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Sample records for 3d rapid-prototyping printers

  1. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  2. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-04-21

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus Hp(3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  3. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-04-01

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus Hp(3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  4. Rapid Prototyping across the Spectrum: RF to Optical 3D Electromagnetic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-17

    fabricated using 3D printer . The fill factor decreases radially outwards and the voids are visible in the unit cells as you approach the periphery of the...with thin walls) [29]. Figure 6: Examples of lenses fabricated with AM (a) GRIN lens fabricated using 3D printer . The fill factor decreases...AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2015-002 Rapid Prototyping across the Spectrum: RF to Optical 3D Electromagnetic Structures Jeffery W. Allen Monica S. Allen Brett

  5. Automated Rapid Prototyping of 3D Ceramic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Scott G.; Griffin, Eugene A.; Griffin, Curtis W.; Coles, Peter W. H.; Engle, James D.

    2005-01-01

    An automated system of manufacturing equipment produces three-dimensional (3D) ceramic parts specified by computational models of the parts. The system implements an advanced, automated version of a generic rapid-prototyping process in which the fabrication of an object having a possibly complex 3D shape includes stacking of thin sheets, the outlines of which closely approximate the horizontal cross sections of the object at their respective heights. In this process, the thin sheets are made of a ceramic precursor material, and the stack is subsequently heated to transform it into a unitary ceramic object. In addition to the computer used to generate the computational model of the part to be fabricated, the equipment used in this process includes: 1) A commercially available laminated-object-manufacturing machine that was originally designed for building woodlike 3D objects from paper and was modified to accept sheets of ceramic precursor material, and 2) A machine designed specifically to feed single sheets of ceramic precursor material to the laminated-object-manufacturing machine. Like other rapid-prototyping processes that utilize stacking of thin sheets, this process begins with generation of the computational model of the part to be fabricated, followed by computational sectioning of the part into layers of predetermined thickness that collectively define the shape of the part. Information about each layer is transmitted to rapid-prototyping equipment, where the part is built layer by layer. What distinguishes this process from other rapid-prototyping processes that utilize stacking of thin sheets are the details of the machines and the actions that they perform. In this process, flexible sheets of ceramic precursor material (called "green" ceramic sheets) suitable for lamination are produced by tape casting. The binder used in the tape casting is specially formulated to enable lamination of layers with little or no applied heat or pressure. The tape is cut

  6. Design Principles for Rapid Prototyping Forces Sensors using 3D Printing

    PubMed Central

    Kesner, Samuel B.; Howe, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Force sensors provide critical information for robot manipulators, manufacturing processes, and haptic interfaces. Commercial force sensors, however, are generally not adapted to specific system requirements, resulting in sensors with excess size, cost, and fragility. To overcome these issues, 3D printers can be used to create components for the quick and inexpensive development of force sensors. Limitations of this rapid prototyping technology, however, require specialized design principles. In this paper, we discuss techniques for rapidly developing simple force sensors, including selecting and attaching metal flexures, using inexpensive and simple displacement transducers, and 3D printing features to aid in assembly. These design methods are illustrated through the design and fabrication of a miniature force sensor for the tip of a robotic catheter system. The resulting force sensor prototype can measure forces with an accuracy of as low as 2% of the 10 N measurement range. PMID:21874102

  7. Design Principles for Rapid Prototyping Forces Sensors using 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Samuel B; Howe, Robert D

    2011-07-21

    Force sensors provide critical information for robot manipulators, manufacturing processes, and haptic interfaces. Commercial force sensors, however, are generally not adapted to specific system requirements, resulting in sensors with excess size, cost, and fragility. To overcome these issues, 3D printers can be used to create components for the quick and inexpensive development of force sensors. Limitations of this rapid prototyping technology, however, require specialized design principles. In this paper, we discuss techniques for rapidly developing simple force sensors, including selecting and attaching metal flexures, using inexpensive and simple displacement transducers, and 3D printing features to aid in assembly. These design methods are illustrated through the design and fabrication of a miniature force sensor for the tip of a robotic catheter system. The resulting force sensor prototype can measure forces with an accuracy of as low as 2% of the 10 N measurement range.

  8. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  9. Nano-Composite Material Development for 3-D Printers

    SciTech Connect

    Satches, Michael Randolph

    2015-12-01

    Graphene possesses excellent mechanical properties with a tensile strength that may exceed 130 GPa, excellent electrical conductivity, and good thermal properties. Future nano-composites can leverage many of these material properties in an attempt to build designer materials for a broad range of applications. 3-D printing has also seen vast improvements in recent years that have allowed many companies and individuals to realize rapid prototyping for relatively low capital investment. This research sought to create a graphene reinforced, polymer matrix nano-composite that is viable in commercial 3D printer technology, study the effects of ultra-high loading percentages of graphene in polymer matrices and determine the functional upper limit for loading. Loadings varied from 5 wt. % to 50 wt. % graphene nanopowder loaded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrices. Loaded sample were characterized for their mechanical properties using three point bending, tensile tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis.

  10. Photogrammetry for rapid prototyping: development of noncontact 3D reconstruction technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.

    2002-04-01

    An important stage of rapid prototyping technology is generating computer 3D model of an object to be reproduced. Wide variety of techniques for 3D model generation exists beginning with manual 3D models generation and finishing with full-automated reverse engineering system. The progress in CCD sensors and computers provides the background for integration of photogrammetry as an accurate 3D data source with CAD/CAM. The paper presents the results of developing photogrammetric methods for non-contact spatial coordinates measurements and generation of computer 3D model of real objects. The technology is based on object convergent images processing for calculating its 3D coordinates and surface reconstruction. The hardware used for spatial coordinates measurements is based on PC as central processing unit and video camera as image acquisition device. The original software for Windows 9X realizes the complete technology of 3D reconstruction for rapid input of geometry data in CAD/CAM systems. Technical characteristics of developed systems are given along with the results of applying for various tasks of 3D reconstruction. The paper describes the techniques used for non-contact measurements and the methods providing metric characteristics of reconstructed 3D model. Also the results of system application for 3D reconstruction of complex industrial objects are presented.

  11. Plan to procedure: combining 3D templating with rapid prototyping to enhance pedicle screw placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Stans, Anthony A.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Matsumoto, Jane M.; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2010-02-01

    Spinal fusion procedures involving the implantation of pedicle screws have steadily increased over the past decade because of demonstrated improvement in biomechanical stability of the spine. However, current methods of spinal fusion carries a risk of serious vascular, visceral, and neurological injury caused by inaccurate placement or inappropriately sized instrumentation, which may lead to patient paralysis or even fatality. 3D spine templating software developed by the Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic allows the surgeon to virtually place pedicle screws using pre-operative 3D CT image data. With the template plan incorporated, a patient-specific 3D anatomic model is produced using a commercial rapid prototyping system. The pre-surgical plan and the patient-specific model then are used in the procedure room to provide real-time visualization and quantitative guidance for accurate placement of each pedicle screw, significantly reducing risk of injury. A pilot study was conducted at Mayo Clinic by the Department of Radiology, the Department of Orthopedics, and the BIR, involving seven complicated pediatric spine cases. In each case, pre-operative 3D templating was carried out and patient specific models were generated. The plans and the models were used intra-operatively, providing precise pedicle screw starting points and trajectories. Postoperative assessment by the surgeon confirmed all seven operations were successful. Results from the study suggest that patient-specific, 3D anatomic models successfully acquired from 3D templating tools are valuable for planning and conducting pedicle screw insertion procedures.

  12. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  13. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  14. A novel 3D template for mandible and maxilla reconstruction: Rapid prototyping using stereolithography

    PubMed Central

    Kumta, Samir; Kumta, Monica; Jain, Leena; Purohit, Shrirang; Ummul, Rani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Replication of the exact three-dimensional (3D) structure of the maxilla and mandible is now a priority whilst attempting reconstruction of these bones to attain a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. We hereby present the process of rapid prototyping using stereolithography to produce templates for modelling bone grafts and implants for maxilla/mandible reconstructions, its applications in tumour/trauma, and outcomes for primary and secondary reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Stereolithographic template-assisted reconstruction was used on 11 patients for the reconstruction of the mandible/maxilla primarily following tumour excision and secondarily for the realignment of post-traumatic malunited fractures or deformity corrections. Data obtained from the computed tomography (CT) scans with 1-mm resolution were converted into a computer-aided design (CAD) using the CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data. Once a CAD model was constructed, it was converted into a stereolithographic format and then processed by the rapid prototyping technology to produce the physical anatomical model using a resin. This resin model replicates the native mandible, which can be thus used off table as a guide for modelling the bone grafts. Discussion: This conversion of two-dimensional (2D) data from CT scan into 3D models is a very precise guide to shaping the bone grafts. Further, this CAD can reconstruct the defective half of the mandible using the mirror image principle, and the normal anatomical model can be created to aid secondary reconstructions. Conclusion: This novel approach allows a precise translation of the treatment plan directly to the surgical field. It is also an important teaching tool for implant moulding and fixation, and helps in patient counselling. PMID:26933279

  15. Novel grinding stone used for polishing 3D plastic replica with rapid prototyping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wang; Niikura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Toshio; Kawashima, Norimichi

    2006-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) apparatus accepts a specific format translated from CAD data (patient's CT) and "slices" it into two-dimensional cross sections for laser photo curing. Surgeon can conduct safer surgery by reappearing on an actual model using 3D plastic replica in the preoperative. Polishing has to be used to eliminate the marks after removal of supports and the build layer pitches. Complicated and narrow areas of the 3D replica are difficult to be polished with the conventional grinding stone. This study proposes a novel grinding stone and introduces its producing process and characteristics. The novel grinding stone has many advantages as follows; (1) Preparation is possible of grinding stone that follows the complicated shape. (2) Grinding stone with uniformly dispersed abrasive grains can be prepared using magnetic particles and magnetic field. (3) Reshaping of grinding stone by heating is possible since the binder is made of a thermoplastic resin. (4) Every process can easily be carried out. We could polish to eliminate the marks after removal of supports and the build layer pitches on 3D plastic replica surface with the grinding stone.

  16. 3-D Printers Spread from Engineering Departments to Designs across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The ability to print a 3-D object may sound like science fiction, but it has been around in some form since the 1980s. Also called rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, the idea is to take a design from a computer file and forge it into an object, often in flat cross-sections that can be assembled into a larger whole. While the printer on…

  17. Technical note: rapid prototyping of 3D grid arrays for image guided therapy quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Kittle, David; Holshouser, Barbara; Slater, James M; Guenther, Bob D; Pitsianis, Nikos P; Pearlstein, Robert D

    2008-12-01

    Three dimensional grid phantoms offer a number of advantages for measuring imaging related spatial inaccuracies for image guided surgery and radiotherapy. The authors examined the use of rapid prototyping technology for directly fabricating 3D grid phantoms from CAD drawings. We tested three different fabrication process materials, photopolymer jet with acrylic resin (PJ/AR), selective laser sintering with polyamide (SLS/P), and fused deposition modeling with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (FDM/ABS). The test objects consisted of rectangular arrays of control points formed by the intersections of posts and struts (2 mm rectangular cross section) and spaced 8 mm apart in the x, y, and z directions. The PJ/AR phantom expanded after immersion in water which resulted in permanent warping of the structure. The surface of the FDM/ABS grid exhibited a regular pattern of depressions and ridges from the extrusion process. SLS/P showed the best combination of build accuracy, surface finish, and stability. Based on these findings, a grid phantom for assessing machine-dependent and frame-induced MR spatial distortions was fabricated to be used for quality assurance in stereotactic neurosurgical and radiotherapy procedures. The spatial uniformity of the SLS/P grid control point array was determined by CT imaging (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.625 mm3 resolution) and found suitable for the application, with over 97.5% of the control points located within 0.3 mm of the position specified in CAD drawing and none of the points off by more than 0.4 mm. Rapid prototyping is a flexible and cost effective alternative for development of customized grid phantoms for medical physics quality assurance.

  18. Technical Note: Rapid prototyping of 3D grid arrays for image guided therapy quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Kittle, David; Holshouser, Barbara; Slater, James M.; Guenther, Bob D.; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Pearlstein, Robert D.

    2008-12-15

    Three dimensional grid phantoms offer a number of advantages for measuring imaging related spatial inaccuracies for image guided surgery and radiotherapy. The authors examined the use of rapid prototyping technology for directly fabricating 3D grid phantoms from CAD drawings. We tested three different fabrication process materials, photopolymer jet with acrylic resin (PJ/AR), selective laser sintering with polyamide (SLS/P), and fused deposition modeling with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (FDM/ABS). The test objects consisted of rectangular arrays of control points formed by the intersections of posts and struts (2 mm rectangular cross section) and spaced 8 mm apart in the x, y, and z directions. The PJ/AR phantom expanded after immersion in water which resulted in permanent warping of the structure. The surface of the FDM/ABS grid exhibited a regular pattern of depressions and ridges from the extrusion process. SLS/P showed the best combination of build accuracy, surface finish, and stability. Based on these findings, a grid phantom for assessing machine-dependent and frame-induced MR spatial distortions was fabricated to be used for quality assurance in stereotactic neurosurgical and radiotherapy procedures. The spatial uniformity of the SLS/P grid control point array was determined by CT imaging (0.6x0.6x0.625 mm{sup 3} resolution) and found suitable for the application, with over 97.5% of the control points located within 0.3 mm of the position specified in CAD drawing and none of the points off by more than 0.4 mm. Rapid prototyping is a flexible and cost effective alternative for development of customized grid phantoms for medical physics quality assurance.

  19. 3D holographic printer: fast printing approach.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Alexander V; Putilin, Andrey N; Kopenkin, Sergey S; Borodin, Yuriy P; Druzhin, Vladislav V; Dubynin, Sergey E; Dubinin, German B

    2014-02-10

    This article describes the general operation principles of devices for synthesized holographic images such as holographic printers. Special emphasis is placed on the printing speed. In addition, various methods to increase the printing process are described and compared.

  20. Characterization of 3D rapid prototyped polymeric material by ultrasonic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livings, Richard; Dayal, Vinay; Barnard, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Rapid prototyped parts are quickly becoming a viable alternative for manufacturers. Although the polymeric material is initially isotropic, the printing process introduces a level of anisotropy. This work characterizes the elastic and acoustic properties of the material, after printing, using ultrasonic methods. The elastic constants and the level of anisotropy are determined by measuring the ultrasonic wave velocities. It is shown that the material possesses less symmetry than the orthotropic material model. The dispersion and attenuation characteristics are also determined to provide a basis for ultrasonic flaw detection.

  1. Custom 3D Printers Revolutionize Space Supply Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, start-up company Made In Space, located on the center's campus, developed a high-precision 3D printer capable of manufacturing items in microgravity. The company will soon have a printer installed on the International Space Station, altering the space supply chain. It will print supplies and tools for NASA, as well as nanosatellite shells and other items for public and private entities.

  2. Analysis of 3D-printed metal for rapid-prototyped reflective terahertz optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headland, Daniel; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Webb, Michael; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Luiten, Andre; Abbott, Derek

    2016-07-01

    We explore the potential of 3D metal printing to realize complex conductive terahertz devices. Factors impacting performance such as printing resolution, surface roughness, oxidation, and material loss are investigated via analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The high degree of control offered by a 3D-printed topology is exploited to realize a zone plate operating at 530 GHz. Reflection efficiency at this frequency is found to be over 90%. The high-performance of this preliminary device suggest that 3D metal printing can play a strong role in guided-wave and general beam control devices in the terahertz range.

  3. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold. PMID:26380018

  4. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold.

  5. Feasibility of Bioprinting with a Modified Desktop 3D Printer.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Todd A; Epstein, Casey J; Schwartz, John; Krush, Alex; Lagalante, Dan J; Mercadante, Kevin P; Zeltsman, David; Smith, Lee P; Grande, Daniel A

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown the capabilities of three-dimensional (3D) printing for use in the medical industry. At the time of this publication, basic home desktop 3D printer kits can cost as little as $300, whereas medical-specific 3D bioprinters can cost more than $300,000. The purpose of this study is to show how a commercially available desktop 3D printer could be modified to bioprint an engineered poly-l-lactic acid scaffold containing viable chondrocytes in a bioink. Our bioprinter was used to create a living 3D functional tissue-engineered cartilage scaffold. In this article, we detail the design, production, and calibration of this bioprinter. In addition, the bioprinted cells were tested for viability, proliferation, biochemistry, and gene expression; these tests showed that the cells survived the printing process, were able to continue dividing, and produce the extracellular matrix expected of chondrocytes.

  6. Rapid prototyping of 3D DNA-origami shapes with caDNAno

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Shawn M.; Marblestone, Adam H.; Teerapittayanon, Surat; Vazquez, Alejandro; Church, George M.; Shih, William M.

    2009-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology exploits the programmable specificity afforded by base-pairing to produce self-assembling macromolecular objects of custom shape. For building megadalton-scale DNA nanostructures, a long ‘scaffold’ strand can be employed to template the assembly of hundreds of oligonucleotide ‘staple’ strands into a planar antiparallel array of cross-linked helices. We recently adapted this ‘scaffolded DNA origami’ method to producing 3D shapes formed as pleated layers of double helices constrained to a honeycomb lattice. However, completing the required design steps can be cumbersome and time-consuming. Here we present caDNAno, an open-source software package with a graphical user interface that aids in the design of DNA sequences for folding 3D honeycomb-pleated shapes A series of rectangular-block motifs were designed, assembled, and analyzed to identify a well-behaved motif that could serve as a building block for future studies. The use of caDNAno significantly reduces the effort required to design 3D DNA-origami structures. The software is available at http://cadnano.org/, along with example designs and video tutorials demonstrating their construction. The source code is released under the MIT license. PMID:19531737

  7. Nano-Composite Material Development for 3-D Printers

    SciTech Connect

    Satches, Michael Randolph

    2015-10-14

    The objectives of the project was to create a graphene reinforced polymer nano-composite viable in a commercial 3-D printer; study the effects of ultra-high loading of graphene in polymer matrices; and determine the functional upper limit of graphene loading.

  8. Rapid prototyping 3D virtual world interfaces within a virtual factory environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    On-going work into user requirements analysis using CLIPS (NASA/JSC) expert systems as an intelligent event simulator has led to research into three-dimensional (3D) interfaces. Previous work involved CLIPS and two-dimensional (2D) models. Integral to this work was the development of the University of Massachusetts Lowell parallel version of CLIPS, called PCLIPS. This allowed us to create both a Software Bus and a group problem-solving environment for expert systems development. By shifting the PCLIPS paradigm to use the VEOS messaging protocol we have merged VEOS (HlTL/Seattle) and CLIPS into a distributed virtual worlds prototyping environment (VCLIPS). VCLIPS uses the VEOS protocol layer to allow multiple experts to cooperate on a single problem. We have begun to look at the control of a virtual factory. In the virtual factory there are actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. In this artificial reality architecture there are three VCLIPS entities in action. One entity is responsible for display and user events in the 3D virtual world. Another is responsible for either simulating the virtual factory or communicating with the real factory. The third is a user interface expert. The interface expert maps user input levels, within the current prototype, to control information for the factory. The interface to the virtual factory is based on a camera paradigm. The graphics subsystem generates camera views of the factory on standard X-Window displays. The camera allows for view control and object control. Control or the factory is accomplished by the user reaching into the camera views to perform object interactions. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS.

  9. Evaluation of 3D Printer Accuracy in Producing Fractal Structure.

    PubMed

    Kikegawa, Kana; Takamatsu, Kyuuichirou; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical structures, also known as fractal structures, exhibit advantageous material properties, such as water- and oil-repellency as well as other useful optical characteristics, owing to its self-similarity. Various methods have been developed for producing hierarchical geometrical structures. Recently, fractal structures have been manufactured using a 3D printing technique that involves computer-aided design data. In this study, we confirmed the accuracy of geometrical structures when Koch curve-like fractal structures with zero to three generations were printed using a 3D printer. The fractal dimension was analyzed using a box-counting method. This analysis indicated that the fractal dimension of the third generation hierarchical structure was approximately the same as that of the ideal Koch curve. These findings demonstrate that the design and production of fractal structures can be controlled using a 3D printer. Although the interior angle deviated from the ideal value, the side length could be precisely controlled.

  10. 3D jet printer of edible gels for food creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serizawa, Ryo; Shitara, Mariko; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, aging is progressing in Japan. Elderly people can't swallow the food well. So, the need of soft food is increasing greatly with the aging of the population. There are so few satisfying foods for the elderly to enjoy a meal. An equipment of printing soft food gives the elderly a big dream and is promising. In this study, we aim at developing a 3D edible gel printer in order to make soft food for the elderly. We made a prototype of the 3D edible gel printer. The printer consists of syringe pump and dispenser. The syringe pump extrudes the solution. The dispenser allows to model threedimensional objects. We use agar solution as the ink to carry out the printing. Agar's gelation deeply depends on temperature. Therefore temperature control of the solution is important to mold optimal shapes because the physical crosslinking network of agar's solution is instable. We succeeded in making the gels and plate-shape gel using the 3D edible gel printer. Further more, in order to increase the gelation speed agar's solution, we changed the dispenser and the printing test is being done now. 4 kinds of soft food prepared from agar and gelatin were printed by the 3D edible gel printer. The compression tests of the printed soft food samples were done and their hardness is measured because the hardness is one of very important factors which influence the food texture greatly. In the future, the viscosity of the agar solution or other food ink should be adjusted to suitable for printing.

  11. Inspection, 3D modelling, and rapid prototyping of cultural heritage by means of a 3D optical digitiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docchio, F.; Sansoni, G.; Trebeschi, M.

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents the activity carried out to perform the three-dimensional acquisition of the "Vittoria Alata", a 2m-high, bronze statue, symbol of our City, located at the Civici Musei di Arte e Storia (S. Giulia) of Brescia. The acquisition of the statue has been performed by using a three-dimensional vision system based on active triangulation and on the projection of non-coherent light. This system, called OPL-3D, represents one of the research products of our Laboratory, which has been active for years in the development of techniques and systems for the contactless acquisition of free-form, complex shapes. The study, originally motivated by the need to explore a new hypothesis on the origin of the "Vittoria Alata", led to its complete digitization and description in terms of both polygonal and NURBS-based models. A suite of copies of the whole statue has been obtained in the framework of the collaboration between the City Museum and the EOS Electro Optical Systems GmbH, located in Munich, Germany. As a first step, one 30 cm-high replica of the whole statue has been produced using a low-resolution triangle model of the statue (3.5 millions of triangles). As a second step, two 1:1 scale copies of the statue have been produced. For them, the Laboratory has provided the high resolution STL file (16 millions of triangles). The paper discusses in detail the hardware and the software facilities used to implement the whole process, and gives a comprehensive description of the results.

  12. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for

  13. GEM printer: 3D gel printer for free shaping of functional gel engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Muroi, Hisato; Yamamoto, Kouki; Serizawa, Ryo; Gong, Jin

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. The gels have both low surface friction and well permeability due to a large amount of water absorbed in the gels, which are superiority of the gels compering to the polyester fibers. It is, however, difficult for gels to be forked structure or cavity structure by using cutting or mold. Consequently, it is necessary to develop the additive manufacturing device to synthesize and mode freely gels at the same time. Here we try to develop an optical 3D gel printer that enables gels to be shaped precisely and freely. For the free forming of high-strength gels, the 1st gels are ground to particles and mixed with 2nd pregel solution, and the mixed solution is gelled by the irradiation of UV laser beam through an optical fiber. The use of the optical fiber makes one-point UV irradiation possible. Since the optical fiber is controlled by 3D-CAD, the precise and free molding in XYZ directions is easily realized. We successfully synthesized tough gels using the gel printer.

  14. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  15. Reverse engineering techniques applied to a human skull, for CAD 3D reconstruction and physical replication by rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Galantucci, L M; Percoco, G; Angelelli, G; Lopez, C; Introna, F; Liuzzi, C; De Donno, A

    2006-01-01

    The production of a copy of an existing object of complex shape is one of the typical applications of the integration between two modern computer-based technologies, reverse engineering (RE) and rapid prototyping (RP). The method is extremely versatile and can be used in various applicative domains (e.g. replacement of anatomical parts with artificial prostheses, replication of skeletal remains). Two different acquisition techniques of images of a skull, by laser and by CT scan, were compared to ascertain which enabled more accurate reproduction of the original specimen. The skull was chosen due to it being the body part most often used in medico-legal investigations (for personal identification, skull-photo superimposition techniques, forensic art, etc). Comparison between the copy and the original yielded satisfactory results for both techniques. However, CT scanning demonstrated some advantages over the laser technique, as it provided a cleaner point cloud, enabling shorter pre-reproduction processing times, as well as data on the internal parts, which resulted in the reproduction of a more faithful copy.

  16. Rapid prototyping of concave microwells for the formation of 3D multicellular cancer aggregates for drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Ting-Yuan; Wang, Zhe; Bai, Jing; Sun, Wei; Peng, Weng Kung; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Kamm, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Microwell technology has revolutionized many aspects of in vitro cellular studies from 2-dimensional (2D) traditional cultures to 3-dimensional (3D) in vivo-like functional assays. However, existing lithography-based approaches are often costly and time-consuming. This study presents a rapid, low-cost prototyping method of CO2 laser ablation of a conventional untreated culture dish to create concave microwells used for generating multicellular aggregates, which can be readily available for general laboratories. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and polystyrene (PS) microwells were investigated, and each produced distinctive microwell features. Among these three materials, PS cell culture dishes produced the optimal surface smoothness and roundness. A549 lung cancer cells were grown to form cancer aggregates of controllable size from ~40 to ~80 μm in PS microwells. Functional assays of spheroids were performed to study migration on 2D substrates and in 3D hydrogel conditions as a step towards recapitulating the dissemination of cancer cells. Preclinical anti-cancer drug screening was investigated and revealed considerable differences between 2D and 3D conditions, indicating the importance of assay type as well as the utility of the present approach. PMID:23983140

  17. Invited review--Applications for 3D printers in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Hespel, Adrien-Maxence; Wilhite, Ray; Hudson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in human medicine, and decreasing cost is making it more affordable for veterinary use. Rapid prototyping is at its early stage in veterinary medicine but clinical, educational, and experimental possibilities exist. Techniques and applications, both current and future, are explored and illustrated in this article.

  18. 3D Printers Can Provide an Added Dimension for Teaching Structure-Energy Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blauch, David N.; Carroll, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D printer is used to prepare a variety of models representing potential energy as a function of two geometric coordinates. These models facilitate the teaching of structure-energy relationships in molecular conformations and in chemical reactions.

  19. 3D Rapid Prototyping for Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery: Applications in Image-Guidance, Surgical Simulation and Patient-Specific Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Harley H. L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Vescan, Allan; Daly, Michael J.; Prisman, Eitan; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of advanced fabrication technology across a broad spectrum of head and neck surgical procedures, including applications in endoscopic sinus surgery, skull base surgery, and maxillofacial reconstruction. The initial case studies demonstrated three applications of rapid prototyping technology are in head and neck surgery: i) a mono-material paranasal sinus phantom for endoscopy training ii) a multi-material skull base simulator and iii) 3D patient-specific mandible templates. Digital processing of these phantoms is based on real patient or cadaveric 3D images such as CT or MRI data. Three endoscopic sinus surgeons examined the realism of the endoscopist training phantom. One experienced endoscopic skull base surgeon conducted advanced sinus procedures on the high-fidelity multi-material skull base simulator. Ten patients participated in a prospective clinical study examining patient-specific modeling for mandibular reconstructive surgery. Qualitative feedback to assess the realism of the endoscopy training phantom and high-fidelity multi-material phantom was acquired. Conformance comparisons using assessments from the blinded reconstructive surgeons measured the geometric performance between intra-operative and pre-operative reconstruction mandible plates. Both the endoscopy training phantom and the high-fidelity multi-material phantom received positive feedback on the realistic structure of the phantom models. Results suggested further improvement on the soft tissue structure of the phantom models is necessary. In the patient-specific mandible template study, the pre-operative plates were judged by two blinded surgeons as providing optimal conformance in 7 out of 10 cases. No statistical differences were found in plate fabrication time and conformance, with pre-operative plating providing the advantage of reducing time spent in the operation room. The applicability of common model design and fabrication techniques

  20. 3D Rapid Prototyping for Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery: Applications in Image-Guidance, Surgical Simulation and Patient-Specific Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chan, Harley H L; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Vescan, Allan; Daly, Michael J; Prisman, Eitan; Irish, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of advanced fabrication technology across a broad spectrum of head and neck surgical procedures, including applications in endoscopic sinus surgery, skull base surgery, and maxillofacial reconstruction. The initial case studies demonstrated three applications of rapid prototyping technology are in head and neck surgery: i) a mono-material paranasal sinus phantom for endoscopy training ii) a multi-material skull base simulator and iii) 3D patient-specific mandible templates. Digital processing of these phantoms is based on real patient or cadaveric 3D images such as CT or MRI data. Three endoscopic sinus surgeons examined the realism of the endoscopist training phantom. One experienced endoscopic skull base surgeon conducted advanced sinus procedures on the high-fidelity multi-material skull base simulator. Ten patients participated in a prospective clinical study examining patient-specific modeling for mandibular reconstructive surgery. Qualitative feedback to assess the realism of the endoscopy training phantom and high-fidelity multi-material phantom was acquired. Conformance comparisons using assessments from the blinded reconstructive surgeons measured the geometric performance between intra-operative and pre-operative reconstruction mandible plates. Both the endoscopy training phantom and the high-fidelity multi-material phantom received positive feedback on the realistic structure of the phantom models. Results suggested further improvement on the soft tissue structure of the phantom models is necessary. In the patient-specific mandible template study, the pre-operative plates were judged by two blinded surgeons as providing optimal conformance in 7 out of 10 cases. No statistical differences were found in plate fabrication time and conformance, with pre-operative plating providing the advantage of reducing time spent in the operation room. The applicability of common model design and fabrication techniques

  1. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min

    2017-05-07

    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam's eye view. To test the system's performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom's surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  2. Development of a 3D printer using scanning projection stereolithography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael P.; Cooper, Geoffrey J. T.; Hinkley, Trevor; Gibson, Graham M.; Padgett, Miles J.; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a system for the rapid fabrication of low cost 3D devices and systems in the laboratory with micro-scale features yet cm-scale objects. Our system is inspired by maskless lithography, where a digital micromirror device (DMD) is used to project patterns with resolution up to 10 µm onto a layer of photoresist. Large area objects can be fabricated by stitching projected images over a 5cm2 area. The addition of a z-stage allows multiple layers to be stacked to create 3D objects, removing the need for any developing or etching steps but at the same time leading to true 3D devices which are robust, configurable and scalable. We demonstrate the applications of the system by printing a range of micro-scale objects as well as a fully functioning microfluidic droplet device and test its integrity by pumping dye through the channels. PMID:25906401

  3. Development of a 3D printer using scanning projection stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael P; Cooper, Geoffrey J T; Hinkley, Trevor; Gibson, Graham M; Padgett, Miles J; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-04-23

    We have developed a system for the rapid fabrication of low cost 3D devices and systems in the laboratory with micro-scale features yet cm-scale objects. Our system is inspired by maskless lithography, where a digital micromirror device (DMD) is used to project patterns with resolution up to 10 µm onto a layer of photoresist. Large area objects can be fabricated by stitching projected images over a 5 cm(2) area. The addition of a z-stage allows multiple layers to be stacked to create 3D objects, removing the need for any developing or etching steps but at the same time leading to true 3D devices which are robust, configurable and scalable. We demonstrate the applications of the system by printing a range of micro-scale objects as well as a fully functioning microfluidic droplet device and test its integrity by pumping dye through the channels.

  4. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F; Duling, Matthew G; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m(3) chamber and in a small room (32.7 m(3)) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color.

  5. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Duling, Matthew G.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M. Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m3 chamber and in a small room (32.7 m3) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color. PMID:27196745

  6. 3D-printer visualization of neuron models.

    PubMed

    McDougal, Robert A; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2015-01-01

    Neurons come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. In a quest to understand this neuronal diversity, researchers have three-dimensionally traced tens of thousands of neurons; many of these tracings are freely available through online repositories like NeuroMorpho.Org and ModelDB. Tracings can be visualized on the computer screen, used for statistical analysis of the properties of different cell types, used to simulate neuronal behavior, and more. We introduce the use of 3D printing as a technique for visualizing traced morphologies. Our method for generating printable versions of a cell or group of cells is to expand dendrite and axon diameters and then to transform the tracing into a 3D object with a neuronal surface generating algorithm like Constructive Tessellated Neuronal Geometry (CTNG). We show that 3D printed cells can be readily examined, manipulated, and compared with other neurons to gain insight into both the biology and the reconstruction process. We share our printable models in a new database, 3DModelDB, and encourage others to do the same with cells that they generate using our code or other methods. To provide additional context, 3DModelDB provides a simulatable version of each cell, links to papers that use or describe it, and links to associated entries in other databases.

  7. 3D-printer visualization of neuron models

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, Robert A.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. In a quest to understand this neuronal diversity, researchers have three-dimensionally traced tens of thousands of neurons; many of these tracings are freely available through online repositories like NeuroMorpho.Org and ModelDB. Tracings can be visualized on the computer screen, used for statistical analysis of the properties of different cell types, used to simulate neuronal behavior, and more. We introduce the use of 3D printing as a technique for visualizing traced morphologies. Our method for generating printable versions of a cell or group of cells is to expand dendrite and axon diameters and then to transform the tracing into a 3D object with a neuronal surface generating algorithm like Constructive Tessellated Neuronal Geometry (CTNG). We show that 3D printed cells can be readily examined, manipulated, and compared with other neurons to gain insight into both the biology and the reconstruction process. We share our printable models in a new database, 3DModelDB, and encourage others to do the same with cells that they generate using our code or other methods. To provide additional context, 3DModelDB provides a simulatable version of each cell, links to papers that use or describe it, and links to associated entries in other databases. PMID:26175684

  8. Direct Manufacturing of CubeSat Using 3-D Digital Printer and Determination of its Mechanical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    mechanical properties (i.e. strength and elastic modulus) of samples fabricated from a 3-D digital printer as a function of processing parameters (2) to...geometry is brought into the 3D printer software application and rotated for the desired build orientation. The software then slices horizontal build...Arlington, VA 22203-1714 Direct Manufacturing of CubeSat Using 3-D Digital Printer and Determination of Its Mechanical Properties

  9. Surface topography study of prepared 3D printed moulds via 3D printer for silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Rahim, Tuan Noraihan Azila Tuan; Akil, Hazizan Md; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Conventional prosthesis fabrication is highly depends on the hand creativity of laboratory technologist. The development in 3D printing technology offers a great help in fabricating affordable and fast yet esthetically acceptable prostheses. This study was conducted to discover the potential of 3D printed moulds for indirect silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis fabrication. Moulds were designed using computer aided design (CAD) software (Solidworks, USA) and converted into the standard tessellation language (STL) file. Three moulds with layer thickness of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3mm were printed utilizing polymer filament based 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X, Makerbot, USA). Another one mould was printed utilizing liquid resin based 3D printer (Objet 30 Scholar, Stratasys, USA) as control. The printed moulds were then used to fabricate maxillofacial silicone specimens (n=10)/mould. Surface profilometer (Surfcom Flex, Accretech, Japan), digital microscope (KH77000, Hirox, USA) and scanning electron microscope (Quanta FEG 450, Fei, USA) were used to measure the surface roughness as well as the topological properties of fabricated silicone. Statistical analysis of One-Way ANOVA was employed to compare the surface roughness of the fabricated silicone elastomer. Result obtained demonstrated significant differences in surface roughness of the fabricated silicone (p<0.01). Further post hoc analysis also revealed significant differences in silicone fabricated using different 3D printed moulds (p<0.01). A 3D printed mould was successfully prepared and characterized. With surface topography that could be enhanced, inexpensive and rapid mould fabrication techniques, polymer filament based 3D printer is potential for indirect silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis fabrication.

  10. Microfluidic vascular channels in gels using commercial 3D printers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi; Attalla, Rana

    2016-03-01

    This paper details the development of a three dimensional (3D) printing system with a modified microfluidic printhead used for the generation of complex vascular tissue scaffolds. The print-head features an integrated coaxial nozzle that allows the fabrication of hollow, calcium-polymerized alginate tubes that can easily be patterned using 3Dbioprinting techniques. This microfluidic design allows the incorporation of a wide range of scaffold materials as well as biological constituents such as cells, growth factors, and ECM material. With this setup, gel constructs with embedded arrays of hollow channels can be created and used as a potential substitute for blood vessel networks.

  11. Free forming of the gel by 3D gel printer SWIM-ER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Koji; Tase, Taishi; Saito, Azusa; Makino, Masato; Gong, Jin; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    Gels, soft and wet materials, have unique properties such as material permeability, biocompatibility and low friction, which are hardly found in hard and dry materials. These superior characteristics of hydrogels promise to expand the medical applications. In recent years, the optical 3D gel printer named SWIM-ER (Soft and Wet Industrial - Easy Realizer) was developed by our team in order to fabricate tough gels with free form. We are aiming to create artificial blood vessel of the gel material by 3D gel printer. Artificial blood vessel is expected to be used for vascular surgery practice. The artificial blood vessel made by 3D gel printer can be create to free form on the basis of the biological data of the patient. Therefore, we believe it is possible to contribute to increasing the success rate and safety of vascular surgery by creating artificial blood vessel with 3D gel printer. The modeling method of SWIM-ER is as follow. Pregel solution is polymerized by one-point UV irradiation with optical fiber. The irradiation area is controlled by computer program, so that exact 3D free forming is realized. In this study, synthesis conditions are re-examined in order to improve the degree of freedom of fabrication. The dimensional accuracy in height direction is improved by increasing the cross linker concentration. We examined the relationship of resolution to the pitch and UV irradiation time in order to improve the modeling accuracy.

  12. Low cost lab-on-a-chip prototyping with a consumer grade 3D printer.

    PubMed

    Comina, Germán; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel

    2014-08-21

    Versatile prototyping of 3D printed lab-on-a-chip devices, supporting different forms of sample delivery, transport, functionalization and readout, is demonstrated with a consumer grade printer, which centralizes all critical fabrication tasks. Devices cost 0.57US$ and are demonstrated in chemical sensing and micromixing examples, which exploit established principles from reference technologies.

  13. Modeling the transparent shape memory gels by 3D printer Acculas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Hiroaki; Arai, Masanori; Gong, Jin; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    In our group, highly transparent shape memory gels were successfully synthesized for the first time in the world. These gels have the high strength of 3MPs modulus even with the water content of 40wt% water and high transparency. We consider that these highly transparent and high strength gels can be applied to the optical devices such as intraocular-lenses and optical fibers. In previous research by our group, attempts were made to manufacture the gel intraocular-lenses using highly transparent shape memory gels. However, it was too difficult to print the intraocular-lens finely enough. Here, we focus on a 3D printer, which can produce objects of irregular shape. 3D printers generally we fused deposition modeling (FDM), a stereo lithography apparatus (SLA) and selective laser sintering (SLS). Because highly transparent shape memory gels are gelled by light irradiation, we used 3D printer with stereo lithography apparatus (SLA). In this study, we found the refractive index of highly transparent shape memory gels depend on monomer concentration, and does not depend on the cross-linker or initiator concentration. Furthermore, the cross-linker and initiator concentration can change the gelation progression rate. As a result, we have developed highly transparent shape memory gels, which can have a range of refractive indexes, and we defined the optimal conditions that can be modeling in the 3D printer by changing the cross-linker and initiator concentration. With these discoveries we were able to produce a gel intraocular-lens replica.

  14. Fabrication of a customized bone scaffold using a homemade medical 3D printer for comminuted fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Shin, Han-Back; Kim, Moo-Sub; Choe, Bo-Young; Kim, Sunmi; Suh, Tae Suk; Lee, Keum Sil; Xing, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to show a 3D printed reconstruction model of a bone destroyed by a comminuted fracture. After a thoracic limb of a cow with a comminuted fracture was scanned by using computed tomography, a scaffold was designed by using a 3D modeling tool for its reconstruction and fabricated by using a homemade medical 3D printer. The homemade medical 3D printer was designed for medical use. In order to reconstruct the geometry of the destroyed bone, we use the geometry of a similar section (reference geometry) of normal bone in the 3D modeling process. The missing part between the destroyed ridge and the reference geometry was filled with an effective space by using a manual interpolation. Inexpensive materials and free software were used to construct the medical 3D printer system. The fabrication of the scaffold progressed according to the design of reconstructed bone by using this medical 3D printer. The material of the scaffold was biodegradable material, and could be transplanted into the human body. The fabricated scaffold was correctly inserted into the fractured bone in place of the destroyed portion, with good agreement. According to physical stress test results, the performance of printing resolution was 0.1 mm. The average geometrical error of the scaffold was below 0.3 mm. The reconstructed bone by using the fabricated scaffold was able to support the weight of the human body. No process used to obtain the result was complex or required many resources. The methods and results in this study show several possible clinical applications in fields such as orthopedics or oncology without a need to purchase high-price instruments for 3D printing.

  15. Advances in rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, C. L.; McCarty, G. D.; Pardo, B. T.; Bryce, E. A.

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System's QuickCast(trademark) resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast(trademark) resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable first article and small lot size production parts. They use the selective laser sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  16. 3D print of polymer bonded rare-earth magnets, and 3D magnetic field scanning with an end-user 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, C.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Groenefeld, M.; Muthsam, O.; Schuschnigg, S.; Sirak, K.; Thanhoffer, R.; Teliban, I.; Vogler, C.; Windl, R.; Suess, D.

    2016-10-01

    3D print is a recently developed technique, for single-unit production, and for structures that have been impossible to build previously. The current work presents a method to 3D print polymer bonded isotropic hard magnets with a low-cost, end-user 3D printer. Commercially available isotropic NdFeB powder inside a PA11 matrix is characterized, and prepared for the printing process. An example of a printed magnet with a complex shape that was designed to generate a specific stray field is presented, and compared with finite element simulation solving the macroscopic Maxwell equations. For magnetic characterization, and comparing 3D printed structures with injection molded parts, hysteresis measurements are performed. To measure the stray field outside the magnet, the printer is upgraded to a 3D magnetic flux density measurement system. To skip an elaborate adjusting of the sensor, a simulation is used to calibrate the angles, sensitivity, and the offset of the sensor. With this setup, a measurement resolution of 0.05 mm along the z-axes is achievable. The effectiveness of our calibration method is shown. With our setup, we are able to print polymer bonded magnetic systems with the freedom of having a specific complex shape with locally tailored magnetic properties. The 3D scanning setup is easy to mount, and with our calibration method we are able to get accurate measuring results of the stray field.

  17. With the advent of domestic 3-dimensional (3D) printers and their associated reduced cost, is it now time for every medical school to have their own 3D printer?

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Christopher; Campo-Celaya, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy is the backbone of medical education and new techniques to improve learning are frequently explored. With the introduction of 3D printers specifically for the home market, the price of this technology has reached affordable levels. Using patient scan data, accurate 3D models can be printed that represent real human variation in anatomy to provide an innovative, inexpensive and valuable adjunct to anatomical teaching. Is it now time for every medical school to have their own 3D printer?

  18. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  19. Atmospheric nonequilibrium mini-plasma jet created by a 3D printer

    SciTech Connect

    Takamatsu, Toshihiro; Kawano, Hiroaki; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Okino, Akitoshi; Azuma, Takeshi

    2015-07-15

    In this study, a small-sized plasma jet source with a 3.7 mm head diameter was created via a 3D printer. The jet’s emission properties and OH radical concentrations (generated by argon, helium, and nitrogen plasmas) were investigated using optical emission spectrometry (OES) and electron spin resonance (ESR). As such, for OES, each individual gas plasma propagates emission lines that derive from gases and ambient air inserted into the measurement system. For the case of ESR, a spin adduct of the OH radical is typically observed for all gas plasma treatment scenarios with a 10 s treatment by helium plasma generating the largest amount of OH radicals at 110 μM. Therefore, it was confirmed that a plasma jet source made by a 3D printer can generate stable plasmas using each of the aforementioned three gases.

  20. Realization and testing of multi-material 3D printer for bone scaffold fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whulanza, Yudan; Hidayaturrahmi, Pretty; Kurniawati, Tri; AJ, Rahyussalim

    2017-02-01

    This research realized 3D constructs by integrating more than one material with multi fabrication system within a single session. A commercial rapid prototyping system, RepRap MendelTM, is modified so that it enables us to realize microenvironment composed of multi materials namely gelatin hydrogel and polylactic acid. Firstly, the session is preceded by realization of 3D scaffold using polylactic acid (PLA) with porosity and modulus elasticity as characterized. Later, the gelatin extrusion took place to seed the cellular in determined spatial arrangement. The results show that our apparatus able to realized scaffold that using PLA as matrix filled with gelatin that act as cell carrier in future application. The scaffolds have porous around 0.25 mm2 porosity with a modulus of elasticity around 160 MPa.

  1. Use of 3D printers to create a patient-specific 3D bolus for external beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Sarah; Baker, Jamie; Hsia, An Ting; Xu, Zhigang

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an inexpensive 3D printer can be used to manufacture patient-specific bolus for external beam therapy, and to show we can accurately model this printed bolus in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. Percent depth-dose measurements and tissue maximum ratios were used to determine the characteristics of the printing materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid, as bolus material with physical density of 1.04 and 1.2 g/cm3, and electron density of 3.38 × 10²³ electrons/cm3 and 3.80 × 10²³ electrons/ cm3, respectively. Dose plane comparisons using Gafchromic EBT2 film and the RANDO phantom were used to verify accurate treatment planning. We accurately modeled a printing material in Eclipse treatment planning system, assigning it a Hounsfield unit of 260. We were also able to verify accurate treatment planning using gamma analysis for dose plane comparisons. With gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 2 mm DTA, we were able to have 86.5% points passing, and with gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 3 mm DTA, we were able to have 95% points passing. We were able to create a patient-specific bolus using an inexpensive 3D printer and model it in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery.

  2. Powering an in-space 3D printer using solar light energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, Skye; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Hirsch, Michael P.; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes how a solar power source can enable in-space 3D printing without requiring conversion to electric power and back. A design for an in-space 3D printer is presented, with a particular focus on the power generation system. Then, key benefits are presented and evaluated. Specifically, the approach facilitates the design of a spacecraft that can be built, launched, and operated at very low cost levels. The proposed approach also facilitates easy configuration of the amount of energy that is supplied. Finally, it facilitates easier disposal by removing the heavy metals and radioactive materials required for a nuclear-power solution.

  3. Establishment of gel materials with different mechanical properties by 3D gel printer SWIM-ER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Takafumi; Tase, Taishi; Okada, Koji; Saito, Azusa; Takamatsu, Kyuuichiro; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    A 3D printer is a device which can directly produce objects whose shape is the same as the original 3D digital data. Hydrogels have unique properties such as high water content, low frictional properties, biocompatibility, material permeability and high transparency, which are rare in hard and dry materials. These superior characteristics of gels promise useful medical applications. We have been working on the development of a 3D gel printer, SWIM-ER (Soft and Wet Industrial - Easy Realizer), which can make models of organs and artificial blood vessels with gel material. However, 3D printing has a problem: the mechanical properties of the printed object vary depending on printing conditions, and this matter was investigated with SWIM-ER. In the past, we found that mechanical properties of 3D gel objects depend on the deposition orientation in SWIM-ER. In this study, gels were printed with different laser scanning speeds. The mechanical properties of these gels were investigated by compression tests, water content measurements and SMILS (Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering).

  4. Advances in rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  5. Fume Emissions from a Low-Cost 3-D Printer with Various Filaments.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Evan L; Wang, Jun; Regens, James L

    2017-04-13

    3-D printing is an additive manufacturing process involving the injection of melted thermoplastic polymers, which are then laid down in layers to achieve a pre-designed shape. The heated deposition process raises concerns of potential aerosol and volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission and exposure. The decreasing cost of desktop 3-D printers has made the use of 3-D printers more acceptable in non-industrial workplaces lacking sufficient ventilation. Meanwhile, little is known about the characteristics of 3-D printing fume emission. The objective of this study was to characterize aerosols and VOC emissions generated from various filaments used with a low-cost 3-D printer in an environmental testing chamber. A pre-designed object was printed in 1.25 hours using eight types of filaments. A scanning mobility particle sizer and an aerodynamic particle sizer were employed to measure the particle size distribution in sub-half-micron fraction (<0.5 µm) and super-half-micron fraction (0.5-20 µm), respectively. VOC concentration was monitored real-time by a photoionization detector and sampled with a tri-sorbent thermal desorption tube, and analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). Results showed high levels of fume particles emission rate (1.0 × 10(7) to 1.2 × 10(10) #/min) in the sub-half-micron range with mode sizes of 41-83 nm. Particle concentrations peaked during the heat-up and solid layer printing periods. Total VOC concentration in the chamber followed a first-order buildup, with predominant VOC species in the chamber were breakdown and reaction products of the filaments, such as styrene from ABS filaments. These findings and exposure scenario estimation suggest that although the VOC concentrations were much lower than occupational exposure limits, particles with size less than micron might be a concern for users of low-cost 3-D printers due to high respirablity, especially if used in settings without proper guidance

  6. Turn-Key Use of an Onboard 3D Printer for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, William J., IV; Kish, Jason M.; Werkheiser, Mary J.

    2017-01-01

    Current 3D printing capabilities onboard the International Space Station (ISS) are classified as experimental payloads. As payloads the products of these printers are returned to the ground for testing and analysis. However, it has long been thought that 3D printing must one day become a tool of space operations much like the electrical diagnostic equipment, and the soldering iron. This paper explores a case study in the use of one of the payload 3D printers to manufacture a device to be used by the crew as part of nominal ISS Operations. The nature of this attempt represented a collaboration between the ISS payload community and the systems operations community to capitalize on the strengths of both to accomplish a step in what may one day become a common and cost-savings capability in spaceflight operations. The path from concept development through onboard printing and crew inspection will be described. The lessons learned from this process are reviewed as constructive feedback on how existing processes can be expanded to enable this capability in the future. This experience will be carried forward into the development of a new process which will open the door for future use of 3D printing onboard the ISS.

  7. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-Huai; Fu, Jian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods.

  8. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer.

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-huai; Fu, Jian-zhong

    2014-11-27

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods.

  9. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-huai; Fu, Jian-zhong

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods. PMID:25427880

  10. Rehand: Realistic electric prosthetic hand created with a 3D printer.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Sato, Ryo; Higashihara, Takanori; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Myoelectric prosthetic hands provide an appearance with five fingers and a grasping function to forearm amputees. However, they have problems in weight, appearance, and cost. This paper reports on the Rehand, a realistic electric prosthetic hand created with a 3D printer. It provides a realistic appearance that is same as the cosmetic prosthetic hand and a grasping function. A simple link mechanism with one linear actuator for grasping and 3D printed parts achieve low cost, light weight, and ease of maintenance. An operating system based on a distance sensor provides a natural operability equivalent to the myoelectric control system. A supporter socket allows them to wear the prosthetic hand easily. An evaluation using the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) demonstrated that an amputee was able to operate various objects and do everyday activities with the Rehand.

  11. Flexural Properties of PLA Components Under Various Test Condition Manufactured by 3D Printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaya Christiyan, K. G.; Chandrasekhar, U.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2016-10-01

    Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have emerged as a fabrication method to obtain engineering components in the resent past. Desktop 3D printing, also referred as an additive layer manufacturing technology is a powerful method of RP technique that can fabricate 3 dimensional engineering components. In this method, 3D digital data is converted into real product. In the present investigation, Polylactic Acid (PLA) was considered as a starting material. Flexural strength of PLA material was evaluated using 3-point bend test, as per ASTM D790 standard. Specimens with flat (0°) and vertical (90°) orientation were considered. Moreover, layer thicknesses of 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3 mm were considered. To fabricate these specimens, printing speed of 38 and 52 mm/s was maintained. Nozzle diameter of 0.4 mm with 40 % of infill density were used. Based on the experimental results, it was observed that 0° orientation, 38 mm/s printing speed, and 0.2 mm layer thickness resulted maximum flexural strength, as compared to all other specimens. The improved flexural strength was due to the lower layer thickness (0.2 mm) specimens, as compared with other specimens made of 0.25 and 0.30 mm layer thicknesses. It was concluded that flexural strength properties were greatly influenced by lower the layer thickness, printing speed, and orientation.

  12. Bacterial inhibition potential of 3D rapid-prototyped magnesium-based porous composite scaffolds–an in vitro efficacy study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Lai, Yu-xiao; Li, Long; Tan, Hong-lue; Wang, Jia-li; Li, Ye; Tang, Ting-ting; Qin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Bone infections are common in trauma-induced open fractures with bone defects. Therefore, developing anti-infection scaffolds for repairing bone defects is desirable. This study develoepd novel Mg-based porous composite scaffolds with a basal matrix composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolicacid) (PLGA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). A unique low-temperature rapid prototyping technology was used to fabricate the scaffolds, including PLGA/TCP (PT), PLGA/TCP/5%Mg (PT5M), PLGA/TCP/10%Mg (PT10M), and PLGA/TCP/15%Mg (PT15M). The bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. The results indicated that the Mg-based scaffolds significantly inhibited bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation compared to PT, and the PT10M and PT15M exhibited significantly stronger anti-biofilm ability than PT5M. In vitro degratation tests revealed that the degradation of the Mg-based scaffolds caused an increase of pH, Mg2+ concentration and osmolality, and the increased pH may be one of the major contributing factors to the antibacterial function of the Mg-based scaffolds. Additionally, the PT15M exhibited an inhibitory effect on cell adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, the PLGA/TCP/Mg scaffolds could inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, and the PT10M scaffold was considered to be an effective composition with considerable antibacterial ability and good cytocompatibility. PMID:26346217

  13. Microplasma fabrication: from semiconductor technology for 2D-chips and microfluidic channels to rapid prototyping and 3D-printing of microplasma devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatford, R.; Karanassios, Vassili

    2014-05-01

    Microplasmas are receiving attention in recent conferences and current scientific literature. In our laboratory, microplasmas-on-chips proved to be particularly attractive. The 2D- and 3D-chips we developed became hybrid because they were fitted with a quartz plate (quartz was used due to its transparency to UV). Fabrication of 2D- and 3D-chips for microplasma research is described. The fabrication methods described ranged from semiconductor fabrication technology, to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining, to 3D-printing. These methods may prove to be useful for those contemplating in entering microplasma research but have no access to expensive semiconductor fabrication equipment.

  14. Clinical Application of Solid Model Based on Trabecular Tibia Bone CT Images Created by 3D Printer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jaemo; Park, Chan-Soo; Kim, Yeoun-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this work is to use a 3D solid model to predict the mechanical loads of human bone fracture risk associated with bone disease conditions according to biomechanical engineering parameters. Methods We used special image processing tools for image segmentation and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to generate meshes, which are necessary for the production of a solid model with a 3D printer from computed tomography (CT) images of the human tibia's trabecular and cortical bones. We examined the defects of the mechanism for the tibia's trabecular bones. Results Image processing tools and segmentation techniques were used to analyze bone structures and produce a solid model with a 3D printer. Conclusions These days, bio-imaging (CT and magnetic resonance imaging) devices are able to display and reconstruct 3D anatomical details, and diagnostics are becoming increasingly vital to the quality of patient treatment planning and clinical treatment. Furthermore, radiographic images are being used to study biomechanical systems with several aims, namely, to describe and simulate the mechanical behavior of certain anatomical systems, to analyze pathological bone conditions, to study tissues structure and properties, and to create a solid model using a 3D printer to support surgical planning and reduce experimental costs. These days, research using image processing tools and segmentation techniques to analyze bone structures to produce a solid model with a 3D printer is rapidly becoming very important. PMID:26279958

  15. Characterization of emissions from a desktop 3D printer and indoor air measurements in office settings.

    PubMed

    Steinle, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Emissions from a desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology were measured in a test chamber and indoor air was monitored in office settings. Ultrafine aerosol (UFA) emissions were higher while printing a standard object with polylactic acid (PLA) than with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer (2.1 × 10(9) vs. 2.4 × 10(8) particles/min). Prolonged use of the printer led to higher emission rates (factor 2 with PLA and 4 with ABS, measured after seven months of occasional use). UFA consisted mainly of volatile droplets, and some small (100-300 nm diameter) iron containing and soot-like particles were found. Emissions of inhalable and respirable dust were below the limit of detection (LOD) when measured gravimetrically, and only slightly higher than background when measured with an aerosol spectrometer. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were in the range of 10 µg/min. Styrene accounted for more than 50% of total VOC emitted when printing with ABS; for PLA, methyl methacrylate (MMA, 37% of TVOC) was detected as the predominant compound. Two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), fluoranthene and pyrene, were observed in very low amounts. All other analyzed PAH, as well as inorganic gases and metal emissions except iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), were below the LOD or did not differ from background without printing. A single 3D print (165 min) in a large, well-ventilated office did not significantly increase the UFA and VOC concentrations, whereas these were readily detectable in a small, unventilated room, with UFA concentrations increasing by 2,000 particles/cm(3) and MMA reaching a peak of 21 µg/m(3) and still being detectable in the room even 20 hr after printing.

  16. In-body tissue-engineered aortic valve (Biovalve type VII) architecture based on 3D printer molding.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Sumikura, Hirohito; Yamanami, Masashi; Matsui, Yuichi; Oie, Tomonori; Kishimoto, Yuichiro; Arakawa, Mamoru; Ohmuma, Kentaro; Tajikawa, Tsutomu; Kanda, Keiichi; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    In-body tissue architecture--a novel and practical regeneration medicine technology--can be used to prepare a completely autologous heart valve, based on the shape of a mold. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to produce the molds. A 3D printer can easily reproduce the 3D-shape and size of native heart valves within several processing hours. For a tri-leaflet, valved conduit with a sinus of Valsalva (Biovalve type VII), the mold was assembled using two conduit parts and three sinus parts produced by the 3D printer. Biovalves were generated from completely autologous connective tissue, containing collagen and fibroblasts, within 2 months following the subcutaneous embedding of the molds (success rate, 27/30). In vitro evaluation, using a pulsatile circulation circuit, showed excellent valvular function with a durability of at least 10 days. Interposed between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, the Biovalves (N = 3) were implanted in goats through an apico-aortic bypass procedure. Postoperative echocardiography showed smooth movement of the leaflets with minimal regurgitation under systemic circulation. After 1 month of implantation, smooth white leaflets were observed with minimal thrombus formation. Functional, autologous, 3D-shaped heart valves with clinical application potential were formed following in-body embedding of specially designed molds that were created within several hours by 3D printer.

  17. Rapid prototype modeling in a multimodality world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidaut, Luc; Madewell, John; Yasko, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Introduction: Rapid prototype modeling (RPM) has been used in medicine principally for bones - that are easily extracted from CT data sets - for planning orthopaedic, plastic or maxillo-facial interventions, and/or for designing custom prostheses and implants. Based on newly available technology, highly valuable multimodality approaches can now be applied to RPM, particularly for complex musculo-skeletal (MSK) tumors where multimodality often transcends CT alone. Methods: CT data sets are acquired for primary evaluation of MSK tumors in parallel with other modalities (e.g., MR, PET, SPECT). In our approach, CT is first segmented to provide bony anatomy for RPM and all other data sets are then registered to the CT reference. Parametric information relevant to the tumor's characterization is then extracted from the multimodality space and merged with the CT anatomy to produce a hybrid RPM-ready model. This model - that also accommodates digital multimodality visualization - is then produced on the latest generation of 3D printers, which permits both shapes and colors. Results: Multimodality models of complex MSK tumors have been physically produced on modern RPM equipment. This new approach has been found to be a clear improvement over the previously disconnected physical RPM and digital multimodality visualization. Conclusions: New technical developments keep opening doors to sophisticated medical applications that can directly impact the quality of patient care. Although this early work still deals with bones as base models for RPM, its use to encompass soft tissues is already envisioned for future approaches.

  18. Fundamental Study on Applicability of Powder-Based 3D Printer for Physical Modeling in Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereshtenejad, Sayedalireza; Song, Jae-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Applications of 3D printing technology become more widespread in many research fields because of its rapid development and valuable capabilities. In rock mechanics and mining engineering, this technology has the potential to become a useful tool that might help implement a number of research studies previously considered impractical. Most commercial 3D printers cannot print prototypes with mechanical properties that match precisely those of natural rock samples. Therefore, some additional enhancements are required for 3D printers to be effectively utilized for rock mechanics applications. In this study, we printed and studied specimens using a powder-based commercial ZPrinter® 450 with ZP® 150 powder and Zb® 63 binder used as raw materials. The specimens printed by this 3D printer exhibited relatively low strength and ductile behavior, implying that it needs further improvements. Hence, we focused on several ways to determine the best combination of printing options and post-processing including the effects of the printing direction, printing layer thickness, binder saturation level, and heating process on the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and stress-strain behavior of the printed samples. The suggested procedures have demonstrated their effectiveness by obtaining the printed samples that behave similarly to the natural rocks with low UCS. Although our optimization methods were particularly successful, further improvements are required to expand 3D printer application in the area of rock mechanics.

  19. Reduction of the recorded speckle noise in holographic 3D printer.

    PubMed

    Utsugi, Takeru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2013-01-14

    A holographic 3D printer produces a high-quality 3D image reproduced by a full-color, full-parallax holographic stereogram with high-density light-ray recording. In order to produce a high-resolution holographic stereogram, we have to solve the problem of speckle noise in this system. For equalizing an intensity distribution inside the elementary hologram, the object beam is modulated by a diffuser. However the diffuser typically generates speckles, which is recorded in the holographic stereogram. It is localized behind the reconstructed image as a granularity noise. First we show the problems of some conventional ways for suppressing the granularity noise using a band-limited diffuser, and then we analyze an approach using a moving diffuser for the reduction of this noise. In the result, it is found that recording with a moving diffuser is effective for reducing the granularity noise at infinity of reconstructed image, although an alternative noise occurs. Moreover we propose a new method introducing multiple exposures to suppress the noise effectively.

  20. Developing a protocol for creating microfluidic devices with a 3D printer, PDMS, and glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Robyn; Novak, Eric; Shirk, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    Microfluidics research requires the design and fabrication of devices that have the ability to manipulate small volumes of fluid, typically ranging from microliters to picoliters. These devices are used for a wide range of applications including the assembly of materials and testing of biological samples. Many methods have been previously developed to create microfluidic devices, including traditional nanolithography techniques. However, these traditional techniques are cost-prohibitive for many small-scale laboratories. This research explores a relatively low-cost technique using a 3D printed master, which is used as a template for the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The masters are designed using computer aided design (CAD) software and can be printed and modified relatively quickly. We have developed a protocol for creating simple microfluidic devices using a 3D printer and PDMS adhered to glass. This relatively simple and lower-cost technique can now be scaled to more complicated device designs and applications. Funding provided by the Undergraduate Research Grant Program at Shippensburg University and the Student/Faculty Research Engagement Grants from the College of Arts and Sciences at Shippensburg University.

  1. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  2. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  3. Hacking for astronomy: can 3D printers and open-hardware enable low-cost sub-/millimeter instrumentation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    2014-07-01

    There have been several exciting developments in the technologies commonly used n in the hardware hacking community. Advances in low cost additive-manufacturing processes (i.e. 3D-printers) and the development of openhardware projects, which have produced inexpensive and easily programmable micro-controllers and micro-computers (i.e. Arduino and Raspberry Pi) have opened a new door for individuals seeking to make their own devices. Here we describe the potential for these technologies to reduce costs in construction and development of submillimeter/millimeter astronomical instrumentation. Specifically we have begun a program to measure the optical properties of the custom plastics used in 3D-printers as well as the printer accuracy and resolution to assess the feasibility of directly printing sub- /millimeter transmissive optics. We will also discuss low cost designs for cryogenic temperature measurement and control utilizing Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

  4. Weapon identification using antemortem computed tomography with virtual 3D and rapid prototype modeling--a report in a case of blunt force head injury.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Rzepecka-Woźniak, Ewa; Moskała, Artur; Pohl, Jerzy; Latacz, Katarzyna; Dybała, Bogdan

    2012-10-10

    A frequent request of a prosecutor referring to forensic autopsy is to determine the mechanism of an injury and to identify the weapons used to cause those injuries. This task could be problematic in many ways, including changes in the primary injury caused by medical intervention and the process of healing. To accomplish this task, the forensic pathologist has to gather all possible information during the post-mortem examination. The more data is collected, the easier it is to obtain an accurate answer to the prosecutor's question. The authors present a case of head injuries that the victim sustained under unknown circumstances. The patient underwent neurosurgical treatment which resulted in alteration of the bone fracture pattern. The only way to evaluate this injury was to analyze antemortem clinical data, especially CT scans, with virtual 3D reconstruction of the fractured skull. A physical model of a part of the broken skull was created with the use of 3D printing. These advanced techniques, applied for the first time in Poland for forensic purposes, allowed investigators to extract enough data to develop a hypothesis about the mechanism of injury and the weapon most likely used.

  5. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  6. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-07-15

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  7. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  8. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers.

  9. Rapid prototyping in aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bangeas, Petros; Voulalas, Grigorios; Ktenidis, Kiriakos

    2016-04-01

    3D printing provides the sequential addition of material layers and, thus, the opportunity to print parts and components made of different materials with variable mechanical and physical properties. It helps us create 3D anatomical models for the better planning of surgical procedures when needed, since it can reveal any complex anatomical feature. Images of abdominal aortic aneurysms received by computed tomographic angiography were converted into 3D images using a Google SketchUp free software and saved in stereolithography format. Using a 3D printer (Makerbot), a model made of polylactic acid material (thermoplastic filament) was printed. A 3D model of an abdominal aorta aneurysm was created in 138 min, while the model was a precise copy of the aorta visualized in the computed tomographic images. The total cost (including the initial cost of the printer) reached 1303.00 euros. 3D imaging and modelling using different materials can be very useful in cases when anatomical difficulties are recognized through the computed tomographic images and a tactile approach is demanded preoperatively. In this way, major complications during abdominal aorta aneurysm management can be predicted and prevented. Furthermore, the model can be used as a mould; the development of new, more biocompatible, less antigenic and individualized can become a challenge in the future.

  10. WE-F-16A-05: Use of 3D-Printers to Create a Tissue Equivalent 3D-Bolus for External Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, S; Baker, J; Hsia, A; Xu, Z

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that a non-expensive 3D-printer can be used to manufacture a 3D-bolus for external beam therapy. The printed bolus then can be modeled in our treatment planning system to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient. Methods: We developed a simple method to manufacture a patient-specific custom 3Dbolus. The bolus is designed using Eclipse Treatment Planning System, contoured onto the patients CT images. The bolus file is exported from Eclipse to 3D-printer software, and then printed using a 3D printer. Various tests were completed to determine the properties of the printing material. Percent depth dose curves in this material were measured with electron and photon beams for comparison to other materials. In order to test the validity of the 3D printed bolus for treatment planning, a custom bolus was printed and tested on the Rando phantom using film for a dose plane comparison. We compared the dose plane measured on the film to the same dose plane exported from our treatment planning system using Film QA software. The gamma-dose distribution tool was used in our film analysis. Results: We compared point measurements throughout the dose plane and were able to achieve greater than 95% passing rate at 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement, which is our departments acceptable gamma pixel parameters. Conclusion: The printed 3D bolus has proven to be accurately modeled in our treatment planning system, it is more conformal to the patient surface and more durable than other bolus currently used (wax, superflab etc.). It is also more convenient and less costly than comparable bolus from milling machine companies.

  11. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A.; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target’s nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer’s heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers. PMID:27362424

  12. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  13. The feasibility of producing patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants with a low-cost 3D printer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eddie T W; Ling, Ji Min; Dinesh, Shree Kumar

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Commercially available, preformed patient-specific cranioplasty implants are anatomically accurate but costly. Acrylic bone cement is a commonly used alternative. However, the manual shaping of the bone cement is difficult and may not lead to a satisfactory implant in some cases. The object of this study was to determine the feasibility of fabricating molds using a commercial low-cost 3D printer for the purpose of producing patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants. METHODS Using data from a high-resolution brain CT scan of a patient with a calvarial defect posthemicraniectomy, a skull phantom and a mold were generated with computer software and fabricated with the 3D printer using the fused deposition modeling method. The mold was used as a template to shape the acrylic implant, which was formed via a polymerization reaction. The resulting implant was fitted to the skull phantom and the cranial index of symmetry was determined. RESULTS The skull phantom and mold were successfully fabricated with the 3D printer. The application of acrylic bone cement to the mold was simple and straightforward. The resulting implant did not require further adjustment or drilling prior to being fitted to the skull phantom. The cranial index of symmetry was 96.2% (the cranial index of symmetry is 100% for a perfectly symmetrical skull). CONCLUSIONS This study showed that it is feasible to produce patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants with a low-cost 3D printer. Further studies are required to determine applicability in the clinical setting. This promising technique has the potential to bring personalized medicine to more patients around the world.

  14. Robust formulation for the design of tissue engineering scaffolds: A comprehensive study on structural anisotropy, viscoelasticity and degradation of 3D scaffolds fabricated with customized desktop robot based rapid prototyping (DRBRP) system.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M Enamul

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the scaffolds' structural anisotropy (i.e. the effect of loading direction), viscoelasticity (i.e. the effect of cross head speed or strain rate), and the influence of simulated physiological environment (PBS solution at 37°C) on the mechanical properties. Besides, the in vitro degradation study has also been performed that evaluates the effect of variation in material and lay-down pattern on the scaffolds' degradation kinetics in terms of mass loss, and change in morphological and mechanical properties. Porous three dimensional (3D) scaffolds of polycarprolactone (PCL) and polycarprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG) were developed by laying down the microfilaments directionally layer-by-layer using an in-house built computer-controlled extrusion and deposition process, called desktop robot based rapid prototyping (DRBRP) system. The loading direction, strain rate and physiological environment directly influenced the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. In vitro degradation study demonstrated that both PCL and PCL-PEG scaffolds realized homogeneous hydrolytic degradation via surface erosion resulting in a consistent and predictable mass loss. The linear mass loss caused uniform and linear increase in porosity that accordingly led to the decrease in mechanical properties. The synthetic polymer had the potential to modulate hydrophilicity and/or degradability and consequently, the biomechanical properties of the scaffolds by varying the polymer constituents.

  15. Using Computer-Aided Design Software and 3D Printers to Improve Spatial Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsio-Loudis, Petros; Jones, Millie

    2015-01-01

    Many articles have been published on the use of 3D printing technology. From prefabricated homes and outdoor structures to human organs, 3D printing technology has found a niche in many fields, but especially education. With the introduction of AutoCAD technical drawing programs and now 3D printing, learners can use 3D printed models to develop…

  16. Rapid prototyping of biomimetic vascular phantoms for hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Melchiorri, Anthony J.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Coburn, James C.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chen, Yu; Joshua Pfefer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3-D) printers provides a simple yet revolutionary method for fabricating objects with arbitrary geometry. The use of 3-D printing for generating morphologically biomimetic tissue phantoms based on medical images represents a potentially major advance over existing phantom approaches. Toward the goal of image-defined phantoms, we converted a segmented fundus image of the human retina into a matrix format and edited it to achieve a geometry suitable for printing. Phantoms with vessel-simulating channels were then printed using a photoreactive resin providing biologically relevant turbidity, as determined by spectrophotometry. The morphology of printed vessels was validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography. Channels were filled with hemoglobin (Hb) solutions undergoing desaturation, and phantoms were imaged with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. Additionally, a phantom was printed incorporating two disjoint vascular networks at different depths, each filled with Hb solutions at different saturation levels. Light propagation effects noted during these measurements—including the influence of vessel density and depth on Hb concentration and saturation estimates, and the effect of wavelength on vessel visualization depth—were evaluated. Overall, our findings indicated that 3-D-printed biomimetic phantoms hold significant potential as realistic and practical tools for elucidating light–tissue interactions and characterizing biophotonic system performance. PMID:26662064

  17. Rapid prototyping of biomimetic vascular phantoms for hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Melchiorri, Anthony J.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Coburn, James C.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chen, Yu; Joshua Pfefer, T.

    2015-12-01

    The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3-D) printers provides a simple yet revolutionary method for fabricating objects with arbitrary geometry. The use of 3-D printing for generating morphologically biomimetic tissue phantoms based on medical images represents a potentially major advance over existing phantom approaches. Toward the goal of image-defined phantoms, we converted a segmented fundus image of the human retina into a matrix format and edited it to achieve a geometry suitable for printing. Phantoms with vessel-simulating channels were then printed using a photoreactive resin providing biologically relevant turbidity, as determined by spectrophotometry. The morphology of printed vessels was validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography. Channels were filled with hemoglobin (Hb) solutions undergoing desaturation, and phantoms were imaged with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. Additionally, a phantom was printed incorporating two disjoint vascular networks at different depths, each filled with Hb solutions at different saturation levels. Light propagation effects noted during these measurements-including the influence of vessel density and depth on Hb concentration and saturation estimates, and the effect of wavelength on vessel visualization depth-were evaluated. Overall, our findings indicated that 3-D-printed biomimetic phantoms hold significant potential as realistic and practical tools for elucidating light-tissue interactions and characterizing biophotonic system performance.

  18. WE-D-18A-05: Construction of Realistic Liver Phantoms From Patient Images and a Commercial 3D Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, S; Vrieze, T; Kuhlmann, J; Yu, L; Matsumoto, J; Morris, J; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess image quality and radiation dose reduction in abdominal CT imaging, physical phantoms having realistic background textures and lesions are highly desirable. The purpose of this work was to construct a liver phantom with realistic background and lesions using patient CT images and a 3D printer. Methods: Patient CT images containing liver lesions were segmented into liver tissue, contrast-enhanced vessels, and liver lesions using commercial software (Mimics, Materialise, Belgium). Stereolithography (STL) files of each segmented object were created and imported to a 3D printer (Object350 Connex, Stratasys, MN). After test scans were performed to map the eight available printing materials into CT numbers, printing materials were assigned to each object and a physical liver phantom printed. The printed phantom was scanned on a clinical CT scanner and resulting images were compared with the original patient CT images. Results: The eight available materials used to print the liver phantom had CT number ranging from 62 to 117 HU. In scans of the liver phantom, the liver lesions and veins represented in the STL files were all visible. Although the absolute value of the CT number in the background liver material (approx. 85 HU) was higher than in patients (approx. 40 HU), the difference in CT numbers between lesions and background were representative of the low contrast values needed for optimization tasks. Future work will investigate materials with contrast sufficient to emulate contrast-enhanced arteries. Conclusion: Realistic liver phantoms can be constructed from patient CT images using a commercial 3D printer. This technique may provide phantoms able to determine the effect of radiation dose reduction and noise reduction techniques on the ability to detect subtle liver lesions in the context of realistic background textures.

  19. Rapid prototyping amphiphilic polymer/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds with hydration-induced self-fixation behavior.

    PubMed

    Kutikov, Artem B; Gurijala, Anvesh; Song, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Two major factors hampering the broad use of rapid prototyped biomaterials for tissue engineering applications are the requirement for custom-designed or expensive research-grade three-dimensional (3D) printers and the limited selection of suitable thermoplastic biomaterials exhibiting physical characteristics desired for facile surgical handling and biological properties encouraging tissue integration. Properly designed thermoplastic biodegradable amphiphilic polymers can exhibit hydration-dependent hydrophilicity changes and stiffening behavior, which may be exploited to facilitate the surgical delivery/self-fixation of the scaffold within a physiological tissue environment. Compared to conventional hydrophobic polyesters, they also present significant advantages in blending with hydrophilic osteoconductive minerals with improved interfacial adhesion for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we demonstrated the excellent blending of biodegradable, amphiphilic poly(D,L-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) (PELA) triblock co-polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA) and the fabrication of high-quality rapid prototyped 3D macroporous composite scaffolds using an unmodified consumer-grade 3D printer. The rapid prototyped HA-PELA composite scaffolds and the PELA control (without HA) swelled (66% and 44% volume increases, respectively) and stiffened (1.38-fold and 4-fold increases in compressive modulus, respectively) in water. To test the hypothesis that the hydration-induced physical changes can translate into self-fixation properties of the scaffolds within a confined defect, a straightforward in vitro pull-out test was designed to quantify the peak force required to dislodge these scaffolds from a simulated cylindrical defect at dry versus wet states. Consistent with our hypothesis, the peak fixation force measured for the PELA and HA-PELA scaffolds increased 6-fold and 15-fold upon hydration, respectively. Furthermore, we showed that

  20. Rapid Prototyping Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds with Hydration-Induced Self-Fixation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kutikov, Artem B.; Gurijala, Anvesh

    2015-01-01

    Two major factors hampering the broad use of rapid prototyped biomaterials for tissue engineering applications are the requirement for custom-designed or expensive research-grade three-dimensional (3D) printers and the limited selection of suitable thermoplastic biomaterials exhibiting physical characteristics desired for facile surgical handling and biological properties encouraging tissue integration. Properly designed thermoplastic biodegradable amphiphilic polymers can exhibit hydration-dependent hydrophilicity changes and stiffening behavior, which may be exploited to facilitate the surgical delivery/self-fixation of the scaffold within a physiological tissue environment. Compared to conventional hydrophobic polyesters, they also present significant advantages in blending with hydrophilic osteoconductive minerals with improved interfacial adhesion for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we demonstrated the excellent blending of biodegradable, amphiphilic poly(D,L-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) (PELA) triblock co-polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA) and the fabrication of high-quality rapid prototyped 3D macroporous composite scaffolds using an unmodified consumer-grade 3D printer. The rapid prototyped HA-PELA composite scaffolds and the PELA control (without HA) swelled (66% and 44% volume increases, respectively) and stiffened (1.38-fold and 4-fold increases in compressive modulus, respectively) in water. To test the hypothesis that the hydration-induced physical changes can translate into self-fixation properties of the scaffolds within a confined defect, a straightforward in vitro pull-out test was designed to quantify the peak force required to dislodge these scaffolds from a simulated cylindrical defect at dry versus wet states. Consistent with our hypothesis, the peak fixation force measured for the PELA and HA-PELA scaffolds increased 6-fold and 15-fold upon hydration, respectively. Furthermore, we showed that

  1. Accessible bioprinting: adaptation of a low-cost 3D-printer for precise cell placement and stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Reid, John A; Mollica, Peter A; Johnson, Garett D; Ogle, Roy C; Bruno, Robert D; Sachs, Patrick C

    2016-06-07

    The precision and repeatability offered by computer-aided design and computer-numerically controlled techniques in biofabrication processes is quickly becoming an industry standard. However, many hurdles still exist before these techniques can be used in research laboratories for cellular and molecular biology applications. Extrusion-based bioprinting systems have been characterized by high development costs, injector clogging, difficulty achieving small cell number deposits, decreased cell viability, and altered cell function post-printing. To circumvent the high-price barrier to entry of conventional bioprinters, we designed and 3D printed components for the adaptation of an inexpensive 'off-the-shelf' commercially available 3D printer. We also demonstrate via goal based computer simulations that the needle geometries of conventional commercially standardized, 'luer-lock' syringe-needle systems cause many of the issues plaguing conventional bioprinters. To address these performance limitations we optimized flow within several microneedle geometries, which revealed a short tapered injector design with minimal cylindrical needle length was ideal to minimize cell strain and accretion. We then experimentally quantified these geometries using pulled glass microcapillary pipettes and our modified, low-cost 3D printer. This systems performance validated our models exhibiting: reduced clogging, single cell print resolution, and maintenance of cell viability without the use of a sacrificial vehicle. Using this system we show the successful printing of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into Geltrex and note their retention of a pluripotent state 7 d post printing. We also show embryoid body differentiation of hiPSC by injection into differentiation conducive environments, wherein we observed continuous growth, emergence of various evaginations, and post-printing gene expression indicative of the presence of all three germ layers. These data demonstrate an

  2. Rapid prototyping applications for manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{sup TM} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{sup TM} resin and software, we experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible using this technology to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable first article and small lot size production parts. We use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This report will focus on our successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  3. 3D-printing of pH-responsive and functional polymers on an affordable desktop printer.

    PubMed

    Nadgorny, Milena; Xiao, Zeyun; Chen, Chao; Connal, Luke A

    2016-10-03

    In this work we describe the synthesis, thermal and rheological characterization, hot-melt extrusion and three-dimensional printing (3DP) of poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP). We investigate the effect of thermal processing conditions on physical properties of produced filaments in order to achieve high quality, 3D- printable filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM). We 3D-print P2VP filaments using an affordable 3D printer. The pyridine moieties are crosslinked and quaternized post-printing to form 3D-printed pH-responsive hydrogels. The printed objects exhibited dynamic and reversible pH-dependent swelling. These hydrogels act as flow regulating valves, controlling the flow rate with pH. Additionally, a macroporous P2VP membrane was 3D-printed and the coordinating ability of the pyridyl groups was harassed to immobilize silver precursors on its surface. After the reduction of silver ions, the structure was used to catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol with a high efficiency. This is a facile technique to print recyclable catalytic objects.

  4. Construction of Realistic Liver Phantoms from Patient Images using 3D Printer and Its Application in CT Image Quality Assessment.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Vrieze, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Joel; Chen, Baiyu; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use 3D printing techniques to construct a realistic liver phantom with heterogeneous background and anatomic structures from patient CT images, and to use the phantom to assess image quality with filtered backprojection and iterative reconstruction algorithms. Patient CT images were segmented into liver tissues, contrast-enhanced vessels, and liver lesions using commercial software, based on which stereolithography (STL) files were created and sent to a commercial 3D printer. A 3D liver phantom was printed after assigning different printing materials to each object to simulate appropriate attenuation of each segmented object. As high opacity materials are not available for the printer, we printed hollow vessels and filled them with iodine solutions of adjusted concentration to represent enhance levels in contrast-enhanced liver scans. The printed phantom was then placed in a 35×26 cm oblong-shaped water phantom and scanned repeatedly at 4 dose levels. Images were reconstructed using standard filtered backprojection and an iterative reconstruction algorithm with 3 different strength settings. Heterogeneous liver background were observed from the CT images and the difference in CT numbers between lesions and background were representative for low contrast lesions in liver CT studies. CT numbers in vessels filled with iodine solutions represented the enhancement of liver arteries and veins. Images were run through a Channelized Hotelling model observer with Garbor channels and ROC analysis was performed. The AUC values showed performance improvement using the iterative reconstruction algorithm and the amount of improvement increased with strength setting.

  5. Construction of realistic liver phantoms from patient images using 3D printer and its application in CT image quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Vrieze, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Joel; Chen, Baiyu; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to use 3D printing techniques to construct a realistic liver phantom with heterogeneous background and anatomic structures from patient CT images, and to use the phantom to assess image quality with filtered back-projection and iterative reconstruction algorithms. Patient CT images were segmented into liver tissues, contrast-enhanced vessels, and liver lesions using commercial software, based on which stereolithography (STL) files were created and sent to a commercial 3D printer. A 3D liver phantom was printed after assigning different printing materials to each object to simulate appropriate attenuation of each segmented object. As high opacity materials are not available for the printer, we printed hollow vessels and filled them with iodine solutions of adjusted concentration to represent enhance levels in contrast-enhanced liver scans. The printed phantom was then placed in a 35×26 cm oblong-shaped water phantom and scanned repeatedly at 4 dose levels. Images were reconstructed using standard filtered back-projection and an iterative reconstruction algorithm with 3 different strength settings. Heterogeneous liver background were observed from the CT images and the difference in CT numbers between lesions and background were representative for low contrast lesions in liver CT studies. CT numbers in vessels filled with iodine solutions represented the enhancement of liver arteries and veins. Images were run through a Channelized Hotelling model observer with Garbor channels and ROC analysis was performed. The AUC values showed performance improvement using the iterative reconstruction algorithm and the amount of improvement increased with strength setting.

  6. Airborne particle emission of a commercial 3D printer: the effect of filament material and printing temperature.

    PubMed

    Stabile, L; Scungio, M; Buonanno, G; Arpino, F; Ficco, G

    2017-03-01

    The knowledge of exposure to the airborne particle emitted from three-dimensional (3D) printing activities is becoming a crucial issue due to the relevant spreading of such devices in recent years. To this end, a low-cost desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) principle was used. Particle number, alveolar-deposited surface area, and mass concentrations were measured continuously during printing processes to evaluate particle emission rates (ERs) and factors. Particle number distribution measurements were also performed to characterize the size of the emitted particles. Ten different materials and different extrusion temperatures were considered in the survey. Results showed that all the investigated materials emit particles in the ultrafine range (with a mode in the 10-30-nm range), whereas no emission of super-micron particles was detected for all the materials under investigation. The emission was affected strongly by the extrusion temperature. In fact, the ERs increase as the extrusion temperature increases. Emission rates up to 1×10(12)  particles min(-1) were calculated. Such high ERs were estimated to cause large alveolar surface area dose in workers when 3D activities run. In fact, a 40-min-long 3D printing was found to cause doses up to 200 mm(2) .

  7. Individualized Surgical Approach Planning for Petroclival Tumors Using a 3D Printer.

    PubMed

    Muelleman, Thomas John; Peterson, Jeremy; Chowdhury, Naweed Iffat; Gorup, Jason; Camarata, Paul; Lin, James

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To determine the utility of three-dimensional (3D) printed models in individualized petroclival tumor resection planning by measuring the fidelity of printed anatomical structures and comparing tumor exposure afforded by different approaches. Design Case series and review of the literature. Setting Tertiary care center. Participants Three patients with petroclival lesions. Main Outcome Measures Subjective opinion of access by neuro-otologists and neurosurgeons as well as surface area of tumor exposure. Results Surgeons found the 3D models of each patient's skull and tumor useful for preoperative planning. Limitations of individual surgical approaches not identified through preoperative imaging were apparent after 3D models were evaluated. Significant variability in exposure was noted between models for similar or identical approaches. A notable drawback is that our printing process did not replicate mastoid air cells. Conclusions We found that 3D modeling is useful for individualized preoperative planning for approaching petroclival tumors. Our printing techniques did produce authentic replicas of the tumors in relation to bony structures.

  8. Comparison of laser-based rapid prototyping techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Hugh; Wimpenny, David

    2002-04-01

    A diverse range of Rapid Prototyping, or layer manufacturing techniques have evolved since the introduction of the first process in the late 1980s. Many, although not all, rapid prototyping processes rely on lasers to provide a localised and controllable source of light for curing a liquid photopolymer or heat to fuse thermoplastic powders to form objects. This paper will provide an overview of laser based rapid prototyping methods and discuss the future direction of this technology in light of the threats posed by low cost 3D printing techniques and the opportunity for the direct manufacture of metal components.

  9. Emissions of Nanoparticles and Gaseous Material from 3D Printer Operation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuna; Yoon, Chungsik; Ham, Seunghon; Park, Jihoon; Kim, Songha; Kwon, Ohhun; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2015-10-20

    This study evaluated the emissions characteristics of hazardous material during fused deposition modeling type 3D printing. Particulate and gaseous materials were measured before, during, and after 3D printing in an exposure chamber. One ABS and two PLA (PLA1 and PLA2) cartridges were tested three times. For online monitoring, a scanning mobility particle sizer, light scattering instrument, and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) monitor were employed and a polycarbonate filter and various adsorbent tubes were used for offline sampling. The particle concentration of 3D printing using ABS material was 33-38 times higher than when PLA materials were used. Most particles were nanosize (<100 nm) during ABS (96%) and PLA1 (98%) use, but only 12% were nanosize for PLA2. The emissions rates were 1.61 × 10(10) ea/min and 1.67 × 10(11) ea/g cartridge with the ABS cartridge and 4.27-4.89 × 10(8) ea/min and 3.77-3.91 × 10(9) ea/g cartridge with the PLA cartridge. TVOCs were also emitted when the ABS was used (GM; 155 ppb, GSD; 3.4), but not when the PLA cartridges were used. Our results suggest that more research and sophisticated control methods, including the use of less harmful materials, blocking emitted containments, and using filters or adsorbents, should be implemented.

  10. International Space Station (ISS) 3D Printer Performance and Material Characterization Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, Q. A.; Cooper, K. G.; Edmunson, J. E.; Johnston, M. M.; Werkheiser, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    In order for human exploration of the Solar System to be sustainable, manufacturing of necessary items on-demand in space or on planetary surfaces will be a requirement. As a first step towards this goal, the 3D Printing In Zero-G (3D Print) technology demonstration made the first items fabricated in space on the International Space Station. From those items, and comparable prints made on the ground, information about the microgravity effects on the printing process can be determined. Lessons learned from this technology demonstration will be applicable to other in-space manufacturing technologies, and may affect the terrestrial manufacturing industry as well. The flight samples were received at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center on 6 April 2015. These samples will undergo a series of tests designed to not only thoroughly characterize the samples, but to identify microgravity effects manifested during printing by comparing their results to those of samples printed on the ground. Samples will be visually inspected, photographed, scanned with structured light, and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples will be analyzed with computed tomography; some will be assessed using ASTM standard tests. These tests will provide the information required to determine the effects of microgravity on 3D printing in microgravity.

  11. Fabrication of a three dimensional particle focusing microfluidic device using a 3D printer, PDMS, and glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Robyn; Rosen, Daniel; Shirk, Kathryn

    Microfluidic devices have high importance in fields such as bioanalysis because they can manipulate volumes of fluid in the range of microliters to picoliters. Small samples can be quickly and easily tested using complex microfluidic devices. Typically, these devices are created through lithography techniques, which can be costly and time consuming. It has been shown that inexpensive microfluidic devices can be produced quickly using a 3D printer and PDMS. However, a size limitation prohibits the fabrication of precisely controlled microchannels. By using shrinking materials in combination with 3D printing of flow-focusing geometries, this limitation can be overcome. This research seeks to employ these techniques to quickly fabricate an inexpensive, working device with three dimensional particle focusing capabilities. By modifying the channel geometry, colloidal particles in a solution will be focused into a single beam when passed through this device. The ability to focus particles is necessary for a variety of biological applications which requires precise detection and characterization of particles in a sample. We would like to thank the Shippensburg University Undergraduate Research Grant Program for their generous funding.

  12. A Patient-Specific Polylactic Acid Bolus Made by a 3D Printer for Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Min; Chun, MinSoo; Han, Ji Hye; Kim, Jung-in

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and advantages of a patient-specific breast bolus made using a 3D printer technique. Methods We used the anthropomorphic female phantom with breast attachments, which volumes are 200, 300, 400, 500 and 650 cc. We simulated the treatment for a right breast patient using parallel opposed tangential fields. Treatment plans were used to investigate the effect of unwanted air gaps under bolus on the dose distribution of the whole breast. The commercial Super-Flex bolus and 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) bolus were applied to investigate the skin dose of the breast with the MOSFET measurement. Two boluses of 3 and 5 mm thicknesses were selected. Results There was a good agreement between the dose distribution for a virtual bolus generated by the TPS and PLA bolus. The difference in dose distribution between the virtual bolus and Super-Flex bolus was significant within the bolus and breast due to unwanted air gaps. The average differences between calculated and measured doses in a 200 and 300 cc with PLA bolus were not significant, which were -0.7% and -0.6% for 3mm, and -1.1% and -1.1% for 5 mm, respectively. With the Super-Flex bolus, however, significant dose differences were observed (-5.1% and -3.2% for 3mm, and -6.3% and -4.2% for 5 mm). Conclusion The 3D-printed solid bolus can reduce the uncertainty of the daily setup and help to overcome the dose discrepancy by unwanted air gaps in the breast cancer radiation therapy. PMID:27930717

  13. Bone Regenerative Medicine in Oral and Maxillofacial Region Using a 3D Printer.

    PubMed

    Hikita, Atsuhiko; Chung, Ung-Il; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-29

    Bone grafts currently used for the treatment of large bone defect or asymmetry in oral and maxillofacial region include autologous, allogenic and artificial bones. Although artificial bone is free from the concerns of donor site morbidity, limitation of volume, disease transmission and ethical issues, it lacks osteogenic and osteoinductive activities. In addition, molding of the artificial bone is an issue especially when it is used for the augmentation of bone as onlay grafts. To solve this problem, additive manufacturing techniques have been applied to fabricate bones which have outer shapes conformed to patients' bones. We developed a custom-made artificial bone called a CT-bone. Efficacy of CT-bone was proven in a clinical research and clinical trial, showing a good manipulability, stability and patient satisfaction. However, low replacement rate of artificial bones by endogenous bones remain an unsolved issue. Loading of cells and growth factors will improve the bone replacement by inducing ostogenic and osteoinductive activities. In addition, the 3D bioprinting technique will facilitate bone regeneration by placing cells and biological substances into appropriate sites.

  14. Quantitative assessment of biophotonic imaging system performance with phantoms fabricated by rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianting; Coburn, James; Woolsey, Nicholas; Liang, Chia-Pin; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    In biophotonic imaging, turbid phantoms that are low-cost, biologically-relevant, and durable are desired for standardized performance assessment. Such phantoms often contain inclusions of varying depths and sizes in order to quantify key image quality characteristics such as penetration depth, sensitivity and contrast detectability. The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3D) printers provides a potentially revolutionary way to fabricate these structures. Towards this goal, we have characterized the optical properties and morphology of phantoms fabricated by two 3D printing approaches: thermosoftening and photopolymerization. Material optical properties were measured by spectrophotometry while the morphology of phantoms incorporating 0.2-1.0 mm diameter channels was studied by μCT, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical microscopy. A near-infrared absorbing dye and nanorods at several concentrations were injected into channels to evaluate detectability with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) system (650-1100 nm). Phantoms exhibited biologically-relevant scattering and low absorption across visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Although limitations in resolution were noted, channels with diameters of 0.4 mm or more could be reliably fabricated. The most significant problem noted was the porosity of phantoms generated with the thermosoftening-based printer. The aforementioned three imaging methods provided a valuable mix of insights into phantom morphology and may also be useful for detailed structural inspection of medical devices fabricated by rapid prototyping, such as customized implants. Overall, our findings indicate that 3D printing has significant potential as a method for fabricating well-characterized, standard phantoms for medical imaging modalities such as HRI.

  15. Vision-Based 3D Motion Estimation for On-Orbit Proximity Satellite Tracking and Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    printed using the Fortus 400mc 3D rapid- prototyping printer of the NPS Space Systems Academic Group, while the internal structure is made of aluminum...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited VISION-BASED 3D ...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VISION-BASED 3D MOTION ESTIMATION FOR ON-ORBIT PROXIMITY SATELLITE TRACKING

  16. Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

  17. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-04-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena.

  18. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S.; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena. PMID:26015715

  19. Rapid prototyping of compliant human aortic roots for assessment of valved stents.

    PubMed

    Kalejs, Martins; von Segesser, Ludwig Karl

    2009-02-01

    Adequate in-vitro training in valved stents deployment as well as testing of the latter devices requires compliant real-size models of the human aortic root. The casting methods utilized up to now are multi-step, time consuming and complicated. We pursued a goal of building a flexible 3D model in a single-step procedure. We created a precise 3D CAD model of a human aortic root using previously published anatomical and geometrical data and printed it using a novel rapid prototyping system developed by the Fab@Home project. As a material for 3D fabrication we used common house-hold silicone and afterwards dip-coated several models with dispersion silicone one or two times. To assess the production precision we compared the size of the final product with the CAD model. Compliance of the models was measured and compared with native porcine aortic root. Total fabrication time was 3 h and 20 min. Dip-coating one or two times with dispersion silicone if applied took one or two extra days, respectively. The error in dimensions of non-coated aortic root model compared to the CAD design was <3.0% along X, Y-axes and 4.1% along Z-axis. Compliance of a non-coated model as judged by the changes of radius values in the radial direction by 16.39% is significantly different (P<0.001) from native aortic tissue--23.54% at the pressure of 80-100 mmHg. Rapid prototyping of compliant, life-size anatomical models with the Fab@Home 3D printer is feasible--it is very quick compared to previous casting methods.

  20. Review, Selection and Installation of a Rapid Prototype Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEndree, Caryl

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to impress upon the reader the benefits and advantages of investing in rapid prototyping (additive manufacturing) technology thru the procurement of one or two new rapid prototyping machines and the creation of a new Prototype and Model Lab at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This new resource will be available to all of United Space Alliance, LLC (USA), enabling engineers from around the company to pursue a more effective means of communication and design with our co-workers, and our customer, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Rapid Protoyping/3D printing industry mirrors the transition the CAD industry made several years ago, when companies were trying to justify the expenditure of converting to a 3D based system from a 2D based system. The advantages of using a 3D system seemed to be outweighed by the cost it would take to convert not only legacy 2D drawings into 3D models but the training of personnel to use the 3D CAD software. But the reality was that when a 3D CAD system is employed, it gives engineers a much greater ability to conceive new designs and the ability to engineer new tools and products much more effectively. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is the name given to a host of related technologies that are used to fabricate physical objects directly from Computer Aided Design (CAD) data sources. These methods are generally similar to each other in that they add and bond materials in a layer wise-fashion to form objects, instead of machining away material. The machines used in Rapid Prototyping are also sometimes referred to as Rapid Manufacturing machines due to the fact that some of the parts fabricated in a RP machine can be used as the finished product. The name "Rapid Prototyping" is really a misnomer. It is much more than prototypes and it is not always rapid.

  1. Anatomical Reproducibility of a Head Model Molded by a Three-dimensional Printer.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Kosuke; Nemoto, Masaaki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okonogi, Shinichi; Nomoto, Jun; Harada, Naoyuki; Sugo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Chikao

    2015-01-01

    We prepared rapid prototyping models of heads with unruptured cerebral aneurysm based on image data of computed tomography angiography (CTA) using a three-dimensional (3D) printer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical reproducibility and accuracy of these models by comparison with the CTA images on a monitor. The subjects were 22 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm who underwent preoperative CTA. Reproducibility of the microsurgical anatomy of skull bone and arteries, the length and thickness of the main arteries, and the size of cerebral aneurysm were compared between the CTA image and rapid prototyping model. The microsurgical anatomy and arteries were favorably reproduced, apart from a few minute regions, in the rapid prototyping models. No significant difference was noted in the measured lengths of the main arteries between the CTA image and rapid prototyping model, but errors were noted in their thickness (p < 0.001). A significant difference was also noted in the longitudinal diameter of the cerebral aneurysm (p < 0.01). Regarding the CTA image as the gold standard, reproducibility of the microsurgical anatomy of skull bone and main arteries was favorable in the rapid prototyping models prepared using a 3D printer. It was concluded that these models are useful tools for neurosurgical simulation. The thickness of the main arteries and size of cerebral aneurysm should be comprehensively judged including other neuroimaging in consideration of errors.

  2. Anatomical Reproducibility of a Head Model Molded by a Three-dimensional Printer

    PubMed Central

    KONDO, Kosuke; NEMOTO, Masaaki; MASUDA, Hiroyuki; OKONOGI, Shinichi; NOMOTO, Jun; HARADA, Naoyuki; SUGO, Nobuo; MIYAZAKI, Chikao

    We prepared rapid prototyping models of heads with unruptured cerebral aneurysm based on image data of computed tomography angiography (CTA) using a three-dimensional (3D) printer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical reproducibility and accuracy of these models by comparison with the CTA images on a monitor. The subjects were 22 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm who underwent preoperative CTA. Reproducibility of the microsurgical anatomy of skull bone and arteries, the length and thickness of the main arteries, and the size of cerebral aneurysm were compared between the CTA image and rapid prototyping model. The microsurgical anatomy and arteries were favorably reproduced, apart from a few minute regions, in the rapid prototyping models. No significant difference was noted in the measured lengths of the main arteries between the CTA image and rapid prototyping model, but errors were noted in their thickness (p < 0.001). A significant difference was also noted in the longitudinal diameter of the cerebral aneurysm (p < 0.01). Regarding the CTA image as the gold standard, reproducibility of the microsurgical anatomy of skull bone and main arteries was favorable in the rapid prototyping models prepared using a 3D printer. It was concluded that these models are useful tools for neurosurgical simulation. The thickness of the main arteries and size of cerebral aneurysm should be comprehensively judged including other neuroimaging in consideration of errors. PMID:26119896

  3. A feasibility study for using ABS plastic and a low-cost 3D printer for patient-specific brachytherapy mould design.

    PubMed

    Harris, Benjamin D; Nilsson, Sanna; Poole, Christopher M

    2015-09-01

    This feasibility study aims to determine if a low-cost 3D printer (BitsFromBytes 3D Touch) with ABS plastic can print custom mould structures and catheter channels defined in a brachytherapy treatment planning system (Nucletron Oncentra) for patient-specific treatment. Printer accuracy was evaluated through physical measurement, and print quality was investigated by adjusting print parameters (print speed, layer thickness, percentage infill). Catheter positioning and reproducibility were measured over repeated insertions. ABS plastic water equivalency was investigated by comparing Ir-192 HDR source dose distributions, measured with radiochromic film, in ABS plastic and in water. Structures and catheter channels were printed accurately to within 0.5 mm laterally and 1 mm in the vertical print direction. Adjusting print parameters could reduce print time, albeit with reduced print quality. 3.5 mm channel diameters allowed for easy catheter insertion. Catheter positioning was reproducible to within 0.5 mm but, because of catheter flex within the channel, was on average 1 mm offset from defined TPS positions. This offset could be accounted for by repeating the treatment planning CT scan with the printed mould positioned on the patient. Dose attenuation in ABS plastic and in water was equivalent to within the measurement limitations. While clinical uses for this particular low-cost printer and ABS plastic are limited by print size restrictions and non-certification for biocompatibility, it has been demonstrated that a low-cost 3D printer set-up can accurately create custom moulds and catheter channels potentially acceptable for clinical use.

  4. The first systematic analysis of 3D rapid prototyped poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds manufactured through BioCell printing: the effect of pore size and geometry on compressive mechanical behaviour and in vitro hMSC viability.

    PubMed

    Domingos, M; Intranuovo, F; Russo, T; De Santis, R; Gloria, A; Ambrosio, L; Ciurana, J; Bartolo, P

    2013-12-01

    Novel additive manufacturing processes are increasingly recognized as ideal techniques to produce 3D biodegradable structures with optimal pore size and spatial distribution, providing an adequate mechanical support for tissue regeneration while shaping in-growing tissues. With regard to the mechanical and biological performances of 3D scaffolds, pore size and geometry play a crucial role. In this study, a novel integrated automated system for the production and in vitro culture of 3D constructs, known as BioCell Printing, was used only to manufacture poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds for tissue engineering; the influence of pore size and shape on their mechanical and biological performances was investigated. Imposing a single lay-down pattern of 0°/90° and varying the filament distance, it was possible to produce scaffolds with square interconnected pores with channel sizes falling in the range of 245-433 µm, porosity 49-57% and a constant road width. Three different lay-down patterns were also adopted (0°/90°, 0°/60/120° and 0°/45°/90°/135°), thus resulting in scaffolds with quadrangular, triangular and complex internal geometries, respectively. Mechanical compression tests revealed a decrease of scaffold stiffness with the increasing porosity and number of deposition angles (from 0°/90° to 0°/45°/90°/135°). Results from biological analysis, carried out using human mesenchymal stem cells, suggest a strong influence of pore size and geometry on cell viability. On the other hand, after 21 days of in vitro static culture, it was not possible to detect any significant variation in terms of cell morphology promoted by scaffold topology. As a first systematic analysis, the obtained results clearly demonstrate the potential of the BioCell Printing process to produce 3D scaffolds with reproducible well organized architectures and tailored mechanical properties.

  5. Rapid prototyping: A paradigm shift in investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Pardo, B.T.

    1996-09-01

    The quest for fabricating complex metal parts rapidly and with minimal cost has brought rapid prototyping (RP) processes to the forefront of the investment casting industry. Relatively recent advances in DTM Corporation`s selective laser sintering (SLS) and 3D Systems stereolithography (SL) processes have had a significant impact on the overall quality of patterns produced using these rapid prototyping processes. Sandia National Laboratories uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype and small lot production parts in support of a program called FASTCAST. The SLS process is used to fabricate patterns from materials such as investment casting wax, polycarbonate, and a new material called TrueForm PM{trademark}. With the timely introduction of each of these materials, the quality of patterns fabricated has improved. The development and implementation of SL QuickCast{trademark} software has enabled this process to produce highly accurate patterns for use in investment casting. This paper focuses on the successes with these new pattern materials and the infrastructure required to cast rapid prototyping patterns successfully. In addition, a brief overview of other applications of rapid prototyping at Sandia will be discussed.

  6. WE-F-16A-06: Using 3D Printers to Create Complex Phantoms for Dose Verification, Quality Assurance, and Treatment Planning System Commissioning in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kassaee, A; Ding, X; McDonough, J; Reiche, M; Witztum, A; Teo, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To use 3D printers to design and construct complex geometrical phantoms for commissioning treatment planning systems, dose calculation algorithms, quality assurance (QA), dose delivery, and patient dose verifications. Methods: In radiotherapy, complex geometrical phantoms are often required for dose verification, dose delivery and calculation algorithm validation. Presently, fabrication of customized phantoms is limited due to time, expense and challenges in machining of complex shapes. In this work, we designed and utilized 3D printers to fabricate two phantoms for QA purposes. One phantom includes hills and valleys (HV) for verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy for photons, and protons (IMRT and IMPT). The other phantom includes cylindrical cavities (CC) of various sizes for dose verification of inhomogeneities. We evaluated the HV phantoms for an IMPT beam, and the CC phantom to study various inhomogeneity configurations using photon, electron, and proton beams. Gafcromic ™ films were used to quantify the dose distributions delivered to the phantoms. Results: The HV phantom has dimensions of 12 cm × 12 cm and consists of one row and one column of five peaks with heights ranging from 2 to 5 cm. The CC phantom has a size 10 cm × 14 cm and includes 6 cylindrical cavities with length of 7.2 cm and diameters ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 cm. The IMPT evaluation using the HV phantom shows good agreement as compared to the dose distribution calculated with treatment planning system. The CC phantom also shows reasonable agreements for using different algorithms for each beam modalities. Conclusion: 3D printers with submillimiter resolutions are capable of printing complex phantoms for dose verification and QA in radiotherapy. As printing costs decrease and the technology becomes widely available, phantom design and construction will be readily available to any clinic for testing geometries that were not previously feasible.

  7. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a “Low-Cost” 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. Results The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Conclusions Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID:27003456

  8. How accurate are rapid prototyped (RP) final orthognathic surgical wafers? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shqaidef, Abedalrahman; Ayoub, Ashraf F; Khambay, Balvinder S

    2014-09-01

    Computer packages have been introduced to simulate the movements of the jaw in three dimensions to facilitate planning of treatment. After final 3-dimensional virtual planning, a rapid prototype wafer can be manufactured and used in theatre. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of rapid prototyping of virtual wafers derived from laser scanned dental models using CAD/CAM software. Upper and lower plaster models from 10 orthognathic patients, the articulated models, and the conventional wafers were scanned. The virtual wafers were made from CAD/CAM software, and printed on a stereolithographic printer. We also scanned the articulated models with rapid prototype wafers in place. The validity of the final rapid prototype wafer was measured by the accuracy with which upper and lower models related to one another. The absolute mean error of the rapid prototype wafer when aligned with the dental models was 0.94 (0.09) mm. The absolute distance of the 2 models articulated by conventional and rapid prototype wafers ranged from 0.04 - 1.73mm. The rapid prototype wafers were able to orientate the upper and lower dental models with an absolute mean error of 0.94 (0.09) mm, but it ranged from 0.04-1.73mm.

  9. Development of gel materials with high transparency and mechanical strength for use with a 3D gel printer SWIM-ER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Taishi; Okada, Koji; Takamatsu, Kyuichiro; Saito, Azusa; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    Medical doctors use artificial blood vessels and organ models, which are usually made of plastic, to explain operations to students, or patients awaiting treatment. However, there are some problems such as the high cost of making the model and there is not a realistic feel because the model is hard. These problems can be solved using soft and wet material for instance gel. Gels are materials with unique properties such as transparency, biocompatibility, and low friction. In recent years, high strength gel has been developed and is expected to be applied in medical fields in the future. Artificial models of gel can be produced by 3D gel printers. Our group has been developing a 3D gel printer with 1mm precision in printing, but the shape, size and mechanical strength are not sufficient for medical models. In this study, we overcome these problems and make a gel model which is transparent, mechanically strong with a fine shape. The strength and molding accuracy is improved by changing and preparing the cross linker and ultraviolet absorber. We conducted mechanical and molding tests to confirm that the gel material properties improved.

  10. Rapid prototyping of scaphoid and lunate bones.

    PubMed

    Gittard, Shaun D; Narayan, Roger J; Lusk, Jason; Morel, Pierre; Stockmans, Filip; Ramsey, Michael; Laverde, Claire; Phillips, Jack; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Chichkov, Boris N

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel rapid prototyping technology was used to fabricate scaphoid and lunate bone prostheses, two carpal bones that are prone to avascular necrosis. Carpal prostheses were fabricated with an Envisiontec Perfactory SXGA stereolithography system using Envisiontec eShell 200 photocurable polymer. Fabrication was guided using 3-D models, which were generated using Mimics software (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) from patient computer tomography data. The prostheses were fabricated in a layer-by-layer manner; approximately 50-microm thick layers were observed in the prostheses. Hardness and Young's modulus values of polymerized eShell 200 material were 93.8 +/- 7.25 MPa and 3050 +/- 90 MPa, respectively. The minimum compressive force required for fracture was 1360 N for the scaphoid prosthesis and 1248 N for the lunate prosthesis. Polymerized Envisiontec eShell material exhibited high human neonatal epidermal keratinocyte cell viability rate in an MTT assay. The results of this study indicate that small bone prostheses fabricated by stereolithography using eShell 200 polymer may have suitable geometry, mechanical properties, and cytocompatibility properties for in vivo use.

  11. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  12. Femur Model Reconstruction Based on Reverse Engineering and Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tongming; Zhang, Zheng; Ni, Hongjun; Deng, Jiawen; Huang, Mingyu

    Precise reconstruction of 3D models is fundamental and crucial to the researches of human femur. In this paper we present our approach towards tackling this problem. The surface of a human femur was scanned using a hand-held 3D laser scanner. The data obtained, in the form of point cloud, was then processed using the reverse engineering software Geomagic and the CAD/CAM software CimatronE to reconstruct a digital 3D model. The digital model was then used by the rapid prototyping machine to build a physical model of human femur using 3D printing. The geometric characteristics of the obtained physical model matched that of the original femur. The process of "physical object - 3D data - digital 3D model - physical model" presented in this paper provides a foundation of precise modeling for the digital manufacturing, virtual assembly, stress analysis, and simulated surgery of artificial bionic femurs.

  13. Utilization of a 3D printer to fabricate boluses used for electron therapy of skin lesions of the eye canthi.

    PubMed

    Łukowiak, Magdalena; Jezierska, Karolina; Boehlke, Marek; Więcko, Marzena; Łukowiak, Adam; Podraza, Wojciech; Lewocki, Mirosław; Masojć, Bartłomiej; Falco, Michał

    2017-01-01

    This work describes the use of 3D printing technology to create individualized boluses for patients treated with electron beam therapy for skin lesions of the eye canthi. It aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D-printed over manually fabricated paraffin boluses. The study involved 11 patients for whom the construction of individual boluses were required. CT scans of the fabricated 3D-printed boluses and paraffin boluses were acquired and superimposed onto patient CT scans to compare their fitting, bolus homogeneity, and underlying dose distribution. To quantify the level of matching, multiple metrics were utilized. Matching Level Index (ML) values ranged from 0 to 100%, where 100% indicated a perfect fit between the reference bolus (planned in treatment planning system) and 3D-printed and paraffin bolus. The average ML (± 1 SD) of the 3D-printed boluses was 95.1 ± 2.1%, compared to 46.0 ± 10.1% for the manually fabricated paraffin bolus. Correspondingly, mean doses were closer to the prescribed doses, and dose spreads were less for the dose distributions from the 3D-printed boluses, as compared to those for the manually fabricated paraffin boluses. It was concluded that 3D-printing technology is a viable method for fabricating boluses for small eye lesions and provides boluses superior to our boluses manually fabricated from paraffin sheets.

  14. Scaffold-Free Tubular Tissues Created by a Bio-3D Printer Undergo Remodeling and Endothelialization when Implanted in Rat Aortae

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Manabu; Nakayama, Koichi; Noguchi, Ryo; Kamohara, Keiji; Furukawa, Kojirou; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Toda, Shuji; Oyama, Jun-ichi; Node, Koichi; Morita, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Background Small caliber vascular prostheses are not clinically available because synthetic vascular prostheses lack endothelial cells which modulate platelet activation, leukocyte adhesion, thrombosis, and the regulation of vasomotor tone by the production of vasoactive substances. We developed a novel method to create scaffold-free tubular tissue from multicellular spheroids (MCS) using a “Bio-3D printer”-based system. This system enables the creation of pre-designed three-dimensional structures using a computer controlled robotics system. With this system, we created a tubular structure and studied its biological features. Methods and Results Using a “Bio-3D printer,” we made scaffold-free tubular tissues (inner diameter of 1.5 mm) from a total of 500 MCSs (2.5× 104 cells per one MCS) composed of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (40%), human aortic smooth muscle cells (10%), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (50%). The tubular tissues were cultured in a perfusion system and implanted into the abdominal aortas of F344 nude rats. We assessed the flow by ultrasonography and performed histological examinations on the second (n = 5) and fifth (n = 5) day after implantation. All grafts were patent and remodeling of the tubular tissues (enlargement of the lumen area and thinning of the wall) was observed. A layer of endothelial cells was confirmed five days after implantation. Conclusions The scaffold-free tubular tissues made of MCS using a Bio-3D printer underwent remodeling and endothelialization. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of endothelialization and its function, as well as the long-term results. PMID:26325298

  15. Patient specific ankle-foot orthoses using rapid prototyping

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. Methods In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Results Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. Conclusions The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait). The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required. PMID:21226898

  16. Preliminary Component Integration Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Salvail, Pat; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a very important tool that should be used by both design and manufacturing disciplines during the development of elements for the aerospace industry. It helps prevent lack of adequate communication between design and manufacturing engineers (which could lead to costly errors) through mutual consideration of functional models generated from drawings. Rapid prototyping techniques are used to test hardware for design and material compatibility at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  17. Open Labware: 3-D printing your own lab equipment.

    PubMed

    Baden, Tom; Chagas, Andre Maia; Gage, Gregory J; Gage, Greg; Marzullo, Timothy C; Marzullo, Timothy; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L; Euler, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The introduction of affordable, consumer-oriented 3-D printers is a milestone in the current "maker movement," which has been heralded as the next industrial revolution. Combined with free and open sharing of detailed design blueprints and accessible development tools, rapid prototypes of complex products can now be assembled in one's own garage--a game-changer reminiscent of the early days of personal computing. At the same time, 3-D printing has also allowed the scientific and engineering community to build the "little things" that help a lab get up and running much faster and easier than ever before.

  18. Open Labware: 3-D Printing Your Own Lab Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Tom; Chagas, Andre Maia; Gage, Greg; Marzullo, Timothy; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L.; Euler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of affordable, consumer-oriented 3-D printers is a milestone in the current “maker movement,” which has been heralded as the next industrial revolution. Combined with free and open sharing of detailed design blueprints and accessible development tools, rapid prototypes of complex products can now be assembled in one’s own garage—a game-changer reminiscent of the early days of personal computing. At the same time, 3-D printing has also allowed the scientific and engineering community to build the “little things” that help a lab get up and running much faster and easier than ever before. PMID:25794301

  19. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, M. Nafis O.; Y, Nafrizuan M.; A, Munira M.; J, Kartina

    2012-09-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  20. The digital code driven autonomous synthesis of ibuprofen automated in a 3D-printer-based robot.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-01-01

    An automated synthesis robot was constructed by modifying an open source 3D printing platform. The resulting automated system was used to 3D print reaction vessels (reactionware) of differing internal volumes using polypropylene feedstock via a fused deposition modeling 3D printing approach and subsequently make use of these fabricated vessels to synthesize the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen via a consecutive one-pot three-step approach. The synthesis of ibuprofen could be achieved on different scales simply by adjusting the parameters in the robot control software. The software for controlling the synthesis robot was written in the python programming language and hard-coded for the synthesis of ibuprofen by the method described, opening possibilities for the sharing of validated synthetic 'programs' which can run on similar low cost, user-constructed robotic platforms towards an 'open-source' regime in the area of chemical synthesis.

  1. The digital code driven autonomous synthesis of ibuprofen automated in a 3D-printer-based robot

    PubMed Central

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    An automated synthesis robot was constructed by modifying an open source 3D printing platform. The resulting automated system was used to 3D print reaction vessels (reactionware) of differing internal volumes using polypropylene feedstock via a fused deposition modeling 3D printing approach and subsequently make use of these fabricated vessels to synthesize the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen via a consecutive one-pot three-step approach. The synthesis of ibuprofen could be achieved on different scales simply by adjusting the parameters in the robot control software. The software for controlling the synthesis robot was written in the python programming language and hard-coded for the synthesis of ibuprofen by the method described, opening possibilities for the sharing of validated synthetic ‘programs’ which can run on similar low cost, user-constructed robotic platforms towards an ‘open-source’ regime in the area of chemical synthesis. PMID:28144350

  2. Using a modified 3D-printer for mapping the magnetic field of RF coils designed for fetal and neonatal imaging.

    PubMed

    Vavoulas, Alexander; Vaiopoulos, Nicholas; Hedström, Erik; Xanthis, Christos G; Sandalidis, Harilaos G; Aletras, Anthony H

    2016-08-01

    An experimental setup for characterizing the magnetic field of MRI RF coils was proposed and tested. The setup consisted of a specially configured 3D-printer, a network analyzer and a mid-performance desktop PC. The setup was tested on a single loop RF coil, part of a phased array for fetal imaging. Then, the setup was used for determining the magnetic field characteristics of a high-pass birdcage coil used for neonatal MR imaging with a vertical static field. The scattering parameter S21, converted into power ratio, was used for mapping the B1 magnetic field. The experimental measurements from the loop coil were close to the theoretical results (R=0.924). A high degree of homogeneity was measured for the neonatal birdcage RF coil. The development of MR RF coils is time consuming and resource intensive. The proposed experimental setup provides an alternative method for magnetic field characterization of RF coils used in MRI.

  3. Using a modified 3D-printer for mapping the magnetic field of RF coils designed for fetal and neonatal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavoulas, Alexander; Vaiopoulos, Nicholas; Hedström, Erik; Xanthis, Christos G.; Sandalidis, Harilaos G.; Aletras, Anthony H.

    2016-08-01

    An experimental setup for characterizing the magnetic field of MRI RF coils was proposed and tested. The setup consisted of a specially configured 3D-printer, a network analyzer and a mid-performance desktop PC. The setup was tested on a single loop RF coil, part of a phased array for fetal imaging. Then, the setup was used for determining the magnetic field characteristics of a high-pass birdcage coil used for neonatal MR imaging with a vertical static field. The scattering parameter S21, converted into power ratio, was used for mapping the B1 magnetic field. The experimental measurements from the loop coil were close to the theoretical results (R = 0.924). A high degree of homogeneity was measured for the neonatal birdcage RF coil. The development of MR RF coils is time consuming and resource intensive. The proposed experimental setup provides an alternative method for magnetic field characterization of RF coils used in MRI.

  4. Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Garrett E; Pandit, Abhay S; Apatsidis, Dimitrios P

    2008-09-01

    One of the main issues in orthopaedic implant design is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. This research reports on a multi-stage rapid prototyping technique that was successfully developed to produce porous titanium scaffolds with fully interconnected pore networks and reproducible porosity and pore size. The scaffolds' porous characteristics were governed by a sacrificial wax template, fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer. Powder metallurgy processes were employed to generate the titanium scaffolds by filling around the wax template with titanium slurry. In the attempt to optimise the powder metallurgy technique, variations in slurry concentration, compaction pressure and sintering temperature were investigated. By altering the wax design template, pore sizes ranging from 200 to 400 microm were achieved. Scaffolds with porosities of 66.8 +/- 3.6% revealed compression strengths of 104.4+/-22.5 MPa in the axial direction and 23.5 +/- 9.6 MPa in the transverse direction demonstrating their anisotropic nature. Scaffold topography was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and microcomputed tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction enabled the main architectural parameters such as pore size, interconnecting porosity, level of anisotropy and level of structural disorder to be determined. The titanium scaffolds were compared to their intended designs, as governed by their sacrificial wax templates. Although discrepancies in architectural parameters existed between the intended and the actual scaffolds, overall the results indicate that the porous titanium scaffolds have the properties to be potentially employed in orthopaedic applications.

  5. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  6. Utilizing Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirton, E. F.; Lavoie, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss our approach to, success with and future direction in rapid prototyping for architectural modeling. The premise that this emerging technology has broad and exciting applications in the building design and construction industry will be supported by visual and physical evidence. This evidence will be presented in the form of…

  7. PyTrilinos Rapid Prototyping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.

    2005-03-01

    PyTrilinos provides access to selected Trilinos packages from the python scripting language. This allows interactive and dynamic creation of Trilinos objects, rapid prototyping that does not require compilation, and "gluing" Trilinos scripts to other python modules, such as plotting, etc. The currently supported packages are Epetra, EpetraExt, and NOX.

  8. Relatively Inexpensive Rapid Prototyping of Small Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts with complex three-dimensional shapes and with dimensions up to 8 by 8 by 10 in. (20.3 by 20.3 by 25.4 cm) can be made as unitary pieces of a room-temperature-curing polymer, with relatively little investment in time and money, by a process now in use at Johnson Space Center. The process is one of a growing number of processes and techniques that are known collectively as the art of rapid prototyping. The main advantages of this process over other rapid-prototyping processes are greater speed and lower cost: There is no need to make paper drawings and take them to a shop for fabrication, and thus no need for the attendant paperwork and organizational delays. Instead, molds for desired parts are made automatically on a machine that is guided by data from a computer-aided design (CAD) system and can reside in an engineering office.

  9. Laser-assisted rapid prototyping in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathuria, Yash P.

    2002-04-01

    In the recent past years, developments in the rapid prototyping of various parts have taken new dynamic turns in manufacturing technology. Besides the use of new materials, unrelenting demands for the downsizing of miniature components in the micro-domain have expanded the application area of the rapid prototype product. Their requirements with reduced time lag have forced the manufacturers to adopt and develop innovative techniques which meet these demands. In order to overcome this problem, several techniques, predominantly laser stereolithography, have successfully been used in Japan for the past several years to generate a complex micro-/macro part of polymer resin based in two- or three-dimensional domains. The main disadvantage of this process is that they consist of two or more steps for producing metallic/metal-matrix composite microstructures. But recently developed new technologies of selective laser sintering/generating and ballistic particles manufacturing processes offer the possibility of the direct generation of these microstructures in a single step process. The last two processes actually have limitations on the feature size produced, due to the minimum size of the molten droplet. But the selective laser sintering technique can bind the particles by melting together at the interfacial grain contact area only and thus producing smaller feature sizes. Based upon these techniques, the present paper aims to review the current status and the future prospective of laser assisted rapid prototyping in Japan.

  10. Rapid prototyping applications at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1994-02-01

    In an effort to reduce the cycle time for producing prototypical mechanical and electro-mechanical components, Sandia National Laboratories has integrated rapid prototyping processes into the design and manufacturing process. The processes currently in operation within the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory are Stereolithography (SL), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Direct Shell Production Casting (DSPC). These emerging technologies have proven to be valuable tools for reducing lead times and fabrication costs. Sandia uses the SL and SLS processes to support internal product development efforts. Their primary use is to fabricate patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia-managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. The DSPC process is currently being developed as a method of fabricating ceramic investment casting molds directly from a CAD solid model. Sandia is an Alpha machine test site for this process. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. It will also provide a lead-in for a tour of the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory, where these processes will be demonstrated.

  11. 3D Digitization and Prototyping of the Skull for Practical Use in the Teaching of Human Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Maria Teresa Ugidos; Haro, Fernando Blaya; Diaz, Carlos Molino; Manzoor, Sadia; Ugidos, Gonzalo Ferrer; Mendez, Juan Antonio Juanes

    2017-05-01

    The creation of new rapid prototyping techniques, low cost 3D printers as well as the creation of new software for these techniques have allowed the creation of 3D models of bones making their application possible in the field of teaching anatomy in the faculties of Health Sciences. The 3D model of cranium created in the present work, at full scale, present accurate reliefs and anatomical details that are easily identifiable by undergraduate students in their use for the study of human anatomy. In this article, the process of scanning the skull and the subsequent treatment of these images with specific software until the generation of 3D model using 3D printer has been reported.

  12. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Sydney S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3–4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14–17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4–6 hr; printing = 9–11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1–5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes. PMID:26295459

  13. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    PubMed

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  14. Development of paper-based microfluidic analytical device for iron assay using photomask printed with 3D printer for fabrication of hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones on paper by photolithography.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hitoshi; Shiraishi, Yukihide

    2015-07-09

    This paper describes a paper-based microfluidic analytical device for iron assay using a photomask printed with a 3D printer for fabrication of hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones on the paper by photolithography. Several designed photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic analytical devices can be printed with a 3D printer easily, rapidly and inexpensively. A chromatography paper was impregnated with the octadecyltrichlorosilane n-hexane solution and hydrophobized. After the hydrophobic zone of the paper was exposed to the UV light through the photomask, the hydrophilic zone was generated. The smallest functional hydrophilic channel and hydrophobic barrier were ca. 500 μm and ca. 100 μm in width, respectively. The fabrication method has high stability, resolution and precision for hydrophilic channel and hydrophobic barrier. This test paper was applied to the analysis of iron in water samples using a colorimetry with phenanthroline.

  15. Preliminary Component Integration Utilizing Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K.; Salvail, P.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most costly errors committed during the development of an element to be used in the space industry is the lack of communication between design and manufacturing engineers. A very important tool that should be utilized in the development stages by both design and manufacturing disciplines is rapid prototyping. Communication levels are intensified with the injection of functional models that are generated from a drawing. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, this discipline is utilized on a more frequent basis as a manner by which hardware may be tested for design and material compatibility.

  16. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-29

    conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human...results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping. Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping... It is not clear, however, that rapid prototyping could be used, or ts being used, in the same way as a mock-up. Williges and Hartson6

  17. Compact form fitting small antennas using three-dimensional rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Bryan Jon

    Three-dimensional (3D) rapid prototyping holds significant promise for future antenna designs. Many complex designs that would be unmanufacturable or costly are realizable on a 3D printing machine. The ability to create 3D designs of virtually any configuration makes it possible to build compact antennas that can form fit to any space. These antennas build on the concept that small antennas can best reach the ideal operating limit when utilizing the entire 3D space in a sphere surrounding the antenna. Antennas require a combination of dielectric and conductive materials. 3D rapid prototyping is already well advanced for plastics and dielectric materials (with more options coming online). Prototyping with conductive materials has lagged behind; due mainly to their higher melting points, but this is advancing as well. This dissertation focuses on 3D rapid prototyping for antenna design. A 3D antenna made from small cubical cells is optimized for 2.4--3GHz using a genetic algorithm (GA). The antennas are built using 3D printing of plastic covered by conductive paint. The effects of the conductivity of the paint and number of layers on the resonance and gain of the antenna are evaluated. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using 3D rapid prototyping for antenna design. A 3D dipole is also optimized using a GA to function from 510--910MHz. The antenna was built using 3D rapid prototyping from plastic. The 3D antenna was covered with a conductive coating and measured, showing good agreement with simulation. The 3D GA is used to design 3D antennas of random shape to fit inside the empty space in a cell phone case and optimized for cell phone bands 800--900MHz and 1.6--3.7GHz. The research also evaluates methods and materials that can be used to produce 3D antennas. In addition to the flexibility that 3D prototyping brings to antenna design, this paper describes how this new and emerging method for building antennas can provide fast and affordable antennas for

  18. Digital image capture and rapid prototyping of the maxillofacial defect.

    PubMed

    Sabol, Jennifer V; Grant, Gerald T; Liacouras, Peter; Rouse, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    In order to restore an extraoral maxillofacial defect, a moulage impression is commonly made with traditional impression materials. This technique has some disadvantages, including distortion of the site due to the weight of the impression material, changes in tissue location with modifications of the patient position, and the length of time and discomfort for the patient due to the impression procedure and materials used. The use of the commercially available 3dMDface™ System creates 3D images of soft tissues to form an anatomically accurate 3D surface image. Rapid prototyping converts the virtual designs from the 3dMDface™ System into a physical model by converting the data to a ZPrint (ZPR) CAD format file and a stereolithography (STL) file. The data, in conjunction with a Zprinter(®) 450 or a Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA), can be used to fabricate a model for prosthesis fabrication, without the disadvantages of the standard moulage technique. This article reviews this technique and how it can be applied to maxillofacial prosthetics.

  19. Applied 3D printing for microscopy in health science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brideau, Craig; Zareinia, Kourosh; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The rapid prototyping capability offered by 3D printing is considered advantageous for commercial applications. However, the ability to quickly produce precision custom devices is highly beneficial in the research laboratory setting as well. Biological laboratories require the manipulation and analysis of delicate living samples, thus the ability to create custom holders, support equipment, and adapters allow the extension of existing laboratory machines. Applications include camera adapters and stage sample holders for microscopes, surgical guides for tissue preparation, and small precision tools customized to unique specifications. Where high precision is needed, especially the reproduction of fine features, a printer with a high resolution is needed. However, the introduction of cheaper, lower resolution commercial printers have been shown to be more than adequate for less demanding projects. For direct manipulation of delicate samples, biocompatible raw materials are often required, complicating the printing process. This paper will examine some examples of 3D-printed objects for laboratory use, and provide an overview of the requirements for 3D printing for this application. Materials, printing resolution, production, and ease of use will all be reviewed with an eye to producing better printers and techniques for laboratory applications. Specific case studies will highlight applications for 3D-printed devices in live animal imaging for both microscopy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  20. 3D-printed microfluidic chips with patterned, cell-laden hydrogel constructs.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Ersoy, Fulya; Emadi, Sharareh; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers potential to fabricate high-throughput and low-cost fabrication of microfluidic devices as a promising alternative to traditional techniques which enables efficient design iterations in the development stage. In this study, we demonstrate a single-step fabrication of a 3D transparent microfluidic chip using two alternative techniques: a stereolithography-based desktop 3D printer and a two-step fabrication using an industrial 3D printer based on polyjet technology. This method, compared to conventional fabrication using relatively expensive materials and labor-intensive processes, presents a low-cost, rapid prototyping technique to print functional 3D microfluidic chips. We enhance the capabilities of 3D-printed microfluidic devices by coupling 3D cell encapsulation and spatial patterning within photocrosslinkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA). The platform presented here serves as a 3D culture environment for long-term cell culture and growth. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the ability to print complex 3D microfluidic channels to create predictable and controllable fluid flow regimes. Here, we demonstrate the novel use of 3D-printed microfluidic chips as controllable 3D cell culture environments, advancing the applicability of 3D printing to engineering physiological systems for future applications in bioengineering.

  1. The application of rapid prototyping in prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Fu-Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Dentists have used rapid prototyping (RP) techniques in the fields of oral maxillofacial surgery simulation and implantology. With new research emerging for molding materials and the forming process of RP techniques, this method is becoming more attractive in dental prosthesis fabrication; however, few researchers have published material on the RP technology of prosthesis pattern fabrication. This article reviews and discusses the application of RP techniques for prosthodontics including: (1) fabrication of wax pattern for the dental prosthesis, (2) dental (facial) prosthesis mold (shell) fabrication, (3) dental metal prosthesis fabrication, and (4) zirconia prosthesis fabrication. Many people could benefit from this new technology through various forms of dental prosthesis production. Traditional prosthodontic practices could also be changed by RP techniques in the near future.

  2. Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsianikov, A.; Chichkov, B.; Adunka, O.; Pillsbury, H.; Doraiswamy, A.; Narayan, R. J.

    2007-05-01

    Materials used in ossicular replacement prostheses must demonstrate appropriate biological compatibility, acoustic transmission, stability, and stiffness properties. Prostheses prepared using Teflon ®, titanium, Ceravital and other conventional materials have demonstrated several problems, including migration, perforation of the tympanic membrane, difficulty in shaping the prostheses, and reactivity with the surrounding tissues. We have used two-photon polymerization for rapid prototyping of Ormocer ® middle-ear bone replacement prostheses. Ormocer ® surfaces fabricated using two-photon polymerization exhibited acceptable cell viability and cell growth profiles. The Ormocer ® prosthesis was able to be inserted and removed from the site of use in the frozen human head without fracture. Our results demonstrate that two-photon polymerization is able to create ossicular replacement prostheses and other medical devices with a larger range of sizes, shapes and materials than other microfabrication techniques.

  3. Rapid Prototyping: State of the Art Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-23

    Manufacturing ( DCM ) is the name given to 3D Systems’ OptoForm technology. OptoForm was a French company that 3D acquired in early 2001. Subsequently, 3D... Phantom Works, St. Louis, MO. Personal discussion. Kolisch, S., “Army to Produce Replacement Parts on Demand in the Field,” AMPTIAC Quarterly, Vol

  4. 3D-printed microfluidic automation.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F; Chang, Tim C; Folch, Albert

    2015-04-21

    Microfluidic automation - the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels - generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology's use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer.

  5. 3D-Printed Microfluidic Automation

    PubMed Central

    Au, Anthony K.; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F.; Chang, Tim C.; Folch, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic automation – the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels – generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology’s use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer. PMID:25738695

  6. 3D printing in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Imaging: A novel method for fabricating high-density imaging apertures☆

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Moore, Jared W.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Fryé, Teresa; Adler, Steven; Sery, Joe; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in 3D rapid-prototyping printers, 3D modeling software, and casting techniques allow for cost-effective fabrication of custom components in gamma-ray and X-ray imaging systems. Applications extend to new fabrication methods for custom collimators, pinholes, calibration and resolution phantoms, mounting and shielding components, and imaging apertures. Details of the fabrication process for these components, specifically the 3D printing process, cold casting with a tungsten epoxy, and lost-wax casting in platinum are presented. PMID:22199414

  7. Integration of rapid prototyping into product development

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is a vertically multi-disciplined research and development laboratory with a long history of designing and developing d electro-mechanical products in the national interest. Integrating new technologies into the prototyping phase of our development cycle is necessary to reduce the cycle time from initial design to finished product. The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the marketplace promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with relative speed and production-like quality. Issues of accuracy, feature definition, and surface finish continue to drive research and development of these processes. Sandia uses Stereolithography (SL) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) capabilities to support internal product development efforts. The primary use of SL and SLS is to produce patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured using SL and SLS with a focus on application, accuracy, surface and feature definition.

  8. Rapid Prototyping: State of the Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-23

    Manufacturing ( DCM ) is the name given to 3D Systems’ OptoForm technology. OptoForm was a French company that 3D acquired in early 2001. Subsequently...discussion. Kolisch, S., IIT Research Institute, Program Manager, Mobile Parts Hospital, Personal discussion. Sova, B., Boeing Phantom Works, St. Louis, MO

  9. Study of capabilities and limitations of 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemu, H. G.

    2012-04-01

    3D printing is one of the developments in rapid prototyping technology. The inception and development of the technology has highly assisted the product development phase of product design and manufacturing. The technology is particularly important in educating product design and 3D modeling because it helps students to visualize their design idea, to enhance their creative design process and enables them to touch and feel the result of their innovative work. The availability of many 3D printers on the market has created a certain level of challenge for the user. Among others, complexity of part geometry, material type, compatibility with 3D CAD models and other technical aspects still need in-depth study. This paper presents results of the experimental work on the capabilities and limitations of the Z510 3D printer from Z-corporation. Several parameters such as dimensional and geometrical accuracy, surface quality and strength as a function of model size, orientation and file exchange format are closely studied.

  10. Rapid Prototyping of Patterned Multifunctional Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    FAN,HONGYOU; LU,YUNFENG; LOPEZ,GABRIEL P.; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-07-18

    The ability to engineer ordered arrays of objects on multiple length scales has potential for applications such as microelectronics, sensors, wave guides, and photonic lattices with tunable band gaps. Since the invention of surfactant templated mesoporous sieves in 1992, great progress has been made in controlling different mesophases in the form of powders, particles, fibers, and films. To date, although there have been several reports of patterned mesostructures, materials prepared have been limited to metal oxides with no specific functionality. For many of the envisioned applications of hierarchical materials in micro-systems, sensors, waveguides, photonics, and electronics, it is necessary to define both form and function on several length scales. In addition, the patterning strategies utilized so far require hours or even days for completion. Such slow processes are inherently difficult to implement in commercial environments. The authors present a series of new methods of producing patterns within seconds. Combining sol-gel chemistry, Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA), and rapid prototyping techniques like pen lithography, ink-jet printing, and dip-coating on micro-contact printed substrates, they form hierarchically organized silica structures that exhibit order and function on multiple scales: on the molecular scale, functional organic moieties are positioned on pore surfaces, on the mesoscale, mono-sized pores are organized into 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional networks, providing size-selective accessibility from the gas or liquid phase, and on the macroscale, 2-dimensional arrays and fluidic or photonic systems may be defined. These rapid patterning techniques establish for the first time a link between computer-aided design and rapid processing of self-assembled nanostructures.

  11. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  12. Getting in touch--3D printing in forensic imaging.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lars Chr; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2011-09-10

    With the increasing use of medical imaging in forensics, as well as the technological advances in rapid prototyping, we suggest combining these techniques to generate displays of forensic findings. We used computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface scanning with photogrammetry in conjunction with segmentation techniques to generate 3D polygon meshes. Based on these data sets, a 3D printer created colored models of the anatomical structures. Using this technique, we could create models of bone fractures, vessels, cardiac infarctions, ruptured organs as well as bitemark wounds. The final models are anatomically accurate, fully colored representations of bones, vessels and soft tissue, and they demonstrate radiologically visible pathologies. The models are more easily understood by laypersons than volume rendering or 2D reconstructions. Therefore, they are suitable for presentations in courtrooms and for educational purposes.

  13. Development of 70/30 Poly- l- dl-Lactic Acid Filaments for 3D Printers (Part 1): Filament Manufacturing and Characterization of Printed Samples for Use as Bioabsorbable Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Vidal, Rafael; da Silva, Luciana Portal; Weber, Ricardo Pondé; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to manufacture 70/30 poly- l- dl-lactic acid (PLDLLA) filaments for three-dimensional (3D) printers by using the extrusion technique and to study the properties of filaments and printed plates for surgical fracture stabilization. Different extrusion methodologies were tested and filaments were analyzed in terms of homogeneity, accuracy diameter, finishing surface morphology, and chemical degradation. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry showed that the filaments have less crystallinity than does the raw material. Infrared and thermogravimetric analysis showed no evidence of chemical degradation. Surgical plates made with the filaments revealed small changes in the material properties after the printing process. PLDLLA filament extrusion and 3D printing are a promising way to satisfy the demand of implantable bioabsorbable products.

  14. Rapid prototyping of patterned functional nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    FAN,HONGYOU; LU,YUNFENG; STUMP,AARON; REED,SCOTT T.; BAER,THOMAS A.; SCHUNK,P. RANDALL; PEREZ-LUNA,VICTOR; LOPEZ,GABRIEL P.; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-02-09

    Living systems exhibit form and function on multiple length scales, and the prospect of imparting life-like qualities to man-made materials has inspired many recent efforts to devise hierarchical materials assembly strategies. For example, Yang et al. grew surfactant-templated mesoporous silica on hydrophobic patterns prepared by micro-contact printing {micro}CP{sup 3}. Trau et al. formed oriented mesoporous silica patterns, using a micro-molding in capillaries MIMIC technique, and Yang et al. combined MIMIC, polystyrene sphere templating, and surfactant-templating to create oxides with three levels of structural order. Overall, great progress has been made to date in controlling structure on scales ranging from several nanometers to several micrometers. However, materials prepared have been limited to oxides with no specific functionality, whereas for many of the envisioned applications of hierarchical materials in micro-systems, sensors, waveguides, photonics, and electronics, it is necessary to define both form and function on several length scales. In addition, the patterning strategies employed thus far require hours or even days for completion. Such slow processes are inherently difficult to implement in commercial environments. The authors have combined evaporation-induced (silica/surfactant) self-assembly EISA with rapid prototyping techniques like pen lithography, ink-jet printing, and dip-coating on micro-contact printed substrates to form hierarchically organized structures in seconds. In addition, by co-condensation of tetrafunctional silanes (Si(OR){sub 4}) with tri-functional organosilanes ((RO){sub 3}SiR{prime}){sup 12--14} or by inclusion of organic additives, the authors have selectively derivatized the silica framework with functional R{prime} ligands or molecules. The resulting materials exhibit form and function on multiple length scales: on the molecular scale, functional organic moieties are positioned on pore surfaces, on the mesoscale

  15. Reusable Rapid Prototyped Blunt Impact Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    generally uses a computer-controlled deposition/curing process to create the individual layers, eventually culminating in a 3-D reproduction of an...back-face deformation impacts on instrumented headforms. These new data were subsequently analyzed by WSB to verify accurate reproduction of impact

  16. Procedural Modeling for Rapid-Prototyping of Multiple Building Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldana, M.; Johanson, C.

    2013-02-01

    RomeLab is a multidisciplinary working group at UCLA that uses the city of Rome as a laboratory for the exploration of research approaches and dissemination practices centered on the intersection of space and time in antiquity. In this paper we present a multiplatform workflow for the rapid-prototyping of historical cityscapes through the use of geographic information systems, procedural modeling, and interactive game development. Our workflow begins by aggregating archaeological data in a GIS database. Next, 3D building models are generated from the ArcMap shapefiles in Esri CityEngine using procedural modeling techniques. A GIS-based terrain model is also adjusted in CityEngine to fit the building elevations. Finally, the terrain and city models are combined in Unity, a game engine which we used to produce web-based interactive environments which are linked to the GIS data using keyhole markup language (KML). The goal of our workflow is to demonstrate that knowledge generated within a first-person virtual world experience can inform the evaluation of data derived from textual and archaeological sources, and vice versa.

  17. Print your own membrane: direct rapid prototyping of polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Femmer, Tim; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Wessling, Matthias

    2014-08-07

    Polydimethylsiloxane is a translucent and biologically inert silicone material used in sealants, biomedical implants and microscale lab-on-a-chip devices. Furthermore, in membrane technology, polydimethylsiloxane represents a material for separation barriers as it has high permeabilities for various gases. The facile handling of two component formulations with a silicone base material, a catalyst and a small molecular weight crosslinker makes it widely applicable for soft-lithographic replication of two-dimensional device geometries, such as microfluidic chips or micro-contact stamps. Here, we develop a new technique to directly print polydimethylsiloxane in a rapid prototyping device, circumventing the need for masks or sacrificial mold production. We create a three-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane membrane for gas-liquid-contacting based on a Schwarz-P triple-periodic minimal-surface, which is inaccessible with common machining techniques. Direct 3D-printing of polydimethylsiloxane enables rapid production of novel chip geometries for a manifold of lab-on-a-chip applications.

  18. Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, P. F.; Ben Azouz, A.; Vázquez, M.; Liu, J.; Marczak, S.; Slouka, Z.; Chang, H. C.; Diamond, D.; Brabazon, D.

    2014-01-01

    The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D structures in a single step has recently attracted an ever increasing interest within the field of microfluidics. Recently, ultrafast lasers have also allowed developing new methods for production of internal microfluidic channels within the bulk of glass and polymer materials by direct internal 3D laser writing. This review critically summarizes the latest advances in the production of microfluidic 3D structures by using 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current applications of these rapid prototyped microfluidic platforms in biology will be also discussed. These include imaging of cells and living organisms, electrochemical detection of viruses and neurotransmitters, and studies in drug transport and induced-release of adenosine triphosphate from erythrocytes. PMID:25538804

  19. Pediatric Patient with Incidental Os Odontoideum Safely Treated with Posterior Fixation Using Rod-Hook System and Preoperative Planning Using 3D Printer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-05-01

    Os odontoideum is often found incidentally. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients with atlantoaxial instability or neurologic deficits. Although various techniques have been used for C1-C2 fusion in adults, the use of these procedures in children is not widely accepted. We present a 12-year-old boy with incidental os odontoideum and obvious C1-C2 instability, in which bony union was achieved safely and successfully by posterior fixation using a rod-hook system and perioperative planning using a three-dimensional printer. At the 2-year follow-up, bone formation around the gap of the dens, which has been generally considered as pseudoarthrosis, was obtained after union of the posterior element of C1-C2.

  20. Permeability of rapid prototyped artificial bone scaffold structures.

    PubMed

    Lipowiecki, Marcin; Ryvolová, Markéta; Töttösi, Ákos; Kolmer, Niels; Naher, Sumsun; Brennan, Stephen A; Vázquez, Mercedes; Brabazon, Dermot

    2014-11-01

    In this work, various three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds were produced via micro-stereolithography (µ-SLA) and 3D printing (3DP) techniques. This work demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of these two different rapid prototyping methods for production of bone scaffolds. Compared to 3DP, SLA provides for smaller feature production with better dimensional resolution and accuracy. The permeability of these structures was evaluated experimentally and via numerical simulation utilizing a newly derived Kozeny-Carman based equation for intrinsic permeability. Both experimental and simulation studies took account of porosity percentage, pore size, and pore geometry. Porosity content was varied from 30% to 70%, pore size from 0.34 mm to 3 mm, and pore geometries of cubic and hexagonal closed packed were examined. Two different fluid viscosity levels of 1 mPa · s and 3.6 mPa · s were used. The experimental and theoretical results indicated that permeability increased when larger pore size, increased fluid viscosity, and higher percentage porosity were utilized, with highest to lowest degree of significance following the same order. Higher viscosity was found to result in permeabilities 2.2 to 3.3 times higher than for water. This latter result was found to be independent of pore morphology type. As well as demonstrating method for determining design parameters most beneficial for scaffold structure design, the results also illustrate how the variations in patient's blood viscosity can be extremely important in allowing for permeability through the bone and scaffold structures.

  1. Accuracy of three-dimensional, paper-based models generated using a low-cost, three-dimensional printer.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Raphael; Szymor, Piotr; Kozakiewicz, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Our study aimed to determine the accuracy of a low-cost, paper-based 3D printer by comparing a dry human mandible to its corresponding three-dimensional (3D) model using a 3D measuring arm. One dry human mandible and its corresponding printed model were evaluated. The model was produced using DICOM data from cone beam computed tomography. The data were imported into Maxilim software, wherein automatic segmentation was performed, and the STL file was saved. These data were subsequently analysed, repaired, cut and prepared for printing with netfabb software. These prepared data were used to create a paper-based model of a mandible with an MCor Matrix 300 printer. Seventy-six anatomical landmarks were chosen and measured 20 times on the mandible and the model using a MicroScribe G2X 3D measuring arm. The distances between all the selected landmarks were measured and compared. Only landmarks with a point inaccuracy less than 30% were used in further analyses. The mean absolute difference for the selected 2016 measurements was 0.36 ± 0.29 mm. The mean relative difference was 1.87 ± 3.14%; however, the measurement length significantly influenced the relative difference. The accuracy of the 3D model printed using the paper-based, low-cost 3D Matrix 300 printer was acceptable. The average error was no greater than that measured with other types of 3D printers. The mean relative difference should not be considered the best way to compare studies. The point inaccuracy methodology proposed in this study may be helpful in future studies concerned with evaluating the accuracy of 3D rapid prototyping models.

  2. Reducing Costs and Increasing Productivity in Ship Maintenance Using Product Lifecycle Management, 3D Laser Scanning and 3D Printing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Advantages ........................................................ 28 7. 3D Printer Usage in the Department of Defense ................. 29 a. Army...28 Figure 17. 3D Printer Forecast (from 3D Systems, 2013) .................................... 29 Figure 18. History...Several companies, including 3D Systems and Stratasys, produce 3D printers for both personal and industrial use. In addition, open source models

  3. The Development of a Programming Support System for Rapid Prototyping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-20

    Harvard University and will include the tools provided by the PDS plus a number of new ones specifically supporting rapid prototyping. The goals of Task 1 were to improve two tools in the PDS - the authors needed to improve

  4. Rapid prototyping in maxillofacial surgery and traumatology: case report.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Everton Luis Santos; Oleskovicz, César Fernando; Aragão, Bruno Nogueira

    2004-01-01

    Review of the literature from 1991 to 2002 on the use of rapid prototyping in the biomedical area emphasizes the applicability of this technique to aid diagnosis and planning in Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology. A case report in which a TMJ ankylosis relapse was treated using rapid prototyping (selective laser sintering) for surgery planning is presented. After one year, the patient's buccal opening was 45 mm. Transitory paralysis of the facial nerve disappeared totally in six months.

  5. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Foster, Christopher W; Down, Michael P; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Smith, Graham C; Kelly, Peter J; Banks, Craig E

    2017-03-03

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices' to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (-0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (-0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.

  6. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Christopher W.; Down, Michael P.; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices’ to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (−0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (−0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised. PMID:28256602

  7. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Christopher W.; Down, Michael P.; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.

    2017-03-01

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices’ to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (‑0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (‑0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.

  8. SU-C-BRB-06: Utilizing 3D Scanner and Printer for Dummy Eye-Shield: Artifact-Free CT Images of Tungsten Eye-Shield for Accurate Dose Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Lee, J; Kim, H; Kim, I; Ye, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a tungsten eye-shield on the dose distribution of a patient. Methods: A 3D scanner was used to extract the dimension and shape of a tungsten eye-shield in the STL format. Scanned data was transferred into a 3D printer. A dummy eye shield was then produced using bio-resin (3D systems, VisiJet M3 Proplast). For a patient with mucinous carcinoma, the planning CT was obtained with the dummy eye-shield placed on the patient’s right eye. Field shaping of 6 MeV was performed using a patient-specific cerrobend block on the 15 x 15 cm{sup 2} applicator. The gantry angle was 330° to cover the planning target volume near by the lens. EGS4/BEAMnrc was commissioned from our measurement data from a Varian 21EX. For the CT-based dose calculation using EGS4/DOSXYZnrc, the CT images were converted to a phantom file through the ctcreate program. The phantom file had the same resolution as the planning CT images. By assigning the CT numbers of the dummy eye-shield region to 17000, the real dose distributions below the tungsten eye-shield were calculated in EGS4/DOSXYZnrc. In the TPS, the CT number of the dummy eye-shield region was assigned to the maximum allowable CT number (3000). Results: As compared to the maximum dose, the MC dose on the right lens or below the eye shield area was less than 2%, while the corresponding RTP calculated dose was an unrealistic value of approximately 50%. Conclusion: Utilizing a 3D scanner and a 3D printer, a dummy eye-shield for electron treatment can be easily produced. The artifact-free CT images were successfully incorporated into the CT-based Monte Carlo simulations. The developed method was useful in predicting the realistic dose distributions around the lens blocked with the tungsten shield.

  9. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception. PMID:26959026

  10. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-03-04

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception.

  11. The Effect of Jetting Parameters on the Performance of Droplet Formation for Ink-Jet Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Heinzl et al. (1985) reports that experiments in ink-jets to produce drawings or signals occurred as early as 1930. Various companies such as IBM and Pitney-Bowes have conducted extensive studies on these devices for many years. Many such reports are available in such journals as the IBM Journal of Research and Development. While numerous articles have been published on the jetting characteristics of ink and water, the literature is rather limited on fluids such as waxes (Gao & Sonin 1994) or non-water based fluids (Passow, et al. 1993). This present study extends the knowledge base to determine the performance of molten waxes in "ink-jet" type printers for rapid prototyping. The purpose of this research was to qualitatively and quantitatively study the droplet formation of a drop-on-demand ink-jet type nozzle system for rapid prototyping.

  12. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; McMenamin, Paul G.; Findlay, Michael W.; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  13. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; McMenamin, Paul G; Findlay, Michael W; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  14. Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Boland, Thomas; Trusk, Thomas; Forgacs, Gabor; Markwald, Roger R

    2003-04-01

    Tissue engineering technology promises to solve the organ transplantation crisis. However, assembly of vascularized 3D soft organs remains a big challenge. Organ printing, which we define as computer-aided, jet-based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, offers a possible solution. Organ printing involves three sequential steps: pre-processing or development of "blueprints" for organs; processing or actual organ printing; and postprocessing or organ conditioning and accelerated organ maturation. A cell printer that can print gels, single cells and cell aggregates has been developed. Layer-by-layer sequentially placed and solidified thin layers of a thermo-reversible gel could serve as "printing paper". Combination of an engineering approach with the developmental biology concept of embryonic tissue fluidity enables the creation of a new rapid prototyping 3D organ printing technology, which will dramatically accelerate and optimize tissue and organ assembly.

  15. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Simon J; Bradley, Robert J; Purssell, Christopher P; Billson, Duncan R; Hutchins, David A

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping') before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  16. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  17. Rapid prototyping for biomedical engineering: current capabilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lantada, Andrés Díaz; Morgado, Pilar Lafont

    2012-01-01

    A new set of manufacturing technologies has emerged in the past decades to address market requirements in a customized way and to provide support for research tasks that require prototypes. These new techniques and technologies are usually referred to as rapid prototyping and manufacturing technologies, and they allow prototypes to be produced in a wide range of materials with remarkable precision in a couple of hours. Although they have been rapidly incorporated into product development methodologies, they are still under development, and their applications in bioengineering are continuously evolving. Rapid prototyping and manufacturing technologies can be of assistance in every stage of the development process of novel biodevices, to address various problems that can arise in the devices' interactions with biological systems and the fact that the design decisions must be tested carefully. This review focuses on the main fields of application for rapid prototyping in biomedical engineering and health sciences, as well as on the most remarkable challenges and research trends.

  18. Characterization of ABS specimens produced via the 3D printing technology for drone structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Carlo Giovanni; Brischetto, Salvatore; Torre, Roberto; Maggiore, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology is widely used in rapid prototyping. 3D printers for home desktop applications are usually employed to make non-structural objects. When the mechanical stresses are not excessive, this technology can also be successfully employed to produce structural objects, not only in prototyping stage but also in the realization of series pieces. The innovative idea of the present work is the application of this technology, implemented in a desktop 3D printer, to the realization of components for aeronautical use, especially for unmanned aerial systems. For this purpose, the paper is devoted to the statistical study of the performance of a desktop 3D printer to understand how the process performs and which are the boundary limits of acceptance. Mechanical and geometrical properties of ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) specimens, such as tensile strength and stiffness, have been evaluated. ASTM638 type specimens have been used. A capability analysis has been applied for both mechanical and dimensional performances. Statistically stable limits have been determined using experimentally collected data.

  19. Rapid Prototyping in Orthopaedic Surgery: A User's Guide

    PubMed Central

    Frame, Mark; Huntley, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is applicable to orthopaedic problems involving three dimensions, particularly fractures, deformities, and reconstruction. In the past, RP has been hampered by cost and difficulties accessing the appropriate expertise. Here we outline the history of rapid prototyping and furthermore a process using open-source software to produce a high fidelity physical model from CT data. This greatly mitigates the expense associated with the technique, allowing surgeons to produce precise models for preoperative planning and procedure rehearsal. We describe the method with an illustrative case. PMID:22666160

  20. Rapid prototyping and AI programming environments applied to payload modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Mendler, Andrew P.

    1987-01-01

    This effort focused on using artificial intelligence (AI) programming environments and rapid prototyping to aid in both space flight manned and unmanned payload simulation and training. Significant problems addressed are the large amount of development time required to design and implement just one of these payload simulations and the relative inflexibility of the resulting model to accepting future modification. Results of this effort have suggested that both rapid prototyping and AI programming environments can significantly reduce development time and cost when applied to the domain of payload modeling for crew training. The techniques employed are applicable to a variety of domains where models or simulations are required.

  1. Rapid Prototyping Instructional Design: Revisiting the ISD Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Jenny; Teng, Ya-Ting; Cornachione, Edgard

    2007-01-01

    An exploratory investigation, utilizing mixed methods, was used to examine the quality and usability of the product and the client's role within a rapid prototyping instructional design approach. Forty engineering and business undergraduates participating in a leadership training session and an instructional design team comprised the sample for…

  2. Reverse engineering--rapid prototyping of the skull in forensic trauma analysis.

    PubMed

    Kettner, Mattias; Schmidt, Peter; Potente, Stefan; Ramsthaler, Frank; Schrodt, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) comprises a variety of automated manufacturing techniques such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, and three-dimensional printing (3DP), which use virtual 3D data sets to fabricate solid forms in a layer-by-layer technique. Despite a growing demand for (virtual) reconstruction models in daily forensic casework, maceration of the skull is frequently assigned to ensure haptic evidence presentation in the courtroom. Owing to the progress in the field of forensic radiology, 3D data sets of relevant cases are usually available to the forensic expert. Here, we present a first application of RP in forensic medicine using computed tomography scans for the fabrication of an SLS skull model in a case of fatal hammer impacts to the head. The report is intended to show that this method fully respects the dignity of the deceased and is consistent with medical ethics but nevertheless provides an excellent 3D impression of anatomical structures and injuries.

  3. D Modelling and Rapid Prototyping for Cardiovascular Surgical Planning - Two Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Uccheddu, F.; Gallo, M.; Gerosa, G.

    2016-06-01

    In the last years, cardiovascular diagnosis, surgical planning and intervention have taken advantages from 3D modelling and rapid prototyping techniques. The starting data for the whole process is represented by medical imagery, in particular, but not exclusively, computed tomography (CT) or multi-slice CT (MCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the medical imagery, regions of interest, i.e. heart chambers, valves, aorta, coronary vessels, etc., are segmented and converted into 3D models, which can be finally converted in physical replicas through 3D printing procedure. In this work, an overview on modern approaches for automatic and semiautomatic segmentation of medical imagery for 3D surface model generation is provided. The issue of accuracy check of surface models is also addressed, together with the critical aspects of converting digital models into physical replicas through 3D printing techniques. A patient-specific 3D modelling and printing procedure (Figure 1), for surgical planning in case of complex heart diseases was developed. The procedure was applied to two case studies, for which MCT scans of the chest are available. In the article, a detailed description on the implemented patient-specific modelling procedure is provided, along with a general discussion on the potentiality and future developments of personalized 3D modelling and printing for surgical planning and surgeons practice.

  4. 3D Printed Micro Free-Flow Electrophoresis Device.

    PubMed

    Anciaux, Sarah K; Geiger, Matthew; Bowser, Michael T

    2016-08-02

    The cost, time, and restrictions on creative flexibility associated with current fabrication methods present significant challenges in the development and application of microfluidic devices. Additive manufacturing, also referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, provides many advantages over existing methods. With 3D printing, devices can be made in a cost-effective manner with the ability to rapidly prototype new designs. We have fabricated a micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) device using a low-cost, consumer-grade 3D printer. Test prints were performed to determine the minimum feature sizes that could be reproducibly produced using 3D printing fabrication. Microfluidic ridges could be fabricated with dimensions as small as 20 μm high × 640 μm wide. Minimum valley dimensions were 30 μm wide × 130 μm wide. An acetone vapor bath was used to smooth acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surfaces and facilitate bonding of fully enclosed channels. The surfaces of the 3D-printed features were profiled and compared to a similar device fabricated in a glass substrate. Stable stream profiles were obtained in a 3D-printed μFFE device. Separations of fluorescent dyes in the 3D-printed device and its glass counterpart were comparable. A μFFE separation of myoglobin and cytochrome c was also demonstrated on a 3D-printed device. Limits of detection for rhodamine 110 were determined to be 2 and 0.3 nM for the 3D-printed and glass devices, respectively.

  5. Rapid prototype fabrication processes for high-performance thrust cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, K.; Chwiedor, T.; Diab, J.; Williams, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Thrust Cell Technologies Program (Air Force Phillips Laboratory Contract No. F04611-92-C-0050) is currently being performed by Rocketdyne to demonstrate advanced materials and fabrication technologies which can be utilized to produce low-cost, high-performance thrust cells for launch and space transportation rocket engines. Under Phase 2 of the Thrust Cell Technologies Program (TCTP), rapid prototyping and investment casting techniques are being employed to fabricate a 12,000-lbf thrust class combustion chamber for delivery and hot-fire testing at Phillips Lab. The integrated process of investment casting directly from rapid prototype patterns dramatically reduces design-to-delivery cycle time, and greatly enhances design flexibility over conventionally processed cast or machined parts.

  6. Microgravity Manufacturing: Extending Rapid Prototyping Past the Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decade, rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have continued to advance in all aspects of operation and application. From continuously advanced materials and processes development to more hard-core manufacturing uses, the RP realm has stretched considerably past its original expectations as a prototyping capability. This paper discusses the unique applications for which NASA has chosen these manufacturing techniques to be utilized in outer space.

  7. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities. PMID:27594781

  8. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process.

    PubMed

    Baronio, Gabriele; Harran, Sami; Signoroni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

  9. The Mississippi Research Consortium Rapid Prototyping Capability Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, R.; Haupt, T.; Anantharaj, V.; O'Hara, C.; Aanstoos, J.

    2006-12-01

    Mississippi State University and the University of Mississippi, along with several partners, are exploiting a systems engineering approach to develop and deploy a computational Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC). This RPC will be used to evaluate research results, predominantly measurements and models, to determine appropriate capabilities by which societal benefits can be obtained via routine operational utilization. This RPC will facilitate science experiments that access, process, and assimilate terascale data from distributed and heterogeneous sources by using numerical models that scale from the desktop to high- performance platforms. The science experiments can be rapidly prototyped in order to evaluate the suitability of data, algorithms and models. The RPC experiments are designed to characterize uncertainties involved in the data, models, and decision making process while maintaining scientific rigor through the entire process. This approach helps identify scientific and logistical risks earlier in the process so that they can be appropriately addressed in a timely manner to minimize risk. This talk or poster will focus on (a) the architecture and cyber-infrastructure we are deploying under NASA, NOAA, and Navy funding for rapid prototyping capabilities to support applied research; (b) the integration of model and data frameworks; and (c) RPC concepts for the design and execution of science experiments.

  10. CAD-CAM generated ear cast by means of a laser scanner and rapid prototyping machine.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    Sculpting a wax ear cast for use when making a definitive prosthesis for a patient who has had auricle ablative surgery, is challenging. It requires a skilled anaplastologist along with complex instrumentation able to perform facial laser scans and reproduce anatomic details. The aim of this article is to present a technique to create a cast by laser scanning a stone cast of the existing ear. A 3D laser scanner develops an integrated 3D digital image of the unaffected ear, which is copied and then mirrored. A rapid prototyping machine collects the necessary data to manufacture the definitive resin ear. This procedure is time and cost effective only if the technology is free of charge.

  11. A pilot biomedical engineering course in rapid prototyping for mobile health.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Todd H; Venugopalan, Janani; Hubbard, Elena N; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping of medically assistive mobile devices promises to fuel innovation and provides opportunity for hands-on engineering training in biomedical engineering curricula. This paper presents the design and outcomes of a course offered during a 16-week semester in Fall 2011 with 11 students enrolled. The syllabus covered a mobile health design process from end-to-end, including storyboarding, non-functional prototypes, integrated circuit programming, 3D modeling, 3D printing, cloud computing database programming, and developing patient engagement through animated videos describing the benefits of a new device. Most technologies presented in this class are open source and thus provide unlimited "hackability". They are also cost-effective and easily transferrable to other departments.

  12. Rapid Prototyping Integrated With Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to the practical ability to build high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer aided design (CAD) files. Using rapid prototyping, full-scale models or patterns can be built using a variety of materials in a fraction of the time required by more traditional prototyping techniques (refs. 1 and 2). Many software packages have been developed and are being designed to tackle the reverse engineering and rapid prototyping issues just mentioned. For example, image processing and three-dimensional reconstruction visualization software such as Velocity2 (ref. 3) are being used to carry out the construction process of three-dimensional volume models and the subsequent generation of a stereolithography file that is suitable for CAD applications. Producing three-dimensional models of objects from computed tomography (CT) scans is becoming a valuable nondestructive evaluation methodology (ref. 4). Real components can be rendered and subjected to temperature and stress tests using structural engineering software codes. For this to be achieved, accurate high-resolution images have to be obtained via CT scans and then processed, converted into a traditional file format, and translated into finite element models. Prototyping a three-dimensional volume of a composite structure by reading in a series of two-dimensional images generated via CT and by using and integrating commercial software (e.g. Velocity2, MSC/PATRAN (ref. 5), and Hypermesh (ref. 6)) is being applied successfully at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The building process from structural modeling to the analysis level is outlined in reference 7. Subsequently, a stress analysis of a composite cooling panel under combined thermomechanical loading conditions was performed to validate

  13. Aortic aneurysm: construction of a life-size model by rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Lermusiaux, P; Leroux, C; Tasse, J C; Castellani, L; Martinez, R

    2001-03-01

    Development of new endovascular techniques for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) requires the use of experimental models. Stereolithography is a rapid prototyping technique used in industry to prototype parts during the design phase. A stereolithography apparatus (STL) employs laser technology to build a digital model layer by layer with photopolymer resin. The purpose of this study was to use this technology to produce a life-size AAA model. Data were acquired by CT scan and stored in DICOM 3 format. Specifically designed software was used for 3-D imaging and conversion of data to a standard STL format. Two replicas were made: one to scale and the other 3 mm larger. The final model was made by pouring silicone rubber or polyurethane into the mold over the life-size model so as to obtain a sturdy, life-size, soft, transparent plastic casting. Arterial models made for living subjects with these rapid prototyping techniques can be used to simulate surgical procedures, calibrate imaging modalities, and design new stent grafts.

  14. Using a magnetite/thermoplastic composite in 3D printing of direct replacements for commercially available flow sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, S. J.; Purssell, C. P.; Billson, D. R.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2014-09-01

    Flow sensing is an essential technique required for a wide range of application environments ranging from liquid dispensing to utility monitoring. A number of different methodologies and deployment strategies have been devised to cover the diverse range of potential application areas. The ability to easily create new bespoke sensors for new applications is therefore of natural interest. Fused deposition modelling is a 3D printing technology based upon the fabrication of 3D structures in a layer-by-layer fashion using extruded strands of molten thermoplastic. The technology was developed in the late 1980s but has only recently come to more wide-scale attention outside of specialist applications and rapid prototyping due to the advent of low-cost 3D printing platforms such as the RepRap. Due to the relatively low-cost of the printers and feedstock materials, these printers are ideal candidates for wide-scale installation as localized manufacturing platforms to quickly produce replacement parts when components fail. One of the current limitations with the technology is the availability of functional printing materials to facilitate production of complex functional 3D objects and devices beyond mere concept prototypes. This paper presents the formulation of a simple magnetite nanoparticle-loaded thermoplastic composite and its incorporation into a 3D printed flow-sensor in order to mimic the function of a commercially available flow-sensing device. Using the multi-material printing capability of the 3D printer allows a much smaller amount of functional material to be used in comparison to the commercial flow sensor by only placing the material where it is specifically required. Analysis of the printed sensor also revealed a much more linear response to increasing flow rate of water showing that 3D printed devices have the potential to at least perform as well as a conventionally produced sensor.

  15. Rapid Prototyping of Nanofluidic Slits in a Silicone Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Thomas P.; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Schiffels, Daniel; Ilic, B. Robert; Strychalski, Elizabeth A.; Kralj, Jason G.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Stavis, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a process for rapidly prototyping nanofluidic devices, particularly those comprising slits with microscale widths and nanoscale depths, in silicone. This process consists of designing a nanofluidic device, fabricating a photomask, fabricating a device mold in epoxy photoresist, molding a device in silicone, cutting and punching a molded silicone device, bonding a silicone device to a glass substrate, and filling the device with aqueous solution. By using a bilayer of hard and soft silicone, we have formed and filled nanofluidic slits with depths of less than 400 nm and aspect ratios of width to depth exceeding 250 without collapse of the slits. An important attribute of this article is that the description of this rapid prototyping process is very comprehensive, presenting context and details which are highly relevant to the rational implementation and reliable repetition of the process. Moreover, this process makes use of equipment commonly found in nanofabrication facilities and research laboratories, facilitating the broad adaptation and application of the process. Therefore, while this article specifically informs users of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we anticipate that this information will be generally useful for the nanofabrication and nanofluidics research communities at large, and particularly useful for neophyte nanofabricators and nanofluidicists. PMID:26958449

  16. Rapid Prototyping of Nanofluidic Slits in a Silicone Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Kole, Thomas P; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Schiffels, Daniel; Ilic, B Robert; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Kralj, Jason G; Liddle, J Alexander; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Stavis, Samuel M

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a process for rapidly prototyping nanofluidic devices, particularly those comprising slits with microscale widths and nanoscale depths, in silicone. This process consists of designing a nanofluidic device, fabricating a photomask, fabricating a device mold in epoxy photoresist, molding a device in silicone, cutting and punching a molded silicone device, bonding a silicone device to a glass substrate, and filling the device with aqueous solution. By using a bilayer of hard and soft silicone, we have formed and filled nanofluidic slits with depths of less than 400 nm and aspect ratios of width to depth exceeding 250 without collapse of the slits. An important attribute of this article is that the description of this rapid prototyping process is very comprehensive, presenting context and details which are highly relevant to the rational implementation and reliable repetition of the process. Moreover, this process makes use of equipment commonly found in nanofabrication facilities and research laboratories, facilitating the broad adaptation and application of the process. Therefore, while this article specifically informs users of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we anticipate that this information will be generally useful for the nanofabrication and nanofluidics research communities at large, and particularly useful for neophyte nanofabricators and nanofluidicists.

  17. Integration of rapid prototyping into design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.

    1993-04-01

    The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the market place promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with production-like quality. In the age of concurrent engineering and agile manufacturing, it is necessary to exploit applicable new technologies as soon as they become available. The driving force behind integrating these evolutionary processes into the design and manufacture of prototype parts is the need to reduce lead times and fabrication costs improve efficiency, and increase flexibility without sacrificing quality. Sandia Utilizes stereolithography and selective laser sintering capabilities to support internal design and manufacturing efforts. Stereolithography (SLA) is used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. Selective laser sintering (SLS) is used to produce wax patterns for the lost wax process of investment casting in support of an internal Sandia National Laboratories program called FASTCAST which integrates experimental and computational technologies into the investment casting process. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the SLA and SLS processes and address our experiences with these technologies from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and feature definition. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured by the stereolithography and selective laser sintering rapid prototyping machines.

  18. Integration of rapid prototyping into design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-10-01

    The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the marketplace promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with production-like quality. In the age of concurrent engineering and agile manufacturing, it is necessary to exploit applicable new technologies as soon as they become available. The driving force behind integrating these evolutionary processes into the design and manufacture of prototype parts is the need to reduce lead times and fabrication costs, improve efficiency, and increase flexibility without sacrificing quality. Sandia utilizes Stereolithography (SL) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) capabilities to support internal design and manufacturing efforts. SL is used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. SLS is used to produce wax patterns for the lost wax process of investment casting in support of an internal Sandia National Laboratories program called FASTCAST which integrates experimental and computational technologies into the investment casting process. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the SL and SLS processes and address our experiences with these technologies from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and feature definition. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured by the Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering rapid prototyping machines.

  19. 3D printing surgical instruments: Are we there yet?

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Timothy M.; Giovinco, Nicholas A.; Cucher, Daniel J.; Watts, George; Hurwitz, Bonnie; Armstrong, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The applications for rapid prototyping have expanded dramatically over the last 20 years. In recent years, additive manufacturing has been intensely investigated for surgical implants, tissue scaffolds, and organs. There is, however, scant literature to date that has investigated the viability of 3D printing of surgical instruments. Materials and Methods Using a fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) printer, an army/ navy surgical retractor was replicated from polylactic acid (PLA) filament. The retractor was sterilized using standard FDA approved glutaraldehyde protocols, tested for bacteria by PCR, and stressed until fracture in order to determine if the printed instrument could tolerate force beyond the demands of an operating room. Results Printing required roughly 90 minutes. The instrument tolerated 13.6 kg of tangential force before failure, both before and after exposure to the sterilant. Freshly extruded PLA from the printer was sterile and produced no PCR product. Each instrument weighed 16g and required only $0.46 of PLA. Conclusions Our estimates place the cost per unit of a 3D printed retractor to be roughly 1/10th the cost of a stainless steel instrument. The PLA Army/ Navy is strong enough for the demands of the operating room. Freshly extruded PLA in a clean environment, such as an OR, would produce a sterile, ready to use instrument. Due to the unprecedented accessibility of 3D printing technology world wide, and the cost efficiency of these instruments, there are far reaching implications for surgery in some underserved and less developed parts of the world. PMID:24721602

  20. Fabrication of a Cranial Prosthesis Combined with an Ocular Prosthesis Using Rapid Prototyping: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Gayatri; Dhirawani, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technique of manufacturing parts by the additive layer manufacturing technology; where, a three-dimensional (3D) model created in a computer aided design (CAD) system is sectioned into 2D profiles, which are further constructed by RP layer by layer. Its use is not limited to industrial or engineering fields and has extended to the medical field for the manufacturing of custom implants and prostheses, the study of anatomy and surgical planning. Nowadays, dentists are more frequently encountered with the individuals affected with craniofacial defects due to trauma. In such cases, the craniomaxillofacial rehabilitation is a real challenge to bring the patients back to society and promote their well-being. The conventional impression technique for facial prosthesis fabrication has the disadvantage of deforming the soft tissue and causing discomfort for the patient. Herein, we describe the fabrication of a cranial prosthesis combined with an ocular prosthesis with RP and stereolithography. PMID:27536331

  1. Innovative Applications of Laser Scanning and Rapid Prototype Printing to Rock Breakdown Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Mary; Viles, Heather; Nicoll, Joe; Lyew-Ayee, Parris; Ghent, Rebecca; Holmlund, James

    2008-01-01

    We present the novel application of two technologies for use in rock breakdown experiments, i.e. close-range, ground-based 3D triangulation scanning and rapid prototype printing. These techniques aid analyses of form-process interactions across the range of scales relevant to breakdown (micron-m). This is achieved through (a) the creation of DEMs (which permit quantitative description and analysis of rock surface morphology and morphological change) and (b) the production of more realistically-shaped experimental blocks. We illustrate the use of these techniques, alongside appropriate data analysis routines, in experiments designed to investigate the persistence of fluvially-derived features in the face of subsequent wind abrasion and weathering. These techniques have a range of potential applications in experimental field and lab-based geomorphic studies beyond those specifically outlined here.

  2. Three-dimensional Printing and 3D Slicer: Powerful Tools in Understanding and Treating Structural Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, George Z; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Folch, Erik; Onieva, Jorge; Gangadharan, Sidhu; Majid, Adnan

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in the three-dimensional (3D) printing industry have enabled clinicians to explore the use of 3D printing in preprocedural planning, biomedical tissue modeling, and direct implantable device manufacturing. Despite the increased adoption of rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing techniques in the health-care field, many physicians lack the technical skill set to use this exciting and useful technology. Additionally, the growth in the 3D printing sector brings an ever-increasing number of 3D printers and printable materials. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to keep abreast of this rapidly developing field in order to benefit. In this Ahead of the Curve, we review the history of 3D printing from its inception to the most recent biomedical applications. Additionally, we will address some of the major barriers to wider adoption of the technology in the medical field. Finally, we will provide an initial guide to 3D modeling and printing by demonstrating how to design a personalized airway prosthesis via 3D Slicer. We hope this information will reduce the barriers to use and increase clinician participation in the 3D printing health-care sector.

  3. Advanced Propulsion and TPS for a Rapidly-Prototyped CEV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Gary C.

    2005-02-01

    Transformational Space Corporation (t/Space) is developing for NASA the initial designs for the Crew Exploration Vehicle family, focusing on a Launch CEV for transporting NASA and civilian passengers from Earth to orbit. The t/Space methodology is rapid prototyping of major vehicle systems, and deriving detailed specifications from the resulting hardware, avoiding "written-in-advance" specs that can force the costly invention of new capabilities simply to meet such specs. A key technology shared by the CEV family is Vapor Pressurized propulsion (Vapak) for simplicity and reliability, which provides electrical power, life support gas and a heat sink in addition to propulsion. The CEV family also features active transpiration cooling of re-entry surfaces (for reusability) backed up by passive thermal protection.

  4. TOPAZ II Anti-Criticality Device Rapid Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Donald R.; Otting, William D.

    1994-07-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) has been working on a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Project (NEPSTP) using an existing Russian Topaz II reactor system to power the NEPSTP satellite. Safety investigations have shown that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the United States with some modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A ``fuel-out'' water subcriticality concept was selected by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as the baseline concept. A fuel-out anti-criticality device (ACD) conceptual design was developed by Rockwell. The concept functions to hold the fuel from the four centermost thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) outside the reactor during launch and reliably inserts the fuel into the reactor once the operational orbit is achieved. A four-tenths scale ACD rapid prototype model, fabricated from the CATIA solids design model, clearly shows in three dimensions the relative size and spatial relationship of the ACD components.

  5. GAJAT A Rapid Prototyping Mission Architecture Tool with Embedded Costing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Andrew J.; Crawford, John P.

    2004-01-01

    GAJAT is a Near Earth Mission Architecture (NEMA) Rapid Prototyping Analysis Tool. It Was designed to be operated by a single systems engineer to replicate the mission design output of JPL's Team X. GAJAT provides estimates for: (1) The overall design of an observatory with a defined payload [instrument(s)] (2) The spacecraft consumable resources required to support the mission over its specified operational period (3) The minimum launch vehicle capability requirement (4) The Ground Segment Requirements, and (5) The cost for developing and launching the observatory (mission development cost) and the cost to operate the system over the specified operational period (mission operations cost), the sum of these two being the total mission cost.

  6. Rapid prototyping in the development of image processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Fecht, Arno; Kelm, Claus Thomas

    2004-08-01

    This contribution presents a rapid prototyping approach for the real-time demonstration of image processing algorithms. As an example EADS/LFK has developed a basic IR target tracking system implementing this approach. Traditionally in research and industry time-independent simulation of image processing algorithms on a host computer is processed. This method is good for demonstrating the algorithms' capabilities. Rarely done is a time-dependent simulation or even a real-time demonstration on a target platform to prove the real-time capabilities. In 1D signal processing applications time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration has already been used for quite a while. For time-dependent simulation Simulink from The MathWorks has established as an industry standard. Combined with The MathWorks' Real-Time Workshop the simulation model can be transferred to a real-time target processor. The executable is generated automatically by the Real-Time Workshop directly out of the simulation model. In 2D signal processing applications like image processing The Mathworks' Matlab is commonly used for time-independent simulation. To achieve time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration capabilities the algorithms can be transferred to Simulink, which in fact runs on top of Matlab. Additionally to increase the performance Simulink models or parts of them can be transferred to Xilinx FPGAs using Xilinx' System Generator. With a single model and the automatic workflow both, a time-dependant simulation and the real-time demonstration, are covered leading to an easy and flexible rapid prototyping approach. EADS/LFK is going to use this approach for a wider spectrum of IR image processing applications like automatic target recognition or image based navigation or imaging laser radar target recognition.

  7. Simple and Versatile 3D Printed Microfluidics Using Fused Filament Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Alex J L; Hidalgo San Jose, Lorena; Jamieson, William D; Wymant, Jennifer M; Song, Bing; Stephens, Phil; Barrow, David A; Castell, Oliver K

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of microfluidics by the wider scientific community has been limited by the fabrication barrier created by the skills and equipment required for the production of traditional microfluidic devices. Here we present simple 3D printed microfluidic devices using an inexpensive and readily accessible printer with commercially available printer materials. We demonstrate that previously reported limitations of transparency and fidelity have been overcome, whilst devices capable of operating at pressures in excess of 2000 kPa illustrate that leakage issues have also been resolved. The utility of the 3D printed microfluidic devices is illustrated by encapsulating dental pulp stem cells within alginate droplets; cell viability assays show the vast majority of cells remain live, and device transparency is sufficient for single cell imaging. The accessibility of these devices is further enhanced through fabrication of integrated ports and by the introduction of a Lego®-like modular system facilitating rapid prototyping whilst offering the potential for novices to build microfluidic systems from a database of microfluidic components.

  8. Simple and Versatile 3D Printed Microfluidics Using Fused Filament Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Alex J. L.; Hidalgo San Jose, Lorena; Jamieson, William D.; Wymant, Jennifer M.; Song, Bing; Stephens, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of microfluidics by the wider scientific community has been limited by the fabrication barrier created by the skills and equipment required for the production of traditional microfluidic devices. Here we present simple 3D printed microfluidic devices using an inexpensive and readily accessible printer with commercially available printer materials. We demonstrate that previously reported limitations of transparency and fidelity have been overcome, whilst devices capable of operating at pressures in excess of 2000 kPa illustrate that leakage issues have also been resolved. The utility of the 3D printed microfluidic devices is illustrated by encapsulating dental pulp stem cells within alginate droplets; cell viability assays show the vast majority of cells remain live, and device transparency is sufficient for single cell imaging. The accessibility of these devices is further enhanced through fabrication of integrated ports and by the introduction of a Lego®-like modular system facilitating rapid prototyping whilst offering the potential for novices to build microfluidic systems from a database of microfluidic components. PMID:27050661

  9. Zebrafish response to 3D printed shoals of conspecifics: the effect of body size.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Showler, Ashleigh; Macrì, Simone; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-02-18

    Recent progress in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has enabled rapid prototyping of complex models at a limited cost. Virtually every research laboratory has access to a 3D printer, which can assist in the design and implementation of hypothesis-driven studies on animal behavior. In this study, we explore the possibility of using 3D printing technology to understand the role of body size in the social behavior of the zebrafish model organism. In a dichotomous preference test, we study the behavioral response of zebrafish to shoals of 3D printed replicas of varying size. We systematically vary the size of each replica without altering the coloration, aspect ratio, and stripe patterns, which are all selected to closely mimic zebrafish morphophysiology. The replicas are actuated through a robotic manipulator, mimicking the natural motion of live subjects. Zebrafish preference is assessed by scoring the time spent in the vicinity of the shoal of replicas, and the information theoretic construct of transfer entropy is used to further elucidate the influence of the replicas on zebrafish motion. Our results demonstrate that zebrafish adjust their behavior in response to variations in the size of the replicas. Subjects exhibit an avoidance reaction for larger replicas, and they are attracted toward and influenced by smaller replicas. The approach presented in this study, integrating 3D printing technology, robotics, and information theory, is expected to significantly aid preclinical research on zebrafish behavior.

  10. Rapid Prototyping Technologies and their Applications in Prosthodontics, a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Farjood, Ehsan; Hamedani, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The early computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems were relied exclusively on subtractive methods. In recent years, additive methods by employing rapid prototyping (RP) have progressed rapidly in various fields of dentistry as they have the potential to overcome known drawbacks of subtractive techniques such as fit problems. RP techniques have been exploited to build complex 3D models in medicine since the 1990s. RP has recently proposed successful applications in various dental fields, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, and maxillofacial prosthesis and finally, complete dentures. This paper aimed to offer a comprehensive literature review of various RP methods, particularly in dentistry, that are expected to bring many improvements to the field. A search was made through MEDLINE database and Google scholar search engine. The keywords; ‘rapid prototyping’ and ‘dentistry’ were searched in title/abstract of publications; limited to 2003 to 2013, concerning past decade. The inclusion criterion was the technical researches that predominately included laboratory procedures. The exclusion criterion was meticulous clinical and excessive technical procedures. A total of 106 articles were retrieved, recited by authors and only 50 met the specified inclusion criteria for this review. Selected articles had used rapid prototyping techniques in various fields in dentistry through different techniques. This review depicted the different laboratory procedures employed in this method and confirmed that RP technique have been substantially feasible in dentistry. With advancement in various RP systems, it is possible to benefit from this technique in different dental practices, particularly in implementing dental prostheses for different applications. PMID:25759851

  11. An Analysis of Item Identification for Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Within the Naval Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    has demonstrated an ongoing effort to grow human kidneys using 3D printers . To describe the process succinctly, the 3D printer constructs a frame from...Vartanian, K. (2013). 3D printers : Judgment day. Industrial Laser Solutions, 28(2), 12–15. Retrieved from http://www.industrial-lasers.com/articles...print/volume- 28/issue-2/features/ 3d - printers -judgment-day.html 70 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 71 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 1. Defense

  12. CAD/CAM bilateral ear prostheses construction for Treacher Collins syndrome patients using laser scanning and rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; De Crescenzio, Francesca; Fantini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Ear defects in patients affected by Treacher Collins syndrome necessitate the replacement of the existing anatomic residuals of the ears with custom-made prostheses. This paper describes a multidisciplinary protocol involving both medicine and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing for manufacturing ear prostheses. Using innovative prototyping technologies together with conventional silicone processing procedures, a step-by-step procedure is presented. The complete workflow includes laser scanning of the defective regions of a patient's face, the use of 3D anatomic models from an ear digital library and rapid prototyping of both substructures for bar anchoring and moulds for silicone processing.

  13. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current CVI and PIP processes.

  14. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  15. Rapid prototyping for radio-frequency geolocation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Briles, S. C.; Arrowood, J. L.; Braun, T. R.; Turcotte, D.; Fiset, E.

    2004-01-01

    Previous space-to-ground, single-platform geolocation experiments exploiting time-difference-of arrival (TDOA) via interferometry were successful at separating and quantitatively characterizing interfering radio frequency (RF) signals from expected RF transmissions. Much of the success of these experiments rested on the use of embedded processors to perform the required signal processing. The experiments handled data in a 'snapshot' fashion: digitized data was collected, the data was processed via a digital signal processing (DSP) microprocessor to yield differential phase measurements, and these measurements were transmitted to the Earth for geolocation processing. With the utilization of FPGAs (field programmable gate arrays) for the intensive number-crunching algorithms, the processing of streaming real-time data is feasible for bandwidths on the order of 20 MHz. By partitioning the signal processing algorithm so there is a significant reduction in the data rate as data flows through the FPGA, a DSP microprocessor can now be employed to perform further decision-oriented processing on the FPGA output. This hybrid architecture, employing both FPGAs and DSPs, typically requires an expensive and lengthy development cycle. However, the use of graphical development environments with auto-code generation and hardware-in-the-loop testing can result in rapid prototyping for geolocation experiments, which enables adaptation to emerging signals of interest in a cost and time effective manner.

  16. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Michael D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  17. Vibrational testing of trabecular bone architectures using rapid prototype models.

    PubMed

    Mc Donnell, P; Liebschner, M A K; Tawackoli, Wafa; Mc Hugh, P E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if standard analysis of the vibrational characteristics of trabecular architectures can be used to detect changes in the mechanical properties due to progressive bone loss. A cored trabecular specimen from a human lumbar vertebra was microCT scanned and a three-dimensional, virtual model in stereolithography (STL) format was generated. Uniform bone loss was simulated using a surface erosion algorithm. Rapid prototype (RP) replicas were manufactured from these virtualised models with 0%, 16% and 42% bone loss. Vibrational behaviour of the RP replicas was evaluated by performing a dynamic compression test through a frequency range using an electro-dynamic shaker. The acceleration and dynamic force responses were recorded and fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyses were performed to determine the response spectrum. Standard resonant frequency analysis and damping factor calculations were performed. The RP replicas were subsequently tested in compression beyond failure to determine their strength and modulus. It was found that the reductions in resonant frequency with increasing bone loss corresponded well with reductions in apparent stiffness and strength. This suggests that structural dynamics has the potential to be an alternative diagnostic technique for osteoporosis, although significant challenges must be overcome to determine the effect of the skin/soft tissue interface, the cortex and variabilities associated with in vivo testing.

  18. Rapid tooling by rapid prototyping: tools made by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macht, Michael; Breitinger, Frank

    1996-08-01

    In view of the competitive situation on the international market, companies are being forced to develop products more rapidly and with less likelihood of errors occurring. In the recent past, product development has been greatly speeded up, above all by computer-aided methods. However, these are not entirely sufficient to achieve a further reduction in product development times. New manufacturing methods such as 'rapid prototyping' (RP) now make it possible to obtain not only computer models but also actual physical patterns in a very early development stage. As RP technologies gained in strength, a demand arose for prototypes in the actual material which it was intended to use for the production article. Using suitable process chains, it is now possible to produce components from various near-series plastics (for example by vacuum casting) and also from metals (e.g. by lost-wax casting or sand casting). At the Augsburg User Center run by Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management of Munich Technical University, processes for the rapid production of prototype tools which unite machining methods, RP technologies and molding techniques have therefore been developed.

  19. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Luis; Jiménez, Mariano; Espinosa, María del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system. Method From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data. Results Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants. PMID:26696528

  20. Reverse engineering and rapid prototyping techniques to innovate prosthesis socket design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Giorgio; Bertetti, Massimiliano; Bonacini, Daniele; Magrassi, Grazia

    2006-02-01

    The paper presents an innovative approach totally based on digital data to optimize lower limb socket prosthesis design. This approach is based on a stump's detailed geometric model and provides a substitute to plaster cast obtained through the traditional manual methodology with a physical model, realized with Rapid Prototyping technologies; this physical model will be used for the socket lamination. The paper discusses a methodology to reconstruct a 3D geometric model of the stump able to describe with high accuracy and detail the complete structure subdivided into bones, soft tissues, muscular masses and dermis. Some different technologies are used for stump acquisition: non contact laser technique for external geometry, CT and MRI imaging technologies for the internal structure, the first one dedicated to bones geometrical model, the last for soft tissues and muscles. We discuss problems related to 3D geometric reconstruction: the patient and stump positioning for the different acquisitions, markers' definition on the stump to identify landmarks, alignment's strategies for the different digital models, in order to define a protocol procedure with a requested accuracy for socket's realization. Some case-studies illustrate the methodology and the results obtained.

  1. Extrusion based rapid prototyping technique: an advanced platform for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M Enamul; Chuan, Y Leng; Pashby, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Advances in scaffold design and fabrication technology have brought the tissue engineering field stepping into a new era. Conventional techniques used to develop scaffolds inherit limitations, such as lack of control over the pore morphology and architecture as well as reproducibility. Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, a layer-by-layer additive approach offers a unique opportunity to build complex 3D architectures overcoming those limitations that could ultimately be tailored to cater for patient-specific applications. Using RP methods, researchers have been able to customize scaffolds to mimic the biomechanical properties (in terms of structural integrity, strength, and microenvironment) of the organ or tissue to be repaired/replaced quite closely. This article provides intensive description on various extrusion based scaffold fabrication techniques and review their potential utility for TE applications. The extrusion-based technique extrudes the molten polymer as a thin filament through a nozzle onto a platform layer-by-layer and thus building 3D scaffold. The technique allows full control over pore architecture and dimension in the x- and y- planes. However, the pore height in z-direction is predetermined by the extruding nozzle diameter rather than the technique itself. This review attempts to assess the current state and future prospects of this technology.

  2. 3D printing: making things at the library.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    3D printers are a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Uses for these printers include printing models, parts, and toys. 3D printers are also being developed for medical applications, including printed bone, skin, and even complete organs. Although medical printing lags behind other uses for 3D printing, it has the potential to radically change the practice of medicine over the next decade. Falling costs for hardware have made 3D printers an inexpensive technology that libraries can offer their patrons. Medical librarians will want to be familiar with this technology, as it is sure to have wide-reaching effects on the practice of medicine.

  3. Aeroelastic characteristics of a rapid prototype multi-material wind tunnel model of a mechanically deployable aerodynamic decelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Boris

    Scaled wind tunnel models are necessary for the development of aircraft and spacecraft to simulate aerodynamic behavior. This allows for testing multiple iterations of a design before more expensive full-scale aircraft and spacecraft are built. However, the cost of building wind tunnel models can still be high because they normally require costly subtractive manufacturing processes, such as machining, which can be time consuming and laborious due to the complex surfaces of aerodynamic models. Rapid prototyping, commonly known as 3D printing, can be utilized to save on wind tunnel model manufacturing costs. A rapid prototype multi-material wind tunnel model was manufactured for this thesis to investigate the possibility of using PolyJet 3D printing to create a model that exhibits aeroelastic behavior. The model is of NASA's Adaptable Deployable entry and Placement (ADEPT) aerodynamic decelerator, used to decelerate a spacecraft during reentry into a planet's atmosphere. It is a 60° cone with a spherically blunted nose that consists of a 12 flexible panels supported by a rigid structure of nose, ribs, and rim. The novel rapid prototype multi-material model was instrumented and tested in two flow conditions. Quantitative comparisons were made of the average forces and dynamic forces on the model, demonstrating that the model matched expected behavior for average drag, but not Strouhal number, indicating that there was no aeroelastic behavior in this particular case. It was also noted that the dynamic properties (e.g., resonant frequency) associated with the mounting scheme are very important and may dominate the measured dynamic response.

  4. Materials Selection and Their Characteristics as Used in Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K.; Salvail, P.; Vesely, E.; Wells, D.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted a program to evaluate six technologies used in Rapid Prototyping (RP) to produce investment casting patterns. In this paper, RP refers to the collective additive fabrication technologies known as Solid Free-Form Fabrication. Such technologies are being used with increasing frequency in manufacturing applications, due in part to their rapidly expanding capabilities to fabricate models from many types of materials. This study used ABS plastic, polycarbonate, TrueForm PM6, epoxy resin, paper, starch, and wax. The baseline model was a semi-complex prototype fuel pump housing, intended for use in the X-33 reusable launch vehicle. All models were shelled in a production- grade colloidal silica ceramic. Primary coats were zircon-base flour with zircon backup, while secondary coats were silica grains with a tabular alumina backup. Each model was shelled in an identical manner, using the same atmospheric conditions and drying times, as well as the same number of layers. Bake-outs and firing cycles were consistent with the leach ability of each material. Preheat and bath temperatures were also kept consistent. All molds were cast in vacuum using a hydrogen-resistant superalloy (NASA- 23) that was developed in-house. The final technical evaluation included detailed measurements of the model and the final casting, in order to determine any dimensional changes caused by different pattern materials, as well as documentation of all defects and any obvious refractory/model reactions. Prototype production costs were estimated for each method and taken into consideration during trade-off analysis.

  5. Airplane numerical simulation for the rapid prototyping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roysdon, Paul F.

    Airplane Numerical Simulation for the Rapid Prototyping Process is a comprehensive research investigation into the most up-to-date methods for airplane development and design. Uses of modern engineering software tools, like MatLab and Excel, are presented with examples of batch and optimization algorithms which combine the computing power of MatLab with robust aerodynamic tools like XFOIL and AVL. The resulting data is demonstrated in the development and use of a full non-linear six-degrees-of-freedom simulator. The applications for this numerical tool-box vary from un-manned aerial vehicles to first-order analysis of manned aircraft. A Blended-Wing-Body airplane is used for the analysis to demonstrate the flexibility of the code from classic wing-and-tail configurations to less common configurations like the blended-wing-body. This configuration has been shown to have superior aerodynamic performance -- in contrast to their classic wing-and-tube fuselage counterparts -- and have reduced sensitivity to aerodynamic flutter as well as potential for increased engine noise abatement. Of course without a classic tail elevator to damp the nose up pitching moment, and the vertical tail rudder to damp the yaw and possible rolling aerodynamics, the challenges in lateral roll and yaw stability, as well as pitching moment are not insignificant. This thesis work applies the tools necessary to perform the airplane development and optimization on a rapid basis, demonstrating the strength of this tool through examples and comparison of the results to similar airplane performance characteristics published in literature.

  6. An application generator for rapid prototyping of Ada real-time control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jim; Biglari, Haik; Lehman, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The need to increase engineering productivity and decrease software life cycle costs in real-time system development establishes a motivation for a method of rapid prototyping. The design by iterative rapid prototyping technique is described. A tool which facilitates such a design methodology for the generation of embedded control software is described.

  7. Fabrication of multi-well chips for spheroid cultures and implantable constructs through rapid prototyping techniques.

    PubMed

    Lopa, Silvia; Piraino, Francesco; Kemp, Raymond J; Di Caro, Clelia; Lovati, Arianna B; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Moroni, Lorenzo; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Rasponi, Marco; Moretti, Matteo

    2015-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture models are widely used in basic and translational research. In this study, to generate and culture multiple 3D cell spheroids, we exploited laser ablation and replica molding for the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) multi-well chips, which were validated using articular chondrocytes (ACs). Multi-well ACs spheroids were comparable or superior to standard spheroids, as revealed by glycosaminoglycan and type-II collagen deposition. Moreover, the use of our multi-well chips significantly reduced the operation time for cell seeding and medium refresh. Exploiting a similar approach, we used clinical-grade fibrin to generate implantable multi-well constructs allowing for the precise distribution of multiple cell types. Multi-well fibrin constructs were seeded with ACs generating high cell density regions, as shown by histology and cell fluorescent staining. Multi-well constructs were compared to standard constructs with homogeneously distributed ACs. After 7 days in vitro, expression of SOX9, ACAN, COL2A1, and COMP was increased in both constructs, with multi-well constructs expressing significantly higher levels of chondrogenic genes than standard constructs. After 5 weeks in vivo, we found that despite a dramatic size reduction, the cell distribution pattern was maintained and glycosaminoglycan content per wet weight was significantly increased respect to pre-implantation samples. In conclusion, multi-well chips for the generation and culture of multiple cell spheroids can be fabricated by low-cost rapid prototyping techniques. Furthermore, these techniques can be used to generate implantable constructs with defined architecture and controlled cell distribution, allowing for in vitro and in vivo investigation of cell interactions in a 3D environment.

  8. A Model for Managing 3D Printing Services in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Sahib, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of 3D printers in university libraries opens many opportunities for advancing outreach, teaching, and research programs. The University of Alabama (UA) Libraries recently adopted 3D printing technology and maintains an open access 3D Printing Studio. The Studio consists of a 3D printer, multiple 3D design workstations, and other…

  9. NASA Applied Sciences Program Rapid Prototyping Results and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's Applied Sciences Program seeks to expand the use of Earth science research results to benefit current and future operational systems tasked with making policy and management decisions. The Earth Science Division within the Science Mission Directorate sponsors over 1000 research projects annually to answer the fundamental research question: How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth? As research results become available, largely from satellite observations and Earth system model outputs, the Applied Sciences Program works diligently with scientists and researchers (internal and external to NASA) , and other government agency officials (USDA, EPA, CDC, DOE, US Forest Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, DHS, USAID) to determine useful applications for these results in decision-making, ultimately benefiting society. The complexity of Earth science research results and the breadth of the Applied Sciences Program national priority areas dictate a broad scope and multiple approaches available to implement their use in decision-making. Over the past five years, the Applied Sciences Program has examined scientific and engineering practices and solicited the community for methods and steps that can lead to the enhancement of operational systems (Decision Support Systems - DSS) required for decision-making. In November 2006, the Applied Sciences Program launched an initiative aimed at demonstrating the applicability of NASA data (satellite observations, models, geophysical parameters from data archive centers) being incorporated into decision support systems and their related environments at a low cost and quick turnaround of results., i.e. designed rapid prototyping. Conceptually, an understanding of Earth science research (and results) coupled with decision-making requirements and needs leads to a demonstration (experiment) depicting enhancements or improvements to an operational decisions process through the use of NASA data. Five

  10. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  11. A new production method of elastic silicone carotid phantom based on MRI acquisition using rapid prototyping technique.

    PubMed

    Cao, Peng; Duhamel, Yvan; Olympe, Guillaume; Ramond, Bruno; Langevin, Francois

    2013-01-01

    In vitro experimental simulations of blood fluid in carotid artery require ideal phantoms that are as precise as possible. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a method for carotid phantom fabrication by rapid prototyping technique (RP). By using 3D reconstructed projection of the 3D time-of-flight (TOF) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence, a 12.5 cm multi-dimensional spatial structure of a carotid artery has been set up. Y-shaped and patient specific models have been generated respectively using silicone elastomer, which has a high resilience and a good tensile strength. The final patient specific model has internal carotid artery (ICA) with a highly spiraling siphon and an external carotid artery (ECA). Elastic properties of carotid walls have also been evaluated by Young's elastic modulus test and dynamic behaviors in optical and echography simulation experiments.

  12. Rapid Prototyping of Simulated VIIRS Data in the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easson, G.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Yarbrough, L. D.; Irwin, D.; Cherrington, E.

    2006-12-01

    A rapid prototyping capability experiment has been established involving the application of the SERVIR (Sistema Regional de Visualización y Monitoreo) decision support tool, which is NASA's and its partner agencies' tool to monitor groundcover and climatic conditions in Mesoamerica. As an information system, the SERVIR tool processes data products from multiple sources and the outcome is visualized through interactive digital maps, standard view map outputs or 3D real-time visualization. The focus of this research is one of the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response products known as the MODIS SERVIR Fire Extent Product, which was developed to meet the requirements of the Guatemalan Park Service. The credibility of SERVIR's monitoring tools currently depends upon NASA's MODIS data, which is nearing the end of its availability. This will make it necessary to transition to the planned replacement sensor, VIIRS. The impact of this transition on the performance of SERVIR's fire detection tools is the current focus of our investigation. A quantitative assessment of fire conditions in Guatemala is made using MODIS data and is compared to the anticipated performance using simulated data that would have been produced by a VIIRS-like sensor. Using a low-density geospatial database, the comparison is made for a number of dates from the 2003 Guatemalan fire season, where ground validation data is available. A comparative assessment is also made using the kappa statistic applied to the land classifications resulting from both the MODIS- and VIIRS- based fire detection algorithms.

  13. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  14. The Requirements and Design of the Rapid Prototyping Capabilities System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, T. A.; Moorhead, R.; O'Hara, C.; Anantharaj, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Capabilities (RPC) system will provide the capability to rapidly evaluate innovative methods of linking science observations. To this end, the RPC will provide the capability to integrate the software components and tools needed to evaluate the use of a wide variety of current and future NASA sensors, numerical models, and research results, model outputs, and knowledge, collectively referred to as "resources". It is assumed that the resources are geographically distributed, and thus RPC will provide the support for the location transparency of the resources. The RPC system requires providing support for: (1) discovery, semantic understanding, secure access and transport mechanisms for data products available from the known data provides; (2) data assimilation and geo- processing tools for all data transformations needed to match given data products to the model input requirements; (3) model management including catalogs of models and model metadata, and mechanisms for creation environments for model execution; and (4) tools for model output analysis and model benchmarking. The challenge involves developing a cyberinfrastructure for a coordinated aggregate of software, hardware and other technologies, necessary to facilitate RPC experiments, as well as human expertise to provide an integrated, "end-to-end" platform to support the RPC objectives. Such aggregation is to be achieved through a horizontal integration of loosely coupled services. The cyberinfrastructure comprises several software layers. At the bottom, the Grid fabric encompasses network protocols, optical networks, computational resources, storage devices, and sensors. At the top, applications use workload managers to coordinate their access to physical resources. Applications are not tightly bounded to a single physical resource. Instead, they bind dynamically to resources (i.e., they are provisioned) via a common grid infrastructure layer. For the RPC system, the

  15. Laser-Controlled Rapid Prototyping of Photonic Integrated Circuits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.

    1994-01-01

    Photonic integrated circuits offer important cost and environmental advantages over circuits composed of discrete components. However, the design and fabrication of complex, large-area photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is severely limited by the lack of prototyping tools as well as the appropriate device structures. This thesis describes the use of a novel laser fabrication process for the rapid prototyping of integrated optical circuits in compound semiconductor substrates. The fabrication is based on a type of laser direct photoelectrochemical etching process that uses a focused laser beam which is scanned under computer control to form micrometer-scale grooves, thereby patterning rib-like optical waveguide structures. The computer-controlled apparatus can be programmed with any desired circuit pattern, and prototype waveguide circuits can be produced within a day. The technique does not require the use of a mask; thus, the etching can be done in a single step. In the first part of this thesis, the technique of micrometer-scale photoelectrochemical etching of GaAs is described. The use of this technique for the fabrication of several passive integrated optical devices in GaAs is then presented. These "building block" devices include linear waveguides, bends, Y-branches, and tapers. From these, we were able to form simple passive devices such as splitters and directional couplers. These devices have low optical loss, are single-mode, and can be accurately modeled using effective index calculations. The usefulness of this technique as a prototyping tool is then demonstrated by its use in the fabrication of the first sub-Angstrom integrated channel-dropping filter. After the presentation of the passive devices results, the use of this technique to fabricate several active devices is discussed. These electrooptic devices include a polarization modulator, an integrated amplitude modulator consisting of a polarization modulator and an on-chip polarizer, and an

  16. Using Rapid Prototyping to Design a Smoking Cessation Website with End-Users.

    PubMed

    Ronquillo, Charlene; Currie, Leanne; Rowsell, Derek; Phillips, J Craig

    2016-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is an iterative approach to design involving cycles of prototype building, review by end-users and refinement, and can be a valuable tool in user-centered website design. Informed by various user-centered approaches, we used rapid prototyping as a tool to collaborate with users in building a peer-support focused smoking-cessation website for gay men living with HIV. Rapid prototyping was effective in eliciting feedback on the needs of this group of potential end-users from a smoking cessation website.

  17. Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Kiyan, Roman; Reinhardt, Carsten; Passinger, Sven; Stepanov, Andrei L; Hohenau, Andreas; Krenn, Joachim R; Chichkov, Boris N

    2007-04-02

    Advanced femtosecond laser technology allows the fabrication of arbitrary 2D and 3D dielectric micro- and nanoscale structures by two-photon polymerization (2PP). In this paper, we present first investigations on excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on dielectric 2D structures fabricated on metal surfaces with this technology. Straight and curved line- and dot- structures built of the negative-tone photoresist ORMOCER (organically modified ceramic) are investigated by plasmon leakage radiation microscopy. Polarization dependent excitation efficiencies and focusing of SPPs are investigated.

  18. Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyan, Roman; Reinhardt, Carsten; Passinger, Sven; Stepanov, Andrei L.; Hohenau, Andreas; Krenn, Joachim R.; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2007-04-01

    Advanced femtosecond laser technology allows the fabrication of arbitrary 2D and 3D dielectric micro- and nanoscale structures by two-photon polymerization (2PP). In this paper, we present first investigations on excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on dielectric 2D structures fabricated on metal surfaces with this technology. Straight and curved line- and dot- structures built of the negative-tone photoresist ORMOCER (organically modified ceramic) are investigated by plasmon leakage radiation microscopy. Polarization dependent excitation efficiencies and focusing of SPPs are investigated.

  19. Rapid Prototyping for In Vitro Knee Rig Investigations of Prosthetized Knee Biomechanics: Comparison with Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Implant Material

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Christian; Steinbrück, Arnd; Müller, Tatjana; Woiczinski, Matthias; Chevalier, Yan; Müller, Peter E.; Jansson, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM) by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM) prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics. PMID:25879019

  20. Rapid prototyping for in vitro knee rig investigations of prosthetized knee biomechanics: comparison with cobalt-chromium alloy implant material.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christian; Steinbrück, Arnd; Müller, Tatjana; Woiczinski, Matthias; Chevalier, Yan; Weber, Patrick; Müller, Peter E; Jansson, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM) by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM) prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics.

  1. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Nimish

    Advances in embedded systems for digital signal processing (DSP) are enabling many scientific projects and commercial applications. At the same time, these applications are key to driving advances in many important kinds of computing platforms. In this region of high performance DSP, rapid prototyping is critical for faster time-to-market (e.g., in the wireless communications industry) or time-to-science (e.g., in radio astronomy). DSP system architectures have evolved from being based on application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to incorporate reconfigurable off-the-shelf field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the latest multiprocessors such as graphics processing units (GPUs), or heterogeneous combinations of such devices. We, thus, have a vast design space to explore based on performance trade-offs, and expanded by the multitude of possibilities for target platforms. In order to allow systematic design space exploration, and develop scalable and portable prototypes, model based design tools are increasingly used in design and implementation of embedded systems. These tools allow scalable high-level representations, model based semantics for analysis and optimization, and portable implementations that can be verified at higher levels of abstractions and targeted toward multiple platforms for implementation. The designer can experiment using such tools at an early stage in the design cycle, and employ the latest hardware at later stages. In this thesis, we have focused on dataflow-based approaches for rapid DSP system prototyping. This thesis contributes to various aspects of dataflow-based design flows and tools as follows: 1. We have introduced the concept of topological patterns, which exploits commonly found repetitive patterns in DSP algorithms to allow scalable, concise, and parameterizable representations of large scale dataflow graphs in high-level languages. We have shown how an underlying design tool can systematically exploit a high

  2. Concept of using a benchmark part to evaluate rapid prototype processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual benchmark part for guiding manufacturers and users of rapid prototyping technologies is proposed. This is based on a need to have some tool to evaluate the development of this technology and to assist the user in judiciously selecting a process. The benchmark part is designed to have unique product details and features. The extent to which a rapid prototyping process can reproduce these features becomes a measure of the capability of the process. Since rapid prototyping is a dynamic technology, this benchmark part should be used to continuously monitor process capability of existing and developing technologies. Development of this benchmark part is, therefore, based on an understanding of the properties required from prototypes and characteristics of various rapid prototyping processes and measuring equipment that is used for evaluation.

  3. [Application status of rapid prototyping technology in artificial bone based on reverse engineering].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ao; Zheng, Min; Fan, Ding

    2015-02-01

    Artificial bone replacement has made an important contribution to safeguard human health and improve the quality of life. The application requirements of rapid prototyping technology based on reverse engineering in individualized artificial bone with individual differences are particularly urgent. This paper reviewed the current research and applications of rapid prototyping and reverse engineering in artificial bone. The research developments and the outlook of bone kinematics and dynamics simulation are also introduced.

  4. Characteristics of products generated by selective sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The trend in the modern global economy towards free market policies has motivated companies to use rapid prototyping technologies to not only reduce product development cycle time but also to maintain their competitive edge. A rapid prototyping technology is one which combines computer aided design with computer controlled tracking of focussed high energy source (eg. lasers, heat) on modern ceramic powders, metallic powders, plastics or photosensitive liquid resins in order to produce prototypes or models. At present, except for the process of shape melting, most rapid prototyping processes generate products that are only dimensionally similar to those of the desired end product. There is an urgent need, therefore, to enhance the understanding of the characteristics of these processes in order to realize their potential for production. Currently, the commercial market is dominated by four rapid prototyping processes, namely selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing. This phase of the research has focussed on the selective laser sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes. A theoretical model for these processes is under development. Different rapid prototyping sites supplied test specimens (based on ASTM 638-84, Type I) that have been measured and tested to provide a data base on surface finish, dimensional variation and ultimate tensile strength. Further plans call for developing and verifying the theoretical models by carefully designed experiments. This will be a joint effort between NASA and other prototyping centers to generate a larger database, thus encouraging more widespread usage by product designers.

  5. Macro-to-micro interfacing to microfluidic channels using 3D-printed templates: application to time-resolved secretion sampling of endocrine tissue.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jessica C; Ford, Katarena I; Holder, Dylan H; Holtan, Mark D; Easley, Christopher J

    2016-10-21

    Employing 3D-printed templates for macro-to-micro interfacing, a passively operated polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device was designed for time-resolved secretion sampling from primary murine islets and epidiymal white adipose tissue explants. Interfacing in similar devices is typically accomplished through manually punched or drilled fluidic reservoirs. We previously introduced the concept of using hand fabricated polymer inserts to template cell culture and sampling reservoirs into PDMS devices, allowing rapid stimulation and sampling of endocrine tissue. However, fabrication of the fluidic reservoirs was time consuming, tedious, and was prone to errors during device curing. Here, we have implemented computer-aided design and 3D printing to circumvent these fabrication obstacles. In addition to rapid prototyping and design iteration advantages, the ability to match these 3D-printed interface templates with channel patterns is highly beneficial. By digitizing the template fabrication process, more robust components can be produced with reduced fabrication variability. Herein, 3D-printed templates were used for sculpting millimetre-scale reservoirs into the above-channel, bulk PDMS in passively-operated, eight-channel devices designed for time-resolved secretion sampling of murine tissue. Devices were proven functional by temporally assaying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from <10 pancreatic islets and glycerol secretion from 2 mm adipose tissue explants, suggesting that 3D-printed interface templates could be applicable to a variety of cells and tissue types. More generally, this work validates desktop 3D printers as versatile interfacing tools in microfluidic laboratories.

  6. 3D-printed haptic "reverse" models for preoperative planning in soft tissue reconstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chae, Michael P; Lin, Frank; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2015-02-01

    In reconstructive surgery, preoperative planning is essential for optimal functional and aesthetic outcome. Creating a three-dimensional (3D) model from two-dimensional (2D) imaging data by rapid prototyping has been used in industrial design for decades but has only recently been introduced for medical application. 3D printing is one such technique that is fast, convenient, and relatively affordable. In this report, we present a case in which a reproducible method for producing a 3D-printed "reverse model" representing a skin wound defect was used for flap design and harvesting. This comprised a 82-year-old man with an exposed ankle prosthesis after serial soft tissue debridements for wound infection. Soft tissue coverage and dead-space filling were planned with a composite radial forearm free flap (RFFF). Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the donor site (left forearm), recipient site (right ankle), and the left ankle was performed. 2D data from the CTA was 3D-reconstructed using computer software, with a 3D image of the left ankle used as a "control." A 3D model was created by superimposing the left and right ankle images, to create a "reverse image" of the defect, and printed using a 3D printer. The RFFF was thus planned and executed effectively, without complication. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mechanism of calculating a soft tissue wound defect and producing a 3D model that may be useful for surgical planning. 3D printing and particularly "reverse" modeling may be versatile options in reconstructive planning, and have the potential for broad application.

  7. WE-F-16A-03: 3D Printer Application in Proton Therapy: A Novel Method to Deliver Passive-Scattering Proton Beams with a Fixed Range and Modulation for SRS and SRT

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X; Witztum, A; Liang, X; Reiche, M; Lin, H; Teo, B; Yin, L; Fiene, J; McDonough, J; Kassaee, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To present a novel technique to deliver passive-scattering proton beam with fixed range and modulation using a 3D printed patient-specific bolus for proton stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. Methods: A CIRS head phantom was used to simulate a patient with a small brain lesion. A custom bolus was created in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) to compensate for the different water equivalent depths from the patient surface to the target from multiple beam directions. To simulate arc therapy, a plan was created on the initial CT using three passive-scattering proton beams with a fixed range and modulations irradiating from different angles. The DICOM-RT structure file of the bolus was exported from the TPS and converted to STL format for 3D printing. The phantom was rescanned with the printed custom bolus and head cup to verify the dose distribution comparing to the initial plan. EBT3 films were placed in the sagital plane of the target to verify the delivered dose distribution. The relative stopping power of the printing material(ABSplus-P430) was measured using the Zebra multi-plate ion chamber. Results: The relative stopping power of the 3D printing material, ABSplus-P430 was 1.05 which is almost water equivalent. The dose difference between verification CT and Initial CT is almost negligible. Film measurement also confirmed the accuracy for this new proton delivery technique. Conclusion: Our method using 3D printed range modifiers simplify the treatment delivery of multiple passive-scattering beams in treatment of small lesion in brain. This technique makes delivery of multiple beam more efficient and can be extended to allow arc therapy with proton beams. The ability to create and construct complex patient specific bolus structures provides a new dimension in creating optimized quality treatment plans not only for proton therapy but also for electron and photon therapy.

  8. Robot based three-dimensional welding for jet engine blade repair and rapid prototyping of small components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thukaram, Santosh Kumar

    Aero engines are made up of a large number of blades which are subject to wear and damage. They are expensive and must be repaired wherever possible. Engines also have small components which are required in small numbers that need to be developed rapidly. The first part of this research work focuses on developing a robust automated blade repair method using robotic welding. Optimal weld parameters were developed for build-up of edges having different thicknesses. Samples with varying Current and varying travel speed were produced and their micro hardness values were compared. Blade profiles were welded upon. The second part involves a methodology for producing small components using rapid prototyping (RP) techniques. This part involves use of 3D robotic welding for layered manufacturing. Tensile samples produced using the metal RP method were tested and results were found to be well above the minimum cast specifications for the given material.

  9. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  10. Utility and Scope of Rapid Prototyping in Patients with Complex Muscular Ventricular Septal Defects or Double-Outlet Right Ventricle: Does it Alter Management Decisions?

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Puneet; Tretter, Justin T; Ludomirsky, Achi; Argilla, Michael; Latson, Larry A; Chakravarti, Sujata; Barker, Piers C; Yoo, Shi-Joon; McElhinney, Doff B; Wake, Nicole; Mosca, Ralph S

    2017-01-01

    Rapid prototyping facilitates comprehension of complex cardiac anatomy. However, determining when this additional information proves instrumental in patient management remains a challenge. We describe our experience with patient-specific anatomic models created using rapid prototyping from various imaging modalities, suggesting their utility in surgical and interventional planning in congenital heart disease (CHD). Virtual and physical 3-dimensional (3D) models were generated from CT or MRI data, using commercially available software for patients with complex muscular ventricular septal defects (CMVSD) and double-outlet right ventricle (DORV). Six patients with complex anatomy and uncertainty of the optimal management strategy were included in this study. The models were subsequently used to guide management decisions, and the outcomes reviewed. 3D models clearly demonstrated the complex intra-cardiac anatomy in all six patients and were utilized to guide management decisions. In the three patients with CMVSD, one underwent successful endovascular device closure following a prior failed attempt at transcatheter closure, and the other two underwent successful primary surgical closure with the aid of 3D models. In all three cases of DORV, the models provided better anatomic delineation and additional information that altered or confirmed the surgical plan. Patient-specific 3D heart models show promise in accurately defining intra-cardiac anatomy in CHD, specifically CMVSD and DORV. We believe these models improve understanding of the complex anatomical spatial relationships in these defects and provide additional insight for pre/intra-interventional management and surgical planning.

  11. A fast and flexible method for manufacturing 3D molded interconnect devices by the use of a rapid prototyping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, P.; Pscherer, C.; Rechtenwald, T.; Frick, T.; Schmidt, M.

    This paper presents experimental results of manufacturing MID-prototypes by means of SLS, laser structuring and metallization. Therefore common SLS powder (PA12) doped with laser structuring additives is used. First of all the influence of the additives on the characteristic temperatures of melting and crystallization is analyzed by means of DSC. Afterwards the sintering process is carried out and optimized by experiments. Finally the generated components are qualified regarding their density, mechanical properties and surface roughness. Especially the surface quality is important for the metallization process. Therefore surface finishing techniques are investigated.

  12. Study of materials and machines for 3D printed large-scale, flexible electronic structures using fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seyeon

    The 3 dimensional printing (3DP), called to additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), is emerged to revolutionize manufacturing and completely transform how products are designed and fabricated. A great deal of research activities have been carried out to apply this new technology to a variety of fields. In spite of many endeavors, much more research is still required to perfect the processes of the 3D printing techniques especially in the area of the large-scale additive manufacturing and flexible printed electronics. The principles of various 3D printing processes are briefly outlined in the Introduction Section. New types of thermoplastic polymer composites aiming to specified functional applications are also introduced in this section. Chapter 2 shows studies about the metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Various metal particles, copper and iron particles, are added into thermoplastics polymer matrices as the reinforcement filler. The thermo-mechanical properties, such as thermal conductivity, hardness, tensile strength, and fracture mechanism, of composites are tested to figure out the effects of metal fillers on 3D printed composite structures for the large-scale printing process. In Chapter 3, carbon/polymer composite filaments are developed by a simple mechanical blending process with an aim of fabricating the flexible 3D printed electronics as a single structure. Various types of carbon particles consisting of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), conductive carbon black (CCB), and graphite are used as the conductive fillers to provide the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with improved electrical conductivity. The mechanical behavior and conduction mechanisms of the developed composite materials are observed in terms of the loading amount of carbon fillers in this section. Finally, the prototype flexible electronics are modeled and manufactured by the FDM process using Carbon/TPU composite filaments and

  13. Design and optimization of the micro-engine turbine rotor manufacturing using the rapid prototyping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, R. A.; Smelov, V. G.

    2017-02-01

    This work describes the experience in manufacturing the turbine rotor for the micro-engine. It demonstrates the design principles for the complex investment casting process combining the use of the ProCast software and the rapid prototyping techniques. At the virtual modelling stage, in addition to optimized process parameters, the casting structure was improved to obtain the defect-free section. The real production stage allowed demonstrating the performance and fitness of rapid prototyping techniques for the manufacture of geometrically-complex engine-building parts.

  14. Development of 70/30 Poly-L-DL-Lactic Acid Filaments for 3D Printers (Part 2): Mechanical and Surface Properties of Bioabsorbable Printed Plates for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Daniel J.; Vidal, Rafael; Assayag, Ariel; de Biasi, Ronaldo S.; Elias, Carlos N.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical, chemical, roughness and wettability properties of 70/30 poly (L,DL-lactide acid) three-dimensional (3D)-printed surgical plates made with extruded polymer filaments developed in the first part of this work were investigated. The plates were printed with horizontal (HRZ) and vertical (VRT) running layer orientations and evaluated by tensile, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), optical perfilometry and wettability tests before and after degradation in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 21 days. The results show that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of HRZ plates before immersion in SBF was higher (34.1 MPa) than that of VRT plates (31.8 MPa). The Young's modulus ( E) of HRZ plates and VRT plates are similar (4 GPa). After immersion in SBF, the UTS of HRZ plates dropped to 20.5 MPa and E decreased to 3.3 GPa. VRT were not tested after SBF immersion due to the large degradation. FTIR analysis showed no evidence of chemical change in the plates after immersion in SBF. The roughness parameter R3z of VRT surfaces (19.54 µm) was higher than that of the HRZ surfaces (12.80 µm). The roughness parameters increased after degradation in SBF ( p = 0.7048). The contact angles of HRZ surfaces before immersion in SBF (66.28°) were higher than after immersion in SBF (18.12°); the same behavior was also observed in VRT plates.

  15. A system for rapid prototyping of hearts with congenital malformations based on the medical imaging interaction toolkit (MITK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Ivo; Böttger, Thomas; Rietdorf, Urte; Maleike, Daniel; Greil, Gerald; Sieverding, Ludger; Miller, Stephan; Mottl-Link, Sibylle; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2006-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the individual cardiac anatomy is essential for diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. Complex malformations of the heart can best be comprehended not from images but from anatomic specimens. Physical models can be created from data using rapid prototyping techniques, e.g., lasersintering or 3D-printing. We have developed a system for obtaining data that show the relevant cardiac anatomy from high-resolution CT/MR images and are suitable for rapid prototyping. The challenge is to preserve all relevant details unaltered in the produced models. The main anatomical structures of interest are the four heart cavities (atria, ventricles), the valves and the septum separating the cavities, and the great vessels. These can be shown either by reproducing the morphology itself or by producing a model of the blood-pool, thus creating a negative of the morphology. Algorithmically the key issue is segmentation. Practically, possibilities allowing the cardiologist or cardiac surgeon to interactively check and correct the segmentation are even more important due to the complex, irregular anatomy and imaging artefacts. The paper presents the algorithmic and interactive processing steps implemented in the system, which is based on the open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK, www.mitk.org). It is shown how the principles used in MITK enable to assemble the system from modules (functionalities) developed independently from each other. The system allows to produce models of the heart (and other anatomic structures) of individual patients as well as to reproduce unique specimens from pathology collections for teaching purposes.

  16. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Stratasys 3D printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D

  17. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  18. 3D-printing technologies for electrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-05-21

    Since its conception during the 80s, 3D-printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has been receiving unprecedented levels of attention and interest from industry and research laboratories. This is in addition to end users, who have benefited from the pervasiveness of desktop-size and relatively cheap printing machines available. 3D-printing enables almost infinite possibilities for rapid prototyping. Therefore, it has been considered for applications in numerous research fields, ranging from mechanical engineering, medicine, and materials science to chemistry. Electrochemistry is another branch of science that can certainly benefit from 3D-printing technologies, paving the way for the design and fabrication of cheaper, higher performing, and ubiquitously available electrochemical devices. Here, we aim to provide a general overview of the most commonly available 3D-printing methods along with a review of recent electrochemistry related studies adopting 3D-printing as a possible rapid prototyping fabrication tool.

  19. Utilizing a Rapid Prototyping Approach in the Building of a Hypermedia-Based Reference Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Dan

    This paper discusses the building of a hypermedia-based reference station at the Wright Laboratory Technical Library, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Following this, the paper focuses on an electronic user survey from which data is collected and analysis is made. The survey data is used in a rapid prototyping approach, which is defined as…

  20. A Rapidly Prototyped Vegetation Dryness Index Developed for Wildfire Risk Assessment at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton; Graham, William D.; Prados, Donald; Spruce, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    A remote sensing index was developed to allow improved monitoring of vegetation dryness conditions on a regional basis. This remote sensing index was rapidly prototyped at Stennis Space Center in response to drought conditions in the local area in spring 2006.

  1. Low-Cost Rapid Prototyping of Whole-Glass Microfluidic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Po Ki; Goral, Vasiliy N.

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost, straightforward, rapid prototyping of whole-glass microfluidic devices is presented using glass-etching cream that can be easily purchased in local stores. A self-adhered vinyl stencil cut out by a desktop digital craft cutter was used as an etching mask for patterning microstructures in glass using the glass-etching cream. A specific…

  2. JTEC/WTEC panel report on rapid prototyping in Europe and Japan. Volume 2: Site reports

    SciTech Connect

    Prinz, F.B.; Atwood, C.L.; Aubin, R.F.

    1996-09-01

    This study reports the findings by a panel of experts on the state of the art in physical rapid prototyping technologies in Europe and Japan. The panel focused its investigation on a new class of rapid prototyping technologies called solid free form fabrication (SFF). The efforts observed overseas are compared to efforts in the US. The expert panel was selected by recommendations from the study chairman and representatives of the sponsoring agencies. The panel was formed of members from industry, academia, and government. Industry members represented primarily users rather than developers of SFF technology. The panel visited 34 sites in subgroups of typically three to five members. This Volume 2 of the final report from the JTEC/WTEC Panel on Rapid Prototyping in Europe and Japan. It consists of the site reports from the panel`s visits to rapid prototyping labs and development facilities in Europe and Japan. Volume 1, published separately, contains the panel`s analytical chapters and overall conclusions.

  3. Reconceiving ISD: Three Perspectives on Rapid Prototyping as a Paradigm Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Gail A.; And Others

    Confronting recent design challenges, instructional designers have latched onto adaptive procedural techniques from outside the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) field. This discussion of rapid prototyping (RP) examines the perspectives of: (1) the prototype as the designer"s cognitive tool; (2) the designer as co-inquirer; and (3) the…

  4. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  5. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2016-08-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  6. Microwave Induced Welding of Carbon Nanotube-Thermoplastic Interfaces for Enhanced Mechanical Strength of 3D Printed Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Charles; Lackey, Blake; Saed, Mohammad; Green, Micah

    Three-dimensional (3D) printed parts produced by fused-filament fabrication of a thermoplastic polymer have become increasingly popular at both the commercial and consumer level. The mechanical integrity of these rapid-prototyped parts however, is severely limited by the interfillament bond strength between adjacent extruded layers. In this report we propose for the first time a method for welding thermoplastic interfaces of 3D printed parts using the extreme heating response of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to microwave energy. To achieve this, we developed a coaxial printer filament with a pure polylactide (PLA) core and a CNT composite sheath. This produces parts with a thin electrically percolating network of CNTs at the interfaces between adjacent extruded layers. These interfaces are then welded together upon microwave irradiation at 2.45GHz. Our patent-pending method has been shown to increase the tensile toughness by 1000% and tensile strength by 35%. We investigated the dielectric properties of the PLA/CNT composites at microwave frequencies and performed in-situ microwave thermometry using a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera to characterize the heating response of the PLA/CNT composites upon microwave irradiation.

  7. Rapid prototyping with the visual data environment of an OFDM WLAN system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Moises; Marti, Pere; Carrabina, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    In this paper a rapid prototyping design flow is presented and applied to a prototype of the base-band physical layer of a Hiperlan/2 WLAN transceiver. This physical layer is a high performance multi-rate system that contains computationally intensive algorithms. A new method for prototyping the design flow and verifying the process is to use the latest generation of system level design environments (visual data flow environment) for DSPs. The System Generator and Matlab/Simulink tools form a visual data flow environment for FPGA allow us to model DSP systems and explore algorithms. This environment also translates designs into hardware implementations that are faithful, synthesizable and efficient, which can be explored and refined in rapid prototyping platforms.

  8. Aerodynamic Properties Analysis of Rapid Prototyped Models Versus Conventional Machined Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A.; Cooper, K.

    1998-01-01

    Initial studies of the aerodynamic characteristics of proposed launch vehicles can be made more accurately if lower cost, high fidelity aerodynamic models are available for wind tunnel testing early in the design phase. This paper discusses the results of a study undertaken at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to determine if four rapid prototyping methods using a variety of materials are suitable for the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications. It also gives an analysis of whether these materials and processes are of sufficient strength and fidelity to withstand the testing environment. In addition to test data, costs and turn-around times for the various models are given. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in limited direct application for preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  9. Extending NASA Research Results to Benefit Society: Rapid Prototyping for Coastal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glorioso, Mark V.; Miller, Richard L.; Hall, Callie M.; McPherson, Terry R.

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Applied Sciences Program is to expand and accelerate the use of NASA research results to benefit society in 12 application areas of national priority. ONe of the program's major challenges is to perform a quick, efficient, and detailed review (i.e., prototyping) of the large number of combinations of NASA observations and results from Earth system models that may be used by a wide range of decision support tools. A Rapid Prototyping Capacity (RPC) is being developed to accelerate the use of NASA research results. Here, we present the conceptual framework of the Rapid Prototyping Capacity within the context of quickly assessing the efficacy of NASA research results and technologies to support the Coastal Management application. An initial RPC project designed to quickly evaluate the utility of moderate-resolution MODIS products for calibrating/validating coastal sediment transport models is also presented.

  10. Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Production Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. PA clearance # 15122. 4 Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Build/Test Build on SpaceX ...Multiengine Approach SpaceX ) Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. PA clearance # 15122. Engines: Merlin 1D on Falcon 9 v1.1 (Photo 5...to utilize features of high performance engines advances and the economies of scale of the multi-engine approach of SpaceX Falcon 9 – Rapid Prototype

  11. The Battle of the Printers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Douglas; Pettibone, Timothy

    This paper compares the characteristics of dot-matrix and daisy wheel printers using a two-column format. In the first section, the left column is used to point out the advantages of dot-matrix printers, while the daisy wheel printer is praised in the right-hand column. Examples of various capabilities are included. Advantages of the dot-matrix…

  12. Characterization of 3D printing output using an optical sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the experimental design and initial testing of a system to characterize the progress and performance of a 3D printer. The system is based on five Raspberry Pi single-board computers. It collects images of the 3D printed object, which are compared to an ideal model. The system, while suitable for printers of all sizes, can potentially be produced at a sufficiently low cost to allow its incorporation into consumer-grade printers. The efficacy and accuracy of this system is presented and discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits of being able to characterize 3D printer performance.

  13. Application of Rapid Prototyping Methods to High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken in MSFC's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine if rapid prototyping methods could be used in the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications, and if these methods would reduce model design/fabrication time and cost while providing models of high enough fidelity to provide adequate aerodynamic data, and of sufficient strength to survive the test environment. Rapid prototyping methods utilized to construct wind tunnel models in a wing-body-tail configuration were: fused deposition method using both ABS plastic and PEEK as building materials, stereolithography using the photopolymer SL-5170, selective laser sintering using glass reinforced nylon, and laminated object manufacturing using plastic reinforced with glass and 'paper'. This study revealed good agreement between the SLA model, the metal model with an FDM-ABS nose, an SLA nose, and the metal model for most operating conditions, while the FDM-ABS data diverged at higher loading conditions. Data from the initial SLS model showed poor agreement due to problems in post-processing, resulting in a different configuration. A second SLS model was tested and showed relatively good agreement. It can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  14. Preliminary work toward the development of a dimensional tolerance standard for rapid prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a new technology for building parts quickly from CAD models. It works by slicing a CAD model into layers, then by building a model of the part one layer at a time. Since most parts can be sliced, most parts can be modeled using rapid prototyping. The layers themselves are created in a number of different ways - by using a laser to cure a layer of an epoxy or a resin, by depositing a layer of plastic or wax upon a surface, by using a laser to sinter a layer of powder, or by using a laser to cut a layer of paper. Rapid prototyping (RP) is new, and a standard part for use in comparing dimensional tolerances has not yet been chosen and accepted by ASTM (the American Society for Testing Materials). Such a part is needed when RP is used to build parts for investment casting or for direct use. The objective of this project was to start the development of a standard part by using statistical techniques to choose the features of the part which show curl - the vertical deviation of a part from its intended horizontal plane.

  15. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  16. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  17. Evaluation of a rapid prototyping process for microsystems for silicon microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bange, Stefan; Herding, Mark; Woias, Peter

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade rapid prototyping has made a tremendous success in almost every branch of industrial fabrication. Almost every article of today"s life is pre-fabricated in a rapid process during its design. Functional rapid prototypes represent an increasing share, as they allow realistic functional tests of a component in an early stage of development. MEMS technology is still at the beginning of the rapid prototyping aera. Up to now, only a few conventional techniques, like stereolithography, have been downscaled to create rapid microprototypes with a limited choice of materials and geometries. Rapid prototyping of silicon is completely out of reach today. In this paper we propose a micro rapid prototyping concept for functional silicon microstructures. The process combines laser technology with standard processes of silicon microstructuring and has been evaluated with a metal-silicon layer system. First, noble metal is vapour deposited on top of a silicon wafer. The metal is subsequently structured with a laser, thus creating a mask, which can be transferred into the silicon by standard chemical etching procedures like KOH-etch. The advantage of this concept is that the time-consuming photomask generation is omitted completely, as the laser can be guided with CAD data. Moreover, the standard structuring process gives the opportunity to gain a microstructure with features equivalent to the final component. With laser ablation and KOH-etch two process steps are being carried out subsequently, which are inevitably linked to each other. Depending on the energy of the laser irradiation the ablation performance changes and, with it, the minimal structure width and the thermal melting zone at the edges of the mask openings. If the energy density is too high the crystalline structure of the silicon is destroyed by heat transfer and heat conduction. Hereby the anisotropic etch resistance is lost, which influences the following KOH-etch process. At the current

  18. A Rapidly Prototyped Vegetation Dryness Index Evaluated for Wildfire Risk Assessment at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton; Graham, William; Prados, Don; Spruce, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    MVDI, which effectively involves the differencing of NDMI and NDVI, appears to display increased noise that is consistent with a differencing technique. This effect masks finer variations in vegetation moisture, preventing MVDI from fulfilling the requirement of giving decision makers insight into spatial variation of fire risk. MVDI shows dependencies on land cover and phenology which also argue against its use as a fire risk proxy in an area of diverse and fragmented land covers. The conclusion of the rapid prototyping effort is that MVDI should not be implemented for SSC decision support.

  19. UGV application modeling and sensor simulation using a rapid prototyping testbed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falasco, James; O'Leary, Steve

    2009-05-01

    This paper reviews hardware and software solutions that allow for rapid prototyping of new or modified UGV sensor designs, mission payloads and functional sub assemblies. We define reconfigurable computing in the context of being able to place various PMC modules depending upon mission scenarios onto a base SBC (Single Board Computer) or multiprocessor architectures to achieve maximum scalability. Also addressed are the sensor and computing packaging aspects and how such payloads could be integrated with unattended acoustic sensor topologies providing a more complete fused "picture" to decision makers. We review how these modular payloads could be integrated with unattended ground sensors to collaborate on mission requirements

  20. CAD - CAM Procedures Used for Rapid Prototyping of Prosthetic Hip Joint Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Luminita I.; Popa, Vasile N.

    2016-11-01

    The article addresses the issue of rapid prototyping CAD/ CAM procedures, based on CT imaging, for custom implants dedicated to hip arthroplasty and the correlation study to be achieved between femoral canal shape, valued by modern imaging methods, and the prosthesis form. A set of CT images is transformed into a digital model using one of several software packages available for conversion. The purpose of research is to obtain prosthesis with compatible characteristics as close to the physiological, with an optimal adjustment of the prosthesis to the bone in which it is implanted, allowing the recovery of the patient physically, mentally and socially.

  1. JTEC/WTEC panel report on rapid prototyping in Europe and Japan. Volume 1: Analytical chapters

    SciTech Connect

    Prinz, F.B.; Atwood, C.L.; Aubin, R.F.

    1997-03-01

    Mastering the art of rapidly prototyping parts and products is vital for any corporation in the race to launch new products. During the last decade, new methods and tools have emerged to facilitate and accelerate product creation. Physical prototyping, in particular, has gained popularity with the help of a concept called layered manufacturing or solid free form fabrication (SFF). The US pioneered development and commercialization of layered manufacturing systems; now, significant efforts in this area are underway in Europe and Japan, spurred by the obvious advantages of layered manufacturing`s ability to rapidly create physical models regardless of shape complexity. A major research focus is direct manufacture of objects from materials such as metals, ceramics, and plastics that have properties similar to their traditionally manufactured counterparts. In addition, layered manufacturing appears to have the potential to build objects with shape complexity and material variety that previously have been impossible. In 1995 the US government, encouraged by the Rapid Prototyping Association of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), initiated a study administered by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center/World Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC/WTEC) to assess the capabilities of selected European countries and Japan in developing and implementing layered manufacturing technologies. The approach to this study was three-pronged: first, identify and study key foreign RP technologies and discover important new applications under development; second, evaluate and compare foreign competencies to those in the US; and third, critically examine related standards. Following are the major conclusions of JTEC/WTEC`s panel of experts concerning the current status of rapid prototyping in Europe and Japan compared to the US: (1) the US is ahead in technical innovations, materials, and manufacturing applications of layered manufacturing technology; (2) in the area of machine

  2. Mirror-image anterior crown fabrication with computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technology: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Chang, Won-Gun

    2013-02-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of a maxillary central incisor single crown with rapid prototyping (RP) technology. A patient with a recently replaced metal ceramic crown had discomfort due to the nonanatomic lingual contour of the crown. With computer-aided design (CAD) software and rapid prototyping (RP) technology, the shape of the contralateral central incisor was duplicated and reproduced to make a mirror-image for a new crown. The prosthodontic planning and treatment approach are discussed.

  3. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  4. Rapid prototyping modelling in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A two year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Stoor, Patricia; Mesimäki, Karri; Kontio, Risto K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of rapid prototyping (RP) models in medicine to construct bony models is increasing. Material and Methods The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the indication for the use of RP models in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2009-2010. Also, the used computed tomography (CT) examination – multislice CT (MSCT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) - method was evaluated. Results In total 114 RP models were fabricated for 102 patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of the production of the model was 50.4 years. The indications for the modelling included malignant lesions (29%), secondary reconstruction (25%), prosthodontic treatment (22%), orthognathic surgery or asymmetry (13%), benign lesions (8%), and TMJ disorders (4%). MSCT examination was used in 92 and CBCT examination in 22 cases. Most of the models (75%) were conventional hard tissue models. Models with colored tumour or other structure(s) of interest were ordered in 24%. Two out of the 114 models were soft tissue models. Conclusions The main benefit of the models was in treatment planning and in connection with the production of pre-bent plates or custom made implants. The RP models both facilitate and improve treatment planning and intraoperative efficiency. Key words:Rapid prototyping, radiology, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography. PMID:26644837

  5. Fastcast: Integration and application of rapid prototyping and computational simulation to investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Atwood, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    The emergence of several rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP and M) technologies is having a dramatic impact on investment casting. While the most successful of the rapid prototyping technologies are almost a decade old, relatively recent process advances in their application have produced some remarkable success in utilizing their products as patterns for investment castings. Sandia National Laboratories has been developed highly coupled experimental and computational capabilities to examine the investment casting process with the intention of reducing the amount of time required to manufacture castings, and to increase the quality of the finished product. This presentation will begin with process aspects of RP and M pattern production and handling, shell fabrication, burnout, and casting. The emphasis will be on how the use of Stereolithography (SL) or Selective Laser Sintered (SLS) patterns differs from more traditional wax pattern processes. Aspects of computational simulation to couple design, thermal analysis, and mold filling will be discussed. Integration of these topics is probably the greatest challenge to the use of concurrent engineering principles with investment casting. Sandia has conducted several experiments aimed at calibrating computer codes and providing data for input into these simulations. Studies involving materials as diverse as stainless steel and gold have been conducted to determine liquid metal behavior in molds via real time radiography. The application of these experiments to predictive simulations will be described.

  6. Fabrication of thermoset polyester microfluidic devices and embossing masters using rapid prototyped polydimethylsiloxane molds.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Gina S; Jeffries, Gavin D M; Lim, David S W; Kuyper, Christopher L; Chiu, Daniel T

    2003-08-01

    Plastics are increasingly being used for the fabrication of Lab-on-a-Chip devices due to the variety of beneficial material properties, affordable cost, and straightforward fabrication methods available from a range of different types of plastics. Rapid prototyping of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices has become a well-known process for the quick and easy fabrication of microfluidic devices in the research laboratory; however, PDMS is not always an appropriate material for every application. This paper describes the fabrication of thermoset polyester microfluidic devices and masters for hot embossing using replica molding techniques. Rapid prototyped PDMS molds are convienently used for the production of non-PDMS polymeric devices. The recessed features in the cast polyester can be bonded to a second polyester piece to form an enclosed microchannel. Thermoset polyester can withstand moderate amounts of pressure and elevated temperature; therefore, the cast polyester piece also can be used as a master for embossing polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic systems. Examples of enclosed polyester and PMMA microchannels are presented, and we discuss the electroosmotic properties of both types of channels, which are important for analytical applications such as capillary electrophoresis.

  7. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  8. Rapid Prototyping of an Aircraft Model in an Object-Oriented Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, P. Sean

    2003-01-01

    A team was created to participate in the Mars Scout Opportunity. Trade studies determined that an aircraft provided the best opportunity to complete the science objectives of the team. A high fidelity six degree of freedom flight simulation was required to provide credible evidence that the aircraft design fulfilled mission objectives and to support the aircraft design process by providing performance evaluations. The team created the simulation using the Langley Standard Real-Time Simulation in C++ (LaSRS++) application framework. A rapid prototyping approach was necessary because the team had only three months to both develop the aircraft simulation model and evaluate aircraft performance as the design and mission parameters matured. The design of LaSRS++ enabled rapid-prototyping in several ways. First, the framework allowed component models to be designed, implemented, unit-tested, and integrated quickly. Next, the framework provides a highly reusable infrastructure that allowed developers to maximize code reuse while concentrating on aircraft and mission specific features. Finally, the framework reduces risk by providing reusable components that allow developers to build a quality product with a compressed testing cycle that relies heavily on unit testing of new components.

  9. Performance of a Micro-UAV lifting system built with the usage of rapid prototyping methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalewski, R. T.; Gumowski, K.; Barczak, T.; Godek, J.

    2014-08-01

    This article presents results of the aerodynamic testing of a micro unmanned aerial vehicle rotor efficiency. The rotors were prepared as a set of two rotors in a counter-rotating ducted drive. Prototypes of the drives were made using two rapid prototyping techniques - FDM - fused deposition modelling method and SLS - selective laser sintering. Rotors were made then treated by introducing additional finishing cyanoacrylate coating and abrasive processing. Main differences between those models were observed in fan shape, porosity, surface roughness and mechanical properties - stiffness. An influence of these factors was observed on an aerodynamic efficiency. For the obtained prototypes both simulations and experimental testing were conducted with thrust, power, torque measurements, as well as the measurement of velocity and pressure distribution at the outlet of the duct. The results show the possibility of using rapid prototyping techniques to produce prototypes of drives operating in the low and medium Reynolds numbers (6000-60000), and the aerodynamic shape relevant factors affecting the preparation and performance of such drives. In addition, simulation studies were performed using the Fluent environment where experimental results were confronted with the results of simulation studies.

  10. A new UV-curing elastomeric substrate for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2012-03-01

    Rapid prototyping in the design cycle of new microfluidic devices is very important for shortening time-to-market. Researchers are facing the challenge to explore new and suitable substrates with simple and efficient microfabrication techniques. In this paper, we introduce and characterize a UV-curing elastomeric polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. The swelling and solubility of PUMA in different chemicals is determined. Time-dependent measurements of water contact angle show that the native PUMA is hydrophilic without surface treatment. The current monitoring method is used for measurement of the electroosmotic flow mobility in the microchannels made from PUMA. The optical, physical, thermal and mechanical properties of PUMA are evaluated. The UV-lithography and molding process is used for making micropillars and deep channel microfluidic structures integrated to the supporting base layer. Spin coating is characterized for producing different layer thicknesses of PUMA resin. A device is fabricated and tested for examining the strength of different bonding techniques such as conformal, corona treating and semi-curing of two PUMA layers in microfluidic application and the results show that the bonding strengths are comparable to that of PDMS. We also report fabrication and testing of a three-layer multi inlet/outlet microfluidic device including a very effective fluidic interconnect for application demonstration of PUMA as a promising new substrate. A simple micro-device is developed and employed for observing the pressure deflection of membrane made from PUMA as a very effective elastomeric valve in microfluidic devices.

  11. Product Development and its Comparative Analysis by SLA, SLS and FDM Rapid Prototyping Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhari, C. M.; Patil, V. D.

    2016-09-01

    To grab market and meeting deadlines has increased the scope of new methods in product design and development. Industries continuously strive to optimize the development cycles with high quality and cost efficient products to maintain market competitiveness. Thus the need of Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) has started to play pivotal role in rapid product development cycle for complex product. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish are the corner stone of Rapid Prototyping (RP) especially if they are used for mould development. The paper deals with the development of part made with the help of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Stereo-lithography (SLA) and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) processes to benchmark and investigate on various parameters like material shrinkage rate, dimensional accuracy, time, cost and surface finish. This helps to conclude which processes can be proved to be effective and efficient in mould development. In this research work the emphasis was also given to the design stage of a product development to obtain an optimum design solution for an existing product.

  12. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a PDMS/polymer tape composite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkyu; Surapaneni, Rajesh; Gale, Bruce K

    2009-05-07

    Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a combination of double-sided tape and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is introduced. PDMS is typically difficult to bond using adhesive tapes due to its hydrophobic nature and low surface energy. For this reason, PDMS is not compatible with the xurography method, which uses a knife plotter and various adhesive coated polymer tapes. To solve these problems, a PDMS/tape composite was developed and demonstrated in microfluidic applications. The PDMS/tape composite was created by spinning it to make a thin layer of PDMS over double-sided tape. Then the PDMS/tape composite was patterned to create channels using xurography, and bonded to a PDMS slab. After removing the backing paper from the tape, a complete microfluidic system could be created by placing the construct onto nearly any substrate; including glass, plastic or metal-coated glass/silicon substrates. The bond strength was shown to be sufficient for the pressures that occur in typical microfluidic channels used for chemical or biological analysis. This method was demonstrated in three applications: standard microfluidic channels and reactors, a microfluidic system with an integrated membrane, and an electrochemical biosensor. The PDMS/tape composite rapid prototyping technique provides a fast and cost effective fabrication method and can provide easy integration of microfluidic channels with sensors and other components without the need for a cleanroom facility.

  13. 3D printed long period gratings for optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for implementing long period grating (LPG) structures by the use of a 3D printer. This Letter shows a way of manipulating the mode coupling within an optical fiber by applying stress through an external 3D printed periodic structure. Different LPG lengths and periods have been studied, as well as the effect of the applied stress on the coupling efficiency from the fundamental mode to cladding modes. The technique is very simple, highly flexible, affordable, and easy to implement without the need of altering the optical fiber. This Letter is part of a growing line of interest in the use of 3D printers for optical applications.

  14. Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J. Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E.; Liu, Jonathan A.; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications. PMID:24998993

  15. Rapid and low-cost prototyping of medical devices using 3D printed molds for liquid injection molding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E; Liu, Jonathan A; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-06-27

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications.

  16. Habitat Demonstration Unit Project: Leadership and Management Strategies for a Rapid Prototyping Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toup, Larry; Gill, Tracy; Tri, Terry; Howe, Scott; Smitherman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project leadership and management strategies being used by the NASA HDU team for a rapid prototyping project. The HDU project team constructed and tested an analog prototype lunar surface habitat/laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) during 2010. The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a tiger team rapid prototyping approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies and innovations from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the leadership and management strategies as well as lessons learned pertaining to leading and managing a multi-center diverse team in a rapid prototype environment. The PEM configuration went from a paper design to an operational surface habitat demonstration unit in less than 12 months. The HDU project is part of the strategic plan from the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Exploration Mission Systems Office (EMSO) to test destination elements in analog environments. The 2011 HDU-Deep Space Habitat (DSH) configuration will build upon the PEM work, and emphasize validity of crew operations (remote working and living), EVA operations, mission operations, logistics operations, and science operations that might be required in a deep space context for Near Earth Object (NEO) exploration mission architectures. The 2011 HDU-DSH will be field-tested during the 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (DRaTS) field tests. The HDU project is a "technology-pull" project that integrates technologies and innovations from multiple NASA centers. This project will repurpose the HDU 2010 demo unit that was field tested in the 2010 DRaTS, adding habitation functionality to the prototype unit. This paper will describe the strategy of establishing a multi-center project

  17. Defense Additive Manufacturing: DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Clip Additively Manufactured • The Navy installed a 3D printer aboard the USS Essex to demonstrate the ability to additively develop and produce...desired result and vision to have the capability on the fleet. These officials stated that the Navy plans to install 3D printers on two additional...DEFENSE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts Report to

  18. Building components for an outpost on the Lunar soil by means of a novel 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaretti, Giovanni; Dini, Enrico; De Kestelier, Xavier; Colla, Valentina; Pambaguian, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    3D-printing technologies are receiving an always increasing attention in architecture, due to their potential use for direct construction of buildings and other complex structures, also of considerable dimensions, with virtually any shape. Some of these technologies rely on an agglomeration process of inert materials, e.g. sand, through a special binding liquid and this capability is of interest for the space community for its potential application to space exploration. In fact, it opens the possibility for exploiting in-situ resources for the construction of buildings in harsh spatial environments. The paper presents the results of a study aimed at assessing the concept of 3D printing technology for building habitats on the Moon using lunar soil, also called regolith. A particular patented 3D-printing technology - D-shape - has been applied, which is, among the existing rapid prototyping systems, the closest to achieving full scale construction of buildings and the physical and chemical characteristics of lunar regolith and terrestrial regolith simulants have been assessed with respect to the working principles of such technology. A novel lunar regolith simulant has also been developed, which almost exactly reproduces the characteristics of the JSC-1A simulant produced in the US. Moreover, tests in air and in vacuum have been performed to demonstrate the occurrence of the reticulation reaction with the regolith simulant. The vacuum tests also showed that evaporation or freezing of the binding liquid can be prevented through a proper injection method. The general requirements of a Moon outpost have been specified, and a preliminary design of the habitat has been developed. Based on such design, a section of the outpost wall has been selected and manufactured at full scale using the D-shape printer and regolith simulant. Test pieces have also been manufactured and their mechanical properties have been assessed.

  19. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Implementing a 3D printing service in a biomedical library.

    PubMed

    Walker, Verma

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is opening new opportunities in biomedicine by enabling creative problem solving, faster prototyping of ideas, advances in tissue engineering, and customized patient solutions. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Library purchased a Makerbot Replicator 2 3D printer to give scientists a chance to try out this technology. To launch the service, the library offered training, conducted a survey on service model preferences, and tracked usage and class attendance. 3D printing was very popular, with new lab equipment prototypes being the most common model type. Most survey respondents indicated they would use the service again and be willing to pay for models. There was high interest in training for 3D modeling, which has a steep learning curve. 3D printers also require significant care and repairs. NIH scientists are using 3D printing to improve their research, and it is opening new avenues for problem solving in labs. Several scientists found the 3D printer so helpful they bought one for their labs. Having a printer in a central and open location like a library can help scientists, doctors, and students learn how to use this technology in their work.

  1. Implementing a 3D printing service in a biomedical library

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Verma

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is opening new opportunities in biomedicine by enabling creative problem solving, faster prototyping of ideas, advances in tissue engineering, and customized patient solutions. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Library purchased a Makerbot Replicator 2 3D printer to give scientists a chance to try out this technology. To launch the service, the library offered training, conducted a survey on service model preferences, and tracked usage and class attendance. 3D printing was very popular, with new lab equipment prototypes being the most common model type. Most survey respondents indicated they would use the service again and be willing to pay for models. There was high interest in training for 3D modeling, which has a steep learning curve. 3D printers also require significant care and repairs. NIH scientists are using 3D printing to improve their research, and it is opening new avenues for problem solving in labs. Several scientists found the 3D printer so helpful they bought one for their labs. Having a printer in a central and open location like a library can help scientists, doctors, and students learn how to use this technology in their work. PMID:28096747

  2. Anisotropic Tensile Failure Model of Rapid Prototyping Parts - Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sung Hoon; Baek, Changil; Lee, Sunyoung; Ahn, In Shup

    Stratasys' Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a typical Rapid Prototyping (RP) process that can fabricate prototypes out of plastic materials, and the parts made from FDM were often used as load-carrying elements. Because FDM deposits materials in about 300 μm thin filament with designated orientation, parts made from FDM show anisotropic material behaviors. This paper proposes an analytic model to predict the tensile strength of FDM parts. Applying the Classical Lamination Theory and Tsai-Wu failure criterion, which were developed for laminated composite materials, a computer code was implemented to predict the failure of the FDM parts. The tensile strengths predicted by the analytic model were compared with those of the experimental data. The data and predicted values agreed reasonably well to prove the validity of the model.

  3. Ultra-rapid prototyping of flexible, multi-layered microfluidic devices via razor writing.

    PubMed

    Cosson, Steffen; Aeberli, Luc G; Brandenberg, Nathalie; Lutolf, Matthias P

    2015-01-07

    The fabrication of microfluidic devices is often still a time-consuming and costly process. Here we introduce a very simple and cheap microfabrication process based on "razor writing", also termed xurography, for the ultra-rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. Thin poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membranes are spin-coated on flexible plastic foil and cut into user-defined shapes with a bench-top cutter plotter. The PDMS membranes can then be assembled into desirable microdevices via plasma bonding. The plastic foil allows manipulation of exceptionally thin (30-300 μm) PDMS layers and can be readily peeled after fabrication. This versatile technique can be used to produce a wide variety of microfluidic device prototypes within just a few hours.

  4. Design and manufacturing of ear prosthesis by means of rapid prototyping technology.

    PubMed

    De Crescenzio, F; Fantini, M; Ciocca, L; Persiani, F; Scotti, R

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the complete procedure to design and construct reusable moulds for implant-based ear prosthesis and manufacture substructures by means of a computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) procedure and rapid prototyping (RP) technology is presented. The scan of the healthy ear, the virtual superimposition of its mirrored image on to the defective side, and the rapid manufacturing of the substructure and of the mould eliminate several steps of traditional procedures (wax, stone, try-in). Moreover, the precise design and customization of the substructure is presented, with the original and engineered shape for the retention of the silicone. The time and cost saving results of this protocol are presented together with a discussion of the main design features that make the prosthesis a stable and reproducible system to improve rehabilitation of patients with auricular defects or absence.

  5. Revision of complex acetabular defects using cages with the aid of rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiwu; Wang, Liao; Mao, Yuanqing; Wang, You; Dai, Kerong; Zhu, Zhenan

    2013-12-01

    This study details a method using rapid prototyping (RP) technique to assist in acetabular revision with complex bone defects. Hemi-pelvic RP models were built among 25 patients with complex acetabular bone defects. Each patient was scheduled to undergo revision using either commercially available or customized cages based on individualized RP models. Average follow-up was 4.4 years (range, 1 to 9 years). The average Harris hip score was 36.1 (range, 20 to 58) preoperatively and reached an average of 82.6 (range, 60-96) at the last follow-up. No mechanical failure or loosening was observed. One patient experienced hip dislocation 4 days postoperatively. The resultant findings of this study merit consideration of RP as a helpful clinical complement for dealing with some complex bone defect of acetabulum.

  6. Novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping of next-generation biomedical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doraiswamy, Anand

    An aging population with growing healthcare needs demands multifaceted tools for diagnosis and treatment of health conditions. In the near-future, drug-administration devices, implantable devices/sensors, enhanced prosthesis, artificial and unique functional tissue constructs will become increasingly significant. Conventional technologies for mass-produced implants do not adequately take individual patient anatomy into consideration. Development of novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping techniques may significantly accelerate progress of these devices for next-generation patient-care. In this dissertation, several novel rapid prototyping techniques have been introduced for next-generation biomedical applications. Two-photon polymerization was developed to microfabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering, microneedles for drug-delivery and ossicular replacement prostheses. Various photoplymers were evaluated for feasibility, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and surface properties. Laser direct write using MDW was utilized for developing microstructures of bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite, and viable mammalian osteosarcoma cells. CAD/CAM laser micromachining (CLM) was developed to engineer biointerfaces as surface recognition regions for differential adherence of cells and growth into tissue-like networks. CLM was also developed for engineering multi-cellular vascular networks. Cytotoxic evaluations and growth studies demonstrated VEGF-induced proliferation of HAAE-1 human aortic endothelial cells with inhibition of HA-VSMC human aortic smooth muscle cells. Finally, piiezoelectric inkjet printing was developed for controlled administration of natural and synthetic adhesives to overcome several problems associated with conventional tissue bonding materials, and greatly improve wound-repair in next generation eye repair, fracture fixation, organ fixation, wound closure, tissue engineering, and drug delivery devices.

  7. Effects of Hydrocarbon-Based Grease on Rapid Prototype Material Used for Grease Retention Shrouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Valco, Daniel J.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon-based greases on specific rapid prototype (RP) materials used to fabricate grease retention shrouds (GRS) were explored in this study. Grease retention shrouds are being considered as a way to maintain adequate grease lubrication at the gear mesh in a prototype research transmission system. Due to their design and manufacturing flexibility, rapid prototype materials were chosen for the grease retention shrouds. In order to gain a better understanding of the short and long term effects grease pose on RP materials, research was conducted on the interaction of hydrocarbon-based grease with RP materials. The materials used in this study were durable polyamide (nylon), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and WaterClear 10120. Testing was conducted using Mobilgrease 28 and Syn-Tech 3913G grease (gear coupling grease). These greases were selected due to their regular use with mechanical components. To investigate the effect that grease has on RP materials, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), interference profilometer measurements, digital camera imaging, physical shape measurement, and visual observations. To record the changes in the RP materials due to contact with the grease, data was taken before and after the grease application. Results showed that the WaterClear 10120 RP material provided the best resistance to grease penetration as compared to nylon and ABS RP materials. The manufacturing process, and thus resulting surface conditions of the RP material, played a key role in the grease penetration properties and resilience of these materials.

  8. 3D Printing: How Much Will It Improve the DoD Supply Chain of the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    more traditional subtractive manufacturing process, where material is cut, drilled, milled or machined off. 3D printers employ a variety of...printing. It may be hard to initially wrap your mind around the fact that all you need to produce a required part is a 3D printer , a 3D drawing of the...hard to initially wrap your mind around the fact that all you need to produce a required part is a 3D printer , a 3D drawing of the part and the

  9. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3- D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion. The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scan/rapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the mold/casting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  10. 3D printing in chemistry: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatford, Ryan; Karanassios, Vassili

    2016-05-01

    During the last years, 3d printing for rapid prototyping using additive manufacturing has been receiving increased attention in the technical and scientific literature including some Chemistry-related journals. Furthermore, 3D printing technology (defining size and resolution of 3D objects) and properties of printed materials (e.g., strength, resistance to chemical attack, electrical insulation) proved to be important for chemistry-related applications. In this paper these are discussed in detail. In addition, application of 3D printing for development of Micro Plasma Devices (MPDs) is discussed and 2d-profilometry data of a 3D printed surfaces is reported. And, past and present chemistry and bio-related applications of 3D printing are reviewed and possible future directions are postulated.

  11. Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Song, Jiangxin; Li, En; Luo, Yong; Shen, Yinglong; Chen, Danping; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2012-02-21

    The creation of complex three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic systems has attracted significant attention from both scientific and applied research communities. However, it is still a formidable challenge to build 3D microfluidic structures with arbitrary configurations using conventional planar lithographic fabrication methods. Here, we demonstrate rapid fabrication of high-aspect-ratio microfluidic channels with various 3D configurations in glass substrates by femtosecond laser direct writing. Based on this approach, we demonstrate a 3D passive microfluidic mixer and characterize its functionalities. This technology will enable rapid construction of complex 3D microfluidic devices for a wide array of lab-on-a-chip applications.

  12. Optimization of process parameters for dimensional accuracy in an area-forming rapid prototyping system using the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shih-Hsuan; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Chen, Kun-Ting; Su, Chun-Hao

    2015-03-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have been extensively applied to build products in recent decades. The area-forming rapid prototyping is an emerging RP technology with the advantages of a simple procedure with a short processing time. With the expansion in fields of application, the strictness on product quality has also increased. The dimensional accuracy of a product is one of the most critical quality characteristics. In order to improve the dimensional accuracy of a product from an area-forming RP system, this study optimizes the seven factors via the Taguchi method, and the result is verified with an extra sample.

  13. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  14. 3D/Additive Printing Manufacturing: A Brief History and Purchasing Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Bill; Wilson, Greg

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is recognized as a collection of technologies known as rapid prototyping, solid freeform fabrication, and most commonly, additive manufacturing (AM). With these emerging technologies it is possible to print (but not limited to): architectural models, discontinued car-part foundry patterns, industry-wide prototypes, human tissues, the…

  15. Architecture and design to support rapid prototyping and multiple dynamic models for the Virtual SpacePlane project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.; Rothermel, Scott A.; Johnson, Troy D.

    1998-08-01

    The advent of requirements for rapid and economical deployment of national space assets in support of Air Force operational missions has resulted in the need for a Manned SpacePlane (MSP) that can perform military missions with minimal preflight preparation and little if any in-orbit support from a mission control center. In this new approach to space operations, successful mission accomplishment will depend almost completely upon the MSP crew and upon the on- board capabilities of the spaceplane. In recognition of the challenges that will be faced by the MSP crew and to begin to address these challenges, the USAF Air Force Research Laboratory (Phillips Laboratory) initiated the Virtual SpacePlane (VSP) project. To support the MSP, the VSP must demonstrate a broad, functional subset of the anticipated missions and capabilities of the MSP throughout its entire flight regime, from takeoff through space operations and on through landing. Additionally, the VSP must execute the anticipated MSP missions in a realistic and tactically sound manner within a distributed virtual environment. Furthermore, the VSP project must also uncover, refine and validate MSP user interface requirements, design and demonstrate an intelligent user interface for the VSP, and design and implement a prototype VSP that can be used to demonstrate Manned SpacePlane missions. To enable us to make rapid progress on the project, we employed portions of the Virtual Cockpit and Solar System Modeler distributed virtual environment applications, and the Common Object Database (CODB) architecture tools developed in our labs. The Virtual Cockpit and Solar System Modeler supplied baseline interface components and tools, 3D graphical models, vehicle motion dynamics models, and VE communication capabilities. We use the CODB architecture to facilitate our use of Rapid Evolutionary and Exploratory Prototyping to uncover application requirements and evaluate solutions. The Information Pod provides the paradigm

  16. Laser Doppler imaging of cutaneous blood flow through transparent face masks: a necessary preamble to computer-controlled rapid prototyping fabrication with submillimeter precision.

    PubMed

    Allely, Rebekah R; Van-Buendia, Lan B; Jeng, James C; White, Patricia; Wu, Jingshu; Niszczak, Jonathan; Jordan, Marion H

    2008-01-01

    A paradigm shift in management of postburn facial scarring is lurking "just beneath the waves" with the widespread availability of two recent technologies: precise three-dimensional scanning/digitizing of complex surfaces and computer-controlled rapid prototyping three-dimensional "printers". Laser Doppler imaging may be the sensible method to track the scar hyperemia that should form the basis of assessing progress and directing incremental changes in the digitized topographical face mask "prescription". The purpose of this study was to establish feasibility of detecting perfusion through transparent face masks using the Laser Doppler Imaging scanner. Laser Doppler images of perfusion were obtained at multiple facial regions on five uninjured staff members. Images were obtained without a mask, followed by images with a loose fitting mask with and without a silicone liner, and then with a tight fitting mask with and without a silicone liner. Right and left oblique images, in addition to the frontal images, were used to overcome unobtainable measurements at the extremes of face mask curvature. General linear model, mixed model, and t tests were used for data analysis. Three hundred seventy-five measurements were used for analysis, with a mean perfusion unit of 299 and pixel validity of 97%. The effect of face mask pressure with and without the silicone liner was readily quantified with significant changes in mean cutaneous blood flow (P < .5). High valid pixel rate laser Doppler imager flow data can be obtained through transparent face masks. Perfusion decreases with the application of pressure and with silicone. Every participant measured differently in perfusion units; however, consistent perfusion patterns in the face were observed.

  17. Rapid Prototyping of a High Sensitivity Graphene Based Glucose Sensor Strip

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Farshad; Reiner, Lisa; Bavarian, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    A rapid prototyping of an inexpensive, disposable graphene and copper nanocomposite sensor strip using polymeric flexible substrate for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose detection has been developed and tested for direct oxidization of glucose. The CuNPs were electrochemically deposited on to the graphene sheets to improve electron transfer rates and to enhance electrocatalytic activity toward glucose. The graphene based electrode with CuNPs demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity (1101.3±56 μA/mM.cm2), excellent selectivity (without an interference with Ascorbic Acid, Uric Acid, Dopamine, and Acetaminophen), good stability with a linear response to glucose ranging from 0.1 mM to 0.6 mM concentration, and detection limits of 0.025 mM to 0.9 mM. Characterization of the electrodes was performed by scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and SEM). The electrochemical properties of the modified graphene electrodes were inspected by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and amperometry. PMID:26678700

  18. A rapid prototyping/artificial intelligence approach to space station-era information management and access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Corey, Stephen M.; Snow, John B.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with Space Station-era information management systems are described. In particular, the work is centered on issues related to: (1) intelligent man-machine interfaces applied to scientific data user support, and (2) the requirement that intelligent information management systems (IIMS) be able to efficiently process metadata updates concerning types of data handled. The advanced IIMS represents functional capabilities driven almost entirely by the needs of potential users. Space Station-era scientific data projected to be generated is likely to be significantly greater than data currently processed and analyzed. Information about scientific data must be presented clearly, concisely, and with support features to allow users at all levels of expertise efficient and cost-effective data access. Additionally, mechanisms for allowing more efficient IIMS metadata update processes must be addressed. The work reported covers the following IIMS design aspects: IIMS data and metadata modeling, including the automatic updating of IIMS-contained metadata, IIMS user-system interface considerations, including significant problems associated with remote access, user profiles, and on-line tutorial capabilities, and development of an IIMS query and browse facility, including the capability to deal with spatial information. A working prototype has been developed and is being enhanced.

  19. Rapid Prototyping of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Microfluidic Systems Using Solvent Imprinting and Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiuhua; Peeni, Bridget A.; Yang, Weichun; Becerril, Hector A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a method for rapid prototyping of hard polymer microfluidic systems using solvent imprinting and bonding. We investigated the applicability of patterned SU-8 photoresist on glass as an easily fabricated template for solvent imprinting. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) exposed to acetonitrile for 2 min then had an SU-8 template pressed into the surface for 10 min, which provided appropriately imprinted channels and a suitable surface for bonding. After a PMMA cover plate had also been exposed to acetonitrile for 2 min, the imprinted and top PMMA pieces could be bonded together at room temperature with appropriate pressure. The total fabrication time was less than 15 min. Under the optimized fabrication conditions, nearly 30 PMMA chips could be replicated using a single patterned SU-8 master with high chip-to-chip reproducibility. Relative standard deviations were 2.3% and 5.4% for the widths and depths of the replicated channels, respectively. Fluorescently labeled amino acid and peptide mixtures were baseline separated using these PMMA microchips in <15 s. Theoretical plate numbers in excess of 5000 were obtained for a ~3 cm separation distance, and the migration time relative standard deviation for an amino acid peak was 1.5% for intra-day and 2.2% for inter-day analysis. This new solvent imprinting and bonding approach significantly simplifies the process for fabricating microfluidic structures in hard polymers such as PMMA. PMID:17466320

  20. SOAR telescope control system: a rapid prototype and development in LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashe, Michael C.; Schumacher, German

    2000-06-01

    A Rapid Prototype and full development plan of the SOAR TCS is reviewed to show advances in: (1) Prototyping speed, which makes implementation and test of features faster than specification under older methods. This allows the development environment and prototype modules to become partners with and part of the specification documents. (2) Real-Time performance and reliability through use of RT Linux. (3) Visually Rich GUI development that allows an emphasis on `seeing' versus `reading'. (4) Long-Term DataLogging and Internet subscription service of all desired variables with instant recall of historical trend data. (5) A `plug-in' software architecture which enables rapid reconfiguration and reuse of the system and/or plug-ins utilizing LabVIEW graphical modules, a scripting language engine (in LabVIEW) and encapsulation of interfaces in `instrument-driver' style `plug-in' modules. (6) A platform- independent development environment and distributed architecture allowing secure internet observation and control via every major OS and hardware platform.

  1. Rapid Prototyping Technique for the Fabrication of Millifluidic Devices for Polymer Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Joao; Harrison, Christopher; Eric, Amis; Karim, Alamgir

    2003-03-01

    We describe a rapid prototyping technique for the fabrication of 600 micron deep fluidic channels in a solvent-resistant polymeric matrix. Using a conventional illumination source, a laser-jet printed mask, and a commercially available thioelene-based adhesive, we demonstrate the fabrication of fluidic channels which are impervious to a wide range of solvents. The fabrication of channels with this depth by conventional lithography would be both challenging and time-consuming. We demonstrate two lithography methods: one which fabricates channels sealed between glass plates (closed face) and one which fabricates structures on a single plate (open-faced). Furthermore, we demonstrate that this technology can be used to fabricate channels with a depth which varies linearly with distance. The latter is completely compatible with silicone replication technniques. Additionally, we demonstrate that siloxane-based elastomer molds of these channels can be readily made for aqueous applications. Applications to on-line phase mapping of polymer solutions (PEO-Water-Salt) and off line phase separation studies will be discussed.

  2. Rapid development of auricular prosthesis using CAD and rapid prototyping technologies.

    PubMed

    Subburaj, K; Nair, C; Rajesh, S; Meshram, S M; Ravi, B

    2007-10-01

    External ear defects can be corrected by surgery, but this may not be feasible for personal or medical reasons. Reconstructive solutions are a good alternative, but rely on the artistry and availability of the anaplastologist. A semi-automated methodology using computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies was developed for auricular prosthesis development, and demonstrated in a real-life case. The correct geometry and position of the prosthesis were ensured by stacking the computed tomography scan images of the contralateral normal ear in reverse order, and joining them using a medical modelling software program. The CAD model of the remnant portion of the defective ear was subtracted from the model of the mirrored contralateral ear, using a haptic CAD system, to obtain the final geometry of the prosthesis. Polymer models were fabricated in RP systems, and used for making a corresponding mould. Medical grade silicone rubber of the appropriate colour was packed into the mould to fabricate the final ear prosthesis and fitted to the deficient side of the patient using medical grade adhesive. The computer-aided methodology gave a high level of accuracy in terms of shape, size and position of the prosthesis, and a significantly shorter lead time compared to the conventional (manual) technique.

  3. Fabrication of topologically complex three-dimensional microfluidic systems in PDMS by rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R; Chiu, D T; Jackman, R J; Cherniavskaya, O; McDonald, J C; Wu, H; Whitesides, S H; Whitesides, G M

    2000-07-15

    This paper describes a procedure for making topologically complex three-dimensional microfluidic channel systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). This procedure is called the "membrane sandwich" method to suggest the structure of the final system: a thin membrane having channel structures molded on each face (and with connections between the faces) sandwiched between two thicker, flat slabs that provide structural support. Two "masters" are fabricated by rapid prototyping using two-level photolithography and replica molding. They are aligned face to face, under pressure, with PDMS prepolymer between them. The PDMS is cured thermally. The masters have complementary alignment tracks, so registration is straightforward. The resulting, thin PDMS membrane can be transferred and sealed to another membrane or slab of PDMS by a sequence of steps in which the two masters are removed one at a time; these steps take place without distortion of the features. This method can fabricate a membrane containing a channel that crosses over and under itself, but does not intersect itself and, therefore, can be fabricated in the form of any knot. It follows that this method can generate topologically complex microfluidic systems; this capability is demonstrated by the fabrication of a "basketweave" structure. By filling the channels and removing the membrane, complex microstructures can be made. Stacking and sealing more than one membrane allows even more complicated geometries than are possible in one membrane. A square coiled channel that surrounds, but does not connect to, a straight channel illustrates this type of complexity.

  4. Direct rapid prototyping of PDMS from a photomask film for micropatterning of biomolecules and cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Kang, Gyumin; Yeon, Ju Hun; Nam, Yoonkey; Park, Je-Kyun

    2009-01-07

    The soft lithographic technique is a collection of simple and cost-effective patterning techniques which applies an elastomeric stamp to transfer a nano/micro-scale pattern. Patterning biological materials using soft lithography provides procedurally simple control of the surface chemistry and the cell environments. However, conventional methods for generating microstructures on a substrate require expensive clean room facilities and skillful training. Here we report a simple and inexpensive clean-room free process using a conventional photomask film as a master to fabricate elastomeric stamps or microfluidic channels. This ultra rapid prototyping technique was applied to print FITC labeled poly-L-lysine with a 10 microm feature size on a glass substrate using soft lithographic processes, such as micro-contact printing and micromolding in capillaries, for patterning human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, human skin fibroblasts and hippocampal neurons from E-18 Sprague-Dawley rat. This novel technique using a photomask film as a master would be very useful 'hands-on' tool for the generation of micro-patterned chemical or biological assays using cells and proteins.

  5. Rapid prototyping of electrochromatography chips for improved two-photon excited fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Claudia; Beyreiss, Reinhild; Geissler, David; Jezierski, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2014-04-15

    In the present study, we introduce two-photon excitation at 532 nm for label-free fluorescence detection in chip electrochromatography. Two-photon excitation at 532 nm offers a promising alternative to one-photon excitation at 266 nm, as it enables the use of economic chip materials instead of fused silica. In order to demonstrate these benefits, one-photon and two-photon induced fluorescence detection are compared in different chip layouts and materials with respect to the achievable sensitivity in the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Customized chromatography chips with cover or bottom slides of different material and thickness are produced by means of a rapid prototyping method based on liquid-phase lithography. The design of thin bottom chips (180 μm) enables the use of high-performance immersion objectives with low working distances, which allows one to exploit the full potential of two-photon excitation for a sensitive detection. The developed method is applied for label-free analysis of PAHs separated on a polymer monolith inside polymer glass sandwich chips made from fused silica or soda-lime glass. The obtained limits of detection range from 40 nM to 1.95 μM, with similar sensitivities in fused silica thin bottom chips for one-photon and two-photon excitation. In deep-UV non- or less-transparent devices two-photon excitation is mandatory for label-free detection of aromatics with high sensitivity.

  6. Rapid prototyping: porous titanium alloy scaffolds produced by selective laser melting for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Patrick H; Douglas, Timothy; Wollny, Patrick; Sherry, Eugene; Steiner, Martin; Galonska, Sebastian; Becker, Stephan T; Springer, Ingo N; Wiltfang, Jörg; Sivananthan, Sureshan

    2009-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM), a method used in the nuclear, space, and racing industries, allows the creation of customized titanium alloy scaffolds with highly defined external shape and internal structure using rapid prototyping as supporting external structures within which bone tissue can grow. Human osteoblasts were cultured on SLM-produced Ti6Al4V mesh scaffolds to demonstrate biocompatibility using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy after cell vitality staining, and common biocompatibility tests (lactate dihydrogenase (LDH), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and water soluble tetrazolium (WST)). Cell occlusion of pores of different widths (0.45-1.2 mm) was evaluated. Scaffolds were tested for resistance to compressive force. SEM investigations showed osteoblasts with well-spread morphology and multiple contact points. Cell vitality staining and biocompatibility tests confirmed osteoblast vitality and proliferation on the scaffolds. Pore overgrowth increased during 6 weeks' culture at pore widths of 0.45 and 0.5 mm, and in the course of 3 weeks for pore widths of 0.55, 0.6, and 0.7 mm. No pore occlusion was observed on pores of width 0.9-1.2 mm. Porosity and maximum compressive load at failure increased and decreased with increasing pore width, respectively. In summary, the scaffolds are biocompatible, and pore width influences pore overgrowth, resistance to compressive force, and porosity.

  7. Accuracy Assessment of Using Rapid Prototyping Drill Templates for Atlantoaxial Screw Placement: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuai; Lu, Teng; Hu, Qiaolong; Yang, Baohui; He, Xijing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using rapid prototyping drill templates (RPDTs) for C1 lateral mass screw (C1-LMS) and C2 pedicle screw (C2-PS) placement. Methods. 23 formalin-fixed craniocervical cadaver specimens were randomly divided into two groups. In the conventional method group, intraoperative fluoroscopy was used to assist the screw placement. In the RPDT navigation group, specific RPDTs were constructed for each specimen and were used intraoperatively for screw placement navigation. The screw position, the operating time, and the fluoroscopy time for each screw placement were compared between the 2 groups. Results. Compared with the conventional method, the RPDT technique significantly increased the placement accuracy of the C2-PS (p < 0.05). In the axial plane, using RPDTs also significantly increased C1-LMS placement accuracy (p < 0.05). In the sagittal plane, although using RPDTs had a very high accuracy rate (100%) in C1-LMS placement, it was not statistically significant compared with the conventional method (p > 0.05). Moreover, the RPDT technique significantly decreased the operating and fluoroscopy times. Conclusion. Using RPDTs significantly increases the accuracy of C1-LMS and C2-PS placement while decreasing the screw placement time and the radiation exposure. Due to these advantages, this approach is worth promoting for use in the Harms technique. PMID:28004004

  8. Rapid prototyping of update algorithm of discrete Fourier transform for real-time signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakad, Yogendra P.; Sherlock, Barry G.; Chatapuram, Krishnan V.; Bishop, Stephen

    2001-10-01

    An algorithm is developed in the companion paper, to update the existing DFT to represent the new data series that results when a new signal point is received. Updating the DFT in this way uses less computation than directly evaluating the DFT using the FFT algorithm, This reduces the computational order by a factor of log2 N. The algorithm is able to work in the presence of data window function, for use with rectangular window, the split triangular, Hanning, Hamming, and Blackman windows. In this paper, a hardware implementation of this algorithm, using FPGA technology, is outlined. Unlike traditional fully customized VLSI circuits, FPGAs represent a technical break through in the corresponding industry. The FPGA implements thousands of gates of logic in a single IC chip and it can be programmed by users at their site in a few seconds or less depending on the type of device used. The risk is low and the development time is short. The advantages have made FPGAs very popular for rapid prototyping of algorithms in the area of digital communication, digital signal processing, and image processing. Our paper addresses the related issues of implementation using hardware descriptive language in the development of the design and the subsequent downloading on the programmable hardware chip.

  9. Deep proton writing with 12 MeV protons for rapid prototyping of microstructures in polymethylmethacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebraert, Evert; Gökçe, Berkcan; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Vervaeke, Michael; Meyer, Pascal; Guttmann, Markus; Dubruel, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    Deep proton writing (DPW) is a fabrication technology developed for the rapid prototyping of polymer microstructures. We use polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates, which act as a positive resist, for irradiation with a collimated 12-MeV energy proton beam. Using 12 MeV enables the irradiation of increasingly thick PMMA substrates with less conicity of the sidewalls compared to the lower energies used in previous work. A microhole of 47.7 μm diameter over a depth of 1 mm is achieved, leading to a maximum aspect ratio of 21∶1. The sidewalls of the irradiated structures show a slightly conical shape and their root-mean-square surface roughness is lower than 50 nm averaged over 72 measured areas of 56 μm×44 μm. This means that DPW components have optical surface quality sidewalls for wavelengths larger than 400 nm. Based on the trade-off among the sidewall roughness, conicity, and the development time, we determine that the optimal proton fluence for 12-MeV DPW in PMMA is 7.75×106 μm-2. Finally, we discuss some high aspect ratio microstructures with optical surface quality that were created with DPW to be used for a myriad of applications, such as micromirrors, microlenses, optofluidic devices, and high-precision alignment structures for single-mode optical fiber connectors.

  10. Rapid prototyping of multi-scale biomedical microdevices by combining additive manufacturing technologies.

    PubMed

    Hengsbach, Stefan; Lantada, Andrés Díaz

    2014-08-01

    The possibility of designing and manufacturing biomedical microdevices with multiple length-scale geometries can help to promote special interactions both with their environment and with surrounding biological systems. These interactions aim to enhance biocompatibility and overall performance by using biomimetic approaches. In this paper, we present a design and manufacturing procedure for obtaining multi-scale biomedical microsystems based on the combination of two additive manufacturing processes: a conventional laser writer to manufacture the overall device structure, and a direct-laser writer based on two-photon polymerization to yield finer details. The process excels for its versatility, accuracy and manufacturing speed and allows for the manufacture of microsystems and implants with overall sizes up to several millimeters and with details down to sub-micrometric structures. As an application example we have focused on manufacturing a biomedical microsystem to analyze the impact of microtextured surfaces on cell motility. This process yielded a relevant increase in precision and manufacturing speed when compared with more conventional rapid prototyping procedures.

  11. Rapid prototyping of reflectors for vehicle lighting using laser activated remote phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Wolf, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class vehicles mainly use HID or LED as light source. As a further step in this development laser diode based systems offer high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new styling concepts and new dynamic lighting functions. These white laser diode systems can either be realized by mixing different spectral sources or by combining diodes with specific phosphors. Based on the approach of generating light using a laser and remote phosphor, lighting modules are manufactured. Four blue laser diodes (450 nm) are used to activate a phosphor coating and thus to achieve white light. A segmented paraboloid reflector generates the desired light distribution for an additional car headlamp. We use high speed milling and selective laser melting to build the reflector system for this lighting module. We compare the spectral reflection grade of these materials. Furthermore the generated modules are analyzed regarding their efficiency and light distribution. The use of Rapid Prototyping technologies allows an early validation of the chosen concept and is supposed to reduce cost and time in the product development process significantly. Therefor we discuss costs and times of the applied manufacturing technologies.

  12. Rapid prototyping of silicon structures by aid of laser and abrasive-jet machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruusing, Arvi; Leppaevuori, Seppo; Uusimaki, Antti; Uusimaki, Matti

    1999-03-01

    Rapid prototyping of silicon microstructures for fluidic devices using laser machining in water and abrasive-jet machining through mask is described. For laser machining a Q-switched 1-2 W 1 kHz pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam and 60 mJ XeCl excimer laser beam were used. The laser beam was scanned along the silicon surface at speeds 0.1-2 mm/s. Using excimer laser, the silicon nitride layer was patterned for subsequent chemical etching. Nd:YAG laser was used for fabrication of cavities and channels of depth down to 200 micrometers . Comparison of Nd:YAG laser machining of silicon in air and in water has been performed. Machining in water yields more even surfaces and there is no debris. By abrasive jet of velocity approximately 200 m/s and abrasive feed rate of 0.4 g/s, the silicon was eroded at speed of 40 micrometers /min. Several masking materials were compared, whereby a styrene based glue was found to have the best abrasion resistivity. The polymer masks were spun on the surface and patterned by excimer laser point or by knife. The described fabrication methods were used for making the fluid channels and chambers in silicon and for releasing silicon nitride and oxide films.

  13. Processing of pure Ti by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Rapid prototyping based on laser cladding is an additive manufacturing (AM) process based on the overlapping of cladding tracks to produce functional components. Powder or wire are fed into a melting pool created using laser radiation as a heat source and the relative movement between the beam and the work piece makes possible to generate pieces layer-by-layer. This technique can be applied for any material which can be melted and the components can be manufactured directly according to a computer aided design (CAD) model. Additive manufacturing is particularly interesting to produce titanium components because, in this case, the loss of material produced by subtractive manufacturing methods is highly costly. Moreover, titanium and its alloys are widely used in biomedical, aircraft, chemical and marine industries due to their biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and superior strength-to-weight ratio. In this research work, a near-infrared laser delivering a maximum power of 500W is used to produce pure titanium thin parts. Dimensions and surface morphology are characterized using Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the hardness by nanoindentation and the composition by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The aim of this work is to establish the conditions under which satisfactory properties are obtained and to understand the relationship between microstructure/properties and deposition parameters.

  14. The Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST) for rapid prototyping and publishing of neuroimaging software.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Blake C; Bogovic, John A; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L; Landman, Bennett A

    2010-03-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques enable extraordinarily sensitive and specific in vivo study of the structure, functional response and connectivity of biological mechanisms. With these advanced methods comes a heavy reliance on computer-based processing, analysis and interpretation. While the neuroimaging community has produced many excellent academic and commercial tool packages, new tools are often required to interpret new modalities and paradigms. Developing custom tools and ensuring interoperability with existing tools is a significant hurdle. To address these limitations, we present a new framework for algorithm development that implicitly ensures tool interoperability, generates graphical user interfaces, provides advanced batch processing tools, and, most importantly, requires minimal additional programming or computational overhead. Java-based rapid prototyping with this system is an efficient and practical approach to evaluate new algorithms since the proposed system ensures that rapidly constructed prototypes are actually fully-functional processing modules with support for multiple GUI's, a broad range of file formats, and distributed computation. Herein, we demonstrate MRI image processing with the proposed system for cortical surface extraction in large cross-sectional cohorts, provide a system for fully automated diffusion tensor image analysis, and illustrate how the system can be used as a simulation framework for the development of a new image analysis method. The system is released as open source under the Lesser GNU Public License (LGPL) through the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC).

  15. Rapid prototyping process using linear array of high-power laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linquan; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Hanchang

    2000-02-01

    Because of the weak points of the SLS spot Scanning process, a new rapid prototyping process -- SLS line scan using linear array of high power laser diodes regarded as energy sources is researched in this paper. A linear array with requisite length is formed by some high power laser diodes that can be derived individually. Beams of the linear array are transferred to the workplace and imaged some short and light lines by the corresponding optical collimators. They are lined up in a linear laser beam without separation whose length is equal to that of the linear array diodes. When sintering powdered material, the linear laser beam scans in one direction along x axis only. Only if the maximum line length is less than the y axial size of the workpiece, it is necessary that linear laser beam is lapped for some times in the y axis. The Scanning mode of x-y simultaneous guideways are used in this new system which differs entirely from the vibrating mirror scan. The scanning trace of the latter is an arc that will influence processing quality. This new process has higher efficiency and better quality than the traditional spot scanning method.

  16. A microcontroller platform for the rapid prototyping of functional electrical stimulation-based gait neuroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Luzio de Melo, Paulo; da Silva, Miguel Tavares; Martins, Jorge; Newman, Dava

    2015-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been used over the last decades as a method to rehabilitate lost motor functions of individuals with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and post-stroke hemiparesis. Within this field, researchers in need of developing FES-based control solutions for specific disabilities often have to choose between either the acquisition and integration of high-performance industry-level systems, which are rather expensive and hardly portable, or develop custom-made portable solutions, which despite their lower cost, usually require expert-level electronic skills. Here, a flexible low-cost microcontroller-based platform for rapid prototyping of FES neuroprostheses is presented, designed for reduced execution complexity, development time, and production cost. For this reason, the Arduino open-source microcontroller platform was used, together with off-the-shelf components whenever possible. The developed system enables the rapid deployment of portable FES-based gait neuroprostheses, being flexible enough to allow simple open-loop strategies but also more complex closed-loop solutions. The system is based on a modular architecture that allows the development of optimized solutions depending on the desired FES applications, even though the design and testing of the platform were focused toward drop foot correction. The flexibility of the system was demonstrated using two algorithms targeting drop foot condition within different experimental setups. Successful bench testing of the device in healthy subjects demonstrated these neuroprosthesis platform capabilities to correct drop foot.

  17. Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants fabricated by rapid prototyping based on CO(2) laser cladding.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, R; Lusquiños, F; Del Val, J; López-Álvarez, M; Quintero, F; Riveiro, A; Boutinguiza, M; de Carlos, A; Jones, J R; Hill, R G; Pou, J

    2011-09-01

    Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants were produced by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding without using moulds. CO(2) laser radiation was employed to melt 45S5 and S520 bioactive glass particles and to deposit the material layer by layer following a desired geometry. Controlled thermal input and cooling rate by fine tuning of the processing parameters allowed the production of crack-free fully dense implants. Microstructural characterization revealed chemical composition stability, but crystallization during processing was extensive when 45S5 bioactive glass was used. Improved results were obtained using the S520 bioactive glass, which showed limited surface crystallization due to an expanded sintering window (the difference between the glass transition temperature and crystallization onset temperature). Ion release from the S520 implants in Tris buffer was similar to that of amorphous 45S5 bioactive glass prepared by casting in graphite moulds. Laser processed S520 scaffolds were not cytotoxic in vitro when osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with the dissolution products of the glasses; and the MC3T3-E1 cells attached and spread well when cultured on the surface of the materials.

  18. ABS 3D printed solutions for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, E.; Bozzo, B.; Sevilla, P.; Martínez-Pasarell, O.; Puig, T.; Granados, X.

    2017-03-01

    3D printing has become a common, inexpensive and rapid prototyping technique, enabling the ad hoc fabrication of complex shapes. In this paper, we demonstrate that 3D printed objects in ABS can be used at cryogenic temperatures, offering flexible solutions in different fields. Firstly, a thermo-mechanical characterization of ABS 3D printed specimens at 77 K is reported, which allowed us to delimit the type of cryogenic uses where 3D printed pieces may be implemented. Secondly, we present three different examples where ABS 3D printed objects working at low temperatures have provided specific solutions: (i) SQUID inserts for angular magnetometry (low temperature material characterization field); (ii) a cage support for a metamaterial ;magnetic concentrator; (superconductivity application), and (iii) dedicated tools for cryopreservation in assisted reproductive techniques (medicine field).

  19. Drawing optical fibers from three-dimensional printers.

    PubMed

    Canning, John; Hossain, Md Arafat; Han, Chunyang; Chartier, Loic; Cook, Kevin; Athanaze, Tristan

    2016-12-01

    The temperature distribution within extrusion nozzles of three low-cost desktop 3D printers is characterized using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to assess their compatibility as micro-furnaces for optical fiber and taper production. These profiles show remarkably consistent distributions suitable for direct drawing of optical fiber. As proof of principle, coreless optical fibers (φ=30  μm) made from fluorinated acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) are drawn. Cutback measurements demonstrate propagation losses as low as α=0.26  dB/cm, which are comparable with standard optical fiber losses with some room for improvement. This work points toward direct optical fiber manufacture of any material from 3D printers.

  20. Ultrafast holographic technique for 3D in situ documentation of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Susanne; Bongartz, Jens; Giel, Dominik M.; Thelen, Andrea; Hering, Peter

    2003-10-01

    A novel 3d reconstruction method for medical application has been applied for the examination and documentation of a 2000-year-old bog body. An ultra-fast pulsed holographic camera has been modified to allow imaging of the bog body from different views. Full-scale daylight copies of the master holograms give a detailed impressive three-dimensional view of the mummy and can be exhibited instead of the object. In combination with a rapid prototyping model (built by the Rapid Prototyping group of the Stiftung caesar, Bonn, Germany) derived from computer tomography (CT) data our results are an ideal basis for a future facial reconstruction.

  1. Evaluation of 3D printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bethany C; Erkal, Jayda L; Lockwood, Sarah Y; Chen, Chengpeng; Spence, Dana M

    2014-04-01

    Nearing 30 years since its introduction, 3D printing technology is set to revolutionize research and teaching laboratories. This feature encompasses the history of 3D printing, reviews various printing methods, and presents current applications. The authors offer an appraisal of the future direction and impact this technology will have on laboratory settings as 3D printers become more accessible.

  2. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics.

  3. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure

    PubMed Central

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics. PMID:28054558

  4. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure.

    PubMed

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-05

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics.

  5. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  6. A Method to Represent Heterogeneous Materials for Rapid Prototyping: The Matryoshka Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shuangyan; Frank, Matthew C.; Anderson, Donald D.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions of human bones. Design/methodology/approach Nested STL shells, called Matryoshka models, are described, based on their namesake Russian nesting dolls. In this approach, polygonal models, such as STL shells, are “stacked” inside one another to represent different material regions. The Matryoshka model addresses the challenge of representing different densities and different types of bone when reverse engineering from medical images. The Matryoshka model is generated via an iterative process of thresholding the Hounsfield Unit (HU) data using computed tomography (CT), thereby delineating regions of progressively increasing bone density. These nested shells can represent regions starting with the medullary (bone marrow) canal, up through and including the outer surface of the bone. Findings The Matryoshka approach introduced can be used to generate accurate models of heterogeneous materials in an automated fashion, avoiding the challenge of hand-creating an assembly model for input to multi-material additive or subtractive manufacturing. Originality/Value This paper presents a new method for describing heterogeneous materials: in this case, the density distribution in a human bone. The authors show how the Matryoshka model can be used to plan harvesting locations for creating custom rapid allograft bone implants from donor bone. An implementation of a proposed harvesting method is demonstrated, followed by a case study using subtractive rapid prototyping to harvest a bone implant from a human tibia surrogate. PMID:26120277

  7. Design of anthropomorphic flow phantoms based on rapid prototyping of compliant vessel geometries.

    PubMed

    Lai, Simon S M; Yiu, Billy Y S; Poon, Alexander K K; Yu, Alfred C H

    2013-09-01

    Anatomically realistic flow phantoms are essential experimental tools for vascular ultrasound. Here we describe how these flow phantoms can be efficiently developed via a rapid prototyping (RP) framework that involves direct fabrication of compliant vessel geometries. In this framework, anthropomorphic vessel models were drafted in computer-aided design software, and they were fabricated using stereolithography (one type of RP). To produce elastic vessels, a compliant photopolymer was used for stereolithography. We fabricated a series of compliant, diseased carotid bifurcation models with eccentric stenosis (50%) and plaque ulceration (types I and III), and they were used to form thin-walled flow phantoms by coupling the vessels to an agar-based tissue-mimicking material. These phantoms were found to yield Doppler spectrograms with significant spectral broadening and color flow images with mosaic patterns, as typical of disturbed flow under stenosed and ulcerated disease conditions. Also, their wall distension behavior was found to be similar to that observed in vivo, and this corresponded with the vessel wall's average elastic modulus (391 kPa), which was within the nominal range for human arteries. The vessel material's acoustic properties were found to be sub-optimal: the estimated average acoustic speed was 1801 m/s, and the attenuation coefficient was 1.58 dB/(mm·MHz(n)) with a power-law coefficient of 0.97. Such an acoustic mismatch nevertheless did not notably affect our Doppler spectrograms and color flow image results. These findings suggest that phantoms produced from our design framework have the potential to serve as ultrasound-compatible test beds that can simulate complex flow dynamics similar to those observed in real vasculature.

  8. Rapid prototyping of interfacing microcomponents for printed circuit board-level optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    One of the important challenges for the deployment of the emerging breed of nanotechnology components is interfacing them with the external world, preferably accomplished with low-cost micro-optical devices. For the fabrication of this kind of micro-optical components, we make use of deep proton writing (DPW) as a generic rapid prototyping technology. DPW consists of bombarding polymer samples with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high quality micro-optical components. The strength of the DPW micro-machining technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we give an overview of the process steps of the technology and we present several examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components, fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in printed circuit baordlevel optical interconnections. These include: high-precision 2-D fiber connectors, discrete out-of-plane coupling structures featuring high-quality 45° and curved micro-mirrors, arrays of high aspect ratio micro-pillars and backplane connectors. While DPW is clearly not a mass fabrication technique as such, one of its assets is that once the master component has been prototyped, a metal mould can be generated from the DPW master by applying electroplating. After removal of the plastic master, this metal mould can be used as a shim in a final microinjection moulding or hot embossing step. This way, the master component can be mass-produced at low cost in a wide variety of high-tech plastics.

  9. Deep proton writing: a powerful rapid prototyping technology for various micro-optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Debaes, Christof; Ottevaere, Heidi; Van Overmeire, Sara; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-05-01

    One of the important challenges for the deployment of the emerging breed of nanotechnology components is interfacing them with the external world, preferably accomplished with low-cost micro-optical devices. For the fabrication of this kind of micro-optical modules, we make use of deep proton writing (DPW) as a generic rapid prototyping technology. DPW consists of bombarding polymer samples with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high quality micro-optical components. The strength of the DPW micro-machining technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we give an overview of the process steps of the technology and we present several examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components, fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in bio-photonics. These include: high-precision 2-D fiber connectors, out-of-plane coupling structures featuring high-quality 45° and curved micro-mirrors, arrays of high aspect ratio micro-pillars, and fluorescence and absorption detection bio-photonics modules. While DPW is clearly not a mass fabrication technique as such, one of its assets is that once the master component has been prototyped, a metal mould can be generated from the DPW master by applying electroplating. After removal of the plastic master, this metal mould can be used as a shim in a final microinjection moulding or hot embossing step. This way, the master component can be mass-produced at low cost in a wide variety of high-tech plastics.

  10. Assessment of Mechanical Performance of Bone Architecture Using Rapid Prototyping Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saparin, Peter; Woesz, Alexander; Thomsen, Jasper S.; Fratzl, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this on-going research project is to assess the influence of bone microarchitecture on the mechanical performance of trabecular bone. A testing chain consist-ing of three steps was established: 1) micro computed tomography (μCT) imaging of human trabecular bone; 2) building of models of the bone from a light-sensitive polymer using Rapid Prototyping (RP); 3) mechanical testing of the models in a material testing machine. A direct resampling procedure was developed to convert μCT data into the format of the RP machine. Standardized parameters for production and testing of the plastic models were established by use of regular cellular structures. Next, normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone architectures were re-produced by RP and compression tested. We found that normal architecture of vertebral trabecular bone exhibit behaviour characteristic of a cellular structure. In normal bone the fracture occurs at much higher strain values that in osteoporotic bone. After the fracture a normal trabecular architecture is able to carry much higher loads than an osteoporotic architecture. However, no statistically significant differences were found in maximal stress during uniaxial compression of the central part of normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone. This supports the hypothesis that osteoporotic trabecular bone can compensate for a loss of trabeculae by thickening the remaining trabeculae in the loading direction (compensatory hypertrophy). The developed approach could be used for mechanical evaluation of structural data acquired non-invasively and assessment of changes in performance of bone architecture.

  11. Color wavefront printer with mosaic delivery of primary colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hoonjong; Stoykova, Elena; Kim, Youngmin; Hong, Sunghee; Park, Joosup; Hong, Jisoo

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of a color wavefront holographic printer which prints white light viewable holograms of three-dimensional (3D) objects from digital contents. Similarly to other holographic printers, the printed hologram is composed as a two-dimensional array of elemental volume holograms. In the proposed wavefront printer, the 3D information was encoded in computer generated holograms displayed in succession on an amplitude spatial light modulator. The light beam diffracted from the modulator was filtered to extract the beam coming from the object and demagnified to be recorded onto the holographic emulsion as a small size elemental hologram that made possible application of mosaic delivery of exposures at primary colors. As a result, each elemental hologram corresponded to a single color channel. A modified phase-added stereogram approach based on a hologram partitioning method was proposed to accelerate computer generation of digital contents. We achieved bright 3D reconstruction with a motion parallax at saturated colors from holograms of test objects that were printed on a silver-halide emulsion. Thus we proved experimentally feasibility of recording analog color volume holograms from digital contents by applying spatially separated exposures at primary colors to the elemental holograms.

  12. 3D Printing in Technology and Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert L.; Bowden, Nicholas S.; Merrill, Chris

    2014-01-01

    In the past five years, there has been tremendous growth in the production and use of desktop 3D printers. This growth has been driven by the increasing availability of inexpensive computing and electronics technologies. The ability to rapidly share ideas and intelligence over the Internet has also played a key role in the growth. Growth is also…

  13. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  14. Visualization of gravitational potential wells using 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun; Wang, Weiguo; Lu, Meishu; Xu, Xinran; Yan, Qi Fan; Lu, Jianlong

    2016-12-01

    There have been many studies of the dynamics of a ball rolling on different types of surfaces. Most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a few experimental. We have found that 3D printing offers a novel experimental approach to investigating this topic. In this paper, we use a 3D printer to create four different surfaces and experimentally investigate the dynamics of a ball rolling on these surfaces. Our results are then compared to theory.

  15. On the intrinsic sterility of 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kaitlin J.; Zaman, Luis; Tung, Emily; Pudlo, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    3D printers that build objects using extruded thermoplastic are quickly becoming commonplace tools in laboratories. We demonstrate that with appropriate handling, these devices are capable of producing sterile components from a non-sterile feedstock of thermoplastic without any treatment after fabrication. The fabrication process itself results in sterilization of the material. The resulting 3D printed components are suitable for a wide variety of applications, including experiments with bacteria and cell culture. PMID:27920950

  16. Rapid Prototyping of Hyperspectral Image Analysis Algorithms for Improved Invasive Species Decision Support Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. M.; Ball, J. E.; Evangilista, P.; Stohlgren, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    Nonnative invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, causing loss of native plant diversity, species extinction, and impairment of wildlife habitats. As a result, over the past decade federal and state agencies and nongovernmental organizations have begun to work more closely together to address the management of invasive species. In 2005, approximately 500M dollars was budgeted by U.S. Federal Agencies for the management of invasive species. Despite extensive expenditures, most of the methods used to detect and quantify the distribution of these invaders are ad hoc, at best. Likewise, decisions on the type of management techniques to be used or evaluation of the success of these methods are typically non-systematic. More efficient methods to detect or predict the occurrence of these species, as well as the incorporation of this knowledge into decision support systems, are greatly needed. In this project, rapid prototyping capabilities (RPC) are utilized for an invasive species application. More precisely, our recently developed analysis techniques for hyperspectral imagery are being prototyped for inclusion in the national Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS). The current ecological forecasting tools in ISFS will be compared to our hyperspectral-based invasives prediction algorithms to determine if/how the newer algorithms enhance the performance of ISFS. The PIs have researched the use of remotely sensed multispectral and hyperspectral reflectance data for the detection of invasive vegetative species. As a result, the PI has designed, implemented, and benchmarked various target detection systems that utilize remotely sensed data. These systems have been designed to make decisions based on a variety of remotely sensed data, including high spectral/spatial resolution hyperspectral signatures (1000's of spectral bands, such as those measured using ASD handheld devices), moderate spectral/spatial resolution hyperspectral images (100's of spectral bands, such

  17. Rapid prototyping of zirconium diboride/copper electrical discharge machining electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucker, Brent Eric

    The acceptance of rapid prototyping (RP) as the predominant technique for producing polymer and paper parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models has led many corporations and universities to try to extend its capabilities to more robust materials. In addition to producing prototype metal and ceramic parts, a significant effort has been made to create parts that are useful as tools and dies or that reduce the time necessary to create tools and dies. Most materials used for tools and dies are very hard, because they need to be able to withstand millions of cycles before failing. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the most common method used to machine tools and dies out of hard materials. A method for producing EDM electrodes using RP could greatly reduce the time and cost involved in creating tools and dies. A new EDM electrode material made up of zirconium diboride and copper (ZrBsb2/Cu) that is superior to traditional EDM electrodes has been investigated. The processing techniques necessary for creating Zrsb2/Cu electrodes from powders of ZrB2 and copper have been developed. These ZrBsb2/Cu electrodes have a better wear ratio and a faster sink rate than graphite, copper or tungsten/copper EDM electrodes. Performance variables that were tracked are: (1) wear ratio, (2) sink rate and (3) surface finish, where ZrBsb2/Cu, copper, graphite and W/Cu were used as anodes (electrodes) and stainless steel as cathodes (workpieces). The ZrBsb2/Cu electrode material system retains its superior EDM electrode performance across a number of materials processing and compositional variations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the electrodes after EDM. These SEM observations facilitated an understanding of the superior EDM electrode performance characteristics of ZrBsb2/Cu to traditional EDM electrode material systems. A method for creating geometrically-complex ZrBsb2/Cu EDM electrodes using the selective laser sintering (SLS) RP technique was

  18. Field flatteners fabricated with a rapid prototyper for K-edge subtraction imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Honglin; Bewer, Brian; Florin Gh. Popescu, Bogdan; Nichol, Helen; Chapman, Dean

    2008-04-01

    One of the difficulties in X-ray imaging is the need to record a wide dynamic range of intensities on the detector. For example, some rays may miss the object being imaged entirely while others may suffer many orders of magnitude attenuation in passing through. In K-edge subtraction (KES) [E. Rubenstein, et al., Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97 (1985) 27.] imaging subtle differences in transmission through an object about the absorption edge of an element are used to create an image of the projected density of that element. This is done by a logarithmic subtraction of images acquired with energies above and below the absorption edge. For KES, the detector must register this transmitted intensity range in a linear manner for the subtraction method to be successful. The range of intensities which may strike the detector has inspired the concept of a field flattener. A field flattener is a device placed in the beam path that attenuates the input monochromatic beam to equalize X-ray absorption due to differences in the density of soft and hard tissues of an object before it passes through the object and thus achieves a flattened image. This removes the need for a wide dynamic range linear detector and allows detectors with modest performance to be used successfully in KES applications. The field flattener improves the S/ N ratio since X-ray exposures can be increased up to detector saturation. However, a field flattener removes anatomical information from each raw image (above or below K-edge) that may provide useful landmarks. Using rapid prototyping technology, two sets of field flatteners were fabricated and used in a KES experiment. This paper describes the procedure to design and fabricate field flatteners based on animal images from X-ray computed tomography (CT). Analysis of experimental data and KES images of a rat head with and without the field flattener are also presented. The results show a promising improvement of S/ N ratio using a field flattener

  19. Maximizing Modern Distribution of Complex Anatomical Spatial Information: 3D Reconstruction and Rapid Prototype Production of Anatomical Corrosion Casts of Human Specimens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianyi; Nie, Lanying; Li, Zeyu; Lin, Lijun; Tang, Lei; Ouyang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical…

  20. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  1. Rapid prototyping of microchannels with surface patterns for fabrication of polymer fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, Payton J.; Sharifi, Farrokh; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2015-08-14

    Microfluidic technology has provided innovative solutions to numerous problems, but the cost of designing and fabricating microfluidic channels is impeding its expansion. In this study, Shrinky-Dink thermoplastic sheets are used to create multilayered complex templates for microfluidic channels. We also used inkjet and laserjet printers to raise a predetermined microchannel geometry by depositing several layers of ink for each feature consecutively. We achieved feature heights over 100 μm, which were measured and compared with surface profilometry. Templates closest to the target geometry were then used to create microfluidic devices from soft-lithography with the molds as a template. These microfluidic devices were, futhermore used to fabricate polymer microfibers using the microfluidic focusing approach to demonstrate the potential that this process has for microfluidic applications. Finally, an economic analysis was conducted to compare the price of common microfluidic template manufacturing methods. We showed that multilayer microchannels can be created significantly quicker and cheaper than current methods for design prototyping and point-of-care applications in the biomedical area.

  2. Rapid prototyping of microchannels with surface patterns for fabrication of polymer fibers

    DOE PAGES

    Goodrich, Payton J.; Sharifi, Farrokh; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2015-08-14

    Microfluidic technology has provided innovative solutions to numerous problems, but the cost of designing and fabricating microfluidic channels is impeding its expansion. In this study, Shrinky-Dink thermoplastic sheets are used to create multilayered complex templates for microfluidic channels. We also used inkjet and laserjet printers to raise a predetermined microchannel geometry by depositing several layers of ink for each feature consecutively. We achieved feature heights over 100 μm, which were measured and compared with surface profilometry. Templates closest to the target geometry were then used to create microfluidic devices from soft-lithography with the molds as a template. These microfluidic devicesmore » were, futhermore used to fabricate polymer microfibers using the microfluidic focusing approach to demonstrate the potential that this process has for microfluidic applications. Finally, an economic analysis was conducted to compare the price of common microfluidic template manufacturing methods. We showed that multilayer microchannels can be created significantly quicker and cheaper than current methods for design prototyping and point-of-care applications in the biomedical area.« less

  3. The Layman Printer. Communication Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Frank; Lehrke, Gunter

    Intended for those responsible for all kinds of publications in developing countries, this booklet has three main objectives: (1) to give the ordinary person who knows nothing about printing or printing processes enough information to be able to deal intelligently with a printer, (2) to show how it is possible for a person or group of persons with…

  4. Rapid prototyping and inclined plane technique in the treatment of maxillofacial malformations in a fox.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Elisangela P; Rahal, Sheila C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Silva, Jorge V L; Noritomi, Pedro Y; Villela, Carlos H S; Yamashita, Seizo

    2010-03-01

    An approximately 9-month-old fox (Pseudalopex vetulus) was presented with malocclusion and deviation of the lower jaw to the right side. Orthodontic treatment was performed using the inclined plane technique. Virtual 3D models and prototypes of the head were based on computed tomography (CT) image data to assist in diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ΔE=13.19 is fairly small.

  6. A Process to Make Collagen Scaffolds with an Artificial Circulatory System Using Rapid Prototyping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    can overcome the diffusion constraints of the foam - 187 structured scaffolds. 3D Printing has been used to prepare poly( glycolic -co-lactic) acid...therefore an attractive scaffold material. Current collagen scaffolds are foams which limit the mass transport of oxygen and nutrients deep into the scaffold...degradation and eventually produce a completely natural tissue. Most scaffolds used for tissue engineering are open-cell foam structures which have resulted in

  7. Accuracy and precision of polyurethane dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional subtractive rapid prototyping method with an intraoral scanning technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of polyurethane (PUT) dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional (3D) subtractive rapid prototyping (RP) method with an intraoral scanning technique by comparing linear measurements obtained from PUT models and conventional plaster models. Methods Ten plaster models were duplicated using a selected standard master model and conventional impression, and 10 PUT models were duplicated using the 3D subtractive RP technique with an oral scanner. Six linear measurements were evaluated in terms of x, y, and z-axes using a non-contact white light scanner. Accuracy was assessed using mean differences between two measurements, and precision was examined using four quantitative methods and the Bland-Altman graphical method. Repeatability was evaluated in terms of intra-examiner variability, and reproducibility was assessed in terms of inter-examiner and inter-method variability. Results The mean difference between plaster models and PUT models ranged from 0.07 mm to 0.33 mm. Relative measurement errors ranged from 2.2% to 7.6% and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.96, when comparing plaster models and PUT models. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of PUT dental models for evaluating the performance of oral scanner and subtractive RP technology was acceptable. Because of the recent improvements in block material and computerized numeric control milling machines, the subtractive RP method may be a good choice for dental arch models. PMID:24696823

  8. Applications of stereolithography for rapid prototyping of biologically compatible chip-based physiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad, Nurul Mohd; Zhu, Feng; Kaslin, Jan; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Despite the growing demand and numerous applications for the biomedical community, the developments in millifluidic devices for small model organisms are limited compared to other fields of biomicrofluidics. The main reasons for this stagnanation are difficulties in prototyping of millimeter scale and high aspect ratio devices needed for large metazoan organisms. Standard photolithography is in this context a time consuming procedure not easily adapted for fabrication of molds with vertical dimensions above 1 mm. Moreover, photolithography is still largely unattainable to a gross majority of biomedical laboratories willing to pursue custom development of their own chip-based platforms due to costs and need for dedicated clean room facilities. In this work, we present application of high-definition additive manufacturing systems for fabrication of 3D printed moulds used in soft lithography. Combination of 3D printing with PDMS replica molding appears to be an alternative for millifluidic systems that yields rapid and cost effective prototyping pipeline. We investigated the important aspects on both 3D printed moulds and PDMS replicas such as geometric accuracies and surface topology. Our results demonstrated that SLA technologies could be applied for rapid and accurate fabrication of millifluidic devices for trapping of millimetre-sized specimens such as living zebrafish larvae. We applied the new manufacturing method in a proof-of-concept prototype device capable of trapping and immobilizing living zebrafish larvae for recording heart rate variation in cardio-toxicity experiments.

  9. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  10. Applications of patient-specific 3D printing in medicine.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin; Bauer, Heide-Katharina; Goetze, Elisabeth; Gielisch, Matthias; Roth, Klaus E; Drees, Philipp; Maier, Gerrit S; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Ghazy, Ahmed; Neufurth, Meik; Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Wang, Xiaohong; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    Already three decades ago, the potential of medical 3D printing (3DP) or rapid prototyping for improved patient treatment began to be recognized. Since then, more and more medical indications in different surgical disciplines have been improved by using this new technique. Numerous examples have demonstrated the enormous benefit of 3DP in the medical care of patients by, for example, planning complex surgical interventions preoperatively, reducing implantation steps and anesthesia times, and helping with intraoperative orientation. At the beginning of every individual 3D model, patient-specific data on the basis of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or ultrasound data is generated, which is then digitalized and processed using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software. Finally, the resulting data sets are used to generate 3D-printed models or even implants. There are a variety of different application areas in the various medical fields, eg, drill or positioning templates, or surgical guides in maxillofacial surgery, or patient-specific implants in orthopedics. Furthermore, in vascular surgery it is possible to visualize pathologies such as aortic aneurysms so as to improve the planning of surgical treatment. Although rapid prototyping of individual models and implants is already applied very successfully in regenerative medicine, most of the materials used for 3DP are not yet suitable for implantation in the body. Therefore, it will be necessary in future to develop novel therapy approaches and design new materials in order to completely reconstruct natural tissue.

  11. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy; Kreeger, Richard; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3-D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion.The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scanrapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the moldcasting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  12. 3D printing of versatile reactionware for chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan; Chen, Wei; Lin, Chang-Gen; Song, Yu-Fei; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing) techniques have moved beyond their traditional applications in the fields of industrial manufacturing and prototyping to increasingly find roles in scientific research contexts, such as synthetic chemistry. We present a general approach for the production of bespoke chemical reactors, termed reactionware, using two different approaches to extrusion-based 3D printing. This protocol describes the printing of an inert polypropylene (PP) architecture with the concurrent printing of soft material catalyst composites, using two different 3D printer setups. The steps of the PROCEDURE describe the design and preparation of a 3D digital model of the desired reactionware device and the preparation of this model for use with fused deposition modeling (FDM) type 3D printers. The protocol then further describes the preparation of composite catalyst-silicone materials for incorporation into the 3D-printed device and the steps required to fabricate a reactionware device. This combined approach allows versatility in the design and use of reactionware based on the specific needs of the experimental user. To illustrate this, we present a detailed procedure for the production of one such reactionware device that will result in the production of a sealed reactor capable of effecting a multistep organic synthesis. Depending on the design time of the 3D model, and including time for curing and drying of materials, this procedure can be completed in ∼3 d.

  13. Future enhancements to 3D printing and real time production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Joseph; Jenkins, Jeffery; Wu, Jerry; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    The cost and scope of additive printing machines range from several hundred to hundreds of thousands of dollars. For the extra money, one can get improvements in build size, selection of material properties, resolution, and consistency. However, temperature control during build and fusing predicts outcome and protects the IP by large high cost machines. Support material options determine geometries that can be accomplished which drives cost and complexity of printing heads. Historically, 3D printers have been used for design and prototyping efforts. Recent advances and cost reduction sparked new interest in developing printed products and consumables such as NASA who is printing food, printing consumer parts (e.g. cell phone cases, novelty toys), making tools and fixtures in manufacturing, and recursively print a self-similar printer (c.f. makerbot). There is a near term promise of the capability to print on demand products at the home or office... directly from the printer to use.

  14. Intelligent editor/printer enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodfill, M. C.; Pheanis, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Microprocessor support hardware, software, and cross assemblers relating to the Motorola 6800 and 6809 process systems were developed. Pinter controller and intelligent CRT development are discussed. The user's manual, design specifications for the MC6809 version of the intelligent printer controller card, and a 132-character by 64-line intelligent CRT display system using a Motorola 6809 MPU, and a one-line assembler and disassembler are provided.

  15. A cost-effective micromilling platform for rapid prototyping of microdevices

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Daniel P.; Ando, Yuta; Shen, Keyue

    2017-01-01

    Micromilling has great potential in producing microdevices for lab-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip applications, but has remained under-utilized due to the high machinery costs and limited accessibility. In this paper, we assessed the machining capabilities of a low-cost 3-D mill in polycarbonate material, which were showcased by the production of microfluidic devices. The study demonstrates that this particular mill is well suited for the fabrication of multi-scale microdevices with feature sizes from micrometers to centimeters. PMID:28317005

  16. Parametric Modeling as a Technology of Rapid Prototyping in Light Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilov, I. N.; Grudinin, S. N.; Frolovsky, V. D.; Alexandrov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the parametric modeling method of virtual mannequins for the purposes of design automation in clothing industry. The described approach includes the steps of generation of the basic model on the ground of the initial one (obtained in 3D-scanning process), its parameterization and deformation. The complex surfaces are presented by the wireframe model. The modeling results are evaluated with the set of similarity factors. Deformed models are compared with their virtual prototypes. The results of modeling are estimated by the standard deviation factor.

  17. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    SciTech Connect

    Zwicker, Andrew P.; Bloom, Josh; Albertson, Robert; Gershman, Sophia

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  18. 3D Printing: Print the future of ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) printer is a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in the medical field, where it is beginning to revolutionize medical and surgical possibilities. It is already providing medicine with powerful tools that facilitate education, surgical planning, and organ transplantation research. A good understanding of this technology will be beneficial to ophthalmologists. The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology, both current and future, are explored in this article.

  19. Application of Rapid Prototyping and Wire Arc Spray to the Fabrication of Injection Mold Tools (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a layer-by-layer-based additive manufacturing process for constructing three-dimensional representations of a computer design from a wax, plastic, or similar material. Wire arc spray (WAS) is a metal spray forming technique, which deposits thin layers of metal onto a substrate or pattern. Marshall Space Flight Center currently has both capabilities in-house, and this project proposed merging the two processes into an innovative manufacturing technique, in which intermediate injection molding tool halves were to be fabricated with RP and WAS metal forming.

  20. Rapid prototyped patient specific implants for reconstruction of orbital wall defects.

    PubMed

    Stoor, Patricia; Suomalainen, Anni; Lindqvist, Christian; Mesimäki, Karri; Danielsson, Daniel; Westermark, Anders; Kontio, Risto K

    2014-12-01

    Defects of orbital walls can be reconstructed using implants. The authors report a safe and accurate method to reconstruct bone defects in the orbital area using patient specific implants. A detailed process description of computer aided design (CAD) reconstructive surgery (CRS) is introduced in this prospective study. The 3D volumetric virtual implant was design using MSCT data and PTCProEngineer™ 3D software. The intact orbital cavity of twelve patients was mirrored to the injured side. Specific ledges steered the implant into correct place. Postoperatively the position was assessed using image fusion. One implant (8%) was rejected due to chemical impurities, two (16%) had a false shape due to incorrect CAD. Data of thin bone did not transfer correctly to CAD and resulted in error. One implant (8%) was placed incorrectly. Duration of the CRS was in average 1.17 h, correspondingly 1.57 h using intraoperative bending technique. The CRS process has several critical stages, which are related to converting data and to incompatibility between software. The CRS process has several steps that need further studies. The data of thin bone may be lost and disturb an otherwise very precise technique. The risk of incorporating impurities into the implant must be carefully controlled.

  1. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  2. 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    The formation of 3D objects composed of shape memory polymers for flexible electronics is described. Layer-by-layer photopolymerization of methacrylated semicrystalline molten macromonomers by a 3D digital light processing printer enables rapid fabrication of complex objects and imparts shape memory functionality for electrical circuits.

  3. Liquid on Paper: Rapid Prototyping of Soft Functional Components for Paper Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Long Han, Yu; Liu, Hao; Ouyang, Cheng; Jian Lu, Tian; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to fabricate paper-based electric circuits consisting of a paper matrix embedded with three-dimensional (3D) microchannels and liquid metal. Leveraging the high electric conductivity and good flowability of liquid metal, and metallophobic property of paper, it is possible to keep electric and mechanical functionality of the electric circuit even after a thousand cycles of deformation. Embedding liquid metal into paper matrix is a promising method to rapidly fabricate low-cost, disposable, and soft electric circuits for electronics. As a demonstration, we designed a programmable displacement transducer and applied it as variable resistors and pressure sensors. The unique metallophobic property, combined with softness, low cost and light weight, makes paper an attractive alternative to other materials in which liquid metal are currently embedded. PMID:26129723

  4. Liquid on Paper: Rapid Prototyping of Soft Functional Components for Paper Electronics.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu Long; Liu, Hao; Ouyang, Cheng; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to fabricate paper-based electric circuits consisting of a paper matrix embedded with three-dimensional (3D) microchannels and liquid metal. Leveraging the high electric conductivity and good flowability of liquid metal, and metallophobic property of paper, it is possible to keep electric and mechanical functionality of the electric circuit even after a thousand cycles of deformation. Embedding liquid metal into paper matrix is a promising method to rapidly fabricate low-cost, disposable, and soft electric circuits for electronics. As a demonstration, we designed a programmable displacement transducer and applied it as variable resistors and pressure sensors. The unique metallophobic property, combined with softness, low cost and light weight, makes paper an attractive alternative to other materials in which liquid metal are currently embedded.

  5. Liquid on Paper: Rapid Prototyping of Soft Functional Components for Paper Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long Han, Yu; Liu, Hao; Ouyang, Cheng; Jian Lu, Tian; Xu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to fabricate paper-based electric circuits consisting of a paper matrix embedded with three-dimensional (3D) microchannels and liquid metal. Leveraging the high electric conductivity and good flowability of liquid metal, and metallophobic property of paper, it is possible to keep electric and mechanical functionality of the electric circuit even after a thousand cycles of deformation. Embedding liquid metal into paper matrix is a promising method to rapidly fabricate low-cost, disposable, and soft electric circuits for electronics. As a demonstration, we designed a programmable displacement transducer and applied it as variable resistors and pressure sensors. The unique metallophobic property, combined with softness, low cost and light weight, makes paper an attractive alternative to other materials in which liquid metal are currently embedded.

  6. Rapid Prototyping of Inspired Gas Delivery System for Pulmonary MRI Research

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Fredrick Roscoe; Geier, Eric T.; Asadi, Amran K.; Sá, Rui Carlos; Prisk, G. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Specific ventilation imaging (SVI) is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method for determining the regional distribution of inspired air in the lungs, useful for the assessment of pulmonary function in medical research. This technique works by monitoring the rate of magnetic resonance signal change in response to a series of imposed step changes in inspired oxygen concentration. The current SVI technique requires a complex system of tubes, valves, and electronics that are used to supply and rapidly switch inspired gases while subjects are imaged, which makes the technique difficult to translate into the clinical setting. This report discusses the design and implementation of custom three-dimensional (3D) printed hardware that greatly simplifies SVI measurement of lung function. Several hardware prototypes were modeled using computer-aided design software and printed for evaluation. After finalization of the design, the new delivery system was evaluated based on O2 and N2 concentration step responses and validated against the current SVI protocol. The design performed rapid switching of supplied gas within 250 ms and consistently supplied the desired concentration of O2 during operation. It features a reduction in the number of commercial hardware components, from five to one, and a reduction in the number of gas lines between the operator’s room and the scanner room, from four to one, as well as a substantially reduced preparation time from 25 to 5 min. 3D printing is well suited to the design of inexpensive custom MRI compatible hardware, making it particularly useful in imaging-based research. PMID:27917393

  7. 3D gel printing for soft-matter systems innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kawakami, Masaru; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Saito, Azusa

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed, especially from Japan. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. We consider if various gel materials including such high-strength gels are 3D-printable, many new soft and wet systems will be developed since the most intricate shape gels can be printed regardless of the quite softness and brittleness of gels. Recently we have tried to develop an optical 3D gel printer to realize the free-form formation of gel materials. We named this apparatus Easy Realizer of Soft and Wet Industrial Materials (SWIM-ER). The SWIM-ER will be applied to print bespoke artificial organs, including artificial blood vessels, which will be possibly used for both surgery trainings and actual surgery. The SWIM-ER can print one of the world strongest gels, called Double-Network (DN) gels, by using UV irradiation through an optical fiber. Now we also are developing another type of 3D gel printer for foods, named E-Chef. We believe these new 3D gel printers will broaden the applications of soft-matter gels.

  8. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices with integrated wrinkled gold micro-/nano textured electrodes for electrochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, C M; Adams-McGavin, R C; Vanderfleet, O M; Soleymani, L

    2015-08-21

    Fully-integrated electro-fluidic systems with micro-/nano-scale features have a wide range of applications in lab-on-a-chip systems used for biosensing, biological sample processing, and environmental monitoring. Rapid prototyping of application-specific electro-fluidic systems is envisioned to facilitate the testing, validation, and market translation of several lab-on-a-chip systems. Towards this goal, we developed a rapid prototyping process for creating wrinkled micro-/nano-textured electrodes on shrink memory polymers, fabricating microfluidics using molds patterned by a craft-cutter, and bonding electrical and fluidic circuitries using a PDMS partial curing method optimized for creating void-free bonds at the side walls and surfaces of tall (>5 μm) micro-/nano-textured wrinkled electrodes. The resulting electro-fluidic devices, featuring closely spaced high topography electrodes for electrochemical analysis, can withstand flow-rates and burst pressures larger than 25 mL min(-1) and 125 kPa, respectively. In addition, the fully-integrated electrochemical flow-cell developed here demonstrates excellent electrochemical behaviour, with negligible scan to scan variation for over 100 cyclic voltammetry scans, and expected redox signatures measured under various voltage scan rates and fluidic flow rates.

  9. Morphology of elastase-induced cerebral aneurysm model in rabbit and rapid prototyping of elastomeric transparent replicas.

    PubMed

    Seong, Jaehoon; Sadasivan, Chander; Onizuka, Masanari; Gounis, Matthew J; Christian, Fletcher; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Wakhloo, Ajay K; Lieber, Baruch B

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we describe a methodology to fabricate transparent elastomeric vascular replicas using rapid prototyping techniques. First, the three-dimensional morphology of an elastase-induced aneurysm model in rabbit is acquired. The morphology is reconstructed from in vivo rotational angiography and it is compared with three-dimensional reconstructions obtained by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of an intraluminal arterial cast that was obtained from the same animal at sacrifice. Results show that resolution of the imaging modality strongly influences the level of detail, such as small side branches, in the final reconstruction. We developed an average morphology model for elastase-induced aneurysms in rabbits including the surrounding vasculature and describe a method for rapid prototyping of vascular models from the three-dimensional morphology. Our replicas can be manufactured in a short period of time and the final product is optically clear. In addition, the elasticity of the models can be controlled to represent arterial elasticity, which makes them ideal for optical investigations of detailed flow dynamics using measurement tools such as particle image velocimetry.

  10. Infrared imaging of the polymer 3D-printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lindal, John M.; Post, Brian; Smith, Rachel J.; Love, Lonnie; Duty, Chad E.

    2014-05-01

    Both mid-wave and long-wave IR cameras are used to measure various temperature profiles in thermoplastic parts as they are printed. Two significantly different 3D-printers are used in this study. The first is a small scale commercially available Solidoodle 3 printer, which prints parts with layer thicknesses on the order of 125μm. The second printer used is a "Big Area Additive Manufacturing" (BAAM) 3D-printer developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The BAAM prints parts with a layer thicknesses of 4.06 mm. Of particular interest is the temperature of the previously deposited layer as the new hot layer is about to be extruded onto it. The two layers are expected have a stronger bond if the temperature of the substrate layer is above the glass transition temperature. This paper describes the measurement technique and results for a study of temperature decay and substrate layer temperature for ABS thermoplastic with and without the addition of chopped carbon fibers.

  11. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  12. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  13. The upcoming 3D-printing revolution in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Urrios, Arturo; Kang, Shawn; Folch, Albert

    2016-05-21

    In the last two decades, the vast majority of microfluidic systems have been built in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography, a technique based on PDMS micromolding. A long list of key PDMS properties have contributed to the success of soft lithography: PDMS is biocompatible, elastomeric, transparent, gas-permeable, water-impermeable, fairly inexpensive, copyright-free, and rapidly prototyped with high precision using simple procedures. However, the fabrication process typically involves substantial human labor, which tends to make PDMS devices difficult to disseminate outside of research labs, and the layered molding limits the 3D complexity of the devices that can be produced. 3D-printing has recently attracted attention as a way to fabricate microfluidic systems due to its automated, assembly-free 3D fabrication, rapidly decreasing costs, and fast-improving resolution and throughput. Resins with properties approaching those of PDMS are being developed. Here we review past and recent efforts in 3D-printing of microfluidic systems. We compare the salient features of PDMS molding with those of 3D-printing and we give an overview of the critical barriers that have prevented the adoption of 3D-printing by microfluidic developers, namely resolution, throughput, and resin biocompatibility. We also evaluate the various forces that are persuading researchers to abandon PDMS molding in favor of 3D-printing in growing numbers.

  14. Construction of programmable interconnected 3D microfluidic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Patrick R.; Wolf, Marc P.; Wang, Xueya; Zhang, Bei; Marsch, Stephan; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B.

    2015-02-01

    Microfluidic systems represent a key-enabling platform for novel diagnostic tools for use at the point-of-care in clinical contexts as well as for evolving single cell diagnostics. The design of 3D microfluidic systems is an active field of development, but construction of true interconnected 3D microfluidic networks is still a challenge, in particular when the goal is rapid prototyping, accurate design and flexibility. We report a novel approach for the construction of programmable 3D microfluidic systems consisting of modular 3D template casting of interconnected threads to allow user-programmable flow paths and examine its structural characteristics and its modular function. To overcome problems with thread template casting reported in the literature, low-surface-energy polymer threads were used, that allow solvent-free production. Connected circular channels with excellent roundness and low diameter variability were created. Variable channel termination allowed programming a flow path on-the-fly, thus rendering the resulting 3D microfluidic systems highly customizable even after production. Thus, construction of programmable/reprogrammable fully 3D microfluidic systems by template casting of a network of interconnecting threads is feasible, leads to high-quality and highly reproducible, complex 3D geometries.

  15. Biomimetically Ornamented Rapid Prototyping Fabrication of an Apatite-Collagen-Polycaprolactone Composite Construct with Nano-Micro-Macro Hierarchical Structure for Large Bone Defect Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbing; Wu, Dingyu; Zhang, Zhanzhao; Li, Jun; Shen, Yi; Wang, Zhenxing; Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Jian

    2015-12-02

    Biomaterial-based bone graft substitute with favorable mechanical and biological properties could be used as an alternative to autograft for large defect treatment. Here, an apatite-collagen-polycaprolactone (Ap-Col-PCL) composite construct was developed with unique nano-micro-macro hierarchical architectures by combining rapid prototyping (RP) fabrication technology and a 3D functionalization strategy. Macroporous PCL framework was fabricated using RP technology, then functionalized by collagen incorporation and biomimetic deposition. Ap-Col-PCL composite construct was characterized with hierarchical architectures of a nanoscale (∼100 nm thickness and ∼1 μm length) platelike apatite coating on the microporous (126 ± 18 μm) collagen networks, which homogeneously filled the macroporous (∼1000 μm) PCL frameworks and possessed a favorable hydrophilic property and compressive modulus (68.75 ± 3.39 MPa) similar to that of cancellous bone. Moreover, in vitro cell culture assay and in vivo critical-sized bone defect implantation demonstrated that the Ap-Col-PCL construct could not only significantly increase the cell adhesion capability (2.0-fold) and promote faster cell proliferation but also successfully bridge the segmental long bone defect within 12 weeks with much more bone regeneration (5.2-fold), better osteointegration (7.2-fold), and a faster new bone deposition rate (2.9-fold). Our study demonstrated that biomimetically ornamented Ap-Col-PCL constructs exhibit a favorable mechanical property, more bone tissue ingrowth, and better osteointegration capability as an effective bone graft substitute for critical-sized bone defect treatment; meanwhile, it can also harness the advantages of RP technology, in particular, facilitating the customization of the shape and size of implants according to medical images during clinical application.

  16. Custom-made, 3D, intraoperative surgical guides for nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Babar; Byrne, Patrick J

    2011-11-01

    This article presents the use of an intraoperative surgical guide created by 3D laser surface scanning and rapid prototyping. The authors present outcomes of 3 patients in whom the nasal surgical guide was used intraoperatively for reconstruction of full-thickness, complex nasal defects. This effort highlights the multidisciplinary approach involving a surgeon and anaplastologist integrated with the latest technology to provide patients with the best possible outcomes.

  17. Cambering effects on Rapidly-Prototyped, Highly-Flexible Membrane Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepley, David; Wrist, Andrew; Hubner, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Much of the inspiration for micro air vehicle (MAV) design comes from animals, likes bats, which use membrane wings for flying and gliding at low Reynolds numbers. Previous research has shown that membrane wings are more aerodynamically efficient than rigid wings. This is a result of both time-average cambering of the membrane and dynamic interaction with the shear layer. In most of the previous research, the membrane was attached to a flat (uncambered) frame. Traditional airfoil theory suggests that the cambering of wings improves aerodynamic efficiency and endurance. This research analyzed the effects of cambering the frames on wing efficiency and endurance. Six different cambered membrane wings with an aspect ratio of two, each with two cells with an aspect ratio of one, were 3-D printed using an Objet30 Pro and tested in a low-speed wind tunnel at 10 m/s (Re = 50,000). A NACA 4504 profile was used as a baseline with the frame thickness, percent camber, and maximum camber location being altered for comparison. The lift, drag, and pitching moment of the cambered and flat wings were recorded using a load cell. Results showed that cambering the frame of membrane wings increases aerodynamic and endurance efficiency at low Re. The effects of altering the camber, increasing the batten thickness, and changing the max camber location on aerodynamic and endurance efficiency were also examined. Special thanks to the National Science Foundation for research funding.

  18. 3D Printing of Carbon Nanotubes-Based Microsupercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Zhou, Han; Li, Ben Q; Ding, Shujiang

    2017-02-08

    A novel 3D printing procedure is presented for fabricating carbon-nanotubes (CNTs)-based microsupercapacitors. The 3D printer uses a CNTs ink slurry with a moderate solid content and prints a stream of continuous droplets. Appropriate control of a heated base is applied to facilitate the solvent removal and adhesion between printed layers and to improve the structure integrity without structure delamination or distortion upon drying. The 3D-printed electrodes for microsupercapacitors are characterized by SEM, laser scanning confocal microscope, and step profiler. Effect of process parameters on 3D printing is also studied. The final solid-state microsupercapacitors are assembled with the printed multilayer CNTs structures and poly(vinyl alcohol)-H3PO4 gel as the interdigitated microelectrodes and electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of 3D printed microsupercapacitors is also tested, showing a significant areal capacitance and excellent cycle stability.

  19. Centralised 3D printing in the NHS: a radiological review.

    PubMed

    Eley, K A

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) printing has seen an explosion of interest fuelled by improvements in technology and associated reduction in costs. The literature is replete with novel medical applications of custom anatomical models, prostheses, and surgical guides. Although the fundamental core of 3D printing lies in image manipulation, the driving force in many National Health Service (NHS) trusts has come from individual surgical specialties with 3D printers independently run and confined to respective departments. In this review of 3D printing, experience of establishing a new centralised 3D-printing service within an NHS hospital trust is reported, focusing on the requirements and challenges of such an endeavour.

  20. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  1. Patient specific 3D printed phantom for IMRT quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehler, Eric D.; Barney, Brett M.; Higgins, Patrick D.; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a patient specific phantom for patient specific dosimetric verification. Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. Calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was compared for a parallel-opposed head and neck field geometry to establish tissue equivalence. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom as well as traditional standard phantoms. The maximum difference in calculated dose was 1.8% for the parallel-opposed configuration. Passing rates of various dosimetric parameters were compared for the IMRT plan measurements; the 3D printed phantom results showed greater disagreement at superficial depths than other methods. A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine use.

  2. Patient specific 3D printed phantom for IMRT quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Ehler, Eric D; Barney, Brett M; Higgins, Patrick D; Dusenbery, Kathryn E

    2014-10-07

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a patient specific phantom for patient specific dosimetric verification.Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. Calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was compared for a parallel-opposed head and neck field geometry to establish tissue equivalence. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom as well as traditional standard phantoms.The maximum difference in calculated dose was 1.8% for the parallel-opposed configuration. Passing rates of various dosimetric parameters were compared for the IMRT plan measurements; the 3D printed phantom results showed greater disagreement at superficial depths than other methods.A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine use.

  3. Multi-resolution optical 3D sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Heinze, Matthias; Schmidt, Ingo; Breitbarth, Martin; Notni, Gunther

    2007-06-01

    A new multi resolution self calibrating optical 3D measurement system using fringe projection technique named "kolibri FLEX multi" will be presented. It can be utilised to acquire the all around shape of small to medium objects, simultaneously. The basic measurement principle is the phasogrammetric approach /1,2,3/ in combination with the method of virtual landmarks for the merging of the 3D single views. The system consists in minimum of two fringe projection sensors. The sensors are mounted on a rotation stage illuminating the object from different directions. The measurement fields of the sensors can be chosen different, here as an example 40mm and 180mm in diameter. In the measurement the object can be scanned at the same time with these two resolutions. Using the method of virtual landmarks both point clouds are calculated within the same world coordinate system resulting in a common 3D-point cloud. The final point cloud includes the overview of the object with low point density (wide field) and a region with high point density (focussed view) at the same time. The advantage of the new method is the possibility to measure with different resolutions at the same object region without any mechanical changes in the system or data post processing. Typical parameters of the system are: the measurement time is 2min for 12 images and the measurement accuracy is below 3μm up to 10 μm. The flexibility makes the measurement system useful for a wide range of applications such as quality control, rapid prototyping, design and CAD/CAM which will be shown in the paper.

  4. In Search of the Perfect Printer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kater, David

    1984-01-01

    Discusses print quality, speed, print modes, buffers, and character sets of daisy-wheel and dot-matrix printers; briefly reviews features needed to print graphics and color; and presents a chart listing over 30 typical daisy-wheel and dot-matrix printers for comparison of features and price. (MBR)

  5. Rapid prototyping of a microfluidics-based Venturi micropump imprinted on polymeric, postage-stamp-sized chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, C.; Eshaque, B.; Badali, K.; Karanassios, V.

    2012-06-01

    Pumps are widely used in chemical analysis. For instance, they are used to help transport liquid samples from a beaker to an instrument, for example for sample introduction. Pumps can also used to evacuate chambers used for mass spectrometry. For miniaturized, portable analytical instruments, miniaturized pumps are ideally suited. In this paper, a micropump with no moving parts that relies on the Venturi effect has been rapidly prototyped by imprinting fluidic channels on inexpensive polymeric substrates. The micropump was first evaluated for potential vacuum applications (e.g., for portable mass spectrometers). Subsequently, it was evaluated for its ability to transfer liquids in microfluidic channels (for possible use as a sample delivery vehicle to an appropriate sample introduction system).

  6. Growth of the chorioallantoic membrane into a rapid-prototyped model pore system: experiments and mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Greg; Howard, Daniel; Yang, Hongyi; Ratchev, Svetan M; Segal, Joel I; Rose, Felicity R A J; Jensen, Oliver E; Waters, Sarah L; King, John R

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model to describe the growth of tissue into a rapid-prototyped porous scaffold when it is implanted onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The scaffold was designed to study the effects of the size and shape of pores on tissue growth into conventional tissue engineering scaffolds, and consists of an array of pores each having a pre-specified shape. The experimental observations revealed that the CAM grows through each pore as an intact layer of tissue, provided the width of the pore exceeds a threshold value. Based on these results a mathematical model is described to simulate the growth of the membrane, assuming that the growth is a function of the local isotropic membrane tension. The model predictions are compared against measurements of the extent of membrane growth through the pores as a function of time for pores with different dimensions.

  7. Integration of a macro/micro architectured compartmentalised neuronal culture device using a rapid prototyping moulding process.

    PubMed

    Arundell, Martin; Perry, V Hugh; Newman, Tracey A

    2011-09-07

    The rapid prototyping of a reversible and one step moulded compartmentalised neuron glass/PDMS device with a thin wall barrier directly adjacent to the reservoirs is presented. A simple moulding technique to produce these devices results in a barrier of 560 μm where the 3 μm deep by 8 μm wide channels can be reversibly fabricated in either the glass base or PDMS compartmentalised mould depending on the type of application required. Using glass substrates with commercially laser engraved microchannels, both the PDMS planar and PDMS channelled device can be easily fabricated in a standard laboratory. The compartmentalised device has several advantages including good experimental accessibility and versatility with a variety of end user applications.

  8. Low-temperature deposition manufacturing: A novel and promising rapid prototyping technology for the fabrication of tissue-engineered scaffold.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Daming; Huang, Jianghong; Wei, You; Xiong, Jianyi; Zhu, Weimin; Duan, Li; Chen, Jielin; Sun, Rong; Wang, Daping

    2017-01-01

    Developed in recent years, low-temperature deposition manufacturing (LDM) represents one of the most promising rapid prototyping technologies. It is not only based on rapid deposition manufacturing process but also combined with phase separation process. Besides the controlled macropore size, tissue-engineered scaffold fabricated by LDM has inter-connected micropores in the deposited lines. More importantly, it is a green manufacturing process that involves non-heating liquefying of materials. It has been employed to fabricate tissue-engineered scaffolds for bone, cartilage, blood vessel and nerve tissue regenerations. It is a promising technology in the fabrication of tissue-engineered scaffold similar to ideal scaffold and the design of complex organs. In the current paper, this novel LDM technology is introduced, and its control parameters, biomedical applications and challenges are included and discussed as well.

  9. Updates on the Construction of an Eyeglass-Supported Nasal Prosthesis Using Computer-Aided Design and Rapid Prototyping Technology.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Tarsitano, Achille; Marchetti, Claudio; Scotti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to design an updated connection system for an eyeglass-supported nasal prosthesis using rapid prototyping techniques. The substructure was developed with two main endpoints in mind: the connection to the silicone and the connection to the eyeglasses. The mold design was also updated; the mold was composed of various parts, each carefully designed to allow for easy release after silicone processing and to facilitate extraction of the prosthesis without any strain. The approach used in this study enabled perfect transfer of the reciprocal position of the prosthesis with respect to the eyeglasses, from the virtual to the clinical environment. Moreover, the reduction in thickness improved the flexibility of the prosthesis and promoted adaptation to the contours of the skin, even during functional movements. The method described here is a simplified and viable alternative to standard construction techniques for nasal prostheses and offers improved esthetic and functional results when no bone is available for implant-supported prostheses.

  10. [Computer-aided method and rapid prototyping for the personalized fabrication of a silicone bandage digital prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Ventura Ferreira, Nuno; Leal, Nuno; Correia Sá, Inês; Reis, Ana; Marques, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of digital prostheses has acquired growing importance not only for the possibility for the patient to overcome psychosocial trauma but also to promote grip functionality. An application method of three dimensional-computer-aided design technologies for the production of passive prostheses is presented by means of a fifth finger amputee clinical case following bilateral hand replantation.Three-dimensional-computerized tomography was used for the collection of anthropometric images of the hands. Computer-aided design techniques were used to develop the digital file-based prosthesis from the reconstruction images by inversion and superimposing the contra-lateral finger images. The rapid prototyping manufacturing method was used for the production of a silicone bandage prosthesis prototype. This approach replaces the traditional manual method by a virtual method that is basis for the optimization of a high speed, accurate and innovative process.

  11. The accuracy of solid model and rapid prototype of prostheses in comparison to the digital CT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwandi, Agri; Kiswanto, Gandjar; Kusumaningsih, Widjajalaksmi; Soemardi, Tresna P.

    2017-02-01

    Prostheses are a derivative of biomedical products that have important things, which are: a design, size and bio compatible material. To produce optimum prostheses, safe and comfortable use, it would require design a model that fits the size of the patient's anatomy. In this paper describes the accuracy of solid model and rapid prototype of prostheses in comparison to the digital CT image data. Where the main parameters used as the reference measurement is digital CT image data. The data were analyzed using a statistical method to get the standard deviation of the comparison parameters of the data obtained, so that it can be known how the accuracy of the measurement results of each data.

  12. Air-structured optical fiber drawn from a 3D-printed preform.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kevin; Canning, John; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md Arafat; Comatti, Jade-Edouard; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-09-01

    A structured optical fiber is drawn from a 3D-printed structured preform. Preforms containing a single ring of holes around the core are fabricated using filament made from a modified butadiene polymer. More broadly, 3D printers capable of processing soft glasses, silica, and other materials are likely to come on line in the not-so-distant future. 3D printing of optical preforms signals a new milestone in optical fiber manufacture.

  13. Enablement of defense missions with in-space 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Hirsch, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Outer space has the potential to become the battlefield of the 21st century. If this occurs, the United States will need to invest heavily into research and development regarding space assets, construction approaches, and anti-satellite technologies in order to ensure the requisite level of offensive and deterrent capabilities exist. One challenge that the U.S. faces is the expense of inserting satellites into orbit. With an in-space 3D printer, engineers would not need to incur the design and construction costs for developing a satellite that can survive the launch into orbit. Instead, they could just create the best design for their application and the in-space 3D printer could print and deploy it in orbit. This paper considers the foregoing and other uses for a 3D printer in space that advance national security.

  14. Development of a physical 3D anthropomorphic breast phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Carton, Ann-Katherine; Bakic, Predrag; Ullberg, Christer; Derand, Helen; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Develop a technique to fabricate a 3D anthropomorphic breast phantom with known ground truth for image quality assessment of 2D and 3D breast x-ray imaging systems. Methods: The phantom design is based on an existing computer model that can generate breast voxel phantoms of varying composition, size, and shape. The physical phantom is produced in two steps. First, the portion of the voxel phantom consisting of the glandular tissue, skin, and Cooper's ligaments is separated into sections. These sections are then fabricated by high-resolution rapid prototyping using a single material with 50% glandular equivalence. The remaining adipose compartments are then filled using an epoxy-based resin (EBR) with 100% adipose equivalence. The phantom sections are stacked to form the physical anthropomorphic phantom. Results: The authors fabricated a prototype phantom corresponding to a 450 ml breast with 45% dense tissue, deformed to a 5 cm compressed thickness. Both the rapid prototype (RP) and EBR phantom materials are radiographically uniform. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the relative attenuation between RP and EBR phantom samples was <1% and the CoV of the signal intensity within RP and EBR phantom samples was <1.5% on average. Digital mammography and reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis images of the authors' phantom were reviewed by two radiologists; they reported that the images are similar in appearance to clinical images, noting there are still artifacts from air bubbles in the EBR. Conclusions: The authors have developed a technique to produce 3D anthropomorphic breast phantoms with known ground truth, yielding highly realistic x-ray images. Such phantoms may serve both qualitative and quantitative performance assessments for 2D and 3D breast x-ray imaging systems.

  15. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  16. MO-A-9A-01: Innovation in Medical Physics Practice: 3D Printing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, E; Perks, J; Rasmussen, K; Bakic, P

    2014-06-15

    3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, has great potential to advance the field of medicine. Many medical uses have been exhibited from facial reconstruction to the repair of pulmonary obstructions. The strength of 3D printing is to quickly convert a 3D computer model into a physical object. Medical use of 3D models is already ubiquitous with technologies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus tailoring 3D printing technology to medical functions has the potential to impact patient care. This session will discuss applications to the field of Medical Physics. Topics discussed will include introduction to 3D printing methods as well as examples of real-world uses of 3D printing spanning clinical and research practice in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. The session will also compare 3D printing to other manufacturing processes and discuss a variety of uses of 3D printing technology outside the field of Medical Physics. Learning Objectives: Understand the technologies available for 3D Printing Understand methods to generate 3D models Identify the benefits and drawbacks to rapid prototyping / 3D Printing Understand the potential issues related to clinical use of 3D Printing.

  17. Three-Dimensional (3D) Additive Construction: Printing with Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing is a new and booming topic in many realms of research and engineering technology. When it comes to space science and aerospace engineering, it can be useful in numerous ways. As humans travel deeper into space and farther from Earth, sending large quantities of needed supplies from Earth for a mission becomes astronomically expensive and less plausible. In order to reach further to new places, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), a project that pushes for technologies to use materials already present in the destination's environment, is necessary. By using materials already available in space such as regolith from the Moon, Mars, or an asteroid's surface, fewer materials need to be brought into space on a launched vehicle. This allows a vehicle to be filled with more necessary supplies for a deep space mission that may not be found in space, like food and fuel. This project's main objective was to develop a 3D printer that uses regolith to "print" large structures, such as a dome, to be used as a heat shield upon a vehicle's reentry into the atmosphere or even a habitat. 3D printing is a growing technology that uses many different methods to mix, heat, and mold a material into a specific shape. In order to heat the regolith enough to stick together into a solid shape, it must be sintered at each layer of material that is laid. Sintering is a process that heats and compresses a powdered material until it fuses into a solid, which requires a lot of energy input. As an alternative, a polymer can be mixed with the regolith before or as it is sent to the 3D printer head to be placed in the specific shape. The addition of the polymer, which melts and binds at much lower temperatures than sintering temperatures, greatly decreases the required heating temperature and energy input. The main task of the project was to identify a functional material for the printer. The first step was to find a miscible. polymer/solvent solution. This solution

  18. Reconstruction of defects of maxillary sinus wall after removal of a huge odontogenic lesion using prebended 3D titanium-mesh and CAD/CAM technique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A 63 year-old male with a huge odontogenic lesion of sinus maxillaris was treated with computer-assisted surgery. After resection of the odontogenic lesion, the sinus wall was reconstructed with a prebended 3D titanium-mesh using CAD/CAM technique. This work provides a new treatment device for maxillary reconstruction via rapid prototyping procedures. PMID:22070833

  19. 3D Printing Factors Important for the Fabrication of Polyvinylalcohol Filament-Based Tablets.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Tatsuaki; Fukushige, Kaori; Ogawa, Emi; Hayashi, Naomi; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers have been applied in many fields, including engineering and the medical sciences. In the pharmaceutical field, approval of the first 3D-printed tablet by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2015 has attracted interest in the manufacture of tablets and drugs by 3D printing techniques as a means of delivering tailor-made drugs in the future. In current study, polyvinylalcohol (PVA)-based tablets were prepared using a fused-deposition-modeling-type 3D printer and the effect of 3D printing conditions on tablet production was investigated. Curcumin, a model drug/fluorescent marker, was loaded into PVA-filament. We found that several printing parameters, such as the rate of extruding PVA (flow rate), can affect the formability of the resulting PVA-tablets. The 3D-printing temperature is controlled by heating the print nozzle and was shown to affect the color of the tablets and their curcumin content. PVA-based infilled tablets with different densities were prepared by changing the fill density as a printing parameter. Tablets with lower fill density floated in an aqueous solution and their curcumin content tended to dissolve faster. These findings will be useful in developing drug-loaded PVA-based 3D objects and other polymer-based articles prepared using fused-deposition-modeling-type 3D printers.

  20. Direct 3D printed shadow mask on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahiminejad, S.; Köhler, E.; Enoksson, P.

    2016-10-01

    A 3D printed shadow mask method is presented. The 3D printer prints ABS plastic directly on the wafer, thus avoiding gaps between the wafer and the shadow mask, and deformation during the process. The wafer together with the 3D printed shadow mask was sputtered with Ti and Au. The shadow mask was released by immersion in acetone. The sputtered patches through the shadow mask were compared to the opening of the 3D printed shadow mask and the design dimensions. The patterned Au patches were larger than the printed apertures, however they were smaller than the design widths. The mask was printed in 4 min, the cost is less than one euro cent, and the process is a low temperature process suitable for temperature sensitive components.

  1. Cardiac 3D Printing and its Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Vukicevic, Marija; Mosadegh, Bobak; Min, James K; Little, Stephen H

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is at the crossroads of printer and materials engineering, noninvasive diagnostic imaging, computer-aided design, and structural heart intervention. Cardiovascular applications of this technology development include the use of patient-specific 3D models for medical teaching, exploration of valve and vessel function, surgical and catheter-based procedural planning, and early work in designing and refining the latest innovations in percutaneous structural devices. In this review, we discuss the methods and materials being used for 3D printing today. We discuss the basic principles of clinical image segmentation, including coregistration of multiple imaging datasets to create an anatomic model of interest. With applications in congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, and surgical and catheter-based structural disease, 3D printing is a new tool that is challenging how we image, plan, and carry out cardiovascular interventions.

  2. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  3. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  4. Enablement of scientific remote sensing missions with in-space 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the capability of a 3D printer to successfully operate in-space to create structures and equipment useful in the field of scientific remote sensing. Applications of this printer involve oceanography, weather tracking, as well as space exploration sensing. The design for the 3D printer includes a parabolic array to collect and focus thermal energy. This thermal energy then be used to heat the extrusion head, allowing for the successful extrusion of the print material. Print material can range from plastics to metals, with the hope of being able to extrude aluminum for its low-mass structural integrity and its conductive properties. The printer will be able to print structures as well as electrical components. The current process of creating and launching a remote sensor into space is constrained by many factors such as gravity on earth, the forces of launch, the size of the launch vehicle, and the number of available launches. The design intent of the in-space 3D printer is to ease or eliminate these constraints, making space-based scientific remote sensors a more readily available resource.

  5. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  6. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  7. Inexpensive, rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices using overhead transparencies and a laser print, cut and laminate fabrication method.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brandon L; Ouyang, Yiwen; Duarte, Gabriela R M; Carrilho, Emanuel; Krauss, Shannon T; Landers, James P

    2015-06-01

    We describe a technique for fabricating microfluidic devices with complex multilayer architectures using a laser printer, a CO2 laser cutter, an office laminator and common overhead transparencies as a printable substrate via a laser print, cut and laminate (PCL) methodology. The printer toner serves three functions: (i) it defines the microfluidic architecture, which is printed on the overhead transparencies; (ii) it acts as the adhesive agent for the bonding of multiple transparency layers; and (iii) it provides, in its unmodified state, printable, hydrophobic 'valves' for fluidic flow control. By using common graphics software, e.g., CorelDRAW or AutoCAD, the protocol produces microfluidic devices with a design-to-device time of ∼40 min. Devices of any shape can be generated for an array of multistep assays, with colorimetric detection of molecular species ranging from small molecules to proteins. Channels with varying depths can be formed using multiple transparency layers in which a CO2 laser is used to remove the polyester from the channel sections of the internal layers. The simplicity of the protocol, availability of the equipment and substrate and cost-effective nature of the process make microfluidic devices available to those who might benefit most from expedited, microscale chemistry.

  8. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room. 221.550 Section 221.550 Aeronautics and Space... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in...

  9. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room. 221.550 Section 221.550 Aeronautics and Space... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in...

  10. A user-centered model for web site design: needs assessment, user interface design, and rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, Mable B; Cohn, Wendy F; Julian, Marti F; Knaus, William A

    2002-01-01

    As the Internet continues to grow as a delivery medium for health information, the design of effective Web sites becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of one effective model for Web site design, a user-centered process that includes techniques for needs assessment, goal/task analysis, user interface design, and rapid prototyping. They detail how this approach was employed to design a family health history Web site, Health Heritage . This Web site helps patients record and maintain their family health histories in a secure, confidential manner. It also supports primary care physicians through analysis of health histories, identification of potential risks, and provision of health care recommendations. Visual examples of the design process are provided to show how the use of this model resulted in an easy-to-use Web site that is likely to meet user needs. The model is effective across diverse content arenas and is appropriate for applications in varied media.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of a rapid prototyped tissue engineering scaffold with embedded multicomponent matrix for controlled drug release

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Muwan; Le, Dang QS; Hein, San; Li, Pengcheng; Nygaard, Jens V; Kassem, Moustapha; Kjems, Jørgen; Besenbacher, Flemming; Bünger, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering implants with sustained local drug delivery provide an opportunity for better postoperative care for bone tumor patients because these implants offer sustained drug release at the tumor site and reduce systemic side effects. A rapid prototyped macroporous polycaprolactone scaffold was embedded with a porous matrix composed of chitosan, nanoclay, and β-tricalcium phosphate by freeze-drying. This composite scaffold was evaluated on its ability to deliver an anthracycline antibiotic and to promote formation of mineralized matrix in vitro. Scanning electronic microscopy, confocal imaging, and DNA quantification confirmed that immortalized human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT) cultured in the scaffold showed high cell viability and growth, and good cell infiltration to the pores of the scaffold. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin staining showed that the scaffold was osteoinductive. The drug-release kinetics was investigated by loading doxorubicin into the scaffold. The scaffolds comprising nanoclay released up to 45% of the drug for up to 2 months, while the scaffold without nanoclay released 95% of the drug within 4 days. Therefore, this scaffold can fulfill the requirements for both bone tissue engineering and local sustained release of an anticancer drug in vitro. These results suggest that the scaffold can be used clinically in reconstructive surgery after bone tumor resection. Moreover, by changing the composition and amount of individual components, the scaffold can find application in other tissue engineering areas that need local sustained release of drug. PMID:22904634

  12. Application of the rapid prototyping technique to design a customized temporomandibular joint used to treat temporomandibular ankylosis

    PubMed Central

    Chaware, Suresh M.; Bagaria, Vaibhav; Kuthe, Abhay

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometric variations in humans make it difficult to replace a temporomandibular joint (TMJ), successfully using a standard “one-size-fits-all” prosthesis. The case report presents a unique concept of total TMJ replacement with customized and modified TMJ prosthesis, which is cost-effective and provides the best fit for the patient. The process involved in designing and modifications over the existing prosthesis are also described. A 12-year- old female who presented for treatment of left unilateral TMJ ankylosis underwent the surgery for total TMJ replacement. A three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scan suggested features of bony ankylosis of left TMJ. CT images were converted to a sterolithographic model using CAD software and a rapid prototyping machine. A process of rapid manufacturing was then used to manufacture the customized prosthesis. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, with an improvement in mouth opening of 3.5 cm and painless jaw movements. Three years postsurgery, the patient is pain-free, has a mouth opening of about 4.0 cm and enjoys a normal diet. The postoperative radiographs concur with the excellent clinical results. The use of CAD/CAM technique to design the custom-made prosthesis, using orthopaedically proven structural materials, significantly improves the predictability and success rates of TMJ replacement surgery. PMID:19881026

  13. US Air Force Space Weather Products Rapid Prototyping Efforts - Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects and Meteor Effects Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2001-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) has joined efforts with the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC Det 11/CIT) to rapidly transition space weather research into prototype, operational, system-impact products. These Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) products are used to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. A summary of RPC activity is provided. Emphasis will be placed on current products under development, to include Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects (SoRBE) and Meteor Effects (ME) products. These will be added to real-time operations in the near future. SoRBE specifies the detrimental interference effects of background and event-level solar radio output on radar observations and satellite communications. ME will provide general meteor shower "nowcast" and forecast information, along with more specific meteor and meteor shower impact, radar clutter, and bolide (exploding meteor) effects. A brief overview of recently delivered products: Radar Auroral Clutter, Satellite Scintillation, HF Illumination, and GPS Single-Frequency Error Maps will also be provided.

  14. Comparison of Conventional Methods and Laser-Assisted Rapid Prototyping for Manufacturing Fixed Dental Prostheses: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; De Angelis, Francesca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Annibali, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether there are differences in marginal fit between laser-fusion and conventional techniques to produce fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). A master steel die with 2 abutments was produced to receive a posterior 4-unit FDPs and single copings. These experimental models were divided into three groups (n = 20/group) manufactured: group 1, Ni-Cr alloy, with a lost-wax casting technique; group 2, Co-Cr alloy, with selective laser melting (SLM); and group 3, yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), with a milling system. All specimens were cut along the longitudinal axis and their adaptation was measured at the marginal and shoulder areas on the right and left sides of each abutment. Measurements were made using a stereomicroscope (×60 magnification) and a scanning electron microscope (×800 magnification). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test, with a significance cutoff of 5%. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between group 3 and the other groups. The marginal opening was smallest with Co-Cr alloy substructures, while the shoulder opening was smallest with Ni-Cr alloy substructures. Within the limitations of this study, the marginal fit of an FDP is better with rapid prototyping (RP) via SLM than conventional manufacturing systems.

  15. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  16. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Christine M; Adams-McGavin, Robert C; Fung, Barnabas C; Mahoney, Eric J; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-02-13

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  17. Comparison of Conventional Methods and Laser-Assisted Rapid Prototyping for Manufacturing Fixed Dental Prostheses: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; De Angelis, Francesca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Annibali, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether there are differences in marginal fit between laser-fusion and conventional techniques to produce fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). A master steel die with 2 abutments was produced to receive a posterior 4-unit FDPs and single copings. These experimental models were divided into three groups (n = 20/group) manufactured: group 1, Ni-Cr alloy, with a lost-wax casting technique; group 2, Co-Cr alloy, with selective laser melting (SLM); and group 3, yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), with a milling system. All specimens were cut along the longitudinal axis and their adaptation was measured at the marginal and shoulder areas on the right and left sides of each abutment. Measurements were made using a stereomicroscope (×60 magnification) and a scanning electron microscope (×800 magnification). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test, with a significance cutoff of 5%. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between group 3 and the other groups. The marginal opening was smallest with Co-Cr alloy substructures, while the shoulder opening was smallest with Ni-Cr alloy substructures. Within the limitations of this study, the marginal fit of an FDP is better with rapid prototyping (RP) via SLM than conventional manufacturing systems. PMID:26576419

  18. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling

    PubMed Central

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal. PMID:28211898

  19. A Methodology for Rapid Prototyping Peak-Constrained Least-Squares Bit-Serial Finite Impulse Response Filters in FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreira, Alex; Fox, Trevor W.; Turner, Laurence E.

    2003-12-01

    Area-efficient peak-constrained least-squares (PCLS) bit-serial finite impulse response (FIR) filter implementations can be rapidly prototyped in field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) with the methodology presented in this paper. Faster generation of the FPGA configuration bitstream is possible with a new application-specific mapping and placement method that uses JBits to avoid conventional general-purpose mapping and placement tools. JBits is a set of Java classes that provide an interface into the Xilinx Virtex FPGA configuration bitstream, allowing the user to generate new configuration bitstreams. PCLS coefficient generation allows passband-to-stopband energy ratio (PSR) performance to be traded for a reduction in the filter's hardware cost without altering the minimum stopband attenuation. Fixed-point coefficients that meet the frequency response and hardware cost specifications can be generated with the PCLS method. It is not possible to meet these specifications solely by the quantization of floating-point coefficients generated in other methods.

  20. A comparative study of wire feeding and powder feeding in direct diode laser deposition for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Waheed Ul Haq; Pinkerton, Andrew J.; Li, Lin

    2005-07-01

    Metal powder feeding has been used widely in various rapid prototyping and tooling processes such as direct laser deposition (DLD) and layered engineered net shaping (LENS) to achieve near net shape accuracy. Although powder recycling has been practiced, the material usage efficiency has been very low (normally below 30%). This study compares the process characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of wire- and powder-feed DLD. A 1.5 kW diode laser is used to build multiple layer parts, which are compared and analysed in terms of surface finish, microstructure and deposition efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy are used for the material characterisation. The microstructure of samples from both the methods is similar, with some porosity found in powder-feed components, but the surface finish and material usage efficiency is better for wire-feed samples. The deposition angle is found to be critical in the case of wire feeding and the characteristics of different feed angles are explored. Possible reasons for the different characteristics of the two deposition techniques are discussed.

  1. Deep Proton Writing for the rapid prototyping of polymer micro-components for optical interconnects and optofluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Ottevaere, Heidi; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2013-07-01

    The use of photonics in data communication and numerous other industrial applications brought plenty of prospects for innovation and opened up different unexplored market opportunities. This is a major driving force for the fabrication of micro-optical and micro-mechanical structures and their accurate alignment and integration into opto-mechanical modules and systems. To this end, we present Deep Proton Writing (DPW) as a powerful rapid prototyping technology for such micro-components. The DPW process consists of bombarding polymer samples (PMMA or SU-8) with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high-quality micro-optical components. One of the strengths of the DPW micro-fabrication technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we comment on how we shifted from using 8.3 to 16.5 MeV protons for DPW and give some examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components recently fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in optofluidics.

  2. The Influence of Depth of Cut, Feed Rate, and Step-over on Dimensional Accuracy in Subtractive Rapid Prototyping of Polycarbonate Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suteja, T. J.

    2017-03-01

    Subtractive rapid prototyping is fast and automatic three dimensions physical modelling that uses computer aided design model as the input. The dimensional accuracy of the result of the subtractive rapid prototyping is influenced by its process parameters. The aim of this research is to study and then develop a model that shows the influence of depth of cut, feed rate, and step-over on the vertical length error, horizontal length error, and depth error in subtractive rapid prototyping of polycarbonate material. This research implements response surface methodology to develop the model and then followed by the residual tests to evaluate the developed model. The result shows that the increase of the feed rate and the step-over will increase the horizontal dimension error. The most influenced factor on the horizontal dimension error is the step-over. Meanwhile, the vertical dimension error will be affected mostly by the step-over. Last, the depth error is influenced by the feed rate, the step-over, and the depth of cut. The depth of cut is the most critical factor that increases the depth error. The developed models give an insight on how several process parameters of rapid prototyping will influence the dimensional accuracy of a polycarbonate material. Based on the model, efficient resources utilization can be achieved.

  3. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  4. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  5. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct.

  6. Characterization of 3D-printed IPMC actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrico, James D.; Erickson, John M.; Leang, Kam K.

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) fused filament additive manufacturing (AM) technique (3D printing) is described for creating ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) actuators. The 3D printing technique addresses some of the limitations of existing manufacturing processes for creating IPMCs, which includes limited shapes and sizes and time-consuming steps. In this paper, the 3D printing process is described in detail, where first a precursor material (non-acid Nafion precursor resin) is extruded into a thermoplastic filament for 3D printing. A custom designed 3D printer is described which utilizes the filament to manufacture custom-shaped IPMC actuators. The 3D printed samples are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide and dimethyl sulfoxide, followed by application of platinum electrodes. The performance of 3D-printed IPMC actuators with different infill patterns are characterized. Specifically, experimental results are presented for electrode resistance, actuation performance, and overall effective actuator stiffness for samples with longitudinal (0 degrees) and transverse (90 degrees) infill pattern.

  7. Comparing 3D virtual methods for hemimandibular body reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Fiorenza, Luca; Kozakowski, Stephanie; Kullmer, Ottmar

    2011-07-01

    Reconstruction of fractured, distorted, or missing parts in human skeleton presents an equal challenge in the fields of paleoanthropology, bioarcheology, forensics, and medicine. This is particularly important within the disciplines such as orthodontics and surgery, when dealing with mandibular defects due to tumors, developmental abnormalities, or trauma. In such cases, proper restorations of both form (for esthetic purposes) and function (restoration of articulation, occlusion, and mastication) are required. Several digital approaches based on three-dimensional (3D) digital modeling, computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing techniques, and more recently geometric morphometric methods have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, comparisons among their outcomes are rarely provided. In this contribution, three methods for hemimandibular body reconstruction have been tested. Two bone defects were virtually simulated in a 3D digital model of a human hemimandible. Accordingly, 3D digital scaffolds were obtained using the mirror copy of the unaffected hemimandible (Method 1), the thin plate spline (TPS) interpolation (Method 2), and the combination between TPS and CAD techniques (Method 3). The mirror copy of the unaffected hemimandible does not provide a suitable solution for bone restoration. The combination between TPS interpolation and CAD techniques (Method 3) produces an almost perfect-fitting 3D digital model that can be used for biocompatible custom-made scaffolds generated by rapid prototyping technologies.

  8. Robust 3D reconstruction system for human jaw modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate 3D representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate 3D information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for 3D data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid 3D model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.

  9. A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Goryachev, Maxim; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Timothy B.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals, in particular, has found a number of applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Although many techniques are used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a microwave cavity (resonant frequencies 9.9 and 11.2 GHz) 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable with the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The result is achieved even with a very large concentration of non-superconducting silicon in the alloy of 12.18%, compared with Al-6061, which has between 0.4% and 0.8%. Our results may pave the way for the possibility of 3D printing superconducting cavity configurations that are otherwise impossible to machine.

  10. Measurement of Laser Weld Temperatures for 3D Model Input

    SciTech Connect

    Dagel, Daryl; Grossetete, Grant; Maccallum, Danny O.

    2016-10-01

    Laser welding is a key joining process used extensively in the manufacture and assembly of critical components for several weapons systems. Sandia National Laboratories advances the understanding of the laser welding process through coupled experimentation and modeling. This report summarizes the experimental portion of the research program, which focused on measuring temperatures and thermal history of laser welds on steel plates. To increase confidence in measurement accuracy, researchers utilized multiple complementary techniques to acquire temperatures during laser welding. This data serves as input to and validation of 3D laser welding models aimed at predicting microstructure and the formation of defects and their impact on weld-joint reliability, a crucial step in rapid prototyping of weapons components.

  11. Development of three-axis inkjet printer for gear sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iba, Daisuke; Rodriguez Lopez, Ricardo; Kamimoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Morimasa; Miura, Nanako; Iizuka, Takashi; Masuda, Arata; Moriwaki, Ichiro; Sone, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The long-term objective of our research is to develop sensor systems for detection of gear failure signs. As a very first step, this paper proposes a new method to create sensors directly printed on gears by a printer and conductive ink, and shows the printing system configuration and the procedure of sensor development. The developing printer system is a laser sintering system consisting of a laser and CNC machinery. The laser is able to synthesize micro conductive patterns, and introduced to the CNC machinery as a tool. In order to synthesize sensors on gears, we first design the micro-circuit pattern on a gear through the use of 3D-CAD, and create a program (G-code) for the CNC machinery by CAM. This paper shows initial experiments with the laser sintering process in order to obtain the optimal parameters for the laser setting. This new method proposed here may provide a new manufacturing process for mechanical parts, which have an additional functionality to detect failure, and possible improvements include creating more economical and sustainable systems.

  12. Investigation of out of plane compressive strength of 3D printed sandwich composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikshit, V.; Yap, Y. L.; Goh, G. D.; Yang, H.; Lim, J. C.; Qi, X.; Yeong, W. Y.; Wei, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the 3D printing technique was utilized to manufacture the sandwich composites. Composite filament fabrication based 3D printer was used to print the face-sheet, and inkjet 3D printer was used to print the sandwich core structure. This work aims to study the compressive failure of the sandwich structure manufactured by using these two manufacturing techniques. Two different types of core structures were investigated with the same type of face-sheet configuration. The core structures were printed using photopolymer, while the face-sheet was made using nylon/glass. The out-of-plane compressive strength of the 3D printed sandwich composite structure has been examined in accordance with ASTM standards C365/C365-M and presented in this paper.

  13. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krachunov, Sammy; Casson, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf components for the first time. This allows quick and inexpensive electrode manufacturing and opens the possibility of creating electrodes that are customized for each individual user. Our 3D printed electrodes are compared against standard wet electrodes, and the performance of the proposed electrodes is suitable for BCI applications, despite the presence of additional noise. PMID:27706094

  14. 3D-printed mechanochromic materials.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Gregory I; Larsen, Michael B; Ganter, Mark A; Storti, Duane W; Boydston, Andrew J

    2015-01-14

    We describe the preparation and characterization of photo- and mechanochromic 3D-printed structures using a commercial fused filament fabrication printer. Three spiropyran-containing poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymers were each filamentized and used to print single- and multicomponent tensile testing specimens that would be difficult, if not impossible, to prepare using traditional manufacturing techniques. It was determined that the filament production and printing process did not degrade the spiropyran units or polymer chains and that the mechanical properties of the specimens prepared with the custom filament were in good agreement with those from commercial PCL filament. In addition to printing photochromic and dual photo- and mechanochromic PCL materials, we also prepare PCL containing a spiropyran unit that is selectively activated by mechanical impetus. Multicomponent specimens containing two different responsive spiropyrans enabled selective activation of different regions within the specimen depending on the stimulus applied to the material. By taking advantage of the unique capabilities of 3D printing, we also demonstrate rapid modification of a prototype force sensor that enables the assessment of peak load by simple visual assessment of mechanochromism.

  15. 3D printed rapid disaster response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Mottern, Edward; Corley, Katrina; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2014-05-01

    Under the Department of Homeland Security-sponsored Sensor-smart Affordable Autonomous Robotic Platforms (SAARP) project, Robotic Research, LLC is developing an affordable and adaptable method to provide disaster response robots developed with 3D printer technology. The SAARP Store contains a library of robots, a developer storefront, and a user storefront. The SAARP Store allows the user to select, print, assemble, and operate the robot. In addition to the SAARP Store, two platforms are currently being developed. They use a set of common non-printed components that will allow the later design of other platforms that share non-printed components. During disasters, new challenges are faced that require customized tools or platforms. Instead of prebuilt and prepositioned supplies, a library of validated robots will be catalogued to satisfy various challenges at the scene. 3D printing components will allow these customized tools to be deployed in a fraction of the time that would normally be required. While the current system is focused on supporting disaster response personnel, this system will be expandable to a range of customers, including domestic law enforcement, the armed services, universities, and research facilities.

  16. Key elements to successful rapid prototyping and building of a Michelson interferometer for space-based sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Merritt; Cordray, David; Cronin, Shaun; Walker, Gary

    2004-02-01

    The Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is one of the sensors now under development for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) program. In order to reduce program risk and verify instrument performance rapid prototyping of the sensor and critical subsystems has been utilized. Key among these was a prototype instrument and a prototype interferometer. This prototype instrument is referred to as the EDU1 (Engineering Development Unit). A second effort was the build of a prototype interferometer as a part of an internal ITT effort. This was an uncompensated version of the CrIS interferometer. This was referred to as the Aluminum Prototype Interferometer. The idea was to move rapidly to hardware while exploring new technologies. This was built in 4 months. There were key success factors for both efforts. A set of clear cardinal requirements was established. The layout and the cardinal requirements therefore provided a conceptual overview and a basis for deriving lower level requirements. These requirements remained basically unchanged throughout the effort. Vendors were closely worked with but; key to this was the GD&T dimensions and datum"s that were established. These enabled sub systems to be independently produced and "snapped together" to produce a final assembly in a minimum time. Essentially many of the critical optical alignments were built in to the individual parts so the subsequent shiming was not required. Electronics to control the porchswing and Dynamic Alignment Mechanism were developed in existing servo control test beds and designed to be FPGA based. This allowed a high degree of flexibility. Success was also based on continuity of the key engineering leadership and effective communications between the team and a clear understanding of the technical issues by the engineering leadership team.

  17. Fluid and cell behaviors along a 3D printed alginate/gelatin/fibrin channel.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yufan; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell manipulation is available with the integration of microfluidic technology and rapid prototyping techniques. High-Fidelity (Hi-Fi) constructs hold enormous therapeutic potential for organ manufacturing and regenerative medicine. In the present paper we introduced a quasi-three-dimensional (Q3D) model with parallel biocompatible alginate/gelatin/fibrin hurdles. The behaviors of fluids and cells along the microfluidic channels with various widths were studied. Cells inside the newly designed microfluidic channels attached and grew well. Morphological changes of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D milieu were found on the printed constructs. Endothelialization occurred with the co-cultures of ADSCs and hepatocytes. This study provides insights into the interactions among fluids, cells and biomaterials, the behaviors of fluids and cells along the microfluidic channels, and the applications of Q3D techniques.

  18. Customised 3D Printing: An Innovative Training Tool for the Next Generation of Orbital Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Scawn, Richard L; Foster, Alex; Lee, Bradford W; Kikkawa, Don O; Korn, Bobby S

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is the process by which three dimensional data fields are translated into real-life physical representations. 3D printers create physical printouts using heated plastics in a layered fashion resulting in a three-dimensional object. We present a technique for creating customised, inexpensive 3D orbit models for use in orbital surgical training using 3D printing technology. These models allow trainee surgeons to perform 'wet-lab' orbital decompressions and simulate upcoming surgeries on orbital models that replicate a patient's bony anatomy. We believe this represents an innovative training tool for the next generation of orbital surgeons.

  19. The Current Role of Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Parisa; Dean, David; Skoracki, Roman; Koolen, Pieter G L; Paul, Marek A; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Lin, Samuel J

    2016-01-21

    Since the advent of three-dimensional (3D) printing in the 1980s, it is now possible to produce physical objects from digital files and create 3D objects by adding one layer at a time following a predetermined pattern. Due to the continued development of inexpensive and easy- to- use 3D printers and bioprinting, this technique has gained more momentum over time, especially in the field of medicine. This paper reviews the current and possible future application of 3D printing technology within the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  20. Three-dimensional model of the skull and the cranial bones reconstructed from CT scans designed for rapid prototyping process.

    PubMed

    Skrzat, Janusz; Spulber, Alexandru; Walocha, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of building mesh models of the human skull and the cranial bones from a series of CT-scans. With the aid of computer so ware, 3D reconstructions of the whole skull and segmented cranial bones were performed and visualized by surface rendering techniques. The article briefly discusses clinical and educational applications of 3D cranial models created using stereolitographic reproduction.

  1. A Straightforward Approach for 3D Bacterial Printing.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Benjamin A E; Schmieden, Dominik T; Meyer, Anne S

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable and personally tailored materials production is an emerging challenge to society. Living organisms can produce and pattern an extraordinarily wide range of different molecules in a sustainable way. These natural systems offer an abundant source of inspiration for the development of new environmentally friendly materials production techniques. In this paper, we describe the first steps toward the 3-dimensional printing of bacterial cultures for materials production and patterning. This methodology combines the capability of bacteria to form new materials with the reproducibility and tailored approach of 3D printing systems. For this purpose, a commercial 3D printer was modified for bacterial systems, and new alginate-based bioink chemistry was developed. Printing temperature, printhead speed, and bioink extrusion rate were all adapted and customized to maximize bacterial health and spatial resolution of printed structures. Our combination of 3D printing technology with biological systems enables a sustainable approach for the production of numerous new materials.

  2. 3D printing of natural organic materials by photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Joyce Laura; Valandro, Silvano Rodrigo; Wu, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Mettra, Bastien; Monnereau, Cyrille; Schmitt Cavalheiro, Carla Cristina; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Focsan, Monica; Lin, Chih-Lang; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2016-03-01

    In previous works, we have used two-photon induced photochemistry to fabricate 3D microstructures based on proteins, anti-bodies, and enzymes for different types of bio-applications. Among them, we can cite collagen lines to guide the movement of living cells, peptide modified GFP biosensing pads to detect Gram positive bacteria, anti-body pads to determine the type of red blood cells, and trypsin columns in a microfluidic channel to obtain a real time biochemical micro-reactor. In this paper, we report for the first time on two-photon 3D microfabrication of DNA material. We also present our preliminary results on using a commercial 3D printer based on a video projector to polymerize slicing layers of gelatine-objects.

  3. Windows Program For Driving The TDU-850 Printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Brett T.

    1995-01-01

    Program provides WYSIWYG compatibility between video display and printout. PDW is Microsoft Windows printer-driver computer program for use with Raytheon TDU-850 printer. Provides previously unavailable linkage between printer and IBM PC-compatible computers running Microsoft Windows. Enhances capabilities of Raytheon TDU-850 hardcopier by emulating all textual and graphical features normally supported by laser/ink-jet printers and makes printer compatible with any Microsoft Windows application. Also provides capabilities not found in laser/ink-jet printer drivers by providing certain Windows applications with ability to render high quality, true gray-scale photographic hardcopy on TDU-850. Written in C language.

  4. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list