercially available readout chips. The QW devices have been tested with collimated monochromatic X-ray beams from synchrotron radiation. A rise in the current noise with positive bias was observed, which could be due to deep traps for hole carriers. Therefore, an optimized negative bias was chosen to minimize dark currents and noise. A decrease in charge collection efficiency was experienced as the beam penetrates into deeper layers, where a dislocation network is present. The prototype samples showed that individual currents obtained from each quadrant allow the position of the beam to be monitored for all the utilized energies. These detectors have a potential to estimate the position of the beam with a precision of about 10 μm.

  20. Performance evaluation of a depth-of-interaction detector by use of position-sensitive PMT with a super-bialkali photocathode.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this work was to evaluate the performance of a 4-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector composed of GSO crystals by use of a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a super-bialkali photocathode (SBA) by comparing it with a standard bialkali photocathode (BA) regarding the ability to identify the scintillating crystals, energy resolution, and timing resolution. The 4-layer DOI detector was composed of a 16 × 16 array of 2.9 × 2.9 × 7.5 mm(3) GSO crystals for each layer and an 8 × 8 multi-anode array type position-sensitive PMT. The DOI was achieved by a reflector control method, and the Anger method was used for calculating interacting points. The energy resolution in full width at half-maximum (FWHM) at 511 keV energy for the top layer (the farthest from the PMT) was improved and was 12.0% for the SBA compared with the energy resolution of 12.7% for the BA. As indicators of crystal identification ability, the peak-to-valley ratio and distance-to-width ratio were calculated; the latter was defined as the average of the distance between peaks per the average of the peak width. For both metrics, improvement of several percent was obtained; for example, the peak-to-valley ratio was increased from 1.78 (BA) to 1.86 (SBA), and the distance-to-width ratio was increased from 1.47 (BA) to 1.57 (SBA). The timing resolution (FWHM) in the bottom layer was improved slightly and was 2.4 ns (SBA) compared with 2.5 ns (BA). Better performance of the DOI detector is expected by use of a super bialkali photocathode.

  1. Comparison of 3D interest point detectors and descriptors for point cloud fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, R.; Weber, T.; Hellwich, O.

    2014-08-01

    The extraction and description of keypoints as salient image parts has a long tradition within processing and analysis of 2D images. Nowadays, 3D data gains more and more importance. This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of keypoints for the task of fusing multiple 3D point clouds. For this goal, several combinations of 3D keypoint detectors and descriptors are tested. The experiments are based on 3D scenes with varying properties, including 3D scanner data as well as Kinect point clouds. The obtained results indicate that the specific method to extract and describe keypoints in 3D data has to be carefully chosen. In many cases the accuracy suffers from a too strong reduction of the available points to keypoints.

  2. Development of 3D-DDTC pixel detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Darbo, Giovanni; Gemme, Claudia; La Rosa, Alessandro; Pernegger, Heinz; Piemonte, Claudio; Povoli, Marco; Ronchin, Sabina; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2011-04-01

    We report on the development of n-on-p, 3D Double-Side Double Type Column (3D-DDTC) pixel detectors fabricated at FBK-irst (Trento, Italy) and oriented to the ATLAS upgrade. The considered fabrication technology is simpler than that required for full 3D detectors with active edge, but the detector efficiency and radiation hardness critically depend on the columnar electrode overlap and should be carefully evaluated. The first assemblies of these sensors (featuring 2, 3, or 4 columns per pixel) with the ATLAS FEI3 read-out chip have been tested in laboratory. Selected results from the electrical and functional characterization with radioactive sources are discussed here.

  3. Comparisons of LET distributions measured in low-earth orbit using tissue-equivalent proportional counters and the position-sensitive silicon-detector telescope (RRMD-III).

    PubMed

    Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Borak, T B

    2001-09-01

    Determinations of the LET distribution, phi(L), of charged particles within a spacecraft in low-Earth orbit have been made. One method used a cylindrical tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), with the assumption that for each measured event, lineal energy, y, is equal to LET and thus phi(L) = phi(y). The other was based on the direct measurement of LETs for individual particles using a charged-particle telescope consisting of position-sensitive silicon detectors called RRMD-III. There were differences of up to a factor of 10 between estimates of phi(L) using the two methods on the same mission. This caused estimates of quality factor to vary by a factor of two between the two methods.

  4. De-Li-DAQ-2D - a new data acquisition system for position-sensitive neutron detectors with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Murashkevich, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    Software for a data acquisition system of modern one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors with delay-line readout, which includes a software interface to a new electronic module De-Li-DAQ-2D with a USB interface, is presented. The new system after successful tests on the stand and on several spectrometers of the IBR-2 reactor has been integrated into the software complex SONIX+ [1]. The De-Li- DAQ-2D module [2] contains an 8-channel time-code converter (TDC-GPX) with a time resolution of 80 ps, field programmable gate array (FPGA), 1 Gbyte histogram memory and high-speed interface with a fiber-optic communication line. A real count rate is no less than 106 events/s. The De-Li-DAQ-2D module is implemented in the NIM standard. The De-Li-DAQ-2D module can operate in two modes: histogram mode and list mode.

  5. Evolution in boron-based GEM detectors for diffraction measurements: from planar to 3D converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, Giorgia; Perelli Cippo, Enrico; Croci, Gabriele; Muraro, Andrea; Schooneveld, Erik; Scherillo, Antonella; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Birch, Jens; Claps, Gerardo; Murtas, Fabrizio; Rebai, Marica; Tardocchi, Marco; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    The so-called ‘3He-crisis’ has motivated the neutron detector community to undertake an intense R&D programme in order to develop technologies alternative to standard 3He tubes and suitable for neutron detection systems in future spallation sources such as the European spallation source (ESS). Boron-based GEM (gas electron multiplier) detectors are a promising ‘3He-free’ technology for thermal neutron detection in neutron scattering experiments. In this paper the evolution of boron-based GEM detectors from planar to 3D converters with an application in diffraction measurements is presented. The use of 3D converters coupled with GEMs allows for an optimization of the detector performances. Three different detectors were used for diffraction measurements on the INES instrument at the ISIS spallation source. The performances of the GEM-detectors are compared with those of conventional 3He tubes installed on the INES instrument. The conceptual detector with the 3D converter used in this paper reached a count rate per unit area of about 25% relative to the currently installed 3He tube. Its timing resolution is similar and the signal-to-background ratio (S/B) is 2 times lower.

  6. Addressing 3D metrology challenges by using a multiple detector CDSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroyama, Mitsuo; Murakawa, Tsutomu; Kuribara, Masayuki; Iwai, Toshimichi; Soma, Minoru; Iko, Ikuo; Seyama, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jun; Nakamura, Takayuki; Hakii, Hidemitsu; Yonekura, Isao; Kawashita, Masashi; Nishiyama, Yasushi; Tanaka, Keishi; Komoto, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    In next generation lithography (NGL) for the 22nm node and beyond, the three dimensional (3D) shape measurements of side wall angle (SWA) and height of the photomask pattern will become critical for controlling the exposure characteristics and wafer printability. Until today, cross-section SEM (X-SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) methods are used to make 3D measurements, however, these techniques require time consuming preparation and observation. This paper presents an innovative technology for 3D measurement using a multiple detector CDSEM and reports its accuracy and precision.

  7. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, J.; Carulla Areste, M.; Cavallaro, E.; Förster, F.; Grinstein, S.; López Paz, I.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Terzo, S.; Vázquez Furelos, D.

    2016-11-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50 × 250 μm2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12-15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1016 neq/cm2, measured at -25°C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50 × 50 and 25 × 100 μm2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1-2 V before irradiation.

  8. Oxygen ingress study of 3D printed gaseous radiation detector enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, Christopher A.; Durose, Aaron

    2015-07-01

    As part of our ongoing studies into the potential application of 3D printing techniques to gaseous radiation detectors, we have studied the ability of 3D printed enclosures to resist environmental oxygen ingress. A set of cuboid and hexagonal prism shaped enclosures with wall thicknesses of 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were designed and printed in nylon using a EOSINT P 730 Selective Laser Sintering 3D printer system These test enclosures provide a comparison of different environmental gas ingress for different 3D printing techniques. The rate of change of oxygen concentration was found to be linear, decreasing as the wall thickness increases. It was also found that the hexagonal prism geometry produced a lower rate of change of oxygen concentration compared with the cuboid shaped enclosures. Possible reasons as to why these results were obtained are discussed The implications for the this study for deployable systems are also discussed (authors)

  9. New 3D Silicon detectors for dosimetry in Microbeam Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, M. L. F.; Dipuglia, A.; Cameron, M.; Fournier, P.; Davis, J.; Petasecca, M.; Cornelius, I.; Perevertaylo, V.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) involves the use of a spatially fractionated beam of synchrotron generated X-rays to treat tumours. MRT treatment is delivered via an array of high dose ‘peaks’ separated by low dose ‘valleys’. A good Peak to Valley Dose Ratio (PVDR) is an important indicator of successful treatment outcomes. MRT dosimetry requires a radiation hard detector with high spatial resolution, large dynamic range, which is ideally real-time and tissue equivalent. We have developed a Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and very recently, a new 3D MESA SSD to meet the very stringent requirements of MRT dosimetry. We have compared these detectors through the characterisation of the MRT radiation field at the Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline. The EPI SSD was able to measure the microbeam profiles and PVDRs, however the effective spatial resolution was limited by the detector alignment options available at the time. The geometry of the new 3D MESA SSD is less sensitive to this alignment restriction was able to measure the microbeam profiles within 2 μm of that expected. The 3D MESA SSD measured PVDRs were possibly affected by undesired and slow charge collection outside the sensitive volume and additional scattering from the device substrate.

  10. Development and applications of a new neutron single-crystal diffractometer based on a two-dimensional large-area curved position-sensitive detector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hee; Noda, Yukio; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Kim, Shin Ae; Moon, Myungkook; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masashi; Dohi, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    A new single-crystal neutron diffractometer based on a large-area curved two-dimensional position-sensitive detector (C-2DPSD) has been developed. The diffractometer commissioning is almost complete, together with development of the measurement methodology and the raw data processing software package, the Reciprocal Analyzer, and the instrument is now ready to be launched for users. Position decoding of the C-2DPSD is via a delay-line readout method with an effective angular range of 110 × 54° in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, with a nominal radius of curvature of 530 mm. The diffractometer is equipped with a Ge(311) mosaic monochromator and two supermirror vacuum guide paths, one before and one after the monochromator position. The commissioning incorporates corrections and calibration of the instrument using an NaCl crystal, various applications such as crystallographic and magnetic structure measurements, a crystallinity check on large crystals, and a study on the composition or dopant content of a mixed crystal of (TmxYb1−x)Mn2O5. The installation of the diffractometer and the measurement method, the calibration procedure and results, the raw data treatment and visualization, and several applications using the large C-2DPSD-based diffractometer are reported. PMID:23682194

  11. The CT-PPS tracking system with 3D pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, F.

    2016-11-01

    The CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) detector will be installed in Roman pots (RP) positioned on either side of CMS, at about 210 m from the interaction point. This detector will measure leading protons, allowing detailed studies of diffractive physics and central exclusive production in standard LHC running conditions. An essential component of the CT-PPS apparatus is the tracking system, which consists of two detector stations per arm equipped with six 3D silicon pixel-sensor modules, each read out by six PSI46dig chips. The front-end electronics has been designed to fulfill the mechanical constraints of the RP and to be compatible as much as possible with the readout chain of the CMS pixel detector. The tracking system is currently under construction and will be installed by the end of 2016. In this contribution the final design and the expected performance of the CT-PPS tracking system is presented. A summary of the studies performed, before and after irradiation, on the 3D detectors produced for CT-PPS is given.

  12. Evaluation of Fully 3-D Emission Mammotomography With a Compact Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detector

    PubMed Central

    Tornai, Martin P.; McKinley, Randolph L.; Bowsher, James E.

    2015-01-01

    A compact, dedicated cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) gamma camera coupled with a fully three-dimensional (3-D) acquisition system may serve as a secondary diagnostic tool for volumetric molecular imaging of breast cancers, particularly in cases when mammographic findings are inconclusive. The developed emission mammotomography system comprises a medium field-of-view, quantized CZT detector and 3-D positioning gantry. The intrinsic energy resolution, sensitivity and spatial resolution of the detector are evaluated with Tc-99m (140 keV) filled flood sources, capillary line sources, and a 3-D frequency-resolution phantom. To mimic realistic human pendant, uncompressed breast imaging, two different phantom shapes of an average sized breast, and three different lesion diameters are imaged to evaluate the system for 3-D mammotomography. Acquisition orbits not possible with conventional emission, or transmission, systems are designed to optimize the viewable breast volume while improving sampling of the breast and anterior chest wall. Complications in camera positioning about the patient necessitate a compromise in these two orbit design criteria. Image quality is evaluated with signal-to-noise ratios and contrasts of the lesions, both with and without additional torso phantom background. Reconstructed results indicate that 3-D mammotomography, incorporating a compact CZT detector, is a promising, dedicated breast imaging technique for visualization of tumors <1 cm in diameter. Additionally, there are no outstanding trajectories that consistently yield optimized quantitative lesion imaging parameters. Qualitatively, imaging breasts with realistic torso backgrounds (out-of-field activity) substantially alters image characteristics and breast morphology unless orbits which improve sampling are utilized. In practice, the sampling requirement may be less strict than initially anticipated. PMID:16011316

  13. 3D visualisation and analysis of single and coalescing tracks in Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Brown, Louise; Petford, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionising decay products can cause lung cancer in humans (1). Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) can be used to monitor radon concentrations (2). Radon particles form tracks in the detectors and these tracks can be etched in order to enable 2D surface image analysis. We have previously shown that confocal microscopy can be used for 3D visualisation of etched SSNTDs (3). The aim of the study was to further investigate track angles and patterns in SSNTDs. A 'LEXT' confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan) was used to acquire 3D image datasets of five CR-39 plastic SSNTD's. The resultant 3D visualisations were analysed by eye and inclination angles assessed on selected tracks. From visual assessment, single isolated tracks as well as coalescing tracks were observed on the etched detectors. In addition varying track inclination angles were observed. Several different patterns of track formation were seen such as single isolated and double coalescing tracks. The observed track angles of inclination may help to assess the angle at which alpha particles hit the detector. Darby, S et al. Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer : collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. British Medical Journal 2005; 330, 223-226. Phillips, P.S., Denman, A.R., Crockett, R.G.M., Gillmore, G., Groves-Kirkby, C.J., Woolridge, A., Comparative Analysis of Weekly vs. Three monthly radon measurements in dwellings. DEFRA Report No., DEFRA/RAS/03.006. (2004). Wertheim D, Gillmore G, Brown L, and Petford N. A new method of imaging particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. Journal of Microscopy 2010; 237: 1-6.

  14. Spatial resolution limits for the isotropic-3D PET detector X’tal cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a popular imaging method in metabolism, neuroscience, and molecular imaging. For dedicated human brain and small animal PET scanners, high spatial resolution is needed to visualize small objects. To improve the spatial resolution, we are developing the X’tal cube, which is our new PET detector to achieve isotropic 3D positioning detectability. We have shown that the X’tal cube can achieve 1 mm3 uniform crystal identification performance with the Anger-type calculation even at the block edges. We plan to develop the X’tal cube with even smaller 3D grids for sub-millimeter crystal identification. In this work, we investigate spatial resolution of a PET scanner based on the X’tal cube using Monte Carlo simulations for predicting resolution performance in smaller 3D grids. For spatial resolution evaluation, a point source emitting 511 keV photons was simulated by GATE for all physical processes involved in emission and interaction of positrons. We simulated two types of animal PET scanners. The first PET scanner had a detector ring 14.6 cm in diameter composed of 18 detectors. The second PET scanner had a detector ring 7.8 cm in diameter composed of 12 detectors. After the GATE simulations, we converted the interacting 3D position information to digitalized positions for realistic segmented crystals. We simulated several X’tal cubes with cubic crystals from (0.5 mm)3 to (2 mm)3 in size. Also, for evaluating the effect of DOI resolution, we simulated several X’tal cubes with crystal thickness from (0.5 mm)3 to (9 mm)3. We showed that sub-millimeter spatial resolution was possible using cubic crystals smaller than (1.0 mm)3 even with the assumed physical processes. Also, the weighted average spatial resolutions of both PET scanners with (0.5 mm)3 cubic crystals were 0.53 mm (14.6 cm ring diameter) and 0.48 mm (7.8 cm ring diameter). For the 7.8 cm ring diameter, spatial resolution with 0.5×0.5×1.0 mm3 crystals

  15. 3D Medipix2 detector characterization with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, E. N.; Maneuski, D.; Mac Raighne, A.; Parkes, C.; Bates, R.; O'Shea, V.; Fleta, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Alianelli, L.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.

    2011-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) photodiode detectors offer advantages over standard planar photodiodes in a wide range of applications. The main advantage of these sensors for X-ray imaging is their reduced charge sharing between adjacent pixels, which could improve spatial and spectral resolution. However, a drawback of 3D sensors structures is the loss of detection efficiency due to the presence in the pixel structure of heavily doped electrode columns which are insensitive to X-ray. In this work two types of 3D silicon detectors: n-type wafer with hole collecting readout-columns (N-TYPE) and p-type wafer with electron collecting readout-columns (P-TYPE), bump-bounded to a Medipix2 read-out chip were characterized with a 14.5 keV micro-focused X-ray beam from a synchrotron. Measurements of the detection efficiency and the charge sharing were performed at different bias voltages and Medipix2 energy thresholds and compared with those of a standard planar silicon sensor.

  16. Two detector, active digital holographic camera for 3D imaging and digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żak, Jakub; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Józwik, Michał

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present the novel design and proof of concept of an active holographic camera consisting of two array detectors and Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). The device allows sequential or simultaneous capture of two Fresnel holograms of 3D object/scene. The two detectors configuration provides an increased viewing angle of the camera, allows to capture two double exposure holograms with different sensitivity vectors and even facilitate capturing a synthetic aperture hologram for static objects. The LCOS SLM, located in a reference arm, serves as an active element, which enables phase shifting and proper pointing of reference beams towards both detectors in the configuration which allows miniaturization of the camera. The laboratory model of the camera has been tested for different modes of work namely for capture and reconstruction of 3D scene and for double exposure holographic interferometry applied for an engineering object under load. The future extension of the camera functionalities for Fourier holograms capture is discussed.

  17. Terahertz 3D printed diffractive lens matrices for field-effect transistor detector focal plane arrays.

    PubMed

    Szkudlarek, Krzesimir; Sypek, Maciej; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Suszek, Jarosław; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Feduniewicz-Żmuda, Anna; Yahniuk, Ivan; Yatsunenko, Sergey; Nowakowska-Siwińska, Anna; Coquillat, Dominique; But, Dmytro B; Rachoń, Martyna; Węgrzyńska, Karolina; Skierbiszewski, Czesław; Knap, Wojciech

    2016-09-05

    We present the concept, the fabrication processes and the experimental results for materials and optics that can be used for terahertz field-effect transistor detector focal plane arrays. More specifically, we propose 3D printed arrays of a new type - diffractive multi-zone lenses of which the performance is superior to that of previously used mono-zone diffractive or refractive elements and evaluate them with GaN/AlGaN field-effect transistor terahertz detectors. Experiments performed in the 300-GHz atmospheric window show that the lens arrays offer both a good efficiency and good uniformity, and may improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the terahertz field-effect transistor detectors by more than one order of magnitude. In practice, we tested 3 × 12 lens linear arrays with printed circuit board THz detector arrays used in postal security scanners and observed significant signal-to-noise improvements. Our results clearly show that the proposed technology provides a way to produce cost-effective, reproducible, flat optics for large-size field-effect transistor THz-detector focal plane arrays.

  18. Performance of almost edgeless silicon detectors in CTS and 3D-planar technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagoz, E.; Anelli, G.; Antchev, G.; Avati, V.; Bassetti, V.; Berardi, V.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cuneo, S.; Da Vià, C.; Deile, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Hasi, J.; Haug, F.; Heino, J.; Jarron, P.; Kalliopuska, J.; Kašpar, J.; Kenney, C.; Kok, A.; Kundrát, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lauhakangas, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajíček, M.; Luntama, T.; Macina, D.; Macrí, M.; Minutoli, S.; Mirabito, L.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Parker, S.; Perrot, A.-L.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Sette, G.; Siegrist, P.; Smotlacha, J.; Snoeys, W.; Taylor, C.; Watts, S.; Whitmore, J.

    2013-06-01

    The physics programme of the TOTEM experiment requires the detection of very forward protons scattered by only a few microradians out of the LHC beams. For this purpose, stacks of planar Silicon detectors have been mounted in moveable near-beam telescopes (Roman Pots) located along the beamline on both sides of the interaction point. In order to maximise the proton acceptance close to the beams, the dead space at the detector edge had to be minimised. During the detector prototyping phase, different sensor technologies and designs have been explored. A reduction of the dead space to less than 50 μm has been accomplished with two novel silicon detector technologies: one with the Current Terminating Structure (CTS) design and one based on the 3D edge manufacturing. This paper describes performance studies on prototypes of these detectors, carried out in 2004 in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS accelerator. In particular, the efficiency and accuracy in the vicinity of the beam-facing edges are discussed.

  19. Conceptual detector development and Monte Carlo simulation of a novel 3D breast computed tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegle, Jens; Müller, Bernhard H.; Neumann, Bernd; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    A new 3D breast computed tomography (CT) system is under development enabling imaging of microcalcifications in a fully uncompressed breast including posterior chest wall tissue. The system setup uses a steered electron beam impinging on small tungsten targets surrounding the breast to emit X-rays. A realization of the corresponding detector concept is presented in this work and it is modeled through Monte Carlo simulations in order to quantify first characteristics of transmission and secondary photons. The modeled system comprises a vertical alignment of linear detectors hold by a case that also hosts the breast. Detectors are separated by gaps to allow the passage of X-rays towards the breast volume. The detectors located directly on the opposite side of the gaps detect incident X-rays. Mechanically moving parts in an imaging system increase the duration of image acquisition and thus can cause motion artifacts. So, a major advantage of the presented system design is the combination of the fixed detectors and the fast steering electron beam which enable a greatly reduced scan time. Thereby potential motion artifacts are reduced so that the visualization of small structures such as microcalcifications is improved. The result of the simulation of a single projection shows high attenuation by parts of the detector electronics causing low count levels at the opposing detectors which would require a flat field correction, but it also shows a secondary to transmission ratio of all counted X-rays of less than 1 percent. Additionally, a single slice with details of various sizes was reconstructed using filtered backprojection. The smallest detail which was still visible in the reconstructed image has a size of 0.2mm.

  20. 3D printed LED based on-capillary detector housing with integrated slit.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Farhan; Zhang, Min; Guijt, Rosanne M; Henderson, Alan; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Mirek

    2017-05-01

    A 3D printed photometric detector body with integrated slit was fabricated to position a LED and photodiode either side of capillary tubing using a fused deposition modelling (FDM) printer. To make this approach suitable for capillaries down to 50 μm i.d. the dimension of the in-built slit is the critical element of the printed housing. The spatial orientation of the model for printing was found to significantly impact on the resolution of the structures and voids that can be printed. By designing a housing with a slit positioned in the XY plane in parallel with the print direction, the narrowest void (slit) that could be printed was 70 μm. The potential use of the 3D printed slit for photometric detection was characterised using tubing and capillary from 500 down to 50 μm i.d, demonstrating a linear response from 632 to 40 mAU. The effective pathlength and stray light varied from 383 to 22 μm and 3.8% - 50% for 500- 50 μm i.d tubing and capillary. The use of a V-shaped alignment feature allowed for easy and reliable positioning of the tubing inside the detector, as demonstrated by a RSD of 1.9% (n = 10) in peak height when repositioning the tubing between measurements using flow injection analysis (FIA). The performance of the 3D printed housing and 70 μm slit was benchmarked against a commercially available interface using the CE separation of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) complexes with PAR. The limit of detection with the 3D printed slit was 6.8 and 4.5 μM and is 2.8 and 1.6 μM with the commercial interface.

  1. New BNL 3D-Trench Electrode Si Detectors for Radiation Hard Detectors for sLHC and for X-ray Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Li Z.

    2011-05-11

    A new international-patent-pending (PCT/US2010/52887) detector type, named here as 3D-Trench electrode Si detectors, is proposed in this work. In this new 3D electrode configuration, one or both types of electrodes are etched as trenches deep into the Si (fully penetrating with SOI or supporting wafer, or non-fully penetrating into 50-90% of the thickness), instead of columns as in the conventional ('standard') 3D electrode Si detectors. With trench etched electrodes, the electric field in the new 3D electrode detectors are well defined without low or zero field regions. Except near both surfaces of the detector, the electric field in the concentric type 3D-Trench electrode Si detectors is nearly radial with little or no angular dependence in the circular and hexangular (concentric-type) pixel cell geometries. In the case of parallel plate 3D trench pixels, the field is nearly linear (like the planar 2D electrode detectors), with simple and well-defined boundary conditions. Since each pixel cell in a 3D-Trench electrode detector is isolated from others by highly doped trenches, it is an electrically independent cell. Therefore, an alternative name 'Independent Coaxial Detector Array', or ICDA, is assigned to an array of 3D-Trench electrode detectors. The electric field in the detector can be reduced by a factor of nearly 10 with an optimal 3D-Trench configuration where the junction is on the surrounding trench side. The full depletion voltage in this optimal configuration can be up to 7 times less than that of a conventional 3D detector, and even a factor of two less than that of a 2D planar detector with a thickness the same as the electrode spacing in the 3D-Trench electrode detector. In the case of non-fully penetrating trench electrodes, the processing is true one-sided with backside being unprocessed. The charge loss due to the dead space associated with the trenches is insignificant as compared to that due to radiation-induced trapping in sLHC environment

  2. 3D design and electric simulation of a silicon drift detector using a spiral biasing adapter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-yun; Xiong, Bo; Li, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    The detector system of combining a spiral biasing adapter (SBA) with a silicon drift detector (SBA-SDD) is largely different from the traditional silicon drift detector (SDD), including the spiral SDD. It has a spiral biasing adapter of the same design as a traditional spiral SDD and an SDD with concentric rings having the same radius. Compared with the traditional spiral SDD, the SBA-SDD separates the spiral's functions of biasing adapter and the p-n junction definition. In this paper, the SBA-SDD is simulated using a Sentaurus TCAD tool, which is a full 3D device simulation tool. The simulated electric characteristics include electric potential, electric field, electron concentration, and single event effect. Because of the special design of the SBA-SDD, the SBA can generate an optimum drift electric field in the SDD, comparable with the conventional spiral SDD, while the SDD can be designed with concentric rings to reduce surface area. Also the current and heat generated in the SBA are separated from the SDD. To study the single event response, we simulated the induced current caused by incident heavy ions (20 and 50 μm penetration length) with different linear energy transfer (LET). The SBA-SDD can be used just like a conventional SDD, such as X-ray detector for energy spectroscopy and imaging, etc.

  3. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Matteson, J. L.; Skelton, R. T.; Deal, A. C.; Stephan, E. A.; Duttweiler, F.; Gasaway, T. M.; Levin, C. S.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes—as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  4. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  5. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  6. Evaluation of a 3D diamond detector for medical radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Oh, A.; Munoz Sanchez, F.; Forcolin, G. T.; Murphy, S. A.; Aitkenhead, A.; Moore, C. J.; Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Bellini, M.; Corsi, C.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic diamond has several properties that are particularly suited to applications in medical radiation dosimetry. It is tissue equivalent, not toxic and shows a high resistance to radiation damage, low leakage current and stability of response. It is an electrical insulator, robust and realizable in small size; due to these features there are several examples of diamond devices, mainly planar single-crystalline chemical vapor depositation (sCVD) diamond, used for relative dose measurement in photon beams. Thanks to a new emerging technology, diamond devices with 3-dimensional structures are produced by using laser pulses to create graphitic paths in the diamond bulk. The necessary bias voltage to operate such detector decreases considerably while the signal response and radiation resistance increase. In order to evaluate the suitability of this new technology for measuring the dose delivered by radiotherapy beams in oncology a 3D polycrystalline (pCVD) diamond detector designed for single charged particle detection has been tested and the photon beam profile has been studied. The good linearity and high sensitivity to the dose observed in the 3D diamond, opens the way to the possibility of realizing a finely segmented device with the potential for dose distribution measurement in a single exposure for small field dosimetry that nowadays is still extremely challenging.

  7. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-28

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  8. Design, simulation, fabrication, and preliminary tests of 3D CMS pixel detectors for the super-LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Koybasi, Ozhan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Kok, Angela; Hansen, Trond Andreas; Lietaer, Nicolas; Jensen, Geir Uri; Summanwar, Anand; Bolla, Gino; Kwan, Simon Wing Lok; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The Super-LHC upgrade puts strong demands on the radiation hardness of the innermost tracking detectors of the CMS, which cannot be fulfilled with any conventional planar detector design. The so-called 3D detector architectures, which feature columnar electrodes passing through the substrate thickness, are under investigation as a potential solution for the closest operation points to the beams, where the radiation fluence is estimated to reach 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Two different 3D detector designs with CMS pixel readout electronics are being developed and evaluated for their advantages and drawbacks. The fabrication of full-3D active edge CMS pixel devices with p-type substrate has been successfully completed at SINTEF. In this paper, we study the expected post-irradiation behaviors of these devices with simulations and, after a brief description of their fabrication, we report the first leakage current measurement results as performed on wafer.

  9. Characterization of silicon 3D pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Paz, I.; Cavallaro, E.; Lange, J.; Grinstein, S.

    2015-07-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project aims to measure protons scattered under a small angle from the pp collisions in ATLAS. In order to perform such measurements, a new silicon tracker, together with a time-of-flight detector for pile-up removal, are planned to be installed at ∼210 m from the interaction point and at 2-3 mm from the LHC proton beam. To cope with such configuration and maximize the physics outcome, the tracker has to fulfil three main requirements: endure highly non-uniform radiation doses, due to the very inhomogeneous beam profile, have slim and efficient edges to improve the acceptance of the tracker, and provide good position resolution. Recent laboratory and beam test characterization results of AFP prototypes will be presented. Slim-edged 3D pixel detectors down to 100-200 μm were studied and later non-uniformly irradiated (with a peak fluence of several 10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}) to determine the fulfilment of the AFP requirements. (authors)

  10. Position-sensitive detector system OBI for High Resolution X-Ray Powder Diffraction using on-site readable image plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, M.; Joco, V.; Baehtz, C.; Brecht, H. H.; Berghaeuser, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; von Seggern, H.; Fuess, H.

    2004-04-01

    A one-dimensional detector system has been developed using image plates. The detector is working in transmission mode or Debye-Scherrer geometry and is on-site readable which reduces the effort for calibration. It covers a wide angular range up to 110° and shows narrow reflection half-widths depending on the capillary diameter. The acquisition time is in the range of minutes and the data quality allows for reliable Rietveld refinement of complicated structures, even in multi-phase samples. The detector opens a wide field of new applications in kinetics and temperature resolved measurements.

  11. Calibration Method for ML Estimation of 3D Interaction Position in a Thick Gamma-Ray Detector

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, William C. J.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2010-01-01

    High-energy (> 100 keV) photon detectors are often made thick relative to their lateral resolution in order to improve their photon-detection efficiency. To avoid issues of parallax and increased signal variance that result from random interaction depth, we must determine the 3D interaction position in the imaging detector. With this goal in mind, we examine a method of calibrating response statistics of a thick-detector gamma camera to produce a maximum-likelihood estimate of 3D interaction position. We parameterize the mean detector response as a function of 3D position, and we estimate these parameters by maximizing their likelihood given prior knowledge of the pathlength distribution and a complete list of camera signals for an ensemble of gamma-ray interactions. Furthermore, we describe an iterative method for removing multiple-interaction events from our calibration data and for refining our calibration of the mean detector response to single interactions. We demonstrate this calibration method with simulated gamma-camera data. We then show that the resulting calibration is accurate and can be used to produce unbiased estimates of 3D interaction position. PMID:20191099

  12. Linear, position-sensitive x-ray detector used for real-time calculations of small-angle scattering parameters with submillisecond resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Borso, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    The advent of high-intensity X-ray synchrotron sources has made possible the measurement of fluctuations in small-angle scattering parameters from typical specimens on a submillisecond time scale in real-time. The fundamental design of any fast detector system optimized for such measurements will incorporate some type of solid state detector array capable of rapid encoding algorithms. A prototype with a self-scanning photodiode array has been designed and tested at beamline 1 to 4 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), and the results indicate that the device will operate at speeds yielding submillisecond temporal resolution in real-time.

  13. An array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and a front-end application-specific integrated circuit for large-area position-sensitive gamma-ray cameras.

    PubMed

    Bolotnikov, A E; Ackley, K; Camarda, G S; Cherches, C; Cui, Y; De Geronimo, G; Fried, J; Hodges, D; Hossain, A; Lee, W; Mahler, G; Maritato, M; Petryk, M; Roy, U; Salwen, C; Vernon, E; Yang, G; James, R B

    2015-07-01

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors coupled to a front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6 × 6 × 15 mm(3) detectors grouped into 3 × 3 sub-arrays of 2 × 2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readout electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays' performance and reduction of their cost are possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.

  14. An array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and a front-end application-specific integrated circuit for large-area position-sensitive gamma-ray cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, A. E. Ackley, K.; Camarda, G. S.; Cherches, C.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Mahler, G.; Maritato, M.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R. B.; Hodges, D.; Lee, W.; Petryk, M.

    2015-07-15

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors coupled to a front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6 × 6 × 15 mm{sup 3} detectors grouped into 3 × 3 sub-arrays of 2 × 2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readout electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays’ performance and reduction of their cost are possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.

  15. An array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and a front-end application-specific integrated circuit for large-area position-sensitive gamma-ray cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Ackley, K.; Camarda, G. S.; Cherches, C.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Hodges, D.; Hossain, A.; Lee, W.; Mahler, G.; Maritato, M.; Petryk, M.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R. B.

    2015-07-28

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe (CZT) detectors coupled to a front-end readout ASIC for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6x6x15 mm3 detectors grouped into 3x3 sub-arrays of 2x2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readout electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays’ performance and reduction of their cost are made possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.

  16. An array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and a front-end application-specific integrated circuit for large-area position-sensitive gamma-ray cameras

    DOE PAGES

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Ackley, K.; Camarda, G. S.; ...

    2015-07-28

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe (CZT) detectors coupled to a front-end readout ASIC for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6x6x15 mm3 detectors grouped into 3x3 sub-arrays of 2x2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readout electronics.more » The further enhancement of the arrays’ performance and reduction of their cost are made possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.« less

  17. Experience with 3D integration technologies in the framework of the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruntinov, D.; Barbero, M.; Gonella, L.; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.; Breugnon, P.; Chantepie, B.; Clemens, J. C.; Fei, R.; Fougeron, D.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Mekkaoui, A.

    2013-12-01

    3D technologies are investigated for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC. R&D focuses on both, IC design in 3D, as well as on post-processing 3D technologies such as Through Silicon Via (TSV). The first one uses a so-called via first technology, featuring the insertion of small aspect ratio TSV at the pixel level. As discussed in the paper, this technology can still present technical challenges for the industrial partners. The second one consists of etching the TSV via last. This technology is investigated to enable 4-side abuttable module concepts, using today's pixel detector technology. Both approaches are presented in this paper and results from first available prototypes are discussed.

  18. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul; Grybos, Pawel; Holm, Scott; Lipton, Ronald; Maj, Piotr; Patti, Robert; Siddons, David Peter; Szczygiel, Robert; Yarema, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch, yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 μV/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.

  19. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    DOE PAGES

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul; ...

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch,more » yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 μV/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.« less

  20. Effects of multiple-interaction photon events in a high-resolution PET system that uses 3-D positioning detectors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yi; Pratx, Guillem; Lau, Frances W. Y.; Levin, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors’ laboratory is developing a dual-panel, breast-dedicated PET system. The detector panels are built from dual-LSO-position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) modules—units holding two 8×8 arrays of 1 mm3 LSO crystals, where each array is coupled to a PSAPD. When stacked to form an imaging volume, these modules are capable of recording the 3-D coordinates of individual interactions of a multiple-interaction photon event (MIPE). The small size of the scintillation crystal elements used increases the likelihood of photon scattering between crystal arrays. In this article, the authors investigate how MIPEs impact the system photon sensitivity, the data acquisition scheme, and the quality and quantitative accuracy of reconstructed PET images. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulated PET scan using the dual-panel system was performed on a uniformly radioactive phantom for the photon sensitivity study. To establish the impact of MIPEs on a proposed PSAPD multiplexing scheme, experimental data were collected from a dual-LSO-PSAPD module edge-irradiated with a 22Na point source, the data were compared against simulation data based on an identical setup. To assess the impact of MIPEs on the dual-panel PET images, a simulated PET of a phantom comprising a matrix of hot spherical radiation sources of varying diameters immersed in a warm background was performed. The list-mode output data were used for image reconstruction, where various methods were used for estimating the location of the first photon interaction in MIPEs for more accurate line of response positioning. The contrast recovery coefficient (CRC), contrast to noise ratio (CNR), and the full width at half maximum spatial resolution of the spheres in the reconstructed images were used as figures of merit to facilitate comparison. Results: Compared to image reconstruction employing only events with interactions confined to one LSO array, a potential single photon sensitivity gain of >46.9% (>115

  1. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2016-01-12

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japan and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required to extract the information from the experiments that is needed to determine the stellar reaction rates. The tools developed through this part of the work will be made freely available for general use.

  2. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, Robert E.; Sobotka, Lee G.; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2015-12-29

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japan and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested and the performance characterized in a series of tests using particle beams with a variety of atomic numbers at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba facility (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required

  3. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Via, Cinzia; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Kok, Angela; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as ˜4 μm. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R&D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of ˜4 cm2. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  4. Calibration model of a dual gain flat panel detector for 2D and 3D x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidgunst, C.; Ritter, D.; Lang, E.

    2007-09-15

    The continuing research and further development in flat panel detector technology have led to its integration into more and more medical x-ray systems for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging, such as fixed or mobile C arms. Besides the obvious advantages of flat panel detectors, like the slim design and the resulting optimum accessibility to the patient, their success is primarily a product of the image quality that can be achieved. The benefits in the physical and performance-related features as opposed to conventional image intensifier systems (e.g., distortion-free reproduction of imaging information or almost linear signal response over a large dynamic range) can be fully exploited, however, only if the raw detector images are correctly calibrated and postprocessed. Previous procedures for processing raw data contain idealizations that, in the real world, lead to artifacts or losses in image quality. Thus, for example, temperature dependencies or changes in beam geometry, as can occur with mobile C arm systems, have not been taken into account up to this time. Additionally, adverse characteristics such as image lag or aging effects have to be compensated to attain the best possible image quality. In this article a procedure is presented that takes into account the important dependencies of the individual pixel sensitivity of flat panel detectors used in 2D or 3D imaging and simultaneously minimizes the work required for an extensive recalibration. It is suitable for conventional detectors with only one gain mode as well as for the detectors specially developed for 3D imaging with dual gain read-out technology.

  5. Calibration model of a dual gain flat panel detector for 2D and 3D x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Schmidgunst, C; Ritter, D; Lang, E

    2007-09-01

    The continuing research and further development in flat panel detector technology have led to its integration into more and more medical x-ray systems for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging, such as fixed or mobile C arms. Besides the obvious advantages of flat panel detectors, like the slim design and the resulting optimum accessibility to the patient, their success is primarily a product of the image quality that can be achieved. The benefits in the physical and performance-related features as opposed to conventional image intensifier systems, (e.g., distortion-free reproduction of imaging information or almost linear signal response over a large dynamic range) can be fully exploited, however, only if the raw detector images are correctly calibrated and postprocessed. Previous procedures for processing raw data contain idealizations that, in the real world, lead to artifacts or losses in image quality. Thus, for example, temperature dependencies or changes in beam geometry, as can occur with mobile C arm systems, have not been taken into account up to this time. Additionally, adverse characteristics such as image lag or aging effects have to be compensated to attain the best possible image quality. In this article a procedure is presented that takes into account the important dependencies of the individual pixel sensitivity of flat panel detectors used in 2D or 3D imaging and simultaneously minimizes the work required for an extensive recalibration. It is suitable for conventional detectors with only one gain mode as well as for the detectors specially developed for 3D imaging with dual gain read-out technology.

  6. Real-time 3D millimeter wave imaging based FMCW using GGD focal plane array as detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanon, Assaf; Rozban, Daniel; Kopeika, Natan S.; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) imaging systems are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to give a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with a Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA) of plasma based detectors. Each point on the object corresponds to a point in the image and includes the distance information. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. The radar system requires that the millimeter wave detector (GDD) will be able to operate as a heterodyne detector. Since the source of radiation is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), the detected signal as a result of heterodyne detection gives the object's depth information according to value of difference frequency, in addition to the reflectance of the image. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of GDD devices. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  7. High Dynamics and Precision Optical Measurement Using a Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) in Reflection-Mode: Application to 2D Object Tracking over a Smart Surface

    PubMed Central

    Ivan, Ioan Alexandru; Ardeleanu, Mihai; Laurent, Guillaume J.

    2012-01-01

    When related to a single and good contrast object or a laser spot, position sensing, or sensitive, detectors (PSDs) have a series of advantages over the classical camera sensors, including a good positioning accuracy for a fast response time and very simple signal conditioning circuits. To test the performance of this kind of sensor for microrobotics, we have made a comparative analysis between a precise but slow video camera and a custom-made fast PSD system applied to the tracking of a diffuse-reflectivity object transported by a pneumatic microconveyor called Smart-Surface. Until now, the fast system dynamics prevented the full control of the smart surface by visual servoing, unless using a very expensive high frame rate camera. We have built and tested a custom and low cost PSD-based embedded circuit, optically connected with a camera to a single objective by means of a beam splitter. A stroboscopic light source enhanced the resolution. The obtained results showed a good linearity and a fast (over 500 frames per second) response time which will enable future closed-loop control by using PSD. PMID:23223078

  8. High dynamics and precision optical measurement using a position sensitive detector (PSD) in reflection-mode: application to 2D object tracking over a Smart Surface.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Ioan Alexandru; Ardeleanu, Mihai; Laurent, Guillaume J

    2012-12-06

    When related to a single and good contrast object or a laser spot, position sensing, or sensitive, detectors (PSDs) have a series of advantages over the classical camera sensors, including a good positioning accuracy for a fast response time and very simple signal conditioning circuits. To test the performance of this kind of sensor for microrobotics, we have made a comparative analysis between a precise but slow video camera and a custom-made fast PSD system applied to the tracking of a diffuse-reflectivity object transported by a pneumatic microconveyor called Smart-Surface. Until now, the fast system dynamics prevented the full control of the smart surface by visual servoing, unless using a very expensive high frame rate camera. We have built and tested a custom and low cost PSD-based embedded circuit, optically connected with a camera to a single objective by means of a beam splitter. A stroboscopic light source enhanced the resolution. The obtained results showed a good linearity and a fast (over 500 frames per second) response time which will enable future closed-loop control by using PSD.

  9. Evaluation of accuracy of 3D reconstruction images using multi-detector CT and cone-beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mija; YI, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to determine the accuracy of linear measurements on three-dimensional (3D) images using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods MDCT and CBCT were performed using 24 dry skulls. Twenty-one measurements were taken on the dry skulls using digital caliper. Both types of CT data were imported into OnDemand software and identification of landmarks on the 3D surface rendering images and calculation of linear measurements were performed. Reproducibility of the measurements was assessed using repeated measures ANOVA and ICC, and the measurements were statistically compared using a Student t-test. Results All assessments under the direct measurement and image-based measurements on the 3D CT surface rendering images using MDCT and CBCT showed no statistically difference under the ICC examination. The measurements showed no differences between the direct measurements of dry skull and the image-based measurements on the 3D CT surface rendering images (P>.05). Conclusion Three-dimensional reconstructed surface rendering images using MDCT and CBCT would be appropriate for 3D measurements. PMID:22474645

  10. A new approach for salt dome detection using a 3D multidirectional edge detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asjad, Amin; Mohamed, Deriche

    2015-09-01

    Accurate salt dome detection from 3D seismic data is crucial to different seismic data analysis applications. We present a new edge based approach for salt dome detection in migrated 3D seismic data. The proposed algorithm overcomes the drawbacks of existing edge-based techniques which only consider edges in the x (crossline) and y (inline) directions in 2D data and the x (crossline), y (inline), and z (time) directions in 3D data. The algorithm works by combining 3D gradient maps computed along diagonal directions and those computed in x, y, and z directions to accurately detect the boundaries of salt regions. The combination of x, y, and z directions and diagonal edges ensures that the proposed algorithm works well even if the dips along the salt boundary are represented only by weak reflectors. Contrary to other edge and texture based salt dome detection techniques, the proposed algorithm is independent of the amplitude variations in seismic data. We tested the proposed algorithm on the publicly available Netherlands offshore F3 block. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm can detect salt bodies with high accuracy than existing gradient based and texture-based techniques when used separately. More importantly, the proposed approach is shown to be computationally efficient allowing for real time implementation and deployment.

  11. The Dark Side of EDX Tomography: Modeling Detector Shadowing to Aid 3D Elemental Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Catriona S M; Rossouw, David; Saghi, Zineb; Burdet, Pierre; Leary, Rowan K; Midgley, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    A simple model is proposed to account for the loss of collected X-ray signal by the shadowing of X-ray detectors in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The model is intended to aid the analysis of three-dimensional elemental data sets acquired using energy-dispersive X-ray tomography methods where shadow-free specimen holders are unsuitable or unavailable. The model also provides a useful measure of the detection system geometry.

  12. Preliminary results of 3D-DDTC pixel detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rosa, A.

    3D Silicon sensors fabricated at FBK-irst with the Double-side Double Type Column (DDTC) approach and columnar electrodes only partially etched through p-type substrates were tested in laboratory and in a 1.35 Tesla magnetic field with a 180GeV pion beam at CERN SPS. The substrate thickness of the sensors is about 200um, and different column depths are available, with overlaps between junction columns (etched from the front side) and ohmic columns (etched from the back side) in the range from 110um to 150um. The devices under test were bump bonded to the ATLAS Pixel readout chip (FEI3) at SELEX SI (Rome, Italy). We report leakage current and noise measurements, results of functional tests with Am241 gamma-ray sources, charge collection tests with Sr90 beta-source and an overview of preliminary results from the CERN beam test.

  13. Development of CT and 3D-CT Using Flat Panel Detector Based Real-Time Digital Radiography System

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindran, V. R.; Sreelakshmi, C.; Vibin

    2008-09-26

    The application of Digital Radiography in the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of space vehicle components is a recent development in India. A Real-time DR system based on amorphous silicon Flat Panel Detector has been developed for the NDE of solid rocket motors at Rocket Propellant Plant of VSSC in a few years back. The technique has been successfully established for the nondestructive evaluation of solid rocket motors. The DR images recorded for a few solid rocket specimens are presented in the paper. The Real-time DR system is capable of generating sufficient digital X-ray image data with object rotation for the CT image reconstruction. In this paper the indigenous development of CT imaging based on the Realtime DR system for solid rocket motor is presented. Studies are also carried out to generate 3D-CT image from a set of adjacent CT images of the rocket motor. The capability of revealing the spatial location and characterisation of defect is demonstrated by the CT and 3D-CT images generated.

  14. Development of CT and 3D-CT Using Flat Panel Detector Based Real-Time Digital Radiography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindran, V. R.; Sreelakshmi, C.; Vibin, Vibin

    2008-09-01

    The application of Digital Radiography in the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of space vehicle components is a recent development in India. A Real-time DR system based on amorphous silicon Flat Panel Detector has been developed for the NDE of solid rocket motors at Rocket Propellant Plant of VSSC in a few years back. The technique has been successfully established for the nondestructive evaluation of solid rocket motors. The DR images recorded for a few solid rocket specimens are presented in the paper. The Real-time DR system is capable of generating sufficient digital X-ray image data with object rotation for the CT image reconstruction. In this paper the indigenous development of CT imaging based on the Realtime DR system for solid rocket motor is presented. Studies are also carried out to generate 3D-CT image from a set of adjacent CT images of the rocket motor. The capability of revealing the spatial location and characterisation of defect is demonstrated by the CT and 3D-CT images generated.

  15. 3D-Printing of inverted pyramid suspending architecture for pyroelectric infrared detectors with inhibited microphonic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Zhao, Xiangyong; Li, Xiaobing; Deng, Hao; Yan, Hong; Yang, Linrong; Di, Wenning; Luo, Haosu; Neumann, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive chip with ultralow dielectric loss based on Mn doped PMNT (71/29) has been proposed for high-end pyroelectric devices. The dielectric loss at 1 kHz is 0.005%, one order lower than the minimum value reported so far. The detective figure of merit (Fd) is up to 92.6 × 10-5 Pa-1/2 at 1 kHz and 53.5 × 10-5 Pa-1/2 at 10 Hz, respectively. In addition, an inverted pyramid suspending architecture for supporting the sensitive chip has been designed and manufactured by 3D printing technology. The combination of this sensitive chip and the proposed suspending architecture largely enhances the performance of the pyroelectric detectors. The responsivity and specific detectivity are 669,811 V/W and 3.32 × 109 cm Hz1/2/W at 10 Hz, respectively, 1.9 times and 1.5 times higher than those of the highest values in literature. Furthermore, the microphonic effect can be largely inhibited according to the theoretical and experimental analysis. This architecture will have promising applications in high-end and stable pyroelectric infrared detectors.

  16. Reconstruction of high resolution MLC leaf positions using a low resolution detector for accurate 3D dose reconstruction in IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, R.; Godart, J.; Wauben, D. J. L.; Langendijk, J. A.; van't Veld, A. A.; Korevaar, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    In pre-treatment dose verification, low resolution detector systems are unable to identify shifts of individual leafs of high resolution multi leaf collimator (MLC) systems from detected changes in the dose deposition. The goal of this study was to introduce an alternative approach (the shutter technique) combined with a previous described iterative reconstruction method to accurately reconstruct high resolution MLC leaf positions based on low resolution measurements. For the shutter technique, two additional radiotherapy treatment plans (RT-plans) were generated in addition to the original RT-plan; one with even MLC leafs closed for reconstructing uneven leaf positions and one with uneven MLC leafs closed for reconstructing even leaf positions. Reconstructed leaf positions were then implemented in the original RT-plan for 3D dose reconstruction. The shutter technique was evaluated for a 6 MV Elekta SLi linac with 5 mm MLC leafs (Agility™) in combination with the MatriXX Evolution detector with detector spacing of 7.62 mm. Dose reconstruction was performed with the COMPASS system (v2.0). The measurement setup allowed one row of ionization chambers to be affected by two adjacent leaf pairs. Measurements were obtained for various field sizes with MLC leaf position errors ranging from 1.0 mm to 10.0 mm. Furthermore, one clinical head and neck IMRT treatment beam with MLC introduced leaf position errors of 5.0 mm was evaluated to illustrate the impact of the shutter technique on 3D dose reconstruction. Without the shutter technique, MLC leaf position reconstruction showed reconstruction errors up to 6.0 mm. Introduction of the shutter technique allowed MLC leaf position reconstruction for the majority of leafs with sub-millimeter accuracy resulting in a reduction of dose reconstruction errors. The shutter technique in combination with the iterative reconstruction method allows high resolution MLC leaf position reconstruction using low resolution

  17. Energy-based scatter correction for 3-D PET scanners using NaI(T1) detectors.

    PubMed

    Adam, L E; Karp, J S; Freifelder, R

    2000-05-01

    Earlier investigations with BGO positron emission tomography (PET) scanners showed that the scatter correction technique based on multiple acquisitions with different energy windows are problematic to implement because of the poor energy resolution of BGO (22%), particularly for whole-body studies. We believe that these methods are likely to work better with NaI(TI) because of the better energy resolution achievable with NaI(TI) detectors (10%). Therefore, we investigate two different choices for the energy window, a low-energy window (LEW) on the Compton spectrum at 400-450 keV, and a high-energy window (HEW) within the photopeak (lower threshold above 511 keV). The results obtained for our three-dimensional (3-D) (septa-less) whole-body scanners [axial field of view (FOV) of 12.8 cm and 25.6 cm] as well as for our 3-D brain scanner (axial FOV of 25.6 cm) show an accurate prediction of the scatter distribution for the estimation of trues method (ETM) using a HEW, leading to a significant reduction of the scatter contamination. The dual-energy window (DEW) technique using a LEW is shown to be intrinsically wrong; in particular, it fails for line source and bar phantom measurements. However, the method is able to produce good results for homogeneous activity distributions. Both methods are easy to implement, are fast, have a low noise propagation, and will be applicable to other PET scanners with good energy resolution and stability, such as hybrid NaI(TI) PET/SPECT dual-head cameras and future PET cameras with GSO or LSO scintillators.

  18. Verification of proton range, position, and intensity in IMPT with a 3D liquid scintillator detector system

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, L.; Poenisch, F.; Sahoo, N.; Robertson, D.; Lee, A.; Gillin, M. T.; Mohan, R.; Beddar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) using spot scanned proton beams relies on the delivery of a large number of beamlets to shape the dose distribution in a highly conformal manner. The authors have developed a 3D system based on liquid scintillator to measure the spatial location, intensity, and depth of penetration (energy) of the proton beamlets in near real-time. Methods: The detector system consists of a 20 × 20 × 20 cc liquid scintillator (LS) material in a light tight enclosure connected to a CCD camera. This camera has a field of view of 25.7 by 19.3 cm and a pixel size of 0.4 mm. While the LS is irradiated, the camera continuously acquires images of the light distribution produced inside the LS. Irradiations were made with proton pencil beams produced with a spot-scanning nozzle. Pencil beams with nominal ranges in water between 9.5 and 17.6 cm were scanned to irradiate an area of 10 × 10 cm square on the surface of the LS phantom. Image frames were acquired at 50 ms per frame. Results: The signal to noise ratio of a typical Bragg peak was about 170. Proton range measured from the light distribution produced in the LS was accurate to within 0.3 mm on average. The largest deviation seen between the nominal and measured range was 0.6 mm. Lateral position of the measured pencil beam was accurate to within 0.4 mm on average. The largest deviation seen between the nominal and measured lateral position was 0.8 mm; however, the accuracy of this measurement could be improved by correcting light scattering artifacts. Intensity of single proton spots were measured with precision ranging from 3 % for the smallest spot intensity (0.005 MU) to 0.5 % for the largest spot (0.04 MU). Conclusions: Our LS detector system has been shown to be capable of fast, submillimeter spatial localization of proton spots delivered in a 3D volume. This system could be used for beam range, intensity and position verification in IMPT. PMID:22380355

  19. 3D visualization of XFEL beam focusing properties using LiF crystal X-ray detector

    PubMed Central

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ozaki, Norimasa; Albertazzi, Bruno; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Sato, Yuya; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Pikuz, Sergei; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N.; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report, that by means of direct irradiation of lithium fluoride a (LiF) crystal, in situ 3D visualization of the SACLA XFEL focused beam profile along the propagation direction is realized, including propagation inside photoluminescence solid matter. High sensitivity and large dynamic range of the LiF crystal detector allowed measurements of the intensity distribution of the beam at distances far from the best focus as well as near the best focus and evaluation of XFEL source size and beam quality factor M2. Our measurements also support the theoretical prediction that for X-ray photons with energies ~10 keV the radius of the generated photoelectron cloud within the LiF crystal reaches about 600 nm before thermalization. The proposed method has a spatial resolution ~ 0.4–2.0 μm for photons with energies 6–14 keV and potentially could be used in a single shot mode for optimization of different focusing systems developed at XFEL and synchrotron facilities. PMID:26634431

  20. High-quality 3D correction of ring and radiant artifacts in flat panel detector-based cone beam volume CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Anas, Emran Mohammad Abu; Kim, Jae Gon; Lee, Soo Yeol; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2011-10-07

    The use of an x-ray flat panel detector is increasingly becoming popular in 3D cone beam volume CT machines. Due to the deficient semiconductor array manufacturing process, the cone beam projection data are often corrupted by different types of abnormalities, which cause severe ring and radiant artifacts in a cone beam reconstruction image, and as a result, the diagnostic image quality is degraded. In this paper, a novel technique is presented for the correction of error in the 2D cone beam projections due to abnormalities often observed in 2D x-ray flat panel detectors. Template images are derived from the responses of the detector pixels using their statistical properties and then an effective non-causal derivative-based detection algorithm in 2D space is presented for the detection of defective and mis-calibrated detector elements separately. An image inpainting-based 3D correction scheme is proposed for the estimation of responses of defective detector elements, and the responses of the mis-calibrated detector elements are corrected using the normalization technique. For real-time implementation, a simplification of the proposed off-line method is also suggested. Finally, the proposed algorithms are tested using different real cone beam volume CT images and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively remove ring and radiant artifacts from cone beam volume CT images compared to other reported techniques in the literature.

  1. Development of an iterative reconstruction method to overcome 2D detector low resolution limitations in MLC leaf position error detection for 3D dose verification in IMRT.

    PubMed

    Visser, R; Godart, J; Wauben, D J L; Langendijk, J A; Van't Veld, A A; Korevaar, E W

    2016-05-21

    The objective of this study was to introduce a new iterative method to reconstruct multi leaf collimator (MLC) positions based on low resolution ionization detector array measurements and to evaluate its error detection performance. The iterative reconstruction method consists of a fluence model, a detector model and an optimizer. Expected detector response was calculated using a radiotherapy treatment plan in combination with the fluence model and detector model. MLC leaf positions were reconstructed by minimizing differences between expected and measured detector response. The iterative reconstruction method was evaluated for an Elekta SLi with 10.0 mm MLC leafs in combination with the COMPASS system and the MatriXX Evolution (IBA Dosimetry) detector with a spacing of 7.62 mm. The detector was positioned in such a way that each leaf pair of the MLC was aligned with one row of ionization chambers. Known leaf displacements were introduced in various field geometries ranging from  -10.0 mm to 10.0 mm. Error detection performance was tested for MLC leaf position dependency relative to the detector position, gantry angle dependency, monitor unit dependency, and for ten clinical intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment beams. For one clinical head and neck IMRT treatment beam, influence of the iterative reconstruction method on existing 3D dose reconstruction artifacts was evaluated. The described iterative reconstruction method was capable of individual MLC leaf position reconstruction with millimeter accuracy, independent of the relative detector position within the range of clinically applied MU's for IMRT. Dose reconstruction artifacts in a clinical IMRT treatment beam were considerably reduced as compared to the current dose verification procedure. The iterative reconstruction method allows high accuracy 3D dose verification by including actual MLC leaf positions reconstructed from low resolution 2D measurements.

  2. Development of an iterative reconstruction method to overcome 2D detector low resolution limitations in MLC leaf position error detection for 3D dose verification in IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, R.; Godart, J.; Wauben, D. J. L.; Langendijk, J. A.; van't Veld, A. A.; Korevaar, E. W.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce a new iterative method to reconstruct multi leaf collimator (MLC) positions based on low resolution ionization detector array measurements and to evaluate its error detection performance. The iterative reconstruction method consists of a fluence model, a detector model and an optimizer. Expected detector response was calculated using a radiotherapy treatment plan in combination with the fluence model and detector model. MLC leaf positions were reconstructed by minimizing differences between expected and measured detector response. The iterative reconstruction method was evaluated for an Elekta SLi with 10.0 mm MLC leafs in combination with the COMPASS system and the MatriXX Evolution (IBA Dosimetry) detector with a spacing of 7.62 mm. The detector was positioned in such a way that each leaf pair of the MLC was aligned with one row of ionization chambers. Known leaf displacements were introduced in various field geometries ranging from  -10.0 mm to 10.0 mm. Error detection performance was tested for MLC leaf position dependency relative to the detector position, gantry angle dependency, monitor unit dependency, and for ten clinical intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment beams. For one clinical head and neck IMRT treatment beam, influence of the iterative reconstruction method on existing 3D dose reconstruction artifacts was evaluated. The described iterative reconstruction method was capable of individual MLC leaf position reconstruction with millimeter accuracy, independent of the relative detector position within the range of clinically applied MU’s for IMRT. Dose reconstruction artifacts in a clinical IMRT treatment beam were considerably reduced as compared to the current dose verification procedure. The iterative reconstruction method allows high accuracy 3D dose verification by including actual MLC leaf positions reconstructed from low resolution 2D measurements.

  3. Increasing the effective aperture of a detector and enlarging the receiving field of view in a 3D imaging lidar system through hexagonal prism beam splitting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cui, Tianxiang; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Yunxi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-11

    The detector in a highly accurate and high-definition scanning 3D imaging lidar system requires high frequency bandwidth and sufficient photosensitive area. To solve the problem of small photosensitive area of an existing indium gallium arsenide detector with a certain frequency bandwidth, this study proposes a method for increasing the receiving field of view (FOV) and enlarging the effective photosensitive aperture of such detector through hexagonal prism beam splitting. The principle and construction of hexagonal prism beam splitting is also discussed in this research. Accordingly, a receiving optical system with two hexagonal prisms is provided and the splitting beam effect of the simulation experiment is analyzed. Using this novel method, the receiving optical system's FOV can be improved effectively up to ±5°, and the effective photosensitive aperture of the detector is increased from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm.

  4. Experimental study on the 3D image reconstruction in a truncated Archimedean-like spiral geometry with a long-rectangular detector and its image characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Daeki; Cho, Heemoon; Cho, Hyosung; Choi, Sungil; Je, Uikyu; Park, Yeonok; Park, Chulkyu; Lim, Hyunwoo; Park, Soyoung; Woo, Taeho

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we performed a feasibility study on the three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction in a truncated Archimedean-like spiral geometry with a long-rectangular detector for application to high-accurate, cost-effective dental x-ray imaging. Here an x-ray tube and a detector rotate together around the rotational axis several times and, concurrently, the detector moves horizontally in the detector coordinate at a constant speed to cover the whole imaging volume during the projection data acquisition. We established a table-top setup which mainly consists of an x-ray tube (60 kVp, 5 mA), a narrow CMOS-type detector (198-μm pixel resolution, 184 (W)×1176 (H) pixel dimension), and a rotational stage for sample mounting and performed a systematic experiment to demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach to volumetric dental imaging. For the image reconstruction, we employed a compressed-sensing (CS)-based algorithm, rather than a common filtered-backprojection (FBP) one, for more accurate reconstruction. We successfully reconstructed 3D images of considerably high quality and investigated the image characteristics in terms of the image value profile, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and the spatial resolution.

  5. New optical four-quadrant phase detector integrated into a photogate array for small and precise 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarte, Rudolf; Xu, Zhanping; Heinol, Horst-Guenther; Olk, Joachim; Buxbaum, Bernd

    1997-03-01

    The photonic mixer device (PMD) is a new electro-optical mixing semiconductor device. Integrated into a line or an array it may contribute a significant improvement in developing an extremely fast, flexible, robust and low cost 3D-solid-state camera. Three dimensional (3D)-cameras are of dramatically increasing interest in industrial automation, especially for production integrated quality control, in- house navigation, etc. The type of 3D-camera here under consideration is based on the principle of time-of-flight respectively phase delay of surface reflected echoes of rf- modulated light. In contrast to 3D-laser radars there is no scanner required since the whole 3D-scene is illuminated simultaneously using intensity-modulated incoherent light, e.g. in the 10 to 1000 MHz range. The rf-modulated light reflected from the 3D-scene represents the total depth information within the local delay of the back scattered phase front. If this incoming wave front is again rf- modulated by a 2D-mixer within the whole receiving aperture we get a quasi-stationary rf-inference pattern respectively rf-interferogram which may be captured by means of a conventional CCD-camera. This procedure is called rf- modulation interferometry (RFMI). Corresponding to first simulative results the new PMD-array will be appropriate to the RFMI-procedure. Though looking like a modified CCD-array or CMOS-photodetector array it will be able to perform both, the pixelwise mixing process for phase delay respectively depth evaluation and the pixelwise light intensity acquisition for gray level or color evaluation. Further advantageous properties are achieved by means of a four- quadrant (4Q)-PMD array which operates as a balanced inphase/quadrature phase (I/Q)-mixer and will be able to capture the total 3D-scene information of several 100,000 voxels within the microsecond(s) - to ms-range.

  6. 3-D Spatial Resolution of 350 μm Pitch Pixelated CdZnTe Detectors for Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongzhi; Chen, Ximeng; Wu, Heyu; Komarov, Sergey; Garson, Alfred; Li, Qiang; Guo, Qingzhen; Krawczynski, Henric; Meng, Ling-Jian; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    We are currently investigating the feasibility of using highly pixelated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors for sub-500 μm resolution PET imaging applications. A 20 mm × 20 mm × 5 mm CdZnTe substrate was fabricated with 350 μm pitch pixels (250 μm anode pixels with 100 μm gap) and coplanar cathode. Charge sharing among the pixels of a 350 μm pitch detector was studied using collimated 122 keV and 511 keV gamma ray sources. For a 350 μm pitch CdZnTe detector, scatter plots of the charge signal of two neighboring pixels clearly show more charge sharing when the collimated beam hits the gap between adjacent pixels. Using collimated Co-57 and Ge-68 sources, we measured the count profiles and estimated the intrinsic spatial resolution of 350 μm pitch detector biased at −1000 V. Depth of interaction was analyzed based on two methods, i.e., cathode/anode ratio and electron drift time, in both 122 keV and 511 keV measurements. For single-pixel photopeak events, a linear correlation between cathode/anode ratio and electron drift time was shown, which would be useful for estimating the DOI information and preserving image resolution in CdZnTe PET imaging applications. PMID:28250476

  7. Towards a high performance vertex detector based on 3D integration of deep N-well MAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, V.

    2010-06-01

    The development of deep N-Well (DNW) CMOS active pixel sensors was driven by the ambitious goal of designing a monolithic device with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixel readout chips, such as pixel-level sparsification and time stamping. The implementation of the DNW MAPS concept in a 3D vertical integration process naturally leads the designer towards putting more intelligence in the chip and in the pixels themselves, achieving novel device structures based on the interconnection of two or more layers fabricated in the same technology. These devices are read out with a data-push scheme that makes it possible to use pixel data for the generation of a flexible level 1 track trigger, based on associative memories, with short latency and high efficiency. This paper gives an update of the present status of DNW MAPS design in both 2D and 3D versions, and presents a discussion of the architectures that are being devised for the Layer 0 of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker.

  8. Intrinsic spatial resolution evaluation of the X'tal cube PET detector based on a 3D crystal block segmented by laser processing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Moriya, Takahiro; Omura, Tomohide; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-01-01

    The X'tal cube is a depth-of-interaction (DOI)-PET detector which is aimed at obtaining isotropic resolution by effective readout of scintillation photons from the six sides of a crystal block. The X'tal cube is composed of the 3D crystal block with isotropic resolution and arrays of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). In this study, to fabricate the 3D crystal block efficiently and precisely, we applied a sub-surface laser engraving (SSLE) technique to a monolithic crystal block instead of gluing segmented small crystals. The SSLE technique provided micro-crack walls which carve a groove into a monolithic scintillator block. Using the fabricated X'tal cube, we evaluated its intrinsic spatial resolution to show a proof of concept of isotropic resolution. The 3D grids of 2 mm pitch were fabricated into an 18 × 18 × 18 mm(3) monolithic lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal by the SSLE technique. 4 × 4 MPPCs were optically coupled to each surface of the crystal block. The X'tal cube was uniformly irradiated by (22)Na gamma rays, and all of the 3D grids on the 3D position histogram were separated clearly by an Anger-type calculation from the 96-channel MPPC signals. Response functions of the X'tal cube were measured by scanning with a (22)Na point source. The gamma-ray beam with a 1.0 mm slit was scanned in 0.25 mm steps by positioning of the X'tal cube at vertical and 45° incident angles. The average FWHM resolution at both incident angles was 2.1 mm. Therefore, we confirmed the isotropic spatial resolution performance of the X'tal cube.

  9. Dual Position Sensitive MWPC for tracking reaction products at VAMOS++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandebrouck, M.; Lemasson, A.; Rejmund, M.; Fremont, G.; Pancin, J.; Navin, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Goupil, J.; Spitaels, C.; Jacquot, B.

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics and performance of a Dual Position Sensitive Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (DPS-MWPC) used to measure the scattering angle, the interaction position on the target and the velocity of reaction products detected in the VAMOS++ magnetic spectrometer, are reported. The detector consists of a pair of position sensitive low pressure MWPCs and provides both fast timing signals, along with the two-dimensional position coordinates required to define the trajectory of the reaction products. A time-of-flight resolution of 305(11) ps (FWHM) was measured. The measured resolutions (FWHM) were 2.5(3) mrad and 560(70) μm for the scattering angle and the interaction point at the target respectively. The subsequent improvement of the Doppler correction of the energy of the γ-rays, detected in the γ-ray tracking array AGATA in coincidence with isotopically identified ions in VAMOS++, is also discussed.

  10. SU-E-T-380: Particle Microdosimetry Study Based On 3D-Cylindrical Silicon Radiaton Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Guardiola, C; Carabe-Fernandez, A; Gomez, F; Pellegrini, G; Fleta, C; Quirion, D; Lozano, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A new design of a solid-state-microdetector based on silicon 3D microfabrication and its performance to characterise Lineal energy, Specific Energy, dose, LET and other microdosimetric variables required for modelling particle relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is presented. Methods: A microdosimeter formed by a matrix of independent sensors with well-defined micrometric cylindrical shape and with a volume similar to those of cellular dimensions is used to measure microdosimetric variables. Each sensor measures the radiation deposited energy which, divided by the mean cord length of the sensors, provides us with the Linear Energy (y) of the radiation as well as its energy distribution, and frequencymean. Starting from the these distributions in different points of a proton beam, we generate biophysical data (e.g. Linear Energy Transfer (LET), Specific Energy (z), etc…) needed for relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculations radiation effect models used in particle radiotherapy treatment planning. In addition, a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) will be used as baseline to calibrate the “y” magnitude of the microdosimeter unit-cells. Results: The experimental measurements will soon be carried out at the Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine (University of Pennsylvania), which provides proton beam for clinical research proposals. The results of distributions measured of the microdosimetric variables from the first tests developed in the proton facility will be presented and compared with Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 code. Conclusion: The use of 3D microdosimeters such as the one presented here will enhance the accuracy of RBE calculations normally affected by the inherent uncertainty of monte carlo simulations due to the approximation of material composition and energy dependent physical laws involved in such calculations. The effect of such approximations will be quatified by comparison with absolute measurement of

  11. A position sensitive microchannel photomultiplier for ultraviolet space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Bixler, J.; Bowyer, S.

    1986-01-01

    The 25-mm microchannel-plate, position-sensitive UV astronomy photomultiplier tube presented is intended for the EOM-1 Spacelab Mission's FAUST payload and conducts wide-field imaging surveys in the VUV over the 1400-1800-A range. The sealed detector encompasses a CsI photocathode deposited on the inner surface of a MgF2 window, a stack of microchannel plates, and a wedge-and-strip two-dimensional position-sensing anode. Since the wedge-and-strip principle requires only three anode signals, flight electronics can be reduced to three charge amplifiers and three analog-to-digital converters.

  12. Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, E. A.; Favela, F.; Curiel, Q.; Chavez, E; Huerta, A.; Varela, A.; Shapira, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

  13. A SiPM-based isotropic-3D PET detector X'tal cube with a three-dimensional array of 1 mm(3) crystals.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Taiga; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Kawai, Hideyuki; Suga, Mikio; Watanabe, Mitsuo

    2011-11-07

    We are developing a novel, general purpose isotropic-3D PET detector X'tal cube which has high spatial resolution in all three dimensions. The research challenge for this detector is implementing effective detection of scintillation photons by covering six faces of a segmented crystal block with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). In this paper, we developed the second prototype of the X'tal cube for a proof-of-concept. We aimed at realizing an ultimate detector with 1.0 mm(3) cubic crystals, in contrast to our previous development using 3.0 mm(3) cubic crystals. The crystal block was composed of a 16 × 16 × 16 array of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (LGSO) crystals 0.993 × 0.993 × 0.993 mm(3) in size. The crystals were optically glued together without inserting any reflector inside and 96 multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs, S10931-50P, i.e. six faces each with a 4 × 4 array of MPPCs), each having a sensitive area of 3.0 × 3.0 mm(2), were optically coupled to the surfaces of the crystal block. Almost all 4096 crystals were identified through Anger-type calculation due to the finely adjusted reflector sheets inserted between the crystal block and light guides. The reflector sheets, which formed a belt of 0.5 mm width, were placed to cover half of the crystals of the second rows from the edges in order to improve identification performance of the crystals near the edges. Energy resolution of 12.7% was obtained at 511 keV with almost uniform light output for all crystal segments thanks to the effective detection of the scintillation photons.

  14. Theoretical Noise Analysis on a Position-sensitive Metallic Magnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the theoretical noise analysis for a position-sensitive Metallic Magnetic Calorimeter (MMC), consisting of MMC read-out at both ends of a large X-ray absorber. Such devices are under consideration as alternatives to other cryogenic technologies for future X-ray astronomy missions. We use a finite-element model (FEM) to numerically calculate the signal and noise response at the detector outputs and investigate the correlations between the noise measured at each MMC coupled by the absorber. We then calculate, using the optimal filter concept, the theoretical energy and position resolution across the detector and discuss the trade-offs involved in optimizing the detector design for energy resolution, position resolution and count rate. The results show, theoretically, the position-sensitive MMC concept offers impressive spectral and spatial resolving capabilities compared to pixel arrays and similar position-sensitive cryogenic technologies using Transition Edge Sensor (TES) read-out.

  15. Biomimetic Sniffing Improves the Detection Performance of a 3D Printed Nose of a Dog and a Commercial Trace Vapor Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew E.; Maccrehan, William A.; Staymates, Jessica L.; Kunz, Roderick R.; Mendum, Thomas; Ong, Ta-Hsuan; Geurtsen, Geoffrey; Gillen, Greg J.; Craven, Brent A.

    2016-12-01

    Unlike current chemical trace detection technology, dogs actively sniff to acquire an odor sample. Flow visualization experiments with an anatomically-similar 3D printed dog’s nose revealed the external aerodynamics during canine sniffing, where ventral-laterally expired air jets entrain odorant-laden air toward the nose, thereby extending the “aerodynamic reach” for inspiration of otherwise inaccessible odors. Chemical sampling and detection experiments quantified two modes of operation with the artificial nose-active sniffing and continuous inspiration-and demonstrated an increase in odorant detection by a factor of up to 18 for active sniffing. A 16-fold improvement in detection was demonstrated with a commercially-available explosives detector by applying this bio-inspired design principle and making the device “sniff” like a dog. These lessons learned from the dog may benefit the next-generation of vapor samplers for explosives, narcotics, pathogens, or even cancer, and could inform future bio-inspired designs for optimized sampling of odor plumes.

  16. Biomimetic Sniffing Improves the Detection Performance of a 3D Printed Nose of a Dog and a Commercial Trace Vapor Detector

    PubMed Central

    Staymates, Matthew E.; MacCrehan, William A.; Staymates, Jessica L.; Kunz, Roderick R.; Mendum, Thomas; Ong, Ta-Hsuan; Geurtsen, Geoffrey; Gillen, Greg J.; Craven, Brent A.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike current chemical trace detection technology, dogs actively sniff to acquire an odor sample. Flow visualization experiments with an anatomically-similar 3D printed dog’s nose revealed the external aerodynamics during canine sniffing, where ventral-laterally expired air jets entrain odorant-laden air toward the nose, thereby extending the “aerodynamic reach” for inspiration of otherwise inaccessible odors. Chemical sampling and detection experiments quantified two modes of operation with the artificial nose-active sniffing and continuous inspiration-and demonstrated an increase in odorant detection by a factor of up to 18 for active sniffing. A 16-fold improvement in detection was demonstrated with a commercially-available explosives detector by applying this bio-inspired design principle and making the device “sniff” like a dog. These lessons learned from the dog may benefit the next-generation of vapor samplers for explosives, narcotics, pathogens, or even cancer, and could inform future bio-inspired designs for optimized sampling of odor plumes. PMID:27906156

  17. Biomimetic Sniffing Improves the Detection Performance of a 3D Printed Nose of a Dog and a Commercial Trace Vapor Detector.

    PubMed

    Staymates, Matthew E; MacCrehan, William A; Staymates, Jessica L; Kunz, Roderick R; Mendum, Thomas; Ong, Ta-Hsuan; Geurtsen, Geoffrey; Gillen, Greg J; Craven, Brent A

    2016-12-01

    Unlike current chemical trace detection technology, dogs actively sniff to acquire an odor sample. Flow visualization experiments with an anatomically-similar 3D printed dog's nose revealed the external aerodynamics during canine sniffing, where ventral-laterally expired air jets entrain odorant-laden air toward the nose, thereby extending the "aerodynamic reach" for inspiration of otherwise inaccessible odors. Chemical sampling and detection experiments quantified two modes of operation with the artificial nose-active sniffing and continuous inspiration-and demonstrated an increase in odorant detection by a factor of up to 18 for active sniffing. A 16-fold improvement in detection was demonstrated with a commercially-available explosives detector by applying this bio-inspired design principle and making the device "sniff" like a dog. These lessons learned from the dog may benefit the next-generation of vapor samplers for explosives, narcotics, pathogens, or even cancer, and could inform future bio-inspired designs for optimized sampling of odor plumes.

  18. Position-sensitive scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Joseph P; Chen, Yan; Müller, Joachim D

    2005-08-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) uses a stationary laser beam to illuminate a small sample volume and analyze the temporal behavior of the fluorescence fluctuations within the stationary observation volume. In contrast, scanning FCS (SFCS) collects the fluorescence signal from a moving observation volume by scanning the laser beam. The fluctuations now contain both temporal and spatial information about the sample. To access the spatial information we synchronize scanning and data acquisition. Synchronization allows us to evaluate correlations for every position along the scanned trajectory. We use a circular scan trajectory in this study. Because the scan radius is constant, the phase angle is sufficient to characterize the position of the beam. We introduce position-sensitive SFCS (PSFCS), where correlations are calculated as a function of lag time and phase. We present the theory of PSFCS and derive expressions for diffusion, diffusion in the presence of flow, and for immobilization. To test PSFCS we compare experimental data with theory. We determine the direction and speed of a flowing dye solution and the position of an immobilized particle. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique for applications in living cells we present data of enhanced green fluorescent protein measured in the nucleus of COS cells.

  19. Michrochannel plate for position sensitive alpha particle detection

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Hurley and James Tinsley

    2007-08-31

    This paper will describe the use of a microchannel plate (MCP) as the associated particle detector on a sealed tube neutron generator. The generator produces neutrons and associated alpha particles for use as a probe to locate and identify hidden explosives in associated particle imaging (API). The MCP measures the position in two dimensions and precise timing of the incident alpha particle, information which is then used to calculate the emission time and direction of the corresponding neutron. The MCP replaces the position-sensitive photomultipler tube (PSPMT) which, until recently, had been the only detector available for measuring position and timing for alpha particles in neutron generator applications. Where the PSPMT uses charge division for generating position information, a process that requires a first order correction to each pulse, the MCP uses delay-line timing, which requires no correction. The result is a device with an order of magnitude improvement in both position resolution and timing compared to the PSPMT. Hardware and software development and the measurements made to characterize the MCP for API applications are described.

  20. Neutron detection and characterization for non-proliferation applications using 3D computer optical memories [Use of 3D optical computer memory for radiation detectors/dosimeters. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gary W. Phillips

    2000-12-20

    We have investigated 3-dimensional optical random access memory (3D-ORAM) materials for detection and characterization of charged particles of neutrons by detecting tracks left by the recoil charged particles produced by the neutrons. We have characterized the response of these materials to protons, alpha particles and carbon-12 nuclei as a functions of dose and energy. We have observed individual tracks using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We are investigating the use of neural net analysis to characterize energetic neutron fields from their track structure in these materials.

  1. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    a 3D photoacoustic imaging system, and (ii) that reconstruction algorithms which favor sparseness can significantly improve imaging performance. These methodologies should provide a means to optimize detector count and geometry for a multitude of 3D photoacoustic imaging applications.

  2. Practical Considerations for Optimizing Position Sensitivity in Arrays of Position-sensitive TES's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Bandler, Simon R.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Encetali; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porder, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing Position-Sensitive Transitions-Edge Sensors (PoST's) for future X-ray astronomy missions such as NASA's Constellation-X. The PoST consists of one or more Transitions Edge Sensors (TES's) thermally connected to a large X-ray absorber, which through heat diffusion, gives rise to position dependence. The development of PoST's is motivated by the desire to achieve the largest the focal-plan coverage with the fewest number of readout channels. In order to develop a practical array, consisting of an inner pixellated core with an outer array of large absorber PoST's, we must be able to simultaneously read out all (-1800) channels in the array. This is achievable using time division multiplexing (TDM), but does set stringent slew rate requirements on the array. Typically, we must damp the pulses to reduce the slew rate of the input signal to the TDM. This is achieved by applying a low-pass analog filter with large inductance to the signal. This attenuates the high frequency components of the signal, essential for position discrimination in PoST's, relative to the white noise of the readout chain and degrades the position sensitivity. Using numerically simulated data, we investigate the position sensing ability of typical PoST designs under such high inductance conditions. We investigate signal-processing techniques for optimal determination of the event position and discuss the practical considerations for real-time implementation.

  3. Development of Three-Dimensional Position-Sensitive Room Temperature Semiconductor Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong He; Wen Li; Glenn F. Knoll; D. K. Wehe

    2000-06-04

    Semiconductor detectors can provide better spectroscopic performance than scintillation or gas-filled detectors because of the small ionization energy required to generate each electron-hole pair. Indeed, cryogenically cooled high-purity germanium detectors have played the dominant role whenever the best gamma-ray spectroscopy is required. A decades-long search for other semiconductor detectors that could provide higher stopping power and could operate at room temperature has been ongoing. Wide-bandgap semiconductors, such as CdTe, CdZnTe, and HgI{sub 2}, have captured the most attention. However, the use of these semiconductors in detectors has been hindered primarily by problems of charge trapping and material nonuniformity. Introduced in 1994, single-polarity charge sensing on semiconductor detectors has shown great promise in avoiding the hole-trapping problem, and the newly demonstrated three-dimensional position-sensing technique can significantly mitigate the degradation of energy resolution due to nonuniformity of detector material. In addition, three-dimensional position sensitivity will provide unique imaging capabilities of these gamma-ray spectrometers. These devices are of interest for nuclear nonproliferation, medical imaging, gamma-ray astronomy, and high-energy physics applications. This paper describes the three-dimensional position-sensing method and reports our latest results using second-generation three-dimensional position-sensitive semiconductor spectrometers.

  4. 43 CFR 422.11 - Position sensitivity and investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Position sensitivity and investigations. 422.11 Section 422.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... Requirements § 422.11 Position sensitivity and investigations. Each law enforcement contract or...

  5. 43 CFR 422.11 - Position sensitivity and investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position sensitivity and investigations. 422.11 Section 422.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... Requirements § 422.11 Position sensitivity and investigations. Each law enforcement contract or...

  6. 43 CFR 422.11 - Position sensitivity and investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Position sensitivity and investigations. 422.11 Section 422.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... Requirements § 422.11 Position sensitivity and investigations. Each law enforcement contract or...

  7. 43 CFR 422.11 - Position sensitivity and investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Position sensitivity and investigations. 422.11 Section 422.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... Requirements § 422.11 Position sensitivity and investigations. Each law enforcement contract or...

  8. 43 CFR 422.11 - Position sensitivity and investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Position sensitivity and investigations. 422.11 Section 422.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... Requirements § 422.11 Position sensitivity and investigations. Each law enforcement contract or...

  9. Position Ring System using Anger Type Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Joel S. Karp, principal investigator

    2004-12-14

    The overall objective of our project was to develop PET scanners and imaging techniques that achieve high performance and excellent image quality. Our approach was based upon 3-D imaging (no septa) with position-sensitive Anger-logic detectors, whereby the encoding ratio of resolution elements to number of photo-multiplier tube channels is very high. This design led to a series of PET systems that emphasized cost-effectiveness and practicality in a clinical environment.

  10. "Stereo Compton cameras" for the 3-D localization of radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujita, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Adachi, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Uchiyama, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kato, T.

    2014-11-01

    The Compton camera is a viable and convenient tool used to visualize the distribution of radioactive isotopes that emit gamma rays. After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in 2011, there is a particularly urgent need to develop "gamma cameras", which can visualize the distribution of such radioisotopes. In response, we propose a portable Compton camera, which comprises 3-D position-sensitive GAGG scintillators coupled with thin monolithic MPPC arrays. The pulse-height ratio of two MPPC-arrays allocated at both ends of the scintillator block determines the depth of interaction (DOI), which dramatically improves the position resolution of the scintillation detectors. We report on the detailed optimization of the detector design, based on Geant4 simulation. The results indicate that detection efficiency reaches up to 0.54%, or more than 10 times that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, along with a moderate angular resolution of 8.1° (FWHM). By applying the triangular surveying method, we also propose a new concept for the stereo measurement of gamma rays by using two Compton cameras, thus enabling the 3-D positional measurement of radioactive isotopes for the first time. From one point source simulation data, we ensured that the source position and the distance to the same could be determined typically to within 2 meters' accuracy and we also confirmed that more than two sources are clearly separated by the event selection from two point sources of simulation data.

  11. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  12. Pilot Study on the Detection of Simulated Lesions Using a 2D and 3D Digital Full-Field Mammography System with a Newly Developed High Resolution Detector Based on Two Shifts of a-Se.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Wendtland, R; Bani, M; Lux, M P; Schwab, S; Loehberg, C R; Jud, S M; Rauh, C; Bayer, C M; Beckmann, M W; Uder, M; Fasching, P A; Adamietz, B; Meier-Meitinger, M

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Experimental study of a new system for digital 2D and 3D full-field mammography (FFDM) using a high resolution detector based on two shifts of a-Se. Material and Methods: Images were acquired using the new FFDM system Amulet® (FujiFilm, Tokio, Japan), an a-Se detector (receptor 24 × 30 cm(2), pixel size 50 µm, memory depth 12 bit, spatial resolution 10 lp/mm, DQE > 0.50). Integrated in the detector is a new method for data transfer, based on optical switch technology. The object of investigation was the Wisconsin Mammographic Random Phantom, Model 152A (Radiation Measurement Inc., Middleton, WI, USA) and the same parameters and exposure data (Tungsten, 100 mAs, 30 kV) were consistently used. We acquired 3 different pairs of images in the c-c and ml planes (2D) and in the c-c and c-c planes with an angle of 4 degrees (3D). Five radiologists experienced in mammography (experience ranging from 3 months to more than 5 years) analyzed the images (monitoring) which had been randomly encoded (random generator) with regard to the recognition of details such as specks of aluminum oxide (200-740 µm), nylon fibers (0.4-1.6 mm) and round lesions/masses (diameters 5-14 mm), using special linear glasses for 3D visualization, and compared the results. Results: A total of 225 correct positive decisions could be detected: we found 222 (98.7 %) correct positive results for 2D and 3D visualization in each case. Conclusion: The results of this phantom study showed the same detection rates for both 2D and 3D imaging using full field digital mammography. Our results must be confirmed in further clinical trials.

  13. Proportional counter for X-ray analysis of lunar and planetary surfaces. [a position sensitive scintillating imaging proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A position sensitive proportional scintillation detector was developed and evaluated for use in applications involving X-ray imaging as well as spectroscopy. Topics covered include limitations of the proportional scintillation counter for use in space; purification of the xenon gas in the detector, and the operation of the detector system. Results show that the light signal in a proportional scintillation detector remains well localized. With modest electric fields in xenon, the primary electrons from a photoelectric absorption of an X-ray can be brought a distance of a few millimeters to a higher field region without spreading more than a millimeter or so. Therefore, it is possible to make a proportional scintillation detector with good position sensitivity that could be used to calibrate out the difference in light collection over its sensitive volume.

  14. Development of three-dimensional position-sensitive room temperature semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Li, W.; Knoll, G.F.; Wehe, D.K.

    2000-07-01

    Semiconductor detectors can provide better spectroscopic performance than scintillation or gas-filled detectors because of the small ionization energy required to generate each electron-hole pair. Indeed, cryogenically cooled high-purity germanium detectors have played the dominant role whenever the best gamma-ray spectroscopy is required. A decades-long search for other semiconductor detectors that could provide higher stopping power and could operate at room temperature has been ongoing. Wide-band-gap semiconductors, such as CdTe, CdZnTe, and HgI{sub 2}, have captured the most attention. However, the use of these semiconductors in detectors has been hindered primarily by problems of charge trapping and material nonuniformity. Introduced in 1994, single-polarity charge sensing on semiconductor detectors has shown great promise in avoiding the hole-trapping problem, and the newly demonstrated three-dimensional position-sensing technique can significantly mitigate the degradation of energy resolution due to the nonuniformity of detector material. In addition, three-dimensional position sensitivity will provide unique imaging capabilities of these gamma-ray spectrometers. These devices are of interest for nuclear nonproliferation, medical imaging, gamma-ray astronomy, and high-energy physics applications. This paper reports the latest results using second-generation three-dimensional position-sensitive semiconductor spectrometers. The improvements over the first generation devices include: (1) Larger volume; (2) Improved anode design; (3) More reliable connections; (4) Enhanced electronic capability; and (5) Measurement of electron drift times. The new detectors and readout electronics (from IDE AS) are being assembled and tested.

  15. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  16. Implementation of Complex Signal Processing Algorithms for Position-Sensitive Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    We have recently reported on a theoretical digital signal-processing algorithm for improved energy and position resolution in position-sensitive, transition-edge sensor (POST) X-ray detectors [Smith et al., Nucl, lnstr and Meth. A 556 (2006) 2371. PoST's consists of one or more transition-edge sensors (TES's) on a large continuous or pixellated X-ray absorber and are under development as an alternative to arrays of single pixel TES's. PoST's provide a means to increase the field-of-view for the fewest number of read-out channels. In this contribution we extend the theoretical correlated energy position optimal filter (CEPOF) algorithm (originally developed for 2-TES continuous absorber PoST's) to investigate the practical implementation on multi-pixel single TES PoST's or Hydras. We use numerically simulated data for a nine absorber device, which includes realistic detector noise, to demonstrate an iterative scheme that enables convergence on the correct photon absorption position and energy without any a priori assumptions. The position sensitivity of the CEPOF implemented on simulated data agrees very well with the theoretically predicted resolution. We discuss practical issues such as the impact of random arrival phase of the measured data on the performance of the CEPOF. The CEPOF algorithm demonstrates that full-width-at- half-maximum energy resolution of < 8 eV coupled with position-sensitivity down to a few 100 eV should be achievable for a fully optimized device.

  17. A position-sensitive twin ionization chamber for fission fragment and prompt neutron correlation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, A.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Vidali, M.; Zeynalov, Sh.

    2016-09-01

    A twin position-sensitive Frisch grid ionization chamber, intended as a fission fragment detector in experiments to study prompt fission neutron correlations with fission fragment properties, is presented. Fission fragment mass and energies are determined by means of the double kinetic energy technique, based on conservation of mass and linear momentum. The position sensitivity is achieved by replacing each anode plate in the standard twin ionization chamber by a wire plane and a strip anode, both readout by means of resistive charge division. This provides information about the fission axis orientation, which is necessary to reconstruct the neutron emission process in the fully accelerated fragment rest-frame. The energy resolution compared to the standard twin ionization chamber is found not to be affected by the modification. The angular resolution of the detector relative to an arbitrarily oriented axis is better than 7° FWHM. Results on prompt fission neutron angular distributions in 235U(n,f) obtained with the detector in combination with an array of neutron scintillation detectors is presented as a proof of principle.

  18. Position-sensitive detection of slow neutrons: Survey of fundamental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper sets forth the fundamental principles governing the development of position-sensitive detection systems for slow neutrons. Since neutrons are only weakly interacting with most materials, it is not generally practical to detect slow neutrons directly. Therefore all practical slow neutron detection mechanisms depend on the use of nuclear reactions to convert'' the neutron to one or more charged particles, followed by the subsequent detection of the charged particles. The different conversion reactions which can be used are discussed, along with the relative merits of each. This is followed with a discussion of the various methods of charged particle detection, how these lend themselves to position-sensitive encoding, and the means of position encoding which can be applied to each case. Detector performance characteristics which may be of importance to the end user are discussed and related to these various detection and position-encoding mechanisms.

  19. Position-sensitive detection of slow neutrons: Survey of fundamental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.K.

    1992-07-01

    This paper sets forth the fundamental principles governing the development of position-sensitive detection systems for slow neutrons. Since neutrons are only weakly interacting with most materials, it is not generally practical to detect slow neutrons directly. Therefore all practical slow neutron detection mechanisms depend on the use of nuclear reactions to ``convert`` the neutron to one or more charged particles, followed by the subsequent detection of the charged particles. The different conversion reactions which can be used are discussed, along with the relative merits of each. This is followed with a discussion of the various methods of charged particle detection, how these lend themselves to position-sensitive encoding, and the means of position encoding which can be applied to each case. Detector performance characteristics which may be of importance to the end user are discussed and related to these various detection and position-encoding mechanisms.

  20. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  1. Position sensitive radioactivity detection for gas and liquid chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Cochran, Joseph L.; McCarthy, John F.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the position sensitive detection of radioactivity in a fluid stream, particularly in the effluent fluid stream from a gas or liquid chromatographic instrument. The invention represents a significant advance in efficiency and cost reduction compared with current efforts.

  2. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  3. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  4. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  5. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodríguez, A.

    2003-10-01

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 μm thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8×8 cm2 with a pixel size of 1.27×1.27 mm2. Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring.

  6. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  7. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  8. Simulated and Real Sheet-of-Light 3D Object Scanning Using a-Si:H Thin Film PSD Arrays.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Javier; Tornero, Josep; Ferreira, Isabel; Martins, Rodrigo; Gomes, Luis; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-11-30

    A MATLAB/SIMULINK software simulation model (structure and component blocks) has been constructed in order to view and analyze the potential of the PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) array concept technology before it is further expanded or developed. This simulation allows changing most of its parameters, such as the number of elements in the PSD array, the direction of vision, the viewing/scanning angle, the object rotation, translation, sample/scan/simulation time, etc. In addition, results show for the first time the possibility of scanning an object in 3D when using an a-Si:H thin film 128 PSD array sensor and hardware/software system. Moreover, this sensor technology is able to perform these scans and render 3D objects at high speeds and high resolutions when using a sheet-of-light laser within a triangulation platform. As shown by the simulation, a substantial enhancement in 3D object profile image quality and realism can be achieved by increasing the number of elements of the PSD array sensor as well as by achieving an optimal position response from the sensor since clearly the definition of the 3D object profile depends on the correct and accurate position response of each detector as well as on the size of the PSD array.

  9. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  10. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  11. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  12. Functionalised hexagonal-domain graphene for position-sensitive photodetectors.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Adolfo; Barnes, Matthew D; Amit, Iddo; Craciun, Monica F; Russo, Saverio

    2017-03-24

    Graphene's unique photoresponse has been largely used in a multitude of optoelectronics applications ranging from broadband photodetectors to wave-guide modulators. In this work we extend the range of applications to position-sensitive photodetectors (PSDs) using FeCl3-intercalated hexagonal domains of graphene grown by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD). The FeCl3-based chemical functionalisation of APCVD graphene crystals is affected by the presence of wrinkles and results in a non-uniform doping of the graphene layers. This doping profile creates multiple p-p(+) photoactive junctions which show a linear and bipolar photoresponse with respect to the position of a focused light spot, which is ideal for the realization of a PSD. Our study paves the way towards the fabrication of flexible and transparent PSDs that could be embedded in smart textile and wearable electronics.

  13. Functionalised hexagonal-domain graphene for position-sensitive photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, Adolfo; Barnes, Matthew D.; Amit, Iddo; Craciun, Monica F.; Russo, Saverio

    2017-03-01

    Graphene’s unique photoresponse has been largely used in a multitude of optoelectronics applications ranging from broadband photodetectors to wave-guide modulators. In this work we extend the range of applications to position-sensitive photodetectors (PSDs) using FeCl3-intercalated hexagonal domains of graphene grown by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD). The FeCl3-based chemical functionalisation of APCVD graphene crystals is affected by the presence of wrinkles and results in a non-uniform doping of the graphene layers. This doping profile creates multiple p–p+ photoactive junctions which show a linear and bipolar photoresponse with respect to the position of a focused light spot, which is ideal for the realization of a PSD. Our study paves the way towards the fabrication of flexible and transparent PSDs that could be embedded in smart textile and wearable electronics.

  14. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  15. Position sensitivity in 3"×3" Spectroscopic LaBr3:Ce Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, N.; Giaz, A.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Million, B.; Riboldi, S.

    2015-06-01

    The position sensitivity of a thick, cylindrical and continuous 3" × 3" (7.62 cm × 7.62 cm) LaBr3:Ce crystal with diffusive surfaces was investigated. Nuclear physics basic research uses thick LaBr3:Ce crystals (> 3cm) to measure medium or high energy gamma rays (0.5 MeV < Eγ< 20 MeV). In the first measurement the PMT photocathode entrance window was covered by black absorber except for a small window 1 cm × 1cm wide. A complete scan of the detector over a 0.5 cm step grid was performed. The data show that even in a 3" thick LaBr3:Ce crystal with diffusive surfaces the position of the full energy peak centroid depends on the source position. The position of the full energy peak centroids are sufficient to identify the collimated gamma source position. The crystal was then coupled to four Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT). We acquired the signals from the 256 segments of the four PSPMTs grouping them into 16 elements. An event by event analysis shows a positon resolution of the order of 2 cm.

  16. Development of position-sensitive time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragment research

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. W.; Tovesson, F.; Meierbachtol, K.; Bredeweg, T.; Jandel, M.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Laptev, A.; Rusev, G.; Shields, D. W.; White, M.; Blakeley, R. E.; Mader, D. M.; Hecht, A. A.

    2014-07-09

    A position-sensitive, high-resolution time-of-flight detector for fission fragments has been developed. The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) is a 2E–2v spectrometer designed to measure the mass of light fission fragments to a single mass unit. The time pick-off detector pairs to be used in SPIDER have been tested with α-particles from 229Th and its decay chain and α-particles and spontaneous fission fragments from 252Cf. Each detector module is comprised of thin electron conversion foil, electrostatic mirror, microchannel plates, and delay-line anodes. Particle trajectories on the order of 700 mm are determined accurately to within 0.7 mm. Flight times were measured with 250 ps resolution FWHM. Computed particle velocities are accurate to within 0.06 mm/ns corresponding to a precision of 0.5%. As a result, an ionization chamber capable of 400 keV energy resolution coupled with the velocity measurements described here will pave the way for modestly efficient measurements of light fission fragments with unit mass resolution.

  17. Development of position-sensitive time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragment research

    DOE PAGES

    Arnold, C. W.; Tovesson, F.; Meierbachtol, K.; ...

    2014-07-09

    A position-sensitive, high-resolution time-of-flight detector for fission fragments has been developed. The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) is a 2E–2v spectrometer designed to measure the mass of light fission fragments to a single mass unit. The time pick-off detector pairs to be used in SPIDER have been tested with α-particles from 229Th and its decay chain and α-particles and spontaneous fission fragments from 252Cf. Each detector module is comprised of thin electron conversion foil, electrostatic mirror, microchannel plates, and delay-line anodes. Particle trajectories on the order of 700 mm are determined accurately to within 0.7 mm. Flightmore » times were measured with 250 ps resolution FWHM. Computed particle velocities are accurate to within 0.06 mm/ns corresponding to a precision of 0.5%. As a result, an ionization chamber capable of 400 keV energy resolution coupled with the velocity measurements described here will pave the way for modestly efficient measurements of light fission fragments with unit mass resolution.« less

  18. Analysis of the topological properties of the proximal femur on a regional scale: evaluation of multi-detector CT-scans for the assessment of biomechanical strength using local Minkowski functionals in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, H. F.; Link, T. M.; Monetti, R. A.; Kuhn, V.; Eckstein, F.; Raeth, C. W.; Reiser, M.

    2006-03-01

    In our recent studies on the analysis of bone texture in the context of Osteoporosis, we could already demonstrate the great potential of the topological evaluation of bone architecture based on the Minkowski Functionals (MF) in 2D and 3D for the prediction of the mechanical strength of cubic bone specimens depicted by high resolution MRI. Other than before, we now assess the mechanical characteristics of whole hip bone specimens imaged by multi-detector computed tomography. Due to the specific properties of the imaging modality and the bone tissue in the proximal femur, this requires to introduce a new analysis method. The internal architecture of the hip is functionally highly specialized to withstand the complex pattern of external and internal forces associated with human gait. Since the direction, connectivity and distribution of the trabeculae changes considerably within narrow spatial limits it seems most reasonable to evaluate the femoral bone structure on a local scale. The Minkowski functionals are a set of morphological descriptors for the topological characterization of binarized, multi-dimensional, convex objects with respect to shape, structure, and the connectivity of their components. The MF are usually used as global descriptors and may react very sensitively to minor structural variations which presents a major limitation in a number of applications. The objective of this work is to assess the mechanical competence of whole hip bone specimens using parameters based on the MF. We introduce an algorithm that considers the local topological aspects of the bone architecture of the proximal femur allowing to identify regions within the bone that contribute more to the overall mechanical strength than others.

  19. Canadian Penning Trap Mass Measurements using a Position Sensitive MCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuta, Trenton; Aprahamian, Ani; Marley, Scott; Nystrom, Andrew; Clark, Jason; Perez Galvan, Adrian; Hirsh, Tsviki; Savard, Guy; Orford, Rodney; Morgan, Graeme

    2015-10-01

    The primary focus of the Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) located at Argonne National Lab is to determine the masses of various isotopes produced in the spontaneous fission of Californium. Currently, the CPT is operating in conjunction with CARIBU at the ATLAS facility in an attempt to measure neutron-rich nuclei produced by a 1.5 Curie source of Californium 252. The masses of nuclei produced in fission is accomplished by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the isotopes circling within the trap. This frequency is determined by a position sensitive MCP, which records the relative position of the isotope in the trap at different times. Using these position changes over time in connection with a center spot, angles between these positions are calculated and used to determine the frequency. Most of the work currently being conducted on the CPT is focused on the precision of these frequency measurements. The use of traps has revolutionized the measurements of nuclear masses to very high precision. The optimization methods employed here include focusing the beam in order to reduce the spread on the position of the isotope as well as the tuning of the MR-ToF, a mass separator that is intended on removing contaminants in the beam. This work was supported by the nuclear Grant PHY-1419765 for the University of Notre Dame.

  20. Multi-view and 3D deformable part models.

    PubMed

    Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt

    2015-11-01

    As objects are inherently 3D, they have been modeled in 3D in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to 3D models, 3D object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based models are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such models have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about 3D shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of 3D and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of 3D object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part model [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information, resulting in several different models with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a 3D object model, consisting of multiple object parts represented in 3D and a continuous appearance model. We experimentally verify that our models, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object models, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , 3D object classes [3] , Pascal3D+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ).

  1. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  2. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  3. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  4. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  5. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  6. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  7. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. Development status of a CZT spectrometer prototype with 3D spatial resolution for hard x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auricchio, N.; Caroli, E.; Basili, A.; Benassi, G.; Budtz Jørgensen, C.; Curado da Silva, R. M.; Del Sordo, S.; Kuvvetli, I.; Milano, L.; Moscatelli, F.; Stephen, J. B.; Zanichelli, M.; Zappettini, A.

    2012-07-01

    The development of new focusing optics based on wide band Laue lenses operating from ~60 keV up to several hundred keV is particularly challenging. This type of hard X-ray or gamma ray optics requires a high performance focal plane detector in order to exploit to the best their intrinsic capabilities. We describe a three dimensional (3D) position sensitive detector prototype suitable as the basic module for a high efficiency Laue lens focal plane detector. This detector configuration is currently under study for use in a balloon payload dedicated to performing a high significance measurement of the polarization status of the Crab between 100 and 500 keV. The prototype is made by packing 8 linear modules, each composed of one basic sensitive unit bonded onto a thin supporting ceramic layer. Each unit is a drift strip detector based on a CZT crystal, irradiated transversally to the electric field direction. The anode is segmented into 8 detection cells, each comprising one collecting strip and 8 surrounding drift strips. The drift strips are biased by a voltage divider. The cathode is divided into 4 horizontal strips for the reconstruction of the Z interaction position. The detector readout electronics is based on RENA-3 ASIC and the data handling system uses a custom electronics based on FPGA to provide the ASIC setting, the event handling logic, and the data acquisition. This paper mainly describes the components and the status of the undergoing activities for the construction of the proposed 3D CZT prototype and shows the results of the electronics tests.

  9. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  10. Use of a YAP:Ce matrix coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier for high resolution positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Del Guerra, A.; Zavattini, G. |; Notaristefani, F. de |; Di Domenico, G. |; Giganti, M.; Piffanelli, A.; Pani, R.; Turra, A.

    1996-06-01

    A new scintillation detector system has been designed for application in high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The detector is a bundle of small YAlO{sub 3}:Ce (YAP) crystals closely packed (0.2 x 0.2 x 3.0 cm{sup 3}), coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The preliminary results obtained for spatial resolution, time resolution, energy resolution and efficiency of two such detectors working in coincidence are presented. These are 1.2 mm for the FWHM spatial resolution, 2.0 ns for the FWHM time resolution and 20% for the FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. The measured efficiency is (44 {+-} 3)% with a 150 keV threshold and (20 {+-} 2)% with a 300 keV threshold.

  11. Three-dimensional, position-sensitive radiation detection

    DOEpatents

    He, Zhong; Zhang, Feng

    2010-04-06

    Disclosed herein is a method of determining a characteristic of radiation detected by a radiation detector via a multiple-pixel event having a plurality of radiation interactions. The method includes determining a cathode-to-anode signal ratio for a selected interaction of the plurality of radiation interactions based on electron drift time data for the selected interaction, and determining the radiation characteristic for the multiple-pixel event based on both the cathode-to-anode signal ratio and the electron drift time data. In some embodiments, the method further includes determining a correction factor for the radiation characteristic based on an interaction depth of the plurality of radiation interactions, a lateral distance between the selected interaction and a further interaction of the plurality of radiation interactions, and the lateral positioning of the plurality of radiation interactions.

  12. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  13. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  14. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. Fast Optical Position-Sensitive Detector for McPherson ESCA-36.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    KALINOWSKI, * L. E. TRIBBLE, and L. U. TOLENTINO * Chemistry and Physics Laboratory Laboratory OperationsIThe Aerospace Corporation El Segundo, Calif. 90245...Angeles Air Force Station P.O. Box 92960, Worldway Postal Center Los Angeles, Calif. 90009 -,z-I This report was submitted by The Aerospace Corporation ...Angeles, CA 90009. It was reviewed and approved for The Aerospace Corporation by S. Feuerstein, Director, Chemistry and Physics Laboratory. 2nd Lt Ken

  16. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  17. Development of Position-Sensitive Magnetic Calorimeters for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandler, SImon; Stevenson, Thomas; Hsieh, Wen-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMC) are one of the most promising devices to provide very high energy resolution needed for future astronomical x-ray spectroscopy. MMC detectors can be built to large detector arrays having thousands of pixels. Position-sensitive magnetic (PoSM) microcalorimeters consist of multiple absorbers thermally coupled to one magnetic micro calorimeter. Each absorber element has a different thermal coupling to the MMC, resulting in a distribution of different pulse shapes and enabling position discrimination between the absorber elements. PoSMs therefore achieve the large focal plane area with fewer number of readout channels without compromising spatial sampling. Excellent performance of PoSMs was achieved by optimizing the designs of key parameters such as the thermal conductance among the absorbers, magnetic sensor, and heat sink, as well as the absorber heat capacities. Micro fab ri - cation techniques were developed to construct four-absorber PoSMs, in which each absorber consists of a two-layer composite of bismuth and gold. The energy resolution (FWHM full width at half maximum) was measured to be better than 5 eV at 6 keV x-rays for all four absorbers. Position determination was demonstrated with pulse-shape discrimination, as well as with pulse rise time. X-ray microcalorimeters are usually designed to thermalize as quickly as possible to avoid degradation in energy resolution from position dependence to the pulse shapes. Each pixel consists of an absorber and a temperature sensor, both decoupled from the cold bath through a weak thermal link. Each pixel requires a separate readout channel; for instance, with a SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device). For future astronomy missions where thousands to millions of resolution elements are required, having an individual SQUID readout channel for each pixel becomes difficult. One route to attaining these goals is a position-sensitive detector in which a large continuous or

  18. Reciprocal space mapping of epitaxial materials using position-sensitive x-ray detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.; Doyle, B.L.; Drummond, T.J.; Medernach, J.W.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1994-10-01

    Reciprocal space mapping can be efficiently carried out using a position-sensitive x-ray detector (PSD) coupled to a traditional double-axis diffractometer. The PSD offers parallel measurement of the total scattering angle of all diffracted x-rays during a single rocking-curve scan. As a result, a two-dimensional reciprocal space map can be made in a very short time similar to that of a one-dimensional rocking-curve scan. Fast, efficient reciprocal space mapping offers numerous routine advantages to the x-ray diffraction analyst. Some of these advantages are the explicit differentiation of lattice strain from crystal orientation effects in strain-relaxed heteroepitaxial layers; the nondestructive characterization of the size, shape and orientation of nanocrystalline domains in ordered-alloy epilayers; and the ability to measure the average size and shape of voids in porous epilayers. Here, the PSD-based diffractometer is described, and specific examples clearly illustrating the advantages of complete reciprocal space analysis are presented.

  19. Position sensitivity of graphene field effect transistors to X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cazalas, Edward Moore, Michael E.; Jovanovic, Igor; Sarker, Biddut K.; Childres, Isaac; Chen, Yong P.

    2015-06-01

    Device architectures that incorporate graphene to realize detection of electromagnetic radiation typically utilize the direct absorbance of radiation by graphene. This limits their effective area to the size of the graphene and their applicability to lower-energy, less penetrating forms of radiation. In contrast, graphene-based transistor architectures that utilize the field effect as the detection mechanism can be sensitive to interactions of radiation not only with graphene but also with the surrounding substrate. Here, we report the study of the position sensitivity and response of a graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) to penetrating, well-collimated radiation (micro-beam X-rays), producing ionization in the substrate primarily away from graphene. It is found that responsivity and response speed are strongly dependent on the X-ray beam distance from graphene and the gate voltage applied to the GFET. To develop an understanding of the spatially dependent response, a model is developed that incorporates the volumetric charge generation, transport, and recombination. The model is in good agreement with the observed spatial response characteristics of the GFET and predicts a greater response potential of the GFET to radiation interacting near its surface. The study undertaken provides the necessary insight into the volumetric nature of the GFET response, essential for development of GFET-based detectors for more penetrating forms of ionizing radiation.

  20. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  1. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  2. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  3. A microstrip detector with delay line readout

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, A.F. , BP 220, 38043 Grenoble CNPq Riekel, C.; Wattecamps, P. , BP 220, 38043 Grenoble )

    1992-01-01

    Principal limitations of position sensitive gasfilled detectors for x-ray synchrotron radiation applications are the counting rate and the positional resolution. Improvements in both areas are expected with microstrip technology. First results of a linear position sensitive microstrip detector with delay line readout are shown, and the possibility to achieve two-dimensional localization is evaluated.

  4. A Study of Position-Sensitive Solid-State Photomultiplier Signal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Du, Junwei; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Dokhale, Purushottam; Christian, James; McClish, Mickel; Shah, Kanai S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the signal properties of a position-sensitive solid-state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM) that has an integrated resistive network for position sensing. Attractive features of PS-SSPMs are their large area and ability to resolve small scintillator crystals. However, the large area leads to a high detector capacitance, and in order to achieve high spatial resolution a large network resistor value is required. These inevitably create a low-pass filter that drastically slows what would be a fast micro-cell discharge pulse. Significant changes in the signal shape of the PS-SSPM cathode output as a function of position are observed, which result in a position-dependent time delay when using traditional time pick-off methods such as leading edge discrimination and constant fraction discrimination. The timing resolution and time delay, as a function of position, were characterized for two different PS-SSPM designs, a continuous 10 mm × 10 mm PS-SSPM and a tiled 2 × 2 array of 5 mm × 5 mm PS-SSPMs. After time delay correction, the block timing resolution, measured with a 6 × 6 array of 1.3 × 1.3 × 20 mm3 LSO crystals, was 8.6 ns and 8.5 ns, with the 10 mm PS-SSPM and 5 mm PS-SSPM respectively. The effect of crystal size on timing resolution was also studied, and contrary to expectation, a small improvement was measured when reducing the crystal size from 1.3 mm to 0.5 mm. Digital timing methods were studied and showed great promise for allowing accurate timing by implementation of a leading edge time pick-off. Position-dependent changes in signal shape on the anode side also are present, which complicates peak height data acquisition methods used for positioning. We studied the effect of trigger position on signal amplitude, flood histogram quality, and depth-of-interaction resolution in a dual-ended readout detector configuration. We conclude that detector timing and positioning can be significantly improved by implementation of digital timing

  5. 3D plasma camera for planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthomier, Matthieu; Morel, Xavier; Techer, Jean-Denis

    2014-05-01

    A new 3D field-of-view toroidal space plasma analyzer based on an innovative optical concept allows the coverage of 4π str solid angle with only two sensor heads. It fits the need of all-sky thermal plasma measurements on three-axis stabilized spacecraft which are the most commonly used platforms for planetary missions. The 3D plasma analyzer also takes advantage of the new possibilities offered by the development of an ultra low-power multi-channel charge sensitive amplifier used for the imaging detector of the instrument. We present the design and measured performances of a prototype model that will fly on a test rocket in 2014.

  6. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  7. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  8. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  9. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  10. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  11. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  12. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  13. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  16. Theory and Development of Position-Sensitive Quantum Calorimeters. Degree awarded by Stanford Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Quantum calorimeters are being developed as imaging spectrometers for future X-ray astrophysics observatories. Much of the science to be done by these instruments could benefit greatly from larger focal-plane coverage of the detector (without increasing pixel size). An order of magnitude more area will greatly increase the science throughput of these future instruments. One of the main deterrents to achieving this goal is the complexity of the readout schemes involved. We have devised a way to increase the number of pixels from the current baseline designs by an order of magnitude without increasing the number of channels required for readout. The instrument is a high energy resolution, distributed-readout imaging spectrometer called a Position-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (POST). A POST is a quantum calorimeter consisting of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESS) on the ends of a long absorber capable of one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. Comparing rise time and energy information from the two TESS, the position of the event in the POST is determined. The energy of the event is inferred from the sum of the two pulses. We have developed a generalized theoretical formalism for distributed-readout calorimeters and apply it to our devices. We derive the noise theory and calculate the theoretical energy resolution of a POST. Our calculations show that a 7-pixel POST with 6 keV saturation energy can achieve 2.3 eV resolution, making this a competitive design for future quantum calorimeter instruments. For this thesis we fabricated 7- and 15-pixel POSTS using Mo/Au TESs and gold absorbers, and moved from concept drawings on scraps of napkins to a 32 eV energy resolution at 1.5 keV, 7-pixel POST calorimeter.

  17. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  18. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  19. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  20. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  1. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  2. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  3. 3D sensors for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez Furelos, D.; Carulla, M.; Cavallaro, E.; Förster, F.; Grinstein, S.; Lange, J.; López Paz, I.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Terzo, S.

    2017-01-01

    In order to increase its discovery potential, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator will be upgraded in the next decade. The high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) period requires new sensor technologies to cope with increasing radiation fluences and particle rates. The ATLAS experiment will replace the entire inner tracking detector with a completely new silicon-only system. 3D pixel sensors are promising candidates for the innermost layers of the Pixel detector due to their excellent radiation hardness at low operation voltages and low power dissipation at moderate temperatures. Recent developments of 3D sensors for the HL-LHC are presented.

  4. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  5. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  6. 3D Imaging with Holographic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Kou, Shan Shan

    2010-04-01

    There are two main types of tomography that enable the 3D internal structures of objects to be reconstructed from scattered data. The commonly known computerized tomography (CT) give good results in the x-ray wavelength range where the filtered back-projection theorem and Radon transform can be used. These techniques rely on the Fourier projection-slice theorem where rays are considered to propagate straight through the object. Another type of tomography called `diffraction tomography' applies in applications in optics and acoustics where diffraction and scattering effects must be taken into account. The latter proves to be a more difficult problem, as light no longer travels straight through the sample. Holographic tomography is a popular way of performing diffraction tomography and there has been active experimental research on reconstructing complex refractive index data using this approach recently. However, there are two distinct ways of doing tomography: either by rotation of the object or by rotation of the illumination while fixing the detector. The difference between these two setups is intuitive but needs to be quantified. From Fourier optics and information transformation point of view, we use 3D transfer function analysis to quantitatively describe how spatial frequencies of the object are mapped to the Fourier domain. We first employ a paraxial treatment by calculating the Fourier transform of the defocused OTF. The shape of the calculated 3D CTF for tomography, by scanning the illumination in one direction only, takes on a form that we might call a 'peanut,' compared to the case of object rotation, where a diablo is formed, the peanut exhibiting significant differences and non-isotropy. In particular, there is a line singularity along one transverse direction. Under high numerical aperture conditions, the paraxial treatment is not accurate, and so we make use of 3D analytical geometry to calculate the behaviour in the non-paraxial case. This time, we

  7. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  8. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  9. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Sherwood I.

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  10. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  11. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  12. Performance and field tests of a handheld Compton camera using 3-D position-sensitive scintillators coupled to multi-pixel photon counter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, A.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujita, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Okochi, H.; Ogata, H.; Kuroshima, H.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Adachi, S.; Uchiyama, T.; Suzuki, H.

    2014-11-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, radiation decontamination has become particularly urgent. To help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation, we have developed a novel Compton camera based on Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 scintillators and multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays. Even though its sensitivity is several times better than that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, we introduce a depth-of-interaction (DOI) method to further improve the angular resolution. For gamma rays, the DOI information, in addition to 2-D position, is obtained by measuring the pulse-height ratio of the MPPC arrays coupled to ends of the scintillator. We present the detailed performance and results of various field tests conducted in Fukushima with the prototype 2-D and DOI Compton cameras. Moreover, we demonstrate stereo measurement of gamma rays that enables measurement of not only direction but also approximate distance to radioactive hotspots.

  13. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  14. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  15. Betabox: a beta particle imaging system based on a position sensitive avalanche photodiode

    PubMed Central

    Dooraghi, AA; Vu, NT; Silverman, RW; Farrell, R; Shah, KS; Wang, J; Heath, JR; Chatziioannou, AF

    2013-01-01

    A beta camera has been developed that allows planar imaging of the spatial and temporal distribution of beta particles using a 14 × 14 mm2 position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD). This camera system, which we call Betabox, can be directly coupled to microfluidic chips designed for cell incubation or other biological applications. Betabox allows for imaging the cellular uptake of molecular imaging probes labeled with charged particle emitters such as 18F inside these chips. In this work, we investigate the quantitative imaging capabilities of Betabox for 18F beta particles, in terms of background rate, efficiency, spatial resolution, and count rate. Measurements of background and spatial resolution are considered both at room temperature (21 °C ± 1 °C) and at an elevated operating temperature (37 °C ± 1 °C), as is often required for biological assays. The background rate measured with a 4 keV energy cutoff is below 2 cph mm−2 at both 21 and 37 °C. The absolute efficiency of Betabox for the detection of 18F positron sources in contact with a PSAPD with the surface passivated from ambient light and damage is 46% ± 1%. The lower detection limit is estimated using the Rose Criterion to be 0.2 cps mm−2 for 1 min acquisitions and a 62 × 62 µm2 pixel size. The upper detection limit is approximately 21 000 cps. The spatial resolution at both 21 and 37 °C ranges from 0.4 mm FWHM at the center of the field of view (FOV), and degrades to 1 mm at a distance of 5 mm away from center yielding a useful FOV of approximately 10 × 10 mm2. We also investigate the effects on spatial resolution and sensitivity that result from the use of a polymer based microfluidic chip. For these studies we place varying layers of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) between the detector and the source and find that the spatial resolution degrades by ~180 µm for every 100 µm of LDPE film. Sensitivity is reduced by half with the inclusion of ~200 µm of additional LDPE film

  16. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  17. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  18. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  19. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  20. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  1. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  2. 3D surface and body documentation in forensic medicine: 3-D/CAD Photogrammetry merged with 3D radiological scanning.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Wirth, Joachim; Vock, Peter; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-01

    A main goal of forensic medicine is to document and to translate medical findings to a language and/or visualization that is readable and understandable for judicial persons and for medical laymen. Therefore, in addition to classical methods, scientific cutting-edge technologies can and should be used. Through the use of the Forensic, 3-D/CAD-supported Photogrammetric method the documentation of so-called "morphologic fingerprints" has been realized. Forensic, 3-D/CAD-supported Photogrammetry creates morphologic data models of the injury and of the suspected injury-causing instrument allowing the evaluation of a match between the injury and the instrument. In addition to the photogrammetric body surface registration, the radiological documentation provided by a volume scan (i.e., spiral, multi-detector CT, or MRI) registers the sub-surface injury, which is not visible to Photogrammetry. The new, combined method of merging Photogrammetry and Radiology data sets creates the potential to perform many kinds of reconstructions and postprocessing of (patterned) injuries in the realm of forensic medical case work. Using this merging method of colored photogrammetric surface and gray-scale radiological internal documentation, a great step towards a new kind of reality-based, high-tech wound documentation and visualization in forensic medicine is made. The combination of the methods of 3D/CAD Photogrammetry and Radiology has the advantage of being observer-independent, non-subjective, non-invasive, digitally storable over years or decades and even transferable over the web for second opinion.

  3. Increased Speed: 3D Silicon Sensors. Fast Current Amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Sherwood; Kok, Angela; Kenney, Christopher; Jarron, Pierre; Hasi, Jasmine; Despeisse, Matthieu; Da Via, Cinzia; Anelli, Giovanni; /CERN

    2012-05-07

    The authors describe techniques to make fast, sub-nanosecond time resolution solid-state detector systems using sensors with 3D electrodes, current amplifiers, constant-fraction comparators or fast wave-form recorders, and some of the next steps to reach still faster results.

  4. The New Approach to Sport Medicine: 3-D Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Alparslan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new approach to sport medicine. Comparative analysis of the Vertebrae Lumbales was done in sedentary group and Muay Thai athletes. It was done by acquiring three dimensional (3-D) data and models through photogrammetric methods from the Multi-detector Computerized Tomography (MDCT) images of the Vertebrae…

  5. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  6. Odyssey over Martian Sunrise, 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft passes above a portion of the planet that is rotating into the sunlight in this artist's concept illustration. This red-blue anaglyph artwork can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue (cyan) 3-D glasses.

    The spacecraft has been orbiting Mars since October 24, 2001.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Mars Odyssey mission for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research, which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  8. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  9. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  10. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  11. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  12. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  13. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  14. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  15. Detailed 3D representations for object recognition and modeling.

    PubMed

    Zia, M Zeeshan; Stark, Michael; Schiele, Bernt; Schindler, Konrad

    2013-11-01

    Geometric 3D reasoning at the level of objects has received renewed attention recently in the context of visual scene understanding. The level of geometric detail, however, is typically limited to qualitative representations or coarse boxes. This is linked to the fact that today's object class detectors are tuned toward robust 2D matching rather than accurate 3D geometry, encouraged by bounding-box-based benchmarks such as Pascal VOC. In this paper, we revisit ideas from the early days of computer vision, namely, detailed, 3D geometric object class representations for recognition. These representations can recover geometrically far more accurate object hypotheses than just bounding boxes, including continuous estimates of object pose and 3D wireframes with relative 3D positions of object parts. In combination with robust techniques for shape description and inference, we outperform state-of-the-art results in monocular 3D pose estimation. In a series of experiments, we analyze our approach in detail and demonstrate novel applications enabled by such an object class representation, such as fine-grained categorization of cars and bicycles, according to their 3D geometry, and ultrawide baseline matching.

  16. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  17. 3D Nanostructuring of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, Robert

    2000-03-01

    Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply 3D nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.

  18. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  19. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  20. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  1. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  2. Spatial distortion correction and crystal identification for MRI-compatible position-sensitive avalanche photodiode-based PET scanners

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Joshi, Anand A.; Wu, Yibao; Leahy, Richard M.; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2009-01-01

    Position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) are gaining widespread acceptance in modern PET scanner designs, and owing to their relative insensitivity to magnetic fields, especially in those that are MRI-compatible. Flood histograms in PET scanners are used to determine the crystal of annihilation photon interaction and hence, for detector characterization and routine quality control. For PET detectors that use PSAPDs, flood histograms show a characteristic pincushion distortion when Anger logic is used for event positioning. A small rotation in the flood histogram is also observed when the detectors are placed in a magnetic field. We first present a general purpose automatic method for spatial distortion correction for flood histograms of PSAPD-based PET detectors when placed both inside and outside a MRI scanner. Analytical formulae derived for this scheme are based on a hybrid approach that combines desirable properties from two existing event positioning schemes. The rotation of the flood histogram due to the magnetic field is determined iteratively and is accounted for in the scheme. We then provide implementation details of a method for crystal identification we have previously proposed and evaluate it for cases when the PET detectors are both outside and in a magnetic field. In this scheme, Fourier analysis is used to generate a lower-order spatial approximation of the distortion-corrected PSAPD flood histogram, which we call the ‘template’. The template is then registered to the flood histogram using a diffeomorphic iterative intensity-based warping scheme. The calculated deformation field is then applied to the segmentation of the template to obtain a segmentation of the flood histogram. A manual correction tool is also developed for exceptional cases. We present a quantitative assessment of the proposed distortion correction scheme and crystal identification method against conventional methods. Our results indicate that our proposed methods lead

  3. Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  4. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  5. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t∼30psec) and low energy (E∼200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P∼30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  6. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  7. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  8. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  10. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  13. Position sensitivity in large spectroscopic LaBr3:Ce crystals for Doppler broadening correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, N.; Giaz, A.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Million, B.; Riboldi, S.

    2016-12-01

    The position sensitivity of a large LaBr3:Ce crystal was investigated with the aim of correcting for the Doppler broadening in nuclear physics experiments. The crystal was cylindrical, 3 in×3 in (7.62 cm x 7.62 cm) and with diffusive surfaces as typically used in nuclear physics basic research to measure medium or high energy gamma rays (0.5 MeVPosition Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT). The signals from the 256 segments of the four PSPMTs were acquired grouping them into 16 elements. An event by event analysis was performed and a positon resolution of the order of 2 cm was found. It was verified that this allows an important reduction of the Doppler broadening induced by relativistic beams in Nuclear Physics experiments.

  14. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  15. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  16. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  17. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  18. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  19. Large distance 3D imaging of hidden objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon Akram, Avihai; Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Levanon, Assaf

    2014-06-01

    Imaging systems in millimeter waves are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is low compared to that of infrared and optical rays. The lack of an inexpensive room temperature detector makes it difficult to give a suitable real time implement for the above applications. A 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA of plasma based detectors) using heterodyne detection. The intensity at each pixel in the GDD FPA yields the usual 2D image. The value of the I-F frequency yields the range information at each pixel. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of inexpensive detectors. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  20. 3D imaging of neutron tracks using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Flowers, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Neutron detection and neutron flux assessment are important aspects in monitoring nuclear energy production. Neutron flux measurements can also provide information on potential biological damage from exposure. In addition to the applications for neutron measurement in nuclear energy, neutron detection has been proposed as a method of enhancing neutrino detectors and cosmic ray flux has also been assessed using ground-level neutron detectors. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (or SSNTDs) have been used extensively to examine cosmic rays, long-lived radioactive elements, radon concentrations in buildings and the age of geological samples. Passive SSNTDs consisting of a CR-39 plastic are commonly used to measure radon because they respond to incident charged particles such as alpha particles from radon gas in air. They have a large dynamic range and a linear flux response. We have previously applied confocal microscopy to obtain 3D images of alpha particle tracks in SSNTDs from radon track monitoring (1). As a charged particle traverses through the polymer it creates an ionisation trail along its path. The trail or track is normally enhanced by chemical etching to better expose radiation damage, as the damaged area is more sensitive to the etchant than the bulk material. Particle tracks in CR-39 are usually assessed using 2D optical microscopy. In this study 6 detectors were examined using an Olympus OLS4100 LEXT 3D laser scanning confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). The detectors had been etched for 2 hours 50 minutes at 85 °C in 6.25M NaOH. Post etch the plastics had been treated with a 10 minute immersion in a 2% acetic acid stop bath, followed by rinsing in deionised water. The detectors examined had been irradiated with a 2mSv neutron dose from an Am(Be) neutron source (producing roughly 20 tracks per mm2). We were able to successfully acquire 3D images of neutron tracks in the detectors studied. The range of track diameter observed was between 4

  1. Determination of (235)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, and (241)Am in a nuclear bomb particle using a position-sensitive α-γ coincidence technique.

    PubMed

    Peräjärvi, Kari A; Ihantola, Sakari; Pöllänen, Roy C; Toivonen, Harri I; Turunen, Jani A

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear bomb particle containing 1.6 ng of Pu was investigated nondestructively with a position-sensitive α detector and a broad-energy HPGe γ-ray detector. An event-mode data acquisition system was used to record the data. α-γ coincidence counting was shown to be well suited to nondestructive isotope ratio determination. Because of the very small background, the 51.6 keV γ rays of (239)Pu and the 45.2 keV γ rays of (240)Pu were identified, which enabled isotopic ratio calculations. In the present work, the (239)Pu/((239)Pu+(240)Pu) atom ratio was determined to be 0.950 ± 0.010. The uncertainties were much smaller than in the previous more conventional nondestructive studies on this particle. Obtained results are also in good agreement with the data from the destructive mass spectrometric studies obtained previously by other investigators.

  2. Use of high-granularity CdZnTe pixelated detectors to correct response non-uniformities caused by defects in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Eger, J.; Emerick, A.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C.; Soldner, S.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R. B.

    2015-09-06

    Following our successful demonstration of the position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, we investigated the feasibility of using high-granularity position sensing to correct response non-uniformities caused by the crystal defects in CdZnTe (CZT) pixelated detectors. The development of high-granularity detectors able to correct response non-uniformities on a scale comparable to the size of electron clouds opens the opportunity of using unselected off-the-shelf CZT material, whilst still assuring high spectral resolution for the majority of the detectors fabricated from an ingot. Here, we present the results from testing 3D position-sensitive 15×15×10 mm3 pixelated detectors, fabricated with conventional pixel patterns with progressively smaller pixel sizes: 1.4, 0.8, and 0.5 mm. We employed the readout system based on the H3D front-end multi-channel ASIC developed by BNL's Instrumentation Division in collaboration with the University of Michigan. We use the sharing of electron clouds among several adjacent pixels to measure locations of interaction points with sub-pixel resolution. By using the detectors with small-pixel sizes and a high probability of the charge-sharing events, we were able to improve their spectral resolutions in comparison to the baseline levels, measured for the 1.4-mm pixel size detectors with small fractions of charge-sharing events. These results demonstrate that further enhancement of the performance of CZT pixelated detectors and reduction of costs are possible by using high spatial-resolution position information of interaction points to correct the small-scale response non-uniformities caused by crystal defects present in most devices.

  3. Use of high-granularity CdZnTe pixelated detectors to correct response non-uniformities caused by defects in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Eger, J.; Emerick, A.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C.; Soldner, S.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Following our successful demonstration of the position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, we investigated the feasibility of using high-granularity position sensing to correct response non-uniformities caused by the crystal defects in CdZnTe (CZT) pixelated detectors. The development of high-granularity detectors able to correct response non-uniformities on a scale comparable to the size of electron clouds opens the opportunity of using unselected off-the-shelf CZT material, whilst still assuring high spectral resolution for the majority of the detectors fabricated from an ingot. Here, we present the results from testing 3D position-sensitive 15×15×10 mm3 pixelated detectors, fabricated with conventional pixel patterns with progressively smaller pixel sizes: 1.4, 0.8, and 0.5 mm. We employed the readout system based on the H3D front-end multi-channel ASIC developed by BNL's Instrumentation Division in collaboration with the University of Michigan. We use the sharing of electron clouds among several adjacent pixels to measure locations of interaction points with sub-pixel resolution. By using the detectors with small-pixel sizes and a high probability of the charge-sharing events, we were able to improve their spectral resolutions in comparison to the baseline levels, measured for the 1.4-mm pixel size detectors with small fractions of charge-sharing events. These results demonstrate that further enhancement of the performance of CZT pixelated detectors and reduction of costs are possible by using high spatial-resolution position information of interaction points to correct the small-scale response non-uniformities caused by crystal defects present in most devices.

  4. Use of high-granularity CdZnTe pixelated detectors to correct response non-uniformities caused by defects in crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; ...

    2015-09-06

    Following our successful demonstration of the position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, we investigated the feasibility of using high-granularity position sensing to correct response non-uniformities caused by the crystal defects in CdZnTe (CZT) pixelated detectors. The development of high-granularity detectors able to correct response non-uniformities on a scale comparable to the size of electron clouds opens the opportunity of using unselected off-the-shelf CZT material, whilst still assuring high spectral resolution for the majority of the detectors fabricated from an ingot. Here, we present the results from testing 3D position-sensitive 15×15×10 mm3 pixelated detectors, fabricated with conventional pixel patterns with progressively smaller pixelmore » sizes: 1.4, 0.8, and 0.5 mm. We employed the readout system based on the H3D front-end multi-channel ASIC developed by BNL's Instrumentation Division in collaboration with the University of Michigan. We use the sharing of electron clouds among several adjacent pixels to measure locations of interaction points with sub-pixel resolution. By using the detectors with small-pixel sizes and a high probability of the charge-sharing events, we were able to improve their spectral resolutions in comparison to the baseline levels, measured for the 1.4-mm pixel size detectors with small fractions of charge-sharing events. These results demonstrate that further enhancement of the performance of CZT pixelated detectors and reduction of costs are possible by using high spatial-resolution position information of interaction points to correct the small-scale response non-uniformities caused by crystal defects present in most devices.« less

  5. Testbeam and laboratory characterization of CMS 3D pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, M.; Bortoletto, D.; Alagoz, E.; Krzywda, A.; Arndt, K.; Shipsey, I.; Bolla, G.; Hinton, N.; Kok, A.; Hansen, T.-E.; Summanwar, A.; Brom, J. M.; Boscardin, M.; Chramowicz, J.; Cumalat, J.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Dinardo, M.; Godshalk, A.; Jones, M.; Krohn, M. D.; Kumar, A.; Lei, C. M.; Mendicino, R.; Moroni, L.; Perera, L.; Povoli, M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Solano, A.; Obertino, M. M.; Kwan, S.; Uplegger, L.; Vigani, L.; Wagner, S.

    2014-07-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements of CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations from different vendors. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties of silicon sensors, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.

  6. Development of a computer controlled 3-d braiding machine

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Jianhua; Li Jialu

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with development of a large size, multiuse, controlled 3-D cartesian grid braiding machine, its function and application. The 180 column and 120 tracks, the flexible and low power consuming driving system, the error detector systems and the computer controlling system are the major parts of the machine. The machine can produce wide variety of size. shape and pattern of fabrics and can also produce several fabrics at a time.

  7. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  8. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  9. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  10. Testbeam and laboratory characterization of 3D CMS pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, Mayur; Krzwyda, Alex; Alagoz, Enver; Bortoletto, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Future generations of colliders, like High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will deliver much higher radiation doses to the particle detectors, specifically those closer to the beam line. Inner tracker detectors will be the most affected part, causing increased occupancy and radiation damage to Silicon detectors. Planar Silicon sensors have not shown enough radiation hardness for the innermost layers where the radiation doses can reach values around 10^16 neq/cm^2. As a possible replacement of planar pixel sensors, 3D Silicon technology is under consideration as they show higher radiation hardness, and efficiencies comparable to planar sensors. Several 3D CMS pixel designs were fabricated at FBK, CNM, and SINTEF. They were bump bonded to the CMS pixel readout chip and characterized in the laboratory using radioactive source (Sr90), and at Fermilab MTEST beam test facility. Sensors were also irradiated with 800 MeV protons at Los Alamos National Lab to study post-irradiation behavior. In addition, several diodes and test structures from FBK were studied before and after irradiation. We report the laboratory and testbeam measurement results for the irradiated 3D devices.

  11. A high resolution animal PET scanner using compact PS-PMT detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, M.; Okada, H.; Shimizu, K.; Omura, T.

    1996-12-31

    A new high resolution PET scanner dedicated to animal studies has been designed, built and tested. The system utilizes 240 block detectors, each of which consists of a new compact position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PS-PMT) and an 8 x 4 BGO array. A total number of 7,680 crystals (480 per ring) are positioned to form a 508 mm diameter of 16 detector rings with 7.2 mm pitch and 114 mm axial field of view (FOV). The system is designed to perform activation studies using a monkey in a sitting position. The data can be acquired in either 2D or 3D mode, where the slice collimators are retracted in 3D mode. The transaxial resolution is 2.6 mm FWHM at the center of the FOV, and the average axial resolution on the axis of the ring is 3.3 mm FWHM in the direct slice and 3.2 mm FWHM in the cross slice. The scatter fraction, sensitivity and count rate performance were evaluated for a 10 cm diameter cylindrical phantom. The total system sensitivity is 2.3 kcps/kBq/ml in 2D mode and 22.8 kcps/kBq/ml in 3D mode. The noise equivalent count rate with 3D mode is equivalent to that with 2D mode at five times higher radioactivity level. The applicable imaging capabilities of the scanner was demonstrated by animal studies with a monkey.

  12. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  13. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  14. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  15. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  16. Imaging the behavior of molecules in biological systems: breaking the 3D speed barrier with 3D multi-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Welsher, Kevin; Yang, Haw

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming effort in the development of new microscopy methods has been focused on increasing the spatial and temporal resolution in all three dimensions to enable the measurement of the molecular scale phenomena at the heart of biological processes. However, there exists a significant speed barrier to existing 3D imaging methods, which is associated with the overhead required to image large volumes. This overhead can be overcome to provide nearly unlimited temporal precision by simply focusing on a single molecule or particle via real-time 3D single-particle tracking and the newly developed 3D Multi-resolution Microscopy (3D-MM). Here, we investigate the optical and mechanical limits of real-time 3D single-particle tracking in the context of other methods. In particular, we investigate the use of an optical cantilever for position sensitive detection, finding that this method yields system magnifications of over 3000×. We also investigate the ideal PID control parameters and their effect on the power spectrum of simulated trajectories. Taken together, these data suggest that the speed limit in real-time 3D single particle-tracking is a result of slow piezoelectric stage response as opposed to optical sensitivity or PID control.

  17. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  18. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  19. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  20. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  1. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  2. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  3. Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  4. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  5. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  6. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  7. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  8. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  9. Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons with an imaging camera and its implications to spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wanchun; Broussard, L. J.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Makela, M.; Morris, C. L.; Tang, Z.; Adamek, E. R.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Ding, X.; Geltenbort, P.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Ito, T. M.; Leung, K. K.; Liu, C.-Y.; Morley, D. J.; Ortiz, Jose D.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J. C.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S. J.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Zeck, B. A.; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-09-01

    Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) is demonstrated using an imaging charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A spatial resolution less than 15 μm has been achieved, which is equivalent to a UCN energy resolution below 2 pico-electron-volts through the relation δE =m0 gδx. Here, the symbols δE, δx, m0 and g are the energy resolution, the spatial resolution, the neutron rest mass and the gravitational acceleration, respectively. A multilayer surface convertor described previously is used to capture UCNs and then emits visible light for CCD imaging. Particle identification and noise rejection are discussed through the use of light intensity profile analysis. This method allows different types of UCN spectroscopy and other applications.

  10. Continuous lateral gradients in film morphology for position sensitive detection and organic solar cell optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campoy-Quiles, M.; Randon, V.; Mróz, M. M.; Jarzaguet, M.; Garriga, M.; Cabanillas-González, J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method to fabricate binary organic donor and acceptor blends exhibiting a controlled lateral gradient in morphology. Upon combining photometry, ellipsometry and Xray maps together with photoinduced absorption measurements, we show how the gradual exposure to solvent vapor results in a varying degree of polymer crystallinity for the polythiophene/soluble fullerene system along one direction. These morphologically graded samples are characterized by a spectral photoresponse that depends on the specific location in the area of the device where the light beam impinges, a property that stands as proof-of-concept for position sensitive detection. Moreover, we demonstrate that the development of graded morphologies is an effective one-step method which allows for fast performance optimization of organic solar cells. Finally, the appropriateness of eight different solvents for morphology control via vapor annealing is evaluated in a time-effective way using the advanced method, which helps to identify boiling point and solubility as the key processing parameters.

  11. Development of an optical lens based alpha-particle imaging system using position sensitive photomultiplier tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Koki; Oka, Miki; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2017-02-01

    We developed an optical lens based alpha-particle imaging system using position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The alpha-particle imaging system consists of an optical lens, an extension tube and a 1 in. square high quantum efficiency (HQE) type PSPMT. After a ZnS(Ag) is attached to subject, the scintillation image of ZnS(Ag) is focused on the photocathode of the PSPMT by the use of the optical lens. With this configuration we could image the alpha particle distribution with energy information without contacting to the subject. The spatial resolution and energy resolution were 0.8 mm FWHM and 50% FWHM at 5 mm from the optical lens, respectively. We could successfully image the alpha particle distribution in uranium ore. The developed alpha-particle imaging system will be a new tool for imaging alpha emitters with energy information without contacting the subject.

  12. Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons with an imaging camera and its implications to spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wanchun; Broussard, Leah J.; Hoffbauer, Mark Arles; Makela, Mark F.; Morris, Christopher L.; Tang, Zhaowen; Adamek, Evan Robert; Callahan, Nathen Brannan; Clayton, Steven M.; Cude-Woods, Chris B.; Currie, Scott Allister; Dees, E. B.; Ding, Xinjian; Geltenbort, Peter W.; Hickerson, Kevin Peter; Holley, Adam Tarte; Ito, Takeyasu M.; Leung, Kent Kwan Ho; Liu, Chen -Yu; Morley, Deborah Jean; Ortiz, Jose D.; Pattie, Jr., Robert Wayne; Ramsey, John Clinton; Saunders, Alexander; Seestrom, Susan Joyce; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, Sky K.; Wexler, Jonathan William; Womack, Todd Lane; Young, Albert Raymond; Zeck, Bryan Alexander; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-05-16

    Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) is demonstrated using an imaging charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A spatial resolution less than 15μm has been achieved, which is equivalent to a UCN energy resolution below 2 pico-electron-volts through the relation δE=m0gδx. Here, the symbols δE, δx, m0 and g are the energy resolution, the spatial resolution, the neutron rest mass and the gravitational acceleration, respectively. A multilayer surface convertor described previously is used to capture UCNs and then emits visible light for CCD imaging. Particle identification and noise rejection are discussed through the use of light intensity profile analysis. As a result, this method allows different types of UCN spectroscopy and other applications.

  13. Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons with an imaging camera and its implications to spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Wanchun; Broussard, Leah J.; Hoffbauer, Mark Arles; ...

    2016-05-16

    Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) is demonstrated using an imaging charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A spatial resolution less than 15μm has been achieved, which is equivalent to a UCN energy resolution below 2 pico-electron-volts through the relation δE=m0gδx. Here, the symbols δE, δx, m0 and g are the energy resolution, the spatial resolution, the neutron rest mass and the gravitational acceleration, respectively. A multilayer surface convertor described previously is used to capture UCNs and then emits visible light for CCD imaging. Particle identification and noise rejection are discussed through the use of light intensity profile analysis. As a result,more » this method allows different types of UCN spectroscopy and other applications.« less

  14. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  15. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  16. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Stratasys 3D printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D

  17. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  18. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    3- D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems (Invited Paper) Ted Huffmire∗, Timothy Levin∗, Cynthia Irvine∗, Ryan Kastner† and Timothy Sherwood...address these problems, we propose an approach to trustworthy system development based on 3- D integration, an emerging chip fabrication technique in...which two or more integrated circuit dies are fabricated individually and then combined into a single stack using vertical conductive posts. With 3- D

  19. Hardware Trust Implications of 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a 3-D control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores 3- D applications and their

  20. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  1. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  2. High accuracy gaseous x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.C.

    1983-11-01

    An outline is given of the design and operation of high accuracy position-sensitive x-ray detectors suitable for experiments using synchrotron radiation. They are based on the gas proportional detector, with position readout using a delay line; a detailed examination is made of factors which limit spatial resolution. Individual wire readout may be used for extremely high counting rates.

  3. Extra dimensions: 3d and time in pdf documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2008-07-01

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  4. Characterizing Properties and Performance of 3D Printed Plastic Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Jacob

    2015-10-01

    We are determining various characteristics of the performance of 3D printed scintillators. A scintillator luminesces when an energetic particle raises electrons to an excited state by depositing some of its energy in the atom. When these excited electrons fall back down to their stable states, they emit the excess energy as light. We have characterized the transmission spectrum, emission spectrum, and relative intensity of light produced by 3D printed scintillators. We are also determining mechanical properties such as tensile strength and compressibility, and the refractive index. The emission and transmission spectra were measured using a monochromator. By observing the transmission spectrum, we can see which optical wavelengths are absorbed by the scintillator. This is then used to correct the emission spectrum, since this absorption is present in the emission spectrum. Using photomultiplier tubes in conjunction with integration hardware (QDC) to measure the intensity of light emitted by 3D printed scintillators, we compare with commercial plastic scintillators. We are using the characterizations to determine if 3D printed scintillators are a viable alternative to commercial scintillators for use at Jefferson Lab in nuclear and accelerated physics detectors. I would like to thank Wouter Deconinck, as well as the Parity group at the College of William and Mary for all advice and assistance with my research.

  5. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  6. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  7. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  8. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  9. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  10. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  11. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  12. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  13. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  14. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  15. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  16. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  17. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  18. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  19. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  20. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  1. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  2. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  3. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  4. SU-C-201-03: Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging Using Pixelated Semiconductor Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, S; Kaye, W; Jaworski, J; He, Z

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Improved localization of gamma-ray emissions from radiotracers is essential to the progress of nuclear medicine. Polaris is a portable, room-temperature operated gamma-ray imaging spectrometer composed of two 3×3 arrays of thick CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, which detect gammas between 30keV and 3MeV with energy resolution of <1% FWHM at 662keV. Compton imaging is used to map out source distributions in 4-pi space; however, is only effective above 300keV where Compton scatter is dominant. This work extends imaging to photoelectric energies (<300keV) using coded aperture imaging (CAI), which is essential for localization of Tc-99m (140keV). Methods: CAI, similar to the pinhole camera, relies on an attenuating mask, with open/closed elements, placed between the source and position-sensitive detectors. Partial attenuation of the source results in a “shadow” or count distribution that closely matches a portion of the mask pattern. Ideally, each source direction corresponds to a unique count distribution. Using backprojection reconstruction, the source direction is determined within the field of view. The knowledge of 3D position of interaction results in improved image quality. Results: Using a single array of detectors, a coded aperture mask, and multiple Co-57 (122keV) point sources, image reconstruction is performed in real-time, on an event-by-event basis, resulting in images with an angular resolution of ∼6 degrees. Although material nonuniformities contribute to image degradation, the superposition of images from individual detectors results in improved SNR. CAI was integrated with Compton imaging for a seamless transition between energy regimes. Conclusion: For the first time, CAI has been applied to thick, 3D position sensitive CZT detectors. Real-time, combined CAI and Compton imaging is performed using two 3×3 detector arrays, resulting in a source distribution in space. This system has been commercialized by H3D, Inc. and is being acquired for

  5. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  6. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  7. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  8. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  9. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  10. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  11. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  12. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  13. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  14. Results on 3D interconnection from AIDA WP3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Hans-Günther

    2016-09-01

    From 2010 to 2014 the EU funded AIDA project established in one of its work packages (WP3) a network of groups working collaboratively on advanced 3D integration of electronic circuits and semiconductor sensors for applications in particle physics. The main motivation came from the severe requirements on pixel detectors for tracking and vertexing at future Particle Physics experiments at LHC, super-B factories and linear colliders. To go beyond the state-of-the-art, the main issues were studying low mass, high bandwidth applications, with radiation hardness capabilities, with low power consumption, offering complex functionality, with small pixel size and without dead regions. The interfaces and interconnects of sensors to electronic readout integrated circuits are a key challenge for new detector applications.

  15. Position-sensitive proportional counter with low-resistance metal-wire anode

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit is provided which allows the use of a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) proportional counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode of the counter. A pair of specially designed active-capacitance preamplifiers are used to terminate the anode ends wherein the anode is treated as an RC line. The preamplifiers act as stabilized active capacitance loads and each is composed of a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier, a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction and handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10.sup.6 counts/sec).

  16. ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter spectra of six Seyfert 1 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; George, I. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results from ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter observations of six Seyfert 1 galaxies in the soft (0.1-2.0 keV) X-ray band. The sources (Mrk 335, ESO 198-G24, ESO 141-G55, Mrk 509, NGC 7469, and MCG-2-58-22) were chosen to have low absorbing column densities along the line of sight. As expected, it is found that all the sources possess significantly steeper spectra below about 1 keV than observed at higher X-ray energies. Assuming a simple absorbed power-law spectral model, the mean (photon) spectral index for the sample is Gamma = 2.38 +/- 0.25, compared to the canonical 1.7 typically observed in the 2-10 keV band. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for soft X-ray spectral features in half the sources. In NGC 7469 and ESO 198-G24, we find that the addition of a narrow emission line or an absorption edge to the underlying continuum is a significant improvement to the parameterization of the spectra. Mrk 335 also shows evidence for spectral complexity, but from these data it is not possible to unambiguously distinguish between an absorption edge and a steepening of the spectrum at low energies. We examine these results in the light of the accuracy of the PSPC spectral calibration.

  17. Position-sensitive change in the transition metal L-edge fine structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gulec, Ahmet; Phillips, Patrick J.; Klie, Robert F.

    2015-10-05

    Studying the structure and composition of solid-state materials on the atomic scale has become nearly routine in transmission electron microscopy with the development of novel electron optics and electron sources. In particular, with spatial resolutions better than 0.1 nm and energy resolution smaller than 100 meV, the stoichiometry, bonding, and coordination can now be examined on similar scales. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) have played a crucial role in identifying charge ordering, valence, and as spin state transitions in transition metal perovskite oxides. In this letter, we investigate the effects of ever-decreasing electron-probe sizes on the measured near-edge fine-structure of the transition metal core-loss edge using EELS. We find that for certain transition metal perovskites, the position of the electron probe with respect to the atomic column is crucial in determining the correct valence state. Several reasons for the observed position-sensitive EELS fine-structure are discussed.

  18. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  19. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  20. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  1. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  2. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  3. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  4. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  5. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  6. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  7. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  8. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  9. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  15. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  16. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  17. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  18. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  19. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  20. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  1. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  2. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  3. Quantifying modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  4. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

  5. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  6. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  7. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  8. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  9. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  10. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  11. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  12. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  13. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  14. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  15. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  16. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  17. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  18. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  19. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  20. The Silicon Pixel Detector for ALICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, D.; Bombonati, C.; Dima, R.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pepato, A.; Bohus, L. Sajo; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.; Shen, D.; Turrisi, R.; Viesti, G.; Anelli, G.; Boccardi, A.; Burns, M.; Campbell, M.; Ceresa, S.; Conrad, J.; Kluge, A.; Kral, M.

    2007-10-26

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment is made of position sensitive detectors which have to operate in a region where the track density may be as high as 50 tracks/cm{sup 2}. To handle such densities detectors with high precision and granularity are mandatory. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD), the innermost part of the ITS, has been designed to provide tracking information close to primary interaction point. The assembly of the entire SPD has been completed.

  1. 3D liver surgery simulation: computer-assisted surgical planning with 3D simulation software and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-03-27

    To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for 3D visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining 3D computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, that enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow 3D-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.

  2. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    technique generates 3D microstructures by controlled out-of- plane folding of 2D patterns through a variety of laser-based digital fabrication...processes. Digital microfabrication techniques such as laser direct-write (LDW) offer a viable alternative for generating 3D self-folding designs. These...folding at the microscale where manual or mechanized actuation of the smaller struc- tures is not practical. LDW techniques allow micromachining and

  3. Spatioangular Prefiltering for Multiview 3D Displays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Hirakawa, Keigo; Zwicker, Matthias; Nguyen, Truong

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the reproduction of light fields on multiview 3D displays. A three-way interaction between the input light field signal (which is often aliased), the joint spatioangular sampling grids of multiview 3D displays, and the interview light leakage in modern multiview 3D displays is characterized in the joint spatioangular frequency domain. Reconstruction of light fields by all physical 3D displays is prone to light leakage, which means that the reconstruction low-pass filter implemented by the display is too broad in the angular domain. As a result, 3D displays excessively attenuate angular frequencies. Our analysis shows that this reduces sharpness of the images shown in the 3D displays. In this paper, stereoscopic image recovery is recast as a problem of joint spatioangular signal reconstruction. The combination of the 3D display point spread function and human visual system provides the narrow-band low-pass filter which removes spectral replicas in the reconstructed light field on the multiview display. The nonideality of this filter is corrected with the proposed prefiltering. The proposed light field reconstruction method performs light field antialiasing as well as angular sharpening to compensate for the nonideal response of the 3D display. The union of cosets approach which has been used earlier by others is employed here to model the nonrectangular spatioangular sampling grids on a multiview display in a generic fashion. We confirm the effectiveness of our approach in simulation and in physical hardware, and demonstrate improvement over existing techniques.

  4. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Munoz Diaz, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care. PMID:25897501

  5. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Ojha, A.; Garg, A. D.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Senecha, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  6. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  7. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  8. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  9. 3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

    2014-10-28

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.

  10. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  11. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  12. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  13. Accurate 3D quantification of the bronchial parameters in MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saragaglia, A.; Fetita, C.; Preteux, F.; Brillet, P. Y.; Grenier, P. A.

    2005-08-01

    The assessment of bronchial reactivity and wall remodeling in asthma plays a crucial role in better understanding such a disease and evaluating therapeutic responses. Today, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) makes it possible to perform an accurate estimation of bronchial parameters (lumen and wall areas) by allowing a quantitative analysis in a cross-section plane orthogonal to the bronchus axis. This paper provides the tools for such an analysis by developing a 3D investigation method which relies on 3D reconstruction of bronchial lumen and central axis computation. Cross-section images at bronchial locations interactively selected along the central axis are generated at appropriate spatial resolution. An automated approach is then developed for accurately segmenting the inner and outer bronchi contours on the cross-section images. It combines mathematical morphology operators, such as "connection cost", and energy-controlled propagation in order to overcome the difficulties raised by vessel adjacencies and wall irregularities. The segmentation accuracy was validated with respect to a 3D mathematically-modeled phantom of a pair bronchus-vessel which mimics the characteristics of real data in terms of gray-level distribution, caliber and orientation. When applying the developed quantification approach to such a model with calibers ranging from 3 to 10 mm diameter, the lumen area relative errors varied from 3.7% to 0.15%, while the bronchus area was estimated with a relative error less than 5.1%.

  14. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education. PMID:28367477

  15. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  16. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    PubMed

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching.

  17. YieldStar based reticle 3D measurements and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaenkatesan, Vidya; Finders, Jo; ten Berge, Peter; Plug, Reinder; Sijben, Anko; Schellekens, Twan; Dillen, Harm; Pocobiej, Wojciech; Jorge, Vasco G.; van Dijck, Jurgen

    2016-09-01

    YieldStar (YS) is an established ASML-built scatterometer that is capable of measuring wafer Critical Dimension (CD), Overlay and Focus. In a recent work, the application range of YS was extended to measure 3D CD patterns on a reticle (pattern CD, height, Side Wall Angle-SWA). The primary motivation for this study came from imaging studies that indicated a need for measuring and controlling reticle 3D topography. CD scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM), 3D multiple detector SEM (3D-SEM) are the preferred tools for reticle metrology. While these tools serve the industry well, the current research to the impact of reticle 3D involves extensive costs, logistic challenges and increased reticle lead time. YS provides an attractive alternative as it can measure pattern CD, SWA and height in a single measurement and at high throughput. This work demonstrates the capability of YS as a reticle metrology tool.

  18. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  19. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  20. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  1. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  2. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  3. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  4. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  5. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  6. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  7. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  8. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  9. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  10. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  11. New mechanism that accounts for position sensitivity of saccades evoked in response to stimulation of superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Moschovakis, A K; Dalezios, Y; Petit, J; Grantyn, A A

    1998-12-01

    New mechanism that accounts for position sensitivity of saccades evoked in response to stimulation of superior colliculus. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 3373-3379, 1998. Electrical stimulation of the feline superior colliculus (SC) is known to evoke saccades whose size depends on the site stimulated (the "characteristic vector" of evoked saccades) and the initial position of the eyes. Similar stimuli were recently shown to produce slow drifts that are presumably caused by relatively direct projections of the SC onto extraocular motoneurons. Both slow and fast evoked eye movements are similarly affected by the initial position of the eyes, despite their dissimilar metrics, kinematics, and anatomic substrates. We tested the hypothesis that the position sensitivity of evoked saccades is due to the superposition of largely position-invariant saccades and position-dependent slow drifts. We show that such a mechanism can account for the fact that the position sensitivity of evoked saccades increases together with the size of their characteristic vector. Consistent with it, the position sensitivity of saccades drops considerably when the contribution of slow drifts is minimal as, for example, when there is no overlap between evoked saccades and short-duration trains of high-frequency stimuli.

  12. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  13. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  14. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced.

  15. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  16. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  17. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.

  18. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  19. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  20. Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

  1. Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-06-01

    3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30-50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms.

  2. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  3. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  4. Recent EFIT Developments and 3D Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Chu, M. S.; St. John, H. E.; Strait, E. J.; Montgomery, A. L.; Perkins, F. W.

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments of the equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT and its 3D extension to model toroidally asymmetric effects due to error and externally applied perturbation magnetic fields are presented. These include a new more complete uncertainty matrix for magnetic diagnostics based on detailed knowledge about their fabrication, installation, calibration, and operation. A new algorithm to efficiently compute high bootstrap-fraction equilibria that explicitly separates out the Pfirsch-Schluter and bootstrap contributions to the poloidal current stream function is also being developed. Other on-going and planned developments include a new computational structure based on Fortran 90/95 with a unified interface that can conveniently accommodate different tokamak devices and grid sizes, as well as a computational link that allows easy integration with transport and stability physics modules for integrated modeling. EFIT reconstruction capability is also being extended to 3D based on perturbation solutions to the 3D Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation.

  5. 3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L

    2012-11-05

    We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors.

  6. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  7. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  8. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  9. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  10. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  11. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  12. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  13. Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Mark R.; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts—spatially close chromosomal loci—which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically—the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a

  14. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  15. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  16. [Delirium, depression, dementia: solving the 3D's].

    PubMed

    Schuerch, M; Farag, L; Deom, S

    2012-01-01

    As there is no consensus in the specialized literature, it is often difficult to recognize the ties existing between dementia, delirium and depression. Depression preceding dementia is well-documented. Depressive symptoms during the process of dementia are less well-known. So are the close relationships between dementia and delirium as well as between delirium and depression. The commonality of symptoms between the three often causes diagnostic dilemmas. Unfortunately, elderly patients can often present two, or even three, of the "3 D's" simultaneously. Untangling the 3 D's has been the subject of several articles. We propose a synthesis as well as our thoughts on the subject from a clinical psychogeriatric standpoint.

  17. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  18. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology.

  19. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  20. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  1. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  2. Scalable 3D GIS environment managed by 3D-XML-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Beiqi; Rui, Jianxun; Chen, Neng

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, the namely 3D GIS technologies become a key factor in establishing and maintaining large-scale 3D geoinformation services. However, with the rapidly increasing size and complexity of the 3D models being acquired, a pressing needed for suitable data management solutions has become apparent. This paper outlines that storage and exchange of geospatial data between databases and different front ends like 3D models, GIS or internet browsers require a standardized format which is capable to represent instances of 3D GIS models, to minimize loss of information during data transfer and to reduce interface development efforts. After a review of previous methods for spatial 3D data management, a universal lightweight XML-based format for quick and easy sharing of 3D GIS data is presented. 3D data management based on XML is a solution meeting the requirements as stated, which can provide an efficient means for opening a new standard way to create an arbitrary data structure and share it over the Internet. To manage reality-based 3D models, this paper uses 3DXML produced by Dassault Systemes. 3DXML uses opening XML schemas to communicate product geometry, structure and graphical display properties. It can be read, written and enriched by standard tools; and allows users to add extensions based on their own specific requirements. The paper concludes with the presentation of projects from application areas which will benefit from the functionality presented above.

  3. MRS3D: 3D Spherical Wavelet Transform on the Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2011-12-01

    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. We present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We tested the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, applied a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and found we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. The new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, called MRS3D, is ideally suited to analysing and denoising future 3D spherical cosmological surveys; it uses a novel discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform. MRS3D is based on two packages, IDL and Healpix and can be used only if these two packages have been installed.

  4. Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

  5. Massively parallel implementation of 3D-RISM calculation with volumetric 3D-FFT.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Norio; Tadano, Hiroto; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Hirata, Fumio

    2014-07-05

    A new three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) program for massively parallel machines combined with the volumetric 3D fast Fourier transform (3D-FFT) was developed, and tested on the RIKEN K supercomputer. The ordinary parallel 3D-RISM program has a limitation on the number of parallelizations because of the limitations of the slab-type 3D-FFT. The volumetric 3D-FFT relieves this limitation drastically. We tested the 3D-RISM calculation on the large and fine calculation cell (2048(3) grid points) on 16,384 nodes, each having eight CPU cores. The new 3D-RISM program achieved excellent scalability to the parallelization, running on the RIKEN K supercomputer. As a benchmark application, we employed the program, combined with molecular dynamics simulation, to analyze the oligomerization process of chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 mutant. The results demonstrate that the massive parallel 3D-RISM program is effective to analyze the hydration properties of the large biomolecular systems.

  6. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  7. PB3D: A new code for edge 3-D ideal linear peeling-ballooning stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyens, T.; Sánchez, R.; Huijsmans, G.; Loarte, A.; García, L.

    2017-02-01

    A new numerical code PB3D (Peeling-Ballooning in 3-D) is presented. It implements and solves the intermediate-to-high-n ideal linear magnetohydrodynamic stability theory extended to full edge 3-D magnetic toroidal configurations in previous work [1]. The features that make PB3D unique are the assumptions on the perturbation structure through intermediate-to-high mode numbers n in general 3-D configurations, while allowing for displacement of the plasma edge. This makes PB3D capable of very efficient calculations of the full 3-D stability for the output of multiple equilibrium codes. As first verification, it is checked that results from the stability code MISHKA [2], which considers axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, are accurately reproduced, and these are then successfully extended to 3-D configurations, through comparison with COBRA [3], as well as using checks on physical consistency. The non-intuitive 3-D results presented serve as a tentative first proof of the capabilities of the code.

  8. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  9. ANTS2 package: simulation and experimental data processing for Anger camera type detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Solovov, V.; Martins, R.; Neves, F.; Domingos, V.; Chepel, V.

    2016-04-01

    ANTS2 is a simulation and data processing package developed for position sensitive detectors with Anger camera type readout. The simulation module of ANTS2 is based on ROOT package from CERN, which is used to store the detector geometry and to perform 3D navigation. The module is capable of simulating particle sources, performing particle tracking, generating photons of primary and secondary scintillation, tracing optical photons and generating photosensor signals. The reconstruction module features several position reconstruction methods based on the statistical reconstruction algorithms (including GPU-based implementations), artificial neural networks and k-NN searches. The module can process simulated as well as imported experimental data containing photosensor signals. A custom library for B-spline parameterization of spatial response of photosensors is implemented which can be used to calculate and parameterize the spatial response of a detector. The package includes a graphical user interface with an extensive set of configuration, visualization and analysis tools. ANTS2 is being developed with the focus on the iterative (adaptive) reconstruction of the detector response using flood field irradiation data. The package is implemented in C++ programming language and it is a multiplatform, open source project.

  10. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  11. 3D printed microfluidics for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chee Meng Benjamin; Ng, Sum Huan; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The term "Lab-on-a-Chip," is synonymous with describing microfluidic devices with biomedical applications. Even though microfluidics have been developing rapidly over the past decade, the uptake rate in biological research has been slow. This could be due to the tedious process of fabricating a chip and the absence of a "killer application" that would outperform existing traditional methods. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) printing has been drawing much interest from the research community. It has the ability to make complex structures with high resolution. Moreover, the fast building time and ease of learning has simplified the fabrication process of microfluidic devices to a single step. This could possibly aid the field of microfluidics in finding its "killer application" that will lead to its acceptance by researchers, especially in the biomedical field. In this paper, a review is carried out of how 3D printing helps to improve the fabrication of microfluidic devices, the 3D printing technologies currently used for fabrication and the future of 3D printing in the field of microfluidics.

  12. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  13. 3D Printed Terahertz Focusing Grating Couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, David; Weidenbach, Marcel; Lehr, Jannik; Becker, Leonard; Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Busch, Stefan F.; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We have designed, constructed and characterized a grating that focuses electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies out of a dielectric waveguide. A simple theoretical model predicts the focusing behaviour of these chirped gratings, along with numerical results that support our assumptions and improved the grating geometry. The leaky waveguide was 3D printed and characterized at 120 GHz demonstrating its potential for manipulating terahertz waves.

  14. A Cray T3D performance study

    SciTech Connect

    Nallana, A.; Kincaid, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    We carry out a performance study using the Cray T3D parallel supercomputer to illustrate some important features of this machine. Timing experiments show the speed of various basic operations while more complicated operations give some measure of its parallel performance.

  15. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  16. NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a ra...

  17. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  18. Accuracy of 3-D reconstruction with occlusions.

    PubMed

    Begon, Mickaël; Lacouture, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    A marker has to be seen by at least two cameras for its three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction, and the accuracy can be improved with more cameras. However, a change in the set of cameras used in the reconstruction can alter the kinematics. The purpose of this study was to quantify the harmful effect of occlusions on two-dimensional (2-D) images and to make recommendations about the signal processing. A reference kinematics data set was collected for a three degree-of-freedom linkage with three cameras of a commercial motion analysis system without any occlusion on the 2-D images. In the 2-D images, some occlusions were artificially created based on trials of real cyclic motions. An interpolation of 2-D trajectories before the 3-D reconstruction and two filters (Savitsky-Golay and Butterworth filters) after reconstruction were successively applied to minimize the effect of the 2-D occlusions. The filter parameters were optimized by minimizing the root mean square error between the reference and the filtered data. The optimal parameters of the filters were marker dependent, whereas no filter was necessary after a 2-D interpolation. As the occlusions cause systematic error in the 3-D reconstruction, the interpolation of the 2-D trajectories is more appropriate than filtering the 3-D trajectories.

  19. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  20. 3-D Teaching Models for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…