Science.gov

Sample records for 3d printing process

  1. Remote Collaborative 3D Printing - Process Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    copies of the drawing and deleting the unwanted elements from each. The pier was divided into three sections to enable printing of the facility at a...resolution of our printers. The pier deck was stripped down to a near-flat surface by cycling through all drawing layers and removing all extraneous...for commissioning a part via a traditional manufacturing process. Typically, a material is specified, and a drawing with appropriate dimensions and

  2. Fundamental characterization of soft matter 3D printing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migler, Kalman; Seppala, Jonathan; Davis, Chelsea; Hillgartner, Kaitlyn

    In fused filament fabrication (FFF), a material extrusion 3D printing method, thermoplastic filament is extruded though a rastering nozzle on the previous layer. The resulting strength of the FFF produced part is limited by the strength of the weld between each layer. While numerous factors can affect the weld strength, the temperature of the extrudate and the previous layer dictate the amount of interdiffusion and thus the weld strength. Temperature measurements were performed using forward looking infrared imaging. Interdiffusion estimates were calculated from temperature profiles, normalized using horizontal shift factors from offline rheological measurements of the neat polymer. Weld strength was measured directly by Mode III Fracture using a simplified geometry limiting the measurement to a single weld. Since the processing conditions are known aprioi this approach provides the data needed to estimate the final build strength at time of design. The resulting agreement between interdiffusion estimates and weld strength for a range of printing conditions are discussed.

  3. Infrared imaging of the polymer 3D-printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lindal, John M.; Post, Brian; Smith, Rachel J.; Love, Lonnie; Duty, Chad E.

    2014-05-01

    Both mid-wave and long-wave IR cameras are used to measure various temperature profiles in thermoplastic parts as they are printed. Two significantly different 3D-printers are used in this study. The first is a small scale commercially available Solidoodle 3 printer, which prints parts with layer thicknesses on the order of 125μm. The second printer used is a "Big Area Additive Manufacturing" (BAAM) 3D-printer developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The BAAM prints parts with a layer thicknesses of 4.06 mm. Of particular interest is the temperature of the previously deposited layer as the new hot layer is about to be extruded onto it. The two layers are expected have a stronger bond if the temperature of the substrate layer is above the glass transition temperature. This paper describes the measurement technique and results for a study of temperature decay and substrate layer temperature for ABS thermoplastic with and without the addition of chopped carbon fibers.

  4. Highly Stretchable and UV Curable Elastomers for Digital Light Processing Based 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dinesh K; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Layani, Michael; Zhang, Biao; Ge, Qi; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2017-04-01

    Stretchable UV-curable (SUV) elastomers can be stretched by up to 1100% and are suitable for digital-light-processing (DLP)-based 3D-printing technology. DLP printing of these SUV elastomers enables the direct creation of highly deformable complex 3D hollow structures such as balloons, soft actuators, grippers, and buckyball electronical switches.

  5. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics.

  6. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure

    PubMed Central

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics. PMID:28054558

  7. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure.

    PubMed

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-05

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics.

  8. 3D printed glass: surface finish and bulk properties as a function of the printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Susanne; Avery, Michael P.; Richardson, Robert; Bartlett, Paul; Frei, Regina; Simske, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It is impossible to print glass directly from a melt, layer by layer. Glass is not only very sensitive to temperature gradients between different layers but also to the cooling process. To achieve a glass state the melt, has to be cooled rapidly to avoid crystallization of the material and then annealed to remove cooling induced stress. In 3D-printing of glass the objects are shaped at room temperature and then fired. The material properties of the final objects are crucially dependent on the frit size of the glass powder used during shaping, the chemical formula of the binder and the firing procedure. For frit sizes below 250 μm, we seem to find a constant volume of pores of less than 5%. Decreasing frit size leads to an increase in the number of pores which then leads to an increase of opacity. The two different binders, 2- hydroxyethyl cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, generate very different porosities. The porosity of samples with 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose is similar to frit-only samples, whereas carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt creates a glass foam. The surface finish is determined by the material the glass comes into contact with during firing.

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  10. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  11. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  12. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities. PMID:27594781

  13. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process.

    PubMed

    Baronio, Gabriele; Harran, Sami; Signoroni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

  14. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  15. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  16. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  17. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  18. Synthesis and 3D printing of biodegradable polyurethane elastomer by a water-based process for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kun-Che; Tseng, Ching-Shiow; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable materials that can undergo degradation in vivo are commonly employed to manufacture tissue engineering scaffolds, by techniques including the customized 3D printing. Traditional 3D printing methods involve the use of heat, toxic organic solvents, or toxic photoinitiators for fabrication of synthetic scaffolds. So far, there is no investigation on water-based 3D printing for synthetic materials. In this study, the water dispersion of elastic and biodegradable polyurethane (PU) nanoparticles is synthesized, which is further employed to fabricate scaffolds by 3D printing using polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a viscosity enhancer. The surface morphology, degradation rate, and mechanical properties of the water-based 3D-printed PU scaffolds are evaluated and compared with those of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds made from the solution in organic solvent. These scaffolds are seeded with chondrocytes for evaluation of their potential as cartilage scaffolds. Chondrocytes in 3D-printed PU scaffolds have excellent seeding efficiency, proliferation, and matrix production. Since PU is a category of versatile materials, the aqueous 3D printing process developed in this study is a platform technology that can be used to fabricate devices for biomedical applications.

  19. Effects of Processing and Medical Sterilization Techniques on 3D-Printed and Molded Polylactic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geritano, Mariah Nicole

    Manufacturing industries have evolved tremendously in the past decade with the introduction of Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D Printing. The medical device industry has been a leader in adapting this new technology into research and development. 3D printing enables medical devices and implants to become more customizable, patient specific, and allows for low production numbers. This study compares the mechanical and thermal properties of traditionally manufactured parts versus parts manufactured through 3D printing before and after sterilization, and the ability of an FDM printer to produce reliable, identical samples. It was found that molded samples and 100% infill high-resolution samples have almost identical changes in properties when exposed to different sterilization methods, and similar cooling rates. The data shown throughout this investigation confirms that manipulation of printing parameters can result in an object with comparable material properties to that created through traditional manufacturing methods.

  20. 3D printed electromagnetic transmission and electronic structures fabricated on a single platform using advanced process integration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffenbaugh, Paul Issac

    3D printing has garnered immense attention from many fields including in-office rapid prototyping of mechanical parts, outer-space satellite replication, garage functional firearm manufacture, and NASA rocket engine component fabrication. 3D printing allows increased design flexibility in the fabrication of electronics, microwave circuits and wireless antennas and has reached a level of maturity which allows functional parts to be printed. Much more work is necessary in order to perfect the processes of 3D printed electronics especially in the area of automation. Chapter 1 shows several finished prototypes of 3D printed electronics as well as newly developed techniques in fabrication. Little is known about the RF and microwave properties and applications of the standard materials which have been developed for 3D printing. Measurement of a wide variety of materials over a broad spectrum of frequencies up to 10 GHz using a variety of well-established measurement methods is performed throughout chapter 2. Several types of high frequency RF transmission lines are fabricated and valuable model-matched data is gathered and provided in chapter 3 for future designers' use. Of particular note is a fully 3D printed stripline which was automatically fabricated in one process on one machine. Some core advantages of 3D printing RF/microwave components include rapid manufacturing of complex, dimensionally sensitive circuits (such as antennas and filters which are often iteratively tuned) and the ability to create new devices that cannot be made using standard fabrication techniques. Chapter 4 describes an exemplary fully 3D printed curved inverted-F antenna.

  1. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  2. Post-processing of 3D-printed parts using femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingareev, Ilya; Gehlich, Nils; Bonhoff, Tobias; Meiners, Wilhelm; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Biermann, Tim; Richardson, Martin C.

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, is a near-net shape manufacturing approach, delivering part geometry that can be considerably affected by various process conditions, heat-induced distortions, solidified melt droplets, partially fused powders, and surface modifications induced by the manufacturing tool motion and processing strategy. High-repetition rate femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation was utilized to improve surface quality of metal parts manufactured by laser additive techniques. Different laser scanning approaches were utilized to increase the ablation efficiency and to reduce the surface roughness while preserving the initial part geometry. We studied post-processing of 3D-shaped parts made of Nickel- and Titanium-base alloys by utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as additive manufacturing techniques. Process parameters such as the pulse energy, the number of layers and their spatial separation were varied. Surface processing in several layers was necessary to remove the excessive material, such as individual powder particles, and to reduce the average surface roughness from asdeposited 22-45 μm to a few microns. Due to the ultrafast laser-processing regime and the small heat-affected zone induced in materials, this novel integrated manufacturing approach can be used to post-process parts made of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials, and to attain complex designed shapes with micrometer precision.

  3. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  4. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  5. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  6. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology.

  7. Recent Development in 3D Food Printing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2015-10-19

    Robots and softwares have been significantly improving our daily lives by rendering us much convenience. And 3D printing is a typical example, for it is going to usher in a new era of localized manufacturing that is actually based on digital fabrication by layer-by-layer deposition in three dimensional space. In terms of food industry, the revolution that three-dimensional printing technologies is bringing to food manufacturing is convenience of low-cost customized fabrication and even precise nutrition control. This paper is aimed to give a brief introduction of recent development of food printing and material property of food ingredients that can be used to design the 3D food matrix and investigate the relationship between process parameters and resulting printed food properties in order to establish a food manufacturing process with this new food production approach.

  8. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  9. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  10. A study on the influence of process parameters on the Mechanical Properties of 3D printed ABS composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaya Christiyan, K. G.; Chandrasekhar, U.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2016-02-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have been emerged as a fabrication method to obtain engineering components within a short span of time. Desktop 3D printing, also referred as additive layer manufacturing technology is one of the powerful method of rapid prototyping (RP) technique that fabricates three dimensional engineering components. In this method, 3D digital CAD data is converted directly to a product. In the present investigation, ABS + hydrous magnesium silicate composite was considered as the starting material. Mechanical properties of ABS + hydrous magnesium silicate composite material were evaluated. ASTM D638 and ASTM D760 standards were followed for carrying out tensile and flexural tests, respectively. Samples with different layer thickness and printing speed were prepared. Based on the experimental results, it is suggested that low printing speed, and low layer thickness has resulted maximum tensile and flexural strength, as compared to all the other process parameters samples.

  11. 3D printed microfluidics for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chee Meng Benjamin; Ng, Sum Huan; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The term "Lab-on-a-Chip," is synonymous with describing microfluidic devices with biomedical applications. Even though microfluidics have been developing rapidly over the past decade, the uptake rate in biological research has been slow. This could be due to the tedious process of fabricating a chip and the absence of a "killer application" that would outperform existing traditional methods. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) printing has been drawing much interest from the research community. It has the ability to make complex structures with high resolution. Moreover, the fast building time and ease of learning has simplified the fabrication process of microfluidic devices to a single step. This could possibly aid the field of microfluidics in finding its "killer application" that will lead to its acceptance by researchers, especially in the biomedical field. In this paper, a review is carried out of how 3D printing helps to improve the fabrication of microfluidic devices, the 3D printing technologies currently used for fabrication and the future of 3D printing in the field of microfluidics.

  12. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  13. Complex light in 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Christophe; Delrot, Paul; Loterie, Damien; Morales Delgado, Edgar; Modestino, Miguel; Psaltis, Demetri

    2016-03-01

    3D printing as a tool to generate complicated shapes from CAD files, on demand, with different materials from plastics to metals, is shortening product development cycles, enabling new design possibilities and can provide a mean to manufacture small volumes cost effectively. There are many technologies for 3D printing and the majority uses light in the process. In one process (Multi-jet modeling, polyjet, printoptical©), a printhead prints layers of ultra-violet curable liquid plastic. Here, each nozzle deposits the material, which is then flooded by a UV curing lamp to harden it. In another process (Stereolithography), a focused UV laser beam provides both the spatial localization and the photo-hardening of the resin. Similarly, laser sintering works with metal powders by locally melting the material point by point and layer by layer. When the laser delivers ultra-fast focused pulses, nonlinear effects polymerize the material with high spatial resolution. In these processes, light is either focused in one spot and the part is made by scanning it or the light is expanded and covers a wide area for photopolymerization. Hence a fairly "simple" light field is used in both cases. Here, we give examples of how "complex light" brings additional level of complexity in 3D printing.

  14. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Nielsen, Alec A. K.; Keating, Steven J.; Levy, Taylor J.; Wang, Che-Wei; Rivera, Jaime J.; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Carr, Peter A.; Voigt, Christopher A.; Oxman, Neri; Kong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The process of connecting genetic parts—DNA assembly—is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology. PMID:26716448

  15. 3D-printed mechanochromic materials.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Gregory I; Larsen, Michael B; Ganter, Mark A; Storti, Duane W; Boydston, Andrew J

    2015-01-14

    We describe the preparation and characterization of photo- and mechanochromic 3D-printed structures using a commercial fused filament fabrication printer. Three spiropyran-containing poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymers were each filamentized and used to print single- and multicomponent tensile testing specimens that would be difficult, if not impossible, to prepare using traditional manufacturing techniques. It was determined that the filament production and printing process did not degrade the spiropyran units or polymer chains and that the mechanical properties of the specimens prepared with the custom filament were in good agreement with those from commercial PCL filament. In addition to printing photochromic and dual photo- and mechanochromic PCL materials, we also prepare PCL containing a spiropyran unit that is selectively activated by mechanical impetus. Multicomponent specimens containing two different responsive spiropyrans enabled selective activation of different regions within the specimen depending on the stimulus applied to the material. By taking advantage of the unique capabilities of 3D printing, we also demonstrate rapid modification of a prototype force sensor that enables the assessment of peak load by simple visual assessment of mechanochromism.

  16. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  17. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  18. SU-E-T-61: A Practical Process for Fabricating Passive Scatter Proton Beam Modulation Compensation Filters Using 3D Printing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, T; Drzymala, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project was to devise a practical fabrication process for passive scatter proton beam compensation filters (CF) that is competitive in time, cost and effort using 3D printing. Methods: DICOM compensator filter files for a proton beam were generated by our Eclipse (Varian, Inc.) treatment planning system. The compensator thickness specifications were extracted with in-house software written in Matlab (MathWorks, Inc.) code and written to a text file which could be read by the Rhinoceros 5, computer-aided design (CAD) package (Robert McNeel and Associates), which subsequently generated a smoothed model in a STereoLithographic also known as a Standard Tesselation Language file (STL). The model in the STL file was subsequently refined using Netfabb software and then converted to printing instructions using Cura. version 15.02.1. for our 3D printer. The Airwolf3D, model HD2x, fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer (Airwolf3D.com) was used for our fabrication system with a print speed of 150mm per second. It can print in over 22 different plastic filament materials in a build volume of 11” x 8” x 12”. We choose ABS plastic to print the 3D model of the imprint for our CFs. Results: Prints of the CF could be performed at a print speed of 70mm per second. The time to print the 3D topology for the CF for the 14 cm diameter snout of our Mevion 250 proton accelerator was less than 3 hours. The printed model is intended to subsequently be used as a mold to imprint a molten wax cylindrical to form the compensation after cooling. The whole process should be performed for a typical 3 beam treatment plan within a day. Conclusion: Use of 3D printing is practical and can be used to print a 3D model of a CF within a few hours.

  19. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Love, Lonnie J; Rowe, John C

    2013-01-01

    An extended range IR camera was used to make temperature measurements of samples as they are being manufactured. The objective is to quantify the temperature variation inside the system as parts are being fabricated, as well as quantify the temperature of a part during fabrication. The IR camera was used to map the temperature within the build volume of the oven and surface temperature measurement of a part as it was being manufactured. The development of the temperature map of the oven provides insight into the global temperature variation within the oven that may lead to understanding variations in the properties of parts as a function of location. The observation of the temperature variation of a part that fails during construction provides insight into how the deposition process itself impacts temperature distribution within a single part leading to failure.

  20. 3D Printing of Carbon Nanotubes-Based Microsupercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Zhou, Han; Li, Ben Q; Ding, Shujiang

    2017-02-08

    A novel 3D printing procedure is presented for fabricating carbon-nanotubes (CNTs)-based microsupercapacitors. The 3D printer uses a CNTs ink slurry with a moderate solid content and prints a stream of continuous droplets. Appropriate control of a heated base is applied to facilitate the solvent removal and adhesion between printed layers and to improve the structure integrity without structure delamination or distortion upon drying. The 3D-printed electrodes for microsupercapacitors are characterized by SEM, laser scanning confocal microscope, and step profiler. Effect of process parameters on 3D printing is also studied. The final solid-state microsupercapacitors are assembled with the printed multilayer CNTs structures and poly(vinyl alcohol)-H3PO4 gel as the interdigitated microelectrodes and electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of 3D printed microsupercapacitors is also tested, showing a significant areal capacitance and excellent cycle stability.

  1. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  2. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  3. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  4. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  5. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  6. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Sydney S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3–4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14–17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4–6 hr; printing = 9–11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1–5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes. PMID:26295459

  7. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    PubMed

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  8. 3-D Printed High Power Microwave Magnetrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Nicholas; Greening, Geoffrey; Exelby, Steven; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Hoff, Brad

    2015-11-01

    The size, weight, and power requirements of HPM systems are critical constraints on their viability, and can potentially be improved through the use of additive manufacturing techniques, which are rapidly increasing in capability and affordability. Recent experiments on the UM Recirculating Planar Magnetron (RPM), have explored the use of 3-D printed components in a HPM system. The system was driven by MELBA-C, a Marx-Abramyan system which delivers a -300 kV voltage pulse for 0.3-1.0 us, with a 0.15-0.3 T axial magnetic field applied by a pair of electromagnets. Anode blocks were printed from Water Shed XC 11122 photopolymer using a stereolithography process, and prepared with either a spray-coated or electroplated finish. Both manufacturing processes were compared against baseline data for a machined aluminum anode, noting any differences in power output, oscillation frequency, and mode stability. Evolution and durability of the 3-D printed structures were noted both visually and by tracking vacuum inventories via a residual gas analyzer. Research supported by AFOSR (grant #FA9550-15-1-0097) and AFRL.

  9. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  10. Direct 3D printed shadow mask on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahiminejad, S.; Köhler, E.; Enoksson, P.

    2016-10-01

    A 3D printed shadow mask method is presented. The 3D printer prints ABS plastic directly on the wafer, thus avoiding gaps between the wafer and the shadow mask, and deformation during the process. The wafer together with the 3D printed shadow mask was sputtered with Ti and Au. The shadow mask was released by immersion in acetone. The sputtered patches through the shadow mask were compared to the opening of the 3D printed shadow mask and the design dimensions. The patterned Au patches were larger than the printed apertures, however they were smaller than the design widths. The mask was printed in 4 min, the cost is less than one euro cent, and the process is a low temperature process suitable for temperature sensitive components.

  11. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct.

  12. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  13. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  14. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  15. Thermo-mechanical Characterization of Metal/Polymer Composite Filaments and Printing Parameter Study for Fused Deposition Modeling in the 3D Printing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seyeon; Reyes, Edgar I.; Moon, Kyoung-sik; Rumpf, Raymond C.; Kim, Nam Soo

    2015-03-01

    New metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) processes were developed in order to observe the thermo-mechanical properties of the new filaments. The acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic was mixed with copper and iron particles. The percent loading of the metal powder was varied to confirm the effects of metal particles on the thermo-mechanical properties of the filament, such as tensile strength and thermal conductivity. The printing parameters such as temperature and fill density were also varied to see the effects of the parameters on the tensile strength of the final product which was made with the FDM process. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the tensile strength of the composites is decreased by increasing the loading of metal particles. Additionally, the thermal conductivity of the metal/polymer composite filament was improved by increasing the metal content. It is believed that the metal/polymer filament could be used to print metal and large-scale 3-dimensional (3D) structures without any distortion by the thermal expansion of thermoplastics. The material could also be used in 3D printed circuits and electromagnetic structures for shielding and other applications.

  16. 3D-printing spatially varying BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Rouiller, Olivier; Bickel, Bernd; Kautz, Jan; Matusik, Wojciech; Alexa, Marc

    2013-01-01

    A new method fabricates custom surface reflectance and spatially varying bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (svBRDFs). Researchers optimize a microgeometry for a range of normal distribution functions and simulate the resulting surface's effective reflectance. Using the simulation's results, they reproduce an input svBRDF's appearance by distributing the microgeometry on the printed material's surface. This method lets people print svBRDFs on planar samples with current 3D printing technology, even with a limited set of printing materials. It extends naturally to printing svBRDFs on arbitrary shapes.

  17. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  18. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education. PMID:28367477

  19. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  20. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  1. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  2. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  3. 3D printed quantum dot light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Tamargo, Ian A; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Johnson, Blake N; Gupta, Maneesh K; Koh, Tae-Wook; Chin, Huai-An; Steingart, Daniel A; Rand, Barry P; McAlpine, Michael C

    2014-12-10

    Developing the ability to 3D print various classes of materials possessing distinct properties could enable the freeform generation of active electronics in unique functional, interwoven architectures. Achieving seamless integration of diverse materials with 3D printing is a significant challenge that requires overcoming discrepancies in material properties in addition to ensuring that all the materials are compatible with the 3D printing process. To date, 3D printing has been limited to specific plastics, passive conductors, and a few biological materials. Here, we show that diverse classes of materials can be 3D printed and fully integrated into device components with active properties. Specifically, we demonstrate the seamless interweaving of five different materials, including (1) emissive semiconducting inorganic nanoparticles, (2) an elastomeric matrix, (3) organic polymers as charge transport layers, (4) solid and liquid metal leads, and (5) a UV-adhesive transparent substrate layer. As a proof of concept for demonstrating the integrated functionality of these materials, we 3D printed quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) that exhibit pure and tunable color emission properties. By further incorporating the 3D scanning of surface topologies, we demonstrate the ability to conformally print devices onto curvilinear surfaces, such as contact lenses. Finally, we show that novel architectures that are not easily accessed using standard microfabrication techniques can be constructed, by 3D printing a 2 × 2 × 2 cube of encapsulated LEDs, in which every component of the cube and electronics are 3D printed. Overall, these results suggest that 3D printing is more versatile than has been demonstrated to date and is capable of integrating many distinct classes of materials.

  4. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun, Pei-li; Yates, Julian M.; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity correction across different orientations are described subsequently. Results are clear shown that applying proposed colour image reproduction framework, performance of colour reproduction can be significantly enhanced. With post colour corrections, a further improvement in colour process are achieved for 3D printed objects.

  5. Characterization of 3D-printed IPMC actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrico, James D.; Erickson, John M.; Leang, Kam K.

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) fused filament additive manufacturing (AM) technique (3D printing) is described for creating ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) actuators. The 3D printing technique addresses some of the limitations of existing manufacturing processes for creating IPMCs, which includes limited shapes and sizes and time-consuming steps. In this paper, the 3D printing process is described in detail, where first a precursor material (non-acid Nafion precursor resin) is extruded into a thermoplastic filament for 3D printing. A custom designed 3D printer is described which utilizes the filament to manufacture custom-shaped IPMC actuators. The 3D printed samples are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide and dimethyl sulfoxide, followed by application of platinum electrodes. The performance of 3D-printed IPMC actuators with different infill patterns are characterized. Specifically, experimental results are presented for electrode resistance, actuation performance, and overall effective actuator stiffness for samples with longitudinal (0 degrees) and transverse (90 degrees) infill pattern.

  6. 3D holographic printer: fast printing approach.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Alexander V; Putilin, Andrey N; Kopenkin, Sergey S; Borodin, Yuriy P; Druzhin, Vladislav V; Dubynin, Sergey E; Dubinin, German B

    2014-02-10

    This article describes the general operation principles of devices for synthesized holographic images such as holographic printers. Special emphasis is placed on the printing speed. In addition, various methods to increase the printing process are described and compared.

  7. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    X. Zhao and co-workers develop on page 4035 a new biocompatible hydrogel system that is extremely tough and stretchable and can be 3D printed into complex structures, such as the multilayer mesh shown. Cells encapsulated in the tough and printable hydrogel maintain high viability. 3D-printed structures of the tough hydrogel can sustain high mechanical loads and deformations.

  8. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Applications of 3D printing in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is a relatively new, rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that found numerous applications in healthcare, automotive, aerospace and defense industries and in many other areas. In this review, applications in medicine that are revolutionizing the way surgeries are carried out, disrupting prosthesis and implant markets as well as dentistry will be presented. The relatively new field of bioprinting, that is printing with cells, will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27785150

  10. Applications of 3D printing in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Dodziuk, Helena

    2016-09-01

    3D printing is a relatively new, rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that found numerous applications in healthcare, automotive, aerospace and defense industries and in many other areas. In this review, applications in medicine that are revolutionizing the way surgeries are carried out, disrupting prosthesis and implant markets as well as dentistry will be presented. The relatively new field of bioprinting, that is printing with cells, will also be briefly discussed.

  11. 3D Printed Terahertz Focusing Grating Couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, David; Weidenbach, Marcel; Lehr, Jannik; Becker, Leonard; Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Busch, Stefan F.; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We have designed, constructed and characterized a grating that focuses electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies out of a dielectric waveguide. A simple theoretical model predicts the focusing behaviour of these chirped gratings, along with numerical results that support our assumptions and improved the grating geometry. The leaky waveguide was 3D printed and characterized at 120 GHz demonstrating its potential for manipulating terahertz waves.

  12. Constructing Arguments with 3-D Printed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, William; Dickerson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a fourth-grade lesson where 3-D printing technologies were not only a stimulus for engagement but also served as a modeling tool providing meaningful learning opportunities. Specifically, fourth-grade students construct an argument that animals' external structures function to support survival in a particular…

  13. Flexible Piezoresistive Sensors Embedded in 3D Printed Tires

    PubMed Central

    Emon, Md Omar Faruk; Choi, Jae-Won

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we report the development of a flexible, 3D printable piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of measuring force and detecting the location of the force. The multilayer sensor comprises of an ionic liquid-based piezoresistive intermediate layer in between carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A sensor containing an array of different sensing units was embedded on the inner liner surface of a 3D printed tire to provide with force information at different points of contact between the tire and road. Four scaled tires, as well as wheels, were 3D printed using a flexible and a rigid material, respectively, which were later assembled with a 3D-printed chassis. Only one tire was equipped with a sensor and the chassis was driven through a motorized linear stage at different speeds and load conditions to evaluate the sensor performance. The sensor was fabricated via molding and screen printing processes using a commercially available 3D-printable photopolymer as 3D printing is our target manufacturing technique to fabricate the entire tire assembly with the sensor. Results show that the proposed sensors, inserted in the 3D printed tire assembly, could detect forces, as well as their locations, properly. PMID:28327533

  14. Flexible Piezoresistive Sensors Embedded in 3D Printed Tires.

    PubMed

    Emon, Md Omar Faruk; Choi, Jae-Won

    2017-03-22

    In this article, we report the development of a flexible, 3D printable piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of measuring force and detecting the location of the force. The multilayer sensor comprises of an ionic liquid-based piezoresistive intermediate layer in between carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A sensor containing an array of different sensing units was embedded on the inner liner surface of a 3D printed tire to provide with force information at different points of contact between the tire and road. Four scaled tires, as well as wheels, were 3D printed using a flexible and a rigid material, respectively, which were later assembled with a 3D-printed chassis. Only one tire was equipped with a sensor and the chassis was driven through a motorized linear stage at different speeds and load conditions to evaluate the sensor performance. The sensor was fabricated via molding and screen printing processes using a commercially available 3D-printable photopolymer as 3D printing is our target manufacturing technique to fabricate the entire tire assembly with the sensor. Results show that the proposed sensors, inserted in the 3D printed tire assembly, could detect forces, as well as their locations, properly.

  15. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Yung, Winco K C; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-08-09

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy.

  16. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-01-01

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy. PMID:27501761

  17. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-08-01

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy.

  18. Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing of composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinis, Dimitri; Schaffner, Manuel; Studart, André R.

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has become commonplace for the manufacturing of objects with unusual geometries. Recent developments that enabled printing of multiple materials indicate that the technology can potentially offer a much wider design space beyond unusual shaping. Here we show that a new dimension in this design space can be exploited through the control of the orientation of anisotropic particles used as building blocks during a direct ink-writing process. Particle orientation control is demonstrated by applying low magnetic fields on deposited inks pre-loaded with magnetized stiff platelets. Multimaterial dispensers and a two-component mixing unit provide additional control over the local composition of the printed material. The five-dimensional design space covered by the proposed multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing platform (MM-3D printing) opens the way towards the manufacturing of functional heterogeneous materials with exquisite microstructural features thus far only accessible by biological materials grown in nature. PMID:26494528

  19. Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinis, Dimitri; Schaffner, Manuel; Studart, André R.

    2015-10-01

    3D printing has become commonplace for the manufacturing of objects with unusual geometries. Recent developments that enabled printing of multiple materials indicate that the technology can potentially offer a much wider design space beyond unusual shaping. Here we show that a new dimension in this design space can be exploited through the control of the orientation of anisotropic particles used as building blocks during a direct ink-writing process. Particle orientation control is demonstrated by applying low magnetic fields on deposited inks pre-loaded with magnetized stiff platelets. Multimaterial dispensers and a two-component mixing unit provide additional control over the local composition of the printed material. The five-dimensional design space covered by the proposed multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing platform (MM-3D printing) opens the way towards the manufacturing of functional heterogeneous materials with exquisite microstructural features thus far only accessible by biological materials grown in nature.

  20. 3D Printing technologies for drug delivery: a review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; Smyth, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    With the FDA approval of the first 3D printed tablet, Spritam®, there is now precedence set for the utilization of 3D printing for the preparation of drug delivery systems. The capabilities for dispensing low volumes with accuracy, precise spatial control and layer-by-layer assembly allow for the preparation of complex compositions and geometries. The high degree of flexibility and control with 3D printing enables the preparation of dosage forms with multiple active pharmaceutical ingredients with complex and tailored release profiles. A unique opportunity for this technology for the preparation of personalized doses to address individual patient needs. This review will highlight the 3D printing technologies being utilized for the fabrication of drug delivery systems, as well as the formulation and processing parameters for consideration. This article will also summarize the range of dosage forms that have been prepared using these technologies, specifically over the last 10 years.

  1. Optical fabrication of lightweighted 3D printed mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Harrison; Segal, Jacob; Smith, Jeremy; Bates, Richard; Calis, Jacob; De La Torre, Alyssa; Kim, Dae Wook; Mici, Joni; Mireles, Jorge; Stubbs, David M.; Wicker, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 3D printing technologies were utilized to create lightweight, optical grade mirrors out of AlSi10Mg aluminum and Ti6Al4V titanium alloys at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The mirror prototypes were polished to meet the λ/20 RMS and λ/4 P-V surface figure requirements. The intent of this project was to design topologically optimized mirrors that had a high specific stiffness and low surface displacement. Two models were designed using Altair Inspire software, and the mirrors had to endure the polishing process with the necessary stiffness to eliminate print-through. Mitigating porosity of the 3D printed mirror blanks was a challenge in the face of reconciling new printing technologies with traditional optical polishing methods. The prototypes underwent Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) and heat treatment to improve density, eliminate porosity, and relieve internal stresses. Metal 3D printing allows for nearly unlimited topological constraints on design and virtually eliminates the need for a machine shop when creating an optical quality mirror. This research can lead to an increase in mirror mounting support complexity in the manufacturing of lightweight mirrors and improve overall process efficiency. The project aspired to have many future applications of light weighted 3D printed mirrors, such as spaceflight. This paper covers the design/fab/polish/test of 3D printed mirrors, thermal/structural finite element analysis, and results.

  2. 3D Printing: Print the future of ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) printer is a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in the medical field, where it is beginning to revolutionize medical and surgical possibilities. It is already providing medicine with powerful tools that facilitate education, surgical planning, and organ transplantation research. A good understanding of this technology will be beneficial to ophthalmologists. The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology, both current and future, are explored in this article.

  3. 3D-printed microfluidic automation.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F; Chang, Tim C; Folch, Albert

    2015-04-21

    Microfluidic automation - the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels - generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology's use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer.

  4. 3D-Printed Microfluidic Automation

    PubMed Central

    Au, Anthony K.; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F.; Chang, Tim C.; Folch, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic automation – the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels – generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology’s use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer. PMID:25738695

  5. Possible Applications of 3D Printing Technology on Textile Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korger, M.; Bergschneider, J.; Lutz, M.; Mahltig, B.; Finsterbusch, K.; Rabe, M.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing is a rapidly emerging additive manufacturing technology which can offer cost efficiency and flexibility in product development and production. In textile production 3D printing can also serve as an add-on process to apply 3D structures on textiles. In this study the low-cost fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique was applied using different thermoplastic printing materials available on the market with focus on flexible filaments such as thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) or Soft PLA. Since a good adhesion and stability of the 3D printed structures on textiles are essential, separation force and abrasion resistance tests were conducted with different kinds of printed woven fabrics demonstrating that a sufficient adhesion can be achieved. The main influencing factor can be attributed to the topography of the textile surface affected by the weave, roughness and hairiness offering formlocking connections followed by the wettability of the textile surface by the molten polymer, which depends on the textile surface energy and can be specifically controlled by washing (desizing), finishing or plasma treatment of the textile before the print. These basic adhesion mechanisms can also be considered crucial for 3D printing on knitwear.

  6. 3-D Printed Ultem 9085 Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Daniel; Christensen, Sean; Fox, Emmet J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the mechanical properties of 3-D printed Ultem 9085. This document will focus on the capabilities, limitations, and complexities of 3D printing in general, and explain the methods by which this material is tested. Because 3-D printing is a relatively new process that offers an innovative means to produce hardware, it is important that the aerospace community understands its current advantages and limitations, so that future endeavors involving 3-D printing may be completely safe. This document encompasses three main sections: a Slosh damage assessment, a destructive test of 3-D printed Ultem 9085 samples, and a test to verify simulation for the 3-D printed SDP (SPHERES Docking Port). Described below, 'Slosh' and 'SDP' refer to two experiments that are built using Ultem 9085 for use with the SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites) program onboard the International Space Station (ISS) [16]. The SPHERES Facility is managed out of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in California.

  7. The upcoming 3D-printing revolution in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Urrios, Arturo; Kang, Shawn; Folch, Albert

    2016-05-21

    In the last two decades, the vast majority of microfluidic systems have been built in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography, a technique based on PDMS micromolding. A long list of key PDMS properties have contributed to the success of soft lithography: PDMS is biocompatible, elastomeric, transparent, gas-permeable, water-impermeable, fairly inexpensive, copyright-free, and rapidly prototyped with high precision using simple procedures. However, the fabrication process typically involves substantial human labor, which tends to make PDMS devices difficult to disseminate outside of research labs, and the layered molding limits the 3D complexity of the devices that can be produced. 3D-printing has recently attracted attention as a way to fabricate microfluidic systems due to its automated, assembly-free 3D fabrication, rapidly decreasing costs, and fast-improving resolution and throughput. Resins with properties approaching those of PDMS are being developed. Here we review past and recent efforts in 3D-printing of microfluidic systems. We compare the salient features of PDMS molding with those of 3D-printing and we give an overview of the critical barriers that have prevented the adoption of 3D-printing by microfluidic developers, namely resolution, throughput, and resin biocompatibility. We also evaluate the various forces that are persuading researchers to abandon PDMS molding in favor of 3D-printing in growing numbers.

  8. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. Digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts with complex internal geometries. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that these technologies can bring to geosciences and present early experiences with coupled multiscale experimental and numerical analysis using 3D printed fractured rock specimens. In particular, we discuss the processes of selection and printing of transparent fractured specimens based on 3D reconstruction of micro-fractured rock to study fluid flow characterization and manipulation. Micro-particle image velocimetry is used to directly visualize 3D single and multiphase flow velocity in 3D fracture networks. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  9. Inkjet 3D printed check microvalve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Rafał; Adamski, Krzysztof; Lizanets, Danylo

    2017-04-01

    3D printing enables fast and relatively easy fabrication of various microfluidic structures including microvalves. A check microvalve is the simplest valve enabling control of the fluid flow in microchannels. Proper operation of the check valve is ensured by a movable element that tightens the valve seat during backward flow and enables free flow for forward pressure. Thus, knowledge of the mechanical properties of the movable element is crucial for optimal design and operation of the valve. In this paper, we present for the first time the results of investigations on basic mechanical properties of the building material used in multijet 3D printing. Specified mechanical properties were used in the design and fabrication of two types of check microvalve—with deflecting or hinge-fixed microflap—with 200 µm and 300 µm thickness. Results of numerical simulation and experimental data of the microflap deflection were obtained and compared. The valves were successfully 3D printed and characterised. Opening/closing characteristics of the microvalve for forward and backward pressures were determined. Thus, proper operation of the check microvalve so developed was confirmed.

  10. 3D printed rapid disaster response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Mottern, Edward; Corley, Katrina; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2014-05-01

    Under the Department of Homeland Security-sponsored Sensor-smart Affordable Autonomous Robotic Platforms (SAARP) project, Robotic Research, LLC is developing an affordable and adaptable method to provide disaster response robots developed with 3D printer technology. The SAARP Store contains a library of robots, a developer storefront, and a user storefront. The SAARP Store allows the user to select, print, assemble, and operate the robot. In addition to the SAARP Store, two platforms are currently being developed. They use a set of common non-printed components that will allow the later design of other platforms that share non-printed components. During disasters, new challenges are faced that require customized tools or platforms. Instead of prebuilt and prepositioned supplies, a library of validated robots will be catalogued to satisfy various challenges at the scene. 3D printing components will allow these customized tools to be deployed in a fraction of the time that would normally be required. While the current system is focused on supporting disaster response personnel, this system will be expandable to a range of customers, including domestic law enforcement, the armed services, universities, and research facilities.

  11. Strategy to Achieve Highly Porous/Biocompatible Macroscale Cell Blocks, Using a Collagen/Genipin-bioink and an Optimal 3D Printing Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Bok; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-11-30

    Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting process for obtaining a cell-laden structure has been widely applied because of its ability to fabricate biomimetic complex structures embedded with and without cells. To successfully obtain a cell-laden porous block, the cell-delivering vehicle, bioink, is one of the significant factors. Until now, various biocompatible hydrogels (synthetic and natural biopolymers) have been utilized in the cell-printing process, but a bioink satisfying both biocompatibility and print-ability requirements to achieve a porous structure with reasonable mechanical strength has not been issued. Here, we propose a printing strategy with optimal conditions including a safe cross-linking procedure for obtaining a 3D porous cell block composed of a biocompatible collagen-bioink and genipin, a cross-linking agent. To obtain the optimal processing conditions, we modified the 3D printing machine and selected an optimal cross-linking condition (∼1 mM and 1 h) of genipin solution. To show the feasibility of the process, 3D pore-interconnected cell-laden constructs were manufactured using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and human adipose stem cells (hASCs). Under these processing conditions, a macroscale 3D collagen-based cell block of 21 × 21 × 12 mm(3) and over 95% cell viability was obtained. In vitro biological testing of the cell-laden 3D porous structure showed that the embedded cells were sufficiently viable, and their proliferation was significantly higher; the cells also exhibited increased osteogenic activities compared to the conventional alginate-based bioink (control). The results indicated the fabrication process using the collagen-bioink would be an innovative platform to design highly biocompatible and mechanically stable cell blocks.

  12. 3D printing of nano- and micro-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing techniques are being vigorously investigated as a replacement to the traditional and conventional methods in fabrication to bring forth cost and time effective approaches. Introduction of 3D printing has led to printing micro and nanoscale structures including tissues and organelles, bioelectric sensors and devices, artificial bones and transplants, microfluidic devices, batteries and various other biomaterials. Various microfabrication processes have been developed to fabricate micro components and assemblies at lab scale. 3D Fabrication processes that can accommodate the functional and geometrical requirements to realize complicated structures are becoming feasible through advances in additive manufacturing. This advancement could lead to simpler development mechanisms of novel components and devices exhibiting complex features. For instance, development of microstructure electrodes that can penetrate the epidermis of the skin to collect the bio potential signal may prove very effective than the electrodes that measure signal from the skin's surface. The micro and nanostructures will have to possess extraordinary material and mechanical properties for its dexterity in the applications. A substantial amount of research being pursued on stretchable and flexible devices based on PDMA, textiles, and organic electronics. Despite the numerous advantages these substrates and techniques could solely offer, 3D printing enables a multi-dimensional approach towards finer and complex applications. This review emphasizes the use of 3D printing to fabricate micro and nanostructures for that can be applied for human healthcare.

  13. 3D printing of functional biomaterials for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Ma, Xuanyi; Gou, Maling; Mei, Deqing; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-08-01

    3D printing is emerging as a powerful tool for tissue engineering by enabling 3D cell culture within complex 3D biomimetic architectures. This review discusses the prevailing 3D printing techniques and their most recent applications in building tissue constructs. The work associated with relatively well-known inkjet and extrusion-based bioprinting is presented with the latest advances in the fields. Emphasis is put on introducing two relatively new light-assisted bioprinting techniques, including digital light processing (DLP)-based bioprinting and laser based two photon polymerization (TPP) bioprinting. 3D bioprinting of vasculature network is particularly discussed for its foremost significance in maintaining tissue viability and promoting functional maturation. Limitations to current bioprinting approaches, as well as future directions of bioprinting functional tissues are also discussed.

  14. Tinkering with Teachers: The Case for 3D Printing in the Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities to utilize 3D printing in the K-12 classroom are growing every day. This paper describes the process of implementing a 3D printing service in the Education Library of The University of Florida, Gainesville, a large, doctoral-degree granting, research university. Included are examples of lesson plans featuring 3D printing, creation of…

  15. No-infill 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yu-He; Geng, Guo-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examined how printing the hollow objects without infill via fused deposition modeling, one of the most widely used 3D-printing technologies, by partitioning the objects to shell parts. More specifically, we linked the partition to the exact cover problem. Given an input watertight mesh shape S, we developed region growing schemes to derive a set of surfaces that had inside surfaces that were printable without support on the mesh for the candidate parts. We then employed Monte Carlo tree search over the candidate parts to obtain the optimal set cover. All possible candidate subsets of exact cover from the optimal set cover were then obtained and the bounded tree was used to search the optimal exact cover. We oriented each shell part to the optimal position to guarantee the inside surface was printed without support, while the outside surface was printed with minimum support. Our solution can be applied to a variety of models, closed-hollowed or semi-closed, with or without holes, as evidenced by experiments and performance evaluation on our proposed algorithm.

  16. Applied 3D printing for microscopy in health science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brideau, Craig; Zareinia, Kourosh; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The rapid prototyping capability offered by 3D printing is considered advantageous for commercial applications. However, the ability to quickly produce precision custom devices is highly beneficial in the research laboratory setting as well. Biological laboratories require the manipulation and analysis of delicate living samples, thus the ability to create custom holders, support equipment, and adapters allow the extension of existing laboratory machines. Applications include camera adapters and stage sample holders for microscopes, surgical guides for tissue preparation, and small precision tools customized to unique specifications. Where high precision is needed, especially the reproduction of fine features, a printer with a high resolution is needed. However, the introduction of cheaper, lower resolution commercial printers have been shown to be more than adequate for less demanding projects. For direct manipulation of delicate samples, biocompatible raw materials are often required, complicating the printing process. This paper will examine some examples of 3D-printed objects for laboratory use, and provide an overview of the requirements for 3D printing for this application. Materials, printing resolution, production, and ease of use will all be reviewed with an eye to producing better printers and techniques for laboratory applications. Specific case studies will highlight applications for 3D-printed devices in live animal imaging for both microscopy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  17. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Abhiksha; Krynitsky, Jonathan; Pohida, Thomas J.; Zhao, Huaying

    2016-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation. PMID:27525659

  18. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Desai, Abhiksha; Krynitsky, Jonathan; Pohida, Thomas J; Zhao, Huaying; Schuck, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation.

  19. Patient specific 3D printed phantom for IMRT quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehler, Eric D.; Barney, Brett M.; Higgins, Patrick D.; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a patient specific phantom for patient specific dosimetric verification. Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. Calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was compared for a parallel-opposed head and neck field geometry to establish tissue equivalence. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom as well as traditional standard phantoms. The maximum difference in calculated dose was 1.8% for the parallel-opposed configuration. Passing rates of various dosimetric parameters were compared for the IMRT plan measurements; the 3D printed phantom results showed greater disagreement at superficial depths than other methods. A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine use.

  20. 3D printing facilitated scaffold-free tissue unit fabrication.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan J; Trusk, Thomas C; Visconti, Richard P; Yost, Michael J; Kindy, Mark S; Drake, Christopher J; Argraves, William Scott; Markwald, Roger R; Mei, Ying

    2014-06-01

    Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing microdroplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit microdroplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell-cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation.

  1. Patient specific 3D printed phantom for IMRT quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Ehler, Eric D; Barney, Brett M; Higgins, Patrick D; Dusenbery, Kathryn E

    2014-10-07

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a patient specific phantom for patient specific dosimetric verification.Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. Calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was compared for a parallel-opposed head and neck field geometry to establish tissue equivalence. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom as well as traditional standard phantoms.The maximum difference in calculated dose was 1.8% for the parallel-opposed configuration. Passing rates of various dosimetric parameters were compared for the IMRT plan measurements; the 3D printed phantom results showed greater disagreement at superficial depths than other methods.A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine use.

  2. 3D Printing Facilitated Scaffold-free Tissue Unit Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan J.; Trusk, Thomas C.; Visconti, Richard P.; Yost, Michael J.; Kindy, Mark S.; Drake, Christopher J.; Argraves, William Scott; Markwald, Roger R.; Mei, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing micro-droplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit micro-droplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell-cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation. PMID:24717646

  3. Application of 3D printing technology in aerodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasek, K.; Wiklak, P.

    2014-08-01

    3D printing, as an additive process, offers much more than traditional machining techniques in terms of achievable complexity of a model shape. That fact was a motivation to adapt discussed technology as a method for creating objects purposed for aerodynamic testing. The following paper provides an overview of various 3D printing techniques. Four models of a standard NACA0018 aerofoil were manufactured in different materials and methods: MultiJet Modelling (MJM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Various parameters of the models have been included in the analysis: surface roughness, strength, details quality, surface imperfections and irregularities as well as thermal properties.

  4. Advanced 3D mesh manipulation in stereolithographic files and post-print processing for the manufacturing of patient-specific vascular flow phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Ryan P.; Chand, Arpita; Vidiyala, Sowmya; Arechavala, Stacie M.; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2016-03-01

    Complex vascular anatomies can cause the failure of image-guided endovascular procedures. 3D printed patient-specific vascular phantoms provide clinicians and medical device companies the ability to preemptively plan surgical treatments, test the likelihood of device success, and determine potential operative setbacks. This research aims to present advanced mesh manipulation techniques of stereolithographic (STL) files segmented from medical imaging and post-print surface optimization to match physiological vascular flow resistance. For phantom design, we developed three mesh manipulation techniques. The first method allows outlet 3D mesh manipulations to merge superfluous vessels into a single junction, decreasing the number of flow outlets and making it feasible to include smaller vessels. Next we introduced Boolean operations to eliminate the need to manually merge mesh layers and eliminate errors of mesh self-intersections that previously occurred. Finally we optimize support addition to preserve the patient anatomical geometry. For post-print surface optimization, we investigated various solutions and methods to remove support material and smooth the inner vessel surface. Solutions of chloroform, alcohol and sodium hydroxide were used to process various phantoms and hydraulic resistance was measured and compared with values reported in literature. The newly mesh manipulation methods decrease the phantom design time by 30 - 80% and allow for rapid development of accurate vascular models. We have created 3D printed vascular models with vessel diameters less than 0.5 mm. The methods presented in this work could lead to shorter design time for patient specific phantoms and better physiological simulations.

  5. On the intrinsic sterility of 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kaitlin J.; Zaman, Luis; Tung, Emily; Pudlo, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    3D printers that build objects using extruded thermoplastic are quickly becoming commonplace tools in laboratories. We demonstrate that with appropriate handling, these devices are capable of producing sterile components from a non-sterile feedstock of thermoplastic without any treatment after fabrication. The fabrication process itself results in sterilization of the material. The resulting 3D printed components are suitable for a wide variety of applications, including experiments with bacteria and cell culture. PMID:27920950

  6. Laser embedding electronics on 3D printed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirleis, Matthew A.; Simonson, Duane; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Kim, Heungsoo; Charipar, Kristin M.; Auyeung, Ray C. Y.; Mathews, Scott A.; Piqué, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing are able to generate reproductions of a part in free space without the use of molds; however, the objects produced lack electrical functionality from an applications perspective. At the same time, techniques such as inkjet and laser direct-write (LDW) can be used to print electronic components and connections onto already existing objects, but are not capable of generating a full object on their own. The approach missing to date is the combination of 3D printing processes with direct-write of electronic circuits. Among the numerous direct write techniques available, LDW offers unique advantages and capabilities given its compatibility with a wide range of materials, surface chemistries and surface morphologies. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed various LDW processes ranging from the non-phase transformative direct printing of complex suspensions or inks to lase-and-place for embedding entire semiconductor devices. These processes have been demonstrated in digital manufacturing of a wide variety of microelectronic elements ranging from circuit components such as electrical interconnects and passives to antennas, sensors, actuators and power sources. At NRL we are investigating the combination of LDW with 3D printing to demonstrate the digital fabrication of functional parts, such as 3D circuits. Merging these techniques will make possible the development of a new generation of structures capable of detecting, processing, communicating and interacting with their surroundings in ways never imagined before. This paper shows the latest results achieved at NRL in this area, describing the various approaches developed for generating 3D printed electronics with LDW.

  7. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    PubMed

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    On page 4449, D. Cohn, S. Magdassi, and co-workers describe a general and facile method based on 3D printing of methacrylated macromonomers to fabricate shape-memory objects that can be used in flexible and responsive electrical circuits. Such responsive objects can be used in the fabrication of soft robotics, minimal invasive medical devices, sensors, and wearable electronics. The use of 3D printing overcomes the poor processing characteristics of thermosets and enables complex geometries that are not easily accessible by other techniques.

  8. Influence of scaffold design on 3D printed cell constructs.

    PubMed

    Souness, Auryn; Zamboni, Fernanda; Walker, Gavin M; Collins, Maurice N

    2017-02-14

    Additive manufacturing is currently receiving significant attention in the field of tissue engineering and biomaterial science. The development of precise, affordable 3D printing technologies has provided a new platform for novel research to be undertaken in 3D scaffold design and fabrication. In the past, a number of 3D scaffold designs have been fabricated to investigate the potential of a 3D printed scaffold as a construct which could support cellular life. These studies have shown promising results; however, few studies have utilized a low-cost desktop 3D printing technology as a potential rapid manufacturing route for different scaffold designs. Here six scaffold designs were manufactured using a Fused deposition modeling, a "bottom-up" solid freeform fabrication approach, to determine optimal scaffold architecture for three-dimensional cell growth. The scaffolds, produced from PLA, are coated using pullulan and hyaluronic acid to assess the coating influence on cell proliferation and metabolic rate. Scaffolds are characterized both pre- and postprocessing using water uptake analysis, mechanical testing, and morphological evaluation to study the inter-relationships between the printing process, scaffold design, and scaffold properties. It was found that there were key differences between each scaffold design in terms of porosity, diffusivity, swellability, and compressive strength. An optimal design was chosen based on these physical measurements which were then weighted in accordance to design importance based on literature and utilizing a design matrix technique. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017.

  9. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  10. 3D Printing In Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth; Edmunson, Jennifer; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station (ISS) up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up multiple drill bits that would be required to machine parts from aerospace-grade materials such as titanium 6-4 alloy and Inconel. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers

  11. 3D printing PLGA: a quantitative examination of the effects of polymer composition and printing parameters on print resolution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Holzberg, Timothy R; Lim, Casey G; Gao, Feng; Gargava, Ankit; Trachtenberg, Jordan E; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2017-04-12

    In the past few decades, 3D printing has played a significant role in fabricating scaffolds with consistent, complex structure that meet patient-specific needs in future clinical applications. Although many studies have contributed to this emerging field of additive manufacturing, which includes material development and computer-aided scaffold design, current quantitative analyses do not correlate material properties, printing parameters, and printing outcomes to a great extent. A model that correlates these properties has tremendous potential to standardize 3D printing for tissue engineering and biomaterial science. In this study, we printed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) utilizing a direct melt extrusion technique without additional ingredients. We investigated PLGA with various lactic acid:glycolic acid (LA:GA) molecular weight ratios and end caps to demonstrate the dependence of the extrusion process on the polymer composition. Micro-computed tomography was then used to evaluate printed scaffolds containing different LA:GA ratios, composed of different fiber patterns, and processed under different printing conditions. We built a statistical model to reveal the correlation and predominant factors that determine printing precision. Our model showed a strong linear relationship between the actual and predicted precision under different combinations of printing conditions and material compositions. This quantitative examination establishes a significant foreground to 3D print biomaterials following a systematic fabrication procedure. Additionally, our proposed statistical models can be applied to couple specific biomaterials and 3D printing applications for patient implants with particular requirements.

  12. MO-A-9A-01: Innovation in Medical Physics Practice: 3D Printing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, E; Perks, J; Rasmussen, K; Bakic, P

    2014-06-15

    3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, has great potential to advance the field of medicine. Many medical uses have been exhibited from facial reconstruction to the repair of pulmonary obstructions. The strength of 3D printing is to quickly convert a 3D computer model into a physical object. Medical use of 3D models is already ubiquitous with technologies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus tailoring 3D printing technology to medical functions has the potential to impact patient care. This session will discuss applications to the field of Medical Physics. Topics discussed will include introduction to 3D printing methods as well as examples of real-world uses of 3D printing spanning clinical and research practice in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. The session will also compare 3D printing to other manufacturing processes and discuss a variety of uses of 3D printing technology outside the field of Medical Physics. Learning Objectives: Understand the technologies available for 3D Printing Understand methods to generate 3D models Identify the benefits and drawbacks to rapid prototyping / 3D Printing Understand the potential issues related to clinical use of 3D Printing.

  13. Optical Approach to Resin Formulation for 3D Printed Microfluidics†

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Hua; Beauchamp, Michael; Perry, Steven; Woolley, Adam T.

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics imposes different requirements on 3D printing compared to many applications because the critical features for microfluidics consist of internal microvoids. Resins for general 3D printing applications, however, are not necessarily formulated to meet the requirements of microfluidics and minimize the size of fabricated voids. In this paper we use an optical approach to guide custom formulation of resins to minimize the cross sectional size of fabricated flow channels as exemplars of such voids. We focus on stereolithgraphy (SL) 3D printing with Digital Light Processing (DLP) based on a micromirror array and use a commercially available 3D printer. We develop a mathematical model for the optical dose delivered through the thickness of a 3D printed part, including the effect of voids. We find that there is a fundamental trade-off between the homogeneity of the optical dose within individual layers and how far the critical dose penetrates into a flow channel during fabrication. We also experimentally investigate the practical limits of flow channel miniaturization given the optical properties of a resin and find that the minimum flow channel height is ~3.5–5.5ha where ha is the optical penetration depth of the resin, and that the minimum width is 4 pixels in the build plane. We also show that the ratio of the build layer thickness to ha should be in the range 0.3–1.0 to obtain the minimum flow channel height for a given resin. The minimum flow channel size that we demonstrate for a custom resin is 60 μm × 108 μm for a 10 μm build layer thickness. This work lays the foundation for 3D printing of <100 μm microfluidic features. PMID:26744624

  14. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krachunov, Sammy; Casson, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf components for the first time. This allows quick and inexpensive electrode manufacturing and opens the possibility of creating electrodes that are customized for each individual user. Our 3D printed electrodes are compared against standard wet electrodes, and the performance of the proposed electrodes is suitable for BCI applications, despite the presence of additional noise. PMID:27706094

  15. 3D printing of microscopic bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Jodi L.; Ritschdorff, Eric T.; Whiteley, Marvin; Shear, Jason B.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria communicate via short-range physical and chemical signals, interactions known to mediate quorum sensing, sporulation, and other adaptive phenotypes. Although most in vitro studies examine bacterial properties averaged over large populations, the levels of key molecular determinants of bacterial fitness and pathogenicity (e.g., oxygen, quorum-sensing signals) may vary over micrometer scales within small, dense cellular aggregates believed to play key roles in disease transmission. A detailed understanding of how cell–cell interactions contribute to pathogenicity in natural, complex environments will require a new level of control in constructing more relevant cellular models for assessing bacterial phenotypes. Here, we describe a microscopic three-dimensional (3D) printing strategy that enables multiple populations of bacteria to be organized within essentially any 3D geometry, including adjacent, nested, and free-floating colonies. In this laser-based lithographic technique, microscopic containers are formed around selected bacteria suspended in gelatin via focal cross-linking of polypeptide molecules. After excess reagent is removed, trapped bacteria are localized within sealed cavities formed by the cross-linked gelatin, a highly porous material that supports rapid growth of fully enclosed cellular populations and readily transmits numerous biologically active species, including polypeptides, antibiotics, and quorum-sensing signals. Using this approach, we show that a picoliter-volume aggregate of Staphylococcus aureus can display substantial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by enclosure within a shell composed of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:24101503

  16. Sculplexity: Sculptures of Complexity using 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, D. S.; Price, J. J.; Evans, T. S.

    2013-11-01

    We show how to convert models of complex systems such as 2D cellular automata into a 3D printed object. Our method takes into account the limitations inherent to 3D printing processes and materials. Our approach automates the greater part of this task, bypassing the use of CAD software and the need for manual design. As a proof of concept, a physical object representing a modified forest fire model was successfully printed. Automated conversion methods similar to the ones developed here can be used to create objects for research, for demonstration and teaching, for outreach, or simply for aesthetic pleasure. As our outputs can be touched, they may be particularly useful for those with visual disabilities.

  17. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  18. 3D Printing of Ultratough Polyion Complex Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengbo; Cheng, Libo; Yin, Jun; Wu, Zi Liang; Qian, Jin; Fu, Jianzhong; Zheng, Qiang

    2016-11-16

    Polyion complex (PIC) hydrogels have been proposed as promising engineered soft materials due to their high toughness and good processability. In this work, we reported manufacturing of complex structures with tough PIC hydrogels based on three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. The strategy relies on the distinct strength of ionic bonding in PIC hydrogels at different stages of printing. In concentrated saline solution, PIC forms viscous solution, which can be directly extruded out of a nozzle into water, where dialyzing out of salt and counterions results in sol-gel transition to form tough physical PIC gel with intricate structures. The printability of PIC solutions was systematically investigated by adjusting the PIC material formula and printing parameters in which proper viscosity and gelation rate were found to be key factors for successful 3D printing. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to printed single fibers and multilayer grids, both exhibiting distinct yet controllable strength and toughness. More complex 3D structures with negative Poisson's ratio, gradient grid, and material anisotropy were constructed as well, demonstrating the flexible printability of PIC hydrogels. The methodology and capability here provide a versatile platform to fabricate complex structures with tough PIC hydrogels, which should broaden the use of such materials in applications such as biomedical devices and artificial tissues.

  19. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. For example, digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts, to the point where parts might be cheaper to print than to make by traditional means in a plant and ship. Some key benefits of additive manufacturing include short lead times, complex shapes, parts on demand, zero required inventory and less material waste. Even subtractive processing, such as milling and etching, may be economized by additive manufacturing. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that the marriage of these technologies can bring to geosciences, including examples from our current research initiatives in developing constitutive laws for transport and geomechanics via digital rock physics. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of

  20. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  1. 3D printing in chemistry: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatford, Ryan; Karanassios, Vassili

    2016-05-01

    During the last years, 3d printing for rapid prototyping using additive manufacturing has been receiving increased attention in the technical and scientific literature including some Chemistry-related journals. Furthermore, 3D printing technology (defining size and resolution of 3D objects) and properties of printed materials (e.g., strength, resistance to chemical attack, electrical insulation) proved to be important for chemistry-related applications. In this paper these are discussed in detail. In addition, application of 3D printing for development of Micro Plasma Devices (MPDs) is discussed and 2d-profilometry data of a 3D printed surfaces is reported. And, past and present chemistry and bio-related applications of 3D printing are reviewed and possible future directions are postulated.

  2. 3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mallory M.; Werkheiser, Mary J.; Cooper, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Michael P.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/ objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up specialized manufacturing hardware to perform the entire range of function traditionally machining requires. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible

  3. Cyto-3D-print to attach mitotic cells.

    PubMed

    Castroagudin, Michelle R; Zhai, Yujia; Li, Zhi; Marnell, Michael G; Glavy, Joseph S

    2016-08-01

    The Cyto-3D-print is an adapter that adds cytospin capability to a standard centrifuge. Like standard cytospinning, Cyto-3D-print increases the surface attachment of mitotic cells while giving a higher degree of adaptability to other slide chambers than available commercial devices. The use of Cyto-3D-print is cost effective, safe, and applicable to many slide designs. It is durable enough for repeated use and made of biodegradable materials for environment-friendly disposal.

  4. Design of 3D-Printed Titanium Compliant Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Howell, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes 3D-printed titanium compliant mechanisms for aerospace applications. It is meant as a primer to help engineers design compliant, multi-axis, printed parts that exhibit high performance. Topics covered include brief introductions to both compliant mechanism design and 3D printing in titanium, material and geometry considerations for 3D printing, modeling techniques, and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful part geometries. Key findings include recommended flexure geometries, minimum thicknesses, and general design guidelines for compliant printed parts that may not be obvious to the first time designer.

  5. Review: Polymeric-Based 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geng-Hsi; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, also referred to as additive manufacturing, is a technology that allows for customized fabrication through computer-aided design. 3D printing has many advantages in the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds, including fast fabrication, high precision, and customized production. Suitable scaffolds can be designed and custom-made based on medical images such as those obtained from computed tomography. Many 3D printing methods have been employed for tissue engineering. There are advantages and limitations for each method. Future areas of interest and progress are the development of new 3D printing platforms, scaffold design software, and materials for tissue engineering applications.

  6. 3D printing: making things at the library.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    3D printers are a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Uses for these printers include printing models, parts, and toys. 3D printers are also being developed for medical applications, including printed bone, skin, and even complete organs. Although medical printing lags behind other uses for 3D printing, it has the potential to radically change the practice of medicine over the next decade. Falling costs for hardware have made 3D printers an inexpensive technology that libraries can offer their patrons. Medical librarians will want to be familiar with this technology, as it is sure to have wide-reaching effects on the practice of medicine.

  7. 3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth C.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA's Marshall Space Fligth Center (MSFC) and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the frst machine to perform 3D printing in space.

  8. 3D-printing technologies for electrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-05-21

    Since its conception during the 80s, 3D-printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has been receiving unprecedented levels of attention and interest from industry and research laboratories. This is in addition to end users, who have benefited from the pervasiveness of desktop-size and relatively cheap printing machines available. 3D-printing enables almost infinite possibilities for rapid prototyping. Therefore, it has been considered for applications in numerous research fields, ranging from mechanical engineering, medicine, and materials science to chemistry. Electrochemistry is another branch of science that can certainly benefit from 3D-printing technologies, paving the way for the design and fabrication of cheaper, higher performing, and ubiquitously available electrochemical devices. Here, we aim to provide a general overview of the most commonly available 3D-printing methods along with a review of recent electrochemistry related studies adopting 3D-printing as a possible rapid prototyping fabrication tool.

  9. Improved resolution of 3D printed scaffolds by shrinking.

    PubMed

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) uses inkjet printheads to selectively deposit liquid binder to adjoin powder particles in a layer-by-layer fashion to create a computer-modeled 3D object. Two general approaches for 3DP have been described for biomedical applications (direct and indirect 3DP). The two approaches offer competing advantages, and both are limited by print resolution. This study describes a materials processing strategy to enhance 3DP resolution by controlled shrinking net-shape scaffolds. Briefly, porogen preforms are printed and infused with the desired monomer or polymer solution. After solidification or polymerization, the porogen is leached and the polymer is allowed to shrink by controlled drying. Heat treatment is performed to retain the dimensions against swelling forces. The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of polymer content and post-processing on dimension, microstructure, and thermomechanical properties of the scaffold. For polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA), reducing polymer content corresponded with greater shrinkage with maximum shrinkage of ∼80 vol% at 20% vol% PEG-DA. The secondary heat treatment retains the microarchitecture and new dimensions of the scaffolds, even when the heat-treated scaffolds are immersed into water. To demonstrate shrinkage predictability, 3D components with interlocking positive and negative features were printed, processed, and fitted. This material processing strategy provides an alternative method to enhance the resolution of 3D scaffolds, for a wide range of polymers, without optimizing the binder-powder interaction physics to print each material combination.

  10. Applications of 3D printing in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Mitsouras, Dimitris; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Liu, Peter P; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Rybicki, Frank J

    2016-12-01

    3D-printed models fabricated from CT, MRI, or echocardiography data provide the advantage of haptic feedback, direct manipulation, and enhanced understanding of cardiovascular anatomy and underlying pathologies. Reported applications of cardiovascular 3D printing span from diagnostic assistance and optimization of management algorithms in complex cardiovascular diseases, to planning and simulating surgical and interventional procedures. The technology has been used in practically the entire range of structural, valvular, and congenital heart diseases, and the added-value of 3D printing is established. Patient-specific implants and custom-made devices can be designed, produced, and tested, thus opening new horizons in personalized patient care and cardiovascular research. Physicians and trainees can better elucidate anatomical abnormalities with the use of 3D-printed models, and communication with patients is markedly improved. Cardiovascular 3D bioprinting and molecular 3D printing, although currently not translated into clinical practice, hold revolutionary potential. 3D printing is expected to have a broad influence in cardiovascular care, and will prove pivotal for the future generation of cardiovascular imagers and care providers. In this Review, we summarize the cardiovascular 3D printing workflow, from image acquisition to the generation of a hand-held model, and discuss the cardiovascular applications and the current status and future perspectives of cardiovascular 3D printing.

  11. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. Methods To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6–8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 107 hepatocytes with 80%–90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Results Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Conclusion Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers. PMID:28203553

  12. 3D Modeling Techniques for Print and Digital Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Megan Ashley

    In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create 3D models, 3D scanning, and 3D printing. The models created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a model of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart models from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and 3D scanning, and successfully printed 3D heart models. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate models for use in both animation and print media. The 3D scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to 3D print using two different techniques as well.

  13. 3D printing technology speeds development.

    PubMed

    McGowan, James

    2013-10-01

    James McGowan, R&D product designer for Monodraught, a specialist in 'natural ventilation, natural daylight, and natural cooling systems', discusses the development of Cool-phase, the company's latest innovative application of phase change material (PCM) as a thermal energy store used to actively ventilate and cool buildings. As he explains, when the company decided to re-design an already successful product to further enhance its performance, the use of 3D modelling greatly speeded up prototyping, and helped the design process progress considerably more quickly.

  14. Design and development of a 3D printed UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, Christopher P.

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the viability and practicality of using a desktop 3D printer to fabricate small UAV airframes. To that end, ASTM based bending and tensile tests were conducted to assess the effects of print orientation, infill density, infill pattern, and infill orientation on the structural properties of 3D printed components. A Vernier Structures & Materials Tester was used to record force and displacement data from which stress-strain diagrams, yielding strength, maximum strength, and the moduli of elasticity were found. Results indicated that print orientation and infill density had the greatest impact on strength. In bending, vertically printed test pieces showed the greatest strength, with yield strengths 1.6 - 10.4% higher than conventionally extruded ABS's 64.0MPa average flexural strength. In contrast, the horizontally printed specimens showed yield strengths reduced anywhere from 17.0 - 34.9%. The tensile test specimens also exhibited reduced strength relative to ABS's average tensile yield strength of 40.7MPa. Test pieces with 20% infill density saw strength reductions anywhere from 47.8 - 55.6%, and those with 50% saw strength reductions from 33.6 - 47.8%. Only a single test piece with 100%, 45° crisscross infill achieved tensile performance on par with that of conventionally fabricated ABS. Its yield strength was 43MPa, a positive strength difference of 5.5%. As a supplement to the tensile and bending tests, a prototype printable airplane, the Phoebe, was designed. Its development process in turn provided the opportunity to develop techniques for printing various aircraft components such as fuselage sections, airfoils, and live-in hinges. Initial results seem promising, with the prototype's first production run requiring 19 hours of print time and an additional 4 - 5 hours of assembly time. The maiden flight test demonstrated that the design was stable and controllable in sustained flight.

  15. A new chapter in pharmaceutical manufacturing: 3D-printed drug products.

    PubMed

    Norman, James; Madurawe, Rapti D; Moore, Christine M V; Khan, Mansoor A; Khairuzzaman, Akm

    2017-01-01

    FDA recently approved a 3D-printed drug product in August 2015, which is indicative of a new chapter for pharmaceutical manufacturing. This review article summarizes progress with 3D printed drug products and discusses process development for solid oral dosage forms. 3D printing is a layer-by-layer process capable of producing 3D drug products from digital designs. Traditional pharmaceutical processes, such as tablet compression, have been used for decades with established regulatory pathways. These processes are well understood, but antiquated in terms of process capability and manufacturing flexibility. 3D printing, as a platform technology, has competitive advantages for complex products, personalized products, and products made on-demand. These advantages create opportunities for improving the safety, efficacy, and accessibility of medicines. Although 3D printing differs from traditional manufacturing processes for solid oral dosage forms, risk-based process development is feasible. This review highlights how product and process understanding can facilitate the development of a control strategy for different 3D printing methods. Overall, the authors believe that the recent approval of a 3D printed drug product will stimulate continual innovation in pharmaceutical manufacturing technology. FDA encourages the development of advanced manufacturing technologies, including 3D-printing, using science- and risk-based approaches.

  16. Multiprocess 3D printing for increasing component functionality.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Eric; Wicker, Ryan

    2016-09-30

    Layer-by-layer deposition of materials to manufacture parts-better known as three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing-has been flourishing as a fabrication process in the past several years and now can create complex geometries for use as models, assembly fixtures, and production molds. Increasing interest has focused on the use of this technology for direct manufacturing of production parts; however, it remains generally limited to single-material fabrication, which can limit the end-use functionality of the fabricated structures. The next generation of 3D printing will entail not only the integration of dissimilar materials but the embedding of active components in order to deliver functionality that was not possible previously. Examples could include arbitrarily shaped electronics with integrated microfluidic thermal management and intelligent prostheses custom-fit to the anatomy of a specific patient. We review the state of the art in multiprocess (or hybrid) 3D printing, in which complementary processes, both novel and traditional, are combined to advance the future of manufacturing.

  17. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  18. 3D Printing of Molecular Potential Energy Surface Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lolur, Phalgun; Dawes, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, is gaining popularity in a variety of applications and has recently become routinely available. Today, 3D printing services are not only found in engineering design labs and through online companies, but also in university libraries offering student access. In addition, affordable options for…

  19. 3D-printing of lightweight cellular composites.

    PubMed

    Compton, Brett G; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2014-09-10

    A new epoxy-based ink is reported, which enables 3D printing of lightweight cellular composites with controlled alignment of multiscale, high-aspectratio fiber reinforcement to create hierarchical structures inspired by balsa wood. Young's modulus values up to 10 times higher than existing commercially available 3D-printed polymers are attainable, while comparable strength values are maintained.

  20. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients.

  1. 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kief, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat project is designed to advance the state-of-the-art in 3D printing for CubeSat applications. Printing in 3D has the potential to increase reliability, reduce design iteration time and provide greater design flexibility in the areas of radiation mitigation, communications, propulsion, and wiring, among others. This project is investigating the possibility of including propulsion systems into the design of printed CubeSat components. One such concept, an embedded micro pulsed plasma thruster (mPPT), could provide auxiliary reaction control propulsion for a spacecraft as a means to desaturate momentum wheels.

  2. ABS 3D printed solutions for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, E.; Bozzo, B.; Sevilla, P.; Martínez-Pasarell, O.; Puig, T.; Granados, X.

    2017-03-01

    3D printing has become a common, inexpensive and rapid prototyping technique, enabling the ad hoc fabrication of complex shapes. In this paper, we demonstrate that 3D printed objects in ABS can be used at cryogenic temperatures, offering flexible solutions in different fields. Firstly, a thermo-mechanical characterization of ABS 3D printed specimens at 77 K is reported, which allowed us to delimit the type of cryogenic uses where 3D printed pieces may be implemented. Secondly, we present three different examples where ABS 3D printed objects working at low temperatures have provided specific solutions: (i) SQUID inserts for angular magnetometry (low temperature material characterization field); (ii) a cage support for a metamaterial ;magnetic concentrator; (superconductivity application), and (iii) dedicated tools for cryopreservation in assisted reproductive techniques (medicine field).

  3. Modelling Polymer Deformation and Welding Behaviour during 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    2016-11-01

    3D printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The most common method, fused deposition modelling, involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion of the material to fabricate a three-dimensional object. The key to the ensuring strength at the weld between these layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, as the printed layer cools towards the glass transition temperature, the time available for diffusion is limited. In addition, the extrusion process significantly deforms the polymer micro-structure prior to welding and consequently affects how the polymers "re-entangle" across the weld. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal printing process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and amorphous polymer rheology have on the ultimate weld structure. In particular, we incorporate both the stretch and orientation of the polymer using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine how the melt flows through the nozzle and is deposited onto the build plate. We then address how this deformation relaxes and contributes to the thickness and structure of the weld. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and Georgetown University.

  4. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2016-05-05

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation) in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF) and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes.

  5. 3D Printing of Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration Applications

    PubMed Central

    Do, Anh-Vu; Khorsand, Behnoush; Geary, Sean M.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2015-01-01

    The current need for organ and tissue replacement, repair and regeneration for patients is continually growing such that supply is not meeting the high demand primarily due to a paucity of donors as well as biocompatibility issues that lead to immune rejection of the transplant. In an effort to overcome these drawbacks, scientists working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have investigated the use of scaffolds as an alternative to transplantation. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) by providing structural support as well as promoting attachment, proliferation, and differentiation with the ultimate goal of yielding functional tissues or organs. Initial attempts at developing scaffolds were problematic and subsequently inspired a growing interest in 3D printing as a mode for generating scaffolds. Utilizing three-dimensional printing (3DP) technologies, ECM-like scaffolds can be produced with a high degree of complexity and precision, where fine details can be included at a micron level. In this review, we discuss the criteria for printing viable and functional scaffolds, scaffolding materials, and 3DP technologies used to print scaffolds for tissue engineering. A hybrid approach, employing both natural and synthetic materials, as well as multiple printing processes may be the key to yielding an ECM-like scaffold with high mechanical strength, porosity, interconnectivity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and high processability. Creating such biofunctional scaffolds could potentially help to meet the demand by patients for tissues and organs without having to wait or rely on donors for transplantation. PMID:26097108

  6. [Tissue printing; the potential application of 3D printing in medicine].

    PubMed

    Visser, Jetze; Melchels, Ferry P W; Dhert, Wouter J A; Malda, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Complex structures based on a digital blueprint can be created using a 3D printer. As this blueprint can be created using patient imaging data, there are many potential patient-specific applications of 3D printing in medicine. Individually printed metal implants and synthetic devices are currently being used on a limited scale in clinical practice. Researchers in the field of regenerative medicine are now going a step further by printing a combination of cells, growth factors and biomaterials. This process is known as 'bioprinting'. It can be used to copy the complex organization of natural tissue required to repair or replace damaged tissues or organs. The technique needs to be optimized, however, and more knowledge is required regarding the development of printed living constructs into functional tissues before 'tissue from the printer' can be clinically applied.

  7. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; McMenamin, Paul G.; Findlay, Michael W.; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  8. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; McMenamin, Paul G; Findlay, Michael W; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  9. 3D printing of interdigitated Li-ion microbattery architectures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ke; Wei, Teng-Sing; Ahn, Bok Yeop; Seo, Jung Yoon; Dillon, Shen J; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2013-09-06

    3D interdigitated microbattery architectures (3D-IMA) are fabricated by printing concentrated lithium oxide-based inks. The microbatteries are composed of interdigitated, high-aspect ratio cathode and anode structures. Our 3D-IMA, which exhibit high areal energy and power densities, may find potential application in autonomously powered microdevices.

  10. The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jimin; Jiang, Yijian; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-04-01

    Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hi-tech which combines traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. At the present time there are four levels application: The printed 3D model is the first and simple application. The surgery makes use of the model to plan the processing before operation. The second is customized operation tools such as implant guide. It helps doctor to operate with special tools rather than the normal medical tools. The third level application of 3D printing in medical area is to print artificial bones or teeth to implant into human body. The big challenge is the fourth level which is to print organs with 3D printing technology. In this paper we introduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. We use 3D printing to print guide for invasion operation. Puncture needles were guided by printed guide in face tumors operation. It is concluded that this new type guide is dominantly advantageous.

  11. Improved Surgery Planning Using 3-D Printing: a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A J; Shetty, V; Bhagavan, K R; Ragothaman, Ananthan; Shetty, V; Koneru, Ganesh; Agarwala, M

    2016-04-01

    The role of 3-D printing is presented for improved patient-specific surgery planning. Key benefits are time saved and surgery outcome. Two hard-tissue surgery models were 3-D printed, for orthopedic, pelvic surgery, and craniofacial surgery. We discuss software data conversion in computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) medical image for 3-D printing. 3-D printed models save time in surgery planning and help visualize complex pre-operative anatomy. Time saved in surgery planning can be as much as two thirds. In addition to improved surgery accuracy, 3-D printing presents opportunity in materials research. Other hard-tissue and soft-tissue cases in maxillofacial, abdominal, thoracic, cardiac, orthodontics, and neurosurgery are considered. We recommend using 3-D printing as standard protocol for surgery planning and for teaching surgery practices. A quick turnaround time of a 3-D printed surgery model, in improved accuracy in surgery planning, is helpful for the surgery team. It is recommended that these costs be within 20 % of the total surgery budget.

  12. Centralised 3D printing in the NHS: a radiological review.

    PubMed

    Eley, K A

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) printing has seen an explosion of interest fuelled by improvements in technology and associated reduction in costs. The literature is replete with novel medical applications of custom anatomical models, prostheses, and surgical guides. Although the fundamental core of 3D printing lies in image manipulation, the driving force in many National Health Service (NHS) trusts has come from individual surgical specialties with 3D printers independently run and confined to respective departments. In this review of 3D printing, experience of establishing a new centralised 3D-printing service within an NHS hospital trust is reported, focusing on the requirements and challenges of such an endeavour.

  13. Bringing 3D Printing to Geophysical Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, A.; Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    3D printing technology has been embraced by many technical fields, and is rapidly making its way into peoples' homes and schools. While there is a growing educational and hobbyist community engaged in the STEM focused technical and intellectual challenges associated with 3D printing, there is unrealized potential for the earth science community to use 3D printing to communicate scientific research to the public. Moreover, 3D printing offers scientists the opportunity to connect students and the public with novel visualizations of real data. As opposed to introducing terrestrial measurements through the use of colormaps and gradients, scientists can represent 3D concepts with 3D models, offering a more intuitive education tool. Furthermore, the tactile aspect of models make geophysical concepts accessible to a wide range of learning styles like kinesthetic or tactile, and learners including both visually impaired and color-blind students.We present a workflow whereby scientists, students, and the general public will be able to 3D print their own versions of geophysical datasets, even adding time through layering to include a 4th dimension, for a "4D" print. This will enable scientists with unique and expert insights into the data to easily create the tools they need to communicate their research. It will allow educators to quickly produce teaching aids for their students. Most importantly, it will enable the students themselves to translate the 2D representation of geophysical data into a 3D representation of that same data, reinforcing spatial reasoning.

  14. 3D Printed Micro Free-Flow Electrophoresis Device.

    PubMed

    Anciaux, Sarah K; Geiger, Matthew; Bowser, Michael T

    2016-08-02

    The cost, time, and restrictions on creative flexibility associated with current fabrication methods present significant challenges in the development and application of microfluidic devices. Additive manufacturing, also referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, provides many advantages over existing methods. With 3D printing, devices can be made in a cost-effective manner with the ability to rapidly prototype new designs. We have fabricated a micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) device using a low-cost, consumer-grade 3D printer. Test prints were performed to determine the minimum feature sizes that could be reproducibly produced using 3D printing fabrication. Microfluidic ridges could be fabricated with dimensions as small as 20 μm high × 640 μm wide. Minimum valley dimensions were 30 μm wide × 130 μm wide. An acetone vapor bath was used to smooth acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surfaces and facilitate bonding of fully enclosed channels. The surfaces of the 3D-printed features were profiled and compared to a similar device fabricated in a glass substrate. Stable stream profiles were obtained in a 3D-printed μFFE device. Separations of fluorescent dyes in the 3D-printed device and its glass counterpart were comparable. A μFFE separation of myoglobin and cytochrome c was also demonstrated on a 3D-printed device. Limits of detection for rhodamine 110 were determined to be 2 and 0.3 nM for the 3D-printed and glass devices, respectively.

  15. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    SciTech Connect

    Zwicker, Andrew P.; Bloom, Josh; Albertson, Robert; Gershman, Sophia

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  16. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  17. 3D print of polymer bonded rare-earth magnets, and 3D magnetic field scanning with an end-user 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, C.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Groenefeld, M.; Muthsam, O.; Schuschnigg, S.; Sirak, K.; Thanhoffer, R.; Teliban, I.; Vogler, C.; Windl, R.; Suess, D.

    2016-10-01

    3D print is a recently developed technique, for single-unit production, and for structures that have been impossible to build previously. The current work presents a method to 3D print polymer bonded isotropic hard magnets with a low-cost, end-user 3D printer. Commercially available isotropic NdFeB powder inside a PA11 matrix is characterized, and prepared for the printing process. An example of a printed magnet with a complex shape that was designed to generate a specific stray field is presented, and compared with finite element simulation solving the macroscopic Maxwell equations. For magnetic characterization, and comparing 3D printed structures with injection molded parts, hysteresis measurements are performed. To measure the stray field outside the magnet, the printer is upgraded to a 3D magnetic flux density measurement system. To skip an elaborate adjusting of the sensor, a simulation is used to calibrate the angles, sensitivity, and the offset of the sensor. With this setup, a measurement resolution of 0.05 mm along the z-axes is achievable. The effectiveness of our calibration method is shown. With our setup, we are able to print polymer bonded magnetic systems with the freedom of having a specific complex shape with locally tailored magnetic properties. The 3D scanning setup is easy to mount, and with our calibration method we are able to get accurate measuring results of the stray field.

  18. 3D-printed microfluidic chips with patterned, cell-laden hydrogel constructs.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Ersoy, Fulya; Emadi, Sharareh; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers potential to fabricate high-throughput and low-cost fabrication of microfluidic devices as a promising alternative to traditional techniques which enables efficient design iterations in the development stage. In this study, we demonstrate a single-step fabrication of a 3D transparent microfluidic chip using two alternative techniques: a stereolithography-based desktop 3D printer and a two-step fabrication using an industrial 3D printer based on polyjet technology. This method, compared to conventional fabrication using relatively expensive materials and labor-intensive processes, presents a low-cost, rapid prototyping technique to print functional 3D microfluidic chips. We enhance the capabilities of 3D-printed microfluidic devices by coupling 3D cell encapsulation and spatial patterning within photocrosslinkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA). The platform presented here serves as a 3D culture environment for long-term cell culture and growth. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the ability to print complex 3D microfluidic channels to create predictable and controllable fluid flow regimes. Here, we demonstrate the novel use of 3D-printed microfluidic chips as controllable 3D cell culture environments, advancing the applicability of 3D printing to engineering physiological systems for future applications in bioengineering.

  19. 3D printing technology using high viscous materials - Synthesis of functional materials and fabrication of 3D metal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongik

    In the 3D printing technology, the research for using various materials has been performing. In this research work, 3D printable high viscous materials are suggested as one of the solutions for problems in the traditional 3D printing technology. First, Cu-Ag coreshell was synthesized as a functional material. In terms of the reaction rate, reaction rate limiting step was defined as a fundamental research, and then prepared Cu-Ag coreshell was printed and analyzed. Second, the high viscous Cu paste was prepared and then metal 3D printed structure was fabricated by using new printing method. In the synthesis of Cu-Ag coreshell, different sizes of Cu particle, 2μm and 100nm were used, and when 2μm Cu was applied, the reaction rate was limited by film diffusion control. However, when 100nm Cu was applied, reaction rate was controlled by CuO film and the rate of the reaction, which includes removing CuO film in the solution, is limited by chemical reaction control. The shape of Cu-Ag particle is spherical in the 2μm Cu condition and dendrite shape in the 100nm Cu condition respectively. The conductivity of Cu-Ag coreshell paste increased as increasing content of coreshell particle in the paste and sintering temperature. In order to print high viscous metal paste, the high viscous Cu paste was printed by using screw extruder, and the viscosity of Cu paste was measured as a fundamental research. As increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste, the viscosity also increased. In addition, the shrinkage factor was reduced by increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste. An optimized printing condition for the high viscous material was obtained, and by using this condition, 3D metal structure was fabricated. The final product was heat treated and polished. Through these processes, a fine quality of metal 3D structure was printed.

  20. DIY 3D printing of custom orthopaedic implants: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Frame, Mark; Leach, William

    2014-03-01

    3D printing is an emerging technology that is primarily used for aiding the design and prototyping of implants. As this technology has evolved it has now become possible to produce functional and definitive implants manufactured using a 3D printing process. This process, however, previously required a large financial investment in complex machinery and professionals skilled in 3D product design. Our pilot study's aim was to design and create a 3D printed custom orthopaedic implant using only freely available consumer hardware and software.

  1. Materials Manufactured from 3D Printed Synthetic Biology Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Diana; Micks, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Many complex, biologically-derived materials have extremely useful properties (think wood or silk), but are unsuitable for space-related applications due to production, manufacturing, or processing limitations. Large-scale ecosystem-based production, such as raising and harvesting trees for wood, is impractical in a self-contained habitat such as a space station or potential Mars colony. Manufacturing requirements, such as the specialized equipment needed to harvest and process cotton, add too much upmass for current launch technology. Cells in nature are already highly specialized for making complex biological materials on a micro scale. We envision combining these strengths with the recently emergent technologies of synthetic biology and 3D printing to create 3D-structured arrays of cells that are bioengineered to secrete different materials in a specified three-dimensional pattern.

  2. Study of capabilities and limitations of 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemu, H. G.

    2012-04-01

    3D printing is one of the developments in rapid prototyping technology. The inception and development of the technology has highly assisted the product development phase of product design and manufacturing. The technology is particularly important in educating product design and 3D modeling because it helps students to visualize their design idea, to enhance their creative design process and enables them to touch and feel the result of their innovative work. The availability of many 3D printers on the market has created a certain level of challenge for the user. Among others, complexity of part geometry, material type, compatibility with 3D CAD models and other technical aspects still need in-depth study. This paper presents results of the experimental work on the capabilities and limitations of the Z510 3D printer from Z-corporation. Several parameters such as dimensional and geometrical accuracy, surface quality and strength as a function of model size, orientation and file exchange format are closely studied.

  3. 3D printing of photocurable poly(glycerol sebacate) elastomers.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Highley, Christopher B; Ouyang, Liliang; Burdick, Jason A

    2016-10-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds have great potential in biomedicine; however, it is important that we are able to design such scaffolds with a range of diverse properties towards specific applications. Here, we report the extrusion-based 3D printing of biodegradable and photocurable acrylated polyglycerol sebacate (Acr-PGS) to fabricate scaffolds with elastic properties. Two Acr-PGS macromers were synthesized with varied molecular weights and viscosity, which were then blended to obtain photocurable macromer inks with a range of viscosities. The quality of extruded and photocured scaffolds was dependent on the initial ink viscosity, with flow of printed material resulting in a loss of structural resolution or sample breaking observed with too low or too high viscosity inks, respectively. However, scaffolds with high print resolution and up to ten layers were fabricated with an optimal ink viscosity. The mechanical properties of printed scaffolds were dependent on printing density, where the scaffolds with lower printing density possessed lower moduli and failure properties than higher density scaffolds. The 3D printed scaffolds supported the culture of 3T3 fibroblasts and both spreading and proliferation were observed, indicating that 3D printed Acr-PGS scaffolds are cytocompatible. These results demonstrate that Acr-PGS is a promising material for the fabrication of elastomeric scaffolds for biomedical applications.

  4. Surgeon-Based 3D Printing for Microvascular Bone Flaps.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erin M; Iorio, Matthew L

    2017-03-04

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) printing has developed as a revolutionary technology with the capacity to design accurate physical models in preoperative planning. We present our experience in surgeon-based design of 3D models, using home 3D software and printing technology for use as an adjunct in vascularized bone transfer. Methods Home 3D printing techniques were used in the design and execution of vascularized bone flap transfers to the upper extremity. Open source imaging software was used to convert preoperative computed tomography scans and create 3D models. These were printed in the surgeon's office as 3D models for the planned reconstruction. Vascularized bone flaps were designed intraoperatively based on the 3D printed models. Results Three-dimensional models were created for intraoperative use in vascularized bone flaps, including (1) medial femoral trochlea (MFT) flap for scaphoid avascular necrosis and nonunion, (2) MFT flap for lunate avascular necrosis and nonunion, (3) medial femoral condyle (MFC) flap for wrist arthrodesis, and (4) free fibula osteocutaneous flap for distal radius septic nonunion. Templates based on the 3D models allowed for the precise and rapid contouring of well-vascularized bone flaps in situ, prior to ligating the donor pedicle. Conclusions Surgeon-based 3D printing is a feasible, innovative technology that allows for the precise and rapid contouring of models that can be created in various configurations for pre- and intraoperative planning. The technology is easy to use, convenient, and highly economical as compared with traditional send-out manufacturing. Surgeon-based 3D printing is a useful adjunct in vascularized bone transfer. Level of Evidence Level IV.

  5. Applications of patient-specific 3D printing in medicine.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin; Bauer, Heide-Katharina; Goetze, Elisabeth; Gielisch, Matthias; Roth, Klaus E; Drees, Philipp; Maier, Gerrit S; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Ghazy, Ahmed; Neufurth, Meik; Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Wang, Xiaohong; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    Already three decades ago, the potential of medical 3D printing (3DP) or rapid prototyping for improved patient treatment began to be recognized. Since then, more and more medical indications in different surgical disciplines have been improved by using this new technique. Numerous examples have demonstrated the enormous benefit of 3DP in the medical care of patients by, for example, planning complex surgical interventions preoperatively, reducing implantation steps and anesthesia times, and helping with intraoperative orientation. At the beginning of every individual 3D model, patient-specific data on the basis of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or ultrasound data is generated, which is then digitalized and processed using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software. Finally, the resulting data sets are used to generate 3D-printed models or even implants. There are a variety of different application areas in the various medical fields, eg, drill or positioning templates, or surgical guides in maxillofacial surgery, or patient-specific implants in orthopedics. Furthermore, in vascular surgery it is possible to visualize pathologies such as aortic aneurysms so as to improve the planning of surgical treatment. Although rapid prototyping of individual models and implants is already applied very successfully in regenerative medicine, most of the materials used for 3DP are not yet suitable for implantation in the body. Therefore, it will be necessary in future to develop novel therapy approaches and design new materials in order to completely reconstruct natural tissue.

  6. 3D printing of versatile reactionware for chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan; Chen, Wei; Lin, Chang-Gen; Song, Yu-Fei; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing) techniques have moved beyond their traditional applications in the fields of industrial manufacturing and prototyping to increasingly find roles in scientific research contexts, such as synthetic chemistry. We present a general approach for the production of bespoke chemical reactors, termed reactionware, using two different approaches to extrusion-based 3D printing. This protocol describes the printing of an inert polypropylene (PP) architecture with the concurrent printing of soft material catalyst composites, using two different 3D printer setups. The steps of the PROCEDURE describe the design and preparation of a 3D digital model of the desired reactionware device and the preparation of this model for use with fused deposition modeling (FDM) type 3D printers. The protocol then further describes the preparation of composite catalyst-silicone materials for incorporation into the 3D-printed device and the steps required to fabricate a reactionware device. This combined approach allows versatility in the design and use of reactionware based on the specific needs of the experimental user. To illustrate this, we present a detailed procedure for the production of one such reactionware device that will result in the production of a sealed reactor capable of effecting a multistep organic synthesis. Depending on the design time of the 3D model, and including time for curing and drying of materials, this procedure can be completed in ∼3 d.

  7. A Straightforward Approach for 3D Bacterial Printing.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Benjamin A E; Schmieden, Dominik T; Meyer, Anne S

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable and personally tailored materials production is an emerging challenge to society. Living organisms can produce and pattern an extraordinarily wide range of different molecules in a sustainable way. These natural systems offer an abundant source of inspiration for the development of new environmentally friendly materials production techniques. In this paper, we describe the first steps toward the 3-dimensional printing of bacterial cultures for materials production and patterning. This methodology combines the capability of bacteria to form new materials with the reproducibility and tailored approach of 3D printing systems. For this purpose, a commercial 3D printer was modified for bacterial systems, and new alginate-based bioink chemistry was developed. Printing temperature, printhead speed, and bioink extrusion rate were all adapted and customized to maximize bacterial health and spatial resolution of printed structures. Our combination of 3D printing technology with biological systems enables a sustainable approach for the production of numerous new materials.

  8. Medical Applications for 3D Printing: Current and Projected Uses.

    PubMed

    Ventola, C Lee

    2014-10-01

    3D printing is expected to revolutionize health care through uses in tissue and organ fabrication; creation of customized prosthetics, implants, and anatomical models; and pharmaceutical research regarding drug dosage forms, delivery, and discovery.

  9. Current progress in 3D printing for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mosadegh, Bobak; Xiong, Guanglei; Dunham, Simon; Min, James K

    2015-03-16

    3D printing is a technology that allows the fabrication of structures with arbitrary geometries and heterogeneous material properties. The application of this technology to biological structures that match the complexity of native tissue is of great interest to researchers. This mini-review highlights the current progress of 3D printing for fabricating artificial tissues of the cardiovascular system, specifically the myocardium, heart valves, and coronary arteries. In addition, how 3D printed sensors and actuators can play a role in tissue engineering is discussed. To date, all the work with building 3D cardiac tissues have been proof-of-principle demonstrations, and in most cases, yielded products less effective than other traditional tissue engineering strategies. However, this technology is in its infancy and therefore there is much promise that through collaboration between biologists, engineers and material scientists, 3D bioprinting can make a significant impact on the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering.

  10. Large Area Printing of 3D Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, James J.; Beaulieu, Michael R.; Hendricks, Nicholas R.; Kothari, Rohit

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a readily scalable print, lift, and stack approach for producing large area, 3D photonic crystal (PC) structures. UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was used to pattern grating structures comprised of highly filled nanoparticle polymer composite resists with tune-able refractive indices (RI). The gratings were robust and upon release from a support substrate were oriented and stacked to yield 3D PCs. The RI of the composite resists was tuned between 1.58 and 1.92 at 800 nm while maintaining excellent optical transparency. The grating structure dimensions, line width, depth, and pitch, were easily varied by simply changing the imprint mold. For example, a 6 layer log-pile stack was prepared using a composite resist a RI of 1.72 yielding 72 % reflection at 900 nm. The process is scalable for roll-to-roll (R2R) production. Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing - an NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center.

  11. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Foster, Christopher W; Down, Michael P; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Smith, Graham C; Kelly, Peter J; Banks, Craig E

    2017-03-03

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices' to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (-0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (-0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.

  12. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Christopher W.; Down, Michael P.; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices’ to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (−0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (−0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised. PMID:28256602

  13. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Christopher W.; Down, Michael P.; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.

    2017-03-01

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices’ to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (‑0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (‑0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.

  14. Recent advances in 3D printing of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    3D Printing promises to produce complex biomedical devices according to computer design using patient-specific anatomical data. Since its initial use as pre-surgical visualization models and tooling molds, 3D Printing has slowly evolved to create one-of-a-kind devices, implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, diagnostic platforms, and drug delivery systems. Fueled by the recent explosion in public interest and access to affordable printers, there is renewed interest to combine stem cells with custom 3D scaffolds for personalized regenerative medicine. Before 3D Printing can be used routinely for the regeneration of complex tissues (e.g. bone, cartilage, muscles, vessels, nerves in the craniomaxillofacial complex), and complex organs with intricate 3D microarchitecture (e.g. liver, lymphoid organs), several technological limitations must be addressed. In this review, the major materials and technology advances within the last five years for each of the common 3D Printing technologies (Three Dimensional Printing, Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering, Stereolithography, and 3D Plotting/Direct-Write/Bioprinting) are described. Examples are highlighted to illustrate progress of each technology in tissue engineering, and key limitations are identified to motivate future research and advance this fascinating field of advanced manufacturing.

  15. Study on embedding fiber Bragg grating sensor into the 3D printing structure for health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruiya; Tan, Yuegang; Zhou, Zude; Fang, Liang; Chen, Yiyang

    2016-10-01

    3D printing technology is a rapidly developing manufacturing technology, which is known as a core technology in the third industrial revolution. With the continuous improvement of the application of 3D printing products, the health monitoring of the 3D printing structure is particularly important. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing technology is a new type of optical sensing technology with unique advantages comparing to traditional sensing technology, and it has great application prospects in structural health monitoring. In this paper, the FBG sensors embedded in the internal structure of the 3D printing were used to monitor the static and dynamic strain variation of 3D printing structure during loading process. The theoretical result and experimental result has good consistency and the characteristic frequency detected by FBG sensor is consistent with the testing results of traditional accelerator in the dynamic experiment. The results of this paper preliminary validate that FBG embedded in the 3D printing structure can effectively detecting the static and dynamic stain change of the 3D printing structure, which provide some guidance for the health monitoring of 3D printing structure.

  16. MO-B-BRD-04: Sterilization for 3D Printed Brachytherapy Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, J.

    2015-06-15

    This session is designed so that the learning objectives are practical. The intent is that the attendee may take home an understanding of not just the technology, but also the logistical steps necessary to execute these 3D printing techniques in the clinic. Four practical 3D printing topics will be discussed: (i) Creating bolus and compensators for photon machines; (ii) tools for proton therapy; (iii) clinical applications in imaging; (iv) custom phantom design for clinic and research use. The use of 3D printers within the radiation oncology setting is proving to be a useful tool for creating patient specific bolus and compensators with the added benefit of cost savings. Creating the proper protocol is essential to ensuring that the desired effect is achieved and modeled in the treatment planning system. The critical choice of printer material (since it determines the interaction with the radiation) will be discussed. Selection of 3D printer type, design methods, verification of dose calculation, and the printing process will be detailed to give the basis for establishing your own protocol for electron and photon fields. A practical discussion of likely obstacles that may be encountered will be included. The diversity of systems and techniques in proton facilities leads to different facilities having very different requirements for beam modifying hardware and quality assurance devices. Many departments find the need to design and fabricate facility-specific equipment, making 3D printing an attractive technology. 3D printer applications in proton therapy will be discussed, including beam filters and compensators, and the design of proton therapy specific quality assurance tools. Quality control specific to 3D printing in proton therapy will be addressed. Advantages and disadvantages of different printing technology for these applications will also be discussed. 3D printing applications using high-resolution radiology-based imaging data will be presented. This data

  17. MO-B-BRD-00: Clinical Applications of 3D Printing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    This session is designed so that the learning objectives are practical. The intent is that the attendee may take home an understanding of not just the technology, but also the logistical steps necessary to execute these 3D printing techniques in the clinic. Four practical 3D printing topics will be discussed: (i) Creating bolus and compensators for photon machines; (ii) tools for proton therapy; (iii) clinical applications in imaging; (iv) custom phantom design for clinic and research use. The use of 3D printers within the radiation oncology setting is proving to be a useful tool for creating patient specific bolus and compensators with the added benefit of cost savings. Creating the proper protocol is essential to ensuring that the desired effect is achieved and modeled in the treatment planning system. The critical choice of printer material (since it determines the interaction with the radiation) will be discussed. Selection of 3D printer type, design methods, verification of dose calculation, and the printing process will be detailed to give the basis for establishing your own protocol for electron and photon fields. A practical discussion of likely obstacles that may be encountered will be included. The diversity of systems and techniques in proton facilities leads to different facilities having very different requirements for beam modifying hardware and quality assurance devices. Many departments find the need to design and fabricate facility-specific equipment, making 3D printing an attractive technology. 3D printer applications in proton therapy will be discussed, including beam filters and compensators, and the design of proton therapy specific quality assurance tools. Quality control specific to 3D printing in proton therapy will be addressed. Advantages and disadvantages of different printing technology for these applications will also be discussed. 3D printing applications using high-resolution radiology-based imaging data will be presented. This data

  18. MO-B-BRD-02: 3D Printing in the Clinic

    SciTech Connect

    Remmes, N.

    2015-06-15

    This session is designed so that the learning objectives are practical. The intent is that the attendee may take home an understanding of not just the technology, but also the logistical steps necessary to execute these 3D printing techniques in the clinic. Four practical 3D printing topics will be discussed: (i) Creating bolus and compensators for photon machines; (ii) tools for proton therapy; (iii) clinical applications in imaging; (iv) custom phantom design for clinic and research use. The use of 3D printers within the radiation oncology setting is proving to be a useful tool for creating patient specific bolus and compensators with the added benefit of cost savings. Creating the proper protocol is essential to ensuring that the desired effect is achieved and modeled in the treatment planning system. The critical choice of printer material (since it determines the interaction with the radiation) will be discussed. Selection of 3D printer type, design methods, verification of dose calculation, and the printing process will be detailed to give the basis for establishing your own protocol for electron and photon fields. A practical discussion of likely obstacles that may be encountered will be included. The diversity of systems and techniques in proton facilities leads to different facilities having very different requirements for beam modifying hardware and quality assurance devices. Many departments find the need to design and fabricate facility-specific equipment, making 3D printing an attractive technology. 3D printer applications in proton therapy will be discussed, including beam filters and compensators, and the design of proton therapy specific quality assurance tools. Quality control specific to 3D printing in proton therapy will be addressed. Advantages and disadvantages of different printing technology for these applications will also be discussed. 3D printing applications using high-resolution radiology-based imaging data will be presented. This data

  19. MO-B-BRD-01: Creation of 3D Printed Phantoms for Clinical Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, E.

    2015-06-15

    This session is designed so that the learning objectives are practical. The intent is that the attendee may take home an understanding of not just the technology, but also the logistical steps necessary to execute these 3D printing techniques in the clinic. Four practical 3D printing topics will be discussed: (i) Creating bolus and compensators for photon machines; (ii) tools for proton therapy; (iii) clinical applications in imaging; (iv) custom phantom design for clinic and research use. The use of 3D printers within the radiation oncology setting is proving to be a useful tool for creating patient specific bolus and compensators with the added benefit of cost savings. Creating the proper protocol is essential to ensuring that the desired effect is achieved and modeled in the treatment planning system. The critical choice of printer material (since it determines the interaction with the radiation) will be discussed. Selection of 3D printer type, design methods, verification of dose calculation, and the printing process will be detailed to give the basis for establishing your own protocol for electron and photon fields. A practical discussion of likely obstacles that may be encountered will be included. The diversity of systems and techniques in proton facilities leads to different facilities having very different requirements for beam modifying hardware and quality assurance devices. Many departments find the need to design and fabricate facility-specific equipment, making 3D printing an attractive technology. 3D printer applications in proton therapy will be discussed, including beam filters and compensators, and the design of proton therapy specific quality assurance tools. Quality control specific to 3D printing in proton therapy will be addressed. Advantages and disadvantages of different printing technology for these applications will also be discussed. 3D printing applications using high-resolution radiology-based imaging data will be presented. This data

  20. Fused filament 3D printing of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrico, James D.; Traeden, Nicklaus W.; Aureli, Matteo; Leang, Kam K.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new three-dimensional (3D) fused filament additive manufacturing (AM) technique in which electroactive polymer filament material is used to build soft active 3D structures, layer by layer. Specifically, the unique actuation and sensing properties of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are exploited in 3D printing to create electroactive polymer structures for application in soft robotics and bio-inspired systems. The process begins with extruding a precursor material (non-acid Nafion precursor resin) into a thermoplastic filament for 3D printing. The filament is then used by a custom-designed 3D printer to manufacture the desired soft polymer structures, layer by layer. Since at this stage the 3D-printed samples are not yet electroactive, a chemical functionalization process follows, consisting in hydrolyzing the precursor samples in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide and dimethyl sulfoxide. Upon functionalization, metal electrodes are applied on the samples through an electroless plating process, which enables the 3D-printed IPMC structures to be controlled by voltage signals for actuation (or to act as sensors). This innovative AM process is described in detail and the performance of 3D printed IPMC actuators is compared to an IPMC actuator fabricated from commercially available Nafion sheet material. The experimental results show comparable performance between the two types of actuators, demonstrating the potential and feasibility of creating functional 3D-printed IPMCs.

  1. Air-structured optical fiber drawn from a 3D-printed preform.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kevin; Canning, John; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md Arafat; Comatti, Jade-Edouard; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-09-01

    A structured optical fiber is drawn from a 3D-printed structured preform. Preforms containing a single ring of holes around the core are fabricated using filament made from a modified butadiene polymer. More broadly, 3D printers capable of processing soft glasses, silica, and other materials are likely to come on line in the not-so-distant future. 3D printing of optical preforms signals a new milestone in optical fiber manufacture.

  2. 3D cell-printing of large-volume tissues: Application to ear regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Seob; Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Dong Hwan; Park, Jeong Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2017-01-17

    The three-dimensional (3D) printing of large-volume cells, printed in a clinically relevant size, is one of the most important challenges in the field of tissue engineering. However, few studies have reported the fabrication of large-volume cell-printed constructs (LCCs). To create LCCs, appropriate fabrication conditions should be established: factors involved include fabrication time, residence time, and temperature control of the cell-laden hydrogel in the syringe to ensure high cell viability and functionality. The prolonged time required for 3D printing of LCCs can reduce cell viability and result in insufficient functionality of the construct, because the cells are exposed to a harsh environment during the printing process. In this regard, we present an advanced 3D cell-printing system composed of a clean air workstation, humidifier, and Peltier system, which provides a suitable printing environment for production of LCCs with high cell viability. We confirmed that the advanced 3D cell-printing system was capable of providing enhanced printability of hydrogels and fabricating an ear-shaped LCC with high cell viability. In vivo results for the ear-shaped LCC also showed that printed chondrocytes proliferated sufficiently and differentiated into cartilage tissue. Thus, we conclude that the advanced 3D cell-printing system is a versatile tool to create cell-printed constructs for the generation of large-volume tissues.

  3. 3-D Printed Asteroids for Outreach Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, April

    2015-11-01

    3-D printed asteroids provide new opportunities for outreach astronomy education due to their low cost, interactive potential, and high interest value. Telescopes are expensive, bulky, fragile, and cannot be used effectively during the day. 3-D printing of asteroids combines exciting new technology with astronomy, appealing to a broader audience. The printed models are scientifically accurate, as their shapes have been modeled using light-curve inversion techniques using and occultation data to provide a jumping off point for discussions of these advanced and exciting topics.

  4. Future enhancements to 3D printing and real time production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Joseph; Jenkins, Jeffery; Wu, Jerry; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    The cost and scope of additive printing machines range from several hundred to hundreds of thousands of dollars. For the extra money, one can get improvements in build size, selection of material properties, resolution, and consistency. However, temperature control during build and fusing predicts outcome and protects the IP by large high cost machines. Support material options determine geometries that can be accomplished which drives cost and complexity of printing heads. Historically, 3D printers have been used for design and prototyping efforts. Recent advances and cost reduction sparked new interest in developing printed products and consumables such as NASA who is printing food, printing consumer parts (e.g. cell phone cases, novelty toys), making tools and fixtures in manufacturing, and recursively print a self-similar printer (c.f. makerbot). There is a near term promise of the capability to print on demand products at the home or office... directly from the printer to use.

  5. Powder-based 3D printing for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Brunello, G; Sivolella, S; Meneghello, R; Ferroni, L; Gardin, C; Piattelli, A; Zavan, B; Bressan, E

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineered 3-D constructs customized to patient-specific needs are emerging as attractive biomimetic scaffolds to enhance bone cell and tissue growth and differentiation. The article outlines the features of the most common additive manufacturing technologies (3D printing, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and selective laser sintering) used to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds. It concentrates, in particular, on the current state of knowledge concerning powder-based 3D printing, including a description of the properties of powders and binder solutions, the critical phases of scaffold manufacturing, and its applications in bone tissue engineering. Clinical aspects and future applications are also discussed.

  6. Use of 3D Printing for Custom Wind Tunnel Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagorik, Paul; Bates, Zachary; Issakhanian, Emin

    2016-11-01

    Small-scale wind tunnels for the most part are fairly simple to produce with standard building equipment. However, the intricate bell housing and inlet shape of an Eiffel type wind tunnel, as well as the transition from diffuser to fan in a rectangular tunnel can present design and construction obstacles. With the help of 3D printing, these shapes can be custom designed in CAD models and printed in the lab at very low cost. The undergraduate team at Loyola Marymount University has built a custom benchtop tunnel for gas turbine film cooling experiments. 3D printing is combined with conventional construction methods to build the tunnel. 3D printing is also used to build the custom tunnel floor and interchangeable experimental pieces for various experimental shapes. This simple and low-cost tunnel is a custom solution for specific engineering experiments for gas turbine technology research.

  7. Three-Dimensional (3D) Additive Construction: Printing with Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing is a new and booming topic in many realms of research and engineering technology. When it comes to space science and aerospace engineering, it can be useful in numerous ways. As humans travel deeper into space and farther from Earth, sending large quantities of needed supplies from Earth for a mission becomes astronomically expensive and less plausible. In order to reach further to new places, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), a project that pushes for technologies to use materials already present in the destination's environment, is necessary. By using materials already available in space such as regolith from the Moon, Mars, or an asteroid's surface, fewer materials need to be brought into space on a launched vehicle. This allows a vehicle to be filled with more necessary supplies for a deep space mission that may not be found in space, like food and fuel. This project's main objective was to develop a 3D printer that uses regolith to "print" large structures, such as a dome, to be used as a heat shield upon a vehicle's reentry into the atmosphere or even a habitat. 3D printing is a growing technology that uses many different methods to mix, heat, and mold a material into a specific shape. In order to heat the regolith enough to stick together into a solid shape, it must be sintered at each layer of material that is laid. Sintering is a process that heats and compresses a powdered material until it fuses into a solid, which requires a lot of energy input. As an alternative, a polymer can be mixed with the regolith before or as it is sent to the 3D printer head to be placed in the specific shape. The addition of the polymer, which melts and binds at much lower temperatures than sintering temperatures, greatly decreases the required heating temperature and energy input. The main task of the project was to identify a functional material for the printer. The first step was to find a miscible. polymer/solvent solution. This solution

  8. Progress Toward an Integration of Process-Structure-Property-Performance Models for "Three-Dimensional (3-D) Printing" of Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Haden, C. V.; Ghamarian, I.; Hayes, B. J.; Ales, T.; Penso, G.; Dixit, V.; Harlow, G.

    2014-07-01

    Electron beam direct manufacturing, synonymously known as electron beam additive manufacturing, along with other additive "3-D printing" manufacturing processes, are receiving widespread attention as a means of producing net-shape (or near-net-shape) components, owing to potential manufacturing benefits. Yet, materials scientists know that differences in manufacturing processes often significantly influence the microstructure of even widely accepted materials and, thus, impact the properties and performance of a material in service. It is important to accelerate the understanding of the processing-structure-property relationship of materials being produced via these novel approaches in a framework that considers the performance in a statistically rigorous way. This article describes the development of a process model, the assessment of key microstructural features to be incorporated into a microstructure simulation model, a novel approach to extract a constitutive equation to predict tensile properties in Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64), and a probabilistic approach to measure the fidelity of the property model against real data. This integrated approach will provide designers a tool to vary process parameters and understand the influence on performance, enabling design and optimization for these highly visible manufacturing approaches.

  9. Cardiac 3D Printing and its Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Vukicevic, Marija; Mosadegh, Bobak; Min, James K; Little, Stephen H

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is at the crossroads of printer and materials engineering, noninvasive diagnostic imaging, computer-aided design, and structural heart intervention. Cardiovascular applications of this technology development include the use of patient-specific 3D models for medical teaching, exploration of valve and vessel function, surgical and catheter-based procedural planning, and early work in designing and refining the latest innovations in percutaneous structural devices. In this review, we discuss the methods and materials being used for 3D printing today. We discuss the basic principles of clinical image segmentation, including coregistration of multiple imaging datasets to create an anatomic model of interest. With applications in congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, and surgical and catheter-based structural disease, 3D printing is a new tool that is challenging how we image, plan, and carry out cardiovascular interventions.

  10. High performance 3D printed electronics using electroless plated copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Jin Rong; Kim, Taeil; Park, Jae Sung; Wang, Jiacheng; Kim, Woo Soo

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents design and performance validation of 3D printed electronic components, 3D toroidal air-core inductors, fabricated by multi-material based Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing technology and electroless copper plating. Designs of toroidal inductor is investigated with different core shapes and winding numbers; circular and half-circular cores with 10 and 13 turns of windings. Electroless plated copper thin film ensures 3D printed toroidal plastic structures to possess inductive behaviors. The inductance is demonstrated reliably with an applied source frequency from 100 kHz to 2 MHz as designs vary. An RL circuit is utilized to test the fabricated inductors' phase-leading characteristics with corresponding phase angle changes.

  11. Customisable 3D printed microfluidics for integrated analysis and optimisation.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, T; Harding, M J; Harris, R A; Friel, R J; Christie, S D R

    2016-08-16

    The formation of smart Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices featuring integrated sensing optics is currently hindered by convoluted and expensive manufacturing procedures. In this work, a series of 3D-printed LOC devices were designed and manufactured via stereolithography (SL) in a matter of hours. The spectroscopic performance of a variety of optical fibre combinations were tested, and the optimum path length for performing Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy determined. The information gained in these trials was then used in a reaction optimisation for the formation of carvone semicarbazone. The production of high resolution surface channels (100-500 μm) means that these devices were capable of handling a wide range of concentrations (9 μM-38 mM), and are ideally suited to both analyte detection and process optimisation. This ability to tailor the chip design and its integrated features as a direct result of the reaction being assessed, at such a low time and cost penalty greatly increases the user's ability to optimise both their device and reaction. As a result of the information gained in this investigation, we are able to report the first instance of a 3D-printed LOC device with fully integrated, in-line monitoring capabilities via the use of embedded optical fibres capable of performing UV-vis spectroscopy directly inside micro channels.

  12. Experimental Diagenesis and 3D Printing of Evolving Carbonate Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how rock microstructures and, in turn, the spatial distribution of the properties of the rock skeleton (porosity, permeability, and elastic properties) evolve because of time-variant, thermo-chemo-mechanical processes is fundamental to decipher changes in the earth's crust due to rock-fluid interactions using remote geophysical monitoring methods. Laboratory experiments undoubtedly play a vital role in understanding the underlying basic rules that are needed to inform both simulations and modeling. Nevertheless, capturing coupled chemo-mechanical processes experimentally is a very challenging problem because as pore space deforms chemo-mechanically, the fluid reacts and flows through a deforming pore space. The result is that as much as we strive to achieve controlled conditions in laboratory experiments, it is extremely difficult to control for all of the possible responses of the highly heterogeneous pore network. To overcome such a limitation, we often resort to the fabrication of rock samples in the laboratory. Nevertheless, analogs are not rocks. This level of complexity requires an approach that advances beyond the limitations of each method, be it experimental or computational. I present an approach that takes advantage of the favorable aspects of experimental diagenesis, multi-scale imaging techniques (from pore scale to 3D rock volumes) and 3D printed models of varying carbonate microstructures. This approach allows us to study the evolution of natural pore network geometries from diagenesis experiments, use the basic rules of the evolving microstructures to drive the digital change of the pore network of the printed models in a well-controlled fashion as much possible in the analog experiments, and then iteratively measure the properties of the printed models at the scale of the laboratory. This integration can help make sense of the trackless evolution of properties in apparently scattered datasets such as those characterizing carbonate

  13. Three-dimensional (3D) printed endovascular simulation models: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Craig; McCaslin, James; Bagnall, Alan; Davey, Philip; Bose, Pentop; Williams, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a manufacturing process in which an object is created by specialist printers designed to print in additive layers to create a 3D object. Whilst there are initial promising medical applications of 3D printing, a lack of evidence to support its use remains a barrier for larger scale adoption into clinical practice. Endovascular virtual reality (VR) simulation plays an important role in the safe training of future endovascular practitioners, but existing VR models have disadvantages including cost and accessibility which could be addressed with 3D printing. Methods This study sought to evaluate the feasibility of 3D printing an anatomically accurate human aorta for the purposes of endovascular training. Results A 3D printed model was successfully designed and printed and used for endovascular simulation. The stages of development and practical applications are described. Feedback from 96 physicians who answered a series of questions using a 5 point Likert scale is presented. Conclusions Initial data supports the value of 3D printed endovascular models although further educational validation is required. PMID:28251121

  14. A Simple, Low-Cost Conductive Composite Material for 3D Printing of Electronic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Simon J.; Bradley, Robert J.; Purssell, Christopher P.; Billson, Duncan R.; Hutchins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes (‘rapid prototyping’) before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term ‘carbomorph’ and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:23185319

  15. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Simon J; Bradley, Robert J; Purssell, Christopher P; Billson, Duncan R; Hutchins, David A

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping') before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  16. Applications of three-dimensional (3D) printing for microswimmers and bio-hybrid robotics.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Trichet-Paredes, C; Sánchez, S

    2015-04-07

    This article will focus on recent reports that have applied three-dimensional (3D) printing for designing millimeter to micrometer architecture for robotic motility. The utilization of 3D printing has rapidly grown in applications for medical prosthetics and scaffolds for organs and tissue, but more recently has been implemented for designing mobile robotics. With an increase in the demand for devices to perform in fragile and confined biological environments, it is crucial to develop new miniaturized, biocompatible 3D systems. Fabrication of materials at different scales with different properties makes 3D printing an ideal system for creating frameworks for small-scale robotics. 3D printing has been applied for the design of externally powered, artificial microswimmers and studying their locomotive capabilities in different fluids. Printed materials have also been incorporated with motile cells for bio-hybrid robots capable of functioning by cell contraction and swimming. These 3D devices offer new methods of robotic motility for biomedical applications requiring miniature structures. Traditional 3D printing methods, where a structure is fabricated in an additive process from a digital design, and non-traditional 3D printing methods, such as lithography and molding, will be discussed.

  17. Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Boland, Thomas; Trusk, Thomas; Forgacs, Gabor; Markwald, Roger R

    2003-04-01

    Tissue engineering technology promises to solve the organ transplantation crisis. However, assembly of vascularized 3D soft organs remains a big challenge. Organ printing, which we define as computer-aided, jet-based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, offers a possible solution. Organ printing involves three sequential steps: pre-processing or development of "blueprints" for organs; processing or actual organ printing; and postprocessing or organ conditioning and accelerated organ maturation. A cell printer that can print gels, single cells and cell aggregates has been developed. Layer-by-layer sequentially placed and solidified thin layers of a thermo-reversible gel could serve as "printing paper". Combination of an engineering approach with the developmental biology concept of embryonic tissue fluidity enables the creation of a new rapid prototyping 3D organ printing technology, which will dramatically accelerate and optimize tissue and organ assembly.

  18. Multifunctional 3D printing of heterogeneous hydrogel structures.

    PubMed

    Nadernezhad, Ali; Khani, Navid; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Toprakhisar, Burak; Bakirci, Ezgi; Menceloglu, Yusuf; Unal, Serkan; Koc, Bahattin

    2016-09-15

    Multimaterial additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogel structures provides the opportunity to engineer geometrically dependent functionalities. However, current fabrication methods are mostly limited to one type of material or only provide one type of functionality. In this paper, we report a novel method of multimaterial deposition of hydrogel structures based on an aspiration-on-demand protocol, in which the constitutive multimaterial segments of extruded filaments were first assembled in liquid state by sequential aspiration of inks into a glass capillary, followed by in situ gel formation. We printed different patterned objects with varying chemical, electrical, mechanical, and biological properties by tuning process and material related parameters, to demonstrate the abilities of this method in producing heterogeneous and multi-functional hydrogel structures. Our results show the potential of proposed method in producing heterogeneous objects with spatially controlled functionalities while preserving structural integrity at the switching interface between different segments. We anticipate that this method would introduce new opportunities in multimaterial additive manufacturing of hydrogels for diverse applications such as biosensors, flexible electronics, tissue engineering and organ printing.

  19. Multifunctional 3D printing of heterogeneous hydrogel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadernezhad, Ali; Khani, Navid; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Toprakhisar, Burak; Bakirci, Ezgi; Menceloglu, Yusuf; Unal, Serkan; Koc, Bahattin

    2016-09-01

    Multimaterial additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogel structures provides the opportunity to engineer geometrically dependent functionalities. However, current fabrication methods are mostly limited to one type of material or only provide one type of functionality. In this paper, we report a novel method of multimaterial deposition of hydrogel structures based on an aspiration-on-demand protocol, in which the constitutive multimaterial segments of extruded filaments were first assembled in liquid state by sequential aspiration of inks into a glass capillary, followed by in situ gel formation. We printed different patterned objects with varying chemical, electrical, mechanical, and biological properties by tuning process and material related parameters, to demonstrate the abilities of this method in producing heterogeneous and multi-functional hydrogel structures. Our results show the potential of proposed method in producing heterogeneous objects with spatially controlled functionalities while preserving structural integrity at the switching interface between different segments. We anticipate that this method would introduce new opportunities in multimaterial additive manufacturing of hydrogels for diverse applications such as biosensors, flexible electronics, tissue engineering and organ printing.

  20. Multifunctional 3D printing of heterogeneous hydrogel structures

    PubMed Central

    Nadernezhad, Ali; Khani, Navid; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Toprakhisar, Burak; Bakirci, Ezgi; Menceloglu, Yusuf; Unal, Serkan; Koc, Bahattin

    2016-01-01

    Multimaterial additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogel structures provides the opportunity to engineer geometrically dependent functionalities. However, current fabrication methods are mostly limited to one type of material or only provide one type of functionality. In this paper, we report a novel method of multimaterial deposition of hydrogel structures based on an aspiration-on-demand protocol, in which the constitutive multimaterial segments of extruded filaments were first assembled in liquid state by sequential aspiration of inks into a glass capillary, followed by in situ gel formation. We printed different patterned objects with varying chemical, electrical, mechanical, and biological properties by tuning process and material related parameters, to demonstrate the abilities of this method in producing heterogeneous and multi-functional hydrogel structures. Our results show the potential of proposed method in producing heterogeneous objects with spatially controlled functionalities while preserving structural integrity at the switching interface between different segments. We anticipate that this method would introduce new opportunities in multimaterial additive manufacturing of hydrogels for diverse applications such as biosensors, flexible electronics, tissue engineering and organ printing. PMID:27630079

  1. 3D printed electrodes for a dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertson, Robert; Gershman, Sophia; Zwicker, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The affordability and advancements in 3D printing technology make it the method of choice for prototyping and development. We investigate how the thickness and density of 3D printed electrodes affects the formation of microdischarges inside a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) surface modification reactor. We use a Makerbot Replicator II 3D printer to manufacture the electrodes by encasing thin pieces of copper tape in PLA plastic. The DBD setup consists of a cylindrical aluminum HV electrode which is surrounded by a layer of 5mm thick Alumina and is connected to a 15 kV, 75-300 kHz, AC power supply. The printed electrodes are grounded and held 5mm beneath the Alumina, forming a discharge gap. The DBD is operated with Ar/Air and Ar/O2/Air mixtures at atmospheric pressure. A PI-MAX 3 ICCD camera is used to image the microdischarges at various stages of their development. The image analysis suggests that the printed electrodes with a thicker plastic layer and a greater infill density have more uniform discharges. Quickfield electric field simulations suggest that the field inside the discharge gap is distorted near the surface of the electrodes due to irregularities in the printed material. These results can be used to guide the future design of 3D printed electrical components.

  2. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  3. Advanced Infusion Techniques with 3-D Printed Tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttall, David; Elliott, Amy; Post, Brian K.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2016-05-10

    The manufacturing of tooling for large, contoured surfaces for fiber-layup applications requires significant effort to understand the geometry and then to subtractively manufacture the tool. Traditional methods for the auto industry use clay that is hand sculpted. In the marine pleasure craft industry, the exterior of the model is formed from a foam lay-up that is either hand cut or machined to create smooth lines. Engineers and researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (ORNL MDF) collaborated with Magnum Venus Products (MVP) in the development of a process for reproducing legacy whitewater adventure craft via digital scanning and large scale 3-D printed layup molds. The process entailed 3D scanning a legacy canoe form, converting that form to a CAD model, additively manufacturing (3-D Print) the mold tool, and subtractively finishing the mold s transfer surfaces. Future work will include applying a gelcoat to the mold transfer surface and infusing using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, or VARTM principles, to create a watertight vessel. The outlined steps were performed on a specific canoe geometry found by MVP s principal participant. The intent of utilizing this geometry is to develop an energy efficient and marketable process for replicating complex shapes, specifically focusing on this particular watercraft, and provide a finished product for demonstration to the composites industry. The culminating part produced through this agreement has been slated for public presentation and potential demonstration at the 2016 CAMX (Composites and Advanced Materials eXpo) exposition in Anaheim, CA. Phase I of this collaborative research and development agreement (MDF-15-68) was conducted under CRADA NFE-15-05575 and was initiated on May 7, 2015, with an introduction to the MVP product line, and concluded in March of 2016 with the printing of and processing of a canoe mold. The project partner Magnum Venous Products (MVP) is

  4. 3D printed components with ultrasonically arranged microscale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn-Jones, Thomas M.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-02-01

    This paper shows the first application of in situ manipulation of discontinuous fibrous structure mid-print, within a 3D printed polymeric composite architecture. Currently, rapid prototyping methods (fused filament fabrication, stereolithography) are gaining increasing popularity within the engineering commnity to build structural components. Unfortunately, the full potential of these components is limited by the mechanical properties of the materials used. The aim of this study is to create and demonstrate a novel method to instantaneously orient micro-scale glass fibres within a selectively cured photocurable resin system, using ultrasonic forces to align the fibres in the desired 3D architecture. To achieve this we have mounted a switchable, focused laser module on the carriage of a three-axis 3D printing stage, above an in-house ultrasonic alignment rig containing a mixture of photocurable resin and discontinuous 14 μm diameter glass fibre reinforcement(50 μm length). In our study, a suitable print speed of 20 mm s-1 was used, which is comparable to conventional additive layer techniques. We show the ability to construct in-plane orthogonally aligned sections printed side by side, where the precise orientation of the configurations is controlled by switching the ultrasonic standing wave profile mid-print. This approach permits the realisation of complex fibrous architectures within a 3D printed landscape. The versatile nature of the ultrasonic manipulation technique also permits a wide range of particle types (diameters, aspect ratios and functions) and architectures (in-plane, and out-plane) to be patterned, leading to the creation of a new generation of fibrous reinforced composites for 3D printing.

  5. Hybrid 3D-2D printing for bone scaffolds fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. A.; Prinz, V. Ya

    2017-02-01

    It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields.

  6. 3D scanning and printing skeletal tissues for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Hiscox, Jessica D; Dixon, Blair J; Potgieter, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Detailed anatomical models can be produced with consumer-level 3D scanning and printing systems. 3D replication techniques are significant advances for anatomical education as they allow practitioners to more easily introduce diverse or numerous specimens into classrooms. Here we present a methodology for producing anatomical models in-house, with the chondrocranium cartilage from a spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and the skeleton of a cane toad (Rhinella marina) as case studies. 3D digital replicas were produced using two consumer-level scanners and specimens were 3D-printed with selective laser sintering. The fidelity of the two case study models was determined with respect to key anatomical features. Larger-scale features of the dogfish chondrocranium and frog skeleton were all well-resolved and distinct in the 3D digital models, and many finer-scale features were also well-resolved, but some more subtle features were absent from the digital models (e.g. endolymphatic foramina in chondrocranium). All characters identified in the digital chondrocranium could be identified in the subsequent 3D print; however, three characters in the 3D-printed frog skeleton could not be clearly delimited (palatines, parasphenoid and pubis). Characters that were absent in the digital models or 3D prints had low-relief in the original scanned specimen and represent a minor loss of fidelity. Our method description and case studies show that minimal equipment and training is needed to produce durable skeletal specimens. These technologies support the tailored production of models for specific classes or research aims.

  7. Printing Insecurity? The Security Implications of 3D-Printing of Weapons.

    PubMed

    Walther, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, the first gun printed out of plastic by a 3D-printer was successfully fired in the U.S. This event caused a major media hype about the dangers of being able to print a gun. Law enforcement agencies worldwide were concerned about this development and the potentially huge security implications of these functional plastic guns. As a result, politicians called for a ban of these weapons and a control of 3D-printing technology. This paper reviews the security implications of 3D-printing technology and 3D guns. It argues that current arms control and transfer policies are adequate to cover 3D-printed guns as well. However, while this analysis may hold up currently, progress in printing technology needs to be monitored to deal with future dangers pre-emptively.

  8. 3D Printing Multi-Functionality: Embedded RF Antennas and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemelya, C. M.; Zemba, M.; Liang, M.; Espalin, D.; Kief, C.; Xin, H.; Wicker, R. B.; MacDonald, E. W.

    2015-01-01

    Significant research and press has recently focused on the fabrication freedom of Additive Manufacturing (AM) to create both conceptual models and final end-use products. This flexibility allows design modifications to be immediately reflected in 3D printed structures, creating new paradigms within the manufacturing process. 3D printed products will inevitably be fabricated locally, with unit-level customization, optimized to unique mission requirements. However, for the technology to be universally adopted, the processes must be enhanced to incorporate additional technologies; such as electronics, actuation, and electromagnetics. Recently, a novel 3D printing platform, Multi3D manufacturing, was funded by the presidential initiative for revitalizing manufacturing in the USA using 3D printing (America Makes - also known as the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute). The Multi3D system specifically targets 3D printed electronics in arbitrary form; and building upon the potential of this system, this paper describes RF antennas and components fabricated through the integration of material extrusion 3D printing with embedded wire, mesh, and RF elements.

  9. Implementation of virtual models from sheet metal forming simulation into physical 3D colour models using 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, S.

    2016-08-01

    Today the methods of numerical simulation of sheet metal forming offer a great diversity of possibilities for optimization in product development and in process design. However, the results from simulation are only available as virtual models. Because there are any forming tools available during the early stages of product development, physical models that could serve to represent the virtual results are therefore lacking. Physical 3D-models can be created using 3D-printing and serve as an illustration and present a better understanding of the simulation results. In this way, the results from the simulation can be made more “comprehensible” within a development team. This paper presents the possibilities of 3D-colour printing with particular consideration of the requirements regarding the implementation of sheet metal forming simulation. Using concrete examples of sheet metal forming, the manufacturing of 3D colour models will be expounded upon on the basis of simulation results.

  10. Implementing a 3D printing service in a biomedical library.

    PubMed

    Walker, Verma

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is opening new opportunities in biomedicine by enabling creative problem solving, faster prototyping of ideas, advances in tissue engineering, and customized patient solutions. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Library purchased a Makerbot Replicator 2 3D printer to give scientists a chance to try out this technology. To launch the service, the library offered training, conducted a survey on service model preferences, and tracked usage and class attendance. 3D printing was very popular, with new lab equipment prototypes being the most common model type. Most survey respondents indicated they would use the service again and be willing to pay for models. There was high interest in training for 3D modeling, which has a steep learning curve. 3D printers also require significant care and repairs. NIH scientists are using 3D printing to improve their research, and it is opening new avenues for problem solving in labs. Several scientists found the 3D printer so helpful they bought one for their labs. Having a printer in a central and open location like a library can help scientists, doctors, and students learn how to use this technology in their work.

  11. Implementing a 3D printing service in a biomedical library

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Verma

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is opening new opportunities in biomedicine by enabling creative problem solving, faster prototyping of ideas, advances in tissue engineering, and customized patient solutions. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Library purchased a Makerbot Replicator 2 3D printer to give scientists a chance to try out this technology. To launch the service, the library offered training, conducted a survey on service model preferences, and tracked usage and class attendance. 3D printing was very popular, with new lab equipment prototypes being the most common model type. Most survey respondents indicated they would use the service again and be willing to pay for models. There was high interest in training for 3D modeling, which has a steep learning curve. 3D printers also require significant care and repairs. NIH scientists are using 3D printing to improve their research, and it is opening new avenues for problem solving in labs. Several scientists found the 3D printer so helpful they bought one for their labs. Having a printer in a central and open location like a library can help scientists, doctors, and students learn how to use this technology in their work. PMID:28096747

  12. Continuous Optical 3D Printing of Green Aliphatic Polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Sang-Hyun; Wang, Pengrui; Hwang, Henry H; Zhu, Wei; Warner, John; Chen, Shaochen

    2017-01-11

    Photosensitive diurethanes were prepared from a green chemistry synthesis pathway based on methacrylate-functionalized six-membered cyclic carbonate and biogenic amines. A continuous optical 3D printing method for the diurethanes was developed to create user-defined gradient stiffness and smooth complex surface microstructures in seconds. The green chemistry-derived polyurethane (gPU) showed high optical transparency, and we demonstrate the ability to tune the material stiffness of the printed structure along a gradient by controlling the exposure time and selecting various amine compounds. High-resolution 3D biomimetic structures with smooth curves and complex contours were printed using our gPU. High cell viability (over 95%) was demonstrated during cytocompatibility testing using C3H 10T1/2 cells seeded directly on the printed structures.

  13. Improving Assistive Technology Service by Using 3D Printing: Three Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Takuro; Tomiita, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Assistive technology services are essential for adapting assistive devices to the individual needs of users with disabilities. In this study, we attempted to apply three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to three actual cases, and to study its use, effectiveness, and future applications. We assessed the usefulness of 3D printing technology by categorizing its utilization after reviewing the outcomes of these case studies. In future work, we aim to gather additional case studies and derive information on using 3D printing technology that will enable its effective application in the process of assistive technology services.

  14. An Analysis of Item Identification for Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Within the Naval Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    has demonstrated an ongoing effort to grow human kidneys using 3D printers . To describe the process succinctly, the 3D printer constructs a frame from...Vartanian, K. (2013). 3D printers : Judgment day. Industrial Laser Solutions, 28(2), 12–15. Retrieved from http://www.industrial-lasers.com/articles...print/volume- 28/issue-2/features/ 3d - printers -judgment-day.html 70 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 71 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 1. Defense

  15. Regulatory Considerations in the Design and Manufacturing of Implantable 3D-Printed Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Robert J.; Kashlan, Khaled N.; Flanangan, Colleen L.; Wright, Jeanne K.; Green, Glenn E.; Hollister, Scott J.; Weatherwax, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, or additive manufacturing, technology has rapidly penetrated the medical device industry over the past several years, and innovative groups have harnessed it to create devices with unique composition, structure, and customizability. These distinctive capabilities afforded by 3D printing have introduced new regulatory challenges. The customizability of 3D-printed devices introduces new complexities when drafting a design control model for FDA consideration of market approval. The customizability and unique build processes of 3D-printed medical devices pose unique challenges in meeting regulatory standards related to the manufacturing quality assurance. Consistent material powder properties and optimal printing parameters such as build orientation and laser power must be addressed and communicated to the FDA to ensure a quality build. Post-printing considerations unique to 3D-printed devices, such as cleaning, finishing and sterilization are also discussed. In this manuscript we illustrate how such regulatory hurdles can be navigated by discussing our experience with our group’s 3D-printed bioresorbable implantable device. PMID:26243449

  16. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-07

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day.

  17. Understanding and Improving the Quality of Inter-Layer Interfaces in FDM 3-D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duranty, Edward; Spradlin, Brandon; Stark, Madeline; Dadmun, Mark

    We have studied the effect of thermal history and material diffusion on inter-filament bonding in FDM 3D printed parts and developed methods to improve interlayer adhesion in 3D printed samples. The available thermal energy during the FDM print environment was determined quantitatively by tracking the temperature of the bottom most printed layer using a thermocouple attached to the print bed. The role of the thermal history of the filaments during the deposition process on the quality of inter-layer bonding in an FDM ABS part was monitored using a T-peel test and an innovative sample design. Additionally, the interfacial adhesion between 3D printed layers was improved by the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent 4,4 '-diaminodiphenylmethane (DADPM). These studies have increased our understanding of the importance of the complex thermal history of a filament in the 3D printing process and its impact on the interfaces that form during the fused deposition modeling print process. Furthermore, the chemical crosslinking process demonstrates a potential method to covalently link layers in FDM printed parts, improving the bulk strength of the part. The insight provided in this work may aid in the development of techniques that can produce FDM parts that could be used as replacement parts in structural applications, or as completely standalone products.

  18. 3D printing of weft knitted textile based structures by selective laser sintering of nylon powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beecroft, M.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing whereby the building up of layers of material creates objects. The selective laser sintering process (SLS) uses a laser beam to sinter powdered material to create objects. This paper builds upon previous research into 3D printed textile based material exploring the use of SLS using nylon powder to create flexible weft knitted structures. The results show the potential to print flexible textile based structures that exhibit the properties of traditional knitted textile structures along with the mechanical properties of the material used, whilst describing the challenges regarding fineness of printing resolution. The conclusion highlights the potential future development and application of such pieces.

  19. Histo-anatomic 3D printing of dental structures.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, J; Beuer, F; Stimmelmayr, M; Edelhoff, D; Magne, P; Güth, J F

    2016-11-04

    The creation of dental restorations with natural appearance and biomechanics represents a major challenge for the restorative team. The manufacturing-process of high-aesthetic restorations from tooth-coloured restorative materials is currently dominated by manual manufacturing procedures and the outcome is highly dependent on the knowledge and skills of the performing dental technician. On the other hand, due to the simplicity of the manufacturing process, CAD/CAM restorations from different material classes gain more and more acceptance in the daily routine. Multi-layered restorations show significant aesthetic advantages versus monolithic ones, but are difficult to fabricate using digital technologies. The key element for the successful automated digital fabrication of aesthetic anterior restorations seems to be the form of the individual dentine core as defined by dentine enamel junction (DEJ) covered by a more transparent layer of material imitating the enamel layer to create the outer enamel surface (OES). This article describes the possibilities and technologies available for so-called '4D-printing'. It introduces the digital manufacturing process of multilayered anterior teeth using 3D multipart printing, taking the example of manufacturing replicas of extracted intact natural teeth.

  20. Direct fabrication of silicone lenses with 3D printed parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Lee, W. M.

    2016-11-01

    The traditional process of making glass lenses requires grinding and polishing of the material which is a tedious and sensitive process. Existing polymer lens making techniques, such as high temperature reflow techniques, have been significantly simple lens making processes which cater well to customer industry. Recently, the use of UV-curing liquid lens has ushered in customized lens making (Printed Optics), but contains undesirable yellowing effects. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a transparent polymer curable at low temperature (<100°C) provides an alternative to lens making. In this work, we showed that PDMS lenses are fabricated using single silicone droplets which are formed in a guided and controlled passive manner using 3D printed tools. These silicone lenses have attributes such as smoothness of curvature, resilience to temperature change, low optical aberrations, high transparency (>95%) and minimal aging (yellowing). Moreover, these lenses have a range of focal lengths (3.5 mm to 14.5 mm as well as magnifications (up to 160X). In addition, we created smartphone attachment to turn smart device (tablet or smartphone) into a low-powered microscope. In future we plan to extend this method to produce microlens array.

  1. Advancing the field of 3D biomaterial printing.

    PubMed

    Jakus, Adam E; Rutz, Alexandra L; Shah, Ramille N

    2016-01-11

    3D biomaterial printing has emerged as a potentially revolutionary technology, promising to transform both research and medical therapeutics. Although there has been recent progress in the field, on-demand fabrication of functional and transplantable tissues and organs is still a distant reality. To advance to this point, there are two major technical challenges that must be overcome. The first is expanding upon the limited variety of available 3D printable biomaterials (biomaterial inks), which currently do not adequately represent the physical, chemical, and biological complexity and diversity of tissues and organs within the human body. Newly developed biomaterial inks and the resulting 3D printed constructs must meet numerous interdependent requirements, including those that lead to optimal printing, structural, and biological outcomes. The second challenge is developing and implementing comprehensive biomaterial ink and printed structure characterization combined with in vitro and in vivo tissue- and organ-specific evaluation. This perspective outlines considerations for addressing these technical hurdles that, once overcome, will facilitate rapid advancement of 3D biomaterial printing as an indispensable tool for both investigating complex tissue and organ morphogenesis and for developing functional devices for a variety of diagnostic and regenerative medicine applications.

  2. Engineering design of artificial vascular junctions for 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoxiao; Bibb, Richard; Harris, Russell

    2016-06-20

    Vascular vessels, including arteries, veins and capillaries, are being printed using additive manufacturing technologies, also known as 3D printing. This paper demonstrates that it is important to follow the vascular design by nature as close as possible when 3D printing artificial vascular branches. In previous work, the authors developed an algorithm of computational geometry for constructing smooth junctions for 3D printing. In this work, computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) is used to compare the wall shear stress and blood velocity field for the junctions of different designs. The CFD model can reproduce the expected wall shear stress at locations remote from the junction. For large vessels such as veins, it is shown that ensuring the smoothness of the junction and using smaller joining angles as observed in nature is very important to avoid high wall shear stress and recirculation. The issue is however less significant for capillaries. Large joining angles make no difference to the hemodynamic behavior, which is also consistent with the fact that most capillary junctions have large joining angles. The combination of the CFD analysis and the junction construction method form a complete design method for artificial vascular vessels that can be 3D printed using additive manufacturing technologies.

  3. A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Goryachev, Maxim; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Timothy B.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals, in particular, has found a number of applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Although many techniques are used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a microwave cavity (resonant frequencies 9.9 and 11.2 GHz) 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable with the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The result is achieved even with a very large concentration of non-superconducting silicon in the alloy of 12.18%, compared with Al-6061, which has between 0.4% and 0.8%. Our results may pave the way for the possibility of 3D printing superconducting cavity configurations that are otherwise impossible to machine.

  4. Hybrid 3D-2D printing of bone scaffolds Hybrid 3D-2D printing methods for bone scaffolds fabrication.

    PubMed

    Prinz, V Ya; Seleznev, Vladimir

    2016-12-13

    It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields.

  5. Visualization of gravitational potential wells using 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun; Wang, Weiguo; Lu, Meishu; Xu, Xinran; Yan, Qi Fan; Lu, Jianlong

    2016-12-01

    There have been many studies of the dynamics of a ball rolling on different types of surfaces. Most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a few experimental. We have found that 3D printing offers a novel experimental approach to investigating this topic. In this paper, we use a 3D printer to create four different surfaces and experimentally investigate the dynamics of a ball rolling on these surfaces. Our results are then compared to theory.

  6. Customised 3D Printing: An Innovative Training Tool for the Next Generation of Orbital Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Scawn, Richard L; Foster, Alex; Lee, Bradford W; Kikkawa, Don O; Korn, Bobby S

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is the process by which three dimensional data fields are translated into real-life physical representations. 3D printers create physical printouts using heated plastics in a layered fashion resulting in a three-dimensional object. We present a technique for creating customised, inexpensive 3D orbit models for use in orbital surgical training using 3D printing technology. These models allow trainee surgeons to perform 'wet-lab' orbital decompressions and simulate upcoming surgeries on orbital models that replicate a patient's bony anatomy. We believe this represents an innovative training tool for the next generation of orbital surgeons.

  7. Plasticized protein for 3D printing by fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaunier, Laurent; Leroy, Eric; Della Valle, Guy; Lourdin, Denis

    2016-10-01

    The developments of Additive Manufacturing (AM) by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) now target new 3D printable materials, leading to novel properties like those given by biopolymers such as proteins: degradability, biocompatibility and edibility. Plasticized materials from zein, a storage protein issued from corn, present interesting thermomechanical and rheological properties, possibly matching with AM-FDM specifications. Thus commercial zein plasticized with 20% glycerol has a glass transition temperature (Tg) at about 42°C, after storage at intermediate relative humidity (RH=59%). Its principal mechanical relaxation at Tα ≈ 50°C leads to a drop of the elastic modulus from about 1.1 GPa, at ambient temperature, to 0.6 MPa at Tα+100°C. These values are in the same range as values obtained in the case of standard polymers for AM-FDM processing, as PLA and ABS, although relaxation mechanisms are likely different in these materials. Such results lead to the setting up of zein-based compositions printable by AM-FDM and allow processing bioresorbable printed parts, with designed 3D geometry and structure.

  8. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  9. 3D printed long period gratings for optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for implementing long period grating (LPG) structures by the use of a 3D printer. This Letter shows a way of manipulating the mode coupling within an optical fiber by applying stress through an external 3D printed periodic structure. Different LPG lengths and periods have been studied, as well as the effect of the applied stress on the coupling efficiency from the fundamental mode to cladding modes. The technique is very simple, highly flexible, affordable, and easy to implement without the need of altering the optical fiber. This Letter is part of a growing line of interest in the use of 3D printers for optical applications.

  10. An engineering perspective on 3D printed personalized scaffolds for tracheal suspension technique

    PubMed Central

    An, Jia

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is a large family of many distinct technologies covering a wide range of topics. From an engineering point of view, there should be considerations for selection of design, material, and process when using 3D printing for surgical technique innovation such as personalized scaffolds. Moreover, cost should also be considered if there are equally effective alternatives to the innovation. Furthermore, engineering considerations and options should be clearly communicated and readily available to surgeons for advancement in future. PMID:28149624

  11. An engineering perspective on 3D printed personalized scaffolds for tracheal suspension technique.

    PubMed

    An, Jia; Chua, Chee Kai

    2016-12-01

    3D printing is a large family of many distinct technologies covering a wide range of topics. From an engineering point of view, there should be considerations for selection of design, material, and process when using 3D printing for surgical technique innovation such as personalized scaffolds. Moreover, cost should also be considered if there are equally effective alternatives to the innovation. Furthermore, engineering considerations and options should be clearly communicated and readily available to surgeons for advancement in future.

  12. Regulatory Considerations in the Design and Manufacturing of Implantable 3D-Printed Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Robert J; Kashlan, Khaled N; Flanangan, Colleen L; Wright, Jeanne K; Green, Glenn E; Hollister, Scott J; Weatherwax, Kevin J

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, or additive manufacturing, technology has rapidly penetrated the medical device industry over the past several years, and innovative groups have harnessed it to create devices with unique composition, structure, and customizability. These distinctive capabilities afforded by 3D printing have introduced new regulatory challenges. The customizability of 3D-printed devices introduces new complexities when drafting a design control model for FDA consideration of market approval. The customizability and unique build processes of 3D-printed medical devices pose unique challenges in meeting regulatory standards related to the manufacturing quality assurance. Consistent material powder properties and optimal printing parameters such as build orientation and laser power must be addressed and communicated to the FDA to ensure a quality build. Postprinting considerations unique to 3D-printed devices, such as cleaning, finishing and sterilization are also discussed. In this manuscript we illustrate how such regulatory hurdles can be navigated by discussing our experience with our group's 3D-printed bioresorbable implantable device.

  13. Every Day a New 3D Printing Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Wilson, Greg; Seamans, Jeff; McAninch, Steve; Stout, Heath

    2017-01-01

    A handful of technological episodes: fire, wheel and axle, Industrial Revolution, Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction, the transistor, and the digital age, have historically altered humanity. We are now witnessing/participating in the next transformational technology: 3D printing. Although dating back nearly 30 years, the technology…

  14. Characterizing Properties and Performance of 3D Printed Plastic Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Jacob

    2015-10-01

    We are determining various characteristics of the performance of 3D printed scintillators. A scintillator luminesces when an energetic particle raises electrons to an excited state by depositing some of its energy in the atom. When these excited electrons fall back down to their stable states, they emit the excess energy as light. We have characterized the transmission spectrum, emission spectrum, and relative intensity of light produced by 3D printed scintillators. We are also determining mechanical properties such as tensile strength and compressibility, and the refractive index. The emission and transmission spectra were measured using a monochromator. By observing the transmission spectrum, we can see which optical wavelengths are absorbed by the scintillator. This is then used to correct the emission spectrum, since this absorption is present in the emission spectrum. Using photomultiplier tubes in conjunction with integration hardware (QDC) to measure the intensity of light emitted by 3D printed scintillators, we compare with commercial plastic scintillators. We are using the characterizations to determine if 3D printed scintillators are a viable alternative to commercial scintillators for use at Jefferson Lab in nuclear and accelerated physics detectors. I would like to thank Wouter Deconinck, as well as the Parity group at the College of William and Mary for all advice and assistance with my research.

  15. Microfluidic Printheads for Multimaterial 3D Printing of Viscoelastic Inks.

    PubMed

    Hardin, James O; Ober, Thomas J; Valentine, Alexander D; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2015-06-03

    Multimaterial 3D printing using microfluidic printheads specifically designed for seamless switching between two visco-elastic materials "on-the-fly" during fabrication is demonstrated. This approach opens new avenues for the digital assembly of functional matter with controlled compositional and property gradients at the microscale.

  16. Design, modeling and testing of integrated ring extractor for high resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yiwei; Dong, Jingyan

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an integrated ring extractor design in electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, which can overcome the standoff height limitation in the EHD printing process, and improve printing capability for 3D structures. Standoff height in the EHD printing will affect printing processes and limit the height of the printed structure when the ground electrode is placed under the substrate. In this work, we designed and integrated a ring electrode with the printing nozzle to achieve a self-working printer head, which can start and maintain the printing process without the involvement of the substrate. We applied a FEA method to model the electric field potential distribution and strength to direct the ring extractor design, which provides a similar printing capability with the system using substrate as the ground electrode. We verified the ring electrode design by experiments, and those results from the experiments demonstrated a good match with results from the FEA simulation. We have characterized the printing processes using the integrated ring extractor, and successfully applied this newly designed ring extractor to print polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D structures.

  17. 3D printed plastics for beam modulation in proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, C; Kumlin, J; Jirasek, A; Lee, R; Martinez, D M; Schaffer, P; Hoehr, C

    2015-06-07

    Two 3D printing methods, fused filament fabrication (FFF) and PolyJet™ (PJ) were investigated for suitability in clinical proton therapy (PT) energy modulation. Measurements of printing precision, printed density and mean stopping power are presented. FFF is found to be accurate to 0.1 mm, to contain a void fraction of 13% due to air pockets and to have a mean stopping power dependent on geometry. PJ was found to print accurate to 0.05 mm, with a material density and mean stopping power consistent with solid poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Both FFF and PJ were found to print significant, sporadic defects associated with sharp edges on the order of 0.2 mm. Site standard PT modulator wheels were printed using both methods. Measured depth-dose profiles with a 74 MeV beam show poor agreement between PMMA and printed FFF wheels. PJ printed wheel depth-dose agreed with PMMA within 1% of treatment dose except for a distal falloff discrepancy of 0.5 mm.

  18. 3D printed plastics for beam modulation in proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, C.; Kumlin, J.; Jirasek, A.; Lee, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Schaffer, P.; Hoehr, C.

    2015-06-01

    Two 3D printing methods, fused filament fabrication (FFF) and PolyJet™ (PJ) were investigated for suitability in clinical proton therapy (PT) energy modulation. Measurements of printing precision, printed density and mean stopping power are presented. FFF is found to be accurate to 0.1 mm, to contain a void fraction of 13% due to air pockets and to have a mean stopping power dependent on geometry. PJ was found to print accurate to 0.05 mm, with a material density and mean stopping power consistent with solid poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Both FFF and PJ were found to print significant, sporadic defects associated with sharp edges on the order of 0.2 mm. Site standard PT modulator wheels were printed using both methods. Measured depth-dose profiles with a 74 MeV beam show poor agreement between PMMA and printed FFF wheels. PJ printed wheel depth-dose agreed with PMMA within 1% of treatment dose except for a distal falloff discrepancy of 0.5 mm.

  19. Dynamics of Capillary-Driven Flow in 3D Printed Open Microchannels.

    PubMed

    Lade, Robert K; Hippchen, Erik J; Macosko, Christopher W; Francis, Lorraine F

    2017-03-28

    Microchannels have applications in microfluidic devices, patterns for micromolding, and even flexible electronic devices. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative manufacturing route for these microchannels due to the technology's relative speed and the design freedom it affords its users. However, the roughness of 3D printed surfaces can significantly influence flow dynamics inside of a microchannel. In this work, open microchannels are fabricated using four different 3D printing techniques: fused deposition modeling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering, and multi jet modeling. Microchannels printed with each technology are evaluated with respect to their surface roughness, morphology, and how conducive they are to spontaneous capillary filling. Based on this initial assessment, microchannels printed with FDM and SLA are chosen as models to study spontaneous, capillary-driven flow dynamics in 3D printed microchannels. Flow dynamics are investigated over short (∼10(-3) s), intermediate (∼1 s), and long (∼10(2) s) time scales. Surface roughness causes a start-stop motion down the channel due to contact line pinning, while the cross-sectional shape imparted onto the channels during the printing process is shown to reduce the expected filling velocity. A significant delay in the onset of Lucas-Washburn dynamics (a long-time equilibrium state where meniscus position advances proportionally to the square root of time) is also observed. Flow dynamics are assessed as a function of printing technology, print orientation, channel dimensions, and liquid properties. This study provides the first in-depth investigation of the effect of 3D printing on microchannel flow dynamics as well as a set of rules on how to account for these effects in practice. The extension of these effects to closed microchannels and microchannels fabricated with other 3D printing technologies is also discussed.

  20. Generation of Multi-Scale Vascular Network System within 3D Hydrogel using 3D Bio-Printing Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian K; Lanzi, Alison M; Haygan, Ngo; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Vincent, Peter A; Dai, Guohao

    2014-09-01

    Although 3D bio-printing technology has great potential in creating complex tissues with multiple cell types and matrices, maintaining the viability of thick tissue construct for tissue growth and maturation after the printing is challenging due to lack of vascular perfusion. Perfused capillary network can be a solution for this issue; however, construction of a complete capillary network at single cell level using the existing technology is nearly impossible due to limitations in time and spatial resolution of the dispensing technology. To address the vascularization issue, we developed a 3D printing method to construct larger (lumen size of ~1mm) fluidic vascular channels and to create adjacent capillary network through a natural maturation process, thus providing a feasible solution to connect the capillary network to the large perfused vascular channels. In our model, microvascular bed was formed in between two large fluidic vessels, and then connected to the vessels by angiogenic sprouting from the large channel edge. Our bio-printing technology has a great potential in engineering vascularized thick tissues and vascular niches, as the vascular channels are simultaneously created while cells and matrices are printed around the channels in desired 3D patterns.

  1. Collaboration for the Advancement of Indirect 3D Printing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cordero, Zachary; Elliott, Amy M.

    2016-06-14

    Amorphous powders often possess high hardness values and other useful mechanical properties. However, densifying these powders into complex shapes while retaining their unique properties is a challenge with standard processing routes. Pressureless sintering, for example, can densify intricate green parts composed of rapidly-solidified powders. But this process typically involves long exposures to elevated temperatures, during which the non-equilibrium microstructure of the powder can evolve towards lower energy configurations with inferior properties. Pressure-assisted compaction techniques, by contrast, can consolidate green parts with simple shapes while preserving the microstructure and properties of the powder feedstock. But parts made with these processes generally require additional post-processing, including machining, which introduces new challenges due to the high hardness of these materials. One processing route that can potentially avoid these issues is Indirect 3D Printing (I-3DP; aka Binder Jetting) followed by melt infiltration. In I-3DP, an organic binder is used to join powder feedstock, layer-by-layer, into a green part. In melt infiltration, this green preform is densified by placing it in contact with a molten alloy that wets the preform and wicks into the pores as a result of capillary forces. When these processes are paired together, they offer two key advantages for the densification of rapidly-solidified powders. The first advantage is that the timescale associated with melt infiltration is on the order of seconds for parts with cm-scale dimensions. So in many instances, infiltration requires only a brief thermal excursion that does not degrade the feedstock’s microstructure. The second advantage is that the combination of binder-jet 3D printing and melt infiltration gives fully-dense net shape objects, minimizing the need for subsequent post-processing. In this work, fully-dense, net shape objects have been fabricated from an amorphous

  2. 3D Printing PDMS Elastomer in a Hydrophilic Support Bath via Freeform Reversible Embedding

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is used in a wide range of biomaterial applications including microfluidics, cell culture substrates, flexible electronics, and medical devices. However, it has proved challenging to 3D print PDMS in complex structures due to its low elastic modulus and need for support during the printing process. Here we demonstrate the 3D printing of hydrophobic PDMS prepolymer resins within a hydrophilic Carbopol gel support via freeform reversible embedding (FRE). In the FRE printing process, the Carbopol support acts as a Bingham plastic that yields and fluidizes when the syringe tip of the 3D printer moves through it, but acts as a solid for the PDMS extruded within it. This, in combination with the immiscibility of hydrophobic PDMS in the hydrophilic Carbopol, confines the PDMS prepolymer within the support for curing times up to 72 h while maintaining dimensional stability. After printing and curing, the Carbopol support gel releases the embedded PDMS prints by using phosphate buffered saline solution to reduce the Carbopol yield stress. As proof-of-concept, we used Sylgard 184 PDMS to 3D print linear and helical filaments via continuous extrusion and cylindrical and helical tubes via layer-by-layer fabrication. Importantly, we show that the 3D printed tubes were manifold and perfusable. The results demonstrate that hydrophobic polymers with low viscosity and long cure times can be 3D printed using a hydrophilic support, expanding the range of biomaterials that can be used in additive manufacturing. Further, by implementing the technology using low cost open-source hardware and software tools, the FRE printing technique can be rapidly implemented for research applications. PMID:27747289

  3. 3D Printing PDMS Elastomer in a Hydrophilic Support Bath via Freeform Reversible Embedding.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Thomas J; Hudson, Andrew; Pusch, Kira; Lee, Andrew; Feinberg, Adam W

    2016-10-10

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is used in a wide range of biomaterial applications including microfluidics, cell culture substrates, flexible electronics, and medical devices. However, it has proved challenging to 3D print PDMS in complex structures due to its low elastic modulus and need for support during the printing process. Here we demonstrate the 3D printing of hydrophobic PDMS prepolymer resins within a hydrophilic Carbopol gel support via freeform reversible embedding (FRE). In the FRE printing process, the Carbopol support acts as a Bingham plastic that yields and fluidizes when the syringe tip of the 3D printer moves through it, but acts as a solid for the PDMS extruded within it. This, in combination with the immiscibility of hydrophobic PDMS in the hydrophilic Carbopol, confines the PDMS prepolymer within the support for curing times up to 72 h while maintaining dimensional stability. After printing and curing, the Carbopol support gel releases the embedded PDMS prints by using phosphate buffered saline solution to reduce the Carbopol yield stress. As proof-of-concept, we used Sylgard 184 PDMS to 3D print linear and helical filaments via continuous extrusion and cylindrical and helical tubes via layer-by-layer fabrication. Importantly, we show that the 3D printed tubes were manifold and perfusable. The results demonstrate that hydrophobic polymers with low viscosity and long cure times can be 3D printed using a hydrophilic support, expanding the range of biomaterials that can be used in additive manufacturing. Further, by implementing the technology using low cost open-source hardware and software tools, the FRE printing technique can be rapidly implemented for research applications.

  4. 3D printing awareness: the future of making things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valpreda, F.

    2015-03-01

    The advent of 3D printing is giving us new production opportunities but is creating new economic and social assets. In the paper we will analyze the new conditions we will live in. The current industrial production scenario will be analyzed to see how it works and how 3D printing is being introduced into it: where the traditional production comes from and how it actually works, from the historical, technological, social and economic point of view, including transports of materials and products. This asset is being "polluted" and possibly transformed by 3D printing: what is it, how it works, but most important, how this technology is transforming our personal approach to industrial products. This technological innovation will transform our lives, possibly even more than how movable type printing did: we will see the opportunities offered to adopt this innovation not only for our everyday life, but also looking forward for environmental issues, (e)commerce reorganization and social quality improvement. In the final part we will also see what will be the keys to open a new kind of developing path, where technology will take an important part, what relationship with it humans will have, and which will be the keys to succeed in this challenge, identifying in knowledge, awareness and culture of innovation those keys.

  5. 3D gel printing for soft-matter systems innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kawakami, Masaru; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Saito, Azusa

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed, especially from Japan. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. We consider if various gel materials including such high-strength gels are 3D-printable, many new soft and wet systems will be developed since the most intricate shape gels can be printed regardless of the quite softness and brittleness of gels. Recently we have tried to develop an optical 3D gel printer to realize the free-form formation of gel materials. We named this apparatus Easy Realizer of Soft and Wet Industrial Materials (SWIM-ER). The SWIM-ER will be applied to print bespoke artificial organs, including artificial blood vessels, which will be possibly used for both surgery trainings and actual surgery. The SWIM-ER can print one of the world strongest gels, called Double-Network (DN) gels, by using UV irradiation through an optical fiber. Now we also are developing another type of 3D gel printer for foods, named E-Chef. We believe these new 3D gel printers will broaden the applications of soft-matter gels.

  6. 3D printed auxetic forms on knitted fabrics for adjustable permeability and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmelsmann, N.; Meissner, H.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 3D printing technology can be applied into manufacturing primary shaping diverse products, from models dealing as examples for future products that will be produced with another technique, to useful objects. Since 3D printing is nowadays significantly slower than other possibilities to manufacture items, such as die casting, it is often used for small parts that are produced in small numbers or for products that cannot be created in another way. Combinations of 3D printing with other objects, adding novel functionalities to them, are thus favourable to a complete primary shaping process. Textile fabrics belong to the objects whose mechanical and other properties can notably be modified by adding 3D printed forms. This article mainly reports on a new possibility to change the permeability of textile fabrics by 3D printing auxetic forms, e.g. for utilising them in textile filters. In addition, auxetic forms 3D printed on knitted fabrics can bring about mechanical properties that are conducive to tensile constructions.

  7. 3D Printing of CT Dataset: Validation of an Open Source and Consumer-Available Workflow.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Chandra; Eshja, Esmeralda; Peroni, Caterina; Orlandi, Matteo A; Bizzotto, Nicola; Poggi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The broad availability of cheap three-dimensional (3D) printing equipment has raised the need for a thorough analysis on its effects on clinical accuracy. Our aim is to determine whether the accuracy of 3D printing process is affected by the use of a low-budget workflow based on open source software and consumer's commercially available 3D printers. A group of test objects was scanned with a 64-slice computed tomography (CT) in order to build their 3D copies. CT datasets were elaborated using a software chain based on three free and open source software. Objects were printed out with a commercially available 3D printer. Both the 3D copies and the test objects were measured using a digital professional caliper. Overall, the objects' mean absolute difference between test objects and 3D copies is 0.23 mm and the mean relative difference amounts to 0.55 %. Our results demonstrate that the accuracy of 3D printing process remains high despite the use of a low-budget workflow.

  8. 3D printing of biomimetic microstructures for cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tina Qing; Qu, Xin; Liu, Justin; Chen, Shaochen

    2014-02-01

    To understand the physical behavior and migration of cancer cells, a 3D in vitro micro-chip in hydrogel was created using 3D projection printing. The micro-chip has a honeycomb branched structure, aiming to mimic 3D vascular morphology to test, monitor, and analyze differences in the behavior of cancer cells (i.e. HeLa) vs. non-cancerous cell lines (i.e. 10 T1/2). The 3D Projection Printing system can fabricate complex structures in seconds from user-created designs. The fabricated microstructures have three different channel widths of 25, 45, and 120 microns wide to reflect a range of blood vessel diameters. HeLa and 10 T1/2 cells seeded within the micro-chip were then analyzed for morphology and cell migration speed. 10 T1/2 cells exhibited greater changes in morphology due to channel size width than HeLa cells; however, channel width had a limited effect on 10 T1/2 cell migration while HeLa cancer cell migration increased as channel width decreased. This physiologically relevant 3D cancer tissue model has the potential to be a powerful tool for future drug discoveries and cancer migration studies.

  9. 3D Printing of Biomolecular Models for Research and Pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Da Veiga Beltrame, Eduardo; Tyrwhitt-Drake, James; Roy, Ian; Shalaby, Raed; Suckale, Jakob; Pomeranz Krummel, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    The construction of physical three-dimensional (3D) models of biomolecules can uniquely contribute to the study of the structure-function relationship. 3D structures are most often perceived using the two-dimensional and exclusively visual medium of the computer screen. Converting digital 3D molecular data into real objects enables information to be perceived through an expanded range of human senses, including direct stereoscopic vision, touch, and interaction. Such tangible models facilitate new insights, enable hypothesis testing, and serve as psychological or sensory anchors for conceptual information about the functions of biomolecules. Recent advances in consumer 3D printing technology enable, for the first time, the cost-effective fabrication of high-quality and scientifically accurate models of biomolecules in a variety of molecular representations. However, the optimization of the virtual model and its printing parameters is difficult and time consuming without detailed guidance. Here, we provide a guide on the digital design and physical fabrication of biomolecule models for research and pedagogy using open source or low-cost software and low-cost 3D printers that use fused filament fabrication technology.

  10. 3D printing of biomimetic microstructures for cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tina Qing; Qu, Xin; Liu, Justin; Chen, Shaochen

    2013-01-01

    To understand the physical behavior and migration of cancer cells, a 3D in vitro micro-chip in hydrogel was created using 3D projection printing. The micro-chip has a honeycomb branched structure, aiming to mimic 3D vascular morphology to test, monitor, and analyze differences in the behavior of cancer cells (i.e. HeLa) vs. non-cancerous cell lines (i.e. 10T1/2). The 3D Projection Printing system can fabricate complex structures in seconds from user-created designs. The fabricated microstructures have three different channel widths of 25, 45, and 120 microns wide to reflect a range of blood vessel diameters. HeLa and 10T1/2 cells seeded within the micro-chip were then analyzed for morphology and cell migration speed. 10T1/2 cells exhibited greater changes in morphology due to channel size width than HeLa cells; however, channel width had a limited effect on 10T1/2 cell migration while HeLa cancer cell migration increased as channel width decreased. This physiologically relevant 3D cancer tissue model has the potential to be a powerful tool for future drug discoveries and cancer migration studies PMID:24150602

  11. Open Labware: 3-D printing your own lab equipment.

    PubMed

    Baden, Tom; Chagas, Andre Maia; Gage, Gregory J; Gage, Greg; Marzullo, Timothy C; Marzullo, Timothy; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L; Euler, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The introduction of affordable, consumer-oriented 3-D printers is a milestone in the current "maker movement," which has been heralded as the next industrial revolution. Combined with free and open sharing of detailed design blueprints and accessible development tools, rapid prototypes of complex products can now be assembled in one's own garage--a game-changer reminiscent of the early days of personal computing. At the same time, 3-D printing has also allowed the scientific and engineering community to build the "little things" that help a lab get up and running much faster and easier than ever before.

  12. Open Labware: 3-D Printing Your Own Lab Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Tom; Chagas, Andre Maia; Gage, Greg; Marzullo, Timothy; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L.; Euler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of affordable, consumer-oriented 3-D printers is a milestone in the current “maker movement,” which has been heralded as the next industrial revolution. Combined with free and open sharing of detailed design blueprints and accessible development tools, rapid prototypes of complex products can now be assembled in one’s own garage—a game-changer reminiscent of the early days of personal computing. At the same time, 3-D printing has also allowed the scientific and engineering community to build the “little things” that help a lab get up and running much faster and easier than ever before. PMID:25794301

  13. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure.

  14. 3D printing surgical instruments: Are we there yet?

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Timothy M.; Giovinco, Nicholas A.; Cucher, Daniel J.; Watts, George; Hurwitz, Bonnie; Armstrong, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The applications for rapid prototyping have expanded dramatically over the last 20 years. In recent years, additive manufacturing has been intensely investigated for surgical implants, tissue scaffolds, and organs. There is, however, scant literature to date that has investigated the viability of 3D printing of surgical instruments. Materials and Methods Using a fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) printer, an army/ navy surgical retractor was replicated from polylactic acid (PLA) filament. The retractor was sterilized using standard FDA approved glutaraldehyde protocols, tested for bacteria by PCR, and stressed until fracture in order to determine if the printed instrument could tolerate force beyond the demands of an operating room. Results Printing required roughly 90 minutes. The instrument tolerated 13.6 kg of tangential force before failure, both before and after exposure to the sterilant. Freshly extruded PLA from the printer was sterile and produced no PCR product. Each instrument weighed 16g and required only $0.46 of PLA. Conclusions Our estimates place the cost per unit of a 3D printed retractor to be roughly 1/10th the cost of a stainless steel instrument. The PLA Army/ Navy is strong enough for the demands of the operating room. Freshly extruded PLA in a clean environment, such as an OR, would produce a sterile, ready to use instrument. Due to the unprecedented accessibility of 3D printing technology world wide, and the cost efficiency of these instruments, there are far reaching implications for surgery in some underserved and less developed parts of the world. PMID:24721602

  15. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing

    SciTech Connect

    Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-28

    Innovation in the design and manufacturing of wind power generation components continues to be critical to achieving our national renewable energy goals. As a result of this challenge, the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program and Advanced Manufacturing Office are partnering with public and private organizations to apply additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, to the production of wind turbine blade molds.

  16. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing

    ScienceCinema

    Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-08-17

    Innovation in the design and manufacturing of wind power generation components continues to be critical to achieving our national renewable energy goals. As a result of this challenge, the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program and Advanced Manufacturing Office are partnering with public and private organizations to apply additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, to the production of wind turbine blade molds.

  17. Early experiences of planning stereotactic radiosurgery using 3D printed models of eyes with uveal melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Furdová, Alena; Sramka, Miron; Thurzo, Andrej; Furdová, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the use of 3D printed model of an eye with intraocular tumor for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods The software for segmentation (3D Slicer) created virtual 3D model of eye globe with tumorous mass based on tissue density from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. A virtual model was then processed in the slicing software (Simplify3D®) and printed on 3D printer using fused deposition modeling technology. The material that was used for printing was polylactic acid. Results In 2015, stereotactic planning scheme was optimized with the help of 3D printed model of the patient’s eye with intraocular tumor. In the period 2001–2015, a group of 150 patients with uveal melanoma (139 choroidal melanoma and 11 ciliary body melanoma) were treated. The median tumor volume was 0.5 cm3 (0.2–1.6 cm3). The radiation dose was 35.0 Gy by 99% of dose volume histogram. Conclusion The 3D printed model of eye with tumor was helpful in planning the process to achieve the optimal scheme for irradiation which requires high accuracy of defining the targeted tumor mass and critical structures. PMID:28203052

  18. 3D Printing of Hierarchical Silk Fibroin Structures.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marianne R; Schaffner, Manuel; Carnelli, Davide; Studart, André R

    2016-12-21

    Like many other natural materials, silk is hierarchically structured from the amino acid level up to the cocoon or spider web macroscopic structures. Despite being used industrially in a number of applications, hierarchically structured silk fibroin objects with a similar degree of architectural control as in natural structures have not been produced yet due to limitations in fabrication processes. In a combined top-down and bottom-up approach, we exploit the freedom in macroscopic design offered by 3D printing and the template-guided assembly of ink building blocks at the meso- and nanolevel to fabricate hierarchical silk porous materials with unprecedented structural control. Pores with tunable sizes in the range 40-350 μm are generated by adding sacrificial organic microparticles as templates to a silk fibroin-based ink. Commercially available wax particles or monodisperse polycaprolactone made by microfluidics can be used as microparticle templates. Since closed pores are generated after template removal, an ultrasonication treatment can optionally be used to achieve open porosity. Such pore templating particles can be further modified with nanoparticles to create a hierarchical template that results in porous structures with a defined nanotopography on the pore walls. The hierarchically porous silk structures obtained with this processing technique can potentially be utilized in various application fields from structural materials to thermal insulation to tissue engineering scaffolds.

  19. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use.

  20. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  1. 3D printed microfluidic circuitry via multijet-based additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sochol, R D; Sweet, E; Glick, C C; Venkatesh, S; Avetisyan, A; Ekman, K F; Raulinaitis, A; Tsai, A; Wienkers, A; Korner, K; Hanson, K; Long, A; Hightower, B J; Slatton, G; Burnett, D C; Massey, T L; Iwai, K; Lee, L P; Pister, K S J; Lin, L

    2016-02-21

    The miniaturization of integrated fluidic processors affords extensive benefits for chemical and biological fields, yet traditional, monolithic methods of microfabrication present numerous obstacles for the scaling of fluidic operators. Recently, researchers have investigated the use of additive manufacturing or "three-dimensional (3D) printing" technologies - predominantly stereolithography - as a promising alternative for the construction of submillimeter-scale fluidic components. One challenge, however, is that current stereolithography methods lack the ability to simultaneously print sacrificial support materials, which limits the geometric versatility of such approaches. In this work, we investigate the use of multijet modelling (alternatively, polyjet printing) - a layer-by-layer, multi-material inkjetting process - for 3D printing geometrically complex, yet functionally advantageous fluidic components comprised of both static and dynamic physical elements. We examine a fundamental class of 3D printed microfluidic operators, including fluidic capacitors, fluidic diodes, and fluidic transistors. In addition, we evaluate the potential to advance on-chip automation of integrated fluidic systems via geometric modification of component parameters. Theoretical and experimental results for 3D fluidic capacitors demonstrated that transitioning from planar to non-planar diaphragm architectures improved component performance. Flow rectification experiments for 3D printed fluidic diodes revealed a diodicity of 80.6 ± 1.8. Geometry-based gain enhancement for 3D printed fluidic transistors yielded pressure gain of 3.01 ± 0.78. Consistent with additional additive manufacturing methodologies, the use of digitally-transferrable 3D models of fluidic components combined with commercially-available 3D printers could extend the fluidic routing capabilities presented here to researchers in fields beyond the core engineering community.

  2. 3D printed nervous system on a chip.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Blake N; Lancaster, Karen Z; Hogue, Ian B; Meng, Fanben; Kong, Yong Lin; Enquist, Lynn W; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-04-21

    Bioinspired organ-level in vitro platforms are emerging as effective technologies for fundamental research, drug discovery, and personalized healthcare. In particular, models for nervous system research are especially important, due to the complexity of neurological phenomena and challenges associated with developing targeted treatment of neurological disorders. Here we introduce an additive manufacturing-based approach in the form of a bioinspired, customizable 3D printed nervous system on a chip (3DNSC) for the study of viral infection in the nervous system. Micro-extrusion 3D printing strategies enabled the assembly of biomimetic scaffold components (microchannels and compartmented chambers) for the alignment of axonal networks and spatial organization of cellular components. Physiologically relevant studies of nervous system infection using the multiscale biomimetic device demonstrated the functionality of the in vitro platform. We found that Schwann cells participate in axon-to-cell viral spread but appear refractory to infection, exhibiting a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.4 genomes per cell. These results suggest that 3D printing is a valuable approach for the prototyping of a customized model nervous system on a chip technology.

  3. 3D Printed Nervous System on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Blake N.; Lancaster, Karen Z.; Hogue, Ian B.; Meng, Fanben; Kong, Yong Lin; Enquist, Lynn W.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Bioinspired organ-level in vitro platforms are emerging as effective technologies for fundamental research, drug discovery, and personalized healthcare. In particular, models for nervous system research are especially important, due to the complexity of neurological phenomena and challenges associated with developing targeted treatment of neurological disorders. Here we introduce an additive manufacturing-based approach in the form of a bioinspired, customizable 3D printed nervous system on a chip (3DNSC) for the study of viral infection in the nervous system. Micro-extrusion 3D printing strategies enabled the assembly of biomimetic scaffold components (microchannels and compartmented chambers) for the alignment of axonal networks and spatial organization of cellular components. Physiologically relevant studies of nervous system infection using the multiscale biomimetic device demonstrated the functionality of the in vitro platform. We found that Schwann cells participate in axon-to-cell viral spread but appear refractory to infection, exhibiting a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.4 genomes per cell. These results suggest that 3D printing is a valuable approach for the prototyping of a customized model nervous system on a chip technology. PMID:26669842

  4. 3D printing in neurosurgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Randazzo, Michael; Pisapia, Jared M.; Singh, Nickpreet; Thawani, Jayesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The recent expansion of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology into the field of neurosurgery has prompted a widespread investigation of its utility. In this article, we review the current body of literature describing rapid prototyping techniques with applications to the practice of neurosurgery. Methods: An extensive and systematic search of the Compendex, Scopus, and PubMed medical databases was conducted using keywords relating to 3D printing and neurosurgery. Results were manually screened for relevance to applications within the field. Results: Of the search results, 36 articles were identified and included in this review. The articles spanned the various subspecialties of the field including cerebrovascular, neuro-oncologic, spinal, functional, and endoscopic neurosurgery. Conclusions: We conclude that 3D printing techniques are practical and anatomically accurate methods of producing patient-specific models for surgical planning, simulation and training, tissue-engineered implants, and secondary devices. Expansion of this technology may, therefore, contribute to advancing the neurosurgical field from several standpoints. PMID:27920940

  5. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment.

  6. 3D printing of novel osteochondral scaffolds with graded microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, Margaret A.; Castro, Nathan J.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-10-01

    Osteochondral tissue has a complex graded structure where biological, physiological, and mechanical properties vary significantly over the full thickness spanning from the subchondral bone region beneath the joint surface to the hyaline cartilage region at the joint surface. This presents a significant challenge for tissue-engineered structures addressing osteochondral defects. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D bioprinters present a unique solution to this problem. The objective of this study is to use FDM-based 3D bioprinting and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite for improved bone marrow human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion, growth, and osteochondral differentiation. FDM printing parameters can be tuned through computer aided design and computer numerical control software to manipulate scaffold geometries in ways that are beneficial to mechanical performance without hindering cellular behavior. Additionally, the ability to fine-tune 3D printed scaffolds increases further through our investment casting procedure which facilitates the inclusion of nanoparticles with biochemical factors to further elicit desired hMSC differentiation. For this study, FDM was used to print investment-casting molds innovatively designed with varied pore distribution over the full thickness of the scaffold. The mechanical and biological impacts of the varied pore distributions were compared and evaluated to determine the benefits of this physical manipulation. The results indicate that both mechanical properties and cell performance improve in the graded pore structures when compared to homogeneously distributed porous and non-porous structures. Differentiation results indicated successful osteogenic and chondrogenic manipulation in engineered scaffolds.

  7. Desktop 3D printing of controlled release pharmaceutical bilayer tablets.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Shaban A; Burley, Jonathan C; Alexander, Morgan R; Roberts, Clive J

    2014-01-30

    Three dimensional (3D) printing was used as a novel medicine formulation technique for production of viable tablets capable of satisfying regulatory tests and matching the release of standard commercial tablets. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 2208) (Methocel™ K100M Premium) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (Carbopol(®) 974P NF) were used as a hydrophilic matrix for a sustained release (SR) layer. Hypromellose(®) (HPMC 2910) was used as a binder while microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (Pharmacel(®) 102) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) (Primojel(®)) were used as disintegrants for an immediate release (IR) layer. Commercial guaifenesin bi-layer tablets (GBT) were used as a model drug (Mucinex(®)) for this study. There was a favourable comparison of release of the active guaifenesin from the printed hydrophilic matrix compared with the commercially available GBT. The printed formulations were also evaluated for physical and mechanical properties such as weight variation, friability, hardness and thickness as a comparison to the commercial tablet and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). All formulations (standard tablets and 3D printed tablets) showed Korsmeyer-Peppas n values between 0.27 and 0.44 which indicates Fickian diffusion drug release through a hydrated HPMC gel layer.

  8. 3D liver surgery simulation: computer-assisted surgical planning with 3D simulation software and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-03-27

    To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for 3D visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining 3D computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, that enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow 3D-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.

  9. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers – digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications.

  10. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L; Qi, H Jerry

    2016-04-13

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers - digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications.

  11. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers – digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications. PMID:27071543

  12. 3D printing of mineral-polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Aleksey A; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Mironov, Anton V; Komlev, Vladimir S; Popov, Vladimir K; Zobkov, Yury V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D) printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP) for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the "ink"). The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm) and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions.

  13. 3D printing of mineral–polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, Aleksey A; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Mironov, Anton V; Popov, Vladimir K; Zobkov, Yury V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D) printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP) for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the “ink”). The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm) and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions. PMID:28144529

  14. Characterisation of the surface structure of 3D printed scaffolds for cell infiltration and surgical suturing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cantu, Laura; Gleadall, Andrew; Faris, Callum; Segal, Joel; Shakesheff, Kevin; Yang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    3D printing is of great interest for tissue engineering scaffolds due to the ability to form complex geometries and control internal structures, including porosity and pore size. The porous structure of scaffolds plays an important role in cell ingrowth and nutrition infusion. Although the internal porosity and pore size of 3D printed scaffolds have been frequently studied, the surface porosity and pore size, which are critical for cell infiltration and mass transport, have not been investigated. The surface geometry can differ considerably from the internal scaffold structure depending on the 3D printing process. It is vital to be able to control the surface geometry of scaffolds as well as the internal structure to fabricate optimal architectures. This work presents a method to control the surface porosity and pore size of 3D printed scaffolds. Six scaffold designs have been printed with surface porosities ranging from 3% to 21%. We have characterised the overall scaffold porosity and surface porosity using optical microscopy and microCT. It has been found that surface porosity has a significant impact on cell infiltration and proliferation. In addition, the porosity of the surface has been found to have an effect on mechanical properties and on the forces required to penetrate the scaffold with a surgical suturing needle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the surface geometry of extrusion-based 3D printed scaffolds and demonstrates the importance of surface geometry in cell infiltration and clinical manipulation.

  15. SU-C-213-03: Custom 3D Printed Boluses for Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, B; Yang, M; Yan, Y; Rahimi, A; Chopra, R; Jiang, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow and to commission the process of creating custom 3d printed boluses for radiation therapy. Methods: We designed a workflow to create custom boluses using a commercial 3D printer. Contours of several patients were deformably mapped to phantoms where the test bolus contours were designed. Treatment plans were created on the phantoms following our institutional planning guideline. The DICOM file of the bolus contours were then converted to stereoLithography (stl) file for the 3d printer. The boluses were printed on a commercial 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Custom printing parameters were optimized in order to meet the requirement of bolus composition. The workflow was tested on multiple anatomical sites such as skull, nose and chest wall. The size of boluses varies from 6×9cm2 to 12×25cm2. To commission the process, basic CT and dose properties of the printing materials were measured in photon and electron beams and compared against water and soft superflab bolus. Phantoms were then scanned to confirm the placement of custom boluses. Finally dose distributions with rescanned CTs were compared with those computer-generated boluses. Results: The relative electron density(1.08±0.006) of the printed boluses resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties were measured at dmax with an ion chamber in electron and photon open beams. Compared with solid water and soft bolus, the output difference was within 1% for the 3D printer material. The printed boluses fit well to the phantom surfaces on CT scans. The dose distribution and DVH based on the printed boluses match well with those based on TPS generated boluses. Conclusion: 3d printing provides a cost effective and convenient solution for patient-specific boluses in radiation therapy.

  16. Mitigation of Tracheobronchomalacia with 3D-Printed Personalized Medical Devices in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Robert J.; Hollister, Scott J.; Niedner, Matthew F.; Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Park, Albert H.; Mehta, Deepak K.; Ohye, Richard G.; Green, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the potential for rapid customization of medical devices. The advent of 3D-printable biomaterials has created the potential for device control in the fourth dimension: 3D-printed objects that exhibit a designed shape change under tissue growth and resorption conditions over time. Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is a condition of excessive collapse of the airways during respiration that can lead to life-threatening cardiopulmonary arrests. Here we demonstrate the successful application of 3D printing technology to produce a personalized medical device for treatment of TBM, designed to accommodate airway growth while preventing external compression over a pre-determined time period before bioresorption. We implanted patient-specific 3D-printed external airway splints in three infants with severe TBM. At the time of publication, these infants no longer exhibited life-threatening airway disease and had demonstrated resolution of both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications of their TBM. Long-term data show continued growth of the primary airways. This process has broad application for medical manufacturing of patient-specific 3D-printed devices that adjust to tissue growth through designed mechanical and degradation behaviors over time. PMID:25925683

  17. Mitigation of tracheobronchomalacia with 3D-printed personalized medical devices in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Robert J; Hollister, Scott J; Niedner, Matthew F; Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Park, Albert H; Mehta, Deepak K; Ohye, Richard G; Green, Glenn E

    2015-04-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the potential for rapid customization of medical devices. The advent of 3D-printable biomaterials has created the potential for device control in the fourth dimension: 3D-printed objects that exhibit a designed shape change under tissue growth and resorption conditions over time. Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is a condition of excessive collapse of the airways during respiration that can lead to life-threatening cardiopulmonary arrests. We demonstrate the successful application of 3D printing technology to produce a personalized medical device for treatment of TBM, designed to accommodate airway growth while preventing external compression over a predetermined time period before bioresorption. We implanted patient-specific 3D-printed external airway splints in three infants with severe TBM. At the time of publication, these infants no longer exhibited life-threatening airway disease and had demonstrated resolution of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications of their TBM. Long-term data show continued growth of the primary airways. This process has broad application for medical manufacturing of patient-specific 3D-printed devices that adjust to tissue growth through designed mechanical and degradation behaviors over time.

  18. Evaluation of 3D printed materials used to print WR10 horn antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Elof; Rahiminejad, Sofia; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    A WR10 waveguide horn antenna is 3D printed with three different materials. The antennas are printed on a fusion deposition modeling delta 3D printer built in house at Chalmers University of Technology. The different plastic materials used are an electrically conductive Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), a thermally conductive polylactic acid containing 35% copper, and a tough Amphora polymer containing at least 20% carbon fiber. The antennas are all printed with a 0.25 mm nozzle and 100 μm layer thickness and the software settings are tuned to give maximum quality for each material. The three 3D printed horn antennas are compared when it comes to cost, time and material properties.

  19. 3D printed microfluidic circuitry via multijet-based additive manufacturing†

    PubMed Central

    Sochol, R. D.; Sweet, E.; Glick, C. C.; Venkatesh, S.; Avetisyan, A.; Ekman, K. F.; Raulinaitis, A.; Tsai, A.; Wienkers, A.; Korner, K.; Hanson, K.; Long, A.; Hightower, B. J.; Slatton, G.; Burnett, D. C.; Massey, T. L.; Iwai, K.; Lee, L. P.; Pister, K. S. J.; Lin, L.

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of integrated fluidic processors affords extensive benefits for chemical and biological fields, yet traditional, monolithic methods of microfabrication present numerous obstacles for the scaling of fluidic operators. Recently, researchers have investigated the use of additive manufacturing or “three-dimensional (3D) printing” technologies – predominantly stereolithography – as a promising alternative for the construction of submillimeter-scale fluidic components. One challenge, however, is that current stereolithography methods lack the ability to simultaneously print sacrificial support materials, which limits the geometric versatility of such approaches. In this work, we investigate the use of multijet modelling (alternatively, polyjet printing) – a layer-by-layer, multi-material inkjetting process – for 3D printing geometrically complex, yet functionally advantageous fluidic components comprised of both static and dynamic physical elements. We examine a fundamental class of 3D printed microfluidic operators, including fluidic capacitors, fluidic diodes, and fluidic transistors. In addition, we evaluate the potential to advance on-chip automation of integrated fluidic systems via geometric modification of component parameters. Theoretical and experimental results for 3D fluidic capacitors demonstrated that transitioning from planar to non-planar diaphragm architectures improved component performance. Flow rectification experiments for 3D printed fluidic diodes revealed a diodicity of 80.6 ± 1.8. Geometry-based gain enhancement for 3D printed fluidic transistors yielded pressure gain of 3.01 ± 0.78. Consistent with additional additive manufacturing methodologies, the use of digitally-transferrable 3D models of fluidic components combined with commercially-available 3D printers could extend the fluidic routing capabilities presented here to researchers in fields beyond the core engineering community. PMID:26725379

  20. A Model for Managing 3D Printing Services in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Sahib, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of 3D printers in university libraries opens many opportunities for advancing outreach, teaching, and research programs. The University of Alabama (UA) Libraries recently adopted 3D printing technology and maintains an open access 3D Printing Studio. The Studio consists of a 3D printer, multiple 3D design workstations, and other…

  1. A Review on Energy Harvesting Using 3D Printed Fabrics for Wearable Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowthaman, Swaminathan; Chidambaram, Gowri Shankar; Rao, Dilli Babu Govardhana; Subramya, Hemakumar Vyudhayagiri; Chandrasekhar, Udhayagiri

    2016-06-01

    Embedding of energy harvesting systems into wearable health and environment monitoring systems, like integration of smart piezoelectric fibers into soldier fabric structures opens up avenues in generating electricity from natural mechanical movements for self-powering of wearable electronics. Emergence of multitudinous of materials and manufacturing technologies has enabled realization of various energy harvesting systems from mechanical movements. The materials and manufacturing related to 3D printing of energy harvesting fabrics are reviewed in this paper. State-of-the-art energy harvesting sources are briefly described following which an in-depth analysis on the materials and 3D printing techniques for energy harvesting fabrics are presented. While tremendous motivation and opportunity exists for wider-scale adoption of 3D printing for this niche area, the success depends on efficient design of three critical factors namely materials, process and structure. The present review discusses on the complex issues of materials selection, modelling and processing of 3D printed fabrics. The paper culminates by presenting a discussion on how future advancements in 3D printing technology might be useful for development of wearable electronics.

  2. A 3D printed electromagnetic nonlinear vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinou, P.; Roy, S.

    2016-09-01

    A 3D printed electromagnetic vibration energy harvester is presented. The motion of the device is in-plane with the excitation vibrations, and this is enabled through the exploitation of a leaf isosceles trapezoidal flexural pivot topology. This topology is ideally suited for systems requiring restricted out-of-plane motion and benefits from being fabricated monolithically. This is achieved by 3D printing the topology with materials having a low flexural modulus. The presented system has a nonlinear softening spring response, as a result of designed magnetic force interactions. A discussion of fatigue performance is presented and it is suggested that whilst fabricating, the raster of the suspension element is printed perpendicular to the flexural direction and that the experienced stress is as low as possible during operation, to ensure longevity. A demonstrated power of ˜25 μW at 0.1 g is achieved and 2.9 mW is demonstrated at 1 g. The corresponding bandwidths reach up-to 4.5 Hz. The system’s corresponding power density of ˜0.48 mW cm-3 and normalised power integral density of 11.9 kg m-3 (at 1 g) are comparable to other in-plane systems found in the literature.

  3. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques.

  4. Micro-droplet formation via 3D printed micro channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Zhen; Zhang, Jiaming; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2016-11-01

    Low cost, fast-designed and fast-fabricated 3D micro channel was used to create micro-droplets. Capillary with an outer diameter of 1.5 mm and an inner diameter of 150 μm was inserted into a 3D printed cylindrical channel with a diameter of 2 mm . Flow rate of the two inlets, insert depth, liquid (density, viscosity and surface tension) and solid (roughness, contact angle) properties all play a role in the droplet formation. Different regimes - dripping, jetting, unstable state - were observed in the micro-channel on varying these parameters. With certain parameter combinations, successive formation of micro-droplets with equal size was observed and its size can be much smaller than the smallest channel size. Based on our experimental results, the droplet formation via 3D printed micro T-junction was investigated through direct numerical simulations with a code called Gerris. Reynolds numbers Re = ρUL / μ and Weber numbers We = ρU2 L / σ of the two liquids were introduced to measure the liquid effect. The parameter regime where different physical dynamics occur was studied and the regime transition was observed with certain threshold values. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed as well between simulations and experiments.

  5. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed. PMID:27433470

  6. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed.

  7. 3D Printing of Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration Applications.

    PubMed

    Do, Anh-Vu; Khorsand, Behnoush; Geary, Sean M; Salem, Aliasger K

    2015-08-26

    The current need for organ and tissue replacement, repair, and regeneration for patients is continually growing such that supply is not meeting demand primarily due to a paucity of donors as well as biocompatibility issues leading to immune rejection of the transplant. In order to overcome these drawbacks, scientists have investigated the use of scaffolds as an alternative to transplantation. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) by providing structural support as well as promoting attachment, proliferation, and differentiation with the ultimate goal of yielding functional tissues or organs. Initial attempts at developing scaffolds were problematic and subsequently inspired an interest in 3D printing as a mode for generating scaffolds. Utilizing three-dimensional printing (3DP) technologies, ECM-like scaffolds can be produced with a high degree of complexity, where fine details can be included at a micrometer level. In this Review, the criteria for printing viable and functional scaffolds, scaffolding materials, and 3DP technologies used to print scaffolds for tissue engineering are discussed. Creating biofunctional scaffolds could potentially help to meet the demand by patients for tissues and organs without having to wait or rely on donors for transplantation.

  8. 3D-printed soft microrobot for swimming in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tian; Palagi, Stefano; Fischer, Peer

    2015-08-01

    Microscopic artificial swimmers hold the potential to enable novel non-invasive medical procedures. In order to ease their translation towards real biomedical applications, simpler designs as well as cheaper yet more reliable materials and fabrication processes should be adopted, provided that the functionality of the microrobots can be kept. A simple single-hinge design could already enable micro-swimming in non-Newtonian fluids, which most bodily fluids are. Here, we address the fabrication of such single-hinge microrobots with a 3D-printed soft material. Firstly, a finite element model is developed to investigate the deformability of the 3D-printed microstructure under typical values of the actuating magnetic fields. Then the microstructures are fabricated by direct 3D-printing of a soft material and their swimming performances are evaluated. The speeds achieved with the 3D-printed microrobots are comparable to those obtained in previous work with complex fabrication procedures, thus showing great promise for 3D-printed microrobots to be operated in biological fluids.

  9. A 3D-printed high power nuclear spin polarizer.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Walkup, Laura L; Gust, Brogan M; LaPierre, Cristen D; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-01-29

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of (129)Xe and (1)H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of "off-the-shelf" components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity (129)Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ∼74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the (129)Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10(-2) min(-1)] and in-cell (129)Xe spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for (129)Xe and Rb (PRb ∼ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced (129)Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications.

  10. A 3D-Printed High Power Nuclear Spin Polarizer

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M.; Walkup, Laura L.; Gust, Brogan M.; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Goodson, Boyd M.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of 129Xe and 1H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of “off-the-shelf” components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity 129Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ~74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the 129Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10−2 min−1] and in-cell 129Xe spin−lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for 129Xe and Rb (PRb ~ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced 129Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919

  11. Relevance of PEG in PLA-based blends for tissue engineering 3D-printed scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Serra, Tiziano; Ortiz-Hernandez, Monica; Engel, Elisabeth; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba

    2014-05-01

    Achieving high quality 3D-printed structures requires establishing the right printing conditions. Finding processing conditions that satisfy both the fabrication process and the final required scaffold properties is crucial. This work stresses the importance of studying the outcome of the plasticizing effect of PEG on PLA-based blends used for the fabrication of 3D-direct-printed scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. For this, PLA/PEG blends with 5, 10 and 20% (w/w) of PEG and PLA/PEG/bioactive CaP glass composites were processed in the form of 3D rapid prototyping scaffolds. Surface analysis and differential scanning calorimetry revealed a rearrangement of polymer chains and a topography, wettability and elastic modulus increase of the studied surfaces as PEG was incorporated. Moreover, addition of 10 and 20% PEG led to non-uniform 3D structures with lower mechanical properties. In vitro degradation studies showed that the inclusion of PEG significantly accelerated the degradation rate of the material. Results indicated that the presence of PEG not only improves PLA processing but also leads to relevant surface, geometrical and structural changes including modulation of the degradation rate of PLA-based 3D printed scaffolds.

  12. Note: 3D printed spheroid for uniform magnetic field generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, Y.; Aktaş, B.

    2016-10-01

    This article is focused on a novel and practical production method for a uniform magnetic field generator. The method involves building of a surface coil template using a desktop 3D printer and winding of a conducting wire onto the structure using surface grooves as a guide. Groove pattern was based on the parametric spheroidal helical coil formula. The coil was driven by a current source and the magnetic field inside was measured using a Hall probe placed into the holes on the printed structure. The measurements are found to be in good agreement with our finite element analysis results and indicate a fairly uniform field inside.

  13. System and method for 3D printing of aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Duoss, Eric; Kuntz, Joshua; Spadaccini, Christopher; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-03-08

    A method of forming an aerogel. The method may involve providing a graphene oxide powder and mixing the graphene oxide powder with a solution to form an ink. A 3D printing technique may be used to write the ink into a catalytic solution that is contained in a fluid containment member to form a wet part. The wet part may then be cured in a sealed container for a predetermined period of time at a predetermined temperature. The cured wet part may then be dried to form a finished aerogel part.

  14. Analysis of Impact of 3D Printing Technology on Traditional Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Niyan; Chen, Qi; Liao, Linzhi; Wang, Xin

    With quiet rise of 3D printing technology in automobile, aerospace, industry, medical treatment and other fields, many insiders hold different opinions on its development. This paper objectively analyzes impact of 3D printing technology on mold making technology and puts forward the idea of fusion and complementation of 3D printing technology and mold making technology through comparing advantages and disadvantages of 3D printing mold and traditional mold making technology.

  15. Color-managed 3D printing with highly translucent printing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, Can Ates; Brunton, Alan; Tanksale, Tejas Madan; Urban, Philipp

    2015-03-01

    Many 3D printing applications require the reproduction of an object's color in addition to its shape. One 3D printing technology, called multi-jetting (or poly-jetting), allows full color 3D reproductions by arranging multiple colored materials (UV curing photo-polymers) on a droplet level in a single object. One property of such printing materials is their high translucency posing new challenges for characterizing such 3D printers to create ICC profiles. In this paper, we will first describe the whole color-managed 3D printing workflow and will then focus on measuring the colors of highly translucent printing materials. We will show that measurements made by spectrophotometers used in the graphic arts industry are systematically biased towards lower reflection. We will then propose a trichromatic camera-based approach for measuring such colors. Error rates obtained in comparison with spectroradiometric measurements for the same viewing conditions are within the interinstrument-variability of hand-held spectrophotometers used in graphic arts.

  16. 3D printing of PLGA scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Anton V; Grigoryev, Aleksey M; Krotova, Larisa I; Skaletsky, Nikolaj N; Popov, Vladimir K; Sevastianov, Viktor I

    2017-01-01

    We proposed a novel method of generation of bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds with specified architectonics for tissue engineering using extrusion three-dimensional (3D) printing with solutions of polylactoglycolide in tetraglycol with their subsequent solidifying in aqueous medium. On the basis of 3D computer models, we obtained the matrix structures with interconnected system of pores ranging in size from 0.5 to 500 µm. The results of in vitro studies using cultures of line NIH 3Т3 mouse fibroblasts, floating islet cultures of newborn rabbit pancreas, and mesenchymal stem cells of human adipose tissue demonstrated the absence of cytotoxicity and good adhesive properties of scaffolds in regard to the cell cultures chosen. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 104-109, 2017.

  17. Open-Source-Based 3D Printing of Thin Silica Gel Layers in Planar Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fichou, Dimitri; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2017-02-07

    On the basis of open-source packages, 3D printing of thin silica gel layers is demonstrated as proof-of-principle for use in planar chromatography. A slurry doser was designed to replace the plastic extruder of an open-source Prusa i3 printer. The optimal parameters for 3D printing of layers were studied, and the planar chromatographic separations on these printed layers were successfully demonstrated with a mixture of dyes. The layer printing process was fast. For printing a 0.2 mm layer on a 10 cm × 10 cm format, it took less than 5 min. It was affordable, i.e., the running costs for producing such a plate were less than 0.25 Euro and the investment costs for the modified hardware were 630 Euro. This approach demonstrated not only the potential of the 3D printing environment in planar chromatography but also opened new avenues and new perspectives for tailor-made plates, not only with regard to layer materials and their combinations (gradient plates) but also with regard to different layer shapes and patterns. As such an example, separations on a printed plane layer were compared with those obtained from a printed channeled layer. For the latter, 40 channels were printed in parallel on a 10 cm × 10 cm format for the separation of 40 samples. For producing such a channeled plate, the running costs were below 0.04 Euro and the printing process took only 2 min. All modifications of the device and software were released open-source to encourage reuse and improvements and to stimulate the users to contribute to this technology. By this proof-of-principle, another asset was demonstrated to be integrated into the Office Chromatography concept, in which all relevant steps for online miniaturized planar chromatography are performed by a single device.

  18. Evaluation of 3D printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bethany C; Erkal, Jayda L; Lockwood, Sarah Y; Chen, Chengpeng; Spence, Dana M

    2014-04-01

    Nearing 30 years since its introduction, 3D printing technology is set to revolutionize research and teaching laboratories. This feature encompasses the history of 3D printing, reviews various printing methods, and presents current applications. The authors offer an appraisal of the future direction and impact this technology will have on laboratory settings as 3D printers become more accessible.

  19. 3D Printing Biocompatible Polyurethane/Poly(lactic acid)/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites: Anisotropic Properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiyi; Mangadlao, Joey Dacula; Wallat, Jaqueline; De Leon, Al; Pokorski, Jonathan K; Advincula, Rigoberto C

    2017-02-01

    Blending thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a proven method to achieve a much more mechanically robust material, whereas the addition of graphene oxide (GO) is increasingly applied in polymer nanocomposites to tailor further their properties. On the other hand, additive manufacturing has high flexibility of structure design which can significantly expand the application of materials in many fields. This study demonstrates the fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing of TPU/PLA/GO nanocomposites and its potential application as biocompatible materials. Nanocomposites are prepared by solvent-based mixing process and extruded into filaments for FDM printing. The addition of GO largely enhanced the mechanical property and thermal stability of the nanocomposites. Interestingly, we found that the mechanical response is highly dependent on printing orientation. Furthermore, the 3D printed nanocomposites exhibit good biocompatibility with NIH3T3 cells, indicating promise as biomaterials scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

  20. Factors Affecting Dimensional Accuracy of 3-D Printed Anatomical Structures Derived from CT Data.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Kent M; Aslan, Can; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Soman, Pranav

    2015-12-01

    Additive manufacturing and bio-printing, with the potential for direct fabrication of complex patient-specific anatomies derived from medical scan data, are having an ever-increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Anatomic structures are typically derived from CT or MRI scans, and there are multiple steps in the model derivation process that influence the geometric accuracy of the printed constructs. In this work, we compare the dimensional accuracy of 3-D printed constructs of an L1 vertebra derived from CT data for an ex vivo cadaver T-L spine with the original vertebra. Processing of segmented structures using binary median filters and various surface extraction algorithms is evaluated for the effect on model dimensions. We investigate the effects of changing CT reconstruction kernels by scanning simple geometric objects and measuring the impact on the derived model dimensions. We also investigate if there are significant differences between physical and virtual model measurements. The 3-D models were printed using a commercial 3-D printer, the Replicator 2 (MakerBot, Brooklyn, NY) using polylactic acid (PLA) filament. We found that changing parameters during the scan reconstruction, segmentation, filtering, and surface extraction steps will have an effect on the dimensions of the final model. These effects need to be quantified for specific situations that rely on the accuracy of 3-D printed models used in medicine or tissue engineering applications.

  1. Testing Mercury Porosimetry with 3D Printed Porosity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiuk, F.; Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry is one of the most widely used techniques to study the porous nature of a geological and man-made materials. In the geosciences, it is commonly used to describe petroleum reservoir and seal rocks as well as to grade aggregates for the design of asphalt and portland cement concretes. It's wide utility stems from its ability to characterize a wide range of pore throat sizes (from nanometers to around a millimeter). The fundamental physical model underlying mercury intrusion porosimetry, the Washburn Equation, is based on the assumption that rock porosity can be described as a bundle of cylindrical tubes. 3D printing technology, also known as rapid prototyping, allows the construction of intricate and accurate models, exactly what is required to build models of rock porosity. We evaluate the applicability of the Washburn Equation by comparing properties (like porosity, pore and pore throat size distribution, and surface area) computed on digital porosity models (built from CT data, CAD designs, or periodic geometries) to properties measured via mercury intrusion porosimetry on 3D printed versions of the same digital porosity models.

  2. High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Amol A.; Saada, Gabriel; Cooperstein, Ido; Larush, Liraz; Jackman, Joshua A.; Tabaei, Seyed R.; Cho, Nam-Joon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of water-soluble photoinitiators with high absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)–visible range, rapid three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels for tissue engineering is challenging. A new approach enabling rapid 3D printing of hydrogels in aqueous solutions is presented on the basis of UV-curable inks containing nanoparticles of highly efficient but water-insoluble photoinitiators. The extinction coefficient of the new water-dispersible nanoparticles of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) is more than 300 times larger than the best and most used commercially available water-soluble photoinitiator. The TPO nanoparticles absorb significantly in the range from 385 to 420 nm, making them suitable for use in commercially available, low-cost, light-emitting diode–based 3D printers using digital light processing. The polymerization rate at this range is very fast and enables 3D printing that otherwise is impossible to perform without adding solvents. The TPO nanoparticles were prepared by rapid conversion of volatile microemulsions into water-dispersible powder, a process that can be used for a variety of photoinitiators. Such water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles open many opportunities to enable rapid 3D printing of structures prepared in aqueous solutions while bringing environmental advantages by using low-energy curing systems and avoiding the need for solvents. PMID:27051877

  3. High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Amol A; Saada, Gabriel; Cooperstein, Ido; Larush, Liraz; Jackman, Joshua A; Tabaei, Seyed R; Cho, Nam-Joon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    In the absence of water-soluble photoinitiators with high absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible range, rapid three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels for tissue engineering is challenging. A new approach enabling rapid 3D printing of hydrogels in aqueous solutions is presented on the basis of UV-curable inks containing nanoparticles of highly efficient but water-insoluble photoinitiators. The extinction coefficient of the new water-dispersible nanoparticles of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) is more than 300 times larger than the best and most used commercially available water-soluble photoinitiator. The TPO nanoparticles absorb significantly in the range from 385 to 420 nm, making them suitable for use in commercially available, low-cost, light-emitting diode-based 3D printers using digital light processing. The polymerization rate at this range is very fast and enables 3D printing that otherwise is impossible to perform without adding solvents. The TPO nanoparticles were prepared by rapid conversion of volatile microemulsions into water-dispersible powder, a process that can be used for a variety of photoinitiators. Such water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles open many opportunities to enable rapid 3D printing of structures prepared in aqueous solutions while bringing environmental advantages by using low-energy curing systems and avoiding the need for solvents.

  4. Combining 3D printed forms with textile structures - mechanical and geometrical properties of multi-material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabantina, L.; Kinzel, F.; Ehrmann, A.; Finsterbusch, K.

    2015-07-01

    The 3D printing belongs to the rapidly emerging technologies which have the chance to revolutionize the way products are created. In the textile industry, several designers have already presented creations of shoes, dresses or other garments which could not be produced with common techniques. 3D printing, however, is still far away from being a usual process in textile and clothing production. The main challenge results from the insufficient mechanical properties, especially the low tensile strength, of pure 3D printed products, prohibiting them from replacing common technologies such as weaving or knitting. Thus, one way to the application of 3D printed forms in garments is combining them with textile fabrics, the latter ensuring the necessary tensile strength. This article reports about different approaches to combine 3D printed polymers with different textile materials and fabrics, showing chances and limits of this technique.

  5. MO-B-BRD-03: Principles, Pitfalls and Techniques of 3D Printing for Bolus and Compensators

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.

    2015-06-15

    This session is designed so that the learning objectives are practical. The intent is that the attendee may take home an understanding of not just the technology, but also the logistical steps necessary to execute these 3D printing techniques in the clinic. Four practical 3D printing topics will be discussed: (i) Creating bolus and compensators for photon machines; (ii) tools for proton therapy; (iii) clinical applications in imaging; (iv) custom phantom design for clinic and research use. The use of 3D printers within the radiation oncology setting is proving to be a useful tool for creating patient specific bolus and compensators with the added benefit of cost savings. Creating the proper protocol is essential to ensuring that the desired effect is achieved and modeled in the treatment planning system. The critical choice of printer material (since it determines the interaction with the radiation) will be discussed. Selection of 3D printer type, design methods, verification of dose calculation, and the printing process will be detailed to give the basis for establishing your own protocol for electron and photon fields. A practical discussion of likely obstacles that may be encountered will be included. The diversity of systems and techniques in proton facilities leads to different facilities having very different requirements for beam modifying hardware and quality assurance devices. Many departments find the need to design and fabricate facility-specific equipment, making 3D printing an attractive technology. 3D printer applications in proton therapy will be discussed, including beam filters and compensators, and the design of proton therapy specific quality assurance tools. Quality control specific to 3D printing in proton therapy will be addressed. Advantages and disadvantages of different printing technology for these applications will also be discussed. 3D printing applications using high-resolution radiology-based imaging data will be presented. This data

  6. Heterogeneously Assembled Metamaterials and Metadevices via 3D Modular Transfer Printing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungwoo; Kang, Byungsoo; Keum, Hohyun; Ahmed, Numair; Rogers, John A.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Kim, Seok; Min, Bumki

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have made the exotic control of the flow of electromagnetic waves possible, which is difficult to achieve with natural materials. In recent years, the emergence of functional metadevices has shown immense potential for the practical realization of highly efficient photonic devices. However, complex and heterogeneous architectures that enable diverse functionalities of metamaterials and metadevices have been challenging to realize because of the limited manufacturing capabilities of conventional fabrication methods. Here, we show that three-dimensional (3D) modular transfer printing can be used to construct diverse metamaterials in complex 3D architectures on universal substrates, which is attractive for achieving on-demand photonic properties. Few repetitive processing steps and rapid constructions are additional advantages of 3D modular transfer printing. Thus, this method provides a fascinating route to generate flexible and stretchable 2D/3D metamaterials and metadevices with heterogeneous material components, complex device architectures, and diverse functionalities. PMID:27283594

  7. Simple, Expendable, 3D-Printed Microfluidic Systems for Sample Preparation of Petroleum.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Érica M; Murer, Rui C; Santos, Jandyson M; Carvalho, Rogério M; Eberlin, Marcos N; Augusto, Fabio; Poppi, Ronei J; Gobbi, Angelo L; Hantao, Leandro W

    2017-03-21

    In this study, we introduce a simple protocol to manufacture disposable, 3D-printed microfluidic systems for sample preparation of petroleum. This platform is produced with a consumer-grade 3D-printer, using fused deposition modeling. Successful incorporation of solid-phase extraction (SPE) to microchip was ensured by facile 3D element integration using proposed approach. This 3D-printed μSPE device was applied to challenging matrices in oil and gas industry, such as crude oil and oil-brine emulsions. Case studies investigated important limitations of nonsilicon and nonglass microchips, namely, resistance to nonpolar solvents and conservation of sample integrity. Microfluidic features remained fully functional even after prolonged exposure to nonpolar solvents (20 min). Also, 3D-printed μSPE devices enabled fast emulsion breaking and solvent deasphalting of petroleum, yielding high recovery values (98%) without compromising maltene integrity. Such finding was ascertained by high-resolution molecular analyses using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry by monitoring important biomarker classes, such as C10 demethylated terpanes, ααα-steranes, and monoaromatic steroids. 3D-Printed chips enabled faster and reliable preparation of maltenes by exhibiting a 10-fold reduction in sample processing time, compared to the reference method. Furthermore, polar (oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing) analytes found in low-concentrations were analyzed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Analysis results demonstrated that accurate characterization may be accomplished for most classes of polar compounds, except for asphaltenes, which exhibited lower recoveries (82%) due to irreversible adsorption to sorbent phase. Therefore, 3D-printing is a compelling alternative to existing microfabrication solutions, as robust devices were easy to prepare and operate.

  8. Optimizing cerebrovascular surgical and endovascular procedures in children via personalized 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Peter; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Flynn, Katie; Orbach, Darren B; Smith, Edward

    2015-07-31

    OBJECT Despite the availability of multiplanar imaging, understanding relational 3D anatomy for complex cerebrovascular lesions can be difficult. A 3D printed model allows for instantaneous visualization of lesional anatomy from all perspectives, with the added ability to simulate operative approaches with tactile feedback. The authors report their experience with customized 3D printed models of pediatric cerebrovascular lesions as an educational and clinical tool for patients, trainees, and physicians. METHODS Via an "in-house" 3D print service, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) studies of pediatric patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were processed with specialized software, and regions of interest were selected by the surgical/endovascular team. Multiple models for each patient were then printed on a 3D printer, with each construct designed to illustrate different aspects of the specific lesion. Intraoperative validation of model fidelity was performed using perioperative imaging, surgical filming, and post hoc analysis of models with intraoperative photography. RESULTS Four cases involving pediatric patients (ages 0-16 years) were studied for initial proof of principle. Three of the patients had AVMs and one had a vein of Galen malformation (VOGM). The VOGM was embolized successfully and the AVMs were resected without complication. In the AVM cases, intraprocedural imaging and photography were performed and verified millimeter-level fidelity of the models (n = 5, 98% concordance, range 94%-100% with average of < 2 mm variation in the largest AVM [6-cm diameter]). The use of 3D models was associated with a 30-minute reduction in operative time (12%) in 2 cases when they were compared with matched controls as a feasibility study. CONCLUSIONS Patient-specific 3D printed models of pediatric cerebrovascular conditions can be constructed with high fidelity. This proof-of-principle series demonstrates, for the first time

  9. Use of 3D Printed Models in Medical Education: A Randomized Control Trial Comparing 3D Prints versus Cadaveric Materials for Learning External Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J.; Adams, Justin W.; McMenamin, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized…

  10. Basics of Compounding: 3D Printing--Pharmacy Applications, Part 1.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing quickly became a standard tool in the automotive, aerospace, and consumer goods industries and, recently, has begun gaining traction in pharmaceutical manufacturing. 3D printing has steadily grown, introducing a new element into dosage form development, and has received a boost with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the 3D-printed orodispersible tablet, Spritam (levetiracetam). This part 1 of a 3-part article introduces 3D printing and its application to pharmacy.

  11. New world of 3-D printing offers "completely new ways of thinking": Q&A with author, engineer, and 3-D printing expert Hod Lipson.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Hod

    2013-01-01

    With stories about everything from a three-?dimensional (3-D)-printed tracheal implant used in an infant to a 3-D-printed replacement for 75% of a man?s skull, a media firestorm is swirling around this seemingly new technology, but what exactly is 3-D printing? How is it being used today, and what is its true potential in the biomedical arena? Renowned robotics engineer Hod Lipson, coauthor of Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing [1], and director of the Creative Machines Lab at Cornell University?s Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in Ithaca, New York, spent some time with IEEE Pulse in a wide-ranging conversation about the past, present, and future of 3-D printing and its implications for biomedical engineering.

  12. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  13. Effect of geometry on drug release from 3D printed tablets.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Robles Martinez, Pamela; Buanz, Asma; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2015-10-30

    The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility of combining hot melt extrusion (HME) with 3D printing (3DP) technology, with a view to producing different shaped tablets which would be otherwise difficult to produce using traditional methods. A filament extruder was used to obtain approx. 4% paracetamol loaded filaments of polyvinyl alcohol with characteristics suitable for use in fused-deposition modelling 3DP. Five different tablet geometries were successfully 3D-printed-cube, pyramid, cylinder, sphere and torus. The printing process did not affect the stability of the drug. Drug release from the tablets was not dependent on the surface area but instead on surface area to volume ratio, indicating the influence that geometrical shape has on drug release. An erosion-mediated process controlled drug release. This work has demonstrated the potential of 3DP to manufacture tablet shapes of different geometries, many of which would be challenging to manufacture by powder compaction.

  14. Printing Our Way to Safety: Applications of 3-D Printing in Lockout/Tagout

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Phil; Bender, Guido

    2016-12-01

    This article describes how a team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory used 3-D printing to manufacture custom lockout/tagout devices to isolate valves that were clustered too tightly to allow for generic lockout/tagout devices to be used.

  15. 3D-printed guiding templates for improved osteosarcoma resection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Limin; Zhou, Ye; Zhu, Ye; Lin, Zefeng; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma resection is challenging due to the variable location of tumors and their proximity with surrounding tissues. It also carries a high risk of postoperative complications. To overcome the challenge in precise osteosarcoma resection, computer-aided design (CAD) was used to design patient-specific guiding templates for osteosarcoma resection on the basis of the computer tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the osteosarcoma of human patients. Then 3D printing technique was used to fabricate the guiding templates. The guiding templates were used to guide the osteosarcoma surgery, leading to more precise resection of the tumorous bone and the implantation of the bone implants, less blood loss, shorter operation time and reduced radiation exposure during the operation. Follow-up studies show that the patients recovered well to reach a mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score of 27.125. PMID:26997197

  16. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  17. Designing bioinspired composite reinforcement architectures via 3D magnetic printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua J.; Fiore, Brad E.; Erb, Randall M.

    2015-10-01

    Discontinuous fibre composites represent a class of materials that are strong, lightweight and have remarkable fracture toughness. These advantages partially explain the abundance and variety of discontinuous fibre composites that have evolved in the natural world. Many natural structures out-perform the conventional synthetic counterparts due, in part, to the more elaborate reinforcement architectures that occur in natural composites. Here we present an additive manufacturing approach that combines real-time colloidal assembly with existing additive manufacturing technologies to create highly programmable discontinuous fibre composites. This technology, termed as `3D magnetic printing', has enabled us to recreate complex bioinspired reinforcement architectures that deliver enhanced material performance compared with monolithic structures. Further, we demonstrate that we can now design and evolve elaborate reinforcement architectures that are not found in nature, demonstrating a high level of possible customization in discontinuous fibre composites with arbitrary geometries.

  18. Mechanical properties of 3D printed warped membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej; Xiao, Kechao; Weaver, James C.; Vlassak, Joost J.; Nelson, David R.

    2015-03-01

    We explore how a frozen background metric affects the mechanical properties of solid planar membranes. Our focus is a special class of ``warped membranes'' with a preferred random height profile characterized by random Gaussian variables h (q) in Fourier space with zero mean and variance < | h (q) | 2 > q-m . It has been shown theoretically that in the linear response regime, this quenched random disorder increases the effective bending rigidity, while the Young's and shear moduli are reduced. Compared to flat plates of the same thickness t, the bending rigidity of warped membranes is increased by a factor hv / t while the in-plane elastic moduli are reduced by t /hv , where hv =√{< | h (x) | 2 > } describes the frozen height fluctuations. Interestingly, hv is system size dependent for warped membranes characterized with m > 2 . We present experimental tests of these predictions, using warped membranes prepared via high resolution 3D printing.

  19. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country.

  20. 3D-printed guiding templates for improved osteosarcoma resection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Limin; Zhou, Ye; Zhu, Ye; Lin, Zefeng; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-03-21

    Osteosarcoma resection is challenging due to the variable location of tumors and their proximity with surrounding tissues. It also carries a high risk of postoperative complications. To overcome the challenge in precise osteosarcoma resection, computer-aided design (CAD) was used to design patient-specific guiding templates for osteosarcoma resection on the basis of the computer tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the osteosarcoma of human patients. Then 3D printing technique was used to fabricate the guiding templates. The guiding templates were used to guide the osteosarcoma surgery, leading to more precise resection of the tumorous bone and the implantation of the bone implants, less blood loss, shorter operation time and reduced radiation exposure during the operation. Follow-up studies show that the patients recovered well to reach a mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score of 27.125.

  1. 3D-printed guiding templates for improved osteosarcoma resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Limin; Zhou, Ye; Zhu, Ye; Lin, Zefeng; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-03-01

    Osteosarcoma resection is challenging due to the variable location of tumors and their proximity with surrounding tissues. It also carries a high risk of postoperative complications. To overcome the challenge in precise osteosarcoma resection, computer-aided design (CAD) was used to design patient-specific guiding templates for osteosarcoma resection on the basis of the computer tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the osteosarcoma of human patients. Then 3D printing technique was used to fabricate the guiding templates. The guiding templates were used to guide the osteosarcoma surgery, leading to more precise resection of the tumorous bone and the implantation of the bone implants, less blood loss, shorter operation time and reduced radiation exposure during the operation. Follow-up studies show that the patients recovered well to reach a mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score of 27.125.

  2. Designing bioinspired composite reinforcement architectures via 3D magnetic printing

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua J.; Fiore, Brad E.; Erb, Randall M.

    2015-01-01

    Discontinuous fibre composites represent a class of materials that are strong, lightweight and have remarkable fracture toughness. These advantages partially explain the abundance and variety of discontinuous fibre composites that have evolved in the natural world. Many natural structures out-perform the conventional synthetic counterparts due, in part, to the more elaborate reinforcement architectures that occur in natural composites. Here we present an additive manufacturing approach that combines real-time colloidal assembly with existing additive manufacturing technologies to create highly programmable discontinuous fibre composites. This technology, termed as ‘3D magnetic printing', has enabled us to recreate complex bioinspired reinforcement architectures that deliver enhanced material performance compared with monolithic structures. Further, we demonstrate that we can now design and evolve elaborate reinforcement architectures that are not found in nature, demonstrating a high level of possible customization in discontinuous fibre composites with arbitrary geometries. PMID:26494282

  3. Strengthening of 3D Printed Fused Deposition Manufactured Parts Using the Fill Compositing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Joseph T.; Dollar, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique for increasing the strength of thermoplastic fused deposition manufactured printed parts while retaining the benefits of the process such as ease, speed of implementation, and complex part geometries. By carefully placing voids in the printed parts and filling them with high-strength resins, we can improve the overall part strength and stiffness by up to 45% and 25%, respectively. We discuss the process parameters necessary to use this strengthening technique and the theoretically possible strength improvements to bending beam members. We then show three-point bend testing data comparing solid printed ABS samples with those strengthened through the fill compositing process, as well as examples of 3D printed parts used in real-world applications. PMID:25880807

  4. Strengthening of 3D printed fused deposition manufactured parts using the fill compositing technique.

    PubMed

    Belter, Joseph T; Dollar, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique for increasing the strength of thermoplastic fused deposition manufactured printed parts while retaining the benefits of the process such as ease, speed of implementation, and complex part geometries. By carefully placing voids in the printed parts and filling them with high-strength resins, we can improve the overall part strength and stiffness by up to 45% and 25%, respectively. We discuss the process parameters necessary to use this strengthening technique and the theoretically possible strength improvements to bending beam members. We then show three-point bend testing data comparing solid printed ABS samples with those strengthened through the fill compositing process, as well as examples of 3D printed parts used in real-world applications.

  5. 3D-printed external light trap for solar cells.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Lourens; Paetzold, Ulrich W; Blab, Gerhard A; Schropp, Ruud E I; di Vece, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    We present a universally applicable 3D-printed external light trap for enhanced absorption in solar cells. The macroscopic external light trap is placed at the sun-facing surface of the solar cell and retro-reflects the light that would otherwise escape. The light trap consists of a reflective parabolic concentrator placed on top of a reflective cage. Upon placement of the light trap, an improvement of 15% of both the photocurrent and the power conversion efficiency in a thin-film nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) solar cell is measured. The trapped light traverses the solar cell several times within the reflective cage thereby increasing the total absorption in the cell. Consequently, the trap reduces optical losses and enhances the absorption over the entire spectrum. The components of the light trap are 3D printed and made of smoothened, silver-coated thermoplastic. In contrast to conventional light trapping methods, external light trapping leaves the material quality and the electrical properties of the solar cell unaffected. To explain the theoretical operation of the external light trap, we introduce a model that predicts the absorption enhancement in the solar cell by the external light trap. The corresponding calculated path length enhancement shows good agreement with the empirically derived value from the opto-electrical data of the solar cell. Moreover, we analyze the influence of the angle of incidence on the parasitic absorptance to obtain full understanding of the trap performance. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Fabrication of capacitive acoustic resonators combining 3D printing and 2D inkjet printing techniques.

    PubMed

    Haque, Rubaiyet Iftekharul; Ogam, Erick; Loussert, Christophe; Benaben, Patrick; Boddaert, Xavier

    2015-10-14

    A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D) printing and two-dimensional (2D) printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency.

  7. Fabrication of Capacitive Acoustic Resonators Combining 3D Printing and 2D Inkjet Printing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Rubaiyet Iftekharul; Ogam, Erick; Loussert, Christophe; Benaben, Patrick; Boddaert, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D) printing and two-dimensional (2D) printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency. PMID:26473878

  8. Micro/nanoscale electrohydrodynamic printing: from 2D to 3D.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; He, Jiankang; Li, Xiao; Xu, Fangyuan; Li, Dichen

    2016-08-25

    Electrohydrodynamic printing (EHDP), based on the electrohydrodynamically induced flow of materials, enables the production of micro/nanoscale fibers or droplets and has recently attracted extensive interest to fabricate user-specific patterns in a controlled and high-efficiency manner. However, most of the existing EHDP techniques can only print two-dimensional (2D) micropatterns which cannot meet the increasing demands for the direct fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) microdevices. The integration of EHDP techniques with the layer-by-layer stacking principle of additive manufacturing has emerged as a promising solution to this limitation. Here we present a state-of-the-art review on the translation of 2D EHDP technique into a viable micro/nanoscale 3D printing strategy. The working principle, essential components as well as critical process parameters for EHDP are discussed. We highlight recent explorations on both solution-based and melt-based 3D EHDP techniques in cone-jet and microdripping modes for the fabrication of multimaterial structures, microelectronics and biological constructs. Finally, we discuss the major challenges as well as possible solutions with regard to translating the 3D EHDP process into a real micro/nanoscale additive manufacturing strategy for the freeform fabrication of 3D structures.

  9. 3D printing from MRI Data: Harnessing strengths and minimizing weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Ripley, Beth; Levin, Dmitry; Kelil, Tatiana; Hermsen, Joshua L; Kim, Sooah; Maki, Jeffrey H; Wilson, Gregory J

    2017-03-01

    3D printing facilitates the creation of accurate physical models of patient-specific anatomy from medical imaging datasets. While the majority of models to date are created from computed tomography (CT) data, there is increasing interest in creating models from other datasets, such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI, in particular, holds great potential for 3D printing, given its excellent tissue characterization and lack of ionizing radiation. There are, however, challenges to 3D printing from MRI data as well. Here we review the basics of 3D printing, explore the current strengths and weaknesses of printing from MRI data as they pertain to model accuracy, and discuss considerations in the design of MRI sequences for 3D printing. Finally, we explore the future of 3D printing and MRI, including creative applications and new materials.

  10. Hybrid 3D printing: a game-changer in personalized cardiac medicine?

    PubMed

    Kurup, Harikrishnan K N; Samuel, Bennett P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease has the potential to increase procedural efficiency and patient safety by improving interventional and surgical planning and reducing radiation exposure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are usually the source datasets to derive 3D printing. More recently, 3D echocardiography has been demonstrated to derive 3D-printed models. The integration of multiple imaging modalities for hybrid 3D printing has also been shown to create accurate printed heart models, which may prove to be beneficial for interventional cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and as an educational tool. Further advancements in the integration of different imaging modalities into a single platform for hybrid 3D printing and virtual 3D models will drive the future of personalized cardiac medicine.

  11. Pattern Transformation of Heat-Shrinkable Polymer by Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in conventional heat-shrinkable polymers is to produce controllable microstructures. Here we report that the polymer material fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has a heat-shrinkable property, whose initial microstructure can undergo a spontaneous pattern transformation under heating. The underlying mechanism is revealed by evaluating internal strain of the printed polymer from its fabricating process. It is shown that a uniform internal strain is stored in the polymer during the printing process and can be released when heated above its glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the internal strain can be used to trigger the pattern transformation of the heat-shrinkable polymer in a controllable way. Our work provides insightful ideas to understand a novel mechanism on the heat-shrinkable effect of printed material, but also to present a simple approach to fabricate heat-shrinkable polymer with a controllable thermo-structural response. PMID:25757881

  12. A flexible-dose dispenser for immediate and extended release 3D printed tablets.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Isreb, Abdullah; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2015-10-01

    The advances in personalised medicine increased the demand for a fast, accurate and reliable production method of tablets that can be digitally controlled by healthcare staff. A flexible dose tablet system is presented in this study that proved to be suitable for immediate and extended release tablets with a realistic drug loading and an easy-to-swallow tablet design. The method bridges the affordable and digitally controlled Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing with a standard pharmaceutical manufacturing process, Hot Melt Extrusion (HME). The reported method was compatible with three methacrylic polymers (Eudragit RL, RS and E) as well as a cellulose-based one (hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPC SSL). The use of a HME based pharmaceutical filament preserved the linear relationship between the mass and printed volume and was utilized to digitally control the dose via an input from computer software with dose accuracy in the range of 91-95%. Higher resolution printing quality doubled the printing time, but showed a little effect on in vitro release pattern of theophylline and weight accuracy. Physical characterization studies indicated that the majority of the model drug (theophylline) in the 3D printed tablet exists in a crystal form. Owing to the small size, ease of use and the highly adjustable nature of FDM 3D printers, the method holds promise for future individualised treatment.

  13. 3D-Printed Zeolite Monoliths for CO2 Removal from Enclosed Environments.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Harshul; Eastman, Stephen; Hajari, Amit; Rownaghi, Ali A; Knox, James C; Rezaei, Fateme

    2016-10-04

    Structured adsorbents, especially in the form of monolithic contactors, offer an excellent gas-solid contacting strategy for the development of practical and scalable CO2 capture technologies. In this study, the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D)-printed 13X and 5A zeolite monoliths with novel structures and their use in CO2 removal from air are reported. The physical and structural properties of these printed monoliths are evaluated and compared with their powder counterparts. Our results indicate that 3D-printed monoliths with zeolite loadings as high as 90 wt % exhibit adsorption uptake that is comparable to that of powder sorbents. The adsorption capacities of 5A and 13X monoliths were found to be 1.59 and 1.60 mmol/g, respectively, using 5000 ppm (0.5%) CO2 in nitrogen at room temperature. The dynamic CO2/N2 breakthrough experiments show relatively fast dynamics for monolithic structures. In addition, the printed zeolite monoliths show reasonably good mechanical stability that can eventually prevent attrition and dusting issues commonly encountered in traditional pellets and beads packing systems. The 3D printing technique offers an alternative, cost-effective, and facile approach to fabricate structured adsorbents with tunable structural, chemical, and mechanical properties for use in gas separation processes.

  14. Integrated 3D-printed reactionware for chemical synthesis and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symes, Mark D.; Kitson, Philip J.; Yan, Jun; Richmond, Craig J.; Cooper, Geoffrey J. T.; Bowman, Richard W.; Vilbrandt, Turlif; Cronin, Leroy

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has the potential to transform science and technology by creating bespoke, low-cost appliances that previously required dedicated facilities to make. An attractive, but unexplored, application is to use a 3D printer to initiate chemical reactions by printing the reagents directly into a 3D reactionware matrix, and so put reactionware design, construction and operation under digital control. Here, using a low-cost 3D printer and open-source design software we produced reactionware for organic and inorganic synthesis, which included printed-in catalysts and other architectures with printed-in components for electrochemical and spectroscopic analysis. This enabled reactions to be monitored in situ so that different reactionware architectures could be screened for their efficacy for a given process, with a digital feedback mechanism for device optimization. Furthermore, solely by modifying reactionware architecture, reaction outcomes can be altered. Taken together, this approach constitutes a relatively cheap, automated and reconfigurable chemical discovery platform that makes techniques from chemical engineering accessible to typical synthetic laboratories.

  15. Smart three-dimensional lightweight structure triggered from a thin composite sheet via 3D printing technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2016-01-01

    Complex fabrication process and expensive materials have restricted the development of smart three-dimensional (3D) lightweight structures, which are expected to possess self-shaping, self-folding and self-unfolding performances. Here we present a simple approach to fabricate smart lightweight structures by triggering shape transformation from thin printed composite sheets. The release of the internal strain in printed polymer materials enables the printed composite sheet to keep flat under heating and transform into a designed 3D configuration when cooled down to room temperature. The 3D lightweight structure can be switched between flat and 3D configuration under appropriate thermal stimuli. Our work exploits uniform internal strain in printed materials as a controllable tool to fabricate smart 3D lightweight structures, opening an avenue for possible applications in engineering fields. PMID:26926357

  16. Smart three-dimensional lightweight structure triggered from a thin composite sheet via 3D printing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2016-02-01

    Complex fabrication process and expensive materials have restricted the development of smart three-dimensional (3D) lightweight structures, which are expected to possess self-shaping, self-folding and self-unfolding performances. Here we present a simple approach to fabricate smart lightweight structures by triggering shape transformation from thin printed composite sheets. The release of the internal strain in printed polymer materials enables the printed composite sheet to keep flat under heating and transform into a designed 3D configuration when cooled down to room temperature. The 3D lightweight structure can be switched between flat and 3D configuration under appropriate thermal stimuli. Our work exploits uniform internal strain in printed materials as a controllable tool to fabricate smart 3D lightweight structures, opening an avenue for possible applications in engineering fields.

  17. Smart three-dimensional lightweight structure triggered from a thin composite sheet via 3D printing technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2016-02-29

    Complex fabrication process and expensive materials have restricted the development of smart three-dimensional (3D) lightweight structures, which are expected to possess self-shaping, self-folding and self-unfolding performances. Here we present a simple approach to fabricate smart lightweight structures by triggering shape transformation from thin printed composite sheets. The release of the internal strain in printed polymer materials enables the printed composite sheet to keep flat under heating and transform into a designed 3D configuration when cooled down to room temperature. The 3D lightweight structure can be switched between flat and 3D configuration under appropriate thermal stimuli. Our work exploits uniform internal strain in printed materials as a controllable tool to fabricate smart 3D lightweight structures, opening an avenue for possible applications in engineering fields.

  18. 3D Printing Variable Stiffness Foams Using Viscous Thread Instability

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, Jeffrey I.; Lipson, Hod

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of cellular structures has numerous applications ranging from fabrication of biological scaffolds and medical implants, to mechanical weight reduction and control over mechanical properties. Various additive manufacturing processes have been used to produce open regular cellular structures limited only by the resolution of the printer. These efforts have focused on printing explicitly designed cells or explicitly planning offsets between strands. Here we describe a technique for producing cellular structures implicitly by inducing viscous thread instability when extruding material. This process allows us to produce complex cellular structures at a scale that is finer than the native resolution of the printer. We demonstrate tunable effective elastic modulus and density that span two orders of magnitude. Fine grained cellular structures allow for fabrication of foams for use in a wide range of fields ranging from bioengineering, to robotics to food printing. PMID:27503148

  19. 3D Printing Variable Stiffness Foams Using Viscous Thread Instability.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Jeffrey I; Lipson, Hod

    2016-08-09

    Additive manufacturing of cellular structures has numerous applications ranging from fabrication of biological scaffolds and medical implants, to mechanical weight reduction and control over mechanical properties. Various additive manufacturing processes have been used to produce open regular cellular structures limited only by the resolution of the printer. These efforts have focused on printing explicitly designed cells or explicitly planning offsets between strands. Here we describe a technique for producing cellular structures implicitly by inducing viscous thread instability when extruding material. This process allows us to produce complex cellular structures at a scale that is finer than the native resolution of the printer. We demonstrate tunable effective elastic modulus and density that span two orders of magnitude. Fine grained cellular structures allow for fabrication of foams for use in a wide range of fields ranging from bioengineering, to robotics to food printing.

  20. 3D Printing Variable Stiffness Foams Using Viscous Thread Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Jeffrey I.; Lipson, Hod

    2016-08-01

    Additive manufacturing of cellular structures has numerous applications ranging from fabrication of biological scaffolds and medical implants, to mechanical weight reduction and control over mechanical properties. Various additive manufacturing processes have been used to produce open regular cellular structures limited only by the resolution of the printer. These efforts have focused on printing explicitly designed cells or explicitly planning offsets between strands. Here we describe a technique for producing cellular structures implicitly by inducing viscous thread instability when extruding material. This process allows us to produce complex cellular structures at a scale that is finer than the native resolution of the printer. We demonstrate tunable effective elastic modulus and density that span two orders of magnitude. Fine grained cellular structures allow for fabrication of foams for use in a wide range of fields ranging from bioengineering, to robotics to food printing.

  1. Direct-write 3D printing of NdFeB bonded magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Compton, Brett Gibson; Kemp, James William; Novikov, Timofei V.; ...

    2016-08-17

    We report a method to fabricate Nd-Fe-B bonded magnets of complex shape via extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing. We have successfully formulated a 3D-printable epoxy-based ink for direct-write AM with anisotropic MQA NdFeB magnet particles that can be deposited at room temperature. The new feedstocks contain up to 40 vol.% MQA anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet particles, and they are shown to remain uniformly dispersed in the thermoset matrix throughout the deposition process. Ring, bar, and horseshoe-type 3D magnet structures were printed and cured in air at 100°C without degrading the magnetic properties. Lastly, this study provides a newmore » pathway for fabricating Nd-Fe-B bonded magnets with complex geometry at low temperature, and presents new opportunities for fabricating multifunctional hybrid structures and devices.« less

  2. Direct-write 3D printing of NdFeB bonded magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, Brett Gibson; Kemp, James William; Novikov, Timofei V.; Pack, Robert Cody; Nlebedim, Cajetan I.; Duty, Chad Edward; Rios, Orlando; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-08-17

    We report a method to fabricate Nd-Fe-B bonded magnets of complex shape via extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing. We have successfully formulated a 3D-printable epoxy-based ink for direct-write AM with anisotropic MQA NdFeB magnet particles that can be deposited at room temperature. The new feedstocks contain up to 40 vol.% MQA anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet particles, and they are shown to remain uniformly dispersed in the thermoset matrix throughout the deposition process. Ring, bar, and horseshoe-type 3D magnet structures were printed and cured in air at 100°C without degrading the magnetic properties. Lastly, this study provides a new pathway for fabricating Nd-Fe-B bonded magnets with complex geometry at low temperature, and presents new opportunities for fabricating multifunctional hybrid structures and devices.

  3. Virtual and Printed 3D Models for Teaching Crystal Symmetry and Point Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Lluís; Estop, Euge`nia

    2015-01-01

    Both, virtual and printed 3D crystal models can help students and teachers deal with chemical education topics such as symmetry and point groups. In the present paper, two freely downloadable tools (interactive PDF files and a mobile app) are presented as examples of the application of 3D design to study point-symmetry. The use of 3D printing to…

  4. 3D Printing in Instructional Settings: Identifying a Curricular Hierarchy of Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    A report of a year-long study in which the author engaged in 3D printing activity in order to determine how to facilitate and support skill building, concept attainment, and increased confidence with its use among teachers. Use of 3D printing tools and their applications in instructional settings are discussed. A hierarchy of 3D printing…

  5. 3D printing of modified-release aminosalicylate (4-ASA and 5-ASA) tablets.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Buanz, Asma B M; Hatton, Grace B; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of fused-deposition 3-dimensional printing (FDM 3DP) to produce modified-release drug loaded tablets. Two aminosalicylate isomers used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, mesalazine) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA), were selected as model drugs. Commercially produced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filaments were loaded with the drugs in an ethanolic drug solution. A final drug-loading of 0.06% w/w and 0.25% w/w was achieved for the 5-ASA and 4-ASA strands, respectively. 10.5mm diameter tablets of both PVA/4-ASA and PVA/5-ASA were subsequently printed using an FDM 3D printer, and varying the weight and densities of the printed tablets was achieved by selecting the infill percentage in the printer software. The tablets were mechanically strong, and the FDM 3D printing was shown to be an effective process for the manufacture of the drug, 5-ASA. Significant thermal degradation of the active 4-ASA (50%) occurred during printing, however, indicating that the method may not be appropriate for drugs when printing at high temperatures exceeding those of the degradation point. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the formulated blends confirmed these findings while highlighting the potential of thermal analytical techniques to anticipate drug degradation issues in the 3D printing process. The results of the dissolution tests conducted in modified Hank's bicarbonate buffer showed that release profiles for both drugs were dependent on both the drug itself and on the infill percentage of the tablet. Our work here demonstrates the potential role of FDM 3DP as an efficient and low-cost alternative method of manufacturing individually tailored oral drug dosage, and also for production of modified-release formulations.

  6. Surface topography study of prepared 3D printed moulds via 3D printer for silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Rahim, Tuan Noraihan Azila Tuan; Akil, Hazizan Md; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Conventional prosthesis fabrication is highly depends on the hand creativity of laboratory technologist. The development in 3D printing technology offers a great help in fabricating affordable and fast yet esthetically acceptable prostheses. This study was conducted to discover the potential of 3D printed moulds for indirect silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis fabrication. Moulds were designed using computer aided design (CAD) software (Solidworks, USA) and converted into the standard tessellation language (STL) file. Three moulds with layer thickness of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3mm were printed utilizing polymer filament based 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X, Makerbot, USA). Another one mould was printed utilizing liquid resin based 3D printer (Objet 30 Scholar, Stratasys, USA) as control. The printed moulds were then used to fabricate maxillofacial silicone specimens (n=10)/mould. Surface profilometer (Surfcom Flex, Accretech, Japan), digital microscope (KH77000, Hirox, USA) and scanning electron microscope (Quanta FEG 450, Fei, USA) were used to measure the surface roughness as well as the topological properties of fabricated silicone. Statistical analysis of One-Way ANOVA was employed to compare the surface roughness of the fabricated silicone elastomer. Result obtained demonstrated significant differences in surface roughness of the fabricated silicone (p<0.01). Further post hoc analysis also revealed significant differences in silicone fabricated using different 3D printed moulds (p<0.01). A 3D printed mould was successfully prepared and characterized. With surface topography that could be enhanced, inexpensive and rapid mould fabrication techniques, polymer filament based 3D printer is potential for indirect silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis fabrication.

  7. Advantages and drawbacks of Thiol-ene based resins for 3D-printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonards, Holger; Engelhardt, Sascha; Hoffmann, Andreas; Pongratz, Ludwig; Schriever, Sascha; Bläsius, Jana; Wehner, Martin; Gillner, Arnold

    2015-03-01

    The technology of 3D printing is conquering the world and awakens the interest of many users in the most varying of applications. New formulation approaches for photo-sensitive thiol-ene resins in combination with various printing technologies, like stereolithography (SLA), projection based printing/digital light processing (DLP) or two-photon polymerization (TPP) are presented. Thiol-ene polymerizations are known for its fast and quantitative reaction and to form highly homogeneous polymer networks. As the resins are locally and temporally photo-curable the polymerization type is very promising for 3D-printing. By using suitable wavelengths, photoinitiator-free fabrication is feasible for single- and two photon induced polymerization. In this paper divinyl ethers of polyethylene glycols in combination with star-shaped tetrathiols were used to design a simple test-system for photo-curable thiol-ene resins. In order to control and improve curing depth and lateral resolution in 3D-polymerization processes, either additives in chemical formulation or process parameters can be changed. The achieved curing depth and resolution limits depend on the applied fabrication method. While two-/multiphoton induced lithography offers the possibility of micron- to sub-micron resolution it lacks in built-up speed. Hence single-photon polymerization is a fast alternative with optimization potential in sub-10-micron resolution. Absorber- and initiator free compositions were developed in order to avoid aging, yellowing and toxicity of resulting products. They can be cured with UV-laser radiation below 300 nm. The development at Fraunhofer ILT is focusing on new applications in the field of medical products and implants, technical products with respect to mechanical properties or optical properties of 3D-printed objects. Recent process results with model system (polyethylene glycol divinylether/ Pentaerithrytol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionat), Raman measurements of polymer conversion

  8. Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) of 3D printed pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Milad; Edinger, Magnus; Raijada, Dhara; Bøtker, Johan; Aho, Johanna; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-12-30

    Hot-melt extrusion and 3D printing are enabling manufacturing approaches for patient-centred medicinal products. Hot-melt extrusion is a flexible and continuously operating technique which is a crucial part of a typical processing cycle of printed medicines. In this work we use hot-melt extrusion for manufacturing of medicinal films containing indomethacin (IND) and polycaprolactone (PCL), extruded strands with nitrofurantoin monohydrate (NFMH) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), and feedstocks for 3D printed dosage forms with nitrofurantoin anhydrate (NFAH), hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly (lactic acid) (PLA). These feedstocks were printed into a prototype solid dosage form using a desktop 3D printer. These model formulations were characterized using near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) and, more specifically, the image analytical data were analysed using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). The MCR-ALS algorithm predicted the spatial distribution of IND and PCL in the films with reasonable accuracy. In the extruded strands both the chemical mapping of the components in the formulation as well as the solid form of the active compound could be visualized. Based on the image information the total nitrofurantoin and PEO contents could be estimated., The dehydration of NFMH to NFAH, a process-induced solid form change, could be visualized as well. It was observed that the level of dehydration increased with increasing processing time (recirculation during the mixing phase of molten PEO and nitrofurantoin). Similar results were achieved in the 3D printed solid dosage forms produced from the extruded feedstocks. The results presented in this work clearly demonstrate that NIR-CI in combination with MCR-ALS can be used for chemical mapping of both active compound and excipients, as well as for visualization of solid form variation in the final product. The suggested NIR-CI approach is a promising process control tool for characterization of

  9. 3D printing of concentrated emulsions into multiphase biocompatible soft materials.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marianne R; Alison, Lauriane; Minas, Clara; Tervoort, Elena; Rühs, Patrick A; Studart, André R

    2017-03-01

    3D printing via direct ink writing (DIW) is a versatile additive manufacturing approach applicable to a variety of materials ranging from ceramics over composites to hydrogels. Due to the mild processing conditions compared to other additive manufacturing methods, DIW enables the incorporation of sensitive compounds such as proteins or drugs into the printed structure. Although emulsified oil-in-water systems are commonly used vehicles for such compounds in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic applications, printing of such emulsions into architectured soft materials has not been fully exploited and would open new possibilities for the controlled delivery of sensitive compounds. Here, we 3D print concentrated emulsions into soft materials, whose multiphase architecture allows for site-specific incorporation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds into the same structure. As a model ink, concentrated emulsions stabilized by chitosan-modified silica nanoparticles are studied, because they are sufficiently stable against coalescence during the centrifugation step needed to create a bridging network of droplets. The resulting ink is ideal for 3D printing as it displays high yield stress, storage modulus and elastic recovery, through the formation of networks of droplets as well as of gelled silica nanoparticles in the presence of chitosan. To demonstrate possible architectures, we print biocompatible soft materials with tunable hierarchical porosity containing an encapsulated hydrophobic compound positioned in specific locations of the structure. The proposed emulsion-based ink system offers great flexibility in terms of 3D shaping and local compositional control, and can potentially help address current challenges involving the delivery of incompatible compounds in biomedical applications.

  10. Progress in 3D Printing of Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Yao, Yonggang; Dai, Jiaqi; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-03-01

    The additive-manufacturing (AM) technique, known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has attracted much attention in industry and academia in recent years. 3D printing has been developed for a variety of applications. Printable inks are the most important component for 3D printing, and are related to the materials, the printing method, and the structures of the final 3D-printed products. Carbon materials, due to their good chemical stability and versatile nanostructure, have been widely used in 3D printing for different applications. Good inks are mainly based on volatile solutions having carbon materials as fillers such as graphene oxide (GO), carbon nanotubes (CNT), carbon blacks, and solvent, as well as polymers and other additives. Studies of carbon materials in 3D printing, especially GO-based materials, have been extensively reported for energy-related applications. In these circumstances, understanding the very recent developments of 3D-printed carbon materials and their extended applications to address energy-related challenges and bring new concepts for material designs are becoming urgent and important. Here, recent developments in 3D printing of emerging devices for energy-related applications are reviewed, including energy-storage applications, electronic circuits, and thermal-energy applications at high temperature. To close, a conclusion and outlook are provided, pointing out future designs and developments of 3D-printing technology based on carbon materials for energy-related applications and beyond.

  11. 3D Printed, Customized Cranial Implant for Surgical Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogu, Venkata Phanindra; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Asit Kumar, Khanra

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of the present work is to model cranial implant and printed in FDM machine (printer model used: mojo). Actually this is peculiar case and the skull has been damaged in frontal, parietal and temporal regions and a small portion of frontal region damaged away from saggital plane, complexity is to fill this frontal region with proper curvature. The Patient CT-data (Number of slices was 381 and thickness of each slice is 0.488 mm) was processed in mimics14.1 software, mimics file was sent to 3-matic software and calculated thickness of skull at different sections where cranial implant is needed then corrected the edges of cranial implant to overcome CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) leakage and proper fitting. Finally the implant average thickness is decided as 2.5 mm and printed in FDM machine with ABS plastic.

  12. Micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing for complex tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Koch, Alia; Jun, Yena; Chou, Conrad; Awadallah, Mary R; Lee, Chang H

    2016-04-25

    Three dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as an efficient tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, given its advantages for constructing custom-designed scaffolds with tunable microstructure/physical properties. Here we developed a micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffolds. PLGA microspheres (μS) were encapsulated with growth factors (GFs) and then embedded inside PCL microfibers that constitute custom-designed 3D scaffolds. Given the substantial difference in the melting points between PLGA and PCL and their low heat conductivity, μS were able to maintain its original structure while protecting GF's bioactivities. Micro-precise spatial control of multiple GFs was achieved by interchanging dispensing cartridges during a single printing process. Spatially controlled delivery of GFs, with a prolonged release, guided formation of multi-tissue interfaces from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs). To investigate efficacy of the micro-precise delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffold, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc scaffolds were fabricated with micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery of CTGF and TGFβ3, mimicking native-like multiphase fibrocartilage. In vitro, TMJ disc scaffolds spatially embedded with CTGF/TGFβ3-μS resulted in formation of multiphase fibrocartilaginous tissues from MSCs. In vivo, TMJ disc perforation was performed in rabbits, followed by implantation of CTGF/TGFβ3-μS-embedded scaffolds. After 4 wks, CTGF/TGFβ3-μS embedded scaffolds significantly improved healing of the perforated TMJ disc as compared to the degenerated TMJ disc in the control group with scaffold embedded with empty μS. In addition, CTGF/TGFβ3-μS embedded scaffolds significantly prevented arthritic changes on TMJ condyles. In conclusion, our micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing may serve as an efficient tool to regenerate complex and inhomogeneous tissues.

  13. 3D Printed Modeling of the Mitral Valve for Catheter-Based Structural Interventions.

    PubMed

    Vukicevic, Marija; Puperi, Daniel S; Jane Grande-Allen, K; Little, Stephen H

    2017-02-01

    As catheter-based structural heart interventions become increasingly complex, the ability to effectively model patient-specific valve geometry as well as the potential interaction of an implanted device within that geometry will become increasingly important. Our aim with this investigation was to combine the technologies of high-spatial resolution cardiac imaging, image processing software, and fused multi-material 3D printing, to demonstrate that patient-specific models of the mitral valve apparatus could be created to facilitate functional evaluation of novel trans-catheter mitral valve repair strategies. Clinical 3D transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography images were acquired for three patients being evaluated for a catheter-based mitral valve repair. Target anatomies were identified, segmented and reconstructed into 3D patient-specific digital models. For each patient, the mitral valve apparatus was digitally reconstructed from a single or fused imaging data set. Using multi-material 3D printing methods, patient-specific anatomic replicas of the mitral valve were created. 3D print materials were selected based on the mechanical testing of elastomeric TangoPlus materials (Stratasys, Eden Prairie, Minnesota, USA) and were compared to freshly harvested porcine leaflet tissue. The effective bending modulus of healthy porcine MV tissue was significantly less than the bending modulus of TangoPlus (p < 0.01). All TangoPlus varieties were less stiff than the maximum tensile elastic modulus of mitral valve tissue (3697.2 ± 385.8 kPa anterior leaflet; 2582.1 ± 374.2 kPa posterior leaflet) (p < 0.01). However, the slopes of the stress-strain toe regions of the mitral valve tissues (532.8 ± 281.9 kPa anterior leaflet; 389.0 ± 156.9 kPa posterior leaflet) were not different than those of the Shore 27, Shore 35, and Shore 27 with Shore 35 blend TangoPlus material (p > 0.95). We have demonstrated that patient-specific mitral valve models can be

  14. SU-F-BRE-08: Feasibility of 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantoms for IMRT/IGRT QA

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, E; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Test the feasibility of 3D printed, per-patient phantoms for IMRT QA to analyze the treatment delivery quality within the patient geometry. Methods: Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom. During the delivery of the IMRT QA on to the 3D printed phantom, the same patient positioning indexing system was used on the phantom and image guidance (cone beam CT) was used to localize the phantom, serving as a test of the IGRT system as well. The 3D printed phantom was designed to accommodate four radiochromic film planes (two axial, one coronal and one sagittal) and an ionization chamber measurement. As a frame of comparison, the IMRT QA was also performed on traditional phantoms. Dosimetric tolerance levels such as 3mm / 3% Gamma Index as well as 3% and 5% dose difference were considered. All detector systems were calibrated against a NIST traceable ionization chamber. Results: Comparison of results 3D printed patient phantom with the standard IMRT QA systems showed similar passing rates for the 3D printed phantom and the standard phantoms. However, the locations of the failing regions did not necessarily correlate. The 3D printed phantom was localized within 1 mm and 1° using on-board cone beam CT. Conclusion: A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine clinical use.

  15. Acoustic Performance of 3D Printed Nanocomposite Earmuff

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Saeid; Nassiri, Parvin; Ghasemi, Ismaeil; Monazzam Ep, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing protection devices are one of the primary noise reduction tools in developing countries. This study is intended to produce and apply acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)/clay nanocomposites to fabricate a laboratory single cup earmuffs and then compare it with double cup and single cup pure ABS earmuffs in terms of noise attenuation performance and comfort. In addition, the noise attenuation performance of single cup pure ABS earmuffs is compared with double cup pure ABS earmuffs. Methods: ABS/nanoclay filament was fabricated using a twin screw extruder. A three dimensional (3D) printing machine and a 3D model of earcup, designed by solid work software, were applied to print single and double cup earmuffs using ABS/nanoclay composite and pure ABS filaments. Finally, using an acoustic test fixture, objective noise attenuation test was performed on three different types of earmuffs, including with and without nano material and a secondary cup. Moreover, earmuffs weight was measured as a comfort component. Results: Insertion loss and calculated noise reduction rating (NRR) of single cup ABS/nanoclay earmuffs (NRR=19.4 dB) and double cup pure ABS earmuffs (NRR=18.93 dB) were improved in comparison with single cup pure ABS earmuffs (NRR=15.7 dB). Additionally, both single cup earmuffs were significantly lighter than double cup earmuffs. Although single cup nano and double cup earmuffs had nearly the same attenuation performance, single cup nano earmuffs were 74 gr lighter than double cup earmuffs, so with reference to comfort, single cup nano earmuffs will probably be more acceptable. Conclusions: From this survey it might be concluded that, even though single cup ABS/nanoclay earmuffs was lighter than double cup pure ABS earmuffs, it had approximately more attenuation performance in comparison with double cup pure ABS earmuffs. Consequently, users are probably more prone to wear light- weight single cup ABS/nanoclay earmuffs as a result of

  16. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites

    PubMed Central

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6–8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005–0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites. PMID:26940381

  17. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6–8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005–0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  18. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Castles, F; Isakov, D; Lui, A; Lei, Q; Dancer, C E J; Wang, Y; Janurudin, J M; Speller, S C; Grovenor, C R M; Grant, P S

    2016-03-04

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity-which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications-may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  19. 3D Printing of Personalized Organs and Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Kaiming

    2015-03-01

    Authors: Kaiming Ye and Sha Jin, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000 Abstract: Creation of highly organized multicellular constructs, including tissues and organs or organoids, will revolutionize tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The development of these technologies will enable the production of individualized organs or tissues for patient-tailored organ transplantation or cell-based therapy. For instance, a patient with damaged myocardial tissues due to an ischemic event can receive a myocardial transplant generated using the patient's own induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Likewise, a type-1 diabetic patient can be treated with lab-generated islets to restore his or her physiological insulin secretion capability. These lab-produced, high order tissues or organs can also serve as disease models for pathophysiological study and drug screening. The remarkable advances in stem cell biology, tissue engineering, microfabrication, and materials science in the last decade suggest the feasibility of generating these tissues and organoids in the laboratory. Nevertheless, major challenges still exist. One of the critical challenges that we still face today is the difficulty in constructing or fabricating multicellular assemblies that recapitulate in vivo microenvironments essential for controlling cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, maturation and assembly into a biologically functional tissue or organoid structure. These challenges can be addressed through developing 3D organ and tissue printing which enables organizing and assembling cells into desired tissue and organ structures. We have shown that human pluripotent stem cells differentiated in 3D environments are mature and possess high degree of biological function necessary for them to function in vivo.

  20. 3D printing from diagnostic images: a radiologist's primer with an emphasis on musculoskeletal imaging-putting the 3D printing of pathology into the hands of every physician.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Tamir; Michalski, Mark; Goodman, T Rob; Brown, J Elliott

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has recently erupted into the medical arena due to decreased costs and increased availability of printers and software tools. Due to lack of detailed information in the medical literature on the methods for 3D printing, we have reviewed the medical and engineering literature on the various methods for 3D printing and compiled them into a practical "how to" format, thereby enabling the novice to start 3D printing with very limited funds. We describe (1) background knowledge, (2) imaging parameters, (3) software, (4) hardware, (5) post-processing, and (6) financial aspects required to cost-effectively reproduce a patient's disease ex vivo so that the patient, engineer and surgeon may hold the anatomy and associated pathology in their hands.

  1. Creating perfused functional vascular channels using 3D bio-printing technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian K; Kim, Diana Y; Ngo, Haygan; Lee, Young; Seo, Lan; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Vincent, Peter A; Dai, Guohao

    2014-09-01

    We developed a methodology using 3D bio-printing technology to create a functional in vitro vascular channel with perfused open lumen using only cells and biological matrices. The fabricated vasculature has a tight, confluent endothelium lining, presenting barrier function for both plasma protein and high-molecular weight dextran molecule. The fluidic vascular channel is capable of supporting the viability of tissue up to 5 mm in distance at 5 million cells/mL density under the physiological flow condition. In static-cultured vascular channels, active angiogenic sprouting from the vessel surface was observed whereas physiological flow strongly suppressed this process. Gene expression analysis was reported in this study to show the potential of this vessel model in vascular biology research. The methods have great potential in vascularized tissue fabrication using 3D bio-printing technology as the vascular channel is simultaneously created while cells and matrix are printed around the channel in desired 3D patterns. It can also serve as a unique experimental tool for investigating fundamental mechanisms of vascular remodeling with extracellular matrix and maturation process under 3D flow condition.

  2. Graphene Oxide-Based Electrode Inks for 3D-Printed Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Wang, Yibo; Yan, Chaoyi; Yao, Yonggang; Chen, Yanan; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven; Wang, Yanbin; Wan, Jiayu; Li, Tian; Wang, Zhengyang; Xu, Yue; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-04-06

    All-component 3D-printed lithium-ion batteries are fabricated by printing graphene-oxide-based composite inks and solid-state gel polymer electrolyte. An entirely 3D-printed full cell features a high electrode mass loading of 18 mg cm(-2) , which is normalized to the overall area of the battery. This all-component printing can be extended to the fabrication of multidimensional/multiscale complex-structures of more energy-storage devices.

  3. Extended volume and surface scatterometer for optical characterization of 3D-printed elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Florian; Uebeler, Denise; Weiß, Jürgen; Pescoller, Lukas; Weyer, Cornelia; Hahlweg, Cornelius

    2015-09-01

    The use of 3d printing technology seems to be a promising way for low cost prototyping, not only of mechanical, but also of optical components or systems. It is especially useful in applications where customized equipment repeatedly is subject to immediate destruction, as in experimental detonics and the like. Due to the nature of the 3D-printing process, there is a certain inner texture and therefore inhomogeneous optical behaviour to be taken into account, which also indicates mechanical anisotropy. Recent investigations are dedicated to quantification of optical properties of such printed bodies and derivation of corresponding optimization strategies for the printing process. Beside mounting, alignment and illumination means, also refractive and reflective elements are subject to investigation. The proposed measurement methods are based on an imaging nearfield scatterometer for combined volume and surface scatter measurements as proposed in previous papers. In continuation of last year's paper on the use of near field imaging, which basically is a reflective shadowgraph method, for characterization of glossy surfaces like printed matter or laminated material, further developments are discussed. The device has been extended for observation of photoelasticity effects and therefore homogeneity of polarization behaviour. A refined experimental set-up is introduced. Variation of plane of focus and incident angle are used for separation of various the images of the layers of the surface under test, cross and parallel polarization techniques are applied. Practical examples from current research studies are included.

  4. Using micro-3D printing to build acoustically driven microswimmers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, Nicolas; Stephan, Olivier; Marmottant, Philippe; Spelman, Tamsin; Lauga, Eric; Dyfcom Team; Complex; Biological Fluids Team

    2015-11-01

    With no protection, a micron-sized free air bubble at room temperature in water has a life span shorter than a few tens of seconds. Using two-photon lithography, which is similar to 3D printing at the micron scale, we can build ``armors'' for these bubbles: micro-capsules with an opening to contain the bubble and extend its life to several hours in biological buffer solutions. When excited by an ultrasound transducer, a 20 μm bubble performs large amplitude oscillations in the capsule opening and generates a powerful acoustic streaming flow (velocity up to dozens of mm/s). A collaboration with the Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, is helping us predict the true resonance of these capsules and the full surrounding streaming flow. The present Bubbleboost project aims at creating red blood cell sized capsules (~ 10-20 μm) that can move on their own with a non-contact acoustic excitation for drug delivery applications. Another application of this research is in microfluidics: we are able to fabricate fields of capsules able to generate mixing effects in microchannels, or use the bubble-generated flow to guide passing objects at a junction. ERC Grant Agreement Bubbleboost no. 614655.

  5. 3D-printed silicate porous bioceramics using a non-sacrificial preceramic polymer binder.

    PubMed

    Zocca, A; Elsayed, H; Bernardo, E; Gomes, C M; Lopez-Heredia, M A; Knabe, C; Colombo, P; Günster, J

    2015-05-22

    Silicate bioceramics possess an excellent bioactivity; however, shaping them into complex geometries is still challenging. Therefore, this paper aims to present a new strategy for the shaping of a bioglass-ceramic with controlled geometry and properties starting from a glass powder combined with a preceramic polymer, i.e. a silicon resin, and reactive fillers. The powder-based three-dimensional (3D)-printing of wollastonite (CaSiO3)-based silicate bioceramic parts was demonstrated in this work. The resin plays a dual role, as it not only acts as a non-sacrificial binder for the filler powders in the printing process but it also reacts with the fillers to generate the desired bioceramic phases. The mechanical and physical properties, i.e. ball-on-three-balls test, density, porosity and morphology, were evaluated in 3D-printed discs. These samples possessed a total porosity around 64 vol% and a biaxial flexural strength around 6 MPa. The raw materials used in this work also enabled the 3D-printing of scaffolds possessing a designed multi-scale porosity, suitable bioceramic phase assemblage and a compressive strength of 1 MPa (for cylindrical scaffolds with total porosity ~80 vol%). Solubility in TRIS/HCl and in vitro assays, i.e. viability, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays, were also performed. In vitro tests indicated good cell viability and no cytotoxicity effect on the cells.

  6. Time within time: 3D printed sculptures within holographic art practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Holography is a time-based medium, which uses its own aesthetics and techniques to interpret colour and light. This exclusive descriptive language does not simply represent a particular scenario in the moment of recording, but also documents the performance light during the shooting process. Nowadays 3D graphic software and Internet offer practitioners greater mobility in both the development and the delivery of their artwork. Furthermore, the diverse web-based social media presents unlimited and various spaces to facilitate artists in the exchange of creative knowledge, it enables them to collaborate on their projects with external connections - audience, specialists, etc. Within the analogue holography art practice, there is a primary lack of interface, or, in other words, it cannot utilise any digital creative tools. 3D printing makes it possible to bridge the gap between cyber space and the holographic world; even more so, as this emerging technique also becomes a platform, which can connect computational data and light information. The application of 3D printing in contemporary art will reshape the process of creation, as well as the form of visual narrative itself. New technologies continually and increasingly involve the projection of another artistic dimension, and the term "visual" embarks on challenging the generally accepted notion of understanding art and interacting with it. As new pathways of practice are established, it will take years to build a complete understanding of this medium in order to be able to take a full advantage of the benefits its use offers. This paper is aimed at looking for the potential new ways of artistic expression, deriving from the interrelation between analogue holography and 3D printing. It will also attempt an articulate assessment of 3D printing within the dynamic holographic aesthetics.

  7. A 3D Printed Toolbox for Opto-Mechanical Components

    PubMed Central

    P. Torres, Juan; Valencia, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the development of a set of opto-mechanical components (a kinematic mount, a translation stage and an integrating sphere) that can be easily built using a 3D printer based on Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) and parts that can be found in any hardware store. Here we provide a brief description of the 3D models used and some details on the fabrication process. Moreover, with the help of three simple experimental setups, we evaluate the performance of the opto-mechanical components developed by doing a quantitative comparison with its commercial counterparts. Our results indicate that the components fabricated are highly customizable, low-cost, require a short time to be fabricated and surprisingly, offer a performance that compares favorably with respect to low-end commercial alternatives. PMID:28099494

  8. Improving the engineering properties of PLA for 3D printing and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha Gutierrez, Carmen Raquel

    Additive manufacturing (AM), now more commonly known as 3D printing, has been classified as efficient, fast, and practical in the prototyping sector of product development. In the work presented here, we will use one of the AM techniques known as Material extrusion 3D printing (ME3DP), which has all the advantages of AM. However, one of the biggest challenges facing ME3DP technologies is the limitation of the range of materials used by this technique. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and poly-lactic acid (PLA) are currently the most common thermoplastics materials used in ME3DP because of their ability to melt and be reprocessed. PLA is a biodegradable polymer derived from renewable sources such as corn, and sugarcane. The expanded use of this polymer over traditional petroleum-based plastics (ABS) will decrease the demand on petrochemicals, and also lead to less non-biodegradable polymeric waste. While PLA offers an eco-friendly solution for polymeric 3D printing, the mechanical performance is limited by PLA's inherent characteristics (such as moisture absorbance) that may degrade the plastic during processing. PLA novel systems were used through this research maintaining the compatibility with material extrusion 3D printers. The purpose of this investigation is to alter the physical properties of PLA with sustainable additives in order to improve the end use products from this material.

  9. 3D Printing Prototypes for Healthcare Professionals: Creating a Reciprocating Syringe.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Steven; Abdullah, Selwan; Hirsch, Jeffrey

    2017-01-30

    3D printing (additive manufacturing) has been around since 1984, but interest in the technology has increased exponentially as it has become both accessible and inexpensive. The applications of the technology in healthcare are still being explored; however, initial forays have been encouraging. It has the potential to revolutionize the process of prototyping for healthcare professionals by democratizing the process and enhancing collaboration, making it cheaper to do iterative prototyping with little or no engineering experience. This case report details the creation of a multi-lumen reciprocating syringe with 3D printing. The product has been created and tested using a variety of publicly available resources. It provides a detailed overview of the approach and the framework required to create such a medical device. However, the implications of this report are much larger than this one product, and the fundamental ideas discussed here could be used for creating customized solutions for many healthcare problems.

  10. Materials and scaffolds in medical 3D printing and bioprinting in the context of bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin; Bauer, Heide-Katharina; Goetze, Elisabeth; Gielisch, Matthias; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Moncal, Kazim K; Rizk, Elias; Seitz, Hermann; Gelinsky, Michael; Schröder, Heinz C; Wang, Xiaohong H; Müller, Werner E G; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    The structural and functional repair of lost bone is still one of the biggest challenges in regenerative medicine. In many cases, autologous bone is used for the reconstruction of bone tissue; however, the availability of autologous material is limited, which always means additional stress to the patient. Due to this, more and more frequently various biocompatible materials are being used instead for bone augmentation. In this context, in order to ensure the structural function of the bone, scaffolds are implanted and fixed into the bone defect, depending on the medical indication. Nevertheless, for the surgeon, every individual clinical condition in which standardized scaffolds have to be aligned is challenging, and in many cases the alignment is not possible without limitations. Therefore, in the last decades, 3D printing (3DP) or additive manufacturing (AM) of scaffolds has become one of the most innovative approaches in surgery to individualize and improve the treatment of patients. Numerous biocompatible materials are available for 3DP, and various printing techniques can be applied, depending on the process conditions of these materials. Besides these conventional printing techniques, another promising approach in the context of medical AM is 3D bioprinting, a technique which makes it possible to print human cells embedded in special carrier substances to generate functional tissues. Even the direct printing into bone defects or lesions becomes possible. 3DP is already improving the treatment of patients, and has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine in future.

  11. Study of the thermal properties of filaments for 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trhlíková, Lucie; Zmeskal, Oldrich; Psencik, Petr; Florian, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Various materials are used for 3D printing, most commonly Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Polylactic acid (PLA), Polyethylene (PET) and Polypropylene (PP). These materials differ mainly in their melting point, which significantly influences the properties of the final products. Filaments are melted in the print head during the printing process. The temperature range is from 150 °C to 250 °C depending on the technology used. The optimum temperature for the cooling substrate on which printing is carried out is chosen so as to ensure uniform cooling and deformation. It generally varies between (40 - 100) °C. From the above it is clear that both temperatures can significantly affect the properties of the printed 3D object. It is therefore important to determine the thermal parameters (thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity) of the materials used across the entire range of temperatures. For evaluating the properties of different types of PLA materials, the step transient method was used, which allows determination of all required parameters using a fractal heat transfer model.

  12. 3D printing of composite tissue with complex shape applied to ear regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Seob; Hong, Jung Min; Jung, Jin Woo; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Oh, Jeong-Hoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-06-01

    In the ear reconstruction field, tissue engineering enabling the regeneration of the ear's own tissue has been considered to be a promising technology. However, the ear is known to be difficult to regenerate using traditional methods due to its complex shape and composition. In this study, we used three-dimensional (3D) printing technology including a sacrificial layer process to regenerate both the auricular cartilage and fat tissue. The main part was printed with poly-caprolactone (PCL) and cell-laden hydrogel. At the same time, poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG) was also deposited as a sacrificial layer to support the main structure. After complete fabrication, PEG can be easily removed in aqueous solutions, and the procedure for removing PEG has no effect on the cell viability. For fabricating composite tissue, chondrocytes and adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived stromal cells were encapsulated in hydrogel to dispense into the cartilage and fat regions, respectively, of ear-shaped structures. Finally, we fabricated the composite structure for feasibility testing, satisfying expectations for both the geometry and anatomy of the native ear. We also carried out in vitro assays for evaluating the chondrogenesis and adipogenesis of the cell-printed structure. As a result, the possibility of ear regeneration using 3D printing technology which allowed tissue formation from the separately printed chondrocytes and adipocytes was demonstrated.

  13. Use of 3D printed models in medical education: A randomized control trial comparing 3D prints versus cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J; Adams, Justin W; McMenamin, Paul G

    2016-05-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on undergraduate medical students without prior formal cardiac anatomy teaching. Following a pre-test examining baseline external cardiac anatomy knowledge, participants were randomly assigned to three groups who underwent self-directed learning sessions using either cadaveric materials, 3D prints, or a combination of cadaveric materials/3D prints (combined materials). Participants were then subjected to a post-test written by a third party. Fifty-two participants completed the trial; 18 using cadaveric materials, 16 using 3D models, and 18 using combined materials. Age and time since completion of high school were equally distributed between groups. Pre-test scores were not significantly different (P = 0.231), however, post-test scores were significantly higher for 3D prints group compared to the cadaveric materials or combined materials groups (mean of 60.83% vs. 44.81% and 44.62%, P = 0.010, adjusted P = 0.012). A significant improvement in test scores was detected for the 3D prints group (P = 0.003) but not for the other two groups. The finding of this pilot study suggests that use of 3D prints do not disadvantage students relative to cadaveric materials; maximally, results suggest that 3D may confer certain benefits to anatomy learning and supports their use and ongoing evaluation as supplements to cadaver-based curriculums. Anat Sci Educ 9: 213-221. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. 3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…

  15. A 3D-Printed Oxygen Control Insert for a 24-Well Plate.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Martin D; Rexius-Hall, Megan L; Eddington, David T

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has emerged as a method for directly printing complete microfluidic devices, although printing materials have been limited to oxygen-impermeable materials. We demonstrate the addition of gas permeable PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) membranes to 3D-printed microfluidic devices as a means to enable oxygen control cell culture studies. The incorporation of a 3D-printed device and gas-permeable membranes was demonstrated on a 24-well oxygen control device for standard multiwell plates. The direct printing allows integrated distribution channels and device geometries not possible with traditional planar lithography. With this device, four different oxygen conditions were able to be controlled, and six wells were maintained under each oxygen condition. We demonstrate enhanced transcription of the gene VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) with decreasing oxygen levels in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This is the first 3D-printed device incorporating gas permeable membranes to facilitate oxygen control in cell culture.

  16. A 3D-Printed Oxygen Control Insert for a 24-Well Plate

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Martin D.; Rexius-Hall, Megan L.; Eddington, David T.

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has emerged as a method for directly printing complete microfluidic devices, although printing materials have been limited to oxygen-impermeable materials. We demonstrate the addition of gas permeable PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) membranes to 3D-printed microfluidic devices as a means to enable oxygen control cell culture studies. The incorporation of a 3D-printed device and gas-permeable membranes was demonstrated on a 24-well oxygen control device for standard multiwell plates. The direct printing allows integrated distribution channels and device geometries not possible with traditional planar lithography. With this device, four different oxygen conditions were able to be controlled, and six wells were maintained under each oxygen condition. We demonstrate enhanced transcription of the gene VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) with decreasing oxygen levels in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This is the first 3D-printed device incorporating gas permeable membranes to facilitate oxygen control in cell culture. PMID:26360882

  17. Reproducing 2D breast mammography images with 3D printed phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Matthew; Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badal, Andreu

    2016-03-01

    Mammography is currently the standard imaging modality used to screen women for breast abnormalities and, as a result, it is a tool of great importance for the early detection of breast cancer. Physical phantoms are commonly used as surrogates of breast tissue to evaluate some aspects of the performance of mammography systems. However, most phantoms do not reproduce the anatomic heterogeneity of real breasts. New fabrication technologies, such as 3D printing, have created the opportunity to build more complex, anatomically realistic breast phantoms that could potentially assist in the evaluation of mammography systems. The primary objective of this work is to present a simple, easily reproducible methodology to design and print 3D objects that replicate the attenuation profile observed in real 2D mammograms. The secondary objective is to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the competing 3D printing technologies, and characterize the x-ray properties of the different materials they use. Printable phantoms can be created using the open-source code introduced in this work, which processes a raw mammography image to estimate the amount of x-ray attenuation at each pixel, and outputs a triangle mesh object that encodes the observed attenuation map. The conversion from the observed pixel gray value to a column of printed material with equivalent attenuation requires certain assumptions and knowledge of multiple imaging system parameters, such as x-ray energy spectrum, source-to-object distance, compressed breast thickness, and average breast material attenuation. A detailed description of the new software, a characterization of the printed materials using x-ray spectroscopy, and an evaluation of the realism of the sample printed phantoms are presented.

  18. High-resolution acoustic imaging at low frequencies using 3D-printed metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laureti, S.; Hutchins, D. A.; Davis, L. A. J.; Leigh, S. J.; Ricci, M.

    2016-12-01

    An acoustic metamaterial has been constructed using 3D printing. It contained an array of air-filled channels, whose size and shape could be varied within the design and manufacture process. In this paper we analyze both numerically and experimentally the properties of this polymer metamaterial structure, and demonstrate its use for the imaging of a sample with sub-wavelength dimensions in the audible frequency range.

  19. 3D printing of rat salivary glands: The submandibular-sublingual complex.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, M P; Parnigotto, M; Merigo, F; Marzola, P; Daducci, A; Tambalo, S; Boschi, F; Colombo, L; Sbarbati, A

    2014-06-01

    The morphology and the functionality of the murid glandular complex, composed of the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands (SSC), were the object of several studies conducted mainly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using a 4.7 T scanner and a manganese-based contrast agent, we improved the signal-to-noise ratio of the SSC relating to the surrounding anatomical structures allowing to obtain high-contrast 3D images of the SSC. In the last few years, the large development in resin melting techniques opened the way for printing 3D objects starting from a 3D stack of images. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the 3D printing technique of soft tissues such as the SSC in the rat with the aim to improve the visualization of the organs. This approach is useful to preserve the real in vivo morphology of the SCC in living animals avoiding the anatomical shape changes due to the lack of relationships with the surrounding organs in case of extraction. It is also harmless, repeatable and can be applied to explore volumetric changes occurring during body growth, excretory duct obstruction, tumorigenesis and regeneration processes. 3D printing allows to obtain a solid object with the same shape of the organ of interest, which can be observed, freely rotated and manipulated. To increase the visibility of the details, it is possible to print the organs with a selected zoom factor, useful as in case of tiny organs in small mammalia. An immediate application of this technique is represented by educational classes.

  20. 3D printing in pharmaceutics: A new tool for designing customized drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Goole; Karim, Amighi

    2016-02-29

    Three-dimensional printing includes a wide variety of manufacturing techniques, which are all based on digitally-controlled depositing of materials (layer-by-layer) to create freeform geometries. Therefore, three-dimensional printing processes are commonly associated with freeform fabrication techniques. For years, these methods were extensively used in the field of biomanufacturing (especially for bone and tissue engineering) to produce sophisticated and tailor-made scaffolds from patient scans. This paper aims to review the processes that can be used in pharmaceutics, including the parameters to be controlled. In practice, it not straightforward for a formulator to be aware of the various technical advances made in this field, which is gaining more and more interest. Thus, a particular aim of this review is to give an overview on the pragmatic tools, which can be used for designing customized drug delivery systems using 3D printing.

  1. Powder bed binder jet 3D printing of Inconel 718: Densification, microstructural evolution and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Nandwana, Peeyush; Elliott, Amy M.; Siddel, Derek; ...

    2017-01-03

    Traditional manufacturing of Inconel 718 components from castings and thermomechanical processing routes involve extensive post processing and machining to attain the desired geometry. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies including direct energy deposition (DED), selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) and binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) can minimize scrap generation and reduce lead times. While there is extensive literature on the use of melting and solidification based AM technologies, there has been limited research on the use of binder jet 3D printing. In this paper, a brief review on binder jet additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 is presented. In addition,more » existing knowledge on sintering of Inconel 718 has been extended to binder jet 3D printing. We found that supersolidus liquid phase sintering (SLPS) is necessary to achieve full densification of Inconel 718. SLPS is sensitive to the feedstock chemistry that has a strong influence on the liquid volume fraction at the processing temperature. Based on these results, we discuss an empirical framework to determine the role of powder particle size and liquid volume fraction on sintering kinetics. In conclusion, the role of powder packing factor and binder saturation on microstructural evolution is discussed. The current challenges in the use of BJ3DP for fabrication of Inconel 718, as well as, extension to other metal systems, are presented.« less

  2. Categorical prototyping: incorporating molecular mechanisms into 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brommer, Dieter B.; Giesa, Tristan; Spivak, David I.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2016-01-01

    We apply the mathematical framework of category theory to articulate the precise relation between the structure and mechanics of a nanoscale system in a macroscopic domain. We maintain the chosen molecular mechanical properties from the nanoscale to the continuum scale. Therein we demonstrate a procedure to ‘protoype a model’, as category theory enables us to maintain certain information across disparate fields of study, distinct scales, or physical realizations. This process fits naturally with prototyping, as a prototype is not a complete product but rather a reduction to test a subset of properties. To illustrate this point, we use large-scale multi-material printing to examine the scaling of the elastic modulus of 2D carbon allotropes at the macroscale and validate our printed model using experimental testing. The resulting hand-held materials can be examined more readily, and yield insights beyond those available in the original digital representations. We demonstrate this concept by twisting the material, a test beyond the scope of the original model. The method developed can be extended to other methods of additive manufacturing.

  3. Categorical prototyping: incorporating molecular mechanisms into 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Brommer, Dieter B; Giesa, Tristan; Spivak, David I; Buehler, Markus J

    2016-01-15

    We apply the mathematical framework of category theory to articulate the precise relation between the structure and mechanics of a nanoscale system in a macroscopic domain. We maintain the chosen molecular mechanical properties from the nanoscale to the continuum scale. Therein we demonstrate a procedure to 'protoype a model', as category theory enables us to maintain certain information across disparate fields of study, distinct scales, or physical realizations. This process fits naturally with prototyping, as a prototype is not a complete product but rather a reduction to test a subset of properties. To illustrate this point, we use large-scale multi-material printing to examine the scaling of the elastic modulus of 2D carbon allotropes at the macroscale and validate our printed model using experimental testing. The resulting hand-held materials can be examined more readily, and yield insights beyond those available in the original digital representations. We demonstrate this concept by twisting the material, a test beyond the scope of the original model. The method developed can be extended to other methods of additive manufacturing.

  4. 3D printed auto-mixing chip enables rapid smartphone diagnosis of anemia.

    PubMed

    Plevniak, Kimberly; Campbell, Matthew; Myers, Timothy; Hodges, Abby; He, Mei

    2016-09-01

    Clinical diagnosis requiring central facilities and site visits can be burdensome for patients in resource-limited or rural areas. Therefore, development of a low-cost test that utilizes smartphone data collection and transmission would beneficially enable disease self-management and point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce a low-cost iPOC(3D) diagnostic strategy which integrates 3D design and printing of microfluidic POC device with smartphone-based disease diagnosis in one process as a stand-alone system, offering strong adaptability for establishing diagnostic capacity in resource-limited areas and low-income countries. We employ smartphone output (AutoCAD 360 app) and readout (color-scale analytical app written in-house) functionalities for rapid 3D printing of microfluidic auto-mixers and colorimetric detection of blood hemoglobin levels. The auto-mixing of reagents with blood via capillary force has been demonstrated in 1 second without the requirement of external pumps. We employed this iPOC(3D) system for point-of-care diagnosis of anemia using a training set of patients (nanemia = 16 and nhealthy = 6), which showed consistent measurements of blood hemoglobin levels (a.u.c. = 0.97) and comparable diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, compared with standard clinical hematology analyzer. Capable of 3D fabrication flexibility and smartphone compatibility, this work presents a novel diagnostic strategy for advancing personalized medicine and mobile healthcare.

  5. Utilizing in-situ resources and 3D printing structures for a manned Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kading, Benjamin; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a manned Mars mission, which is based on the use of in-situ resources for the fabrication of structures. First, it provides an overview of the two-phase mission. In phase one, robotic construction units prepare a functional base for phase-two human habitation. Then, it describes a set of prospective structures that can be created utilizing additive manufacturing (commonly known as 3D printing) techniques and in situ materials. Next, the technological advancements required to allow this type of mission are considered and their feasibility is discussed. Specific focus is given to the topics of basalt 3D printing and the maintenance of the pressure environment. The process of the construction of the base is also discussed. Finally the proposed approach is analyzed through comparison to prior missions, before concluding.

  6. 3D-printing of pH-responsive and functional polymers on an affordable desktop printer.

    PubMed

    Nadgorny, Milena; Xiao, Zeyun; Chen, Chao; Connal, Luke A

    2016-10-03

    In this work we describe the synthesis, thermal and rheological characterization, hot-melt extrusion and three-dimensional printing (3DP) of poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP). We investigate the effect of thermal processing conditions on physical properties of produced filaments in order to achieve high quality, 3D- printable filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM). We 3D-print P2VP filaments using an affordable 3D printer. The pyridine moieties are crosslinked and quaternized post-printing to form 3D-printed pH-responsive hydrogels. The printed objects exhibited dynamic and reversible pH-dependent swelling. These hydrogels act as flow regulating valves, controlling the flow rate with pH. Additionally, a macroporous P2VP membrane was 3D-printed and the coordinating ability of the pyridyl groups was harassed to immobilize silver precursors on its surface. After the reduction of silver ions, the structure was used to catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol with a high efficiency. This is a facile technique to print recyclable catalytic objects.

  7. 3D Printing of Medicines: Engineering Novel Oral Devices with Unique Design and Drug Release Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Wang, Jie; Buanz, Asma; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón; Telford, Richard; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-11-02

    Three dimensional printing (3D printing) was used to fabricate novel oral drug delivery devices with specialized design configurations. Each device was loaded with multiple actives, with the intent of applying this process to the production of personalized medicines tailored at the point of dispensing or use. A filament extruder was used to obtain drug-loaded--paracetamol (acetaminophen) or caffeine--filaments of poly(vinyl alcohol) with characteristics suitable for use in fused-deposition modeling 3D printing. A multinozzle 3D printer enabled fabrication of capsule-shaped solid devices containing the drug with different internal structures. The design configurations included a multilayer device, with each layer containing drug, whose identity was different to the drug in the adjacent layers, and a two-compartment device comprising a caplet embedded within a larger caplet (DuoCaplet), with each compartment containing a different drug. Raman spectroscopy was used to collect 2-dimensional hyper spectral arrays across the entire surface of the devices. Processing of the arrays using direct classical least-squares component matching to produce false color representations of distribution of the drugs was used. This clearly showed a definitive separation between the drug layers of paracetamol and caffeine. Drug release tests in biorelevant bicarbonate media showed unique drug release profiles dependent on the macrostructure of the devices. In the case of the multilayer devices, release of both paracetamol and caffeine was simultaneous and independent of drug solubility. With the DuoCaplet design, it was possible to engineer either rapid drug release or delayed release by selecting the site of incorporation of the drug in the device; the lag-time for release from the internal compartment was dependent on the characteristics of the external layer. The study confirms the potential of 3D printing to fabricate multiple-drug containing devices with specialized design

  8. The chemical, mechanical, and physical properties of 3D printed materials composed of TiO2-ABS nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Skorski, Matthew R.; Esenther, Jake M.; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Miller, Abigail E.; Hartings, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To expand the chemical capabilities of 3D printed structures generated from commercial thermoplastic printers, we have produced and printed polymer filaments that contain inorganic nanoparticles. TiO2 was dispersed into acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and extruded into filaments with 1.75 mm diameters. We produced filaments with TiO2 compositions of 1, 5, and 10% (kg/kg) and printed structures using a commercial 3D printer. Our experiments suggest that ABS undergoes minor degradation in the presence of TiO2 during the different processing steps. The measured mechanical properties (strain and Young’s modulus) for all of the composites are similar to those of structures printed from the pure polymer. TiO2 incorporation at 1% negatively affects the stress at breaking point and the flexural stress. Structures produced from the 5 and 10% nanocomposites display a higher breaking point stress than those printed from the pure polymer. TiO2 within the printed matrix was able to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the polymer. TiO2 was also able to photocatalyze the degradation of a rhodamine 6G in solution. These experiments display chemical reactivity in nanocomposites that are printed using commercial 3D printers, and we expect that our methodology will help to inform others who seek to incorporate catalytic nanoparticles in 3D printed structures. PMID:27375367

  9. The chemical, mechanical, and physical properties of 3D printed materials composed of TiO2-ABS nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Skorski, Matthew; Esenther, Jake; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Miller, Abigail E; Hartings, Matthew R

    To expand the chemical capabilities of 3D printed structures generated from commercial thermoplastic printers, we have produced and printed polymer filaments that contain inorganic nanoparticles. TiO2 was dispersed into acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and extruded into filaments with 1.75 mm diameters. We produced filaments with TiO2 compositions of 1%, 5%, and 10% (kg/kg) and printed structures using a commercial 3D printer. Our experiments suggest that ABS undergoes minor degradation in the presence of TiO2 during the different processing steps. The measured mechanical properties (strain and Young's modulus) for all of the composites are similar to those of structures printed from the pure polymer. TiO2 incorporation at 1% negatively affects the stress at breaking point and the flexural stress. Structures produced from the 5 and 10% nanocomposites display a higher breaking point stress than those printed from the pure polymer. TiO2 within the printed matrix was able to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the polymer. TiO2 was also able to photocatalyze the degradation of a rhodamine 6G in solution. These experiments display chemical reactivity in nanocomposites that are printed using commercial 3D printers, and we expect that our methodology will help to inform others who seek to incorporate catalytic nanoparticles in 3D printed structures.

  10. Electrodeposition-based 3D Printing of Metallic Microarchitectures with Controlled Internal Structures.

    PubMed

    Seol, Seung Kwon; Kim, Daeho; Lee, Sanghyeon; Kim, Jung Hyun; Chang, Won Suk; Kim, Ji Tae

    2015-08-26

    3D printing of metallic microarchitectures with controlled internal structures is realized at room temperature in ambient air conditions by the manipulation of metal ion concentration and pulsed electric potentials in the electrolyte meniscus during the meniscus-guided electrodeposition. Precise control of the printing nozzle enables the drawing of complex 3D microarchitectures with well-defined geometries and positions.

  11. Introduction of 3D Printing Technology in the Classroom for Visually Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Wonjin; I, Jang Hee; Harianto, Rachel Ananda; So, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hyebin; Lee, Heon Ju; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigate how 3D printing technology could be utilized for instructional materials that allow visually impaired students to have full access to high-quality instruction in history class. Researchers from the 3D Printing Group of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) provided the Seoul National School for the Blind with…

  12. Analysis of 3D-printed metal for rapid-prototyped reflective terahertz optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headland, Daniel; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Webb, Michael; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Luiten, Andre; Abbott, Derek

    2016-07-01

    We explore the potential of 3D metal printing to realize complex conductive terahertz devices. Factors impacting performance such as printing resolution, surface roughness, oxidation, and material loss are investigated via analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The high degree of control offered by a 3D-printed topology is exploited to realize a zone plate operating at 530 GHz. Reflection efficiency at this frequency is found to be over 90%. The high-performance of this preliminary device suggest that 3D metal printing can play a strong role in guided-wave and general beam control devices in the terahertz range.

  13. 3D Printing in the Laboratory: Maximize Time and Funds with Customized and Open-Source Labware.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Meghan; Hurt, Darrell E

    2016-08-01

    3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is the computer-guided process of fabricating physical objects by depositing successive layers of material. It has transformed manufacturing across virtually every industry, bringing about incredible advances in research and medicine. The rapidly growing consumer market now includes convenient and affordable "desktop" 3D printers. These are being used in the laboratory to create custom 3D-printed equipment, and a growing community of designers are contributing open-source, cost-effective innovations that can be used by both professionals and enthusiasts. User stories from investigators at the National Institutes of Health and the biomedical research community demonstrate the power of 3D printing to save valuable time and funding. While adoption of 3D printing has been slow in the biosciences to date, the potential is vast. The market predicts that within several years, 3D printers could be commonplace within the home; with so many practical uses for 3D printing, we anticipate that the technology will also play an increasingly important role in the laboratory.

  14. 3D Printing: How Much Will It Improve the DoD Supply Chain of the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    more traditional subtractive manufacturing process, where material is cut, drilled, milled or machined off. 3D printers employ a variety of...printing. It may be hard to initially wrap your mind around the fact that all you need to produce a required part is a 3D printer , a 3D drawing of the...hard to initially wrap your mind around the fact that all you need to produce a required part is a 3D printer , a 3D drawing of the part and the

  15. Enablement of scientific remote sensing missions with in-space 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the capability of a 3D printer to successfully operate in-space to create structures and equipment useful in the field of scientific remote sensing. Applications of this printer involve oceanography, weather tracking, as well as space exploration sensing. The design for the 3D printer includes a parabolic array to collect and focus thermal energy. This thermal energy then be used to heat the extrusion head, allowing for the successful extrusion of the print material. Print material can range from plastics to metals, with the hope of being able to extrude aluminum for its low-mass structural integrity and its conductive properties. The printer will be able to print structures as well as electrical components. The current process of creating and launching a remote sensor into space is constrained by many factors such as gravity on earth, the forces of launch, the size of the launch vehicle, and the number of available launches. The design intent of the in-space 3D printer is to ease or eliminate these constraints, making space-based scientific remote sensors a more readily available resource.

  16. Fabrication of controlled-release budesonide tablets via desktop (FDM) 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Chang, Hanah; Sedough, Daniel; Hatton, Grace B; Wang, Jie; Buanz, Asma; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility of using fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing (3DP) technology with hot melt extrusion (HME) and fluid bed coating to fabricate modified-release budesonide dosage forms. Budesonide was sucessfully loaded into polyvinyl alcohol filaments using HME. The filaments were engineered into capsule-shaped tablets (caplets) containing 9mg budesonide using a FDM 3D printer; the caplets were then overcoated with a layer of enteric polymer. The final printed formulation was tested in a dynamic dissolution bicarbonate buffer system, and two commercial budesonide products, Cortiment® (Uceris®) and Entocort®, were also investigated for comparison. Budesonide release from the Entocort® formulation was rapid in conditions of the upper small intestine while release from the Cortiment® product was more delayed and very slow. In contrast, the new 3D printed caplet formulation started to release in the mid-small intestine but release then continued in a sustained manner throughout the distal intestine and colon. This work has demonstrated the potential of combining FDM 3DP with established pharmaceutical processes, including HME and film coating, to fabricate modified release oral dosage forms.

  17. Extrusion-based 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds with hydroxyapatite gradients.

    PubMed

    Trachtenberg, Jordan E; Placone, Jesse K; Smith, Brandon T; Fisher, John P; Mikos, Antonios G

    2017-04-01

    The primary focus of this work is to present the current challenges of printing scaffolds with concentration gradients of nanoparticles with an aim to improve the processing of these scaffolds. Furthermore, we address how print fidelity is related to material composition and emphasize the importance of considering this relationship when developing complex scaffolds for bone implants. The ability to create complex tissues is becoming increasingly relevant in the tissue engineering community. For bone tissue engineering applications, this work demonstrates the ability to use extrusion-based printing techniques to control the spatial deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles in a 3D composite scaffold. In doing so, we combined the benefits of synthetic, degradable polymers, such as poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), with osteoconductive HA nanoparticles that provide robust compressive mechanical properties. Furthermore, the final 3D printed scaffolds consisted of well-defined layers with interconnected pores, two critical features for a successful bone implant. To demonstrate a controlled gradient of HA, thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to quantify HA on a per-layer basis. Moreover, we non-destructively evaluated the tendency of HA particles to aggregate within PPF using micro-computed tomography (μCT). This work provides insight for proper fabrication and characterization of composite scaffolds containing particle gradients and has broad applicability for future efforts in fabricating complex scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

  18. Adaptation of pharmaceutical excipients to FDM 3D printing for the fabrication of patient-tailored immediate release tablets.

    PubMed

    Sadia, Muzna; Sośnicka, Agata; Arafat, Basel; Isreb, Abdullah; Ahmed, Waqar; Kelarakis, Antonios; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2016-11-20

    This work aims to employ fused deposition modelling 3D printing to fabricate immediate release pharmaceutical tablets with several model drugs. It investigates the addition of non-melting filler to methacrylic matrix to facilitate FDM 3D printing and explore the impact of (i) the nature of filler, (ii) compatibility with the gears of the 3D printer and iii) polymer: filler ratio on the 3D printing process. Amongst the investigated fillers in this work, directly compressible lactose, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose showed a level of degradation at 135°C whilst talc and TCP allowed consistent flow of the filament and a successful 3D printing of the tablet. A specially developed universal filament based on pharmaceutically approved methacrylic polymer (Eudragit EPO) and thermally stable filler, TCP (tribasic calcium phosphate) was optimised. Four model drugs with different physicochemical properties were included into ready-to-use mechanically stable tablets with immediate release properties. Following the two thermal processes (hot melt extrusion (HME) and fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing), drug contents were 94.22%, 88.53%, 96.51% and 93.04% for 5-ASA, captopril, theophylline and prednisolone respectively. XRPD indicated that a fraction of 5-ASA, theophylline and prednisolone remained crystalline whilst captopril was in amorphous form. By combining the advantages of thermally stable pharmaceutically approved polymers and fillers, this unique approach provides a low cost production method for on demand manufacturing of individualised dosage forms.

  19. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

  20. 3D Printing Factors Important for the Fabrication of Polyvinylalcohol Filament-Based Tablets.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Tatsuaki; Fukushige, Kaori; Ogawa, Emi; Hayashi, Naomi; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers have been applied in many fields, including engineering and the medical sciences. In the pharmaceutical field, approval of the first 3D-printed tablet by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2015 has attracted interest in the manufacture of tablets and drugs by 3D printing techniques as a means of delivering tailor-made drugs in the future. In current study, polyvinylalcohol (PVA)-based tablets were prepared using a fused-deposition-modeling-type 3D printer and the effect of 3D printing conditions on tablet production was investigated. Curcumin, a model drug/fluorescent marker, was loaded into PVA-filament. We found that several printing parameters, such as the rate of extruding PVA (flow rate), can affect the formability of the resulting PVA-tablets. The 3D-printing temperature is controlled by heating the print nozzle and was shown to affect the color of the tablets and their curcumin content. PVA-based infilled tablets with different densities were prepared by changing the fill density as a printing parameter. Tablets with lower fill density floated in an aqueous solution and their curcumin content tended to dissolve faster. These findings will be useful in developing drug-loaded PVA-based 3D objects and other polymer-based articles prepared using fused-deposition-modeling-type 3D printers.

  1. Biomimetic 3D tissue printing for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pati, Falguni; Ha, Dong-Heon; Jang, Jinah; Han, Hyun Ho; Rhie, Jong-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Engineered adipose tissue constructs that are capable of reconstructing soft tissue with adequate volume would be worthwhile in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Tissue printing offers the possibility of fabricating anatomically relevant tissue constructs by delivering suitable matrix materials and living cells. Here, we devise a biomimetic approach for printing adipose tissue constructs employing decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) matrix bioink encapsulating human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). We designed and printed precisely-defined and flexible dome-shaped structures with engineered porosity using DAT bioink that facilitated high cell viability over 2 weeks and induced expression of standard adipogenic genes without any supplemented adipogenic factors. The printed DAT constructs expressed adipogenic genes more intensely than did non-printed DAT gel. To evaluate the efficacy of our printed tissue constructs for adipose tissue regeneration, we implanted them subcutaneously in mice. The constructs did not induce chronic inflammation or cytotoxicity postimplantation, but supported positive tissue infiltration, constructive tissue remodeling, and adipose tissue formation. This study demonstrates that direct printing of spatially on-demand customized tissue analogs is a promising approach to soft tissue regeneration.

  2. 3D Printed Models of Cleft Palate Pathology for Surgical Education

    PubMed Central

    Lioufas, Peter A.; Quayle, Michelle R.; Leong, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential viability and limitations of 3D printed models of children with cleft palate deformity. Background: The advantages of 3D printed replicas of normal anatomical specimens have previously been described. The creation of 3D prints displaying patient-specific anatomical pathology for surgical planning and interventions is an emerging field. Here we explored the possibility of taking rare pediatric radiographic data sets to create 3D prints for surgical education. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging data of 2 children (8 and 14 months) were segmented, colored, and anonymized, and stereolothographic files were prepared for 3D printing on either multicolor plastic or powder 3D printers and multimaterial 3D printers. Results: Two models were deemed of sufficient quality and anatomical accuracy to print unamended. One data set was further manipulated digitally to artificially extend the length of the cleft. Thus, 3 models were printed: 1 incomplete soft-palate deformity, 1 incomplete anterior palate deformity, and 1 complete cleft palate. All had cleft lip deformity. The single-material 3D prints are of sufficient quality to accurately identify the nature and extent of the deformities. Multimaterial prints were subsequently created, which could be valuable in surgical training. Conclusion: Improvements in the quality and resolution of radiographic imaging combined with the advent of multicolor multiproperty printer technology will make it feasible in the near future to print 3D replicas in materials that mimic the mechanical properties and color of live human tissue making them potentially suitable for surgical training. PMID:27757345

  3. 3D Printing Meets Computational Astrophysics: Deciphering the Structure of Eta Carinae’s Colliding Winds Using 3D Prints of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Gull, Theodore R.; Clementel, Nicola; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Kruip, Chael; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Teodoro, Mairan

    2015-01-01

    We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (>120 MSun), highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9) binary Eta Carinae. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of Eta Carinae's inner (r ~110 AU) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. These 3D prints reveal important, previously unknown 'finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ~1.045) that protrude radially outward from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively-cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the hot, adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unknown physical features highlight the important role 3D printing can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.

  4. Manufacturing and Security Challenges in 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltmann, Steven Eric; Gupta, Nikhil; Tsoutsos, Nektarios Georgios; Maniatakos, Michail; Rajendran, Jeyavijayan; Karri, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    As the manufacturing time, quality, and cost associated with additive manufacturing (AM) continue to improve, more and more businesses and consumers are adopting this technology. Some of the key benefits of AM include customizing products, localizing production and reducing logistics. Due to these and numerous other benefits, AM is enabling a globally distributed manufacturing process and supply chain spanning multiple parties, and hence raises concerns about the reliability of the manufactured product. In this work, we first present a brief overview of the potential risks that exist in the cyber-physical environment of additive manufacturing. We then evaluate the risks posed by two different classes of modifications to the AM process which are representative of the challenges that are unique to AM. The risks posed are examined through mechanical testing of objects with altered printing orientation and fine internal defects. Finite element analysis and ultrasonic inspection are also used to demonstrate the potential for decreased performance and for evading detection. The results highlight several scenarios, intentional or unintentional, that can affect the product quality and pose security challenges for the additive manufacturing supply chain.

  5. 3D Printing for Spacecraft Multi-Functional Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddy, P. A.; Huang, C. Y.; Lyke, J.; Baur, J.; Durstock, M.; MacDonald, E.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional printing, more formally Additive Manufacturing (AM), is being explored by groups worldwide for use in space missions, but we recognize the amazing potential of this emerging technology to produce space weather environmental sensors at costs commensurate with declining research budgets. We present here a plan to go substantially beyond the novelty stage of this technology by developing a foundation for using AM in high-assurance space system missions. Our two-pronged approach involves (1) a disciplined investigation of material properties and reliability (electrical, mechanical, radiation) of AM and (2) the extension of this knowledge to make complex structures that can exploit the advantages of AM. We address the design, manufacture, and optimization of multifunctional space structures using multi-physics design methods, integrated computational models, and AM. Integrated multifunctional structures have significant advantage in flexibility, size, weight, and power in comparison to formally attached elements, but their design and fabrication can be complex. The complexity and range in element shape, processing method, material properties and vehicle integration make this an ideal problem to advance the current state of the art methods for multiphysics mechanism design and strengthening AM processing science.

  6. Pyro-EHD ink-jet printing for direct functionalization of 3D lab-on-chip devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, S.; Vespini, V.; Bianco, V.; Mecozzi, L.; Olivieri, F.; Todino, M.; Paturzo, M.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    A challenging request in the fabrication of microfluidics and biomedical microsystems is a flexible ink-jet printing for breaking the rigidity of classical lithography. A pyroelectric-EHD system is presented. The system has proved challenging spatial resolution down to nanoscale, printing of high ordered patterns, capability of dispensing bio-ink as DNA and protein array for biosensing fabrication, single cells printing and direct printing of nanoparticles. With the method proposed high viscous polymers could be easily printed at high resolution in 2D or in 3D configuration. The pyro-EHD process has been proved for the fabrication of biodegradable microneedles for trasndermal drug delivery and 3D optical waveguides.

  7. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  8. Increased sensitivity of 3D-Well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for infectious disease detection using 3D-printing fabrication technology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Le Van, An; Sugamata, Masami; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay or ELISA -based diagnostics are considered the gold standard in the demonstration of various immunological reaction including in the measurement of antibody response to infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification with application potential in infectious disease outbreaks and individual patients' treatment and clinical care. The rapid prototyping of ELISA-based diagnostics using available 3D printing technologies provides an opportunity for a further exploration of this platform into immunodetection systems. In this study, a '3D-Well' was designed and fabricated using available 3D printing platforms to have an increased surface area of more than 4 times for protein-surface adsorption compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity in designing-product development-feedback cycle offered through 3D printing platforms provided an opportunity for its rapid assessment, in which a chemical etching process was used to make the surface hydrophilic followed by validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA for infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The higher sensitivity of the 3D-Well (3-folds higher) compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for laboratory or field diagnosis of infectious diseases including applications in other disciplines.

  9. Investigation of out of plane compressive strength of 3D printed sandwich composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikshit, V.; Yap, Y. L.; Goh, G. D.; Yang, H.; Lim, J. C.; Qi, X.; Yeong, W. Y.; Wei, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the 3D printing technique was utilized to manufacture the sandwich composites. Composite filament fabrication based 3D printer was used to print the face-sheet, and inkjet 3D printer was used to print the sandwich core structure. This work aims to study the compressive failure of the sandwich structure manufactured by using these two manufacturing techniques. Two different types of core structures were investigated with the same type of face-sheet configuration. The core structures were printed using photopolymer, while the face-sheet was made using nylon/glass. The out-of-plane compressive strength of the 3D printed sandwich composite structure has been examined in accordance with ASTM standards C365/C365-M and presented in this paper.

  10. A dimensional comparison between embedded 3D-printed and silicon microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J.; Punch, J.; Jeffers, N.; Stafford, J.

    2014-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the dimensional characterization of embedded microchannel arrays created using contemporary 3D-printing fabrication techniques. Conventional microchannel arrays, fabricated using deep reactive ion etching techniques (DRIE) and wet-etching (KOH), are used as a benchmark for comparison. Rectangular and trapezoidal cross-sectional shapes were investigated. The channel arrays were 3D-printed in vertical and horizontal directions, to examine the influence of print orientation on channel characteristics. The 3D-printed channels were benchmarked against Silicon channels in terms of the following dimensional characteristics: cross-sectional area (CSA), perimeter, and surface profiles. The 3D-printed microchannel arrays demonstrated variances in CSA of 6.6-20% with the vertical printing approach yielding greater dimensional conformity than the horizontal approach. The measured CSA and perimeter of the vertical channels were smaller than the nominal dimensions, while the horizontal channels were larger in both CSA and perimeter due to additional side-wall roughness present throughout the channel length. This side-wall roughness caused significant shape distortion. Surface profile measurements revealed that the base wall roughness was approximately the resolution of current 3D-printers. A spatial periodicity was found along the channel length which appeared at different frequencies for each channel array. This paper concludes that vertical 3D-printing is superior to the horizontal printing approach, in terms of both dimensional fidelity and shape conformity and can be applied in microfluidic device applications.

  11. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Bieniosek, Matthew F.; Lee, Brian J.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  12. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, Matthew F.; Lee, Brian J.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  13. Investigation of Dynamic Crack Coalescence Using a Gypsum-Like 3D Printing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng; Zhu, Jianbo; Zhao, Yi-Xin; Shen, Luming

    2016-10-01

    Dynamic crack coalescence attracts great attention in rock mechanics. However, specimen preparation in experimental study is a time-consuming and difficult procedure. In this work, a gypsum-like material by powder bed and inkjet 3D printing technique was applied to produce specimens with preset cracks for split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test. From micro X-ray CT test, it was found that the 3D printing technique could successfully prepare specimens that contain preset cracks with width of 0.2 mm. Basic mechanical properties of the 3D printing material, i.e., the elastic modulus, the Poisson's ratio, the density, the compressive strength, the indirect tensile strength, and the fracture toughness, were obtained and reported. Unlike 3D printed specimens using polylactic acid, these gypsum-like specimens can produce failure patterns much closer to those observed in classical rock mechanical tests. Finally, the dynamic crack coalescence of the 3D printed specimens with preset cracks were captured using a high-speed camera during SHPB tests. Failure patterns of these 3D printed specimens are similar to the specimens made by Portland cement concrete. Our results indicate that sample preparation by 3D printing is highly competitive due to its quickness in prototyping, precision and flexibility on the geometry, and high material homogeneity.

  14. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing

    PubMed Central

    Ionita, Ciprian N; Mokin, Maxim; Varble, Nicole; Bednarek, Daniel R; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth V; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology offers a great opportunity towards development of patient-specific vascular anatomic models, for medical device testing and physiological condition evaluation. However, the development process is not yet well established and there are various limitations depending on the printing materials, the technology and the printer resolution. Patient-specific neuro-vascular anatomy was acquired from computed tomography angiography and rotational digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The volumes were imported into a Vitrea 3D workstation (Vital Images Inc.) and the vascular lumen of various vessels and pathologies were segmented using a “marching cubes” algorithm. The results were exported as Stereo Lithographic (STL) files and were further processed by smoothing, trimming, and wall extrusion (to add a custom wall to the model). The models were printed using a Polyjet printer, Eden 260V (Objet-Stratasys). To verify the phantom geometry accuracy, the phantom was reimaged using rotational DSA, and the new data was compared with the initial patient data. The most challenging part of the phantom manufacturing was removal of support material. This aspect could be a serious hurdle in building very tortuous phantoms or small vessels. The accuracy of the printed models was very good: distance analysis showed average differences of 120 μm between the patient and the phantom reconstructed volume dimensions. Most errors were due to residual support material left in the lumen of the phantom. Despite the post-printing challenges experienced during the support cleaning, this technology could be a tremendous benefit to medical research such as in device development and testing. PMID:25300886

  15. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, Ciprian N.; Mokin, Maxim; Varble, Nicole; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology offers a great opportunity towards development of patient-specific vascular anatomic models, for medical device testing and physiological condition evaluation. However, the development process is not yet well established and there are various limitations depending on the printing materials, the technology and the printer resolution. Patient-specific neuro-vascular anatomy was acquired from computed tomography angiography and rotational digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The volumes were imported into a Vitrea 3D workstation (Vital Images Inc.) and the vascular lumen of various vessels and pathologies were segmented using a "marching cubes" algorithm. The results were exported as Stereo Lithographic (STL) files and were further processed by smoothing, trimming, and wall extrusion (to add a custom wall to the model). The models were printed using a Polyjet printer, Eden 260V (Objet-Stratasys). To verify the phantom geometry accuracy, the phantom was reimaged using rotational DSA, and the new data was compared with the initial patient data. The most challenging part of the phantom manufacturing was removal of support material. This aspect could be a serious hurdle in building very tortuous phantoms or small vessels. The accuracy of the printed models was very good: distance analysis showed average differences of 120 μm between the patient and the phantom reconstructed volume dimensions. Most errors were due to residual support material left in the lumen of the phantom. Despite the post-printing challenges experienced during the support cleaning, this technology could be a tremendous benefit to medical research such as in device development and testing.

  16. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Ciprian N; Mokin, Maxim; Varble, Nicole; Bednarek, Daniel R; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth V; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-13

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology offers a great opportunity towards development of patient-specific vascular anatomic models, for medical device testing and physiological condition evaluation. However, the development process is not yet well established and there are various limitations depending on the printing materials, the technology and the printer resolution. Patient-specific neuro-vascular anatomy was acquired from computed tomography angiography and rotational digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The volumes were imported into a Vitrea 3D workstation (Vital Images Inc.) and the vascular lumen of various vessels and pathologies were segmented using a "marching cubes" algorithm. The results were exported as Stereo Lithographic (STL) files and were further processed by smoothing, trimming, and wall extrusion (to add a custom wall to the model). The models were printed using a Polyjet printer, Eden 260V (Objet-Stratasys). To verify the phantom geometry accuracy, the phantom was reimaged using rotational DSA, and the new data was compared with the initial patient data. The most challenging part of the phantom manufacturing was removal of support material. This aspect could be a serious hurdle in building very tortuous phantoms or small vessels. The accuracy of the printed models was very good: distance analysis showed average differences of 120 μm between the patient and the phantom reconstructed volume dimensions. Most errors were due to residual support material left in the lumen of the phantom. Despite the post-printing challenges experienced during the support cleaning, this technology could be a tremendous benefit to medical research such as in device development and testing.

  17. Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-04

    pmlkploba=obmloq=pbofbp= = = Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D ...oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ã= ëéçåëçêÉÇ=oÉéçêí=pÉêáÉë= Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and

  18. Elastic Properties of 3D-Printed Rock Models: Dry and Saturated Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Stewart, R.; Dyaur, N.

    2014-12-01

    Many regions of subsurface interest are, or will be, fractured. In addition, these zones many be subject to varying saturations and stresses. New 3D printing techniques using different materials and structures, provide opportunities to understand porous or fractured materials and fluid effects on their elastic properties. We use a 3D printer (Stratasys Dimension SST 768) to print two rock models: a solid octahedral prism and a porous cube with thousands of penny-shaped cracks. The printing material is ABS thermal plastic with a density of 1.04 g/cm3. After printing, we measure the elastic properties of the models, both dry and 100% saturated with water. Both models exhibit VTI (Vertical Transverse Isotropic) symmetry due to laying (about 0.25 mm thick) of the printing process. The prism has a density of 0.96 g/cm3 before saturation and 1.00 g/cm3 after saturation. Its effective porosity is calculated to be 4 %. We use ultrasonic transducers (500 kHz) to measure both P- and shear-wave velocities, and the raw material has a P-wave velocity of 1.89 km/s and a shear-wave velocity of 0.91 km/s. P-wave velocity in the un-saturated prism increases from 1.81 km/s to 1.84 km/s after saturation in the direction parallel to layering and from 1.73 km/s to 1.81 km/s in the direction perpendicular to layering. The fast shear-wave velocity decreases from 0.88 km/s to 0.87 km/s and the slow shear-wave velocity decreases from 0.82 km/s to 0.81 km/s. The cube, printed with penny-shaped cracks, gives a density of 0.79 g/cm3 and a porosity of 24 %. We measure its P-wave velocity as 1.78 km/s and 1.68 km/s in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the layering, respectively. Its fast shear-wave velocity is 0.88 km/s and slow shear-wave velocity is 0.70 km/s. The penny-shaped cracks have significant influence on the elastic properties of the 3D-printed rock models. To better understand and explain the fluid effects on the elastic properties of the models, we apply the extended

  19. Study of materials and machines for 3D printed large-scale, flexible electronic structures using fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seyeon

    The 3 dimensional printing (3DP), called to additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), is emerged to revolutionize manufacturing and completely transform how products are designed and fabricated. A great deal of research activities have been carried out to apply this new technology to a variety of fields. In spite of many endeavors, much more research is still required to perfect the processes of the 3D printing techniques especially in the area of the large-scale additive manufacturing and flexible printed electronics. The principles of various 3D printing processes are briefly outlined in the Introduction Section. New types of thermoplastic polymer composites aiming to specified functional applications are also introduced in this section. Chapter 2 shows studies about the metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Various metal particles, copper and iron particles, are added into thermoplastics polymer matrices as the reinforcement filler. The thermo-mechanical properties, such as thermal conductivity, hardness, tensile strength, and fracture mechanism, of composites are tested to figure out the effects of metal fillers on 3D printed composite structures for the large-scale printing process. In Chapter 3, carbon/polymer composite filaments are developed by a simple mechanical blending process with an aim of fabricating the flexible 3D printed electronics as a single structure. Various types of carbon particles consisting of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), conductive carbon black (CCB), and graphite are used as the conductive fillers to provide the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with improved electrical conductivity. The mechanical behavior and conduction mechanisms of the developed composite materials are observed in terms of the loading amount of carbon fillers in this section. Finally, the prototype flexible electronics are modeled and manufactured by the FDM process using Carbon/TPU composite filaments and

  20. Comparing Microfluidic Performance of Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing Platforms.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Niall P; Cabot, Joan M; Smejkal, Petr; Guijt, Rosanne M; Paull, Brett; Breadmore, Michael C

    2017-03-24

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a potential revolutionary technology for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. A direct experimental comparison of the three 3D printing technologies dominating microfluidics was conducted using a Y-junction microfluidic device, the design of which was optimized for each printer: fused deposition molding (FDM), Polyjet, and digital light processing stereolithography (DLP-SLA). Printer performance was evaluated in terms of feature size, accuracy, and suitability for mass manufacturing; laminar flow was studied to assess their suitability for microfluidics. FDM was suitable for microfabrication with minimum features of 321 ± 5 μm, and rough surfaces of 10.97 μm. Microfluidic devices >500 μm, rapid mixing (71% ± 12% after 5 mm, 100 μL/min) was observed, indicating a strength in fabricating micromixers. Polyjet fabricated channels with a minimum size of 205 ± 13 μm, and a surface roughness of 0.99 μm. Compared with FDM, mixing decreased (27% ± 10%), but Polyjet printing is more suited for microfluidic applications where flow splitting is not required, such as cell culture or droplet generators. DLP-SLA fabricated a minimum channel size of 154 ± 10 μm, and 94 ± 7 μm for positive structures such as soft lithography templates, with a roughness of 0.35 μm. These results, in addition to low mixing (8% ± 1%), showed suitability for microfabrication, and microfluidic applications requiring precise control of flow. Through further discussion of the capabilities (and limitations) of these printers, we intend to provide guidance toward the selection of the 3D printing technology most suitable for specific microfluidic applications.

  1. Digital micromirror device (DMD)-based 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mott, Eric J; Busso, Mallory; Luo, Xinyi; Dolder, Courtney; Wang, Martha O; Fisher, John P; Dean, David

    2016-04-01

    Our recent investigations into the 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), a linear polyester, using a DMD-based system brought us to a resin that used titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an ultraviolet (UV) filter for controlling cure depth. However, this material hindered the 3D printing process due to undesirable lateral or "dark" curing (i.e., in areas not exposed to light from the DMD chip). Well known from its use in sunscreen, another UV filter, oxybenzone, has previously been used in conjunction with TiO2. In this study we hypothesize that combining these two UV filters will result in a synergistic effect that controls cure depth and avoids dark cure. A resin mixture (i.e., polymer, initiator, UV filters) was identified that worked well. The resin was then further characterized through mechanical testing, cure testing, and cytotoxicity testing to investigate its use as a material for bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Results show that the final resin eliminated dark cure as shown through image analysis. Mechanically the new scaffolds proved to be far weaker than those printed from previous resins, with compressive strengths of 7.8 ± 0.5 MPa vs. 36.5 ± 1.6 MPa, respectively. The new scaffolds showed a 90% reduction in elastic modulus and a 74% increase in max strain. These properties may be useful in tissue engineering applications where resorption is required. Initial cytotoxicity evaluation was negative. As hypothesized, the use of TiO2 and oxybenzone showed synergistic effects in the 3D printing of PPF tissue engineering scaffolds.

  2. 3D-printing of undisturbed soil imaged by X-ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, Matthias; Koestel, John; Schwen, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The unique pore structures in Soils are altered easily by water flow. Each sample has a different morphology and the results of repetitions vary as well. Soil macropores in 3D-printed durable material avoid erosion and have a known morphology. Therefore potential and limitations of reproducing an undisturbed soil sample by 3D-printing was evaluated. We scanned an undisturbed soil column of Ultuna clay soil with a diameter of 7 cm by micro X-ray computer tomography at a resolution of 51 micron. A subsample cube of 2.03 cm length with connected macropores was cut out from this 3D-image and printed in five different materials by a 3D-printing service provider. The materials were ABS, Alumide, High Detail Resin, Polyamide and Prime Grey. The five print-outs of the subsample were tested on their hydraulic conductivity by using the falling head method. The hydrophobicity was tested by an adapted sessile drop method. To determine the morphology of the print-outs and compare it to the real soil also the print-outs were scanned by X-ray. The images were analysed with the open source program ImageJ. The five 3D-image print-outs copied from the subsample of the soil column were compared by means of their macropore network connectivity, porosity, surface volume, tortuosity and skeleton. The comparison of pore morphology between the real soil and the print-outs showed that Polyamide reproduced the soil macropore structure best while Alumide print-out was the least detailed. Only the largest macropore was represented in all five print-outs. Printing residual material or printing aid material remained in and clogged the pores of all print-out materials apart from Prime Grey. Therefore infiltration was blocked in these print-outs and the materials are not suitable even though the 3D-printed pore shapes were well reproduced. All of the investigated materials were insoluble. The sessile drop method showed angles between 53 and 85 degrees. Prime Grey had the fastest flow rate; the

  3. Novel target fabrication using 3D printing developed at University of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Sallee R.; Deininger, Michael; Gillespie, Robb S.; Di Stefano, Carlos A.; MacDonald, Michael J.; Manuel, Mario J-E.; Young, Rachel P.; Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Keiter, Paul A.; Drake, R. Paul

    2016-04-01

    The University of Michigan has been fabricating targets for high-energy-density experiments for the past decade. We utilize the technique of machined acrylic bodies and mating components acting as constraints to build repeatable targets. Combining 3D printing with traditional machining, we are able to take advantage of the very best part of both aspects of manufacturing. Furthermore, we present several recent campaigns to act as showcase and introduction of our techniques and our experience with 3D printing, effecting how we utilize 3D printing in our target builds.

  4. Novel target fabrication using 3D printing developed at University of Michigan

    DOE PAGES

    Klein, Sallee R.; Deininger, Michael; Gillespie, Robb S.; ...

    2016-05-24

    The University of Michigan has been fabricating targets for high-energy-density experiments for the past decade. We utilize the technique of machined acrylic bodies and mating components acting as constraints to build repeatable targets. Combining 3D printing with traditional machining, we are able to take advantage of the very best part of both aspects of manufacturing. Furthermore, we present several recent campaigns to act as showcase and introduction of our techniques and our experience with 3D printing, effecting how we utilize 3D printing in our target builds.

  5. 3D printing meets computational astrophysics: deciphering the structure of η Carinae's inner colliding winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Clementel, N.; Gull, T. R.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Paardekooper, J.-P.

    2015-06-01

    We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (≳120 M⊙), highly eccentric (e ˜ 0.9) binary star system η Carinae. We demonstrate the methodology used to incorporate 3D interactive figures into a PDF (Portable Document Format) journal publication and the benefits of using 3D visualization and 3D printing as tools to analyse data from multidimensional numerical simulations. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (MakerBot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Carinae's inner (r ˜ 110 au) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. The 3D prints and visualizations reveal important, previously unknown `finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ˜ 1.045) that protrude radially outwards from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. thin-shell, Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the fast (3000 km s-1), adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unrecognized physical features highlight the important role 3D printing and interactive graphics can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.

  6. Investigation into the influence of build parameters on failure of 3D printed parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasini, Giacomo

    Additive manufacturing, including fused deposition modeling (FDM), is transforming the built world and engineering education. Deep understanding of parts created through FDM technology has lagged behind its adoption in home, work, and academic environments. Properties of parts created from bulk materials through traditional manufacturing are understood well enough to accurately predict their behavior through analytical models. Unfortunately, Additive Manufacturing (AM) process parameters create anisotropy on a scale that fundamentally affects the part properties. Understanding AM process parameters (implemented by program algorithms called slicers) is necessary to predict part behavior. Investigating algorithms controlling print parameters (slicers) revealed stark differences between the generation of part layers. In this work, tensile testing experiments, including a full factorial design, determined that three key factors, width, thickness, infill density, and their interactions, significantly affect the tensile properties of 3D printed test samples.

  7. 3D printed cardiac phantom for procedural planning of a transcatheter native mitral valve replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Richard L.; O'Hara, Ryan P.; Iyer, Vijay; Hansen, Rose; Meess, Karen M.; Nagesh, S. V. Setlur; Rudin, Stephen; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Springer, Michael; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2016-03-01

    3D printing an anatomically accurate, functional flow loop phantom of a patient's cardiac vasculature was used to assist in the surgical planning of one of the first native transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) procedures. CTA scans were acquired from a patient about to undergo the first minimally-invasive native TMVR procedure at the Gates Vascular Institute in Buffalo, NY. A python scripting library, the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), was used to segment the 3D geometry of the patient's cardiac chambers and mitral valve with severe stenosis, calcific in nature. A stereolithographic (STL) mesh was generated and AutoDesk Meshmixer was used to transform the vascular surface into a functioning closed flow loop. A Stratasys Objet 500 Connex3 multi-material printer was used to fabricate the phantom with distinguishable material features of the vasculature and calcified valve. The interventional team performed a mock procedure on the phantom, embedding valve cages in the model and imaging the phantom with a Toshiba Infinix INFX-8000V 5-axis Carm bi-Plane angiography system. Results: After performing the mock-procedure on the cardiac phantom, the cardiologists optimized their transapical surgical approach. The mitral valve stenosis and calcification were clearly visible. The phantom was used to inform the sizing of the valve to be implanted. Conclusion: With advances in image processing and 3D printing technology, it is possible to create realistic patientspecific phantoms which can act as a guide for the interventional team. Using 3D printed phantoms as a valve sizing method shows potential as a more informative technique than typical CTA reconstruction alone.

  8. Soft 3D-Printed Phantom of the Human Kidney with Collecting System.

    PubMed

    Adams, Fabian; Qiu, Tian; Mark, Andrew; Fritz, Benjamin; Kramer, Lena; Schlager, Daniel; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Fischer, Peer

    2017-04-01

    Organ models are used for planning and simulation of operations, developing new surgical instruments, and training purposes. There is a substantial demand for in vitro organ phantoms, especially in urological surgery. Animal models and existing simulator systems poorly mimic the detailed morphology and the physical properties of human organs. In this paper, we report a novel fabrication process to make a human kidney phantom with realistic anatomical structures and physical properties. The detailed anatomical structure was directly acquired from high resolution CT data sets of human cadaveric kidneys. The soft phantoms were constructed using a novel technique that combines 3D wax printing and polymer molding. Anatomical details and material properties of the phantoms were validated in detail by CT scan, ultrasound, and endoscopy. CT reconstruction, ultrasound examination, and endoscopy showed that the designed phantom mimics a real kidney's detailed anatomy and correctly corresponds to the targeted human cadaver's upper urinary tract. Soft materials with a tensile modulus of 0.8-1.5 MPa as well as biocompatible hydrogels were used to mimic human kidney tissues. We developed a method of constructing 3D organ models from medical imaging data using a 3D wax printing and molding process. This method is cost-effective means for obtaining a reproducible and robust model suitable for surgical simulation and training purposes.

  9. 3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies

    ScienceCinema

    Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine

    2016-07-12

    Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.

  10. 3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine

    2014-09-15

    Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.

  11. High-resolution direct 3D printed PLGA scaffolds: print and shrink.

    PubMed

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2014-12-17

    Direct three-dimensional printing (3DP) produces the final part composed of the powder and binder used in fabrication. An advantage of direct 3DP is control over both the microarchitecture and macroarchitecture. Prints which use porogen incorporated in the powder result in high pore interconnectivity, uniform porosity, and defined pore size after leaching. The main limitations of direct 3DP for synthetic polymers are the use of organic solvents which can dissolve polymers used in most printheads and limited resolution due to unavoidable spreading of the binder droplet after contact with the powder. This study describes a materials processing strategy to eliminate the use of organic solvent during the printing process and to improve 3DP resolution by shrinking with a non-solvent plasticizer. Briefly, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) powder was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation to form polymer microparticles. The printing powder was composed of polymer microparticles dry mixed with sucrose particles. After printing with a water-based liquid binder, the polymer microparticles were fused together to form a network by solvent vapor in an enclosed vessel. The sucrose is removed by leaching and the resulting scaffold is placed in a solution of methanol. The methanol acts as a non-solvent plasticizer and allows for polymer chain rearrangement and efficient packing of polymer chains. The resulting volumetric shrinkage is ∼80% at 90% methanol. A complex shape (honey-comb) was designed, printed, and shrunken to demonstrate isotropic shrinking with the ability to reach a final resolution of ∼400 μm. The effect of type of alcohol (i.e. methanol or ethanol), concentration of alcohol, and temperature on volumetric shrinking was studied. This study presents a novel materials processing strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct 3DP to produce high resolution PLGA scaffolds.

  12. Using 3D printed models for planning and guidance during endovascular intervention: a technical advance

    PubMed Central

    Itagaki, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing applications in medicine have been limited due to high cost and technical difficulty of creating 3D printed objects. It is not known whether patient-specific, hollow, small-caliber vascular models can be manufactured with 3D printing, and used for small vessel endoluminal testing of devices. Manufacture of anatomically accurate, patient-specific, small-caliber arterial models was attempted using data from a patient’s CT scan, free open-source software, and low-cost Internet 3D printing services. Prior to endovascular treatment of a patient with multiple splenic artery aneurysms, a 3D printed model was used preoperatively to test catheter equipment and practice the procedure. A second model was used intraoperatively as a reference. Full-scale plastic models were successfully produced. Testing determined the optimal puncture site for catheter positioning. A guide catheter, base catheter, and microcatheter combination selected during testing was used intraoperatively with success, and the need for repeat angiograms to optimize image orientation was minimized. A difficult and unconventional procedure was successful in treating the aneurysms while preserving splenic function. We conclude that creation of small-caliber vascular models with 3D printing is possible. Free software and low-cost printing services make creation of these models affordable and practical. Models are useful in preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance. PMID:26027767

  13. Controlled Positioning of Cells in Biomaterials—Approaches Towards 3D Tissue Printing

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, Silke; Müller, Ralph; Hofmann, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Current tissue engineering techniques have various drawbacks: they often incorporate uncontrolled and imprecise scaffold geometries, whereas the current conventional cell seeding techniques result mostly in random cell placement rather than uniform cell distribution. For the successful reconstruction of deficient tissue, new material engineering approaches have to be considered to overcome current limitations. An emerging method to produce complex biological products including cells or extracellular matrices in a controlled manner is a process called bioprinting or biofabrication, which effectively uses principles of rapid prototyping combined with cell-loaded biomaterials, typically hydrogels. 3D tissue printing is an approach to manufacture functional tissue layer-by-layer that could be transplanted in vivo after production. This method is especially advantageous for stem cells since a controlled environment can be created to influence cell growth and differentiation. Using printed tissue for biotechnological and pharmacological needs like in vitro drug-testing may lead to a revolution in the pharmaceutical industry since animal models could be partially replaced by biofabricated tissues mimicking human physiology and pathology. This would not only be a major advancement concerning rising ethical issues but would also have a measureable impact on economical aspects in this industry of today, where animal studies are very labor-intensive and therefore costly. In this review, current controlled material and cell positioning techniques are introduced highlighting approaches towards 3D tissue printing. PMID:24956301

  14. A Molecular Perspective of Inter-filament Bonding in Fused Deposition Modeling 3-D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duranty, Edward; Spradlin, Brandon; Dadmun, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Fused deposition 3D printing is an important tool for low-cost and rapid prototyping of objects with complex geometries. 3D printed materials are composed of many filaments deposited on a heated substrate, requiring the bonding of neighboring filaments during the deposition process. Filament deposition often creates voids between filaments, which requires necking between them to create a robust sample. Therefore the amount of interfacial contact and interdiffusion between filaments become important parameters that control the macroscopic physical properties of the printed prototype. Our research focuses on quantifying the interfacial adhesion between ABS filaments and its impact on structural properties. The time evolution of the temperature profile near the heated substrate demonstrates that the deposited filaments are repeatedly heated above the Tg of ABS allowing interpenetration of the polymer chains between adjacent filaments. Results of DMA experiments on samples of different geometries have been correlated to microphotography that monitors the degree of necking between filaments and the thermal history. Results indicate that interfacial contact area between filaments and increased thermal energy are crucial to their mechanical properties.

  15. Controlled Positioning of Cells in Biomaterials-Approaches Towards 3D Tissue Printing.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Silke; Müller, Ralph; Hofmann, Sandra

    2011-08-04

    Current tissue engineering techniques have various drawbacks: they often incorporate uncontrolled and imprecise scaffold geometries, whereas the current conventional cell seeding techniques result mostly in random cell placement rather than uniform cell distribution. For the successful reconstruction of deficient tissue, new material engineering approaches have to be considered to overcome current limitations. An emerging method to produce complex biological products including cells or extracellular matrices in a controlled manner is a process called bioprinting or biofabrication, which effectively uses principles of rapid prototyping combined with cell-loaded biomaterials, typically hydrogels. 3D tissue printing is an approach to manufacture functional tissue layer-by-layer that could be transplanted in vivo after production. This method is especially advantageous for stem cells since a controlled environment can be created to influence cell growth and differentiation. Using printed tissue for biotechnological and pharmacological needs like in vitro drug-testing may lead to a revolution in the pharmaceutical industry since animal models could be partially replaced by biofabricated tissues mimicking human physiology and pathology. This would not only be a major advancement concerning rising ethical issues but would also have a measureable impact on economical aspects in this industry of today, where animal studies are very labor-intensive and therefore costly. In this review, current controlled material and cell positioning techniques are introduced highlighting approaches towards 3D tissue printing.

  16. 3D printing of tablets containing multiple drugs with defined release profiles.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Shaban A; Burley, Jonathan C; Alexander, Morgan R; Yang, Jing; Roberts, Clive J

    2015-10-30

    We have employed three-dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing as a medicine manufacturing technique for the production of multi-active tablets with well-defined and separate controlled release profiles for three different drugs. This 'polypill' made by a 3D additive manufacture technique demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single tablet and that it is viable to formulate and 'dial up' this single tablet for the particular needs of an individual. The tablets used to illustrate this concept incorporate an osmotic pump with the drug captopril and sustained release compartments with the drugs nifedipine and glipizide. This combination of medicines could potentially be used to treat diabetics suffering from hypertension. The room temperature extrusion process used to print the formulations used excipients commonly employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to assess drug-excipient interaction. The printed formulations were evaluated for drug release using USP dissolution testing. We found that the captopril portion showed the intended zero order drug release of an osmotic pump and noted that the nifedipine and glipizide portions showed either first order release or Korsmeyer-Peppas release kinetics dependent upon the active/excipient ratio used.

  17. Investigation Into the Utilization of 3D Printing in Laser Cooling Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlett, Eric; Nelson, Brandon; de Leon, Sam Diaz; Shaw, Jonah

    2016-05-01

    With the advancement of 3D printing new opportunities are abound in many different fields, but with the balance between the precisions of atomic physics experiments and the material properties of current 3D printers the benefit of 3D printing technology needs to be investigated. We report on the progress of two investigations of 3D printing of benefit to atomic physics experiments: laser feedback module and the other being an optical chopper. The first investigation looks into creation of a 3D printed laser diode feedback module. This 3D printed module would allow for the quick realization of an external cavity diode laser that would have an adjustable cavity distance. We will report on the first tests of this system, by looking at Rb spectroscopy and mode-hop free tuning range as well as possibilities of using these lasers for MOT generation. We will also discuss our investigation into a 3D-printed optical chopper that utilizes an Arduino and a computer hard drive motor. By implementing an additional Arduino we create a low cost way to quickly measure laser beam waists.

  18. Investigation Into the Utilization of 3D Printing in Laser Cooling Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlett, Eric

    With the advancement of 3D printing new opportunities are abound in many different fields, but with the balance between the precisions of atomic physics experiments and the material properties of current 3D printers the benefit of 3D printing technology needs to be investigated. We report on the progress of two investigations of 3D printing of benefit to atomic physics experiments: laser feedback module and the other being an optical chopper. The first investigation looks into creation of a 3D printed laser diode feedback module. This 3D printed module would allow for the quick realization of an external cavity diode laser that would have an adjustable cavity distance. We will report on the first tests of this system, by looking at Rb spectroscopy and mode-hop free tuning range as well as possibilities of using these lasers for MOT generation. We will also discuss our investigation into a 3D-printed optical chopper that utilizes an Arduino and a computer hard drive motor. By implementing an additional Arduino we create a low cost way to quickly measure laser beam waists

  19. Design of 3D printed insert for hanging culture of Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin; Zhang, Guoliang

    2014-12-17

    A Caco-2 cell culture on Transwell, an alternative testing to animal or human testing used in evaluating drug intestinal permeability, incorrectly estimated the absorption of actively transported drugs due to the low expression of membrane transporters. Similarly, three-dimensional (3D) cultures of Caco-2 cells, which have been recommended to be more physiological relevant, were not superior to the Transwell culture in either accuracy or convenience in drug permeability testing. Using rapid 3D printing prototyping techniques, this study proposed a hanging culture of Caco-2 cells that performed with high accuracy in predicting drug permeability in humans. As found, hanging cultured Caco-2 cells formed a confluent monolayer and maintained high cell viability on the 3D printed insert. Compared with the normal culture on Transwell, the Caco-2 cells on the 3D printed insert presented ∼30-100% higher brush border enzyme activity and ∼2-7 folds higher activity of P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 during 21 days of incubation. For the eight membrane transporter substrates, the predictive curve of the 3D printing culture exhibited better linearity (R(2) = 0.92) to the human oral adsorption than that of the Transwell culture (R(2) = 0.84), indicating better prediction by the 3D printing culture. In this regard, the 3D printed insert for hanging culture could be potentially developed as a convenient and low-cost tool for testing drug oral absorption.

  20. The Current Role of Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Parisa; Dean, David; Skoracki, Roman; Koolen, Pieter G L; Paul, Marek A; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Lin, Samuel J

    2016-01-21

    Since the advent of three-dimensional (3D) printing in the 1980s, it is now possible to produce physical objects from digital files and create 3D objects by adding one layer at a time following a predetermined pattern. Due to the continued development of inexpensive and easy- to- use 3D printers and bioprinting, this technique has gained more momentum over time, especially in the field of medicine. This paper reviews the current and possible future application of 3D printing technology within the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  1. Water-based polyurethane 3D printed scaffolds with controlled release function for customized cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kun-Che; Tseng, Ching-Shiow; Dai, Lien-Guo; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2016-03-01

    Conventional 3D printing may not readily incorporate bioactive ingredients for controlled release because the process often involves the use of heat, organic solvent, or crosslinkers that reduce the bioactivity of the ingredients. Water-based 3D printing materials with controlled bioactivity for customized cartilage tissue engineering is developed in this study. The printing ink contains the water dispersion of synthetic biodegradable polyurethane (PU) elastic nanoparticles, hyaluronan, and bioactive ingredients TGFβ3 or a small molecule drug Y27632 to replace TGFβ3. Compliant scaffolds are printed from the ink at low temperature. These scaffolds promote the self-aggregation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and, with timely release of the bioactive ingredients, induce the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs and produce matrix for cartilage repair. Moreover, the growth factor-free controlled release design may prevent cartilage hypertrophy. Rabbit knee implantation supports the potential of the novel 3D printing scaffolds in cartilage regeneration. We consider that the 3D printing composite scaffolds with controlled release bioactivity may have potential in customized tissue engineering.

  2. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  3. Alkynes as a versatile platform for construction of chemical molecular complexity and realization of molecular 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, K. I.; Ananikov, V. P.

    2016-03-01

    The current level of scientific and technological development requires the formation of general tools and techniques. One of the most versatile technologies is 3D printing, which allows fast and efficient creation of materials and biological objects of desired shape and composition. Today, methods have been developed for 3D printing of macro- and nano-sized objects and for production of films and deposited materials with molecular precision but the most promising technology is printing at the molecular level (molecular 3D printing) for the purpose of direct construction of molecular complexity. This process is currently at the initial stage concerning selection of simple molecules to be used as building blocks possessing flexibility, availability and ease of modification. In this review, we examine the possible versatile synthons suitable for preparation of the main types of organic compounds using molecular 3D printing. The surveyed data strongly indicate that alkyne molecules may be used as a building material in a molecular 3D printer working on hydrocarbons. The bibliography includes 428 references.

  4. Measuring the Visual Salience of 3D Printed Objects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Lindlbauer, David; Lessig, Christian; Maertens, Marianne; Alexa, Marc

    2016-01-01

    To investigate human viewing behavior on physical realizations of 3D objects, the authors use an eye tracker with scene camera and fiducial markers on 3D objects to gather fixations on the presented stimuli. They use this data to validate assumptions regarding visual saliency that so far have experimentally only been analyzed for flat stimuli. They provide a way to compare fixation sequences from different subjects and developed a model for generating test sequences of fixations unrelated to the stimuli. Their results suggest that human observers agree in their fixations for the same object under similar viewing conditions. They also developed a simple procedure to validate computational models for visual saliency of 3D objects and found that popular models of mesh saliency based on center surround patterns fail to predict fixations.

  5. 3D printing of natural organic materials by photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Joyce Laura; Valandro, Silvano Rodrigo; Wu, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Mettra, Bastien; Monnereau, Cyrille; Schmitt Cavalheiro, Carla Cristina; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Focsan, Monica; Lin, Chih-Lang; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2016-03-01

    In previous works, we have used two-photon induced photochemistry to fabricate 3D microstructures based on proteins, anti-bodies, and enzymes for different types of bio-applications. Among them, we can cite collagen lines to guide the movement of living cells, peptide modified GFP biosensing pads to detect Gram positive bacteria, anti-body pads to determine the type of red blood cells, and trypsin columns in a microfluidic channel to obtain a real time biochemical micro-reactor. In this paper, we report for the first time on two-photon 3D microfabrication of DNA material. We also present our preliminary results on using a commercial 3D printer based on a video projector to polymerize slicing layers of gelatine-objects.

  6. Additive Manufacture (3D Printing) of Plasma Diagnostic Components and Assemblies for Fusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinley, Morgan; Chun, Katherine; Melnik, Paul; Sieck, Paul; Smith, Trevor; Stuber, James; Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; Card, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    We are investigating the potential impact of additive manufacturing (3D printing) on the cost and complexity of plasma diagnostics. We present a survey of the current state-of-the-art in additive manufacture of metals, as well as the design of diagnostic components that have been optimized for and take advantage of these processes. Included among these is a set of retarding field analyzer probe heads that have been printed in tungsten with internal heat sinks and cooling channels. Finite element analysis of these probe heads shows the potential for a 750K reduction in peak temperature, allowing the probe to take data twice as often without melting. Results of the evaluation of these probe heads for mechanical strength and outgassing, as well as their use on Alcator C-Mod will be presented. Supported by DOE SBIR Grant DE-SC0011858.

  7. MRI-Derived 3-D-Printed Breast Phantom for Microwave Breast Imaging Validation

    PubMed Central

    Burfeindt, Matthew J.; Colgan, Timothy J.; Mays, R. Owen; Shea, Jacob D.; Behdad, Nader; Van Veen, Barry D.; Hagness, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a 3-D-printed breast phantom for use in preclinical experimental microwave imaging studies. The phantom is derived from an MRI of a human subject; thus, it is anthropomorphic, and its interior is very similar to an actual distribution of fibroglandular tissues. Adipose tissue in the breast is represented by the solid plastic (printed) regions of the phantom, while fibroglandular tissue is represented by liquid-filled voids in the plastic. The liquid is chosen to provide a biologically relevant dielectric contrast with the printed plastic. Such a phantom enables validation of microwave imaging techniques. We describe the procedure for generating the 3-D-printed breast phantom and present the measured dielectric properties of the 3-D-printed plastic over the frequency range 0.5–3.5 GHz. We also provide an example of a suitable liquid for filling the fibroglandular voids in the plastic. PMID:25132808

  8. MRI-Derived 3-D-Printed Breast Phantom for Microwave Breast Imaging Validation.

    PubMed

    Burfeindt, Matthew J; Colgan, Timothy J; Mays, R Owen; Shea, Jacob D; Behdad, Nader; Van Veen, Barry D; Hagness, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    We propose a 3-D-printed breast phantom for use in preclinical experimental microwave imaging studies. The phantom is derived from an MRI of a human subject; thus, it is anthropomorphic, and its interior is very similar to an actual distribution of fibroglandular tissues. Adipose tissue in the breast is represented by the solid plastic (printed) regions of the phantom, while fibroglandular tissue is represented by liquid-filled voids in the plastic. The liquid is chosen to provide a biologically relevant dielectric contrast with the printed plastic. Such a phantom enables validation of microwave imaging techniques. We describe the procedure for generating the 3-D-printed breast phantom and present the measured dielectric properties of the 3-D-printed plastic over the frequency range 0.5-3.5 GHz. We also provide an example of a suitable liquid for filling the fibroglandular voids in the plastic.

  9. Oxygen ingress study of 3D printed