Science.gov

Sample records for 3d region growing

  1. 3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, Leon

    2004-01-01

    Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.

  2. User-driven 3D mesh region targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasev, Peter; Malcolm, James; Niethammer, Marc; Kikinis, Ron; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2010-02-01

    We present a method for the fast selection of a region on a 3D mesh using geometric information. This is done using a weighted arc length minimization with a conformal factor based on the mean curvature of the 3D surface. A careful analysis of the geometric estimation process enables our geometric curve shortening to use a reliable smooth estimate of curvature and its gradient. The result is a robust way for a user to easily interact with particular regions of a 3D mesh construced from medical imaging. In this study, we focus on building a robust and semi-automatic method for extracting selected folds on the cortical surface, specifically for isolating gyri by drawing a curve along the surrounding sulci. It is desirable to make this process semi-automatic because manually drawing a curve through the complex 3D mesh is extremely tedious, while automatic methods cannot realistically be expected to select the exact closed contour a user desires for a given dataset. In the technique described here, a user places a handful of seed points surrounding the gyri of interest; an initial curve is made from these points which then evolves to capture the region. We refer to this user-driven procedure as targeting or selection interchangeably. To illustrate the applicability of these methods to other medical data, we also give an example of bone fracture CT surface parcellation.

  3. Research on animation design of growing plant based on 3D MAX technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yineng; Fang, Kui; Bu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lei, Menglong

    In view of virtual plant has practical demands on quality, image and degree of realism animation in growing process of plant, this thesis design the animation based on mechanism and regularity of plant growth, and propose the design method based on 3D MAX technology. After repeated analysis and testing, it is concluded that there are modeling, rendering, animation fabrication and other key technologies in the animation design process. Based on this, designers can subdivid the animation into seed germination animation, plant growth prophase animation, catagen animation, later animation and blossom animation. This paper compounds the animation of these five stages by VP window to realize the completed 3D animation. Experimental result shows that the animation can realized rapid, visual and realistic simulatation the plant growth process.

  4. GBS: Global 3D simulation of tokamak edge region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ben; Fisher, Dustin; Rogers, Barrett; Ricci, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    A 3D two-fluid global code, namely Global Braginskii Solver (GBS), is being developed to explore the physics of turbulent transport, confinement, self-consistent profile formation, pedestal scaling and related phenomena in the edge region of tokamaks. Aimed at solving drift-reduced Braginskii equations [1] in complex magnetic geometry, the GBS is used for turbulence simulation in SOL region. In the recent upgrade, the simulation domain is expanded into close flux region with twist-shift boundary conditions. Hence, the new GBS code is able to explore global transport physics in an annular full-torus domain from the top of the pedestal into the far SOL. We are in the process of identifying and analyzing the linear and nonlinear instabilities in the system using the new GBS code. Preliminary results will be presented and compared with other codes if possible.[4pt] [1] A. Zeiler, J. F. Drake and B. Rogers, Phys. Plasmas 4, 2134 (1997)

  5. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces

    PubMed Central

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X.

    2016-01-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young’s elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending. Kinematic analysis revealed a multiphase bio-mechanical response of elongation rate and curvature in 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils. PMID:27664958

  6. What makes active regions grow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weart, S.

    1972-01-01

    A study of magnetic flux growth or growth failure in over 100 active regions is shown to indicate that most growth is connected with the emergence of a large batch of flux in the shape of a new arch filament system (AFS). During the recent sunspot maximum, new AFSs appeared at a rate of nearly one per day over the entire sun. Evidence is presented for two proposed hypotheses, namely: (1) a twist in the flux tubes of new AFSs is a key factor in determining which new AFSs will grow; and (2) this twist is related to the well-known asymmetry of sunspot groups.

  7. Relative Scale Estimation and 3D Registration of Multi-Modal Geometry Using Growing Least Squares.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Nicolas; Dellepiane, Matteo; Scopigno, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The advent of low cost scanning devices and the improvement of multi-view stereo techniques have made the acquisition of 3D geometry ubiquitous. Data gathered from different devices, however, result in large variations in detail, scale, and coverage. Registration of such data is essential before visualizing, comparing and archiving them. However, state-of-the-art methods for geometry registration cannot be directly applied due to intrinsic differences between the models, e.g., sampling, scale, noise. In this paper we present a method for the automatic registration of multi-modal geometric data, i.e., acquired by devices with different properties (e.g., resolution, noise, data scaling). The method uses a descriptor based on Growing Least Squares, and is robust to noise, variation in sampling density, details, and enables scale-invariant matching. It allows not only the measurement of the similarity between the geometry surrounding two points, but also the estimation of their relative scale. As it is computed locally, it can be used to analyze large point clouds composed of millions of points. We implemented our approach in two registration procedures (assisted and automatic) and applied them successfully on a number of synthetic and real cases. We show that using our method, multi-modal models can be automatically registered, regardless of their differences in noise, detail, scale, and unknown relative coverage.

  8. 3D strength map of the Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebetskiy, Y. L.; Baranov, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern and Central Asia is a tectonically complex region which characterized by the great collision between the Asian and Indian plates. Its tectonic evolution is strongly related to the active subduction process along the Pacific border. Stress investigation in the continental crust is a very important problem not only for science but also for the practical purposes. There are four main factors which produce tectonic stresses: gravity anomalies of the crust, density inhomogeneities, deformation from area with intraplate collision, residual elastic deformations and underthrust stresses conditions from convective mantle. We present the stress model of the crust and lithosphere for the Central and Southern Asia on the basis of the finite element modeling. For the crust we take the elasto-plastic rheology with Drucker-Prager criterion. In the lithosphere the elasto-plastic model with von Mises criterion is assumed. We investigated stresses which are produced by the crustal density inhomogeneities and surface relief. The calculations are done using the U-WAY finite element code developed at the Institute of Applied Mechanics Russian Academy of Sciences. (similar to the Nastran program) Density inhomogeneities are based on the AsCRUST-08 crustal model (Baranov, 2008), which has resolution of 1 x 1 degree. AsCRUST-08 was built using the data of deep seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies from published papers. The complex 3D crustal model consists of three layers: upper, middle, and lower crust. Besides depth of the boundaries, we provided average P-wave velocities in the upper, middle and lower parts of the crystalline crust and sediments. The seismic P-velocity data was also recalculated to the densities and the elastic moduli of the crustal layers using the rheological properties and geological constraints. Strength parameters of rocks strongly depend on temperature, tectonic and fluid pressure. Fluid pressure can reduce resistance forces

  9. 3D Mandibular Superimposition: Comparison of Regions of Reference for Voxel-Based Registration

    PubMed Central

    Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Yatabe, Marilia Sayako; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Benavides, Erika; Nguyen, Tung; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim was to evaluate three regions of reference (Björk, Modified Björk and mandibular Body) for mandibular registration testing them in a patients’ CBCT sample. Methods Mandibular 3D volumetric label maps were built from CBCTs taken before (T1) and after treatment (T2) in a sample of 16 growing subjects and labeled with eight landmarks. Registrations of T1 and T2 images relative to the different regions of reference were performed, and 3D surface models were generated. Seven mandibular dimensions were measured separately for each time-point (T1 and T2) in relation to a stable reference structure (lingual cortical of symphysis), and the T2-T1 differences were calculated. These differences were compared to differences measured between the superimposed T2 (generated from different regions of reference: Björk, Modified Björk and Mandibular Body) over T1 surface models. ICC and the Bland-Altman method tested the agreement of the changes obtained by nonsuperimposition measurements from the patients’ sample, and changes between the overlapped surfaces after registration using the different regions of reference. Results The Björk region of reference (or mask) did work properly only in 2 of 16 patients. Evaluating the two other masks (Modified Björk and Mandibular body) on patients’ scans registration, the concordance and agreement of the changes obtained from superimpositions (registered T2 over T1) compared to results obtained from non superimposed T1 and T2 separately, indicated that Mandibular Body mask displayed more consistent results. Conclusions The mandibular body mask (mandible without teeth, alveolar bone, rami and condyles) is a reliable reference for 3D regional registration. PMID:27336366

  10. 3-D numerical simulations of a growing planet with the core formation by the impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuichi, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2011-12-01

    The formation of a metallic core is widely accepted as the biggest differentiation event during the final stage of the planetary formation [e.g. Stevenson, 1990]. The early Earth hypothesis also suggested that the core formation process would be an important for understanding the initial condition (both thermal and chemical) of mantle convection [Labrosse et al., 2007]. Although the formation process of metallic core is still not clear, it is clear that the different time-scale of dynamics in solid and liquid contribute to that. Here, we assume the scenario that the planetesimal impact induces a significant volume of melt which laterally spreads over the global (magma ocean) or regional area (magma pond) in the short crystallization time scale (~300yr) [Reese and Solomatov, 2006]. After the solidification of magma ocean/pond, hot metallic and silicate rich layers are created [e.g. Senshu et al., 2002]. Since the heavy metal rich material causes the gravitational instability in the viscous planet's interior, the planetary core would form with sinking the metallic material into the center. The silicate layer which floods from the magma pond, deforms as a viscous flow on the planetary surface due to the isostatic adjustment. A series of event on the core formation would have the time-scale of ~100 Mys at the maximum. In order to investigate the scenario described above, we developed the simulation code to solve the Stokes flow with the free surface under the self-gravitating field in 3-D, designed for the massively parallel/vector supercomputer system Earth Simulator 2(ES2) [Furuichi, 2011]. Expressing the free surface motion, a stick air layer, which is the low viscosity layer surrounding the planetary surface, is assumed [e.g. Furuichi et al, 2009]. An ill conditioned Stokes problem of the finite difference discretization on a staggered grid, is solved by iterative Stokes flow solver, robust to large viscosity jumps, using a strong Schur complement preconditioner

  11. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and 3D exaggeration algorithm for the region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Kangsan; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We aslo comments on the GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of 3D exaggeraion algorithm for ROI by adjusting and synthesizing the disparity value of ROI (region of interest) in real time. We comment on the pattern of aperture for deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and clarify the reason why we can get more sharp and clear image by blocking some portion of aperture or geometric sampling. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  12. Optical 3D Nano-fabrication: Drawing or Growing? (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Conventional nanotechnology based on the lithography and scanning probe microscopy is limited to 2D fabrication and modification. Here, I will talk about the method for 3D laser fabrication with two-photon polymerization [1], two-photon isomerization [2], and two-photon photo-reduction [3]. Self-growth technology, such as self-grown fiber structures of polymer [4] and self-grown metallic fractal metamaterials structures [5] will be also discussed. [1] S. Kawata, et. al, Nature 412, 697-698, 2001. [2] S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, Chem Rev. 88, 083110, 2006. [3] Y. -Y. Cao, et. al., Small 5, 1144-1148, 2009 [4] S. Shoji and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 737-739, 1999. [5] N. Takeyasu, N. Nishimura, S. Kawata, submitted.

  13. Effect of high magnetic field on a quasi-3D silver dendrite growing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fengzhi; Katsuki, Akio; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2006-05-01

    The Ag+/Cu liquid-solid redox reaction was investigated in a vertical and inhomogeneous high magnetic field (up to 15 T). According to a comparison between the morphologies of quasi-3D silver dendrites generated under different magnetic flux densities, the imposition of a high magnetic field strongly affected the aggregation process of the silver dendrites. The present experiment used four kinds of liquid-solid boundaries, which are affected by the reaction direction and solution condition, as bases for the diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)-like dendritic growth of silver deposition. Results are interpreted in terms of convections of the aqueous solution and a tentative quantitative analysis of forces acting on particles arising from the magnetic field. A new force is predicted theoretically and is discussed in detail.

  14. Regional 3D superimposition to assess temporomandibular joint condylar morphology

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, J; Gomes, L C R; Benavides, E; Nguyen, T; Paniagua, B; Styner, M; Boen, V; Gonçalves, J R; Cevidanes, L H S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the reliability of regional three-dimensional registration and superimposition methods for assessment of temporomandibular joint condylar morphology across subjects and longitudinally. Methods: The sample consisted of cone beam CT scans of 36 patients. The across-subject comparisons included 12 controls, mean age 41.3 ± 12.0 years, and 12 patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis, mean age 41.3 ± 14.7 years. The individual longitudinal assessments included 12 patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis, mean age 37.8 ± 16.7 years, followed up at pre-operative jaw surgery, immediately after and one-year post-operative. Surface models of all condyles were constructed from the cone beam CT scans. Two previously calibrated observers independently performed all registration methods. A landmark-based approach was used for the registration of across-subject condylar models, and temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis vs control group differences were computed with shape analysis. A voxel-based approach was used for registration of longitudinal scans calculated x, y, z degrees of freedom for translation and rotation. Two-way random intraclass correlation coefficients tested the interobserver reliability. Results: Statistically significant differences between the control group and the osteoarthritis group were consistently located on the lateral and medial poles for both observers. The interobserver differences were ≤0.2 mm. For individual longitudinal comparisons, the mean interobserver differences were ≤0.6 mm in translation errors and 1.2° in rotation errors, with excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75). Conclusions: Condylar registration for across-subjects and longitudinal assessments is reliable and can be used to quantify subtle bony differences in the three-dimensional condylar morphology. PMID:24170802

  15. Fraunhofer computer-generated hologram for diffused 3D scene in Fresnel region.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Dong, Jian-Wen; Pu, Yi-Ying; He, He-Xiang; Chen, Bing-Chu; Wang, He-Zhou; Zheng, Huadong; Yu, Yingjie

    2011-06-01

    A Fraunhofer computer-generated hologram (CGH) is proved to be valid in display for three-dimensional (3D) objects from the Fresnel to the far-field region without a Fourier lens for reconstruction. To quickly compute large and complicated 3D objects that consist of slanted diffused surfaces in the Fresnel region, a Fraunhofer-based analytical approach using a basic-triangle tiling diffuser is developed. Both theoretical and experimental results reveal that Fraunhofer CGH can perform the same effects as Fresnel CGH but require less calculation time. Impressive 3D solid effects are achieved in the Fresnel region.

  16. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Larson, Brandon G; Shaff, Jon E; Schneider, David J; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Yuan, Lixing; Clark, Randy T; Craft, Eric J; Davis, Tyler W; Pradier, Pierre-Luc; Shaw, Nathanael M; Assaranurak, Ithipong; McCouch, Susan R; Sturrock, Craig; Bennett, Malcolm; Kochian, Leon V

    2016-03-01

    A plant's ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architecture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyping software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimensional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions.

  17. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Plant Roots Growing in Soil Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Metzner, Ralf; Kochs, Johannes; Postma, Johannes A; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Bühler, Jonas; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2016-03-01

    Precise measurements of root system architecture traits are an important requirement for plant phenotyping. Most of the current methods for analyzing root growth require either artificial growing conditions (e.g. hydroponics), are severely restricted in the fraction of roots detectable (e.g. rhizotrons), or are destructive (e.g. soil coring). On the other hand, modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are noninvasive and allow high-quality three-dimensional imaging of roots in soil. Here, we present a plant root imaging and analysis pipeline using MRI together with an advanced image visualization and analysis software toolbox named NMRooting. Pots up to 117 mm in diameter and 800 mm in height can be measured with the 4.7 T MRI instrument used here. For 1.5 l pots (81 mm diameter, 300 mm high), a fully automated system was developed enabling measurement of up to 18 pots per day. The most important root traits that can be nondestructively monitored over time are root mass, length, diameter, tip number, and growth angles (in two-dimensional polar coordinates) and spatial distribution. Various validation measurements for these traits were performed, showing that roots down to a diameter range between 200 μm and 300 μm can be quantitatively measured. Root fresh weight correlates linearly with root mass determined by MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of MRI and the dedicated imaging pipeline in experimental series performed on soil-grown maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants.

  18. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Larson, Brandon G; Shaff, Jon E; Schneider, David J; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Yuan, Lixing; Clark, Randy T; Craft, Eric J; Davis, Tyler W; Pradier, Pierre-Luc; Shaw, Nathanael M; Assaranurak, Ithipong; McCouch, Susan R; Sturrock, Craig; Bennett, Malcolm; Kochian, Leon V

    2016-03-01

    A plant's ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architecture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyping software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimensional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions. PMID:26683583

  19. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Plant Roots Growing in Soil Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Metzner, Ralf; Kochs, Johannes; Postma, Johannes A; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Bühler, Jonas; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2016-03-01

    Precise measurements of root system architecture traits are an important requirement for plant phenotyping. Most of the current methods for analyzing root growth require either artificial growing conditions (e.g. hydroponics), are severely restricted in the fraction of roots detectable (e.g. rhizotrons), or are destructive (e.g. soil coring). On the other hand, modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are noninvasive and allow high-quality three-dimensional imaging of roots in soil. Here, we present a plant root imaging and analysis pipeline using MRI together with an advanced image visualization and analysis software toolbox named NMRooting. Pots up to 117 mm in diameter and 800 mm in height can be measured with the 4.7 T MRI instrument used here. For 1.5 l pots (81 mm diameter, 300 mm high), a fully automated system was developed enabling measurement of up to 18 pots per day. The most important root traits that can be nondestructively monitored over time are root mass, length, diameter, tip number, and growth angles (in two-dimensional polar coordinates) and spatial distribution. Various validation measurements for these traits were performed, showing that roots down to a diameter range between 200 μm and 300 μm can be quantitatively measured. Root fresh weight correlates linearly with root mass determined by MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of MRI and the dedicated imaging pipeline in experimental series performed on soil-grown maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants. PMID:26729797

  20. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Plant Roots Growing in Soil Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kochs, Johannes; Pflugfelder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Precise measurements of root system architecture traits are an important requirement for plant phenotyping. Most of the current methods for analyzing root growth require either artificial growing conditions (e.g. hydroponics), are severely restricted in the fraction of roots detectable (e.g. rhizotrons), or are destructive (e.g. soil coring). On the other hand, modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are noninvasive and allow high-quality three-dimensional imaging of roots in soil. Here, we present a plant root imaging and analysis pipeline using MRI together with an advanced image visualization and analysis software toolbox named NMRooting. Pots up to 117 mm in diameter and 800 mm in height can be measured with the 4.7 T MRI instrument used here. For 1.5 l pots (81 mm diameter, 300 mm high), a fully automated system was developed enabling measurement of up to 18 pots per day. The most important root traits that can be nondestructively monitored over time are root mass, length, diameter, tip number, and growth angles (in two-dimensional polar coordinates) and spatial distribution. Various validation measurements for these traits were performed, showing that roots down to a diameter range between 200 μm and 300 μm can be quantitatively measured. Root fresh weight correlates linearly with root mass determined by MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of MRI and the dedicated imaging pipeline in experimental series performed on soil-grown maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants. PMID:26729797

  1. Segmentation of elastic organs using region growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widita, R.; Kurniadi, R.; Darma, Y.; Perkasa, Y. S.; Trianti, N.

    2012-06-01

    We have been successfully developed a new software for image segmentation This software is addressed to do segmentation of elastic organs. The segmentation components used in this software is region growing algorithms which have proven to be an effective approach for image segmentation. The implementations of region growing developed here are connected threshold and neighborhood connected. The results show that the neighborhood algorithm affects the smoothness of the segmented object borders, the size of the segmented region, and reduces computing time. Our method is designed to perform with clinically acceptable speed, using accelerated techniques.

  2. The PIES2012 Code for Calculating 3D Equilibria with Islands and Stochastic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticello, Donald; Reiman, Allan; Raburn, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We have made major modifications to the PIES 3D equilibrium code to produce a new version, PIES2012. The new version uses an adaptive radial grid for calculating equilibrium currents. A subset of the flux surfaces conform closely to island separatrices, providing an accurate treatment of the effects driving the neoclassical tearing mode. There is now a set of grid surfaces that conform to the flux surfaces in the interiors of the islands, allowing the proper treatment of the current profiles in the islands, which play an important role in tearing phenomena. We have verified that we can introduce appropriate current profiles in the islands to suppress their growth, allowing us to simulate situations where islands are allowed to grow at some rational surfaces but not others. Placement of grid surfaces between islands is guided by the locations of high order fixed points, allowing us to avoid spectral polution and providing a more robust, and smoother convergence of the code. The code now has an option for turning on a vertical magnetic field to fix the position of the magnetic axis, which models the horizontal feedback positioning of a tokamak plasma. The code has a new option for using a Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov scheme for convergence. The code now also contains a model that properly handles stochastic regions with nonzero pressure gradients. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. 3D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion: A case study from the Musgrave Region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, L. H.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Sunwall, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysicists know and accept that geology is inherently 3D, and is resultant from complex, overlapping processes related to genesis, metamorphism, deformation, alteration, weathering, and/or hydrogeology. Yet, the geophysics community has long relied on qualitative analysis, conductivity depth imaging (CDIs), 1D inversion, and/or plate modeling. There are many reasons for this deficiency, not the least of which has been the lack of capacity for historic 3D AEM inversion algorithms to invert entire surveys so as to practically affect exploration decisions. Our recent introduction of a moving sensitivity domain (footprint) methodology has been a paradigm shift in AEM interpretation. The basis of this method is that one needs only to calculate the responses and sensitivities for that part of the 3D earth model that is within the AEM system's sensitivity domain (footprint), and then superimpose all sensitivity domains into a single, sparse sensitivity matrix for the entire 3D earth model which is then updated in a regularized inversion scheme. This has made it practical to rigorously invert entire surveys with thousands of line kilometers of AEM data to mega-cell 3D models in hours using multi-processor workstations. Since 2010, over eighty individual projects have been completed for Aerodat, AEROTEM, DIGHEM, GEOTEM, HELITEM, HoisTEM, MEGATEM, RepTEM, RESOLVE, SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPEST, and VTEM data from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, the US, and Zambia. Examples of 3D AEM inversion have been published for a variety of applications, including mineral exploration, oil sands exploration, salinity, permafrost, and bathymetry mapping. In this paper, we present a comparison of 3D inversions for SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPET and VTEM data acquired over the same area in the Musgrave region of South Australia for exploration under cover.

  4. Parallelized Seeded Region Growing Using CUDA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests. PMID:25309619

  5. Parallelized seeded region growing using CUDA.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Shin, Juneseuk; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  6. Thin 3D multiplication regions in plasmonically enhanced nanopillar avalanche detectors.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Farrell, Alan; Ramirez, David A; Shapiro, Joshua; Li, Chi-Kang; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Hayat, Majeed M; Huffaker, Diana L

    2012-12-12

    We demonstrate a nanopillar (NP) device structure for implementing plasmonically enhanced avalanche photodetector arrays with thin avalanche volumes (∼ 310 nm × 150 nm × 150 nm). A localized 3D electric field due to a core-shell PN junction in a NP acts as a multiplication region, while efficient light absorption takes place via surface plasmon polariton Bloch wave (SPP-BW) modes due to a self-aligned metal nanohole lattice. Avalanche gains of ∼216 at 730 nm at -12 V are obtained. We show through capacitance-voltage characterization, temperature-dependent breakdown measurements, and detailed device modeling that the avalanche region is on the order of the ionization path length, such that dead-space effects become significant. This work presents a clear path toward engineering dead space effects in thin 3D-confined multiplication regions for high performance avalanche detectors for applications in telecommunications, sensing and single photon detection.

  7. Exome-Scale Discovery of Hotspot Mutation Regions in Human Cancer Using 3D Protein Structure.

    PubMed

    Tokheim, Collin; Bhattacharya, Rohit; Niknafs, Noushin; Gygax, Derek M; Kim, Rick; Ryan, Michael; Masica, David L; Karchin, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    The impact of somatic missense mutation on cancer etiology and progression is often difficult to interpret. One common approach for assessing the contribution of missense mutations in carcinogenesis is to identify genes mutated with statistically nonrandom frequencies. Even given the large number of sequenced cancer samples currently available, this approach remains underpowered to detect drivers, particularly in less studied cancer types. Alternative statistical and bioinformatic approaches are needed. One approach to increase power is to focus on localized regions of increased missense mutation density or hotspot regions, rather than a whole gene or protein domain. Detecting missense mutation hotspot regions in three-dimensional (3D) protein structure may also be beneficial because linear sequence alone does not fully describe the biologically relevant organization of codons. Here, we present a novel and statistically rigorous algorithm for detecting missense mutation hotspot regions in 3D protein structures. We analyzed approximately 3 × 10(5) mutations from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and identified 216 tumor-type-specific hotspot regions. In addition to experimentally determined protein structures, we considered high-quality structural models, which increase genomic coverage from approximately 5,000 to more than 15,000 genes. We provide new evidence that 3D mutation analysis has unique advantages. It enables discovery of hotspot regions in many more genes than previously shown and increases sensitivity to hotspot regions in tumor suppressor genes (TSG). Although hotspot regions have long been known to exist in both TSGs and oncogenes, we provide the first report that they have different characteristic properties in the two types of driver genes. We show how cancer researchers can use our results to link 3D protein structure and the biologic functions of missense mutations in cancer, and to generate testable hypotheses about driver mechanisms. Our results

  8. Ground motion simulations in Marmara (Turkey) region from 3D finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aochi, Hideo; Ulrich, Thomas; Douglas, John

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the European project MARSite (2012-2016), one of the main contributions from our research team was to provide ground-motion simulations for the Marmara region from various earthquake source scenarios. We adopted a 3D finite difference code, taking into account the 3D structure around the Sea of Marmara (including the bathymetry) and the sea layer. We simulated two moderate earthquakes (about Mw4.5) and found that the 3D structure improves significantly the waveforms compared to the 1D layer model. Simulations were carried out for different earthquakes (moderate point sources and large finite sources) in order to provide shake maps (Aochi and Ulrich, BSSA, 2015), to study the variability of ground-motion parameters (Douglas & Aochi, BSSA, 2016) as well as to provide synthetic seismograms for the blind inversion tests (Diao et al., GJI, 2016). The results are also planned to be integrated in broadband ground-motion simulations, tsunamis generation and simulations of triggered landslides (in progress by different partners). The simulations are freely shared among the partners via the internet and the visualization of the results is diffused on the project's homepage. All these simulations should be seen as a reference for this region, as they are based on the latest knowledge that obtained during the MARSite project, although their refinement and validation of the model parameters and the simulations are a continuing research task relying on continuing observations. The numerical code used, the models and the simulations are available on demand.

  9. Análisis DEM 3D de arcos en regiones activas solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuevo, F. A.; Mandrini, C. H.; Vásquez, A. M.; López Fuentes, M.

    2016-08-01

    The solar corona is highly organized by the magnetic field. Because of their temperature and density, magnetic loops are directly observable in active regions (ARs) in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray images. The observational determination of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of basic physical parameters (electronic density and temperature, and magnetic field) is a fundamental constraint of coronal heating models. In this work we develop a technique of differential emission measure (DEM) analysis and we apply it an EUV loop identified in the images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The DEM is determined after background subtraction and the electronic density and temperature in the loop are estimated from its moments. The 3D structure of the magnetic field in the loop and its intensity are modeled using linear force free field extrapolations based on AR magnetograms. In this work we show preliminary results of this technique.

  10. 3D CT Imaging for Craniofacial Analysis Based on Anatomical Regions.

    PubMed

    Wan Harun, W A R; Ahmad Rajion, Zainul; Abdul Aziz, Izhar; Rani Samsudin, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The development of a craniofacial database is a multidisciplinary initiative that will provide an important reference for community, security, social and medical applications. A method of landmark identifications and measurements in 3d on craniofacial patients is described. anatomical regions such as mandible, orbits, zygoma and maxilla are located, created and stored as templates of 3D CAD files for subsequent analysis. Data from these images were tested for accuracy and repeatability by comparing with direct measurements using caliper and CMM. The landmark points are reproducible in CAD system for further analysis. it was found that the approach provides a fast, accurate and efficient method for landmarks identification of the craniofacial areas in database development. PMID:17282309

  11. Observationally driven 3D magnetohydrodynamics model of the solar corona above an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Ph.-A.; Bingert, S.; Peter, H.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Aims: The goal is to employ a 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model including spectral synthesis to model the corona in an observed solar active region. This will allow us to judge the merits of the coronal heating mechanism built into the 3D model. Methods: Photospheric observations of the magnetic field and horizontal velocities in an active region are used to drive our coronal simulation from the bottom. The currents induced by this heat the corona through Ohmic dissipation. Heat conduction redistributes the energy that is lost in the end through optically thin radiation. Based on the MHD model, we synthesized profiles of coronal emission lines which can be directly compared to actual coronal observations of the very same active region. Results: In the synthesized model data we find hot coronal loops which host siphon flows or which expand and lose mass through draining. These synthesized loops are at the same location as and show similar dynamics in terms of Doppler shifts to the observed structures. This match is shown through a comparison with Hinode data as well as with 3D stereoscopic reconstructions of data from STEREO. Conclusions: The considerable match to the actual observations shows that the field-line braiding mechanism leading to the energy input in our corona provides the proper distribution of heat input in space and time. From this we conclude that in an active region the field-line braiding is the dominant heating process, at least at the spatial scales available to current observations. Parameters and simulation log-files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A123

  12. 3D Model of Slip-Running Reconnection on Solar Sigmoidal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, B.; Savcheva, A. S.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    The structure of energy storing magnetic field lines on the Sun is very twisted and contorted. Some of the twist arises from photospheric foot point motion and some is due to currents carried into the corona as fields emerge. The stability of a region depends on both the energy stored (so-called "free" energy) and on the structure of the surrounding nearly potential fields. Free energy is usually contained in these S-shaped regions called sigmoids on the solar corona. The only way to reach lower energy state is to release this free energy, by changing its connectivity. This change in connectivity leads to flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that can affect environments of nearby planets. For this project, we focus on a special kind of connectivity change called slip-running reconnection to create 3D numerical models of flare-producing magnetic fields. By comparing these numerical models to observational data from Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), we will be able to better explain the evolution of sigmoidal flares from active regions. We are studying a flare from Dudik et al 2014 paper (2012 July 12), and a flare from 2015 June 14. Using the Coronal Modeling System (CMS) software, we read the photospheric magnetogram for the specified date and time, compute the potential field, setup the 3D flux rope path, and then relax this flux rope over 60,000 iterations to create a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF). Using these relaxed models we find the best-fit loops surrounding the flux rope. We then compare these models to the observations in AIA. We compare the magnetic field structure in our models with the observed slipping. For regions near our inserted flux rope, our models successfully correlate with this observation. Further modeling is required, but these initial results suggest that NLFFF modeling may be able to capture realistic 3-D magnetic structures associated with slipping reconnection.

  13. FlySanDiego: a web-aware 3D interactive regional information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, David S.; Bailey, Michael J.

    2002-03-01

    Communication of regional geographic information to the population as a whole should be a municipal priority, but sadly it is not. From traffic patterns to weather information to emergency information to proposed highways, a city or county has, in electronic form, all of this useful information and more. With the ubiquity of web browsers and the arrival of online 3D graphics technologies such as VRML and Java 3D,this information could and should be made available. By using Java andJava3D, the rendering power of an OpenGL-type application can be combined with multithreading, allowing a program to invisibly access data sets from Internet sites with dedicated threads while processing user interaction with another. Any type of relevant data can be transformed into a three-dimensional interpretation and mapped over the terrain that the user is analyzing. This prototype is designed to be extremely extensible and expandable in order to accommodate future revisions and/or portability. This paper discusses the issues surrounding the creation of such a model, along with challenges, problems, and solutions.

  14. Population of the three major exit channels in the 3d resonance region of atomic gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, M.O.; Cerrina, F.; Fahlman, A.

    1983-04-11

    The exit channels in the region of the 3d..-->..4p resonance of atomic gallium were determined in a photoemission experiment. The population of the three major channels involving 4p and 4s electrons was measured by the constant-ionic-state method for twenty resonant states between 18.8 and 21.7 eV, and the angular distribution of the emitted electrons was obtained. As a result, an autoionization case in which many resonances and many continua are coupled has been characterized in the most comprehensive experiment to date.

  15. Centroid Moment Tensor Inversion in a 3D heterogeneous Earth: Application to the Australasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejrani, B.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Australia is surrounded by active complex tectonic belts causing significant seismicity. The recent expansion of permanent seismic networks in the Australasian region provides great opportunity to study Earth structure and a great variety of physical mechanisms responsible for earthquakes.On one hand, a better understanding of the Australasian lithosphere, which is now available through tomographic images from full waveform modelling (Fichtner et al. 2010), provides a powerful tool to scrutinize the determination of earthquake source parameters. Even at relatively long periods (40-200s), the 3D effects of regional structure were shown to significantly alter the global centroid moment tensor solutions (Hingee et al. 2012). Thus, we can now explore other types of uncertainties and test the accuracy of global centroid moment tensor (GCMT) solution for the earthquakes in the Australasian region while checking for the systematic inconsistencies in the solutions. This has a significant bearing on tectonic interpretations. For example, azimuth and plunge of fault planes can be investigated in search for systematic biases.On the other hand, the time has come to take a full advantage of the 3D Earth structural model and embrace ongoing advances in computational power and storage. We develop a semi-automated procedure to calculate the Centroid Moment Tensors in a 3D heterogeneous Earth. We utilize the reciprocity theorem to create Green's functions for point sources covering seismogenic zones of Australasia. We focus on improving the capacity of the method to fully complement the existing monitoring tools at Geosciences Australia. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of detailed velocity structure on Centroid location and double-couple percentages. Moreover Azimuth and Plunge of focal mechanisms in GCMT (Global CMT), were investigated in search for any systematic bias.References: Fichtner, A., Kennett, B.L.N., Igel, H., Bunge, H.-P., 2010. Full waveform tomography for

  16. Coronal heating above active regions - 3D MHD model versus multi-spacecraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Philippe-A.; Bingert, Sven; Peter, Hardi

    2014-05-01

    The plasma heating mechanism in the Solar corona is a puzzle since decades. Today high-performance computing together with multi-spacecraft observations offer new insights. We conducted a high-resolution simulation of the corona above an active region and compare synthetic emission deduced from the model with co-temporal observations. Photospheric observations act as a boundary condition for our model that drives magnetic-field braiding by advection and generates a net upwards Poynting flux. In particular, we do not only get a sufficient energy input to the base of the corona, but we also reproduce the observed coronal loops: the 3D structure of the hot AR loops system in the model compares well to joint STEREO-A/-B and Hinode observations. The plasma flows along these loops are similar to observed Doppler maps. Draining and siphon flows along magnetic structures at different temperatures offer a new alternative explanation for the average Doppler red-shifts in the transition region and coronal blue-shifts. This match between model and observations indicates a realistic distribution of the coronal heating in time and space and shows that our 3D MHD model of the corona captures the relevant processes involved.

  17. Scaling laws of coronal loops compared to a 3D MHD model of an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Ph.-A.; Bingert, S.; Peter, H.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The structure and heating of coronal loops have been investigated for decades. Established scaling laws relate fundamental quantities like the loop apex temperature, pressure, length, and coronal heating. Aims: We test these scaling laws against a large-scale 3D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) model of the solar corona, which became feasible with current high-performance computing. Methods: We drove an active region simulation with photospheric observations and find strong similarities to the observed coronal loops in X-rays and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength. A 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic observations shows that our model loops have a realistic spatial structure. We compared scaling laws to our model data extracted along an ensemble of field lines. Finally, we fit a new scaling law that represents hot loops and also cooler structures, which was not possible before based only on observations. Results: Our model data gives some support for scaling laws that were established for hot and EUV-emissive coronal loops. For the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law we find an offset to our model data, which can be explained by 1D considerations of a static loop with a constant heat input and conduction. With a fit to our model data we set up a new scaling law for the coronal heat input along magnetic field lines. Conclusions: RTV-like scaling laws were fitted to hot loops and therefore do not predict well the coronal heat input for cooler structures that are barely observable. The basic differences between 1D and self-consistent 3D modeling account for deviations between earlier scaling laws and ours. We also conclude that a heating mechanism by MHD-turbulent dissipation within a braided flux tube would heat the corona stronger than is consistent with our model corona.

  18. Automated scheme for measuring polyp volume in CT colonography using Hessian matrix-based shape extraction and 3D volume growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Epstein, Mark L.; Xu, Jianwu; Obara, Piotr; Rockey, Don C.; Dachman, Abraham H.

    2010-03-01

    Current measurement of the single longest dimension of a polyp is subjective and has variations among radiologists. Our purpose was to develop an automated measurement of polyp volume in CT colonography (CTC). We developed a computerized segmentation scheme for measuring polyp volume in CTC, which consisted of extraction of a highly polyp-like seed region based on the Hessian matrix, segmentation of polyps by use of a 3D volume-growing technique, and sub-voxel refinement to reduce a bias of segmentation. Our database consisted of 30 polyp views (15 polyps) in CTC scans from 13 patients. To obtain "gold standard," a radiologist outlined polyps in each slice and calculated volumes by summation of areas. The measurement study was repeated three times at least one week apart for minimizing a memory effect bias. We used the mean volume of the three studies as "gold standard." Our measurement scheme yielded a mean polyp volume of 0.38 cc (range: 0.15-1.24 cc), whereas a mean "gold standard" manual volume was 0.40 cc (range: 0.15-1.08 cc). The mean absolute difference between automated and manual volumes was 0.11 cc with standard deviation of 0.14 cc. The two volumetrics reached excellent agreement (intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.80) with no statistically significant difference (p(F<=f) = 0.42). Thus, our automated scheme efficiently provides accurate polyp volumes for radiologists.

  19. The Relationship Between Human Nucleolar Organizer Regions and Nucleoli, Probed by 3D-ImmunoFISH.

    PubMed

    van Sluis, Marjolein; van Vuuren, Chelly; McStay, Brian

    2016-01-01

    3D-immunoFISH is a valuable technique to compare the localization of DNA sequences and proteins in cells where three-dimensional structure has been preserved. As nucleoli contain a multitude of protein factors dedicated to ribosome biogenesis and form around specific chromosomal loci, 3D-immunoFISH is a particularly relevant technique for their study. In human cells, nucleoli form around transcriptionally active ribosomal gene (rDNA) arrays termed nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) positioned on the p-arms of each of the acrocentric chromosomes. Here, we provide a protocol for fixing and permeabilizing human cells grown on microscope slides such that nucleolar proteins can be visualized using antibodies and NORs visualized by DNA FISH. Antibodies against UBF recognize transcriptionally active rDNA/NORs and NOP52 antibodies provide a convenient way of visualizing the nucleolar volume. We describe a probe designed to visualize rDNA and introduce a probe comprised of NOR distal sequences, which can be used to identify or count individual NORs. PMID:27576706

  20. Synthetic 3D modeling of active regions and simulation of their multi-wavelength emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Loukitcheva, Maria A.; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A.; Gary, Dale E.

    2015-04-01

    To facilitate the study of solar active regions, we have created a synthetic modeling framework that combines 3D magnetic structures obtained from magnetic extrapolations with simplified 1D thermal models of the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. To handle, visualize, and use such synthetic data cubes to compute multi-wavelength emission maps and compare them with observations, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our simulation tools, GX_Simulator (ftp://sohoftp.nascom.nasa.gov/solarsoft/packages/gx_simulator/), developed earlier for modeling emission from flaring loops. The greatly enhanced, object-based architecture, which now runs on Windows, Mac, and UNIX platform, offers important new capabilities that include the ability to either import 3D density and temperature distribution models, or to assign to each individual voxel numerically defined coronal or chromospheric temperature and densities, or coronal Differential Emission Measure distributions. Due to these new capabilities, the GX_Simulator can now apply parametric heating models involving average properties of the magnetic field lines crossing a given voxel volume, as well as compute and investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio (to be compared with VLA or EOVSA data), (sub-)millimeter (ALMA), EUV (AIA/SDO), and X-ray (RHESSI) emission calculated from the model. The application integrates shared-object libraries containing fast free-free, gyrosynchrotron, and gyroresonance emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++, and soft and hard X-ray and EUV codes developed in IDL. We use this tool to model and analyze an active region and compare the synthetic emission maps obtained in different wavelengths with observations.This work was partially supported by NSF grants AGS-1250374, AGS-1262772, NASA grant NNX14AC87G, the Marie Curie International Research Staff Exchange Scheme "Radiosun" (PEOPLE-2011-IRSES-295272), RFBR grants 14-02-91157, 15-02-01089, 15-02-03717, 15

  1. Incorporating Edge Information into Best Merge Region-Growing Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Pasolli, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    We have previously developed a best merge region-growing approach that integrates nonadjacent region object aggregation with the neighboring region merge process usually employed in region growing segmentation approaches. This approach has been named HSeg, because it provides a hierarchical set of image segmentation results. Up to this point, HSeg considered only global region feature information in the region growing decision process. We present here three new versions of HSeg that include local edge information into the region growing decision process at different levels of rigor. We then compare the effectiveness and processing times of these new versions HSeg with each other and with the original version of HSeg.

  2. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    SciTech Connect

    Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  3. Regional structural styles in the northeast Netherlands as expressed on 3-D data

    SciTech Connect

    Goeyenbier, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The northeast Netherlands areas is a highly prospective gas province, containing the Groningen gas field and a multitude of smaller fields. Some 40 three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys have been acquired over the last 10 yr. covering a major part of this 15,000-km[sup 2] area. These surveys have been combined for the first time on a Landmark workstation to produce time, depth, and horizon attribute maps from six important (overburden and reservoir) levels: base Tertiary, base Chalk, base Cretaceous, base Jurassic, top Zechstein and base Zechstein. The structural history was reconstructed by analyzing isopach maps of the various units in combination with dip extractions along the mapped horizons to outline the active fault trends. Isopach maps of the Tertiary, Chalk, and Lower Cretaceous sediments reveal the salt movement during this interval with depocenters in the Lauwerszee trough as a result of salt withdrawal and salt diapirism in the areas of structural weakness near existing fault trends. The dip maps at the base of these units show the en-echelon fault pattern and the presence of crestal collapse systems above the salt domes. A comparison between base Cretaceous and base Chalk isopach maps also highlights the presence of inverted Lower Cretaceous basins. By comparing the overburden fault trends with the pre-Zechstein pattern, late faults can be separated from older trends, which has helped the prediction of sealing faults. The regional 3-D data provide a powerful and unambiguous tool to unravel the structural history in the northeast Netherlands.

  4. Telomere-surrounding regions are transcription-permissive 3D nuclear compartments in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Quina, Ana Sofia; Parreira, Leonor . E-mail: lparreir@igc.gulbenkian.pt

    2005-07-01

    Positioning of genes relative to nuclear heterochromatic compartments is thought to help regulate their transcriptional activity. Given that human subtelomeric regions are rich in highly expressed genes, we asked whether human telomeres are related to transcription-permissive nuclear compartments. To address this question, we investigated in the nuclei of normal human lymphocytes the spatial relations of two constitutively expressed genes (ACTB and RARA) and three nuclear transcripts (ACTB, IL2RA and TCRB) to telomeres and centromeres, as a function of gene activity and transcription levels. We observed that genes and gene transcripts locate close to telomere clusters and away from chromocenters upon activation of transcription. These findings, together with the observation that SC35 domains, which are enriched in pre-mRNA processing factors, are in close proximity to telomeres, indicate that telomere-neighboring regions are permissive to gene expression in human cells. Therefore, the associations of telomeres observed in the interphase nucleus might contribute, as opposed to chromocenters, for the establishment of transcription-permissive 3D nuclear compartments.

  5. Imaging 3D seismic velocity along the seismogenic zone of Algarve region (southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, João.; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Caldeira, Bento; Dias, Nuno; Borges, José; Matias, Luís.; Dorbath, Catherine; Carrilho, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    The present seismic tomographic study is focused around Algarve region, in South of Portugal. To locate the seismic events and find the local velocity structure of epicentral area, the P and S arrival times at 38 stations are used. The data used in this study were obtained during the Algarve campaign which worked from January/2006 to July/2007. The preliminary estimate of origin times and hypocentral coordinates are determined by the Hypoinverse program. Linearized inversion procedure was applied to comprise the following two steps: 1) finding the minimum 1D velocity model using Velest and 2) simultaneous relocation of hypocenters and determination of local velocity structure. The velocity model we have reached is a 10 layer model which gave the lowest RMS, after several runnings of eight different velocity models that we used "a priori". The model parameterization assumes a continuous velocity field between 4.5 km/s and 7.0 km/s until 30 km depth. The earth structure is represented in 3D by velocity at discrete points, and velocity at any intervening point is determined by linear interpolation among the surrounding eight grid points. A preliminary analysis of the resolution capabilities of the dataset, based on the Derivative Weight Sum (DWS) distribution, shows that the velocity structure is better resolved in the West part of the region between the surface to15 km. The resulting tomographic image has a prominent low-velocity anomaly that shows a maximum decrease in P-wave velocity in the first 12 kms in the studied region. We also identified the occurrence of local seismic events of reduced magnitude not catalogued, in the neighbourhood of Almodôvar (low Alentejo). The spatial distribution of epicentres defines a NE-SW direction that coincides with the strike of the mapped geological faults of the region and issued from photo-interpretation. Is still expectable to refine the seismicity of the region of Almodôvar and establish more rigorously its role in the

  6. D-region response to solar cycle variations: 3D simulations with CHARM-I model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutsky, Alexei A.

    The response other ionized chemical species in the lower ionosphere (D-region) of the Earth’s atmosphere to solar cycle have been simulated with new three-dimentional photochemical global transport model CHARM-I (CHemical Atmospheric Research Model with Ions), developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics of Central Aerological Observatory. Model describes the interaction between 70 neutral and ionized chemical species involved in 200 photochemical reactions. “Family” technique is used for solving kinetic part of the model equations and Prather’s scheme used to describe advection. 3D global wind components and temperature field (daily averaged) calculated by GCM ARM (Atmospheric Research Model) were used in simulations. Solar cycle signal in UV solar irradiance variations measured from space (SIM and other instruments) has been introduced in the model. External forcing used in numerical scenario described unusual features of 23rd solar cycle: long and deep its minima. So that, the amplitude of external signal (max-min) was really more than in previous cycles. Ionization was induced by Lα and GCRs. The results for mean solar irradiance for electron concentration profiles and its global picture gave good correspondence with observations. Global fields of neutral species (O3, NOy etc.) obtained with interactions with ions also has such correspondence. This work was supported by Russian Science Foundation for Basic Research (grant N 13-05-0105213).

  7. 3D P and S Wave Velocity Structure and Tremor Locations in the Parkfield Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Thurber, C. H.; Shelly, D. R.; Bennington, N. L.; Cochran, E. S.; Harrington, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    We have assembled a new dataset to refine the 3D seismic velocity model in the Parkfield region. The S arrivals from 184 earthquakes recorded by the Parkfield Experiment to Record MIcroseismicity and Tremor array (PERMIT) during 2010-2011 were picked by a new S wave picker, which is based on machine learning. 74 blasts have been assigned to four quarries, whose locations were identified with Google Earth. About 1000 P and S wave arrivals from these blasts at permanent seismic network were also incorporated. Low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) occurring within non-volcanic tremor (NVT) are valuable for improving the precision of NVT location and the seismic velocity model at greater depths. Based on previous work (Shelley and Hardebeck, 2010), waveforms of hundreds of LFEs in same family were stacked to improve signal qualify. In a previous study (McClement et al., 2013), stacked traces of more than 30 LFE families at the Parkfileld Array Seismic Observatory (PASO) have been picked. We expanded our work to include LFEs recorded by the PERMIT array. The time-frequency Phase Weight Stacking (tf-PWS) method was introduced to improve the stack quality, as direct stacking does not produce clear S-wave arrivals on the PERMIT stations. This technique uses the coherence of the instantaneous phase among the stacked signals to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the stack. We found that it is extremely effective for picking LFE arrivals (Thurber et al., 2014). More than 500 P and about 1000 S arrivals from 58 LFE families were picked at the PERMIT and PASO arrays. Since the depths of LFEs are much deeper than earthquakes, we are able to extend model resolution to lower crustal depths. Both P and S wave velocity structure have been obtained with the tomoDD method. The result suggests that there is a low velocity zone (LVZ) in the lower crust and the location of the LVZ is consistent with the high conductivity zone beneath the southern segment of the Rinconada fault that

  8. 3D liver segmentation using multiple region appearances and graph cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Jialin Zhang, Hongbo; Hu, Peijun; Lu, Fang; Kong, Dexing; Peng, Zhiyi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Efficient and accurate 3D liver segmentations from contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images play an important role in therapeutic strategies for hepatic diseases. However, inhomogeneous appearances, ambiguous boundaries, and large variance in shape often make it a challenging task. The existence of liver abnormalities poses further difficulty. Despite the significant intensity difference, liver tumors should be segmented as part of the liver. This study aims to address these challenges, especially when the target livers contain subregions with distinct appearances. Methods: The authors propose a novel multiregion-appearance based approach with graph cuts to delineate the liver surface. For livers with multiple subregions, a geodesic distance based appearance selection scheme is introduced to utilize proper appearance constraint for each subregion. A special case of the proposed method, which uses only one appearance constraint to segment the liver, is also presented. The segmentation process is modeled with energy functions incorporating both boundary and region information. Rather than a simple fixed combination, an adaptive balancing weight is introduced and learned from training sets. The proposed method only calls initialization inside the liver surface. No additional constraints from user interaction are utilized. Results: The proposed method was validated on 50 3D CT images from three datasets, i.e., Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) training and testing set, and local dataset. On MICCAI testing set, the proposed method achieved a total score of 83.4 ± 3.1, outperforming nonexpert manual segmentation (average score of 75.0). When applying their method to MICCAI training set and local dataset, it yielded a mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 97.7% ± 0.5% and 97.5% ± 0.4%, respectively. These results demonstrated the accuracy of the method when applied to different computed tomography (CT) datasets

  9. Hierarchical Fabrication of Engineered Vascularized Bone Biphasic Constructs via Dual 3D Bioprinting: Integrating Regional Bioactive Factors into Architectural Design.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haitao; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-09-01

    A biphasic artificial vascularized bone construct with regional bioactive factors is presented using dual 3D bioprinting platform technique, thereby forming a large functional bone grafts with organized vascular networks. Biocompatible mussel-inspired chemistry and "thiol-ene" click reaction are used to regionally immobilize bioactive factors during construct fabrication for modulating or improving cellular events.

  10. Region-Based 3d Surface Reconstruction Using Images Acquired by Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Z.; Al-Rawabdeh, A.; He, F.; Habib, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate 3D surface reconstruction of our environment has become essential for an unlimited number of emerging applications. In the past few years, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are evolving as low-cost and flexible platforms for geospatial data collection that could meet the needs of aforementioned application and overcome limitations of traditional airborne and terrestrial mobile mapping systems. Due to their payload restrictions, these systems usually include consumer-grade imaging and positioning sensor which will negatively impact the quality of the collected geospatial data and reconstructed surfaces. Therefore, new surface reconstruction surfaces are needed to mitigate the impact of using low-cost sensors on the final products. To date, different approaches have been proposed to for 3D surface construction using overlapping images collected by imaging sensor mounted on moving platforms. In these approaches, 3D surfaces are mainly reconstructed based on dense matching techniques. However, generated 3D point clouds might not accurately represent the scanned surfaces due to point density variations and edge preservation problems. In order to resolve these problems, a new region-based 3D surface renostruction trchnique is introduced in this paper. This approach aims to generate a 3D photo-realistic model of individually scanned surfaces within the captured images. This approach is initiated by a Semi-Global dense Matching procedure is carried out to generate a 3D point cloud from the scanned area within the collected images. The generated point cloud is then segmented to extract individual planar surfaces. Finally, a novel region-based texturing technique is implemented for photorealistic reconstruction of the extracted planar surfaces. Experimental results using images collected by a camera mounted on a low-cost UAS demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach for photorealistic 3D surface reconstruction.

  11. A cut-&-paste strategy for the 3-D inversion of helicopter-borne electromagnetic data - II. Combining regional 1-D and local 3-D inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, A.; Scheunert, M.; Afanasjew, M.; Börner, R.-U.; Siemon, B.; Spitzer, K.

    2016-07-01

    As a standard procedure, multi-frequency helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) data are inverted to conductivity-depth models using 1-D inversion methods, which may, however, fail in areas of strong lateral conductivity contrasts (so-called induction anomalies). Such areas require more realistic multi-dimensional modelling. Since the full 3-D inversion of an entire HEM data set is still extremely time consuming, our idea is to combine fast 1-D and accurate but numerically expensive 3-D inversion of HEM data in such a way that the full 3-D inversion is only carried out for those parts of a HEM survey which are affected by induction anomalies. For all other parts, a 1-D inversion method is sufficient. We present a newly developed algorithm for identification, selection, and extraction of induction anomalies in HEM data sets and show how the 3-D inversion model of the anomalous area is re-integrated into the quasi-1-D background. Our proposed method is demonstrated to work properly on a synthetic and a field HEM data set from the Cuxhaven tunnel valley in Germany. We show that our 1-D/3-D approach yields better results compared to 1-D inversions in areas where 3-D effects occur.

  12. Anticipatory Spatial Representation of 3D Regions Explored by Sighted Observers and a Deaf-and-Blind-Observer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intraub, Helene

    2004-01-01

    Viewers who study photographs of scenes tend to remember having seen beyond the boundaries of the view ["boundary extension"; J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 15 (1989) 179]. Is this a fundamental aspect of scene representation? Forty undergraduates explored bounded regions of six common (3D) scenes, visually or haptically (while blindfolded)…

  13. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H.; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high

  14. Comparison of INSAT-3D AOD over Indian region with satellite- and ground-based measurements: a data assimilation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumit; George, John P.; Sreevathsa, M. N. Raghavendra; Indira Rani, S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims at comparing the INSAT-3D AOD with other space based observations over the continental regions. INSAT-3D launched in 2013 is an advanced geostationary weather satellite of India at 82° East longitude provides Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) observations at 650 nm over both land and ocean. The level-3 daily AOD measurements from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra) and MISR are used for comparison with that from INSAT-3D. This work is applied during premonsoon season of 2015. Overall statistical scores and systematic errors are compared to characterize various error sources. Our study indicates that significant differences exist between different aerosol observations which may be partly due to retrieval algorithm, sensor configurations and temporal sampling. Comparison of INSAT observed AOD shows less bias towards MISR and MODIS-Terra observed AOD than with MODIS-Aqua. The INSAT observations over oceanic region have better correlation, minimum bias and rmse than land region. Overall, the mean bias of the dataset is ±0.05, with a root mean square error of 0.22, but these errors are also found highly dependent on geographical region. Additionally, we compared INSAT 660 nm AOD with two AERONET ground stations. The comparison of INSAT with different observations shows that the retrieved AOD is closer to the ground-based data than the MISR and MODIS AOD.

  15. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions.

  16. Understanding surface processes 3D imaging from micro-scale to regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboyedoff, Michel; Abellan, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin; Guerin, Antoine; Humair, Florian; Matasci, Battista; Michoud, Clément; Nicolet, Pierrick; Penna, Ivanna; Rudaz, Benjamin; Voumard, Jeremie; Wyser, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The production of topography using remote sensing techniques has considerably been improved during the last fifteen years due to the advances in electronics and to the increase of computing power. The earth surface is monitored at all the scales using Space Shuttle Missions (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM), or using laser scanner (LS), both terrestrial (TLS) and airborne (ALS), with accuracies that can reach up to less than 50 microns for observations of objects at meter scale. Recently, photogrammetry has been pushed by the progress of LiDAR and thanks to the advance in image recognition. It led to the development of new techniques such as structure-from-motion (SFM), which allows obtaining 3D point cloud based on several pictures of the same object taken from several point of views. Both LiDAR and Photogrammetry produce 3D point clouds. One of the current 3D applications is the surface changes, which is often based simply on the subtraction of DEM at different time intervals, leading to a simple superficial description of the natural processes without information on the mass transport. However, a point cloud has much more information than a simple surface. For instance, shape recognition can be used to track objects or deformations such as a rock mass toppling, either using the shape of the point cloud or a specific moving element. Such method permits, for instance, to study in detail pre-failure accelerations, and are now routinely used in mining industry. Other methods are coupling images and DEMs and are used, for example, to capture the surface vectors of displacements in order to deduce the surface deformations of landslides. These types of surveys have now broad applications to all kinds of erosional processes. The coastal retreat can be monitored, and it displays in some places several centimetres per year of retreat on average. The sediment transports in torrent are now better constraint showing clearly pulses. The seasonal cycles can as well be

  17. Octree-based region growing for point cloud segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Anh-Vu; Truong-Hong, Linh; Laefer, Debra F.; Bertolotto, Michela

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel, region-growing algorithm for the fast surface patch segmentation of three-dimensional point clouds of urban environments. The proposed algorithm is composed of two stages based on a coarse-to-fine concept. First, a region-growing step is performed on an octree-based voxelized representation of the input point cloud to extract major (coarse) segments. The output is then passed through a refinement process. As part of this, there are two competing factors related to voxel size selection. To balance the constraints, an adaptive octree is created in two stages. Empirical studies on real terrestrial and airborne laser scanning data for complex buildings and an urban setting show the proposed approach to be at least an order of magnitude faster when compared to a conventional region growing method and able to incorporate semantic-based feature criteria, while achieving precision, recall, and fitness scores of at least 75% and as much as 95%.

  18. SAR Imagery Segmentation by Statistical Region Growing and Hierarchical Merging

    SciTech Connect

    Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Carvalho, E.A.; Medeiros, F.N.S.; Martins, C.I.O.; Marques, R.C.P.; Oliveira, I.N.S.

    2010-05-22

    This paper presents an approach to accomplish synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image segmentation, which are corrupted by speckle noise. Some ordinary segmentation techniques may require speckle filtering previously. Our approach performs radar image segmentation using the original noisy pixels as input data, eliminating preprocessing steps, an advantage over most of the current methods. The algorithm comprises a statistical region growing procedure combined with hierarchical region merging to extract regions of interest from SAR images. The region growing step over-segments the input image to enable region aggregation by employing a combination of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test with a hierarchical stepwise optimization (HSWO) algorithm for the process coordination. We have tested and assessed the proposed technique on artificially speckled image and real SAR data containing different types of targets.

  19. Regional application of multi-layer artificial neural networks in 3-D ionosphere tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari Razin, Mir Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad

    2016-08-01

    Tomography is a very cost-effective method to study physical properties of the ionosphere. In this paper, residual minimization training neural network (RMTNN) is used in voxel-based tomography to reconstruct of 3-D ionosphere electron density with high spatial resolution. For numerical experiments, observations collected at 37 GPS stations from Iranian permanent GPS network (IPGN) are used. A smoothed TEC approach was used for absolute STEC recovery. To improve the vertical resolution, empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) obtained from international reference ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) used as object function in training neural network. Ionosonde observations is used for validate reliability of the proposed method. Minimum relative error for RMTNN is 1.64% and maximum relative error is 15.61%. Also root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 × 1011 (electrons/m3) is computed for RMTNN which is less than RMSE of IRI2012. The results show that RMTNN has higher accuracy and compiles speed than other ionosphere reconstruction methods.

  20. HS3D, A Dataset of Homo Sapiens Splice Regions, and its Extraction Procedure from a Major Public Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollastro, Pasquale; Rampone, Salvatore

    The aim of this work is to describe a cleaning procedure of GenBank data, producing material to train and to assess the prediction accuracy of computational approaches for gene characterization. A procedure (GenBank2HS3D) has been defined, producing a dataset (HS3D - Homo Sapiens Splice Sites Dataset) of Homo Sapiens Splice regions extracted from GenBank (Rel.123 at this time). It selects, from the complete GenBank Primate Division, entries of Human Nuclear DNA according with several assessed criteria; then it extracts exons and introns from these entries (actually 4523 + 3802). Donor and acceptor sites are then extracted as windows of 140 nucleotides around each splice site (3799 + 3799). After discarding windows not including canonical GT-AG junctions (65 + 74), including insufficient data (not enough material for a 140 nucleotide window) (686 + 589), including not AGCT bases (29 + 30), and redundant (218 + 226), the remaining windows (2796 + 2880) are reported in the dataset. Finally, windows of false splice sites are selected by searching canonical GT-AG pairs in not splicing positions (271 937 + 332 296). The false sites in a range +/- 60 from a true splice site are marked as proximal. HS3D, release 1.2 at this time, is available at the Web server of the University of Sannio: http://www.sci.unisannio.it/docenti/rampone/.

  1. A 3D anthropometric analysis of the orolabial region in Chinese young adults.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Deutsch, Curtis K; Zwahlen, Roger A

    2013-12-01

    The orolabial region undergoes considerable changes after orthognathic surgery or orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity, age, and sex-specific norms are needed during the planning of interventions in this region. In 2008 the Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg published anthropometric measurements of the lips of Chinese children, but to our knowledge such reference data for young Chinese adults are not currently available. We therefore used digital anthropometry on 3-dimensional craniofacial images acquired from 103 healthy young Chinese adults with Class I skeletal pattern. Anthropometric landmarks were identified, which provided linear and angular measurements. All orolabial measurements were significantly larger in men than women, with the exception of the labiomental angle. In contrast, there were no sex differences in the anthropometric proportions. We therefore provide what we think are the first cross-sectional norms available for young Chinese adults. These norms can be used to evaluate the morphology of the lips objectively for preoperative diagnosis, planning of treatment, and assessment of postoperative outcomes.

  2. 3-D crustal structure in the Agadir region (SW High Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoulali, Youssef; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2011-10-01

    The 1960 Agadir earthquake (Mw 6.0) constitutes the most damaging earthquake event in Morocco. With the expansion of seismic networks during the last decade in Morocco, new seismic data have been collected in this region. The P and S arrivals at 19 stations located in Southern Morocco are used to investigate the lithosphere in the Agadir region. In this study, we use a linearized inversion procedure comprising two steps: (1) finding the minimal 1-D model and simultaneous relocation of hypocentres and (2) determination of local velocity structure using linearized inversion. The model parameterization in this method assumes a continuous velocity field. The resolution tests indicate that the calculated images give near true structure for the studied region from 0- to 45-km depth. The results show that the total crust thickness varies from 30 to 40 km in SW High Atlas and confirm the modest crustal tectonic shortening and thickening in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. The inferred geological structure reconstructed from the calculated image illustrates the existence of fault-related folding. The evidence for coseismic ruptures in 1960 on the Kasbah anticline combined with the 1960 earthquake hypocentre located in the tomographic image determines the seismic potential of the active fault and related fold. The resulting tomographic image shows a high-velocity anomalies that could be associated with the location of deep active fault (10-30 km) associated with the fold structure. In the South Atlas, theses anomalies could be associated with the South atlas thrust front structure.

  3. Automated scoring of regional lung perfusion in children from contrast enhanced 3D MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Tobias; Eichinger, Monika; Bauman, Grzegorz; Bischoff, Arved; Puderbach, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2012-03-01

    MRI perfusion images give information about regional lung function and can be used to detect pulmonary pathologies in cystic fibrosis (CF) children. However, manual assessment of the percentage of pathologic tissue in defined lung subvolumes features large inter- and intra-observer variation, making it difficult to determine disease progression consistently. We present an automated method to calculate a regional score for this purpose. First, lungs are located based on thresholding and morphological operations. Second, statistical shape models of left and right children's lungs are initialized at the determined locations and used to precisely segment morphological images. Segmentation results are transferred to perfusion maps and employed as masks to calculate perfusion statistics. An automated threshold to determine pathologic tissue is calculated and used to determine accurate regional scores. We evaluated the method on 10 MRI images and achieved an average surface distance of less than 1.5 mm compared to manual reference segmentations. Pathologic tissue was detected correctly in 9 cases. The approach seems suitable for detecting early signs of CF and monitoring response to therapy.

  4. A region-appearance-based adaptive variational model for 3D liver segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Jialin; Dong, Fangfang; Chen, Yunmei; Kong, Dexing

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Liver segmentation from computed tomography images is a challenging task owing to pixel intensity overlapping, ambiguous edges, and complex backgrounds. The authors address this problem with a novel active surface scheme, which minimizes an energy functional combining both edge- and region-based information. Methods: In this semiautomatic method, the evolving surface is principally attracted to strong edges but is facilitated by the region-based information where edge information is missing. As avoiding oversegmentation is the primary challenge, the authors take into account multiple features and appearance context information. Discriminative cues, such as multilayer consecutiveness and local organ deformation are also implicitly incorporated. Case-specific intensity and appearance constraints are included to cope with the typically large appearance variations over multiple images. Spatially adaptive balancing weights are employed to handle the nonuniformity of image features. Results: Comparisons and validations on difficult cases showed that the authors’ model can effectively discriminate the liver from adhering background tissues. Boundaries weak in gradient or with no local evidence (e.g., small edge gaps or parts with similar intensity to the background) were delineated without additional user constraint. With an average surface distance of 0.9 mm and an average volume overlap of 93.9% on the MICCAI data set, the authors’ model outperformed most state-of-the-art methods. Validations on eight volumes with different initial conditions had segmentation score variances mostly less than unity. Conclusions: The proposed model can efficiently delineate ambiguous liver edges from complex tissue backgrounds with reproducibility. Quantitative validations and comparative results demonstrate the accuracy and efficacy of the model.

  5. Towards a realistic 3D simulation of the extraction region in ITER NBI relevant ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2015-03-01

    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for ITER is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX code addresses the physics of formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions at caesiated sources as well as the amount of co-extracted electrons. In order to be closer to the experimental conditions the code has been improved. It includes now the bias potential applied to first grid (plasma grid) of the extraction system, and the presence of Cs+ ions in the plasma. The simulation results show that such aspects play an important role for the formation of an ion-ion plasma in the boundary region by reducing the depth of the negative potential well in vicinity to the plasma grid that limits the extraction of the NIs produced at the Cs covered plasma grid surface. The influence of the initial temperature of the surface produced NI and its emission rate on the NI density in the bulk plasma that in turn affects the beam formation region was analysed. The formation of the plasma meniscus, the boundary between the plasma and the beam, was investigated for the extraction potentials of 5 and 10 kV. At the smaller extraction potential the meniscus moves closer to the plasma grid but as in the case of 10 kV the deepest meniscus bend point is still outside of the aperture. Finally, a plasma containing the same amount of NI and electrons (nH- =ne =1017 m-3) , representing good source conditioning, was simulated. It is shown that at such conditions the extracted NI current can reach values of ˜32 mA cm-2 using ITER-relevant extraction potential of 10 kV and ˜19 mA cm-2 at 5 kV. These results are in good agreement with experimental measurements performed at the small scale ITER prototype source at the test facility BATMAN.

  6. A 3D boundary-fitted barotropic hydrodynamic model for the New York Harbor region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaranarayanan, S.

    2005-11-01

    A three-dimensional barotropic hydrodynamic model application to the New York Harbor Region is performed using the Boundary-Fitted HYDROdynamic model (BFHYDRO). The model forcing functions consist of surface elevations along the open boundaries, hourly winds, and fresh water flows from the rivers and sewage flows. A comprehensive skill assessment of the model predictions is done using observed surface elevations and three-dimensional currents. The model-predicted surface elevations compare well with the observed surface elevations at four stations. Mean errors in the model-predicted surface elevations are less than 4% and correlation coefficients exceed 0.985. Model-predicted three-dimensional currents at Verrazano Narrows show excellent comparison with the observations, with mean errors less than 11% and correlation coefficients exceeding 0.960. Model-predicted three-dimensional currents at Bergen Point compare well with the observations, with mean errors less than 15% and correlation coefficients exceeding 0.897. The surface elevation amplitudes and phases of the principal tidal constituents at nine tidal stations, obtained from a harmonic analysis of a 60-day simulation compare well with the observed data. The predicted amplitude and phase of the M2 tidal constituent at these stations are, respectively, within 5 cm and 6° of the observed data. The model-predicted tidal ellipse parameters for the major tidal constituents compare well with the observations at Verrazano Narrows and Bergen Point. The model-predicted along channel sub-tidal currents also compare well with the observations. The semi-diurnal tidal ranges and spring and neap tidal cycles of the surface elevations and currents are well reproduced in the model at all stations. The observed currents at Bergen Point were shown to be flood dominant through tidal distortion analysis. The model-predicted currents also showed Newark Bay and Arthur Kill to be flood dominant systems. The model predictions showed

  7. Attosecond time delay in the photoionization of Mn in the region of the 3 p →3 d giant resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, V. K.; Kheifets, A. S.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.

    2015-05-01

    Initial insight into time delay in Mn photoionization in the region of the 3 p →,3 d giant autoionization resonance is gained in the framework of the "spin-polarized" random-phase approximation with exchange. The dramatic effect of the giant autoionization resonance on the time delay of photoemission from the 3 d and 4 s valence subshells of the Mn atom is unraveled. Strong sensitivity of the time delay of the 4 s photoemission to the final-state term of the ion remainder [Mn+(4 s1,5S ) vs Mn+(4 s1,7S ) ] is discovered. It is shown that photoionization time delay in the autoionizing resonance region is explicitly associated with the resonance lifetime, which can thus be directly measured in attosecond time-delay experiments. Similar features are expected to emerge in photoionization time delays of other transition-metal and rare-earth atoms with half-filled subshells that possess giant autoionization resonances as well.

  8. Travel time calculation in regular 3D grid in local and regional scale using fast marching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Local and regional 3D seismic velocity models of crust and sediments are very important for numerous technics like mantle and core tomography, localization of local and regional events and others. Most of those techniques require calculation of wave travel time through the 3D model. This can be achieved using multiple approaches from simple ray tracing to advanced full waveform calculation. In this study simple and efficient implementation of fast marching method is presented. This method provides more information than ray tracing and is much less complicated than methods like full waveform being the perfect compromise. Presented code is written in C++, well commented and is easy to modify for different types of studies. Additionally performance is widely discussed including possibilities of multithreading and massive parallelism like GPU. Source code will be published in 2016 as it is part of the PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  9. Towards Automatic Image Segmentation Using Optimised Region Growing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alazab, Mamoun; Islam, Mofakharul; Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi

    Image analysis is being adopted extensively in many applications such as digital forensics, medical treatment, industrial inspection, etc. primarily for diagnostic purposes. Hence, there is a growing interest among researches in developing new segmentation techniques to aid the diagnosis process. Manual segmentation of images is labour intensive, extremely time consuming and prone to human errors and hence an automated real-time technique is warranted in such applications. There is no universally applicable automated segmentation technique that will work for all images as the image segmentation is quite complex and unique depending upon the domain application. Hence, to fill the gap, this paper presents an efficient segmentation algorithm that can segment a digital image of interest into a more meaningful arrangement of regions and objects. Our algorithm combines region growing approach with optimised elimination of false boundaries to arrive at more meaningful segments automatically. We demonstrate this using X-ray teeth images that were taken for real-life dental diagnosis.

  10. Regional Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Patients With Carcinoid Diarrhea: Assessment With the Novel 3D-Transit System

    PubMed Central

    Gregersen, Tine; Haase, Anne-Mette; Schlageter, Vincent; Gronbaek, Henning; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The paucity of knowledge regarding gastrointestinal motility in patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid diarrhea restricts targeted treatment. 3D-Transit is a novel, minimally invasive, ambulatory method for description of gastrointestinal motility. The system has not yet been evaluated in any group of patients. We aimed to test the performance of 3D-Transit in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and to compare the patients’ regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) and colonic motility patterns with those of healthy subjects. Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers and seven patients with neuroendocrine tumor and at least 3 bowel movements per day were investigated with 3D-Transit and standard radiopaque markers. Results Total GITT assessed with 3D-Transit and radiopaque markers were well correlated (Spearman’s rho = 0.64, P = 0.002). Median total GITT was 12.5 (range: 8.5–47.2) hours in patients versus 25.1 (range: 13.1–142.3) hours in healthy (P = 0.007). There was no difference in gastric emptying (P = 0.778). Median small intestinal transit time was 3.8 (range: 1.4–5.5) hours in patients versus 4.4 (range: 1.8–7.2) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0.044). Median colorectal transit time was 5.2 (range: 2.9–40.1) hours in patients versus 18.1 (range: 5.0–134.0) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0.012). Median frequency of pansegmental colonic movements was 0.45 (range: 0.03–1.02) per hour in patients and 0.07 (range: 0–0.61) per hour in healthy subjects (P = 0.045). Conclusions Three-dimensional Transit allows assessment of regional GITT in patients with diarrhea. Patients with carcinoid diarrhea have faster than normal gastrointestinal transit due to faster small intestinal and colorectal transit times. The latter is caused by an increased frequency of pansegmental colonic movements. PMID:26130638

  11. Region-growing approach to detect microcalcifications in digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jin-Wook; Chae, Soo-Ik; Sook, Yoon M.; Park, Dong-Sun

    2001-09-01

    Detecting early symptoms of breast cancer is very important to enhance the possibility of cure. There have been active researches to develop computer-aided diagnosis(CAD) systems detecting early symptoms of breast cancer in digital mammograms. An expert or a CAD system can recognize the early symptoms based on microcalcifications appeared in digital mammographic images. Microcalcifications have higher gray value than surrounding regions, so these can be detected by expanding a region from a local maximum. However the resultant image contains unnecessary elements such as noise, holes and valleys. Mathematical morphology is a good solution to delete regions that are affected by the unnecessary elements. In this paper, we present a method that effectively detects microcalcifications in digital mammograms using a combination of local maximum operation and the region-growing operation.

  12. An LS-MARS method for modeling regional 3D ionospheric electron density based on GPS data and IRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Szu-Pyng; Chen, Yao-Chung; Ning, Fang-Shii; Tu, Yuh-Min

    2015-05-01

    The methods of developing an accurate and effective ionospheric electron density (IED) model have greatly interested ionosphere researchers. Numerous scholars have proposed many effective and reliable models and methods of global positioning system (GPS)-based computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) in the past decades. This study introduced a new function-based CIT method, namely the LS-MARS (Least Squares method-Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines), combining MARS with IEDs calculated by International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) to automatically choose the best representing basis functions for the three-dimensional (3D) electron density inside that modeling area. This selected basis functions was substituted into the observation equation of the GPS total electron content (TEC) to calculate the design matrix. Finally, the weighted damped least squares (WDLS) were adopted to reestimate the IED model coefficients. In contrast to common function-based CIT methods, the LS-MARS can be used to attain optimal 3D model automatically, flexibly, adaptively based on the IRI without a priori knowledge of the IED distribution mathematical function. The findings indicated that the LS-MARS model had a smaller recovery TEC error than did the MARS_IRI2012 model, and the VTEC calculated using the LS-MARS model was closer to the VTEC obtained from International GNSS Service (IGS) final IONEX files than was the VTEC calculated using the MARS_IRI2012 and IRI2012. Therefore, this method exhibits strong modeling effectiveness and reliability, and can be an efficient alternative method for estimating regional 3D IED models.

  13. MODELING STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS THROUGH DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF 3D-MHD TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Mueller, Wolf-Christian

    2013-09-01

    Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ({zeta}{sub p}) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of {zeta}{sub p} against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase.

  14. Genetic approach to reconstruct complex regional geological setting of the Baltic basin in 3D geological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovs, K.; Saks, T.; Ukass, J.; Jatnieks, J.

    2012-04-01

    Interpretation of geological structures in 3D geological models is a relatively new research topic that is already standardized in many geological branches. Due to its wide practical application, these models are indispensable and become one of the dominant interpretation methods in reducing geological uncertainties in many geology fields. Traditionally, geological concepts complement quantitative as much as qualitative data to obtain a model deemed acceptable, however, available data very often is insufficient and modeling methods primarily focus on spatial data but geological history usually is mostly neglected for the modeling of large sedimentary basins. A need to better integrate the long and often complex geological history and geological knowledge into modeling procedure is very acute to gain geological insight and improve the quality of geological models. During this research, 3D geological model of the Baltic basin (BB) was created. Because of its complex regional geological setting - wide range of the data sources with multiple scales, resolution and density as well as its various source formats, the study area provides a challenge for the 3D geological modeling. In order to create 3D regional geometrical model for the study area algorithmic genetic approach for model geometry reconstruction was applied. The genetic approach is based on the assumption that post-depositional deformation produce no significant change in sedimentary strata volume, assuming that the strata thickness and its length in a cross sectional plane remains unchanged except as a result of erosion. Assuming that the tectonic deformation occurred in sequential cycles and subsequent tectonic stage strata is separated by regional unconformity as is the case of the BB, there is an opportunity for algorithmic approach in reconstructing these conditions by sequentially reconstructing the layer original thickness. Layer thicknesses were sliced along fault lines, where applicable layer

  15. A coronary artery segmentation method based on multiscale analysis and region growing.

    PubMed

    Kerkeni, Asma; Benabdallah, Asma; Manzanera, Antoine; Bedoui, Mohamed Hedi

    2016-03-01

    Accurate coronary artery segmentation is a fundamental step in various medical imaging applications such as stenosis detection, 3D reconstruction and cardiac dynamics assessing. In this paper, a multiscale region growing (MSRG) method for coronary artery segmentation in 2D X-ray angiograms is proposed. First, a region growing rule incorporating both vesselness and direction information in a unique way is introduced. Then an iterative multiscale search based on this criterion is performed. Selected points in each step are considered as seeds for the following step. By combining vesselness and direction information in the growing rule, this method is able to avoid blockage caused by low vesselness values in vascular regions, which in turn, yields continuous vessel tree. Performing the process in a multiscale fashion helps to extract thin and peripheral vessels often missed by other segmentation methods. Quantitative evaluation performed on real angiography images shows that the proposed segmentation method identifies about 80% of the total coronary artery tree in relatively easy images and 70% in challenging cases with a mean precision of 82% and outperforms others segmentation methods in terms of sensitivity. The MSRG segmentation method was also implemented with different enhancement filters and it has been shown that the Frangi filter gives better results. The proposed segmentation method has proven to be tailored for coronary artery segmentation. It keeps an acceptable performance when dealing with challenging situations such as noise, stenosis and poor contrast. PMID:26748040

  16. Quantitative description of the 3D regional mechanics of the left atrium using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuklik, P; Molaee, P; Podziemski, P; Ganesan, A N; Brooks, A G; Worthley, S G; Sanders, P

    2014-05-01

    The left atrium (LA) plays an important role in the maintenance of hemodynamic and electrical stability of the heart. One of the conditions altering the atrial mechanical function is atrial fibrillation (AF), leading to an increased thromboembolic risk due to impaired mechanical function. Preserving the regions of the LA that contribute the greatest to atrial mechanical function during curative strategies for AF is important. The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel method of regional assessment of mechanical function of the LA. We used cardiac MRI to reconstruct the 3D geometry of the LA in nine control and nine patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Regional mechanical function of the LA in pre-defined segments of the atrium was calculated using regional ejection fraction and wall velocity. We found significantly greater mechanical function in anterior, septal and lateral segments as opposed to roof and posterior segments, as well as a significant decrease of mechanical function in the PAF group. We suggest that in order to minimize the impact of the AF treatment on global atrial mechanical function, damage related to therapeutic intervention, such as catheter ablation, in those areas should be minimized.

  17. A framework for quantification of regional cardiac fibrosis from serial sections using 3D whole slide imaging.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Stephen H; Bernus, Olivier; White, Ed; Roberts, Nick; Treanor, Darren; Magee, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Pathological cardiac fibrosis is important in predisposing the heart to arrhythmia and mechanical failure. The regional distribution of fibrosis is often described qualitatively and quantitatively in histological studies of animal hearts after staining collagen with specific colored stains. Currently this description is often piecemeal, as it lacks rigorous spatial registration, matching and methodological standardization between animals and between study groups. We propose a strategy for the quantification of regional fibrosis using the American Heart Association (AHA) cardiac segmentation model. We quantify fibrosis after whole heart 3D histological reconstruction in one normal rat heart and in one rat heart in right heart failure induced by monocrotaline. We then assess the minimum spaced histological sampling which allows for accurate assessment of regional fibrosis. We show that using every section of a set of 5 μm serial sections quantifies regional right ventricular fibrosis, with highly significant (p <; 0.001) differences between heart failure and control hearts. We show that the absolute error of collagen quantification is low when sections are taken spaced by up to 100 μm (error 5.7±5.8%). Likewise, absolute error associated with sectioning starting position is low for sections spaced up to 100 μm (error 13.3±17.2%). Above 100 μm section spacing quantification error is large (tending to 50%) and error associated with sectioning starting position is large (tending to 60%).

  18. Regional 3D Numerical Modeling of the Lithosphere-Mantle System: Implications for Continental Rift-Parallel Surface Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, S.; Bangerth, W.; Hager, B. H.

    2014-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is an active divergent plate boundary with slow, approximately E-W extension rates ranging from <1-6 mm/yr. Previous work using thin-sheet modeling indicates lithospheric buoyancy dominates the force balance driving large-scale Nubia-Somalia divergence, however GPS observations within the Western Branch of the EARS show along-rift motions that contradict this simple model. Here, we test the role of mantle flow at the rift-scale using our new, regional 3D numerical model based on the open-source code ASPECT. We define a thermal lithosphere with thicknesses that are systematically changed for generic models or based on geophysical constraints in the Western branch (e.g. melting depths, xenoliths, seismic tomography). Preliminary results suggest existing variations in lithospheric thicknesses along-rift in the Western Branch can drive upper mantle flow that is consistent with geodetic observations.

  19. Active Regions on the Farside of the Sun as Seen from Mars: 3D Visualization with Marie Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Cueinotra, F. A.; Cleghorn, T. F.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2004-01-01

    From March 2002, the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument of NASA-JSC onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has been providing radiation data from the Martian orbit. During the past two years, the orbit alignment of Mars-Sun-Earth provided a wealth of opportunity between 180 degrees (August 2002) and 0 degrees (October 2003). During this time, the MARIE data included the background GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) and several SPE (Solar Particle Events) enhanced radiation dose-rate measurements at Mars. The MARIE instrument provided a unique data set of radiation dose-rate at Mars from the active regions on the solar disk facing the Mars side. The SPE observations of October 2002 at Mars by the MARIE instrument are unique and there were no indications of these events towards the Earth at that time. Nearly 40 times increase in the quiet-time GCR dose-rate was noted from about 25 mradday to nearly 1000 mradday at Mars. Radiation dose-rate enhancement was not observed toward the Earth or in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during this time. Understanding the active regions on the Sun that are likely to result into SPE on the far side will also be of concern for future deep space explorations beyond LEO. We present the observations of these SPE enhanced dose rates due to the active regions from the far side of the Sun with the 3D visualization of solar disks facing Mars and Earth.

  20. The 3D geometry of regional-scale dolerite saucer complexes and their feeders in the Secunda Complex, Karoo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, André; Kisters, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Dolerites in the Karoo Basin of South Africa commonly represent kilometre-scale, interconnected saucer-shaped structures that consist of inner sills, bounded by inclined sheets connected to stratigraphically higher outer sills. Based on information from over 3000 boreholes and mining operations extending over an area of ca. 500 km2 and covering a > 3 km vertical section from Karoo strata into underlying basement rocks, this paper presents the results of a 3D modelling exercise that describes the geometry and spatial relationships of a regional-scale saucer complex, locally referred to as the number 8 sill, from the Secunda (coal mine) Complex in the northern parts of the Karoo Basin. The composite number 8 sill complex consists of three main dolerite saucers (dolerites A to C). These dolerite saucers are hosted by the Karoo Supergroup and the connectivity and geometry of the saucers support a lateral, sill-feeding-sill relationship between dolerite saucers A, B and C. The saucers are underlain and fed by a shallowly-dipping sheet (dolerite D) in the basement rocks below the Karoo sequence. The 3D geometric strata model agrees well with experimental results of saucer formation from underlying feeders in sedimentary basins, but demonstrates a more intricate relationship where a single feeder can give rise to several split level saucers in one regionally extensive saucer complex. More localised dome- or ridge-shape protrusions are common in the flat lying sill parts of the regional-scale saucers. We suggest a mode of emplacement for these kilometre-scale dome- and ridge structures having formed as a result of lobate magma flow processes. Magma lobes, propagating in different directions ahead of the main magma sheet, undergo successive episodes of lobe arrest and inflation. The inflation of lobes initiates failure of the overlying strata and the formation of curved faults. Magma exploiting these faults transgresses the stratigraphy and coalesces to form a ring

  1. The 3-D aftershock distribution of three recent M5~5.5 earthquakes in the Anza region,California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Wdowinski, S.; Lin, G.

    2011-12-01

    The San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ) exhibits the highest level of seismicity compared to other regions in southern California. On average, it produces four earthquakes per day, most of them at depth of 10-17 km. Over the past decade, an increasing seismic activity occurred in the Anza region, which included three M5~5.5 events and their aftershock sequences. These events occurred in 2001, 2005, and 2010. In this research we map the 3-D distribution of these three events to evaluate their rupture geometry and better understand the unusual deep seismic pattern along the SJFZ, which was termed "deep creep" (Wdowinski, 2009). We relocated 97,562 events from 1981 to 2011 in Anza region by applying the Source-Specific Station Term (SSST) method (Lin et al., 2006) and used an accurate 1-D velocity model derived from 3-D model of Lin et al (2007) and used In order to separate the aftershock sequence from background seismicity, we characterized each of the three aftershock sequences using Omori's law. Preliminary results show that all three sequences had a similar geometry of deep elongated aftershock distribution. Most aftershocks occurred at depth of 10-17 km and extended over a 70 km long segments of the SJFZ, centered at the mainshock hypocenters. A comparative study of other M5~5.5 mainshocks and their aftershock sequences in southern California reveals very different geometrical pattern, suggesting that the three Anza M5~5.5 events are unique and can be indicative of "deep creep" deformation processes. Reference 1.Lin, G.and Shearer,P.M.,2006, The COMPLOC earthquake location package,Seism. Res. Lett.77, pp.440-444. 2.Lin, G. and Shearer, P.M., Hauksson, E., and Thurber C.H.,2007, A three-dimensional crustal seismic velocity model for southern California from a composite event method,J. Geophys.Res.112, B12306, doi: 10.1029/ 2007JB004977. 3.Wdowinski, S. ,2009, Deep creep as a cause for the excess seismicity along the San Jacinto fault, Nat. Geosci.,doi:10.1038/NGEO684.

  2. Similar interactions of the poliovirus and rhinovirus 3D polymerases with the 3' untranslated region of rhinovirus 14.

    PubMed

    Meredith, J M; Rohll, J B; Almond, J W; Evans, D J

    1999-12-01

    We showed previously that a human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) on a poliovirus genome was able to replicate with nearly wild-type kinetics (J. B. Rohll, D. H. Moon, D. J. Evans, and J. W. Almond, J. Virol 69:7835-7844, 1995). This enabled the HRV14 single 3' UTR stem-loop structure to be studied in combination with a sensitive reporter system, poliovirus FLC/REP, in which the capsid coding region is replaced by an in-frame chloramphemicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. Using such a construct, we identified a mutant (designated mut4), in which the structure and stability of the stem were predicted to be maintained, that replicated very poorly as determined by its level of CAT activity. The effect of this mutant 3' UTR on replication has been further investigated by transferring it onto the full-length cDNAs of both poliovirus type 3 (PV3) and HRV14. Virus was recovered with a parental plaque phenotype at a low frequency, indicating the acquisition of compensating changes, which sequence analysis revealed were, in both poliovirus- and rhinovirus-derived viruses, located in the active-site cleft of 3D polymerase and involved the substitution of Asn18 for Tyr. These results provide further evidence of a specific interaction between the 3' UTR of picornaviruses and the viral polymerase and also indicate similar interactions of the 3' UTR of rhinovirus with both poliovirus and rhinovirus polymerases.

  3. Regional-scale geomechanical impact assessment of underground coal gasification by coupled 3D thermo-mechanical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. The UCG process involves combusting coal in situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from its high economic potentials, UCG may induce site-specific environmental impacts such as fault reactivation, induced seismicity and ground subsidence, potentially inducing groundwater pollution. Changes overburden hydraulic conductivity resulting from thermo-mechanical effects may introduce migration pathways for UCG contaminants. Due to the financial efforts associated with UCG field trials, numerical modeling has been an important methodology to study coupled processes considering UCG performance. Almost all previous UCG studies applied 1D or 2D models for that purpose, that do not allow to predict the performance of a commercial-scale UCG operation. Considering our previous findings, demonstrating that far-field models can be run at a higher computational efficiency by using temperature-independent thermo-mechanical parameters, representative coupled simulations based on complex 3D regional-scale models were employed in the present study. For that purpose, a coupled thermo-mechanical 3D model has been developed to investigate the environmental impacts of UCG based on a regional-scale of the Polish Wieczorek mine located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The model size is 10 km × 10 km × 5 km with ten dipping lithological layers, a double fault and 25 UCG reactors. Six different numerical simulation scenarios were investigated, considering the transpressive stress regime present in that part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Our simulation results demonstrate that the minimum distance between the UCG reactors is about the six-fold of the coal seam thickness to avoid hydraulic communication between the single UCG

  4. Coupling ANIMO and MT3DMS for 3D regional-scale modeling of nutrient transport in soil and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, G.; Del Val Alonso, L.; Groenendijk, P.; Griffioen, J.

    2012-12-01

    We developed an on-line coupling between the 1D/quasi-2D nutrient transport model ANIMO and the 3D groundwater transport model code MT3DMS. ANIMO is a detailed, process-oriented model code for the simulation of nitrate leaching to groundwater, N- and P-loads on surface waters and emissions of greenhouse gasses. It is the leading nutrient fate and transport code in the Netherlands where it is used primarily for the evaluation of fertilization related legislation. In addition, the code is applied frequently in international research projects. MT3DMS is probably the most commonly used groundwater solute transport package worldwide. The on-line model coupling ANIMO-MT3DMS combines the state-of-the-art descriptions of the biogeochemical cycles in ANIMO with the advantages of using a 3D approach for the transport through the saturated domain. These advantages include accounting for regional lateral transport, considering groundwater-surface water interactions more explicitly, and the possibility of using MODFLOW to obtain the flow fields. An additional merit of the on-line coupling concept is that it preserves feedbacks between the saturated and unsaturated zone. We tested ANIMO-MT3DMS by simulating nutrient transport for the period 1970-2007 in a Dutch agricultural polder catchment covering an area of 118 km2. The transient groundwater flow field had a temporal resolution of one day and was calculated with MODFLOW-MetaSWAP. The horizontal resolution of the model grid was 100x100m and consisted of 25 layers of varying thickness. To keep computation times manageable, we prepared MT3DMS for parallel computing, which in itself is a relevant development for a large community of groundwater transport modelers. For the parameterization of the soil, we applied a standard classification approach, representing the area by 60 units with unique combinations of soil type, land use and geohydrological setting. For the geochemical parameterization of the deeper subsurface, however, we

  5. Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, C.; Mooney, W.D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

  6. 3-D P- and S-wave velocity structure and low-frequency earthquake locations in the Parkfield, California region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Thurber, Clifford H.; Shelly, David R.; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Bennington, Ninfa L.; Peterson, Dana; Guo, Bin; McClement, Kara

    2016-09-01

    To refine the 3-D seismic velocity model in the greater Parkfield, California region, a new data set including regular earthquakes, shots, quarry blasts and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) was assembled. Hundreds of traces of each LFE family at two temporary arrays were stacked with time-frequency domain phase weighted stacking method to improve signal-to-noise ratio. We extend our model resolution to lower crustal depth with LFE data. Our result images not only previously identified features but also low velocity zones (LVZs) in the area around the LFEs and the lower crust beneath the southern Rinconada Fault. The former LVZ is consistent with high fluid pressure that can account for several aspects of LFE behaviour. The latter LVZ is consistent with a high conductivity zone in magnetotelluric studies. A new Vs model was developed with S picks that were obtained with a new autopicker. At shallow depth, the low Vs areas underlie the strongest shaking areas in the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We relocate LFE families and analyse the location uncertainties with the NonLinLoc and tomoDD codes. The two methods yield similar results.

  7. Hypocenter relocation using a fast grid search method and a 3-D seismic velocity model for the Sumatra region

    SciTech Connect

    Nugroho, Hendro; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2013-09-09

    Determination of earthquake hypocenter in Indonesia conducted by the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) has still used a 1-D seismic velocity model. In this research, we have applied a Fast Grid Search (FGM) method and a 3-D velocity model resulting from tomographic imaging to relocate earthquakes in the Sumatran region. The data were taken from the MCGA data catalog from 2009 to 2011 comprising of subduction zone and on land fault earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 Mw. Our preliminary results show some significant changes in the depths of the relocated earthquakes which are in general deeper than the depths of hypocenters from the MCGA data catalog. The residual times resulting from the relocation process are smaller than those prior to the relocation. Encouraged by these results, we will continue to conduct hypocenter relocation for all events from the MCGA data catalog periodically in order to produce a new data catalog with good quality. We hope that the new data catalog will be useful for further studies.

  8. Calibration of 3D Upper Mantle Structure in Eurasia Using Regional and Teleseismic Full Waveform Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara Romanowicz; Mark Panning

    2005-04-23

    Adequate path calibrations are crucial for improving the accuracy of seismic event location and origin time, size, and mechanism, as required for CTBT monitoring. There is considerable information on structure in broadband seismograms that is currently not fully utilized. The limitations have been largely theoretical. the development and application to solid earth problems of powerful numerical techniques, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM), has opened a new era, and theoretically, it should be possible to compute the complete predicted wavefield accurately without any restrictions on the strength or spatial extent of heterogeneity. This approach requires considerable computational power, which is currently not fully reachable in practice. We propose an approach which relies on a cascade of increasingly accurate theoretical approximations for the computation of the seismic wavefield to develop a model of regional structure for the area of Eurasia located between longitudes of 30 and 150 degrees E, and latitudes of -10 to 60 degrees North. The selected area is particularly suitable for the purpose of this experiment, as it is highly heterogeneous, presenting a challenge for calibration purposes, but it is well surrounded by earthquake sources and, even though they are sparsely distributed, a significant number of high quality broadband digital stations exist, for which data are readily accessible through IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) and the FDSN (Federation of Digital Seismic Networks). The starting models used will be a combination of a-priori 3D models recently developed for this region, combining various geophysical and seismological data, and a major goal of this study will be to refine these models so as to fit a variety of seismic waveforms and phases.

  9. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    PubMed

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples.

  10. Automatic reconstruction of 3D urban landscape by computing connected regions and assigning them an average altitude from LiDAR point cloud image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kohei

    2014-10-01

    The demand of 3D city modeling has been increasing in many applications such as urban planing, computer gaming with realistic city environment, car navigation system with showing 3D city map, virtual city tourism inviting future visitors to a virtual city walkthrough and others. We proposed a simple method for reconstructing a 3D urban landscape from airborne LiDAR point cloud data. The automatic reconstruction method of a 3D urban landscape was implemented by the integration of all connected regions, which were extracted and extruded from the altitude mask images. These mask images were generated from the gray scale LiDAR image by the altitude threshold ranges. In this study we demonstrated successfully in the case of Kanazawa city center scene by applying the proposed method to the airborne LiDAR point cloud data.

  11. 3D Sedimentary Architecture of the Nidelva Delta (Trondheim, Norway): Implications for Regional Slope Instability and Slide Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Heureux, J.; Longva, O.; Hansen, L.

    2006-12-01

    The city of Trondheim, Norway is built on the Nidelv delta plain and urban development over the last hundred years has extended on the submarine part of the delta. A number of coastal slides are known to have occurred historically at the delta front. Skaven-Haug (1955) describes two large slides which occured in the Trondheim Harbor in 1888 and 1950 while Emdal and Janbu (1996) describes the slide at Lade peninsula that took place in 1990. From these events, damage to railways, roads and houses in addition to tsunami and loss of life occurred. In the last 15 years, land reclamation along the coast has been intensified for construction work and building activity. This has increased the concerns about the stability of the delta sediments and has highlighted the need for a regional stability assessment. This paper presents an ongoing study of the Nidelv delta, which includes in a first stage the construction of a 3D geological model of the raised subaerial portion of delta from a large data set comprising cone penetration tests (CPT), rotary pressure drilling tests and core sampling. The architectural model shows that the Nidelva delta reposes partly on bedrock, moraine material and on marine clays. The outskirts of the delta laps onto marine clays which form today's land surface. Different sedimentary facies have been recognized from the Nidelva delta: (1) prodelta clay and silts, prodelta silts, loose delta front silts and sands and alluvial sand and gravel. The materials, which have been involved in the mass movement, are delta front and prodelta sequences of loose fine sand and silt of Holocene age presenting low shear strength value based on the results from the geotechnical boreholes. The submarine part of the delta is constructed based on newly acquired high- resolution seismic data and swath bathymetry. The seismic data show numerous reflectors interpreted as sliding planes, shallow ruptures, slide scarps and slump debris in the delta deposit. The multibeam

  12. Electric fields and field-aligned currents in polar regions of the solar corona: 3-D MHD consideration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanko, Yu. V.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation of the solar rotation electro-dynamical effects in the near-the-Sun solar wind seems more convenient from the non-inertial corotating reference frame. This implies some modification of the 3-D MHD equations generally on the base of the General Theory of Relativity. The paper deals with the search of stationary (in corotating non-inertial reference frame) solutions of the modified 3-D MHD equations for the in near-the-Sun high latitude sub-alfvenic solar wind. The solution is obtained requiring electric fields and field-aligned electric currents in the high latitude near-the-Sun solar wind. Various scenario are explored self-consistently via a number of numerical experiments. The analogy with the high latitude Earth's magnetosphere is used for the interpretation of the results. Possible observational manifestations are discussed.

  13. Best Merge Region Growing Segmentation with Integrated Non-Adjacent Region Object Aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Montesano, Paul M.; Gofman, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Best merge region growing normally produces segmentations with closed connected region objects. Recognizing that spectrally similar objects often appear in spatially separate locations, we present an approach for tightly integrating best merge region growing with non-adjacent region object aggregation, which we call Hierarchical Segmentation or HSeg. However, the original implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg required excessive computing time even for moderately sized images because of the required intercomparison of each region with all other regions. This problem was previously addressed by a recursive approximation of HSeg, called RHSeg. In this paper we introduce a refined implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg that reduces the computational requirements of HSeg without resorting to the recursive approximation. In this refinement, HSeg s region inter-comparisons among non-adjacent regions are limited to regions of a dynamically determined minimum size. We show that this refined version of HSeg can process moderately sized images in about the same amount of time as RHSeg incorporating the original HSeg. Nonetheless, RHSeg is still required for processing very large images due to its lower computer memory requirements and amenability to parallel processing. We then note a limitation of RHSeg with the original HSeg for high spatial resolution images, and show how incorporating the refined HSeg into RHSeg overcomes this limitation. The quality of the image segmentations produced by the refined HSeg is then compared with other available best merge segmentation approaches. Finally, we comment on the unique nature of the hierarchical segmentations produced by HSeg.

  14. Attenuation correction with region growing method used in the positron emission mammography imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiao-Yue; Li, Lin; Yin, Peng-Fei; Yun, Ming-Kai; Chai, Pei; Huang, Xian-Chao; Sun, Xiao-Li; Wei, Long

    2015-10-01

    The Positron Emission Mammography imaging system (PEMi) provides a novel nuclear diagnosis method dedicated for breast imaging. With a better resolution than whole body PET, PEMi can detect millimeter-sized breast tumors. To address the requirement of semi-quantitative analysis with a radiotracer concentration map of the breast, a new attenuation correction method based on a three-dimensional seeded region growing image segmentation (3DSRG-AC) method has been developed. The method gives a 3D connected region as the segmentation result instead of image slices. The continuity property of the segmentation result makes this new method free of activity variation of breast tissues. The threshold value chosen is the key process for the segmentation method. The first valley in the grey level histogram of the reconstruction image is set as the lower threshold, which works well in clinical application. Results show that attenuation correction for PEMi improves the image quality and the quantitative accuracy of radioactivity distribution determination. Attenuation correction also improves the probability of detecting small and early breast tumors. Supported by Knowledge Innovation Project of The Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-EW-N06)

  15. Automated measurement of epidermal thickness from optical coherence tomography images using line region growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacruz, Jomer; Weissman, Jesse; Gossage, Kirk

    2010-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality that acquires cross sectional images of tissue in-vivo. It accelerates skin diagnosis by eliminating invasive biopsy and laborious histology in the process. Dermatologists have widely used it for looking at morphology of skin diseases such as psoriasis, dermatitis, basal cell carcinoma etc. Skin scientists have also successfully used it for looking at differences in epidermal thickness and its underlying structure with respect to age, body sites, ethnicity, gender, and other related factors. Similar to other in-vivo imaging systems, OCT images suffer from a high degree of speckle and noise content, which hinders examination of tissue structures. Most of the previous work in OCT segmentation of skin was done manually. This compromised the quality of the results by limiting the analyses to a few frames per area. In this paper, we discuss a region growing method for automatic identification of the upper and lower boundaries of the epidermis in living human skin tissue. This image analysis method utilizes images obtained from a frequency-domain OCT. This system is high-resolution and high-speed, and thus capable of capturing volumetric images of the skin in short time. The three-dimensional (3D) data provides additional information that is used in the segmentation process to help compensate for the inherent noise in the images. This method not only provides a better estimation of the epidermal thickness, but also generates a 3D surface map of the epidermal-dermal junction, from which underlying topography can be visualized and further quantified.

  16. 3D Cloud Radiative Effects on Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrievals in Cumulus Cloud Fields in the Biomass Burning Region in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Guo-Yong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol amount in clear regions of a cloudy atmosphere is a critical parameter in studying the interaction between aerosols and clouds. Since the global cloud cover is about 50%, cloudy scenes are often encountered in any satellite images. Aerosols are more or less transparent, while clouds are extremely reflective in the visible spectrum of solar radiation. The radiative transfer in clear-cloudy condition is highly three- dimensional (3D). This paper focuses on estimating the 3D effects on aerosol optical thickness retrievals using Monte Carlo simulations. An ASTER image of cumulus cloud fields in the biomass burning region in Brazil is simulated in this study. The MODIS products (i-e., cloud optical thickness, particle effective radius, cloud top pressure, surface reflectance, etc.) are used to construct the cloud property and surface reflectance fields. To estimate the cloud 3-D effects, we assume a plane-parallel stratification of aerosol properties in the 60 km x 60 km ASTER image. The simulated solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is compared with plane-parallel calculations. Furthermore, the 3D cloud radiative effects on aerosol optical thickness retrieval are estimated.

  17. Evaluation of 3D pre-treatment verification for volumetric modulated arc therapy plan in head region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruangchan, S.; Oonsiri, S.; Suriyapee, S.

    2016-03-01

    The development of pre-treatment QA tools contributes to the three dimension (3D) dose verification using the calculation software with the measured planar dose distribution. This research is aimed to evaluate the Sun Nuclear 3DVH software with Thermo luminescence dosimeter (TLD) measurement. The two VMAT patient plans (2.5 arcs) of 6 MV photons with different PTV locations were transferred to the Rando phantom images. The PTV of the first plan located in homogeneous area and vice versa in the second plan. For treatment planning process, the Rando phantom images were employed in optimization and calculation with the PTV, brain stem, lens and TLD position contouring. The verification plans were created, transferred to the ArcCHECK for measurement and calculated the 3D dose using 3DVH software. The range of the percent dose differences in both PTV and organ at risk (OAR) between TLD and 3DVH software of the first and the second plans were -2.09 to 3.87% and -1.39 to 6.88%, respectively. The mean percent dose differences for the PTV were 1.62% and 3.93% for the first and the second plans, respectively. In conclusion, the 3DVH software results show good agreement with TLD when the tumor located in the homogeneous area.

  18. Novel Vertical 3D Structure of TaOx-based RRAM with Self-localized Switching Region by Sidewall Electrode Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Muxi; Cai, Yimao; Wang, Zongwei; Fang, Yichen; Liu, Yefan; Yu, Zhizhen; Pan, Yue; Zhang, Zhenxing; Tan, Jing; Yang, Xue; Li, Ming; Huang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    A novel vertical 3D RRAM structure with greatly improved reliability behavior is proposed and experimentally demonstrated through basically compatible process featuring self-localized switching region by sidewall electrode oxidation. Compared with the conventional structure, due to the effective confinement of the switching region, the newly-proposed structure shows about two orders higher endurance (>108 without verification operation) and better retention (>180h@150 °C), as well as high uniformity. Corresponding model is put forward, on the base of which thorough theoretical analysis and calculations are conducted as well, demonstrating that, resulting from the physically-isolated switching from neighboring cells, the proposed structure exhibits dramatically improved reliability due to effective suppression of thermal effects and oxygen vacancies diffusion interference, indicating that this novel structure is very promising for future high density 3D RRAM application. PMID:26884054

  19. 3D reconstruction of the Shigella T3SS transmembrane regions reveals 12-fold symmetry and novel features throughout

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, Julie L.; Horsley, Ashley; Stabat, David; Simon, Martha; Johnson, Steven; da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Morris, Edward P.; Wall, Joseph S.; Lea, Susan M.; Blocker, Ariel J.

    2009-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) mediate bacterial protein translocation into eukaryotic cells, a process essential for virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens. They are composed of a cytoplasmic secretion machinery and a base bridging both bacterial membranes into which a hollow, external needle is embedded. When isolated, the latter two parts are termed ‘needle complex’ (NC). Incomplete understanding of NC structure hampers studies of T3SS function. To estimate the stoichiometry of its components, the mass f its sub-domains was measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Subunit symmetries were determined by analysis of top and side views within negatively stained samples in low dose transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Application of 12-fold symmetry allowed generation of a 21-25Å resolution three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the NC base, revealing many new features and permitting tentative docking of the crystal structure of EscJ, an inner membrane component. PMID:19396171

  20. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections for Br2+ in the 4 p --> 4d and 3d --> 4p Energy Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, A.; Juarez, A. M.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Esteves, D. A.; Hardy, D. A.; Red, E. C.

    2011-05-01

    Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements are reported for Br2+ in the 31 eV to 46 eV and 64 eV to 72 eV photon energy ranges. The first energy range includes the low-lying 2P3 / 2 , 1 / 2 and 2D5 / 2 , 3 / 2 metastable state thresholds and extends for 10 eV above the 4S3 / 2 ground state threshold. Strong photoexcitation-autoionization resonances due to 4p --> nd transitions are seen in the cross-section spectrum and identified based on a quantum-defect analysis of the series. The systematic behavior of the quantum defect parameter of some of the Rydberg series observed in the Br2+ spectrum as well as in previously measured Se+ spectrum, are analyzed as a function of the nuclear charge. The 64 eV to 72 eV energy range contains discrete structure that arises from 3d --> np excitations. The R-matrix photoionization cross section calculations of Cummings and O'Sullivan, PRA, 54 (1996) are compared to our absolute cross section measurements in this energy range. Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements are reported for Br2+ in the 31 eV to 46 eV and 64 eV to 72 eV photon energy ranges. The first energy range includes the low-lying 2P3 / 2 , 1 / 2 and 2D5 / 2 , 3 / 2 metastable state thresholds and extends for 10 eV above the 4S3 / 2 ground state threshold. Strong photoexcitation-autoionization resonances due to 4p --> nd transitions are seen in the cross-section spectrum and identified based on a quantum-defect analysis of the series. The systematic behavior of the quantum defect parameter of some of the Rydberg series observed in the Br2+ spectrum as well as in previously measured Se+ spectrum, are analyzed as a function of the nuclear charge. The 64 eV to 72 eV energy range contains discrete structure that arises from 3d --> np excitations. The R-matrix photoionization cross section calculations of Cummings and O'Sullivan, PRA, 54 (1996) are compared to our absolute cross section measurements in this energy range. This work is

  1. Regional Heterogeneity in 3D Myocardial Shortening in Hypertensive Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: A Cardiovascular CMR Tagging Substudy to the Life Study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Robert W. W.; Young, Alistair A.; Doyle, Mark; Devereux, Richard B.; Kortright, Eduardo; Perry, Gilbert; Bella, Jonathan N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David; Pohost, Gerald M.; Dell’Italia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased relative wall thickness in hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been shown by echocardiography to allow preserved shortening at the endocardium despite depressed LV midwall circumferential shortening (MWCS). Depressed MWCS is an adverse prognostic indicator, but whether this finding reflects reduced global or regional LV myocardial function, as assessed by three-dimensional (3D) myocardial strain, is unknown. Methods and Results Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) tissue tagging permits direct evaluation of regional 3D intramyocardial strain, independent of LV geometry. We evaluated 21 hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic LVH in the LIFE study and 8 normal controls using 3D MR tagging and echocardiography. Patients had higher MR LV mass than normals (116 ± 40 versus 63 ± 6 g/m2, P = 0.002). Neither echocardiographic fractional shortening (32 ± 6 versus 33% ± 3%), LVEF (63% versus 64%) or mean end-systolic stress (175 ± 27 versus 146 ± 28 g/cm2) were significantly different, yet global MWCS was decreased by both echocardiography (13.4 ± 2.8 versus 18.2% ± 1.5%, P < 0.001) and MR (16.8 ± 3.6 versus 21.6% ± 3.0%, P < 0.005). 3D MR MWCS was lower at the base versus apex (P = 0.002) in LVH and greater in lateral and anterior regions versus septal and posterior regions (P < 0.001), contributing to the higher mean global MWCS by MR than echo. MR longitudinal strain was severely depressed in LVH patients (11.0 ± 3.3 versus 16.5% ± 2.5%, P < 0.001) and apical twist was increased (17.5 ± 4.3 versus 13.7 ± 3.7, P < 0.05). Importantly, both circumferential and longitudinal shortening correlated with LV relative wall thickness (R > 0.60, P = 0.001 for both). Conclusions In patients with hypertensive LVH, despite normal LV function via echocardiography or CMR, CMR intramyocardial tagging show depressed global MWCS while 3D MR strain revealed marked underlying regional heterogeneity of LV dysfunction. PMID:27011783

  2. Numerical modeling of the Linac4 negative ion source extraction region by 3D PIC-MCC code ONIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lettry, J.; Minea, T.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Schmitzer, C.; Midttun, O.; Steyaert, D.

    2013-02-01

    At CERN, a high performance negative ion (NI) source is required for the 160 MeV H- linear accelerator Linac4. The source is planned to produce 80 mA of H- with an emittance of 0.25 mm mradN-RMS which is technically and scientifically very challenging. The optimization of the NI source requires a deep understanding of the underling physics concerning the production and extraction of the negative ions. The extraction mechanism from the negative ion source is complex involving a magnetic filter in order to cool down electrons' temperature. The ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) code is used to address this problem. The ONIX is a selfconsistent 3D electrostatic code using Particles-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC) approach. It was written to handle the complex boundary conditions between plasma, source walls, and beam formation at the extraction hole. Both, the positive extraction potential (25kV) and the magnetic field map are taken from the experimental set-up, in construction at CERN. This contribution focuses on the modeling of two different extractors (IS01, IS02) of the Linac4 ion sources. The most efficient extraction system is analyzed via numerical parametric studies. The influence of aperture's geometry and the strength of the magnetic filter field on the extracted electron and NI current will be discussed. The NI production of sources based on volume extraction and cesiated surface are also compared.

  3. Analyses of Magnetic Structures of Active Region 11117 Evolution using a 3D Data-Driven Magnetohydrodynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shi; Jiang, Chaowei; Feng, Xueshang

    We use the photospheric vector magnetograms obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Image (HMI) on-board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) as the boundary conditions for a Data-Driven CESE-MHD model (Jiang et al. 2012) to investigate the physical characteristics and evolution of magnetic field configurations in the corona before and after a solar eruptive event. Specifically, the evolution of AR11117 characteristics such as length of magnetic shear along the neutral line, current helicity, magnetic free energy and the energy flux across the photosphere due to flux emergence and surface flow are presented. The computed 3D magnetic field configuration are compared with AIA (Atmosphere Image Assembly) which shows remarkable resemblance. A topological analyses reveals that the small flare is correlated with a bald patch (BP, where the magnetic field is tangent to the photosphere), suggesting that the energy release of the flare is caused by magnetic reconnection associated with the BP separatrices. The total magnetic flux and energy keep increasing slightly in spite of flare, while the computed magnetic free energy drops during the flare by 10 (30) ergs which is adequate in providing the energy budget of a minor C-class confined flare as observed. Jiang, Chaowei, Xueshang, Feng, S. T Wu and Qiang Hu, Ap. J., 759:85, 2012 Nov 10

  4. Evaluation of the Convergence Region of an Automated Registration Method for 3D Laser Scanner Point Clouds.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kwang-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Using three dimensional point clouds from both simulated and real datasets from close and terrestrial laser scanners, the rotational and translational convergence regions of Geometric Primitive Iterative Closest Points (GP-ICP) are empirically evaluated. The results demonstrate the GP-ICP has a larger rotational convergence region than the existing methods, e.g., the Iterative Closest Point (ICP).

  5. Stereo-Based Region-Growing using String Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandelbaum, Robert; Mintz, Max

    1995-01-01

    We present a novel stereo algorithm based on a coarse texture segmentation preprocessing phase. Matching is performed using a string comparison. Matching sub-strings correspond to matching sequences of textures. Inter-scanline clustering of matching sub-strings yields regions of matching texture. The shape of these regions yield information concerning object's height, width and azimuthal position relative to the camera pair. Hence, rather than the standard dense depth map, the output of this algorithm is a segmentation of objects in the scene. Such a format is useful for the integration of stereo with other sensor modalities on a mobile robotic platform. It is also useful for localization; the height and width of a detected object may be used for landmark recognition, while depth and relative azimuthal location determine pose. The algorithm does not rely on the monotonicity of order of image primitives. Occlusions, exposures, and foreshortening effects are not problematic. The algorithm can deal with certain types of transparencies. It is computationally efficient, and very amenable to parallel implementation. Further, the epipolar constraints may be relaxed to some small but significant degree. A version of the algorithm has been implemented and tested on various types of images. It performs best on random dot stereograms, on images with easily filtered backgrounds (as in synthetic images), and on real scenes with uncontrived backgrounds.

  6. Modeling the physical structure of star-forming regions with LIME, a 3D radiative transfer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quénard, D.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to predict line emission is crucial in order to make a comparison with observations. From LTE to full radiative transfer codes, the goal is always to derive the most accurately possible the physical properties of the source. Non-LTE calculations can be very time consuming but are needed in most of the cases since many studied regions are far from LTE.

  7. 3D-Stereoscopic Analysis of Solar Active Region Loops: I: SoHo/EIT Observations at Temperatures of 1.0-1.5 MK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Newmark, Jeff; Delaboudiniere, Jean-Pierre; Neupert, Werner M.; Portier-Fozzani, Fabrice; Gary, G. Allen; Zucker, Arik

    1998-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of solar active region NOAA 7986 observed on 1996 August 30 with the Extrem-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) is analyzed. We develop a new method of Dynamic Stereoscopy to reconstruct the 3D geometry of dynamically changing loops, which allows us to determine the orientation of the loop plane with respect to the line-of-sight, a prerequisite to correct properly for projection effects in 3D loop models. With this method and the filter-ratio technique applied to EIT 171 A and 195 A images we determine the 3D coordinates (x(s), y(s), z(s)), the loop width) w(s), the electron density n(sub e)(s), and the electron temperature T(sub e)(s) as function of the loop length s for 30 loop segments. Fitting the loop densities with an exponential density model n(sub e)(h) we find that the so inferred scale height temperatures, T(sub e)(sup lambda) = 1.22 +/- 0.23 MK, match closely the EIT filter-ratio temperatures, T(sub e)(sup FIT) = 1.21 +/- 0.06 MK. We conclude that these rather large-scale loops (with heights of h approx. equals 50 - 200 Mm) that dominate EIT 171 A images are close to thermal equilibrium. Most of the loops show no significant thickness variation w(s), but many exhibit a trend of increasing temperature (dT/ds greater than 0) above the footpoint.

  8. Deep structure of the northern North Sea and adjacent areas according to regional-scale 3D density and thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy P.; Olesen, Odleiv; Ebbing, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    To analyse the regional configuration of the crystalline crust within the northern North Sea and adjacent areas of the continent, a lithosphere-scale 3D structural model has been constructed in the frame of the Crustal Onshore-Offshore Project (COOP project). Construction of the 3D model has been carried out using recently published/released data. For upper part of the model, all available data were merged into the following layers: sea water, the Cenozoic, the Upper Cretaceous, the Lower Cretaceous, the Jurassic, the Triassic, the Upper Permian (Zechstein) salt, Upper Permian clastics/carbonates and, finally, the Lower Permian-pre-Permian sedimentary rocks. Configuration of the crystalline crust and the Moho topography have been constrained by the published interpretations of deep seismic lines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary has been compiled from previously published data. To evaluate the internal structure of the crystalline crust, a 3D density modelling has been carried out by use of the software IGMAS+ (the Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Application System). According to the 3D density modeling, the crystalline crust of the study area consists of several layers. Within the upper crystalline crust, gabbro to anorthositic rocks have been included into the 3D model along the western coast of Norway. In addition, a low-density (2627 kg/m3) upper crustal layer is modelled beneath the Horda Platform. The next upper crustal layer is characterized by regional distribution and has a density of 2670 kg/m3. The modelled middle crust of the study area contains four layers with similar densities around 2700 kg/m3. The lower crust consists of three layers. The deepest crustal layer is the high-density lower crustal layer (3060 kg/m3) which corresponds to the high-velocity layer. This layer thickens strongly beneath the Norwegian-Danish Basin and the eastern part of the East-Shetland platform. The obtained Moho is strongly uplifted beneath the Central and Viking

  9. Comparative genetic analysis of VP4, VP1 and 3D gene regions of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 circulating in Malaysia between 1997-2008.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y F; Wee, K L; Chiam, C W; Khor, C S; Chan, S Y; Amalina W, M Z; Sam, I C

    2012-09-01

    Three genomic regions, VP4 capsid, VP1 capsid and 3D RNA polymerase of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were sequenced to understand the evolution of these viruses in Malaysia. A total of 42 EV-71 and 36 CV-A16 isolates from 1997- 2008 were sequenced. Despite the presence of many EV-71 subgenotypes worldwide, only subgenotypes B3, B4, B5, C1 and C2 were present in Malaysia. Importation of other subgenotypes such as C3, C4/D and C5 from other countries was infrequent. For CV-A16, the earlier subgenotype B1 was replaced by subgenotypes B2a and the recent B2c. Subgenotype B2a was present throughout the study while B2c only emerged in 2005. No genetic signatures could be attributed to viral virulence suggesting that host factors have a major role in determining the outcome of infection. Only three EV-71 B3 isolates showed non-consistent phylogeny in the 3D RNA polymerase region which indicated occurrence of recombination in EV-71. High genetic diversity was observed in the Malaysian EV-71 but Malaysian CV-A16 showed low genetic diversity in the three genomic regions sequenced. EV-71 showed strong purifying selection, but that occurred to a lesser extent in CV-A16.

  10. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, M.; Redel, T.; Struffert, T.; Hornegger, J.; Doerfler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling.

  11. Molecular dynamics studies on 3D structures of the hydrophobic region PrP(109-136).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Zhang, Yuanli

    2013-06-01

    Prion diseases, traditionally referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species, manifesting as scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Kulu in humans, etc. These neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)). The hydrophobic region PrP(109-136) controls the formation of diseased prions: the normal PrP(113-120) AGAAAAGA palindrome is an inhibitor/blocker of prion diseases and the highly conserved glycine-xxx-glycine motif PrP(119-131) can inhibit the formation of infectious prion proteins in cells. This article gives detailed reviews on the PrP(109-136) region and presents the studies of its three-dimensional structures and structural dynamics. PMID:23563221

  12. Regional seismic wavefield computation on a 3-D heterogeneous Earth model by means of coupled traveling wave synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2002-01-01

    I present a new algorithm for calculating seismic wave propagation through a three-dimensional heterogeneous medium using the framework of mode coupling theory originally developed to perform very low frequency (f < ???0.01-0.05 Hz) seismic wavefield computation. It is a Greens function approach for multiple scattering within a defined volume and employs a truncated traveling wave basis set using the locked mode approximation. Interactions between incident and scattered wavefields are prescribed by mode coupling theory and account for the coupling among surface waves, body waves, and evanescent waves. The described algorithm is, in principle, applicable to global and regional wave propagation problems, but I focus on higher frequency (typically f ??????0.25 Hz) applications at regional and local distances where the locked mode approximation is best utilized and which involve wavefields strongly shaped by propagation through a highly heterogeneous crust. Synthetic examples are shown for P-SV-wave propagation through a semi-ellipsoidal basin and SH-wave propagation through a fault zone.

  13. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine's Origin - Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Jennifer R; Casale, John F; Jordan, James; Morello, David R; Beyer, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses ((2)H and (18)O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions. PMID:27006288

  14. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  15. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and synthesizing the depth of region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Kwon, Hyeokjae; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We send the raw captured image data to the host computer by using WiFi wireless communication and then use GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of real time three-dimensional stereo image by synthesizing the depth of ROI(region of interest). We also try to find and declare the mechanism of deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and propose a deblurring model. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  16. A Coupled fcGCM-GCE Modeling System: A 3D Cloud Resolving Model and a Regional Scale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud-resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and ore sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. The Goddard MMF is based on the 2D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM), and it has started production runs with two years results (1998 and 1999). Also, at Goddard, we have implemented several Goddard microphysical schemes (21CE, several 31CE), Goddard radiation (including explicity calculated cloud optical properties), and Goddard Land Information (LIS, that includes the CLM and NOAH land surface models) into a next generation regional scale model, WRF. In this talk, I will present: (1) A Brief review on GCE model and its applications on precipitation processes (microphysical and land processes), (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications), and (4) The characteristics of the four-dimensional cloud data

  17. Quantification of regional fractional ventilation in human subjects by measurement of hyperpolarized 3He washout with 2D and 3D MRI.

    PubMed

    Horn, Felix C; Deppe, Martin H; Marshall, Helen; Parra-Robles, Juan; Wild, Jim M

    2014-01-15

    Multiple-breath washout hyperpolarized (3)He MRI was used to calculate regional parametric images of fractional ventilation (r) as the ratio of fresh gas entering a volume unit to the total end inspiratory volume of the unit. Using a single dose of inhaled hyperpolarized gas and a total acquisition time of under 1 min, gas washout was measured by dynamic acquisitions during successive breaths with a fixed delay. A two-dimensional (2D) imaging protocol was investigated in four healthy subjects in the supine position, and in a second protocol the capability of extending the washout imaging to a three-dimensional (3D) acquisition covering the whole lungs was tested. During both protocols, subjects were breathing comfortably, only restricted by synchronization of breathing to the sequence timings. The 3D protocol was also successfully tested on one patient with cystic fibrosis. Mean r values from each volunteer were compared with global gas volume turnover, as calculated from flow measurement at the mouth divided by total lung volume (from MRI images), and a significant correlation (r = 0.74, P < 0.05) was found. The effects of gravity on R were investigated, and an average decrease in r of 5.5%/cm (Δr = 0.016 ± 0.006 cm(-1)) from posterior to anterior was found in the right lung. Intersubject reproducibility of r imaging with the 2D and 3D protocol was tested, and a significant correlation between repeated experiments was found in a pixel-by-pixel comparison. The proposed methods can be used to measure r on a regional basis. PMID:24311749

  18. Development of a hybrid 3-D hydrological model to simulate hillslopes and the regional unconfined aquifer system in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Brunke, M.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    The terrestrial hydrological system, including surface and subsurface water, is an essential component of the Earth's climate system. Over the past few decades, land surface modelers have built one-dimensional (1D) models resolving the vertical flow of water through the soil column for use in Earth system models (ESMs). These models generally have a relatively coarse model grid size (~25-100 km) and only account for sub-grid lateral hydrological variations using simple parameterization schemes. At the same time, hydrologists have developed detailed high-resolution (~0.1-10 km grid size) three dimensional (3D) models and showed the importance of accounting for the vertical and lateral redistribution of surface and subsurface water on soil moisture, the surface energy balance and ecosystem dynamics on these smaller scales. However, computational constraints have limited the implementation of the high-resolution models for continental and global scale applications. The current work presents a hybrid-3D hydrological approach is presented, where the 1D vertical soil column model (available in many ESMs) is coupled with a high-resolution lateral flow model (h2D) to simulate subsurface flow and overland flow. H2D accounts for both local-scale hillslope and regional-scale unconfined aquifer responses (i.e. riparian zone and wetlands). This approach was shown to give comparable results as those obtained by an explicit 3D Richards model for the subsurface, but improves runtime efficiency considerably. The h3D approach is implemented for the Delaware river basin, where Noah-MP land surface model (LSM) is used to calculated vertical energy and water exchanges with the atmosphere using a 10km grid resolution. Noah-MP was coupled within the WRF-Hydro infrastructure with the lateral 1km grid resolution h2D model, for which the average depth-to-bedrock, hillslope width function and soil parameters were estimated from digital datasets. The ability of this h3D approach to simulate

  19. 3D crustal structure and long-period ground motions from a M9.0 megathrust earthquake in the Pacific Northwest region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, K.B.; Stephenson, W.J.; Geisselmeyer, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a community velocity model for the Pacific Northwest region from northern California to southern Canada and carried out the first 3D simulation of a Mw 9.0 megathrust earthquake rupturing along the Cascadia subduction zone using a parallel supercomputer. A long-period (<0.5 Hz) source model was designed by mapping the inversion results for the December 26, 2004 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake (Han et al., Science 313(5787):658–662, 2006) onto the Cascadia subduction zone. Representative peak ground velocities for the metropolitan centers of the region include 42 cm/s in the Seattle area and 8–20 cm/s in the Tacoma, Olympia, Vancouver, and Portland areas. Combined with an extended duration of the shaking up to 5 min, these long-period ground motions may inflict significant damage on the built environment, in particular on the highrises in downtown Seattle.

  20. Observations of Plasma Waves in the Colliding Jet Region of a 3D Magnetic Flux Rope Flanked by Two Active Reconnection X Lines at the Subsolar Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oieroset, M.; Sundkvist, D. J.; Chaston, C. C.; Phan, T. D.; Mozer, F.; McFadden, J. P.; Angelopoulos, V.; Andersson, L.; Eastwood, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed a detailed analysis of plasma and wave observations in a 3D magnetic flux rope encountered by the THEMIS spacecraft at the subsolar magnetopause. The extent of the flux rope was ˜270 ion skin depths in the outflow direction, and it was flanked by two active reconnection X lines producing colliding plasma jets in the flux rope core where ion heating and suprathermal electrons were observed. The colliding jet region was highly dynamic and characterized by the presence of high-frequency waves such as ion acoustic-like waves, electron holes, and whistler mode waves near the flux rope center and low-frequency kinetic Alfvén waves over a larger region. We will discuss possible links between these waves and particle heating.

  1. 3D Groundwater Flow Model in the Arid Region of Tafilalet Oasis System (South East of Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaamlat, I.; Larabi, A.; Faouzi, M.

    2013-05-01

    The plain of Tafilalet contains an important oasis located in the Southeast of Morocco in a pre-Saharan area, characterized by an arid climate with a large deficit water budget. It has a behavior of a large depression resulting from erosion of a set of geological coverage during the Quaternary period. It also forms a small Mesopotamia crossed by two main rivers from the mountains of the High Atlas: Ziz and Rheris. The oasis of Tafilalet is an area of old traditions irrigation where agriculture is the main activity of the region that represents approximately 37% of the total area (637 km2). In this study, a three-dimensional model of groundwater flow was developed for the aquifer system of Tafilalet, to assist the decision makers as a "management tool" in order to assess alternative schemes for development and exploitation of groundwater resources in the Tafilalet plain, using Modflow2000 code. It is the first mathematical model performed for this oasis plain, taking into account the most possible real hydrogeological conditions and using the geographical information system (GIS) for the organisation and treatment of data and applying a multidisciplinary approach combining geostatistical and hydrogeological modeling. The conceptual model, in terms of hydrogeological modeling was therefore considered as a monolayer model and the aquifer system is mainly heterogeneous with lateral different hydraulic conductivities, which are ranging from 3.10-7 to 5.10-2 m/s, but most of them are located between 2.10-4 and 8.10-3 m/s. The results of the model calibration under steady state (1960) and transient state conditions, starting from this time, show reasonable agreement between observed and simulated water levels for the observation wells. After calibration, the model contributed to better groundwater characterization, the hydrodynamic parameters obtained from the model are much representative of reality. As a management tool, this model can help the manager to take

  2. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  3. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  4. 3-D Modeling for Upper Mantle Anisotropy Beneath Idaho-Oregon (IDOR) Region Using Sks Splitting Intensity Measurements from IDOR Passive Seismic Project Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongsresawat, S.; Panning, M. P.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Stanciu, A. C.; Bremner, P. M.; Torpey, M. E.; VanDecar, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    We used data recorded at 86 broadband seismic stations of the IDOR Passive Seismic Project to determine upper mantle anisotropy across the suture along which Blue Mountain island-arc terranes accreted to North America during Cretaceous. This suture is currently associated with the Western Idaho Shear Zone (WISZ), a narrow, highly-deformed ductile fault that was the locus of both dextral strike-slip along, and subduction beneath, the Paleozoic margin of the North American craton. We measured shear wave splitting intensity (SI), a seismic observable that is suitable for use in 3-D inversions of upper mantle seismic anisotropy, to determine these fabrics beneath the IDOR network. SI fast-polarization directions are spatially coherent across the region, and fall into three main groups: a group with fast azimuths trending ENE-WSW, observed at stations in eastern Oregon and the NW-SE-striking western Snake River Plain; a group with E-W trending fast azimuths observed at stations along the WISZ and the Idaho Batholith, which outcrops immediately east of the suture zone; and a group with ENE-WSW trending fast azimuths observed at stations situated in the Basin-and-Range extended region of southeastern Idaho. SI delay times range from 0.46 to 1.85 seconds, with a mean of 1.1 s. We also used backazimuthal variations of SI at all stations to invert for for 3-D anisotropic fabric using the finite-frequency approach called vectorial tomography (Chevrot and Monteiller, 2009). Our preliminary results are consistent with alignment of upper mantle fabrics in the extension direction as Basin-and-Range extension propagates northward into less-extended regions of Idaho and Oregon.

  5. 2D and 3D Visualizations of the Fault Areas, Initial Heights and Tsunami Simulations of Five Largest Historical Earthquakes in Mediterrenean Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürleme, Beran; Tarık Meriç, Hakan; Ulutaş, Ergin; Anunziato, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is the simulation and visualization of the initial and maximum tsunami wave heights in 2D and 3D along the Mediterranean coasts inferred from the five largest earthquakes in history in this region. The earthquakes considered in the study are 21 July 365 Crete, 8 August 1303 Crete, 3 May 1481 Rhodes, 28 December Messina and 21 May 2003 Algeria. All these earthquakes spawned tsunamis and inflicted damage in coastal regions. The study was conducted to explain which could be the potential Tsunami consequences caused by similar earthquakes occurring in the region in the future. The methodology used for the calculation of tsunami wave heights from the earthquakes includes the determination of earthquake parameters, modeling of the initial wave height, simulation of the wave propagation and calculation of the maximum wave heights near coastal areas. The parameters of the earthquakes are based on previously published fault mechanism solutions and known tectonic features of the regions. Static dislocation algorithm for the initial wave height is used from the parameters of focal mechanism solutions. The study was conducted also to understand the reliability of the previously published focal mechanism solutions for the earthquakes by using the principal stress axis in the regions. The 2D and 3D visualized models of tsunamis from the earthquakes include isometric grid representing the sea surface for the purpose of a better understanding of the initial tsunami mechanism compared to 1D visualizations. In many studies, the earthquake locations, tectonic features of the regions, initial heights and tsunami simulations are shown on maps as bird's eye in 1D visualization. However these kinds of features are related in depths and bathymetric features. For that reason, our approaches will contribute to have better understanding where the uplift- subsidence of initial heights and crests-troughs of simulated wave heights and thus provide a better insight of the

  6. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  7. 3D-Stereoscopic Analysis of Solar Active Region Loops. 2; SoHo/EIT Observations at Temperatures of 1.5-2.5 MK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Alexander, David; Hurlburt, Neal; Newmark, Jeffrey S.; Neupert, Werner M.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Gary, G. Allen

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we study the three-dimensional (3D) structure of hot (T(sub e) approximately equals 1.5 - 2.5 MK) loops in solar active region NOAA 7986, observed on 1996 August 30 with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO). This complements a first study on cooler (T(sub e) approximately equals 1.0 - 1.5 MK) loops of the same active region, using the same method of Dynamic Stereoscopy to reconstruct the 3D geometry. We reconstruct the 3D-coordinates x(s), y(s), z(s), the density n(sub e)(s), and temperature profile T(sub e)(s) of 35 individual loop segments (as function of the loop coordinate s) using EIT 195 A and 284 A images. The major findings are: (1) All loops are found to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, in the entire temperature regime of T(sub e) = 1.0 - 2.5 MK; (2) The analyzed loops have a height of 2-3 scale heights, and thus only segments extending over about one vertical scale height have sufficient emission measure contrast for detection; (3) The temperature gradient over the lowest scale height is of order dT/ds is approximately 1 - 4 K/km; (4) The radiative loss rate is found to exceed the conductive loss rate by about two orders or magnitude, making thermal conduction negligible to explain the temperature structure of the loops; (5) A steady-state can only be achieved when the heating rate E(sub H) matches the radiative loss rate in hydrostatic equilibrium, requiring a heat deposition length lambda(sub H) of the half density scale height lambda, predicting a scaling law with the loop base pressure, EH varies as p(sub 0 exp 2). This favors coronal heating mechanisms that operate near the loop footpoints; (6) We find a reciprocal correlation between the loop pressure p(sub 0) and loop length L, i.e. p(sub 0) varies as 1/L, implying a scaling law of the steady-state requirement with loop length, i.e. E(sub H ) varies as 1/L(exp 2). The heating rate shows no correlation with the loop

  8. Integrating proximal soil sensing techniques and terrain indexes to generate 3D maps of soil restrictive layers in the Palouse region, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Matteo; Brown, David J.; Gasch, Caley K.; Brooks, Erin S.; Yourek, Matt A.

    2015-04-01

    In the Palouse region of eastern Washington and northern Idaho (USA), spatially discontinuous restrictive layers impede rooting growth and water infiltration. Consequently, accurate maps showing the depth and spatial extent of these restrictive layers are essential for watershed hydrologic modeling appropriate for precision agriculture. In this presentation, we report on the use of a Visible and Near-Infrared (VisNIR) penetrometer fore optic to construct detailed maps of three wheat fields in the Palouse region. The VisNIR penetrometer was used to deliver in situ soil reflectance to an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Boulder, CO, USA) spectrometer and simultaneously acquire insertion force. With a hydraulic push-type soil coring systems for insertion (e.g. Giddings), we collected soil spectra and insertion force data along 41m x 41m grid points (2 fields) and 50m x 50m grid points (1 field) to ≈80cm depth, in addition to interrogation points at 36 representative instrumented locations per field. At each of the 36 instrumented locations, two soil cores were extracted for laboratory determination of clay content and bulk density. We developed calibration models of soil clay content and bulk density with spectra and insertion force collected in situ, using partial least squares regression 2 (PLSR2). Applying spline functions, we delineated clay and bulk density profiles at each points (grid and 24 locations). The soil profiles were then used as inputs in a regression-kriging model with terrain indexes and ECa data (derived from an EM38 field survey, Geonics, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) as covariates to generate 3D soil maps. Preliminary results show that the VisNIR penetrometer can capture the spatial patterns of restrictive layers. Work is ongoing to evaluate the prediction accuracy of penetrometer-derived 3D clay content and restriction layer maps.

  9. Massive sulfide exploration models of the Iberian Pyrite Belt Neves Corvo mine region, based in a 3D geological, geophysical and geochemical ProMine study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inverno, Carlos; Matos, João Xavier; Rosa, Carlos; Mário Castelo-Branco, José; Granado, Isabel; Carvalho, João; João Baptista, Maria; Represas, Patrícia; Pereira, Zélia; Oliveira, Tomás; Araujo, Vitor

    2013-04-01

    superficial directional derivatives to obtain the various directions of the late-Variscan faults, the main overthrusts and lithological structures. iv) - Detailed palynological sediment dating; v) - A seismic survey was conducted in the vicinities of the Neves Corvo mine totalling 82 km of profiles with target depth of over 10 km. A 3D regional model has been constructed for the selected IPB area using GoCAD, integrating the most critical information of the follow geological units: the lower unit BAFG Mértola Formation, the VSC, the Neves Corvo ores and the PQG. It incorporated surface regional geological maps, 168 drill-hole geological logs throughout the area, structural and tectonic data, former seismic sections, where available, and a digital terrain model. Chemical data from 42 selected drill-holes in order to outline in 3D the Cu distribution in the area. The results have already indicated new important guidelines for VHMS exploration and new regional correlations with the Neves Corvo mining area. The 3D modelling study was essential to the detail understanding of the complex IPB geological structures observed in the south of Portugal.

  10. Regional conductivity structures of the northwestern segment of the North American Plate derived from 3-D inversion of USArray magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meqbel, N. M.; Egbert, G. D.; Kelbert, A.

    2010-12-01

    Long period (10-20,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data are being acquired in a series of temporary arrays deployed across the continental United States through EMScope, a component of EarthScope, a multidisciplinary decade-long project to study the structure and evolution of the North American Continent. MT deployments in 2006-2010 have so far acquired data at 237 sites on an approximately regular grid, with the same nominal spacing as the USArray broadband seismic transportable array (~70 km), covering the Northwestern US, from the Oregon-Washington coast across the Rocky Mountains, into Montana and Wyoming. Preliminary 3-D inversion results (Patro and Egbert; 2008), based on data from the 110 westernmost “Cascadia” sites collected in the first two years, revealed extensive areas of high conductivity in the lower crust beneath the Northwest Basin and Range (NBR), inferred to result from fluids (including possibly partial melt at depth) associated with magmatic underplating, and beneath the Cascade Mountains, probably due to fluids released by the subducting Juan de Fuca slab. Here we extend this study, refining and further testing the preliminary results from Cascadia, and extending the inversion domain to the East, to include all of the EarthScope data. Although site spacing is very broad, distinct regional structures are clearly evident even in simple maps of apparent resistivity, phase and induction vectors. For the 3-D inversion we are using the parallelized version of our recently developed Modular Code (ModEM), which supports Non-Linear Conjugate Gradient and several Gauss-Newton type schemes. Our initial 3-D inversion results using 212 MT sites, fitting impedances and vertical field transfer functions (together and separately) suggest several conductive and resistive structures which appear to be stable and required by the measured data. These include: - A conductive structure elongated in the N-S direction underneath the volcanic arc of the Cascadia

  11. 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of CMAQ Model Results to Aid Regional Accountability Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; Tikvart, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.

  12. Comparison of publically available Moho depth and crustal thickness grids with newly derived grids by 3D gravity inversion for the High Arctic region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    We derived Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region by 3D forward and inverse gravity modelling method in the spectral domain (Minakov et al. 2012) using lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Alvey et al., 2008); a vertical density variation for the sedimentary layer and lateral crustal variation density. Recently updated grids of bathymetry (Jakobsson et al., 2012), gravity anomaly (Gaina et al, 2011) and dynamic topography (Spasojevic & Gurnis, 2012) were used as input data for the algorithm. TeMAr sedimentary thickness grid (Petrov et al., 2013) was modified according to the most recently published seismic data, and was re-gridded and utilized as input data. Other input parameters for the algorithm were calibrated using seismic crustal scale profiles. The results are numerically compared with publically available grids of the Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region (CRUST 1 and GEMMA global grids; the deep Arctic Ocean grids by Glebovsky et al., 2013) and seismic crustal scale profiles. The global grids provide coarser resolution of 0.5-1.0 geographic degrees and not focused on the High Arctic region. Our grids better capture all main features of the region and show smaller error in relation to the seismic crustal profiles compare to CRUST 1 and GEMMA grids. Results of 3D gravity modelling by Glebovsky et al. (2013) with separated geostructures approach show also good fit with seismic profiles; however these grids cover the deep part of the Arctic Ocean only. Alvey A, Gaina C, Kusznir NJ, Torsvik TH (2008). Integrated crustal thickness mapping and plate recon-structions for the high Arctic. Earth Planet Sci Lett 274:310-321. Gaina C, Werner SC, Saltus R, Maus S (2011). Circum-Arctic mapping project: new magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic. Geol Soc Lond Mem 35, 39-48. Glebovsky V.Yu., Astafurova E.G., Chernykh A.A., Korneva M.A., Kaminsky V.D., Poselov V.A. (2013). Thickness of the Earth's crust in the

  13. Segmentation and detection of fluorescent 3D spots.

    PubMed

    Ram, Sundaresh; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J; Bosco, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    The 3D spatial organization of genes and other genetic elements within the nucleus is important for regulating gene expression. Understanding how this spatial organization is established and maintained throughout the life of a cell is key to elucidating the many layers of gene regulation. Quantitative methods for studying nuclear organization will lead to insights into the molecular mechanisms that maintain gene organization as well as serve as diagnostic tools for pathologies caused by loss of nuclear structure. However, biologists currently lack automated and high throughput methods for quantitative and qualitative global analysis of 3D gene organization. In this study, we use confocal microscopy and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) as a cytogenetic technique to detect and localize the presence of specific DNA sequences in 3D. FISH uses probes that bind to specific targeted locations on the chromosomes, appearing as fluorescent spots in 3D images obtained using fluorescence microscopy. In this article, we propose an automated algorithm for segmentation and detection of 3D FISH spots. The algorithm is divided into two stages: spot segmentation and spot detection. Spot segmentation consists of 3D anisotropic smoothing to reduce the effect of noise, top-hat filtering, and intensity thresholding, followed by 3D region-growing. Spot detection uses a Bayesian classifier with spot features such as volume, average intensity, texture, and contrast to detect and classify the segmented spots as either true or false spots. Quantitative assessment of the proposed algorithm demonstrates improved segmentation and detection accuracy compared to other techniques.

  14. Study of the 3D Coronal Magnetic Field of Active Region 11117 Around the Time of a Confined Flare Using a Data-Driven CESE-MHD Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Feng, X.; Wu, S.; Hu, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Non-potentiality of the solar coronal magnetic field accounts for the solar explosion like flares and CMEs. We apply a data-driven CESE-MHD model to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) coronal magnetic field of NOAA active region (AR) 11117 around the time of a C-class confined flare occurred on 2010 October 25. The CESE-MHD model, based on the spacetime conservation-element and solution-element scheme, is designed to focus on the magnetic-field evolution and to consider a simplified solar atomsphere with finite plasma β. Magnetic vector-field data derived from the observations at the photoshpere is inputted directly to constrain the model. Assuming that the dynamic evolution of the coronal magnetic field can be approximated by successive equilibria, we solve a time sequence of MHD equilibria basing on a set of vector magnetograms for AR 11117 taken by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) around the time of flare. The model qualitatively reproduces the basic structures of the 3D magnetic field, as supported by the visual similarity between the field lines and the coronal loops observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), which shows that the coronal field can indeed be well characterized by the MHD equilibrium in most time. The magnetic configuration changes very limited during the studied time interval of two hours. A topological analysis reveals that the small flare is correlated with a bald patch (BP, where the magnetic field is tangent to the photoshpere), suggesting that the energy release of the flare can be understood by magnetic reconnection associated with the BP separatrices. The total magnetic flux and energy keep increasing slightly in spite of the flare, while the magnetic free energy drops during the flare with an amount of 1.7 × 1030 erg, which can be interpreted as the energy budget released by the minor C-class flare.

  15. Projections of Suitable Wine Growing Regions and Varieties: Adaptation in Space or Place?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrestel, E. J.; Cook, B.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Nicholas, K. A.; Parker, A.; van Leeuwen, C.; Wolkovich, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Winegrapes (Vitis vinifera L) are the most valuable horticultural crop in the world with nearly eight million hectares of vineyards in cultivation. Different varieties of winegrapes (e.g., Grenache or Syrah) exhibit an unprecedented amount of phenological and genetic diversity for a cultivated species, which is an important resource to buffer against climate change. Matching phenological strategies of the different winegrape varieties to a particular climate is a fundamental aim for every vineyard manager, especially in the face of significant climatic shifts in many winegrape growing regions. Yet current projections of suitable winegrape growing regions based on future climate scenarios are limited in their utility, as they do not consider the possibility that other varieties better suited to a future climate could be planted within an existing region. For our projections, we built phenological models for the nine most-planted winegrapes globally, which constitutes over 40% of all planted hectares, using a global dataset of budburst, flowering, veraison and maturity. These models were then used to characterize the growing range of 1300 globally planted winegrape varieties. Combing these models with climate projection models under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios we examined future distributions of suitable wine growing regions, as well as the turnover of suitable varieties within existing regions. In some regions of the world, predicted climate change will not significantly alter the varieties that are able to grow, while in others there will need to be shifts in the region itself or in the varieties that are currently planted. Some regions will also see a significant increase in the number and diversity of varieties that can be grown. Our results suggest the need to utilize the full range of winegrape diversity available when considering adaptive strategies in response to changing climates.

  16. Using Landsat digital data to detect moisture stress in corn-soybean growing regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of a follow-on study to the moisture stress detection effort conducted in the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE), a technique utilizing transformed Landsat digital data was evaluated for detecting moisture stress in humid growing regions using sample segments from Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. At known growth stages of corn and soybeans, segments were classified as undergoing moisture stress or not undergoing stress. The remote-sensing-based information was compared to a weekly ground-based index (Crop Moisture Index). This comparison demonstrated that the remote sensing technique could be used to monitor the growing conditions within a region where corn and soybeans are the major crop.

  17. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  18. Detection of subjects and brain regions related to Alzheimer's disease using 3D MRI scans based on eigenbrain and machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Dong, Zhengchao; Phillips, Preetha; Wang, Shuihua; Ji, Genlin; Yang, Jiquan; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Early diagnosis or detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the normal elder control (NC) is very important. However, the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) was not widely used, and the classification performance did not reach the standard of practical use. We proposed a novel CAD system for MR brain images based on eigenbrains and machine learning with two goals: accurate detection of both AD subjects and AD-related brain regions. Method: First, we used maximum inter-class variance (ICV) to select key slices from 3D volumetric data. Second, we generated an eigenbrain set for each subject. Third, the most important eigenbrain (MIE) was obtained by Welch's t-test (WTT). Finally, kernel support-vector-machines with different kernels that were trained by particle swarm optimization, were used to make an accurate prediction of AD subjects. Coefficients of MIE with values higher than 0.98 quantile were highlighted to obtain the discriminant regions that distinguish AD from NC. Results: The experiments showed that the proposed method can predict AD subjects with a competitive performance with existing methods, especially the accuracy of the polynomial kernel (92.36 ± 0.94) was better than the linear kernel of 91.47 ± 1.02 and the radial basis function (RBF) kernel of 86.71 ± 1.93. The proposed eigenbrain-based CAD system detected 30 AD-related brain regions (Anterior Cingulate, Caudate Nucleus, Cerebellum, Cingulate Gyrus, Claustrum, Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Inferior Parietal Lobule, Insula, Lateral Ventricle, Lentiform Nucleus, Lingual Gyrus, Medial Frontal Gyrus, Middle Frontal Gyrus, Middle Occipital Gyrus, Middle Temporal Gyrus, Paracentral Lobule, Parahippocampal Gyrus, Postcentral Gyrus, Posterial Cingulate, Precentral Gyrus, Precuneus, Subcallosal Gyrus, Sub-Gyral, Superior Frontal Gyrus, Superior Parietal Lobule, Superior Temporal Gyrus, Supramarginal Gyrus, Thalamus, Transverse Temporal Gyrus, and Uncus). The results were coherent with existing

  19. Self consistent particles dynamics in/out of the cusp region by using back tracking technics; a global 3D PIC simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, A.; Cai, D.; Lembege, B.; Nishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale three dimensionbal PIC (particle in cell) simulations are presently used in order to analyze the global solar wind-terrestrial magnetosphere intreraction within a full self-consistent approach, and where both electrons and ions are treated as an assembly of individual particles. This 3D kinetic approach allows us to analyze in particular the dynamics and the fine structures of the cusp region when including self consistently not only its whole neighborhood (in the terrestrial magnetosphere) but also the impact of the solar wind and the interplanetary field (IMF) features. Herein, we focuss our attention on the cusp region and in particular on the acceleration and precipitation of particles (both ions and electrons) within the cusp. In present simulations, the IMF is chosen northward, (i.e. where the X -reconnection region is just above the cusp, in the meridian plane). Back-trackings of self-consistent particles are analyzed in details in order to determine (i) which particles (just above the cusp) are precipitated deeply into the cusp, (ii) which populations are injected from the cusp into the nearby tail, (iii) where the particles suffer the largest energisation along their self-consistent trajectories, (iv) where these populations accumulate, and (v) where the most energetic particles are originally coming from. This approach allows to make a traking of particles within the scenario "solar wind-magnetosheath- cusp -nearbytail"; moreover it strongly differs from the standard test particles technics and allows to provide informations not accessible when using full MHD approach. Keywords: Tracing Particles, Particle In Cell (PIC) simulation, double cusp, test particles method, IMF, Solar wind, Magnetosphere

  20. Ore body shapes versus regional deformation patterns as a base for 3D prospectivity mapping in the Skellefte Mining District, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, T.; Skyttä, P.; Hermansson, T.; Weihed, P.

    2012-04-01

    The current work in progress is based on detailed structural analysis carried out during the last years, which unravels the crustal evolution of the ore bearing Palaeoproterozoic Skellefte District in northern Sweden. The shape and orientation of the volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VMS) ore bodies through the district is modeled in three dimensions and reflected against the regional deformation patterns. By doing this we aim to understand the coupling between the transposition of the ore bodies and the deformation structures in the host rocks, honoring both local deformation features and regional structural transitions. The VMS ore bodies are modeled in gOcad (Paradigm) visualizing both the strike and dip of the ore lenses as well as their dimensions. 25 deposits are currently available in 3D and modelling of the remaining 55 deposits is planned or partly in progress. The ore deposits and mineralizations are classified according to their shape and size. The complexly deformed ore bodies are described each independently. Subsequently, the VMS deposits are plotted on the structural map of the Skellefte district displaying their size and strike, dip and plunge values in order to show their spatial distribution and their relationship with shear zones. The preliminary results show a good correlation between the shape and orientation of the ore bodies and the related structures. Plotting the VMS deposits on a structural map clearly demonstrates the close spatial relation of the ore deposits and regional scale shear zones. Furthermore, the deformation style within the ore deposits generally mimics the deformation style of the shear zones, e.g. the plunge of elongate ore bodies parallels the mineral lineation of the related shear zone. Based on these results, the location and shape of ore deposits may be estimated, which is an important tool for prospectivity mapping and near mine exploration of ore districts.

  1. The terroir of vineyards - climatic variability in an Austrian wine-growing region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerersdorfer, T.

    2010-09-01

    The description of a terroir is a concept in viticulture that relates the sensory attributes of wine to the environmental conditions in which the grapes grow. Many factors are involved including climate, soil, cultivar, human practices and all these factors interact manifold. The study area of Carnuntum is a small wine-growing region in the eastern part of Austria. It is rich of Roman remains which play a major role in tourism and the marketing strategies of the wines as well. An interdisciplinary study on the environmental characteristics particularly with regard to growing conditions of grapes was started in this region. The study is concerned with the description of the physiogeographic properties of the region and with the investigation of the dominating viticultural functions. Grape-vines depend on climatic conditions to a high extent. Compared to other influencing factors like soil, climate plays a significant role. In the framework of this interdisciplinary project climatic variability within the Carnuntum wine-growing region is investigated. On the one hand microclimatic variations are influenced by soil type and by canopy management. On the other hand the variability is a result of the topoclimate (altitude, aspect and slope) and therefore relief is a major terroir factor. Results of microclimatic measurements and variations are presented with focus on the interpretation of the relationship between relief, structure of the vineyards and the climatic conditions within the course of a full year period.

  2. Estimation of regional myocardial mass at risk based on distal arterial lumen volume and length using 3D micro-CT images

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huy; Wong, Jerry T.; Molloi, Sabee

    2008-01-01

    The determination of regional myocardial mass at risk distal to a coronary occlusion provides valuable prognostic information for a patient with coronary artery disease. The coronary arterial system follows a design rule which allows for the use of arterial branch length and lumen volume to estimate regional myocardial mass at risk. Image processing techniques, such as segmentation, skeletonization, and arterial network tracking, are presented for extracting anatomical details of the coronary arterial system using micro-computed tomography (CT). Moreover, a method of assigning tissue voxels to their corresponding arterial branches is presented to determine the dependent myocardial region. The proposed micro-CT technique was utilized to investigate the relationship between the sum of the distal coronary arterial branch lengths and volumes to the dependent regional myocardial mass using a polymer cast of a porcine heart. The correlations of the logarithm of the total distal arterial lengths (L) to the logarithm of the regional myocardial mass (M) for the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX) and right coronary (RCA) arteries were log(L) = 0.73log(M)+ 0.09 (R= 0.78), log(L) = 0.82log(M)+ 0.05 (R= 0.77), and log(L) = 0.85log(M)+ 0.05 (R= 0.87)s, respectively. The correlation of the logarithm of the total distal arterial lumen volumes (V) to the logarithm of the regional myocardial mass for the LAD, LCX and RCA were log(V) = 0.93log(M)− 1.65 (R= 0.81), log(V) = 1.02log(M) −1.79 (R= 0.78), and log(V) = 1.17log(M)− 2.10 (R= 0.82), respectively. These morphological relations did not change appreciably for diameter truncations of 600 to 1400 µm. The results indicate that the image processing procedures successfully extracted information from a large 3D dataset of the coronary arterial tree to provide prognostic indications in the form of arterial tree parameters and anatomical area at risk. PMID:18595659

  3. Quantifying the Reduction Intensity of Handaxes with 3D Technology: A Pilot Study on Handaxes in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, Central China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to analyzing the reduction intensity of handaxes with the aid of 3D scanning technology. Two quantitative reduction indices, the Scar Density Index (SDI) and the Flaked Area Index (FAI), are applied to handaxes from the third terrace of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR), central China, dated to the Middle Pleistocene. The results show that most of the DRR handaxes in this sample show moderate reduction, which also reflects a least-effort reduction strategy and a generally short use-life for these tools. Detailed examination of the DRR handaxes by sector reveals that the tips generally show the most reduction, while the bases show the least shaping, with cortex often preserved on the base to facilitate handling. While western Acheulean assemblages in this regard are variable, there are many examples of handaxes of varying age with trimming of the bases. We also found no significant differences in the levels of reduction between the two main raw materials, quartz phyllite and trachyte. However, the type of blank used (large flakes versus cobbles) and the type of shaping (bifacial, partly bifacial and unifacial) do play a significant role in the reduction intensity of the DRR handaxes. Finally, a small number of handaxes from the younger (the early Late Pleistocene) second terrace of the DRR was compared with those from the third terrace. The results indicate that there is no technological change in the reduction intensity through time in these two DRR terraces.

  4. Quantifying the Reduction Intensity of Handaxes with 3D Technology: A Pilot Study on Handaxes in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, Central China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to analyzing the reduction intensity of handaxes with the aid of 3D scanning technology. Two quantitative reduction indices, the Scar Density Index (SDI) and the Flaked Area Index (FAI), are applied to handaxes from the third terrace of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR), central China, dated to the Middle Pleistocene. The results show that most of the DRR handaxes in this sample show moderate reduction, which also reflects a least-effort reduction strategy and a generally short use-life for these tools. Detailed examination of the DRR handaxes by sector reveals that the tips generally show the most reduction, while the bases show the least shaping, with cortex often preserved on the base to facilitate handling. While western Acheulean assemblages in this regard are variable, there are many examples of handaxes of varying age with trimming of the bases. We also found no significant differences in the levels of reduction between the two main raw materials, quartz phyllite and trachyte. However, the type of blank used (large flakes versus cobbles) and the type of shaping (bifacial, partly bifacial and unifacial) do play a significant role in the reduction intensity of the DRR handaxes. Finally, a small number of handaxes from the younger (the early Late Pleistocene) second terrace of the DRR was compared with those from the third terrace. The results indicate that there is no technological change in the reduction intensity through time in these two DRR terraces. PMID:26331954

  5. Quantifying the Reduction Intensity of Handaxes with 3D Technology: A Pilot Study on Handaxes in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, Central China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to analyzing the reduction intensity of handaxes with the aid of 3D scanning technology. Two quantitative reduction indices, the Scar Density Index (SDI) and the Flaked Area Index (FAI), are applied to handaxes from the third terrace of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR), central China, dated to the Middle Pleistocene. The results show that most of the DRR handaxes in this sample show moderate reduction, which also reflects a least-effort reduction strategy and a generally short use-life for these tools. Detailed examination of the DRR handaxes by sector reveals that the tips generally show the most reduction, while the bases show the least shaping, with cortex often preserved on the base to facilitate handling. While western Acheulean assemblages in this regard are variable, there are many examples of handaxes of varying age with trimming of the bases. We also found no significant differences in the levels of reduction between the two main raw materials, quartz phyllite and trachyte. However, the type of blank used (large flakes versus cobbles) and the type of shaping (bifacial, partly bifacial and unifacial) do play a significant role in the reduction intensity of the DRR handaxes. Finally, a small number of handaxes from the younger (the early Late Pleistocene) second terrace of the DRR was compared with those from the third terrace. The results indicate that there is no technological change in the reduction intensity through time in these two DRR terraces. PMID:26331954

  6. Axial 3D region of interest reconstruction using weighted cone beam BPF/DBPF algorithm cascaded with adequately oriented orthogonal butterfly filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shaojie; Tang, Xiangyang

    2016-03-01

    Axial cone beam (CB) computed tomography (CT) reconstruction is still the most desirable in clinical applications. As the potential candidates with analytic form for the task, the back projection-filtration (BPF) and the derivative backprojection filtered (DBPF) algorithms, in which Hilbert filtering is the common algorithmic feature, are originally derived for exact helical and axial reconstruction from CB and fan beam projection data, respectively. These two algorithms have been heuristically extended for axial CB reconstruction via adoption of virtual PI-line segments. Unfortunately, however, streak artifacts are induced along the Hilbert filtering direction, since these algorithms are no longer accurate on the virtual PI-line segments. We have proposed to cascade the extended BPF/DBPF algorithm with orthogonal butterfly filtering for image reconstruction (namely axial CB-BPP/DBPF cascaded with orthogonal butterfly filtering), in which the orientation-specific artifacts caused by post-BP Hilbert transform can be eliminated, at a possible expense of losing the BPF/DBPF's capability of dealing with projection data truncation. Our preliminary results have shown that this is not the case in practice. Hence, in this work, we carry out an algorithmic analysis and experimental study to investigate the performance of the axial CB-BPP/DBPF cascaded with adequately oriented orthogonal butterfly filtering for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction in region of interest (ROI).

  7. Ambient noise tomography of the Pyrenees and the surrounding regions: inversion for a 3-D Vs model in the presence of a very heterogeneous crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macquet, Marie; Paul, Anne; Pedersen, Helle A.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Chevrot, Sébastien; Sylvander, Matthieu; Wolyniec, David; Pyrope Working Group

    2014-10-01

    The lithospheric architecture of the Pyrenees is still uncertain and highly debated. Here, we provide new constraints from a high-resolution 3-D S-wave velocity model of the Pyrenees and the adjacent foreland basins. This model is obtained from ambient noise tomography on records of temporary and permanent seismic arrays installed in southwestern France and northern Spain. We first computed group velocity maps for Rayleigh waves in the 5 to 55 s period range using noise correlation stacks at 1500-8500 station pairs. As the crust is very heterogeneous, poor results were obtained using a single starting model in a linearized inversion of group velocity dispersion curves for the shear wave structure. We therefore built a starting model for each grid node by full exploration of the model space. The resulting 3-D shear wave velocity model is compared to data from previous geophysical studies as a validation test. Despite the poor sensitivity of surface waves to seismic discontinuities, the geometry of the top of the basement and the Moho depth are retrieved well, except along the Cantabrian coast. Major reflectors of the ECORS deep seismic sounding profiles in the central and western Pyrenees coincide with sharp velocity gradients in our velocity model. We retrieve the difference between the thicker Iberian crust and the thinner European crust, the presence of low-velocity material of the Iberian crust underthrust beneath the European crust in the central Pyrenees, and the structural dissymmetry between the South Pyrenean Zone and the North Pyrenean Zone at the shallow crustal level. In the Labourd-Mauléon-Arzacq region (western Pyrenees), there is a high S-wave velocity anomaly at 20-30 km in depth, which might explain the positive Bouguer anomaly of the Labourd Massif. This high-velocity lower crust, which is also detected beneath the Parentis area, might be an imprint of the Albian-Aptian rifting phase. The southeastern part of the Massif Central has an unusual

  8. 3D-model of complex km-scale fold structures using laserscanning images: The Achensee region, western Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, H.; Gruber, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) are a fold-and-thrust belt built by Permomesozoic rocks. It was affected by Early Jurassic rifting prior to Late Creatceous stacking of thrust sheets. The inversion of Jurassic basins resulted in complex fold structures. One of the enigmatic areas is the Achensee region, where a major kilometric W-E trending anticline-syncline system (Montschein-anticline, Karwendel-syncline) is offset to the north east of lake Achensee (Guffert-anticline, Thiersee syncline). The anticlines and synclines west and east of the transfer zone are recumbent, but no thrust is visible. In the transfer zone, the axis of the anticline curves to a N-S orientation (Unnutz anticline), whereas the syncline evolves to a thrust with 5km offset in E-W cross section (Achental thrust) that superimposes Triassic on Cretaceous rocks. The 3D-model in this low-budget project was constructed to understand the kinematic evolution of the fold and thrust system. Input data were: (1) a tectonic map with a dense network of orientation data, (2) a map of the trace of bedding mapped from 1m resolution laserscanning images, (3) a DEM with approximately 30m resolution.(1) and (2) were prepared in a GIS system, and then imported into the Midland Valleys Move software. Our intention was to create a data-oriented model, to prevent any model-induced bias. Thrust planes were constructed using the intersection lines with the DEM. Bedding in folds was modelled by extruding the intersection lines with the DEM parallel to the fold axis. In both cases errors were introduced into the model as the DEM has not enough resolution. Orientation data are displayed as discs in 3D space. The 3D-model shows that the Achental thrust cuts progressively into deeper structural levels of the Unnutz anticline to the south, therefore the thrust dips shallower to the south than the fold axis. Therefore the Achental thrust superimposes pre-existing folds onto the footwall toward the north, as established

  9. Region growing by sector analysis for detection of blue-gray ovoids in basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guvenc, S. Pelin; Leander, Robert W.; Kefel, Serkan; Rader, Ryan K.; Hinton, Kristen A.; Stricklin, Sherea M.; Stoecker, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Blue-gray ovoids (B-GOs) are critical dermoscopic structures in basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) that pose a challenge for automatic detection. Due to variation in size and color, B-GOs can be easily mistaken for similar structures in benign lesions. Analysis of these structures could help further accomplish the goal of automatic BCC detection. This study introduces an efficient sector-based method for segmenting B-GOs. Four modifications of conventional region-growing techniques are presented: (i) employing a seed area rather than a seed point, (ii) utilizing fixed control limits determined from the seed area to eliminate re-calculations of previously-added regions, (iii) determining region growing criteria using logistic regression, and (iv) area analysis and expansion by sectors. Contact dermoscopy images of 68 confirmed BCCs having B-GOs were obtained. A total of 24 color features were analyzed for all B-GO seed areas. Logistic regression analysis determined blue chromaticity, followed by red variance, were the best features for discriminating B-GO edges from surrounding areas. Segmentation of malignant structures obtained an average Pratt's figure of merit of 0.397. The techniques presented here provide a non-recursive, sector-based, region-growing method applicable to any colored structure appearing in digital images. Further research using these techniques could lead to automatic detection of B-GOs in BCCs. PMID:23724851

  10. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region

    PubMed Central

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse. PMID:24829628

  11. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  12. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  13. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  14. Fuzzy Multiscale Region Growing for Segmentation of MR Images of the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Karin; Maucksch, Frederik; Perlich, Anja; Wolff, Matthias; Toennies, Klaus; Brechmann, André

    We propose an automatic region growing technique for the segmentation of the cerebral cortex and white matter in MRI data. Our method exploits general anatomical knowledge and uses an iterative multi resolution scheme for the estimation of intensity distributions to compensate for artifacts within the data. We present a comparison to segmentation results created by the neuroimaging software Brainvoyager QX and show advantages of our approach based on a qualitative and quantitative evaluation.

  15. The Climatology of Climate Extremes in the World's Major Growing Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, T.; Zhu, X.

    2015-12-01

    A stable food supply is increasingly important as global populations grow and climate variability and extremes affect crop yields. It is therefore critical to quantify the occurrence of extremes in major growing regions globally to understand the vulnerability of the global food supply to climate. First, we grid the GHCN historical climate data and evaluate the effect of gridding on estimation of agriculturally relevant climate extremes, such as heat waves, consecutive dry days, and precipitation intensity. We find that the differences between gridded indices and the raw station indices are small, mostly less than 10%. We then evaluate the climatology of climate extremes and the probability of concurrent extremes, both within one growing region and across multiple regions globally. We find that the correlation of two precipitation or temperature related indices are quite strong, such that the probability of another extreme occurring increases given the occurrence of one extreme. These results provide estimations of the global food supply's vulnerability to climate variability and extremes, which is critical for planning in the coming decades with projections of more frequent and more intense climate extremes.

  16. Integrating depth functions and hyper-scale terrain analysis for 3D soil organic carbon modeling in agricultural fields at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Lopez, L.; van Wesemael, B.; Stevens, A.; Doetterl, S.; Van Oost, K.; Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-04-01

    different depth functions, ii. The use of different machine learning approaches for modeling the parameters of the fitted depth functions using the ConMap features and iii. The influence of different spatial scales on the SOC profile distribution variability. Keywords: 3D modeling, Digital soil mapping, Depth functions, Terrain analysis. Reference Behrens, T., K. Schmidt, K., Zhu, A.X. Scholten, T. 2010. The ConMap approach for terrain-based digital soil mapping. European Journal of Soil Science, v. 61, p.133-143.

  17. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: knowledge-based class image analysis for extraction of anatomical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-06-01

    After neural network-based classification of tissue types, the second step of atlas extraction is knowledge-based class image analysis to get anatomically meaningful objects. Basic algorithms are region growing, mathematical morphology operations, and template matching. A special algorithm was designed for each object. The class label of each voxel and the knowledge about the relative position of anatomical objects to each other and to the sagittal midplane of the brain can be utilized for object extraction. User interaction is only necessary to define starting, mid- and end planes for most object extractions and to determine the number of iterations for erosion and dilation operations. Extraction can be done for the following anatomical brain regions: cerebrum; cerebral hemispheres; cerebellum; brain stem; white matter (e.g., centrum semiovale); gray matter [cortex, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal lobes, cingulum, insula, basal ganglia (nuclei caudati, putamen, thalami)]. For atlas- based quantification of functional data, anatomical objects can be convoluted with the point spread function of functional data to take into account the different resolutions of morphological and functional modalities. This method allows individual atlas extraction from MRI image data of a patient without the need of warping individual data to an anatomical or statistical MRI brain atlas.

  18. Infrared and visible image fusion based on region growing and contourlet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bingjie; Gao, Wei; Song, Zongxi

    2013-09-01

    According to the characteristics of infrared and visible images, a new image fusion method based on region growing and contourlet transform is proposed in this paper. To obtain more complementary information, the method is designed as a two-stage procedure. Firstly, the input infrared image is processed with region growing to segment the thermal target. Different fusion rules are adopted in target and background regions, respectively. For the target region, local energy is utilized as the fusion rule of the first fusion to fuse the thermal target and the visible image, while for the non-target region, we reserve the visible background information. Secondly, in order to fully add original information of the source images and avoid loss of information caused by segmentation, we make the second fusion between the visible image and the result image of the one-stage fusion. For good properties of localization, directionality and anisotropy, we adopt contourlet transform as the second fusion method. Experiments are carried out and the results show that our method is clearer in visual quality and effective in quantitative evaluations and the fused images are better than those resulting of using wavelet transform and contourlet transform.

  19. Best Merge Region Growing with Integrated Probabilistic Classification for Hyperspectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarabalka, Yuliya; Tilton, James C.

    2011-01-01

    A new method for spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral images is proposed. The method is based on the integration of probabilistic classification within the hierarchical best merge region growing algorithm. For this purpose, preliminary probabilistic support vector machines classification is performed. Then, hierarchical step-wise optimization algorithm is applied, by iteratively merging regions with the smallest Dissimilarity Criterion (DC). The main novelty of this method consists in defining a DC between regions as a function of region statistical and geometrical features along with classification probabilities. Experimental results are presented on a 200-band AVIRIS image of the Northwestern Indiana s vegetation area and compared with those obtained by recently proposed spectral-spatial classification techniques. The proposed method improves classification accuracies when compared to other classification approaches.

  20. Pituitary Adenoma Volumetry with 3D Slicer

    PubMed Central

    Nimsky, Christopher; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present pituitary adenoma volumetry using the free and open source medical image computing platform for biomedical research: (3D) Slicer. Volumetric changes in cerebral pathologies like pituitary adenomas are a critical factor in treatment decisions by physicians and in general the volume is acquired manually. Therefore, manual slice-by-slice segmentations in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which have been obtained at regular intervals, are performed. In contrast to this manual time consuming slice-by-slice segmentation process Slicer is an alternative which can be significantly faster and less user intensive. In this contribution, we compare pure manual segmentations of ten pituitary adenomas with semi-automatic segmentations under Slicer. Thus, physicians drew the boundaries completely manually on a slice-by-slice basis and performed a Slicer-enhanced segmentation using the competitive region-growing based module of Slicer named GrowCut. Results showed that the time and user effort required for GrowCut-based segmentations were on average about thirty percent less than the pure manual segmentations. Furthermore, we calculated the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) between the manual and the Slicer-based segmentations to proof that the two are comparable yielding an average DSC of 81.97±3.39%. PMID:23240062

  1. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  2. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  3. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  4. The interaction between deepwater channel systems and growing thrusts and folds, toe-thrust region of the deepwater Niger Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Byami; Whittaker, Alex; Lonergan, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    Gravity-driven seaward-verging thrusts, landward-verging back-thrusts and associated folds often characterize the slope and deepwater settings of passive margins. These structures, found in the 'toe-thrust' region of the system, exert a significant control on sediment gravity flows because they create and determine the location and configuration of sediment depocentres and transport systems. Consequently, a quantitative understanding of the interaction between sediment gravity flows and seabed topography is required to understand these systems effectively. Here we make quantitative measurements of the geomorphic response of submarine channels to growing tectonic structures with the aim of providing new constraints on the long-term erosional dynamics of submarine channel systems. This study exploits 3D seismic data in the outer toe-thrust region of the deepwater Niger Delta to analyze the interaction between Plio-Pleistocene channel systems and actively growing folds and thrusts. We mapped folds and thrusts from the seismic data and we used this data to reconstruct the history of fold growth. We then used the sea-bed seismic horizon to build a 50 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the sea floor in Arc-GIS. We extracted channel long- profiles across growing structures from the DEM, and made measurements of channel geometries at regular intervals along the channel length. This information was used to infer morphodyanamic processes that sculpted the channel systems through time, and to estimate the bed shear stresses and fluid velocities of typical flow events. The bathymetric long profiles of these channels are relatively linear with concavity that range from -0.08 to -0.34, and an average gradient of ~1o. Actively growing thrusts are typically associated with a local steepening in channel gradient by a factor of up to 3, and this effect extends 0.5 - 2 km upstream of the thrust. Within these knickzones, channel incision increases by approximately by a

  5. Natural Region Carnuntum - a web map of the Carnuntum wine-growing area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitner, Heinz; Heinrich, Maria; Graßl, Johann; Eitzinger, Josef; Hobiger, Gerhard; Murer, Erwin; Pirkl, Herbert; Rabeder, Julia; Reischer, Johannes; Schiegl, Martin; Spiegel, Adelheid; Wimmer-Frey, Ingeborg

    2014-05-01

    Utilizing web map services and a web map application the results of a three-year study of the vineyards of Carnuntum are made easily accessible to winemakers and the general public. During the study the vineyards of Carnuntum have been investigated for their terroir characteristics and major viticulture functions. As a result, various thematic layers and geodata analyses describe the geo-environmental properties and variability of the wine growing region and delimit homogenous multilayer mapping units by using a Geographic Information System. On the basis of the study report, which combines written text and printed maps to present these results, the thematic layers and geodata analysis results have been converted to multilayer web services and an accompanying web map application. The web map gives access to grouped thematic layers which represent climate, soil, geochemistry, geology and apparent resistivity maps. Using a web map interface with on screen navigation to areas of interest and selection of layers for display in any desired combination, the study results are made available to winemakers of the region and to the general public. The web map Natural Region Carnuntum shall primarily serve as an information tool but is also intended to communicate and propose scientific research for the investigation of wine-growing regions.

  6. Application of the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filter and the decoupled direct 3D method for the dynamic evaluation of a regional air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Daiwen; Hogrefe, Christian; Foley, Kristen L.; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Mathur, Rohit; Trivikrama Rao, S.

    2013-12-01

    Regional air quality models are being used in a policy-setting to assess the changes in air pollutant concentrations from changes in emissions and meteorology. Dynamic evaluation entails examination of a retrospective case(s) to examine whether an air quality model has properly predicted the air quality response to known changes in emissions and/or meteorology. In this study, the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter has been used to spectrally decompose pollutant time series into different forcings that are controlled by different atmospheric processes influencing the predicted and observed pollutant concentrations. Through analyses of the different components influenced by different forcings as part of dynamic model evaluation, we can discern which of the component(s) or scale(s) of forcing are simulated well by the model and the component(s) or scale(s) of forcing needing further improvement in the model. The KZ filter has been applied to both the observed and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model-predicted summertime ozone (O3) time series in years 2002 and 2005. The 2002-2005 time period is a good candidate for the dynamic evaluation case study because of the large changes in NOx emissions as a result of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) call together with a gradual decline in mobile emissions. Results suggest that the CMAQ model performs similarly for both years in terms of capturing the observed synoptic-scale forcing. However, the changes in the observed ozone baseline component (i.e. longer-term variations) are not properly captured by the model at some locations. The factors contributing to the ozone baseline include emissions loading, boundary conditions, and other parameters that vary slowly over time. Analysis using a reduced form model developed from the sensitivity coefficients calculated from the decoupled direct method in three dimensions (DDM-3D) reveals that ground-level NOx emissions

  7. Experiments performed with bubbly flow in vertical pipes at different flow conditions covering the transition region: simulation by coupling Eulerian, Lagrangian and 3D random walks models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Cobo, José; Chiva, Sergio; El Aziz Essa, Mohamed; Mendes, Santos

    2012-08-01

    Two phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and water were performed in a vertical upward isothermal cocurrent air-water flow column with conditions ranging from bubbly flow, with very low void fraction, to transition flow with some cap and slug bubbles and void fractions around 25%. The superficial velocities of the liquid and the gas phases were varied from 0.5 to 3 m/s and from 0 to 0.6 m/s, respectively. Also to check the effect of changing the surface tension on the previous experiments small amounts of 1-butanol were added to the water. These amounts range from 9 to 75 ppm and change the surface tension. This study is interesting because in real cases the surface tension of the water diminishes with temperature, and with this kind of experiments we can study indirectly the effect of changing the temperature on the void fraction distribution. The following axial and radial distributions were measured in all these experiments: void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity. The range of values of the gas superficial velocities in these experiments covered the range from bubbly flow to the transition to cap/slug flow. Also with transition flow conditions we distinguish two groups of bubbles in the experiments, the small spherical bubbles and the cap/slug bubbles. Special interest was devoted to the transition region from bubbly to cap/slug flow; the goal was to understand the physical phenomena that take place during this transition A set of numerical simulations of some of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions has been performed by coupling a Lagrangian code, that tracks the three dimensional motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates inside the field of the carrier liquid, to an Eulerian model that computes the magnitudes of continuous phase and to a 3D random walk model that takes on account the fluctuation in the velocity field of the

  8. Kinematic Analysis of Fold-Thrust-Belt Using Integrated Analogue Sandbox Modeling and 3D Palinspatic Reconstructions in Babar-Selaru Area, Banda Sea Region, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiie, Benyamin; Hadiana, Meli; Kurniawan, Ade; Daniel, Dicky; Danio, Harya; Fujimoto, Masamichi; Ohara, Michio; Alam Perdana, Lisnanda; Saputra, Afif

    2016-04-01

    Kinematic analysis of Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt is challenging and often difficult particularly in conducting seismic interpretation due to complex structural geometries. Resolving such as issue, in this study we proposed to use integrated seismic interpretation, analogue sandbox modeling and 3D palinspatic reconstructions. This paper is presented results of detail kinematic analysis for understanding tectonic evolution as well as mechanism of fold-thrust-belt in relation to their hydrocarbon prospect. Babar-Selaru Area is located within the collisional boundary between Australian continental margin and Banda Arc region of Indonesia. The area is characterized by complex deformation zone of fold-thrust-belt, involving Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary sequences of Australian continental margin. The age of deformation is ranging from 8-5 Ma. Seismic interpretations show two styles of faults developed in the area, which are thrust and normal faults system. The last deformation observed in the Babar Selaru area is controlled by south verging imbricated thin-skinned thrust fault system, with the staircase style of fault detachment. Although, both structural styles occurred in separated locations, they are formed not only in the same time but also related in time and space. Total extension is ranging from 1-3 % where average shortening is in the order of 35-38%. Sandbox modeling is an effective way to study and understand the style, pattern and geometry of the deformed sedimentary sequences in the study area. Based on comparison of five settings experiments (mainly different geological boundary condition) with more than 50 different modeling; deformation is particularly controlled by types and thickness of lithology package and detachment geometry. These two parameters were quite sensitive in generating different deformation style and pattern in Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt. Therefore, choosing the right combination of stratigraphy model and material setting are

  9. Nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation in microscopic images using K-means clustering and region growing

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Segmentation of leukocytes acts as the foundation for all automated image-based hematological disease recognition systems. Most of the time, hematologists are interested in evaluation of white blood cells only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and segment them into their two dominant elements, nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using two stages of applying K-means clustering. First, the nuclei are segmented using K-means clustering. Then, a proposed method based on region growing is applied to separate the connected nuclei. Next, the nuclei are subtracted from the original image. Finally, the cytoplasm is segmented using the second stage of K-means clustering. Results: The results indicate that the proposed method is able to extract the nucleus and cytoplasm regions accurately and works well even though there is no significant contrast between the components in the image. Conclusions: In this paper, a method based on K-means clustering and region growing is proposed in order to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and segment its components, the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As region growing step of the algorithm relies on the information of edges, it will not able to separate the connected nuclei more accurately in poor edges and it requires at least a weak edge to exist between the nuclei. The nucleus and cytoplasm segments of a leukocyte can be used for feature extraction and classification which leads to automated leukemia detection. PMID:26605213

  10. Radioactivity and heavy metal levels in hazelnut growing in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cevik, U; Celik, N; Celik, A; Damla, N; Coskuncelebi, K

    2009-09-01

    The Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey is one of the main hazelnut producers in Turkey and in the world. Since this region was contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a comprehensive study was planned and carried out to determine the radioactivity level in hazelnut growing region. The dose due to consumption of hazelnut by the public was estimated and it was shown that this dose imposes no threat to human health. In addition, heavy metal analysis was performed in the samples and the amount of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb were also detected. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metal are below the daily intake recommended by the international organizations.

  11. The Sabethines of Northern Andean Coffee-Growing Regions of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Suaza-Vasco, Juan; López-Rubio, Andrés; Galeano, Juan; Uribe, Sandra; Vélez, Iván; Porter, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Sampling for sabethine mosquitoes occurred intermittently from September 2007 to April 2013 in 17 municipalities, located in 5 departments (divisions) in the northern Andean coffee-growing regions of Colombia. Of the 9 genera within the Sabethini tribe known to occur in the Neotropical region, 6 were encountered including 15 species: Jonhbelkinia ulopus, Limatus durhamii, Sabethes ignotus, Sa. luxodens, Sa. undosus, Shannoniana fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon compressum, Tr. digitatum, Tr. evansae, Tr. pallidiventer s.l., Tr. pallidiventer s.s., Wyeomyia arthrostigma, Wy. oblita, Wy. ulocoma, and Wy. undulata. The species Sa. luxodens and Wy. undulata constitute new records for Colombia. These records broaden the knowledge of this important group that includes some important species related to the arbovirus transmission. Records are from the northern Colombian Andes, a region noted for coffee cultivation and ecotourism. PMID:26181687

  12. The Sabethines of Northern Andean Coffee-Growing Regions of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Suaza-Vasco, Juan; López-Rubio, Andrés; Galeano, Juan; Uribe, Sandra; Vélez, Iván; Porter, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Sampling for sabethine mosquitoes occurred intermittently from September 2007 to April 2013 in 17 municipalities, located in 5 departments (divisions) in the northern Andean coffee-growing regions of Colombia. Of the 9 genera within the Sabethini tribe known to occur in the Neotropical region, 6 were encountered including 15 species: Jonhbelkinia ulopus, Limatus durhamii, Sabethes ignotus, Sa. luxodens, Sa. undosus, Shannoniana fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon compressum, Tr. digitatum, Tr. evansae, Tr. pallidiventer s.l., Tr. pallidiventer s.s., Wyeomyia arthrostigma, Wy. oblita, Wy. ulocoma, and Wy. undulata. The species Sa. luxodens and Wy. undulata constitute new records for Colombia. These records broaden the knowledge of this important group that includes some important species related to the arbovirus transmission. Records are from the northern Colombian Andes, a region noted for coffee cultivation and ecotourism.

  13. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  14. Climate-Smart Landscapes for Managing Water Resources in the Tea Growing Regions of Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Biggs, E. M.; Saikia, S. D.; Duncan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tea is an important global agricultural commodity, both commercially and culturally. Assam, an agrarian state in northeast India is the largest single tea growing region in the world and the productivity (both in terms of quantity and quality) requires a specific range of enviro-climatic conditions. Precipitation and temperature are two climate factors which highly influence productivity. Thus water plays a critical role in sustaining future tea production in Assam. Recently the region has been affected by heterogeneous spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation and rising temperatures. This has led to temporally varying drought-like conditions during the tea production season, reducing crop resilience and degrading yield quality. Quantifying regional climate-yield characteristics enables more effective decision-making regarding climate change mitigation, water resources management and adaptation to sustain (and enhance) future tea crop production. This research used a panel based regression model to statistically quantify the extent to which precipitation and temperature variables are associated with changes in tea yield. Monthly time-series climate and yield data were regressed for the period 2004 to 2014. Yield data were obtained from 80 tea estates across the four main tea growing regions of Assam, and 120 climate variables were selected for analysis. Results indicate that periods of drought (e.g. more than 10 consecutive days of zero precipitation) are significantly associated with reductions in yield, whereas periods of intense precipitation (e.g. number of days where the 95th percentile was exceeded) are generally associated with increased yield. These results have provided an enhanced understanding of climate-yield characteristics, which will subsequently be used to deliver more climate-smart advisory decision-support services to tea producers in the region. Although water resources management practices, such as water harvesting structures, check dams

  15. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  16. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  17. Compact 3D flash lidar video cameras and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stettner, Roger

    2010-04-01

    The theory and operation of Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc.'s (ASC) latest compact 3D Flash LIDAR Video Cameras (3D FLVCs) and a growing number of technical problems and solutions are discussed. The solutions range from space shuttle docking, planetary entry, decent and landing, surveillance, autonomous and manned ground vehicle navigation and 3D imaging through particle obscurants.

  18. The growing challenges of vector-borne diseases to regionally-aligned forces.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon L; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    The long-term strategic focus of US foreign policy has pivoted to the Pacific, but tensions in the Middle East require constant attention in the present. As our current role in Afghanistan diminishes, we must seize the opportunity to refocus on the new priority of regionally-aligned forces. The short-term reality requires first reestablishing core warfighting competencies of a smaller Army and then building the capacity of forces focused on regional alignment. The continuing threat of vector-borne and other infectious diseases will present growing challenges to US forces focused on regional alignment and engagement. Greater understanding of these threats, host nation vulnerabilities and capabilities, and the regional presence of international and nongovernmental organizations will enable US forces to respond and engage more effectively and appropriately to accomplish assigned missions and future contingencies. Effective vector surveillance and control has a longstanding and proven record of preventing, reducing, and eliminating vector-borne diseases and must remain a focus of regionally-aligned forces. Operational readiness of armed forces continues to rely heavily on vector surveillance and control, and on personal protection strategies. Regionally-aligned forces must also work closely with the US Department of State and US Agency for International Development, international governments, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and private organizations operating in the region and know how to effectively interact with these diverse organizations. In addition, a working knowledge of a host country's public health policy, capabilities and economic realities will be essential. Teamwork with previously unfamiliar groups and organizations will be an essential component of working in regional environments and can present unfamiliar tasks for traditionally-trained military units.

  19. The growing challenges of vector-borne diseases to regionally-aligned forces.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon L; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    The long-term strategic focus of US foreign policy has pivoted to the Pacific, but tensions in the Middle East require constant attention in the present. As our current role in Afghanistan diminishes, we must seize the opportunity to refocus on the new priority of regionally-aligned forces. The short-term reality requires first reestablishing core warfighting competencies of a smaller Army and then building the capacity of forces focused on regional alignment. The continuing threat of vector-borne and other infectious diseases will present growing challenges to US forces focused on regional alignment and engagement. Greater understanding of these threats, host nation vulnerabilities and capabilities, and the regional presence of international and nongovernmental organizations will enable US forces to respond and engage more effectively and appropriately to accomplish assigned missions and future contingencies. Effective vector surveillance and control has a longstanding and proven record of preventing, reducing, and eliminating vector-borne diseases and must remain a focus of regionally-aligned forces. Operational readiness of armed forces continues to rely heavily on vector surveillance and control, and on personal protection strategies. Regionally-aligned forces must also work closely with the US Department of State and US Agency for International Development, international governments, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and private organizations operating in the region and know how to effectively interact with these diverse organizations. In addition, a working knowledge of a host country's public health policy, capabilities and economic realities will be essential. Teamwork with previously unfamiliar groups and organizations will be an essential component of working in regional environments and can present unfamiliar tasks for traditionally-trained military units. PMID:25074596

  20. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  1. Development of an anthropomorphic breast software phantom based on region growing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cuiping; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2008-03-01

    Software breast phantoms offer greater flexibility in generating synthetic breast images compared to physical phantoms. The realism of such generated synthetic images depends on the method for simulating the three-dimensional breast anatomical structures. We present here a novel algorithm for computer simulation of breast anatomy. The algorithm simulates the skin, regions of predominantly adipose tissue and fibro-glandular tissue, and the matrix of adipose tissue compartments and Cooper's ligaments. The simulation approach is based upon a region growing procedure; adipose compartments are grown from a selected set of seed points with different orientation and growth rate. The simulated adipose compartments vary in shape and size similarly to the anatomical breast variation, resulting in much improved phantom realism compared to our previous simulation based on geometric primitives. The proposed simulation also has an improved control over the breast size and glandularity. Our software breast phantom has been used in a number of applications, including breast tomosynthesis and texture analysis optimization.

  2. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  3. MARGA: multispectral adaptive region growing algorithm for brain extraction on axial MRI.

    PubMed

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Cabezas, Mariano; Vilanova, Joan C; Rovira, Alex; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Lladó, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Brain extraction, also known as skull stripping, is one of the most important preprocessing steps for many automatic brain image analysis. In this paper we present a new approach called Multispectral Adaptive Region Growing Algorithm (MARGA) to perform the skull stripping process. MARGA is based on a region growing (RG) algorithm which uses the complementary information provided by conventional magnetic resonance images (MRI) such as T1-weighted and T2-weighted to perform the brain segmentation. MARGA can be seen as an extension of the skull stripping method proposed by Park and Lee (2009) [1], enabling their use in both axial views and low quality images. Following the same idea, we first obtain seed regions that are then spread using a 2D RG algorithm which behaves differently in specific zones of the brain. This adaptation allows to deal with the fact that middle MRI slices have better image contrast between the brain and non-brain regions than superior and inferior brain slices where the contrast is smaller. MARGA is validated using three different databases: 10 simulated brains from the BrainWeb database; 2 data sets from the National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NAMIC) database, the first one consisting in 10 normal brains and 10 brains of schizophrenic patients acquired with a 3T GE scanner, and the second one consisting in 5 brains from lupus patients acquired with a 3T Siemens scanner; and 10 brains of multiple sclerosis patients acquired with a 1.5T scanner. We have qualitatively and quantitatively compared MARGA with the well-known Brain Extraction Tool (BET), Brain Surface Extractor (BSE) and Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) approaches. The obtained results demonstrate the validity of MARGA, outperforming the results of those standard techniques. PMID:24380649

  4. A new seeded region growing technique for retinal blood vessels extraction.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

    2014-07-01

    Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation.

  5. Segmentation of retinal vessels by means of directional response vector similarity and region growing.

    PubMed

    Lázár, István; Hajdu, András

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a novel retinal vessel segmentation method. Opposed to the general approach in similar directional methods, where only the maximal or summed responses of a pixel are used, here, the directional responses of a pixel are considered as a vector. The segmentation method is a unique region growing procedure which combines a hysteresis thresholding scheme with the response vector similarity of adjacent pixels. A vessel score map is constructed as the combination of the statistical measures of the response vectors and its local maxima to provide the seeds for the region growing procedure. A nearest neighbor classifier based on a rotation invariant response vector similarity measure is used to filter the seed points. Many techniques in the literature that capture the Gaussian-like cross-section of vessels suffer from the drawback of giving false high responses to the steep intensity transitions at the boundary of the optic disc and bright lesions. To overcome this issue, we also propose a symmetry constrained multiscale matched filtering technique. The proposed vessel segmentation method has been tested on three publicly available image sets, where its performance proved to be competitive with the state-of-the-art and comparable to the accuracy of a human observer, as well. PMID:26432200

  6. Integrating multiscale polar active contours and region growing for microcalcifications segmentation in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikidis, N. S.; Karahaliou, A.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Likaki, E.; Panagiotakis, G.; Costaridou, L.

    2009-07-01

    Morphology of individual microcalcifications is an important clinical factor in microcalcification clusters diagnosis. Accurate segmentation remains a difficult task due to microcalcifications small size, low contrast, fuzzy nature and low distinguishability from surrounding tissue. A novel application of active rays (polar transformed active contours) on B-spline wavelet representation is employed, to provide initial estimates of microcalcification boundary. Then, a region growing method is used with pixel aggregation constrained by the microcalcification boundary estimates, to obtain the final microcalcification boundary. The method was tested on dataset of 49 microcalcification clusters (30 benign, 19 malignant), originating from the DDSM database. An observer study was conducted to evaluate segmentation accuracy of the proposed method, on a 5-point rating scale (from 5:excellent to 1:very poor). The average accuracy rating was 3.98±0.81 when multiscale active rays were combined to region growing and 2.93±0.92 when combined to linear polynomial fitting, while the difference in rating of segmentation accuracy was statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  7. A New Seeded Region Growing Technique for Retinal Blood Vessels Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation. PMID:25298931

  8. SU-C-9A-01: Parameter Optimization in Adaptive Region-Growing for Tumor Segmentation in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, S; Xue, M; Chen, W; D'Souza, W; Lu, W; Li, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To design a reliable method to determine the optimal parameter in the adaptive region-growing (ARG) algorithm for tumor segmentation in PET. Methods: The ARG uses an adaptive similarity criterion m - fσ ≤ I-PET ≤ m + fσ, so that a neighboring voxel is appended to the region based on its similarity to the current region. When increasing the relaxing factor f (f ≥ 0), the resulting volumes monotonically increased with a sharp increase when the region just grew into the background. The optimal f that separates the tumor from the background is defined as the first point with the local maximum curvature on an Error function fitted to the f-volume curve. The ARG was tested on a tumor segmentation Benchmark that includes ten lung cancer patients with 3D pathologic tumor volume as ground truth. For comparison, the widely used 42% and 50% SUVmax thresholding, Otsu optimal thresholding, Active Contours (AC), Geodesic Active Contours (GAC), and Graph Cuts (GC) methods were tested. The dice similarity index (DSI), volume error (VE), and maximum axis length error (MALE) were calculated to evaluate the segmentation accuracy. Results: The ARG provided the highest accuracy among all tested methods. Specifically, the ARG has an average DSI, VE, and MALE of 0.71, 0.29, and 0.16, respectively, better than the absolute 42% thresholding (DSI=0.67, VE= 0.57, and MALE=0.23), the relative 42% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE= 0.41, and MALE=0.23), the absolute 50% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE=0.48, and MALE=0.21), the relative 50% thresholding (DSI=0.48, VE=0.54, and MALE=0.26), OTSU (DSI=0.44, VE=0.63, and MALE=0.30), AC (DSI=0.46, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.47), GAC (DSI=0.40, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.46) and GC (DSI=0.66, VE= 0.54, and MALE=0.21) methods. Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed method reliably identified the optimal relaxing factor in ARG for tumor segmentation in PET. This work was supported in part by National Cancer Institute Grant R01 CA172638; The

  9. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  10. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  11. Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.

    2016-06-01

    With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.

  12. A 3-D finite-element model for computation of temperature profiles and regions of thermal damage during focused ultrasound surgery exposures.

    PubMed

    Meaney, P M; Clarke, R L; ter Haar, G R; Rivens, I H

    1998-11-01

    Although there have been numerous models implemented for modeling thermal diffusion effects during focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), most have limited themselves to representing simple situations for which analytical solutions and the use of cylindrical geometries sufficed. For modeling single lesion formation and the heating patterns from a single exposure, good results were achieved in comparison with experimental results for predicting lesion size, shape and location. However, these types of approaches are insufficient when considering the heating of multiple sites with FUS exposures when the time interval between exposures is short. In such cases, the heat dissipation patterns from initial exposures in the lesion array formation can play a significant role in the heating patterns for later exposures. Understanding the effects of adjacent lesion formation, such as this, requires a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the bioheat equation. Thus, we have developed a 3-D finite-element representation for modeling the thermal diffusion effects during FUS exposures in clinically relevant tissue volumes. The strength of this approach over past methods is its ability to represent arbitrarily shaped 3-D situations. Initial simulations have allowed calculation of the temperature distribution as a function of time for adjacent FUS exposures in excised bovine liver, with the individually computed point temperatures comparing favorably with published measurements. In addition to modeling these temperature distributions, the model was implemented in conjunction with an algorithm for calculating the thermal dose as a way of predicting lesion shape. Although used extensively in conventional hyperthermia applications, this thermal dose criterion has only been applied in a limited number of simulations in FUS for comparison with experimental measurements. In this study, simulations were run for focal depths 2 and 3 cm below the surface of pig's liver, using multiple

  13. Plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase gene expression, protein level and activity in growing and non-growing regions of barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves.

    PubMed

    Visnovitz, Tamás; Solti, Adám; Csikós, György; Fricke, Wieland

    2012-04-01

    Plasma membrane proton ATPase (PM-H⁺-ATPase) is the key means through which plant cells energize nutrient uptake and acidify the apoplast. Both of these processes aid cell elongation; yet, it is not known how such a suspected role of the PM-H⁺-ATPase in growth is reflected through changes in its transcript level and activity in grass leaves. In the present study on leaf three of barley, the elongation zone and the emerged blade, which contained fully expanded cells were analyzed. Plasma membranes were isolated and used to assay the activity (ATPase assay) and abundance (western blotting) of PM-H⁺-ATPase protein. Expression of mRNA was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). PM-H⁺-ATPase transcript and protein level and activity differed little between growing and non-growing leaf regions when values were related to unit extracted total RNA and cell number, respectively. However, when values were related to unit surface area of plasma membrane, they were more than twice as high in growing compared with non-growing leaf tissue. It is concluded that this higher surface density of PM-H⁺-ATPase activity in growing barley leaf tissue aids apoplast acidification and cell expansion. PMID:22257033

  14. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin – Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    PubMed Central

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions. PMID:27006288

  15. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin – Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  16. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  17. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  18. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  19. 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tong; Chen, Huan; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The 3D geometry of individual vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which are essential for understanding the mechanical function of blood vessels, are currently not available. This paper introduces a new 3D segmentation algorithm to determine VSMC morphology and orientation. Methods and Results A total of 112 VSMCs from six porcine coronary arteries were used in the analysis. A 3D semi-automatic segmentation method was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs from cell clumps as well as to extract the 3D geometry of VSMCs. A new edge blocking model was introduced to recognize cell boundary while an edge growing was developed for optimal interpolation and edge verification. The proposed methods were designed based on Region of Interest (ROI) selected by user and interactive responses of limited key edges. Enhanced cell boundary features were used to construct the cell’s initial boundary for further edge growing. A unified framework of morphological parameters (dimensions and orientations) was proposed for the 3D volume data. Virtual phantom was designed to validate the tilt angle measurements, while other parameters extracted from 3D segmentations were compared with manual measurements to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. The length, width and thickness of VSMCs were 62.9±14.9μm, 4.6±0.6μm and 6.2±1.8μm (mean±SD). In longitudinal-circumferential plane of blood vessel, VSMCs align off the circumferential direction with two mean angles of -19.4±9.3° and 10.9±4.7°, while an out-of-plane angle (i.e., radial tilt angle) was found to be 8±7.6° with median as 5.7°. Conclusions A 3D segmentation algorithm was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs of blood vessel walls based on optical image stacks. The results were validated by a virtual phantom and manual measurement. The obtained 3D geometries can be utilized in mathematical models and leads a better understanding of vascular mechanical properties and function. PMID:26882342

  20. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  1. Distributions of Salmonella Subtypes Differ between Two U.S. Produce-Growing Regions

    PubMed Central

    Danyluk, Michelle D.; Worobo, Randy W.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella accounts for approximately 50% of produce-associated outbreaks in the United States, several of which have been traced back to contamination in the produce production environment. To quantify Salmonella diversity and aid in identification of Salmonella contamination sources, we characterized Salmonella isolates from two geographically diverse produce-growing regions in the United States. Initially, we characterized the Salmonella serotype and subtype diversity associated with 1,677 samples collected from 33 produce farms in New York State (NYS). Among these 1,677 samples, 74 were Salmonella positive, yielding 80 unique isolates (from 147 total isolates), which represented 14 serovars and 23 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. To explore regional Salmonella diversity associated with production environments, we collected a smaller set of samples (n = 65) from South Florida (SFL) production environments and compared the Salmonella diversity associated with these samples with the diversity found among NYS production environments. Among these 65 samples, 23 were Salmonella positive, yielding 32 unique isolates (from 81 total isolates), which represented 11 serovars and 17 different PFGE types. The most common serovars isolated in NYS were Salmonella enterica serovars Newport, Cerro, and Thompson, while common serovars isolated in SFL were Salmonella serovars Saphra and Newport and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae serovar 50:r:z. High PFGE type diversity (Simpson's diversity index, 0.90 ± 0.02) was observed among Salmonella isolates across both regions; only three PFGE types were shared between the two regions. The probability of three or fewer shared PFGE types was <0.000001; therefore, Salmonella isolates were considerably different between the two sampled regions. These findings suggest the potential for PFGE-based source tracking of Salmonella in production environments. PMID:24747908

  2. Pushing the Limits of Geological Mapping Outside the Earth: 3D Modeling of Strike-Slip and Extensional Fault Systems in Meridiani Planum Region, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Royo, O.

    2014-12-01

    GIS and geological modeling software have radically changed the means by which geological mapping is produced, published and visualized. This type of software environment normally requires a spatially aware reference system to position data and interpretation, often referred as georeferenced data (i.e. geographic data referenced on the Earth). However, for this study we coin the term areoreferenced data (i.e. Mars-referenced "geographic" data). Thanks to the wealth of areoreferenced data made available by the NASA and the HiRise at University of Arizona it is now possible to carry out 3D areographic and areologic (i.e. related to the topography and geology of Mars, respectively) reconstructions in great detail. The present work benefits from the availability of software and areographic data, and presents the results of an areologic map and 3D model of the fault systems in the Meridiani Planum of Mars. The work has been carried out in Move™ (developed by Midland Valley Exploration), a geological modeling toolkit that allows for easy data loading in a wide range of formats as well as straightforward 2D/3D model building tools of geological bodies. Initial data consisted of Digital Terrain Model and orthoimages (NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/USGS). From these we have interpreted several structural domains: right-lateral strike-slip systems with associated releasing bends, which gave room to an extensional event causing a horizontal-axis rotation of the bedding. Bedding ranges from subhorizontal in the southern domain where strike-slip prevails to nearly 40º in the central and northern domains, where a more complex interaction between strike-slip and extensional faults is described. The stratigraphic sequence is mainly composed by moderately rounded well laminated basaltic sandstones (Squyres et al., 2004) in which a high component of sulfurs (e.g. sulfate anhydrate, hexahydrite, epsomite, gypsum) and salts (e.g. halite) has been described (Squyres et al., 2004

  3. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  4. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  6. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  7. Method for extracting the aorta from 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2007-03-01

    Bronchoscopic biopsy of the central-chest lymph nodes is vital in the staging of lung cancer. Three-dimensional multi-detector CT (MDCT) images provide vivid anatomical detail for planning bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, many lymph nodes are situated close to the aorta, and an inadvertent needle biopsy could puncture the aorta, causing serious harm. As an eventual aid for more complete planning of lymph-node biopsy, it is important to define the aorta. This paper proposes a method for extracting the aorta from a 3D MDCT chest image. The method has two main phases: (1) Off-line Model Construction, which provides a set of training cases for fitting new images, and (2) On-Line Aorta Construction, which is used for new incoming 3D MDCT images. Off-Line Model Construction is done once using several representative human MDCT images and consists of the following steps: construct a likelihood image, select control points of the medial axis of the aortic arch, and recompute the control points to obtain a constant-interval medial-axis model. On-Line Aorta Construction consists of the following operations: construct a likelihood image, perform global fitting of the precomputed models to the current case's likelihood image to find the best fitting model, perform local fitting to adjust the medial axis to local data variations, and employ a region recovery method to arrive at the complete constructed 3D aorta. The region recovery method consists of two steps: model-based and region-growing steps. This region growing method can recover regions outside the model coverage and non-circular tube structures. In our experiments, we used three models and achieved satisfactory results on twelve of thirteen test cases.

  8. Region-growing segmentation to automatically delimit synthetic drumlins in 'real' DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisank, Clemens; Smith, Mike; Hillier, John

    2013-04-01

    Mapping or 'delimiting' landforms is one of geomorphology's primary tools. Computer-based techniques, such as terrain segmentation, may potentially provide terrain units that are close to the size and shape of landforms. Whether terrain units represent landforms heavily depends on the segmentation algorithm, its settings and the type of underlying land-surface parameters (LSPs). We assess a widely used region-growing technique, i.e. the multiresolution segmentation (MRS) algorithm as implemented in object-based image analysis software, for delimiting drumlins. Supervised testing was based on five synthetic DEMs that included the same set of perfectly known drumlins at different locations. This, for the first time, removes subjectivity from the reference data. Five LSPs were tested, and four variants were computed for each using two pre- and post-processing options. The automated method (1) employs MRS to partition the input LSP into 200 ever coarser terrain unit patterns, (2) identifies the spatially best matching terrain unit for each reference drumlin, and (3) computes four accuracy metrics for quantifying the aerial match between delimited and reference drumlins. MRS performed best on LSPs that are regional, derived from a decluttered DEM and then normalized. Median scale parameters (SPs) for segments best delineating drumlins were relatively stable for the same LSP, but varied significantly between LSPs. Larger drumlins were generally delimited at higher SPs. MRS indicated high robustness against variations in the location and distribution of drumlins.

  9. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  10. SU-E-T-342: Use of Patient Geometry Measurements to Predict Dosimetric Gain with VMAT Over 3D for Chestwall and Regional Nodal Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dumane, V; Knoll, M; Green, S; Bakst, R; Hunt, M; Steinberger, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To predict the dosimetric gain of VMAT over 3D for the treatment ofchestwall/IMN/supraclavicular nodes using geometric parameters acquired during simulation Methods: CT scans for 20 left and 20 right sided patients were retrospectively analyzed toobtain percent ipsilateral lung volume included in the PWT and supraclavicular fields, central lung depth (CLD), maximum lung depth (MLD), separation, chestwall concavity (defined here as the product of CLD and separation) and the maximum heart depth (MHD). VMAT, PWT and P/E plans were done for each case. The ipsilateral lung V20 Gy and mean, total lung V20 Gy and mean, heart V25 Gy and mean were noted for each plan. Correlation coefficients were obtained and linear regression models were built using data from the above training set of patients and then tested on 4 new patients. Results: The decrease in ipsilateral lung V20 Gy, total lung V20 Gy, ipsilateral lung mean and total lung mean with VMAT over PWT significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the percent volume of ipsilateral lung included in the PWT and supraclavicular fields with correlation coefficient values of r = 0.83, r = 0.77, r = 0.78 and r = 0.75 respectively. Significant correlations were also found between MHD and the decrease in heart V25 Gy and mean of r = 0.77 and r = 0.67 respectively. Dosimetric improvement with VMAT over P/E plans showed no correlation to any of the geometric parameters investigated in this study. The dosimetric gain predicted for the 4 test cases by the linear regression models given their respective percent ipsilateral lung volumes fell within the 95% confidence intervals around the best regression fit. Conclusion: The percent ipsilateral lung volume appears to be a strong predictor of the dosimetric gain on using VMAT over PWT apriori.

  11. Automatic segmentation of canine retinal OCT using adaptive gradient enhancement and region growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yufan; Sun, Yankui; Chen, Min; Zheng, Yuanjie; Liu, Hui; Leon, Cecilia; Beltran, William; Gee, James C.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown that the canine retina model offers important insight for our understanding of human retinal diseases. Several therapies developed to treat blindness in such models have already moved onto human clinical trials, with more currently under development [1]. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers a high resolution imaging modality for performing in-vivo analysis of the retinal layers. However, existing algorithms for automatically segmenting and analyzing such data have been mostly focused on the human retina. As a result, canine retinal images are often still being analyzed using manual segmentations, which is a slow and laborious task. In this work, we propose a method for automatically segmenting 5 boundaries in canine retinal OCT. The algorithm employs the position relationships between different boundaries to adaptively enhance the gradient map. A region growing algorithm is then used on the enhanced gradient maps to find the five boundaries separately. The automatic segmentation was compared against manual segmentations showing an average absolute error of 5.82 +/- 4.02 microns.

  12. Automatic Delineation of the Myocardial Wall from CT Images via Shape Segmentation and Variational Region Growing

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liangjia; Gao, Yi; Appia, Vikram; Yezzi, Anthony; Arepalli, Chesnal; Faber, Tracy; Stillman, Arthur; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Prognosis and diagnosis of cardiac diseases frequently require quantitative evaluation of the ventricle volume, mass, and ejection fraction. The delineation of the myocardial wall is involved in all of these evaluations, which is a challenging task due to large variations in myocardial shapes and image quality. In this work, we present an automatic method for extracting the myocardial wall of the left and right ventricles from cardiac CT images. In the method, the left and right ventricles are located sequentially, in which each ventricle is detected by first identifying the endocardium and then segmenting the epicardium. To this end, the endocardium is localized by utilizing its geometric features obtained on-line from a CT image. After that, a variational region-growing model is employed to extract the epicardium of the ventricles. In particular, the location of the endocardium of the left ventricle is determined via using an active contour model on the blood-pool surface. To localize the right ventricle, the active contour model is applied on a heart surface extracted based on the left ventricle segmentation result. The robustness and accuracy of the proposed approach is demonstrated by experimental results from 33 human and 12 pig CT images. PMID:23744658

  13. No-infill 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yu-He; Geng, Guo-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examined how printing the hollow objects without infill via fused deposition modeling, one of the most widely used 3D-printing technologies, by partitioning the objects to shell parts. More specifically, we linked the partition to the exact cover problem. Given an input watertight mesh shape S, we developed region growing schemes to derive a set of surfaces that had inside surfaces that were printable without support on the mesh for the candidate parts. We then employed Monte Carlo tree search over the candidate parts to obtain the optimal set cover. All possible candidate subsets of exact cover from the optimal set cover were then obtained and the bounded tree was used to search the optimal exact cover. We oriented each shell part to the optimal position to guarantee the inside surface was printed without support, while the outside surface was printed with minimum support. Our solution can be applied to a variety of models, closed-hollowed or semi-closed, with or without holes, as evidenced by experiments and performance evaluation on our proposed algorithm.

  14. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  15. Incorporating 3D-printing technology in the design of head-caps and electrode drives for recording neurons in multiple brain regions

    PubMed Central

    DeLucca, Michael V.; Haufler, Darrell; Paré, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in recording and computing hardware have enabled laboratories to record the electrical activity of multiple brain regions simultaneously. Lagging behind these technical advances, however, are the methods needed to rapidly produce microdrives and head-caps that can flexibly accommodate different recording configurations. Indeed, most available designs target single or adjacent brain regions, and, if multiple sites are targeted, specially constructed head-caps are used. Here, we present a novel design style, for both microdrives and head-caps, which takes advantage of three-dimensional printing technology. This design facilitates targeting of multiple brain regions in various configurations. Moreover, the parts are easily fabricated in large quantities, with only minor hand-tooling and finishing required. PMID:25652930

  16. Incorporating 3D-printing technology in the design of head-caps and electrode drives for recording neurons in multiple brain regions.

    PubMed

    Headley, Drew B; DeLucca, Michael V; Haufler, Darrell; Paré, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in recording and computing hardware have enabled laboratories to record the electrical activity of multiple brain regions simultaneously. Lagging behind these technical advances, however, are the methods needed to rapidly produce microdrives and head-caps that can flexibly accommodate different recording configurations. Indeed, most available designs target single or adjacent brain regions, and, if multiple sites are targeted, specially constructed head-caps are used. Here, we present a novel design style, for both microdrives and head-caps, which takes advantage of three-dimensional printing technology. This design facilitates targeting of multiple brain regions in various configurations. Moreover, the parts are easily fabricated in large quantities, with only minor hand-tooling and finishing required.

  17. Incorporating 3D-printing technology in the design of head-caps and electrode drives for recording neurons in multiple brain regions.

    PubMed

    Headley, Drew B; DeLucca, Michael V; Haufler, Darrell; Paré, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in recording and computing hardware have enabled laboratories to record the electrical activity of multiple brain regions simultaneously. Lagging behind these technical advances, however, are the methods needed to rapidly produce microdrives and head-caps that can flexibly accommodate different recording configurations. Indeed, most available designs target single or adjacent brain regions, and, if multiple sites are targeted, specially constructed head-caps are used. Here, we present a novel design style, for both microdrives and head-caps, which takes advantage of three-dimensional printing technology. This design facilitates targeting of multiple brain regions in various configurations. Moreover, the parts are easily fabricated in large quantities, with only minor hand-tooling and finishing required. PMID:25652930

  18. Lagrangian Sampling of 3-D Air Quality Model Results for Regional Transport Contributions to Sulfate Aerosol Concentrations at Baltimore, MD in Summer of 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lagrangian method provides estimates of the chemical and physical evolution of air arriving in the daytime boundary layer at Baltimore. Study results indicate a dominant role for regional transport contributions of those days when sulfate air pollution is highest in Baltimor...

  19. Application of Kolomogorov-Zurbenko Filter and the decoupled direct 3D method for the dynamic evaluation of a regional air quality model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional air quality models are being used in a policy-setting to estimate the response of air pollutant concentrations to changes in emissions and meteorology. Dynamic evaluation entails examination of a retrospective case(s) to assess whether an air quality model has properly p...

  20. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  1. DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.

    2000-04-21

    DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.

  2. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  3. The kinematical properties of superbubbles and H II regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud derived from the 3D Hα Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrocio-Cruz, P.; Le Coarer, E.; Rosado, M.; Russeil, D.; Amram, P.; Laval, A.; Epinat, B.; Ramírez, M.; Odonne, M.; Goldes, G.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of a kinematical Hα survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) presented in the form of a kinematical and photometric catalogue of 210 H II regions. The observations have been obtained with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer that produced data cubes corresponding to 66 different pointings over this galaxy, each with a field of view of 38 arcmin, covering almost the whole extent of the LMC. We find a bimodal distribution of the Hα luminosity of LMC H II regions. We also derive the local star formation and star formation rate (SFR) per unit area of the nebulae, concluding that star formation in the LMC has proceeded until the present time at an average rate of roughly 0.11 M⊙ yr-1. Also, we do not find any correlation between the SFR or ΣSFR with ΔV (full width at half-maximum for a single Gaussian profile and the difference in velocities for multiple-components velocity profiles), the diameter, the distance to the kinematical centre of the LMC and age of the nebulae. Over most of the LMC ΔV appears to be of the order of 30 km s-1. However, in a few regions the ΔV of the velocity profiles is as large as 50-100 kms-1, corresponding to identified supernova remnants and superbubbles undergoing expansion motions.

  4. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  5. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  6. New 3D Bolton standards: coregistration of biplane x rays and 3D CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David; Subramanyan, Krishna; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    1997-04-01

    The Bolton Standards 'normative' cohort (16 males, 16 females) have been invited back to the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center for new biorthogonal plain film head x-rays and 3D (three dimensional) head CT-scans. A set of 29 3D landmarks were identified on both their biplane head film and 3D CT images. The current 3D CT image is then superimposed onto the landmarks collected from the current biplane head films. Three post-doctoral fellows have collected 37 3D landmarks from the Bolton Standards' 40 - 70 year old biplane head films. These films were captured annually during their growing period (ages 3 - 18). Using 29 of these landmarks the current 3D CT image is next warped (via thin plate spline) to landmarks taken from each participant's 18th year biplane head films, a process that is successively reiterated back to age 3. This process is demonstrated here for one of the Bolton Standards. The outer skull surfaces will be extracted from each warped 3D CT image and an average will be generated for each age/sex group. The resulting longitudinal series of average 'normative' boney skull surface images may be useful for craniofacial patient: diagnosis, treatment planning, stereotactic procedures, and outcomes assessment.

  7. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  8. Towards Automatic Semantic Labelling of 3D City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rook, M.; Biljecki, F.; Diakité, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The lack of semantic information in many 3D city models is a considerable limiting factor in their use, as a lot of applications rely on semantics. Such information is not always available, since it is not collected at all times, it might be lost due to data transformation, or its lack may be caused by non-interoperability in data integration from other sources. This research is a first step in creating an automatic workflow that semantically labels plain 3D city model represented by a soup of polygons, with semantic and thematic information, as defined in the CityGML standard. The first step involves the reconstruction of the topology, which is used in a region growing algorithm that clusters upward facing adjacent triangles. Heuristic rules, embedded in a decision tree, are used to compute a likeliness score for these regions that either represent the ground (terrain) or a RoofSurface. Regions with a high likeliness score, to one of the two classes, are used to create a decision space, which is used in a support vector machine (SVM). Next, topological relations are utilised to select seeds that function as a start in a region growing algorithm, to create regions of triangles of other semantic classes. The topological relationships of the regions are used in the aggregation of the thematic building features. Finally, the level of detail is detected to generate the correct output in CityGML. The results show an accuracy between 85 % and 99 % in the automatic semantic labelling on four different test datasets. The paper is concluded by indicating problems and difficulties implying the next steps in the research.

  9. Spatially explicit exposure assessment for small streams in catchments of the orchard growing region `Lake Constance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, B.; Bach, M.; Krumpe, J.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction Small streams differ greatly from the standardised water body used in the context of aquatic risk assessment for the regulation of plant protection products in Germany. The standard water body is static, with a depth of 0.3 m and a width of 1.0 m. No dilution or water replacement takes place. Spray drift happens always in direction to the water body. There is no variability in drift deposition rate (90th percentile spray drift deposition values [2]). There is no spray drift filtering by vegetation. The application takes place directly adjacent to the water body. In order to establish a more realistic risk assessment procedure the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) aggreed to replace deterministic assumptions with data distributions and spatially explicit data and introduce probabilistic methods [3, 4, 5]. To consider the spatial and temporal variability in the exposure situations of small streams the hydraulic and morphological characteristics of catchments need to be described as well as the spatial distribution of fields treated with pesticides. As small streams are the dominant type of water body in most German orchard regions, we use the growing region Lake Constance as pilot region. 2. Materials and methods During field surveys we derive basic morphological parameters for small streams in the Lake Constance region. The mean water width/depth ratio is 13 with a mean depth of 0.12 m. The average residence time is 5.6 s/m (n=87) [1]. Orchards are mostly located in the upper parts of the catchments. Based on an authoritative dataset on rivers and streams of Germany (ATKIS DLM25) we constructed a directed network topology for the Lake Constance region. The gradient of the riverbed is calculated for river stretches of > 500 m length. The network for the pilot region consists of 2000 km rivers and streams. 500 km stream length are located within a distance of 150 m to orchards. Within

  10. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  11. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  12. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  13. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  14. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  15. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  16. An effective hyper-resolution pseudo-3D implementation of small scale hydrological features to improve regional and global climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Gochis, D. J.; Niu, G.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A.; Zeng, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global land surface processes play an important role in the land-atmosphere exchanges of energy, water, and trace gases. As such, correct representation of the different hydrological processes has long been an important research topic in climate modeling. Historically, these processes were presented at a relatively coarse horizontal resolution, focusing mainly on the vertical hydrological response, while lateral exchanges were either disregarded or implemented in a relatively crude manner. Increases in computational power have led to higher resolution regional and global land surface models. For the coming years, it is anticipated that these models will simulate the hydrological response of the earth surface at a 100-1000 meter pixel size, which is stated as hyper-resolution earth surface modeling. At these relatively high resolutions, correct representation of groundwater, including lateral interactions across pixels and with the channel network, becomes important. Next to that, at these high resolutions elevation differences have a larger impact on the hydrological response and therefore need to be represented properly. We will present a new hydrological framework specifically developed to operate at these hyper-resolutions. Our new approach discriminates between differences in the hydrological response of hillslopes, riparian zones, wetlands and flat regions within a given pixel, while interacting with the channel network and the atmosphere. Instead of applying the traditional conceptual approach, these interactions are incorporated using a physically-based approach. In order to be able to differentiate between these different hydrological features, globally available high-resolution 30 meter DEM data were analyzed using a state-of-the-art digital geomorphological identification method. Based on these techniques, local estimates of soil depth, hillslope width functions, channel network density, etc. were also obtained that are used as input to the model In the

  17. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  18. Simulating gas and particulate pollution over the Middle East and the state of Qatar using a 3-D regional air quality modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoukis, Christos; Gladich, Ivan; Ayoub, Mohammed; Kais, Sabre; Ackermann, Luis; Skillern, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic expansion in the Middle East have led to increased levels of atmospheric pollution with important implications for human health and climate. We applied the online-coupled meteorological and chemical transport Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model over the Middle Eastern domain, to simulate the concentration of gas and aerosols with a special focus over the state of Qatar. WRF-Chem was set to simulate pollutant concentrations along with the meteorology-chemistry interactions through the related direct, indirect and semi-direct feedback mechanisms. A triple-nested domain configuration was used with a high grid resolution (1x1 km2) over the region of Qatar. Model predictions are evaluated against intensive measurements of meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) as well as ozone and particulate matter taken from various measurement stations throughout Doha, Qatar during summer 2015. The ability of the model to capture the temporal and spatial variability of the observations is assessed and possible reasons for the model bias are explored through sensitivity tests. Emissions of both fine and coarse mode particles from construction activities in large urban Middle Eastern environments comprise a major pollution source that is unaccounted for in emission inventories used so far in large scale models for this part of the world.

  19. From the local to the regional scale. What is the effect of missing vertical heterogeneity moving from fully 3-D to 2-D depth averaged dispersion models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvini, G.; Salandin, P.

    2010-12-01

    The plume evolution in natural porous formations is strongly affected by the erratic variability of the hydraulic conductivity K that exhibits a three-dimensional correlation structure. In regional domains, the effect of the vertical heterogeneity combines itself with that one due to the horizontal variability of K, and when the plume has travelled a large number of (horizontal) integral scales, under the hypothesis that the transmissivity spatial distribution prevails, its evolution can be analyzed by two-dimensional models. Until this limit is reached, the vertical and horizontal variability of K are combined to give a fully three-dimensional dispersion process and the application of depth averaged models may give erroneous results. In order to analyze the effects on transport deriving from this simplification, we present the results of some numerical experiments that compare the three-dimensional plume evolution with two-dimensional simulations developed by taking into account different hydraulic conductivity spatial distributions. The comparison between results of numerical simulations and theoretical considerations based on first order solution suggests a possible way to take into account the vertical variability of K in a depth averaged model.

  20. A 3-D evaluation of the MACC reanalysis dust product over the greater European region using CALIOP/CALIPSO satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Benedetti, Angela; Zanis, Prodromos; Kourtidis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Significant amounts of dust are being transferred on an annual basis over the Mediterranean Basin and continental Europe from Northern Africa (Sahara Desert) and Middle East (Arabian Peninsula) as well as from other local sources. Dust affects a number of processes in the atmosphere modulating weather and climate also having an impact on human health and the economy. Therefore, the ability of simulating adequately the amount and optical properties of dust is essential. This work focuses on the evaluation of the MACC reanalysis dust product over the regions mentioned above. The evaluation procedure is based on pure dust satellite retrievals from CALIOP/CALIPSO that cover the period 2007-2012. The CALIOP/CALIPSO data utilized here come from an optimized retrieval scheme that was originally developed within the framework of the LIVAS (Lidar Climatology of Vertical Aerosol Structure for Space-Based LIDAR Simulation Studies) project. CALIOP/CALIPSO dust extinction coefficients and dust optical depth patterns at 532 nm are used for the validation of MACC natural aerosol extinction coefficients and dust optical depth patterns at 550 nm. Overall, it is shown in this work that space-based lidars may play a major role in the improvement of the MACC aerosol product. This research has been financed under the FP7 Programme MarcoPolo (Grand Number 606953, Theme SPA.2013.3.2-01).

  1. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  2. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  3. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  4. Irrigated plantations and their effect on energy fluxes in a semi-arid region of Israel - a validated 3-D model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branch, O.; Warrach-Sagi, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Cohen, S.

    2013-11-01

    A large irrigated biomass plantation was simulated in an arid region of Israel within the WRF-NOAH coupled atmospheric/land surface model in order to assess land surface atmosphere feedbacks. Simulations were carried out for the 2012 summer season (JJA). The irrigated plantations were simulated by prescribing tailored land surface and soil/plant parameters, and by implementing a newly devised, controllable sub-surface irrigation scheme within NOAH. Two model cases studies were considered and compared - Impact and Control. Impact simulates a hypothetical 10 km × 10 km irrigated plantation. Control represents a baseline and uses the existing land surface data, where the predominant land surface type in the area is bare desert soil. Central to the study is model validation against observations collected for the study over the same period. Surface meteorological and soil observations were made at a desert site and from a 400 ha Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) plantation. Control was validated with data from the desert, and Impact from the Jojoba. Finally, estimations were made of the energy balance, applying two Penman-Monteith based methods along with observed meteorological data. These estimations were compared with simulated energy fluxes. Control simulates the daytime desert surface 2 m air temperatures (T2) with less than 0.2 °C deviation and the vapour pressure deficit (VPD) to within 0.25 hPa. Desert wind speed (U) is simulated to within 0.5 m s-1 and the net surface radiation (Rn) to 25 W m-2. Soil heat flux (G) is not so accurately simulated by Control (up to 30 W m-2 deviation) and 5 cm soil temperatures (ST5) are simulated to within 1.5 °C. Impact simulates daytime T2 over irrigated vegetation to within 1-1.5 °C, the VPD to 0.5 hPa, Rn to 50 W m-2 and ST5 to within 2 °C. Simulated Impact G deviates up to 40 W m-2, highlighting a need for re-parameterisation or better soil classification, but the overall contribution to the energy balance is small (5

  5. MEDCAN-GRO: Medical Capacity for African Nations - Growing Regional Operability A Case Study in Special Operations Forces Capacity Building.

    PubMed

    Givens, Melissa L; Verlo, April

    2015-01-01

    Medical Capacity for African Nations-Growing Regional Operability (MEDCAN-GRO) is a framework for addressing healthcare engagements that are intended to provide sustainable capacity building with partner nations. MEDCAN-GRO provides SOF units with a model that can be scaled to partner nation needs and aligned with the goals of the TSOC in an effort to enhance partner nation security.

  6. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome.

    PubMed

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/.

  7. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome

    PubMed Central

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J.; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892

  8. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  9. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  10. Inversion for rupture properties based upon 3-D directivity effect and application to deep earthquakes in the Sea of Okhotsk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sunyoung; Ishii, Miaki

    2015-11-01

    Rupture properties, such as rupture direction, length, propagation speed and source duration, provide important insights into earthquake mechanisms. One approach to estimate these properties is to investigate the body-wave duration that depends upon the relative location of the station with respect to the rupture direction. Under the assumption that the propagation is unilateral, the duration can be expressed as a function of the dip and azimuth of the rupture. Examination of duration measurements with respect to both the take-off angle and the azimuth is crucial to obtain robust estimates of rupture parameters, especially for nearly vertical rupture propagation. Moreover, limited data coverage, such as using only teleseismic data, can bias the source duration estimate for dipping ruptures, and this bias can map into estimates of other source properties such as rupture extent and rupture speed. Based upon this framework, we introduce an inversion scheme that uses the duration measurements to obtain four parameters: the source duration, a measure of the rupture extent and speed, and dip and azimuth of the rupture propagation. The method is applied to two deep-focus events in the Sea of Okhotsk region, an Mw 7.7 event that occurred on 2012 August 14 and an Mw 8.3 event from 2013 May 24. The source durations are 26 ± 1 and 37 ± 1 s, and rupture speeds are 49 ± 4 per cent and 26 ± 3 per cent of shear wave speed for the Mw 7.7 and 8.3 events, respectively. The azimuths of the two ruptures are parallel to the trench, but are in opposite directions. The dips of the Mw 7.7 and 8.3 events are constrained to be 48° ± 8° downdip and 19° ± 8° updip, respectively. The fit to the data is significantly poorer for the Mw 8.3 event than the Mw 7.7 event, suggesting that the unilateral rupture may not be a good assumption. The analysis is expanded into a multi-episode model, and a secondary episode is determined for the Mw 8.3 event in the southeast direction. The two

  11. Efficient segmentation of 3D fluoroscopic datasets from mobile C-arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styner, Martin A.; Talib, Haydar; Singh, Digvijay; Nolte, Lutz-Peter

    2004-05-01

    The emerging mobile fluoroscopic 3D technology linked with a navigation system combines the advantages of CT-based and C-arm-based navigation. The intra-operative, automatic segmentation of 3D fluoroscopy datasets enables the combined visualization of surgical instruments and anatomical structures for enhanced planning, surgical eye-navigation and landmark digitization. We performed a thorough evaluation of several segmentation algorithms using a large set of data from different anatomical regions and man-made phantom objects. The analyzed segmentation methods include automatic thresholding, morphological operations, an adapted region growing method and an implicit 3D geodesic snake method. In regard to computational efficiency, all methods performed within acceptable limits on a standard Desktop PC (30sec-5min). In general, the best results were obtained with datasets from long bones, followed by extremities. The segmentations of spine, pelvis and shoulder datasets were generally of poorer quality. As expected, the threshold-based methods produced the worst results. The combined thresholding and morphological operations methods were considered appropriate for a smaller set of clean images. The region growing method performed generally much better in regard to computational efficiency and segmentation correctness, especially for datasets of joints, and lumbar and cervical spine regions. The less efficient implicit snake method was able to additionally remove wrongly segmented skin tissue regions. This study presents a step towards efficient intra-operative segmentation of 3D fluoroscopy datasets, but there is room for improvement. Next, we plan to study model-based approaches for datasets from the knee and hip joint region, which would be thenceforth applied to all anatomical regions in our continuing development of an ideal segmentation procedure for 3D fluoroscopic images.

  12. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  13. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  14. Automatic 2D-to-3D image conversion using 3D examples from the internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, J.; Brown, G.; Wang, M.; Ishwar, P.; Wu, C.; Mukherjee, D.

    2012-03-01

    repository. While far from perfect, the presented results demonstrate that on-line repositories of 3D content can be used for effective 2D-to-3D image conversion. With the continuously increasing amount of 3D data on-line and with the rapidly growing computing power in the cloud, the proposed framework seems a promising alternative to operator-assisted 2D-to-3D conversion.

  15. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  16. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  17. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  18. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  19. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  20. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  1. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  2. STAR3D: a stack-based RNA 3D structural alignment tool

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Ping; Zhang, Shaojie

    2015-01-01

    The various roles of versatile non-coding RNAs typically require the attainment of complex high-order structures. Therefore, comparing the 3D structures of RNA molecules can yield in-depth understanding of their functional conservation and evolutionary history. Recently, many powerful tools have been developed to align RNA 3D structures. Although some methods rely on both backbone conformations and base pairing interactions, none of them consider the entire hierarchical formation of the RNA secondary structure. One of the major issues is that directly applying the algorithms of matching 2D structures to the 3D coordinates is particularly time-consuming. In this article, we propose a novel RNA 3D structural alignment tool, STAR3D, to take into full account the 2D relations between stacks without the complicated comparison of secondary structures. First, the 3D conserved stacks in the inputs are identified and then combined into a tree-like consensus. Afterward, the loop regions are compared one-to-one in accordance with their relative positions in the consensus tree. The experimental results show that the prediction of STAR3D is more accurate for both non-homologous and homologous RNAs than other state-of-the-art tools with shorter running time. PMID:26184875

  3. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  4. Volumetric CT-based segmentation of NSCLC using 3D-Slicer.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Emmanuel Rios; Parmar, Chintan; Jermoumi, Mohammed; Mak, Raymond H; van Baardwijk, Angela; Fennessy, Fiona M; Lewis, John H; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Kikinis, Ron; Lambin, Philippe; Aerts, Hugo J W L

    2013-01-01

    Accurate volumetric assessment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is critical for adequately informing treatments. In this study we assessed the clinical relevance of a semiautomatic computed tomography (CT)-based segmentation method using the competitive region-growing based algorithm, implemented in the free and public available 3D-Slicer software platform. We compared the 3D-Slicer segmented volumes by three independent observers, who segmented the primary tumour of 20 NSCLC patients twice, to manual slice-by-slice delineations of five physicians. Furthermore, we compared all tumour contours to the macroscopic diameter of the tumour in pathology, considered as the "gold standard". The 3D-Slicer segmented volumes demonstrated high agreement (overlap fractions > 0.90), lower volume variability (p = 0.0003) and smaller uncertainty areas (p = 0.0002), compared to manual slice-by-slice delineations. Furthermore, 3D-Slicer segmentations showed a strong correlation to pathology (r = 0.89, 95%CI, 0.81-0.94). Our results show that semiautomatic 3D-Slicer segmentations can be used for accurate contouring and are more stable than manual delineations. Therefore, 3D-Slicer can be employed as a starting point for treatment decisions or for high-throughput data mining research, such as Radiomics, where manual delineating often represent a time-consuming bottleneck. PMID:24346241

  5. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  6. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  7. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  8. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study.

  9. Simulations with CAO-3D model of photochemical response caused by precipitating electrons and solar protons at both polar regions during geomagnetic storms in October-November 2003 (preliminary comparison with MIPAS data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutsky, Alexei A.; Banin, Max; Maik Wissing, Jan; Vyushkova, Tatyana

    Relativistic electrons precipitating from radiation belts and solar protons can penetrate below 100 km into the polar atmosphere sometimes reaching the stratospheric levels wasting its energy and causing the ionization. It leads to additional production of NOx and HOx chemical com-pounds which destroy ozone in the chemical catalytic cycles. One of the strongest geomagnetic storms accompained by a strong Solar Proton Eevent (SPE) occured in October-November 2003. This period was covered also by observations with MIPAS instrument placed on board of ENVISAT satellite. The response of atmospheric chemical composition in both polar regions was studied with CAO-3D photochemical-transport model. In order to calculate ionization rates induced by precipitating electrons and solar protons during late October and November 2003, corresponding proton and electron fluxes in different energetic channels from GOES-10 and POES-15/16 have been used. The Atmospheric Ionization Module Osnabruck -AIMOS /Wissing and Kallenrode, 2009/ was used to calculate 3D fields of ionization rates separately by electrons and protons. Photochemical simulations showed that Northern and Southern po-lar regions had different photochemical response. Such difference mostly is the result of the two factors: polar cap expansion during the geomagnetic storm and the effect of horizontal transport. The calculated members of NOy, HOx, Cly families were preliminary compared with corresponding observed data measured by MIPAS and showed a general agreement. The sensitivity of calculated chemical response to the efficiencies of NOx and HOx production by en-ergetic particles have been studied also. This work was supported by Russian Science Foudation for Basic Research (grant 09-05-009949) and by contract 1-6-08 under Russian Sub-Program "Reseach and Investigation of Antarctica".

  10. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  11. Benefits of environmental conditions for growing coriander in Banat Region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Acimovic, Milica; Oljaca, Snezana; Jacimovic, Goran; Drazic, Slobodan; Tasic, Slavoljub

    2011-10-01

    As one of the oldest multi-purpose plants (spice, aromatic, honey and medicinal), coriander is widespread across Europe. Although in Serbia there are favorable conditions for its growth and development, it is grown on relatively small areas. During both investigated years it took more than 1200 degrees C for transfer from vegetative to generative phase of development and over 2000 degrees C for it to be ready for harvesting. Coriander is a photophilic plant, which requires around 1000 hours of light from sowing to ripening.. As for humidity, coriander grows well, if there are more than 200 mm of rainfall during growing season. In 2009 and 2010, the experiment carried out at the experimental field in Ostojićevo (Banat, Vojvodina province, Serbia) monitored the effect of parameters mentioned above on development of coriander plants, seed yield and essential oil content. The average yields of 1866 kg ha(-1) (2009) and 2470 kg ha(-1) (2010), and relatively high content of essential oil (1.06% in both years) indicate a great potential of this plant species in Serbia, which is, however, greatly dependent on environmental conditions during year.

  12. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:26971218

  13. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  14. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  15. Internal communications program expands at Salina Regional Health Center as the health system grows.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1999-01-01

    The e-mail system is evolving into one of Salina, Kan., Regional Health Center's primary sources of communications for its 1,350 employees and physicians. Check out how the health system uses other internal communication tools. PMID:10387297

  16. State-Of of 3d National Mapping in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoter, Jantien; Vallet, Bruno; Lithen, Thomas; Pla, Maria; Wozniak, Piotr; Kellenberger, Tobias; Streilein, Andre; Ilves, Risto; Ledoux, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Techniques for 3D mapping are maturing. At the same time the need for 3D data is increasing. This has pushed national (and regional) mapping agencies (NMAs) to consider extending their traditional task of providing topographic data into the third dimension. To show how research results in 3D mapping obtained over the past twenty years have been adopted by practice, this paper presents the ongoing work on 3D mapping within seven NMAs, all member of the 3D Special Interest Group of European Spatial Data Research (EuroSDR). The paper shows that some NMAs are still in the initial (experimental) phase of 3D mapping, while others have already built solid databases to maintain 2.5D and 3D topographic data covering their whole country.

  17. Molecular evolution of VP3, VP1, 3C(pro) and 3D(pol) coding regions in coxsackievirus group A type 24 variant isolates from acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in 2011 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Kuba, Yumani; Saitoh, Mika; Taira, Katsuya; Maeshiro, Noriyuki; Mahoe, Yoko; Kyan, Hisako; Takara, Taketoshi; Okano, Sho; Kudaka, Jun; Yoshida, Hiromu; Oishi, Kazunori; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2014-04-01

    A large acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) outbreak occurred in 2011 in Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. Ten strains of coxsackievirus group A type 24 variant (CA24v) were isolated from patients with AHC and full sequence analysis of the VP3, VP1, 3C(pro) and 3D(pol) coding regions performed. To assess time-scale evolution, phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In addition, similarity plots were constructed and pairwise distance (p-distance) and positive pressure analyses performed. A phylogenetic tree based on the VP1 coding region showed that the present strains belong to genotype 4 (G4). In addition, the present strains could have divided in about 2010 from the same lineages detected in other countries such as China, India and Australia. The mean rates of molecular evolution of four coding regions were estimated at about 6.15 to 7.86 × 10(-3) substitutions/site/year. Similarity plot analyses suggested that nucleotide similarities between the present strains and a prototype strain (EH24/70 strain) were 0.77-0.94. The p-distance of the present strains was relatively short (<0.01). Only one positive selected site (L25H) was identified in the VP1 protein. These findings suggest that the present CA24v strains causing AHC are genetically related to other AHC strains with rapid evolution and emerged in around 2010.

  18. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  19. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  20. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values. Nine female growing pigs were used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared with the DK and TH pig diets. From the known diet composition using standard table values on chemical and nutrient digestibly, high accuracy (bias) and low variation was found and the results could be used for prediction on chemical composition and excretion in faeces and urine in growing pigs. Calculation based on standard values regarding nutrient retention in the pig body as used in the Danish manure normative system (DMNS) showed likewise to be quite useful for quantifying the total excretion of N and P. Overall, the results demonstrate that simple models that require cheap and normally available information on dietary nutrients can give useful information on nutrient excretion in growing pigs. PMID:24206677

  1. Southern Slippage: Growing School Segregation in the Most Desegregated Region of the Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Frankenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The South remains the most desegregated region in the country for black students, but along every measure of segregation and at each level of geography, gains made during the desegregation era are slipping away at a steady pace. This report shows that the segregation of Southern black students has been progressively increasing since judicial…

  2. Growing PreK-12 Educators through a Partnership of School Districts and a Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brenda A.; Kirk, Jeffrey L.; Eddings, Bobbie J.; Farris, L. Ann

    2013-01-01

    In central Texas and regions across the country, community leaders are calling for university-community engagement, including development of structures for community-based research and service learning. Including the community in decision making regarding continuing professional education serves as a link between universities such as Texas A&M…

  3. Automatic urban road extraction on DSM data based on fuzzy ART, region growing, morphological operations and radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herumurti, Darlis; Uchimura, Keiichi; Koutaki, Gou; Uemura, Takumi

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, an automatic urban road extraction, as part of Intelligent Transportation research, has attracted the researchers due to the important role for the next modern transportation where urban area plays the main role within the transportation system. In this work, we propose a new combination of fuzzy ART clustering, Region growing, Morphological Operations and Radon transform (ARMOR) for automatic extraction of urban road networks from the digital surface model (DSM). The DSM data, which is based-on the elevation of surface, overcome a serious building's shadow problem as in the aerial photo image. Due to the different elevation between the road and the buildings, the thresholding technique yields a fast initial road extraction. The threshold values are obtained from Fuzzy ART clustering of the geometrical points in the histogram. The initial road is then expanded using region growing. Though most of the road regions are extracted, it contains a lot of non-road areas and the edge is still rough. A fast way to smoothing the region is by employing the morphology closing operation. Furthermore, we perform the road line filter by opening operation with a line shape structuring element, where the line orientation is obtained from the Radon Transform. Finally, the road network is constructed based-on B-Spline from the extracted road skeleton. The experimental result shows that the proposed method running faster and increases the quality and the accuracy about 10% higher than the highest result of the compared method.

  4. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  5. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  6. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  7. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  8. The detection of roadside pollution of rapidly growing city in arid region using the magnetic proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hasan, Tayel

    2008-03-01

    This work is a complementary investigation to the earlier urban soil survey for a rapidly growing city of relatively high traffic density. Therefore, it aims to apply the environmental magnetism approach to assess the roadside pollution at a known polluted site. The used magnetic proxies are the initial magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization. The results prove the applicability of this method in detecting roadside pollution. The shape and magnitude of the magnetic signals was affected by the topography and prevailing wind direction that caused the magnetic peaks to be shifted accordingly. Particle size was found to affect the magnetic material content, where sand size (63-150 μm) bears the highest magnetic signals relative to smaller silt size (<63 μm). The magnetic anomalies coincided positively with heavy metal pollution in the studied site, which might indicate that the magnetic materials serve as an effective proxy for the metallic pollution (i.e., Fe, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) originated mainly from vehicular sources.

  9. Empirical evidence of direct impact of extreme temperatures on wheat yield in major wheat growing region of India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, K. K.; Mahato, S.; Jayaraman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to extreme temperatures during the grain filling stage of winter wheat may lead to reduction in the yield. Over the last decade, there has been an increasing trend of exposure to extreme temperature conditions, particularly during crop growing season. The Indo Gangetic plain (IGP) is a particular concern since an optimal temperature for wheat production already exists in the region. This is also a major concern for global wheat production since the region accounts for about 15% of the global wheat production. Previous studies conducted in this region have found a strong impact of extreme temperatures causing an early occurrence of senescence, defined as the last developmental stage of the plant. The early occurrence of senescence period induces shortening of growing season length, which is a critical grain filling stage. However, the direct effect of extreme temperatures on the yield data has not yet been looked at, which reflects the impact of extreme temperature at different growth stages including anthesis (flowering) and the grain-filling stage. Here in this study, we explore the relationship of extreme heat conditions on the yield using fixed-effect panel data model for the districts in the IGP region. The first result indicates approximately 16% reduction in wheat yield with 1˚C rise in mean growing season temperature. There is a significant negative trend between the yield and the fourth quartile of extreme temperature (>34˚C) days. Furthermore, we establish a scope of existence of a nonlinear relationship between temperature and yield, which needs to be further examined.

  10. [Dengue: a growing risk to travellers to tropical and sub-tropical regions].

    PubMed

    da Silva-Voorham, Júlia M; Tami, Adriana; Juliana, Amadu E; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A; Wilschut, Jan C; Smit, Jolanda M

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is currently the most common arboviral infection worldwide. Due to global climate change and other factors, the vector of the virus - the Aedes mosquito - has spread considerably over the past decades. Dengue is endemic in almost all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world; meaning that approximately 40% of the world population is at risk of acquiring a dengue infection. The clinical features of dengue vary from a non-specific febrile illness (dengue fever) to at times fatal serious conditions such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Considering the limited possibilities of prevention it is anticipated that the incidence of dengue will increase in the future. It is expected that health-care providers in non-endemic regions will encounter dengue-infected patients with increasing frequency in their practices.

  11. 3D seismic imaging, example of 3D area in the middle of Banat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antic, S.

    2009-04-01

    3D seismic imaging was carried out in the 3D seismic volume situated in the middle of Banat region in Serbia. The 3D area is about 300 km square. The aim of 3D investigation was defining geology structures and techtonics especially in Mesozoik complex. The investigation objects are located in depth from 2000 to 3000 m. There are number of wells in this area but they are not enough deep to help in the interpretation. It was necessary to get better seismic image in deeper area. Acquisition parameters were satisfactory (good quality of input parameters, length of input data was 5 s, fold was up to 4000 %) and preprocessed data was satisfied. GeoDepth is an integrated system for 3D velocity model building and for 3D seismic imaging. Input data for 3D seismic imaging consist of preprocessing data sorted to CMP gathers and RMS stacking velocity functions. Other type of input data are geological information derived from well data, time migrated images and time migrated maps. Workflow for this job was: loading and quality control the input data (CMP gathers and velocity), creating initial RMS Velocity Volume, PSTM, updating the RMS Velocity Volume, PSTM, building the Initial Interval Velocity Model, PSDM, updating the Interval Velocity Model, PSDM. In the first stage the attempt is to derive initial velocity model as simple as possible as.The higher frequency velocity changes are obtained in the updating stage. The next step, after running PSTM, is the time to depth conversion. After the model is built, we generate a 3D interval velocity volume and run 3D pre-stack depth migration. The main method for updating velocities is 3D tomography. The criteria used in velocity model determination are based on the flatness of pre-stack migrated gathers or the quality of the stacked image. The standard processing ended with poststack 3D time migration. Prestack depth migration is one of the powerful tool available to the interpretator to develop an accurate velocity model and get

  12. [An updated checklist of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from the Colombian Andean coffee-growing region].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, María Angélica; Vélez, Iván Darío; Porter, Charles; Uribe, Sandra Inés

    2014-01-01

    An updated list of phlebotomine sand flies species in coffee growing areas in the Colombian Andean region is presented. Fifty three species were reported from 12 departments. In addition, species distribution in the region was derived from specimens obtained during intensive field work in five departments, from previously published studies and from the taxonomic revision of specimens in the entomological collection of the Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales (PECET). The list includes the genera Brumptomyia (2 species), Lutzomyia (50 species) and Warileya (1 species). The updated list contains eleven new records in the region under study, including Lutzomyia panamensis , a species of medical importance not recorded previously in this zone. Eighteen of the species are considered to be anthropophilic, and many of them have been implicated in the transmission of leishmaniasis.

  13. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  14. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  15. 3D microscopy for microfabrication quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew S.; De Jean, Paul D.

    2015-03-01

    A novel stereo microscope adapter, the SweptVue, has been developed to rapidly perform quantitative 3D microscopy for cost-effective microfabrication quality control. The SweptVue adapter uses the left and right stereo channels of an Olympus SZX7 stereo microscope for sample illumination and detection, respectively. By adjusting the temporal synchronization between the illumination lines projected from a Texas Instruments DLP LightCrafter and the rolling shutter on a Point Grey Flea3 CMOS camera, micrometer-scale depth features can be easily and rapidly measured at up to 5 μm resolution on a variety of microfabricated samples. In this study, the build performance of an industrial-grade Stratasys Object 300 Connex 3D printer was examined. Ten identical parts were 3D printed with a lateral and depth resolution of 42 μm and 30 μm, respectively, using both a rigid and flexible Stratasys PolyJet material. Surface elevation precision and accuracy was examined over multiple regions of interest on plateau and hemispherical surfaces. In general, the dimensions of the examined features were reproducible across the parts built using both materials. However, significant systemic lateral and height build errors were discovered, such as: decreased heights when approaching the edges of plateaus, inaccurate height steps, and poor tolerances on channel width. For 3D printed parts to be used in functional applications requiring micro-scale tolerances, they need to conform to specification. Despite appearing identical, our 3D printed parts were found to have a variety of defects that the SweptVue adapter quickly revealed.

  16. Mammographical mass detection and classification using local seed region growing-spherical wavelet transform (LSRG-SWT) hybrid scheme.

    PubMed

    Görgel, Pelin; Sertbas, Ahmet; Ucan, Osman N

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to implement accurate methods of detection and classification of benign and malignant breast masses in mammograms. Our new proposed method, which can be used as a diagnostic tool, is denoted Local Seed Region Growing-Spherical Wavelet Transform (LSRG-SWT), and consists of four steps. The first step is homomorphic filtering for enhancement, and the second is detection of the region of interests (ROIs) using a Local Seed Region Growing (LSRG) algorithm, which we developed. The third step incoporates Spherical Wavelet Transform (SWT) and feature extraction. Finally the fourth step is classification, which consists of two sequential components: the 1st classification distinguishes the ROIs as either mass or non-mass and the 2nd classification distinguishes the masses as either benign or malignant using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). The mammograms used in this study were acquired from the hospital of Istanbul University (I.U.) in Turkey and the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS). The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme LSRG-SWT achieves 96% and 93.59% accuracy in mass/non-mass classification (1st component) and benign/malignant classification (2nd component) respectively when using the I.U. database with k-fold cross validation. The system achieves 94% and 91.67% accuracy in mass/non-mass classification and benign/malignant classification respectively when using the I.U. database as a training set and the MIAS database as a test set with external validation.

  17. 3D printed long period gratings for optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for implementing long period grating (LPG) structures by the use of a 3D printer. This Letter shows a way of manipulating the mode coupling within an optical fiber by applying stress through an external 3D printed periodic structure. Different LPG lengths and periods have been studied, as well as the effect of the applied stress on the coupling efficiency from the fundamental mode to cladding modes. The technique is very simple, highly flexible, affordable, and easy to implement without the need of altering the optical fiber. This Letter is part of a growing line of interest in the use of 3D printers for optical applications.

  18. Wafer-Level 3D Integration for ULSI Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Ronald J.; Lu, Jian-Qiang

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration in a system-in-a-package (SiP) implementation (packaging-based 3D) is becoming increasingly used in consumer, computer, and communication applications where form factor is critical. In particular, the hand-held market for a growing myriad of voice, data, messaging, and imaging products is enabled by packaging-based 3D integration (i.e., stacking and connecting individual chips). The key drivers are for increased memory capacity and for heterogeneous integration of different IC technologies and functions.

  19. 3D Bioprinting of Heterogeneous Aortic Valve Conduits with Alginate/Gelatin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Kang, Kevin H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4±3.4% for SMC and 83.2±4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin when printed in stiff matrix, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin in soft matrix. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. PMID:23015540

  20. 3D Wavelet-Based Filter and Method

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.; Haase, Sebastian; Sedat, John W.

    2008-08-12

    A 3D wavelet-based filter for visualizing and locating structural features of a user-specified linear size in 2D or 3D image data. The only input parameter is a characteristic linear size of the feature of interest, and the filter output contains only those regions that are correlated with the characteristic size, thus denoising the image.

  1. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  2. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  3. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  4. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  5. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  6. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  7. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  8. Lung nodule detection using 3D convolutional neural networks trained on weakly labeled data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anirudh, Rushil; Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J.; Bremer, Timo; Kim, Hyojin

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of lung nodules is currently the one of the most effective ways to predict and treat lung cancer. As a result, the past decade has seen a lot of focus on computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of lung nodules, whose goal is to efficiently detect, segment lung nodules and classify them as being benign or malignant. Effective detection of such nodules remains a challenge due to their arbitrariness in shape, size and texture. In this paper, we propose to employ 3D convolutional neural networks (CNN) to learn highly discriminative features for nodule detection in lieu of hand-engineered ones such as geometric shape or texture. While 3D CNNs are promising tools to model the spatio-temporal statistics of data, they are limited by their need for detailed 3D labels, which can be prohibitively expensive when compared obtaining 2D labels. Existing CAD methods rely on obtaining detailed labels for lung nodules, to train models, which is also unrealistic and time consuming. To alleviate this challenge, we propose a solution wherein the expert needs to provide only a point label, i.e., the central pixel of of the nodule, and its largest expected size. We use unsupervised segmentation to grow out a 3D region, which is used to train the CNN. Using experiments on the SPIE-LUNGx dataset, we show that the network trained using these weak labels can produce reasonably low false positive rates with a high sensitivity, even in the absence of accurate 3D labels.

  9. Diversity of malaria in rice growing areas of the Afrotropical region.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, P; Guillet, P; Robert, V; Fontenille, D; Doannio, J; Coosemans, M; Mouchet, J

    1999-09-01

    It is well known that 'in many instances the rice agrosystem perfectly fits the ecological requirements of pathogens or vectors' and in fact 'malaria, schistosomiasis and Japanese encephalitis are important vector-borne diseases associated with rice production in developing countries' (IRRI, 1987). In spite of these fears, rice cultivation has been on the increase in the African region in response to demographic and economic pressures. However, although rice fields provide suitable breeding places for Anopheles mosquitoes and rice cultivation leads to an increase in the biting rates, the species which are adapted to these sites are not the same in all parts of Africa. Several examples illustrate this phenomenon: An. funestus in the rice fields of Madagascar, An. pharoensis in saline water rice fields in the delta of the Senegal river, An. arabiensis in northern Cameroon and Burundi, An. gambiae Mopti form in the Kou Valley (Burkina Faso) and An. gambiae Savanna form in the rice fields of Kafine near Bouaké (Côte d'Ivoire). The vectorial capacities of these species are not the same and malaria inoculation rates are not necessarily increased in the riceland agroecosystem. The consequences for malaria of introducing rice cultivation depend on the situation before its introduction: it could be worsened in unstable malaria areas but not in stable malaria areas. Therefore, sound epidemiological and entomological knowledge are needed before causing any environmental modifications for agricultural purposes and there should be regular monitoring to avoid any outbreak.

  10. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  11. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  12. Multizone Paper Platform for 3D Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Derda, Ratmir; Hong, Estrella; Mwangi, Martin; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro 3D culture is an important model for tissues in vivo. Cells in different locations of 3D tissues are physiologically different, because they are exposed to different concentrations of oxygen, nutrients, and signaling molecules, and to other environmental factors (temperature, mechanical stress, etc). The majority of high-throughput assays based on 3D cultures, however, can only detect the average behavior of cells in the whole 3D construct. Isolation of cells from specific regions of 3D cultures is possible, but relies on low-throughput techniques such as tissue sectioning and micromanipulation. Based on a procedure reported previously (“cells-in-gels-in-paper” or CiGiP), this paper describes a simple method for culture of arrays of thin planar sections of tissues, either alone or stacked to create more complex 3D tissue structures. This procedure starts with sheets of paper patterned with hydrophobic regions that form 96 hydrophilic zones. Serial spotting of cells suspended in extracellular matrix (ECM) gel onto the patterned paper creates an array of 200 micron-thick slabs of ECM gel (supported mechanically by cellulose fibers) containing cells. Stacking the sheets with zones aligned on top of one another assembles 96 3D multilayer constructs. De-stacking the layers of the 3D culture, by peeling apart the sheets of paper, “sections” all 96 cultures at once. It is, thus, simple to isolate 200-micron-thick cell-containing slabs from each 3D culture in the 96-zone array. Because the 3D cultures are assembled from multiple layers, the number of cells plated initially in each layer determines the spatial distribution of cells in the stacked 3D cultures. This capability made it possible to compare the growth of 3D tumor models of different spatial composition, and to examine the migration of cells in these structures. PMID:21573103

  13. Bringing 3D Printing to Geophysical Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, A.; Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    3D printing technology has been embraced by many technical fields, and is rapidly making its way into peoples' homes and schools. While there is a growing educational and hobbyist community engaged in the STEM focused technical and intellectual challenges associated with 3D printing, there is unrealized potential for the earth science community to use 3D printing to communicate scientific research to the public. Moreover, 3D printing offers scientists the opportunity to connect students and the public with novel visualizations of real data. As opposed to introducing terrestrial measurements through the use of colormaps and gradients, scientists can represent 3D concepts with 3D models, offering a more intuitive education tool. Furthermore, the tactile aspect of models make geophysical concepts accessible to a wide range of learning styles like kinesthetic or tactile, and learners including both visually impaired and color-blind students.We present a workflow whereby scientists, students, and the general public will be able to 3D print their own versions of geophysical datasets, even adding time through layering to include a 4th dimension, for a "4D" print. This will enable scientists with unique and expert insights into the data to easily create the tools they need to communicate their research. It will allow educators to quickly produce teaching aids for their students. Most importantly, it will enable the students themselves to translate the 2D representation of geophysical data into a 3D representation of that same data, reinforcing spatial reasoning.

  14. Towards a Normalised 3D Geovisualisation: The Viewpoint Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuville, R.; Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the viewpoint management in 3D environments considering an allocentric environment. The recent advances in computer sciences and the growing number of affordable remote sensors lead to impressive improvements in the 3D visualisation. Despite some research relating to the analysis of visual variables used in 3D environments, we notice that it lacks a real standardisation of 3D representation rules. In this paper we study the "viewpoint" as being the first considered parameter for a normalised visualisation of 3D data. Unlike in a 2D environment, the viewing direction is not only fixed in a top down direction in 3D. A non-optimal camera location means a poor 3D representation in terms of relayed information. Based on this statement we propose a model based on the analysis of the computational display pixels that determines a viewpoint maximising the relayed information according to one kind of query. We developed an OpenGL prototype working on screen pixels that allows to determine the optimal camera location based on a screen pixels colour algorithm. The viewpoint management constitutes a first step towards a normalised 3D geovisualisation.

  15. A Self-Calibrating Multi-Band Region Growing Approach to Segmentation of Single and Multi-Band Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W

    2002-12-20

    Image segmentation transforms pixel-level information from raw images to a higher level of abstraction in which related pixels are grouped into disjoint spatial regions. Such regions typically correspond to natural or man-made objects or structures, natural variations in land cover, etc. For many image interpretation tasks (such as land use assessment, automatic target cueing, defining relationships between objects, etc.), segmentation can be an important early step. Remotely sensed images (e.g., multi-spectral and hyperspectral images) often contain many spectral bands (i.e., multiple layers of 2D images). Multi-band images are important because they contain more information than single-band images. Objects or natural variations that are readily apparent in certain spectral bands may be invisible in 2D broadband images. In this paper, the classical region growing approach to image segmentation is generalized from single to multi-band images. While it is widely recognized that the quality of image segmentation is affected by which segmentation algorithm is used, this paper shows that algorithm parameter values can have an even more profound effect. A novel self-calibration framework is developed for automatically selecting parameter values that produce segmentations that most closely resemble a calibration edge map (derived separately using a simple edge detector). Although the framework is generic in the sense that it can imbed any core segmentation algorithm, this paper only demonstrates self-calibration with multi-band region growing. The framework is applied to a variety of AVIRIS image blocks at different spectral resolutions, in an effort to assess the impact of spectral resolution on segmentation quality. The image segmentations are assessed quantitatively, and it is shown that segmentation quality does not generally appear to be highly correlated with spectral resolution.

  16. A spherical harmonics intensity model for 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.

    PubMed

    Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

    2016-08-01

    The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci.

  17. 3-D model-based vehicle tracking.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jianguang; Tan, Tieniu; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Hao; Maybank, Steven J

    2005-10-01

    This paper aims at tracking vehicles from monocular intensity image sequences and presents an efficient and robust approach to three-dimensional (3-D) model-based vehicle tracking. Under the weak perspective assumption and the ground-plane constraint, the movements of model projection in the two-dimensional image plane can be decomposed into two motions: translation and rotation. They are the results of the corresponding movements of 3-D translation on the ground plane (GP) and rotation around the normal of the GP, which can be determined separately. A new metric based on point-to-line segment distance is proposed to evaluate the similarity between an image region and an instantiation of a 3-D vehicle model under a given pose. Based on this, we provide an efficient pose refinement method to refine the vehicle's pose parameters. An improved EKF is also proposed to track and to predict vehicle motion with a precise kinematics model. Experimental results with both indoor and outdoor data show that the algorithm obtains desirable performance even under severe occlusion and clutter.

  18. 3-D model-based vehicle tracking.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jianguang; Tan, Tieniu; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Hao; Maybank, Steven J

    2005-10-01

    This paper aims at tracking vehicles from monocular intensity image sequences and presents an efficient and robust approach to three-dimensional (3-D) model-based vehicle tracking. Under the weak perspective assumption and the ground-plane constraint, the movements of model projection in the two-dimensional image plane can be decomposed into two motions: translation and rotation. They are the results of the corresponding movements of 3-D translation on the ground plane (GP) and rotation around the normal of the GP, which can be determined separately. A new metric based on point-to-line segment distance is proposed to evaluate the similarity between an image region and an instantiation of a 3-D vehicle model under a given pose. Based on this, we provide an efficient pose refinement method to refine the vehicle's pose parameters. An improved EKF is also proposed to track and to predict vehicle motion with a precise kinematics model. Experimental results with both indoor and outdoor data show that the algorithm obtains desirable performance even under severe occlusion and clutter. PMID:16238061

  19. Effects of Different Growing Regions on Quality Characteristics, Bioactive Compound Contents, and Antioxidant Activity of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Thi, Nhuan Do

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value. Conversely, aronia grown in Youngcheon possessed the lowest total acid content and the highest sugar content and pH value. Aronia grown in Sangjoo possessed relatively high levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity in comparison with aronia produced in other regions. Aronia grown in Youngcheon scored the highest for taste and overall acceptability in sensory evaluations, which may be related to the high sugar content and pH, and the low total acidity of the fruits. It is possible that higher sugar contents and pH, and lower total acidity in the aronia grown in Youngcheon result in more preferable sensory characteristics. However, they also contain relatively low levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and have low antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays. PMID:27752502

  20. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  1. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  2. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  3. A comparative synoptic climatology of cool-season rainfall in major grain-growing regions of southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; McIntosh, Peter C.

    2014-08-01

    Two distinct synoptic weather systems, cut-off lows and fronts, deliver most of the cool-season rainfall to the cropping regions of southern Australia. A comparative synoptic climatology of daily rainfall events over approximately five decades reveals both spatial and temporal variations of the dominant synoptic types. The rainfall characteristics and associated large-scale drivers differ between the two synoptic types. Understanding regional rainfall depends on understanding these differences. Cut-off lows contribute one half of growing season rainfall in southeast Australia, while frontal systems associated with Southern Ocean depressions contribute about a third. The proportions are reversed in the Central Wheat Belt (CWB) of Western Australia where Southern Ocean fronts are the dominant source of growing season rainfall. In the southern island state of Tasmania, topography strongly influences the outcome with cut-off lows contributing about half the rainfall near the east coast and fronts dominating a short distance to the west. Cut-off lows generally contribute their highest proportion of rainfall in the austral autumn and spring while frontal rainfall is at its maximum in late winter. Cut-off low rainfall contributes more strongly in percentage terms to the recent decline in rainfall. The distribution of synoptic types is explained by the dominant long-wave structure in the winter half of the year. The major trough near Western Australia favours frontogenesis to the southwest of the CWB but fronts moving out of the region encounter a persistent meridional ridge in the Tasman Sea where there is a high frequency of blocking events.

  4. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  5. 3D Printing with Nucleic Acid Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    By relying on specific DNA:DNA interactions as a “smart glue”, we have assembled microparticles into a colloidal gel that can hold its shape. This gel can be extruded with a 3D printer to generate centimeter size objects. We show four aspects of this material: (1) The colloidal gel material holds its shape after extrusion. (2) The connectivity among the particles is controlled by the binding behavior between the surface DNA and this mediates some control over the microscale structure. (3) The use of DNA-coated microparticles dramatically reduces the cost of DNA-mediated assembly relative to conventional DNA nanotechnologies and makes this material accessible for macroscale applications. (4) This material can be assembled under biofriendly conditions and can host growing cells within its matrix. The DNA-based control over organization should provide a new means of engineering bioprinted tissues. PMID:25984570

  6. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  7. Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi

    2009-05-01

    3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.

  8. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  9. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  10. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  11. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  12. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  13. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  14. A 3-D chimera grid embedding technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benek, J. A.; Buning, P. G.; Steger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) chimera grid-embedding technique is described. The technique simplifies the construction of computational grids about complex geometries. The method subdivides the physical domain into regions which can accommodate easily generated grids. Communication among the grids is accomplished by interpolation of the dependent variables at grid boundaries. The procedures for constructing the composite mesh and the associated data structures are described. The method is demonstrated by solution of the Euler equations for the transonic flow about a wing/body, wing/body/tail, and a configuration of three ellipsoidal bodies.

  15. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using 23Na and proton MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60 × 60 × 60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  16. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using (23)Na and proton MRI.

    PubMed

    Truong, Milton L; Harrington, Michael G; Schepkin, Victor D; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm(3) and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  17. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using (23)Na and proton MRI.

    PubMed

    Truong, Milton L; Harrington, Michael G; Schepkin, Victor D; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm(3) and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/. PMID:25261742

  18. Comparison of Insecticide Susceptibilities of Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Three Main Tea-Growing Regions in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qi; Yu, Hua-Yang; Niu, Chun-Dong; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shun-Fan; Chen, Zhuo; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2015-06-01

    Empoasca vitis (Göthe) is an important insect pest in tea-growing areas of China, and chemical control is the main tactic for the management of this pest. Due to the pressure of increasing insecticide resistance and more stringent food safety regulations, development of sound IPM strategies for E. vitis is an urgent matter. This study comparatively evaluated four field populations of E. vitis from three different tea-growing regions in China for their susceptibilities to eight insecticides using a simple leaf-dip methodology. E. vitis was found to be most sensitive to indoxacarb (LC50<0.5 mg/liter) and least sensitive to isoprocarb (LC50>5 mg/liter) and sophocarpidine (LC50>95 mg/liter, a botanical pesticide) regardless of populations. Population (geographical) variations were higher for indoxacarb and imidacloprid than other compounds. Judging by the 95% fiducial limits of LC50 values, all populations had similar susceptibilities to chlorfenapyr, bifenthrin, and acetamiprid or imidacloprid. Correlation analysis suggested that chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb or isoprocarb may have a high risk of cross resistance. Considering potency (LC50) and maximum residual levels, chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin are good insecticide options followed by acetamiprid and indoxacarb. These results provide valuable information to intelligently select insecticides for IPM programs that are efficacious against E. vitis while also managing insecticide resistance and maximum residual levels for tea production in China.

  19. Comparison of Insecticide Susceptibilities of Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Three Main Tea-Growing Regions in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qi; Yu, Hua-Yang; Niu, Chun-Dong; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shun-Fan; Chen, Zhuo; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2015-06-01

    Empoasca vitis (Göthe) is an important insect pest in tea-growing areas of China, and chemical control is the main tactic for the management of this pest. Due to the pressure of increasing insecticide resistance and more stringent food safety regulations, development of sound IPM strategies for E. vitis is an urgent matter. This study comparatively evaluated four field populations of E. vitis from three different tea-growing regions in China for their susceptibilities to eight insecticides using a simple leaf-dip methodology. E. vitis was found to be most sensitive to indoxacarb (LC50<0.5 mg/liter) and least sensitive to isoprocarb (LC50>5 mg/liter) and sophocarpidine (LC50>95 mg/liter, a botanical pesticide) regardless of populations. Population (geographical) variations were higher for indoxacarb and imidacloprid than other compounds. Judging by the 95% fiducial limits of LC50 values, all populations had similar susceptibilities to chlorfenapyr, bifenthrin, and acetamiprid or imidacloprid. Correlation analysis suggested that chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb or isoprocarb may have a high risk of cross resistance. Considering potency (LC50) and maximum residual levels, chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin are good insecticide options followed by acetamiprid and indoxacarb. These results provide valuable information to intelligently select insecticides for IPM programs that are efficacious against E. vitis while also managing insecticide resistance and maximum residual levels for tea production in China. PMID:26470253

  20. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  1. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  2. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G.; Hashimoto, Bryce I.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March–May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls. PMID:24707452

  3. Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kevin; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang

    2016-07-25

    In order to increase the data rate of the camera-based visible light communication (VLC) system, using rolling shutter effect has been demonstrated successfully, in which the pixel rows of the complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor are activated sequentially. Previous camera-based VLCs focused on using a stable LED light source, and its illumination area is positioned at the center of an image frame. In this work, we investigate the performance of a camera-based VLC with light source at different parts of an image frame. We propose and demonstrate using region-grow algorithm to track the light source. We also evaluate and discuss different scenarios when the light source is moved. Besides, a recorded > 5 kbit/s net data rate can be achieved by using only a single phosphor-based white-light LED source. Here, we demonstrate that 4.502 pixel/bit can be achieved.

  4. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  5. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  6. The upcoming 3D-printing revolution in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Urrios, Arturo; Kang, Shawn; Folch, Albert

    2016-05-21

    In the last two decades, the vast majority of microfluidic systems have been built in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography, a technique based on PDMS micromolding. A long list of key PDMS properties have contributed to the success of soft lithography: PDMS is biocompatible, elastomeric, transparent, gas-permeable, water-impermeable, fairly inexpensive, copyright-free, and rapidly prototyped with high precision using simple procedures. However, the fabrication process typically involves substantial human labor, which tends to make PDMS devices difficult to disseminate outside of research labs, and the layered molding limits the 3D complexity of the devices that can be produced. 3D-printing has recently attracted attention as a way to fabricate microfluidic systems due to its automated, assembly-free 3D fabrication, rapidly decreasing costs, and fast-improving resolution and throughput. Resins with properties approaching those of PDMS are being developed. Here we review past and recent efforts in 3D-printing of microfluidic systems. We compare the salient features of PDMS molding with those of 3D-printing and we give an overview of the critical barriers that have prevented the adoption of 3D-printing by microfluidic developers, namely resolution, throughput, and resin biocompatibility. We also evaluate the various forces that are persuading researchers to abandon PDMS molding in favor of 3D-printing in growing numbers. PMID:27101171

  7. The upcoming 3D-printing revolution in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Urrios, Arturo; Kang, Shawn; Folch, Albert

    2016-05-21

    In the last two decades, the vast majority of microfluidic systems have been built in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography, a technique based on PDMS micromolding. A long list of key PDMS properties have contributed to the success of soft lithography: PDMS is biocompatible, elastomeric, transparent, gas-permeable, water-impermeable, fairly inexpensive, copyright-free, and rapidly prototyped with high precision using simple procedures. However, the fabrication process typically involves substantial human labor, which tends to make PDMS devices difficult to disseminate outside of research labs, and the layered molding limits the 3D complexity of the devices that can be produced. 3D-printing has recently attracted attention as a way to fabricate microfluidic systems due to its automated, assembly-free 3D fabrication, rapidly decreasing costs, and fast-improving resolution and throughput. Resins with properties approaching those of PDMS are being developed. Here we review past and recent efforts in 3D-printing of microfluidic systems. We compare the salient features of PDMS molding with those of 3D-printing and we give an overview of the critical barriers that have prevented the adoption of 3D-printing by microfluidic developers, namely resolution, throughput, and resin biocompatibility. We also evaluate the various forces that are persuading researchers to abandon PDMS molding in favor of 3D-printing in growing numbers.

  8. Improving 3d Spatial Queries Search: Newfangled Technique of Space Filling Curves in 3d City Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.

    2013-09-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its

  9. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  10. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

  11. Highway 3D model from image and lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan

    2014-05-01

    We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.

  12. Development of visual 3D virtual environment for control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirose, Michitaka; Myoi, Takeshi; Amari, Haruo; Inamura, Kohei; Stark, Lawrence

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environments for software visualization may enable complex programs to be created and maintained. A typical application might be for control of regional electric power systems. As these encompass broader computer networks than ever, construction of such systems becomes very difficult. Conventional text-oriented environments are useful in programming individual processors. However, they are obviously insufficient to program a large and complicated system, that includes large numbers of computers connected to each other; such programming is called 'programming in the large.' As a solution for this problem, the authors are developing a graphic programming environment wherein one can visualize complicated software in virtual 3D world. One of the major features of the environment is the 3D representation of concurrent process. 3D representation is used to supply both network-wide interprocess programming capability (capability for 'programming in the large') and real-time programming capability. The authors' idea is to fuse both the block diagram (which is useful to check relationship among large number of processes or processors) and the time chart (which is useful to check precise timing for synchronization) into a single 3D space. The 3D representation gives us a capability for direct and intuitive planning or understanding of complicated relationship among many concurrent processes. To realize the 3D representation, a technology to enable easy handling of virtual 3D object is a definite necessity. Using a stereo display system and a gesture input device (VPL DataGlove), our prototype of the virtual workstation has been implemented. The workstation can supply the 'sensation' of the virtual 3D space to a programmer. Software for the 3D programming environment is implemented on the workstation. According to preliminary assessments, a 50 percent reduction of programming effort is achieved by using the virtual 3D environment. The authors expect that the 3D

  13. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of 3D city models have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the 3D data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual 3D representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of 3D city models has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the 3D city models. Today, 3D city models are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, modelling 3D objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for 3D modelling available in the market. Generating 3D buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using 3D data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage 3D city models data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of 3D city models in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0

  14. A region growing method for tumor volume segmentation on PET images for rectal and anal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Day, Ellen; Betler, James; Parda, David; Reitz, Bodo; Kirichenko, Alexander; Mohammadi, Seyed; Miften, Moyed

    2009-10-01

    The application of automated segmentation methods for tumor delineation on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) images presents an opportunity to reduce the interobserver variability in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning. In this work, three segmentation methods were evaluated and compared for rectal and anal cancer patients: (i) Percentage of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV% max), (ii) fixed SUV cutoff of 2.5 (SUV2.5), and (iii) mathematical technique based on a confidence connected region growing (CCRG) method. A phantom study was performed to determine the SUV% max threshold value and found to be 43%, SUV43% max. The CCRG method is an iterative scheme that relies on the use of statistics from a specified region in the tumor. The scheme is initialized by a subregion of pixels surrounding the maximum intensity pixel. The mean and standard deviation of this region are measured and the pixels connected to the region are included or not based on the criterion that they are greater than a value derived from the mean and standard deviation. The mean and standard deviation of this new region are then measured and the process repeats. FDG-PET-CT imaging studies for 18 patients who received RT were used to evaluate the segmentation methods. A PET avid (PETavid) region was manually segmented for each patient and the volume was then used to compare the calculated volumes along with the absolute mean difference and range for all methods. For the SUV43% max method, the volumes were always smaller than the PETavid volume by a mean of 56% and a range of 21%-79%. The volumes from the SUV2.5 method were either smaller or larger than the PETavid volume by a mean of 37% and a range of 2%-130%. The CCRG approach provided the best results with a mean difference of 9% and a range of 1%-27%. Results show that the CCRG technique can be used in the segmentation of tumor volumes on FDG-PET images, thus providing treatment planners with a clinically

  15. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  16. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  17. A procedure to average 3D anatomical structures.

    PubMed

    Subramanya, K; Dean, D

    2000-12-01

    Creating a feature-preserving average of three dimensional anatomical surfaces extracted from volume image data is a complex task. Unlike individual images, averages present right-left symmetry and smooth surfaces which give insight into typical proportions. Averaging multiple biological surface images requires careful superimposition and sampling of homologous regions. Our approach to biological surface image averaging grows out of a wireframe surface tessellation approach by Cutting et al. (1993). The surface delineating wires represent high curvature crestlines. By adding tile boundaries in flatter areas the 3D image surface is parametrized into anatomically labeled (homology mapped) grids. We extend the Cutting et al. wireframe approach by encoding the entire surface as a series of B-spline space curves. The crestline averaging algorithm developed by Cutting et al. may then be used for the entire surface. Shape preserving averaging of multiple surfaces requires careful positioning of homologous surface regions such as these B-spline space curves. We test the precision of this new procedure and its ability to appropriately position groups of surfaces in order to produce a shape-preserving average. Our result provides an average that well represents the source images and may be useful clinically as a deformable model or for animation.

  18. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  19. RGB-D Indoor Plane-based 3D-Modeling using Autonomous Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostofi, N.; Moussa, A.; Elhabiby, M.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-11-01

    3D model of indoor environments provide rich information that can facilitate the disambiguation of different places and increases the familiarization process to any indoor environment for the remote users. In this research work, we describe a system for visual odometry and 3D modeling using information from RGB-D sensor (Camera). The visual odometry method estimates the relative pose of the consecutive RGB-D frames through feature extraction and matching techniques. The pose estimated by visual odometry algorithm is then refined with iterative closest point (ICP) method. The switching technique between ICP and visual odometry in case of no visible features suppresses inconsistency in the final developed map. Finally, we add the loop closure to remove the deviation between first and last frames. In order to have a semantic meaning out of 3D models, the planar patches are segmented from RGB-D point clouds data using region growing technique followed by convex hull method to assign boundaries to the extracted patches. In order to build a final semantic 3D model, the segmented patches are merged using relative pose information obtained from the first step.

  20. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  1. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  2. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  3. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  4. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  5. Testing the USGS 3D San Francisco Bay Area Seismic Velocity Model using Observations of 0.5 to 2 s Surface Waves from Local and Regional Earthquakes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Frankel, A. D.; Oppenheimer, D. H.; Fletcher, J. B.; Luetgert, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    USGS 3D seismic velocity model. For the past year, long period motions have also been recorded by the NetQuakes project which is installing a large number (hundreds) of small, relatively inexpensive seismographs in 1 to 2 story homes and businesses. The instruments have an 18-bit resolution recorder and ± 3 g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. NetQuakes instruments have successfully recorded long period motions from the January 9, 2010 M6.5 quake in the Gorda Plate near the Mendocino Triple Junction, the largest earthquake in northern California since June 17, 2005.

  6. Adaptive interrogation for 3D-PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Matteo; Ianiro, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio

    2013-02-01

    A method to adapt the shape and orientation of interrogation volumes for 3D-PIV motion analysis is introduced, aimed to increase the local spatial resolution. The main application of this approach is the detailed analysis of complex 3D and vortex-dominated flows that exhibit high vorticity in confined regions like shear layers and vortex filaments. The adaptive criterion is based on the analysis of the components of the local velocity gradient tensor, which returns the level of anisotropy of velocity spatial fluctuations. The principle to increase the local spatial resolution is based on the deformation of spherical isotropic interrogation regions, obtained by means of Gaussian weighting, into ellipsoids, with free choice of the principal axes and their directions. The interrogation region is contracted in the direction of the maximum velocity variation and elongated in the minimum one in order to maintain a constant interrogation volume. The adaptivity technique for three-dimensional PIV data takes advantage of the 3D topology of the flow, allowing increasing the spatial resolution not only in the case of shear layers, but also for vortex filaments, which is not possible for two-dimensional measurement in the plane normal to the vortex axis. The definition of the ellipsoidal interrogation region semi-axes is based on the singular values and singular directions of the local velocity gradient tensor as obtained by the singular values decomposition technique (SVD). The working principle is verified making use of numerical simulations of a shear layer and of a vortex filament. The application of the technique to data from a Tomo-PIV experiment conducted on a round jet, shows that the resolution of the shear layer at the jet exit can be considerably improved and an increase of about 25% in the vorticity peak is attained when the adaptive approach is applied. On the other hand, the peak vorticity description in the core of vortex rings is only slightly improved with

  7. Creating 3D realistic head: from two orthogonal photos to multiview face contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Lin, Qian; Tang, Feng; Tang, Liang; Lim, Sukhwan; Wang, Shengjin

    2011-03-01

    3D Head models have many applications, such as virtual conference, 3D web game, and so on. The existing several web-based face modeling solutions that can create a 3D face model from one or two user uploaded face images, are limited to generating the 3D model of only face region. The accuracy of such reconstruction is very limited for side views, as well as hair regions. The goal of our research is to develop a framework for reconstructing the realistic 3D human head based on two approximate orthogonal views. Our framework takes two images, and goes through segmentation, feature points detection, 3D bald head reconstruction, 3D hair reconstruction and texture mapping to create a 3D head model. The main contribution of the paper is that the processing steps are applies to both the face region as well as the hair region.

  8. Dissipation mechanism in 3D magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Keizo

    2011-11-15

    Dissipation processes responsible for fast magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas are investigated using 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. The present study revisits the two simulation runs performed in the previous study (Fujimoto, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042103 (2009)); one with small system size in the current density direction, and the other with larger system size. In the case with small system size, the reconnection processes are almost the same as those in 2D reconnection, while in the other case a kink mode evolves along the current density and deforms the current sheet structure drastically. Although fast reconnection is achieved in both the cases, the dissipation mechanism is very different between them. In the case without kink mode, the electrons transit the electron diffusion region without thermalization, so that the magnetic dissipation is supported by the inertia resistivity alone. On the other hand, in the kinked current sheet, the electrons are not only accelerated in bulk, but they are also partly scattered and thermalized by the kink mode, which results in the anomalous resistivity in addition to the inertia resistivity. It is demonstrated that in 3D reconnection the thickness of the electron current sheet becomes larger than the local electron inertia length, consistent with the theoretical prediction in Fujimoto and Sydora (Phys. Plasmas 16, 112309 (2009)).

  9. 3D-printed mechanochromic materials.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Gregory I; Larsen, Michael B; Ganter, Mark A; Storti, Duane W; Boydston, Andrew J

    2015-01-14

    We describe the preparation and characterization of photo- and mechanochromic 3D-printed structures using a commercial fused filament fabrication printer. Three spiropyran-containing poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymers were each filamentized and used to print single- and multicomponent tensile testing specimens that would be difficult, if not impossible, to prepare using traditional manufacturing techniques. It was determined that the filament production and printing process did not degrade the spiropyran units or polymer chains and that the mechanical properties of the specimens prepared with the custom filament were in good agreement with those from commercial PCL filament. In addition to printing photochromic and dual photo- and mechanochromic PCL materials, we also prepare PCL containing a spiropyran unit that is selectively activated by mechanical impetus. Multicomponent specimens containing two different responsive spiropyrans enabled selective activation of different regions within the specimen depending on the stimulus applied to the material. By taking advantage of the unique capabilities of 3D printing, we also demonstrate rapid modification of a prototype force sensor that enables the assessment of peak load by simple visual assessment of mechanochromism.

  10. Plans for a 3D reconnection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellan, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Plasma-filled, current-carrying magnetic flux tubes are the essence of tokamaks, RFP's, spheromaks, solar coronal loops, and astrophysical jets. Relevant behaviors/issues are magnetic helicity content and injection, motion of the tube axis (hoop force, kinking), plasma confinement (balance between hydrodynamic pressure and pinch force), axial jet flows (acceleration and stagnation), waves, particle orbits, reconnection, and open v. closed field lines. These behaviors/issues and their mutual interaction are being investigated via Alfven time-scale imaging and conventional diagnostics in highly reproducible experiments having the simplest relevant geometry. High-speed movies clearly show flux tube kinking, motion of the flux tube axis due to hoop force, axial jet flows, an unusual particle orbit associated with flows counter to the electrical current, and reconnection between adjacent co- or counter-helicity flux tubes. A new experiment now under construction will have two slightly offset plasma-filled, current carrying flux tubes locally reconnect in 3D to form a single long flux tube. The setup requires two floating power supplies to drive the pre-reconnection currents as post-reconnection the power supplies become series-connected. A means for overcoming the topologically unavoidable mutual repulsion between the pre-reconnection currents is also required. It is anticipated that Alfven waves will radiate from the 3D localized reconnection region.

  11. Forward ramp in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.

    The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  13. Shape control in wafer-based aperiodic 3D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Ho; Mark, Andrew G.; Gibbs, John G.; Reindl, Thomas; Waizmann, Ulrike; Weis, Jürgen; Fischer, Peer

    2014-06-01

    Controlled local fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures is important to explore and enhance the function of single nanodevices, but is experimentally challenging. We present a scheme based on e-beam lithography (EBL) written seeds, and glancing angle deposition (GLAD) grown structures to create nanoscale objects with defined shapes but in aperiodic arrangements. By using a continuous sacrificial corral surrounding the features of interest we grow isolated 3D nanostructures that have complex cross-sections and sidewall morphology that are surrounded by zones of clean substrate.

  14. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  15. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  16. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  17. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  18. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  19. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  20. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  1. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  2. Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 μg g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 μg g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters. PMID:24712677

  3. Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 μg g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 μg g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters.

  4. An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.

  5. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  6. Taiwan: growing, growing, gone.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R

    1979-10-01

    Accommodation between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China may not be inconceivable as trade contacts (though officially disallowed) grow. Because of Taiwan's well-established success and the pressing need in China to industrialize, it appears, however, that such an accommodation will occur only after China becomes more like Taiwan. Taiwan owes its success, first, to land reform and then, in the 1960s, to steady industrialization. Besides broad controls over money supply and capital designed to ward off inflationary pressures when needed, and the grand outlines for development, another factor in the island's economic success is that the government has interfered little with private enterprise. The economy has an underpinning of small to medium size businesses. There are more than 10,000 trading companies. This diverse foundation has given the economy as a whole a flexible buffer on which more sophisticated industires can be formed. PMID:12278253

  7. Full 3D simulations of BNL one-sided silicon 3D detectors and comparisons with other types of 3D detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grönlund, Tanja; Li, Zheng; Carini, Gabriella; Li, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Full three-dimensional (3D) simulations have been carried out on the BNL one-sided single-type column and dual-type column 3D Si detectors (p-type substrate). Due to the facts that columns are not etched all the way through, all electrodes are on the front side, and the backside is neither supported nor processed at all, the BNL one-sided 3D detectors are true one-sided detectors. Simulations show that the volume under the columns, where it is supposed to be dead space (about 10%), can be depleted at high biases with some modest electric field, leading to the possibility of recovering some sensitivity from this region. This region can also provide some sensitivity to particle tracks directly through the columns. The dual-type column detectors are the best in radiation hardness due to their low depletion voltages and short drift distances. Single-type column detectors are more radiation hard than the planar detectors due to their lower depletion voltages. Single-type column detectors are easier to process than dual-type column detectors, but have a more complicated, non-uniform electric field profile. The BNL one-sided 3D detectors were compared to various 3D detector structures developed by other institutes. The field profiles for all types of dual-type column 3D detectors are similar with just some minor differences on both surfaces (front and back). The BNL single-type column one-sided 3D detectors have some major differences from the Trento ones: (1) the high electric field is on the sensing electrode side (pixel or strip); and (2) it can develop some high electric field along the junction column as the bias voltage increases.

  8. Dynamics of 3D isolated thermal filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkden, N. R.; Easy, L.; Militello, F.; Omotani, J. T.

    2016-11-01

    Simulations have been carried out to establish how electron thermal physics, introduced in the form of a dynamic electron temperature, affects isolated filament motion and dynamics in 3D. It is found that thermal effects impact filament motion in two major ways when the pressure perturbation within the filament is supported primarily through a temperature increase as opposed to density: they lead to a strong increase in filament propagation in the bi-normal direction and a significant decrease in net radial propagation. Both effects arise from the temperature dependence of the sheath current which leads to a non-uniform floating potential, with the latter effect supplemented by faster pressure loss. The reduction in radial velocity can only occur when the filament cross-section loses angular symmetry. The behaviour is observed across different filament sizes and suggests that filaments with much larger temperature perturbations than density perturbations are more strongly confined to the near SOL region.

  9. 3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Davis, Anthony

    Developments in three-dimensional cloud radiation over the past few decades are assessed and distilled into this contributed volume. Chapters are authored by subject-matter experts who address a broad audience of graduate students, researchers, and anyone interested in cloud-radiation processes in the solar and infrared spectral regions. After two introductory chapters and a section on the fundamental physics and computational techniques, the volume extensively treats two main application areas: the impact of clouds on the Earth's radiation budget, which is an essential aspect of climate modeling; and remote observation of clouds, especially with the advanced sensors on current and future satellite missions. http://www.springeronline.com/alert/article?a=3D1_1fva7w_1j826l_41z_6

  10. Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1998-01-01

    Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.

  11. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    The FUTure Urban-Regional Environment Simulation (FUTURES) integrates information on nonstationary drivers of land change (per capita land area demand, site suitability, and spatial structure of conversion events) into spatial-temporal projections of changes in landscape patterns (Meentemeyer et al., 2013). One striking feature of FUTURES is its patch-growth algorithm that includes feedback effects of former development events across several temporal and spatial scales: cell-level transition events are aggregated into patches of land change and their further growth is based on empirically derived parameters controlling its size, shape, and dispersion. Here, we augment the FUTURES modeling framework by expanding its multilevel structure and its representation of human decision making. The new modeling framework is hierarchically organized as nested subsystems including the latest theory on telecouplings in coupled human-natural systems (Liu et al., 2013). Each subsystem represents a specific level of spatial scale and embraces agents that have decision making authority at a particular level. The subsystems are characterized with regard to their spatial representation and are connected via flows of information (e.g. regulations and policies) or material (e.g. population migration). To provide a modeling framework that is applicable to a wide range of settings and geographical regions and to keep it computationally manageable, we implement a 'zooming factor' that allows to enable or disable subsystems (and hence the represented processes), based on the extent of the study region. The implementation of the FUTURES modeling framework for a specific case study follows the observational modeling approach described in Grimm et al. (2005), starting from the analysis of empirical data in order to capture the processes relevant for specific scales and to allow a rigorous calibration and validation of the model application. In this paper, we give an introduction to the basic

  12. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  13. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  14. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  15. Climatic warming above the Arctic Circle: are there trends in timing and length of the thermal growing season in Murmansk Region (Russia) between 1951 and 2012?

    PubMed

    Blinova, Ilona; Chmielewski, Frank-Michael

    2015-06-01

    Anomalies in the timing of the thermal growing season have become obvious in the NE part of Fennoscandia since 2000. They are in accordance with climatic changes reported for Europe and Fennoscandia. The actual length of the growing season reached 120 days on average, onset on 30 May and ending on 27 September (1981-2010). Shifts in the timing of the growing season and its mean prolongation by 18.5 days/62a are demonstrated for Murmansk Region (1951-2012). In this period, the onset of the growing season advanced by 7.1 days/62a, while the end was extended by 11.4 days/62a. The delay in the end of the growing season is similar to the entire Fennoscandian pattern but it has not been detected in the rest of Europe. The regional pattern of climatic regimes in Murmansk Region remained stable in comparison with earlier climatic maps (1971). However, the actual shifts in the timing of the growing season were more pronounced in colder (oceanic and mountainous) parts. Recent climatic trends could influence the retreat of the tundra zone and changes in the forest line. Losses of tundra biodiversity and enrichment of the northern taiga by southern species could be expected from present climatic trends.

  16. Climatic warming above the Arctic Circle: are there trends in timing and length of the thermal growing season in Murmansk Region (Russia) between 1951 and 2012?

    PubMed

    Blinova, Ilona; Chmielewski, Frank-Michael

    2015-06-01

    Anomalies in the timing of the thermal growing season have become obvious in the NE part of Fennoscandia since 2000. They are in accordance with climatic changes reported for Europe and Fennoscandia. The actual length of the growing season reached 120 days on average, onset on 30 May and ending on 27 September (1981-2010). Shifts in the timing of the growing season and its mean prolongation by 18.5 days/62a are demonstrated for Murmansk Region (1951-2012). In this period, the onset of the growing season advanced by 7.1 days/62a, while the end was extended by 11.4 days/62a. The delay in the end of the growing season is similar to the entire Fennoscandian pattern but it has not been detected in the rest of Europe. The regional pattern of climatic regimes in Murmansk Region remained stable in comparison with earlier climatic maps (1971). However, the actual shifts in the timing of the growing season were more pronounced in colder (oceanic and mountainous) parts. Recent climatic trends could influence the retreat of the tundra zone and changes in the forest line. Losses of tundra biodiversity and enrichment of the northern taiga by southern species could be expected from present climatic trends. PMID:25155187

  17. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Virginia, elevation data are critical for urban and regional planning, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, agriculture and precision farming, resource mining, infrastructure and construction management, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  18. Proton Beam Writing: A New 3D Nanolithographic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kan, Jeroen A.; Bettiol, Andrew A.

    Current microelectronics production technologies are essentially two-dimensional (2D), and are well suited for the 2D topologies prevalent in microelectronics. As semiconductor devices are scaled down in size, and coupled with the integration of moving parts on a chip, there is expected to be a rising demand for smaller microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) devices. High aspect ratio three-dimensional (3D) microstructures with nanometer details are also of growing interest for optoelectronic devices. Therefore it is essential to develop new lithographic techniques suitable for the production of high aspect ratio 3D micro- and nanocomponents. Proton-beam (p-beam) writing at the nanometer level is being developed at the Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), National University of Singapore, and has been shown to be a promising new 3D lithographic technique [1, 2].

  19. 3D printed long period gratings for optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for implementing long period grating (LPG) structures by the use of a 3D printer. This Letter shows a way of manipulating the mode coupling within an optical fiber by applying stress through an external 3D printed periodic structure. Different LPG lengths and periods have been studied, as well as the effect of the applied stress on the coupling efficiency from the fundamental mode to cladding modes. The technique is very simple, highly flexible, affordable, and easy to implement without the need of altering the optical fiber. This Letter is part of a growing line of interest in the use of 3D printers for optical applications. PMID:27082365

  20. Extension of RCC Topological Relations for 3d Complex Objects Components Extracted from 3d LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xu-Feng; Abolfazl Mostafavia, Mir; Wang, Chen

    2016-06-01

    Topological relations are fundamental for qualitative description, querying and analysis of a 3D scene. Although topological relations for 2D objects have been extensively studied and implemented in GIS applications, their direct extension to 3D is very challenging and they cannot be directly applied to represent relations between components of complex 3D objects represented by 3D B-Rep models in R3. Herein we present an extended Region Connection Calculus (RCC) model to express and formalize topological relations between planar regions for creating 3D model represented by Boundary Representation model in R3. We proposed a new dimension extended 9-Intersection model to represent the basic relations among components of a complex object, including disjoint, meet and intersect. The last element in 3*3 matrix records the details of connection through the common parts of two regions and the intersecting line of two planes. Additionally, this model can deal with the case of planar regions with holes. Finally, the geometric information is transformed into a list of strings consisting of topological relations between two planar regions and detailed connection information. The experiments show that the proposed approach helps to identify topological relations of planar segments of point cloud automatically.

  1. HII Galaxies in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, E.

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution I review some results of the integral field spectroscopy of HII galaxies. The two main topics are related to their internal kinematics and the distribution of physical conditions. HII galaxies present a L-σ relation similar to elliptical galaxies. However, the origin of supersonic motions of the ionized gas (σ) is still a matter of debate. We show that the core of the star forming region dominates the internal kinematics and probes the underlying turbulent motions. The show our latest calibration of the L-sigma relation of local HII galaxies. We also show that the physical conditions are very uniform throughout the whole extent of the star forming region, once you account for the levels of ionization. HII galaxies are excellent laboratories for constraining the ionization power of high mass stars at low metallicities.

  2. Optimized Bayes variational regularization prior for 3D PET images.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Eugenio; Presotto, Luca; De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Bettinardi, Valentino

    2014-09-01

    A new prior for variational Maximum a Posteriori regularization is proposed to be used in a 3D One-Step-Late (OSL) reconstruction algorithm accounting also for the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the PET system. The new regularization prior strongly smoothes background regions, while preserving transitions. A detectability index is proposed to optimize the prior. The new algorithm has been compared with different reconstruction algorithms such as 3D-OSEM+PSF, 3D-OSEM+PSF+post-filtering and 3D-OSL with a Gauss-Total Variation (GTV) prior. The proposed regularization allows controlling noise, while maintaining good signal recovery; compared to the other algorithms it demonstrates a very good compromise between an improved quantitation and good image quality. PMID:24958594

  3. 3D guide wire tracking for navigation in endovascular interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baert, Shirley A.; van Walsum, Theo; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2004-05-01

    A method is presented to track the guide wire during endovascular interventions and to visualize it in 3D, together with the vasculature of the patient. The guide wire is represented by a 3D spline whose position is optimized using internal and external forces. For the external forces, the 3D spline is projected onto the biplane projection images that are routinely acquired. Feature images are constructed based on the enhancement of line-like structures in the projection images. A threshold is applied to this image such that if the probability of a pixel to be part of the guide wire is sufficiently high this feature image is used, whereas outside this region a distance transform is computed to improve the capture range of the method. In preliminary experiments, it is shown that some of the problems of the 2D tracking which where presented in previous work can successfully be circumvented using the 3D tracking method.

  4. Abundance and Diversity of Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Found in Lowbush Blueberry Growing Regions of Downeast Maine.

    PubMed

    Bushmann, Sara L; Drummond, Francis A

    2015-08-01

    Insect-mediated pollination is critical for lowbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) fruit development. Past research shows a persistent presence of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) providing pollination services even when commercial pollinators are present. We undertook the study to 1) provide a description of bee communities found in lowbush blueberry-growing regions, 2) identify field characteristics or farm management practices that influence those communities, 3) identify key wild bee pollinators that provide pollination services for the blueberry crop, and 4) identify non-crop plants found within the cropping system that provide forage for wild bees. During a 4-year period, we collected solitary and eusocial bees in over 40 fields during and after blueberry bloom, determining a management description for each field. We collected 4,474 solitary bees representing 124 species and 1,315 summer bumble bees representing nine species. No bumble bee species were previously unknown in Maine, yet we document seven solitary bee species new for the state. These include species of the genera Nomada, Lasioglossum, Calliopsis, and Augochloropsis. No field characteristic or farm management practice related to bee community structure, except bumble bee species richness was higher in certified organic fields. Pollen analysis determined scopal loads of 67-99% ericaceous pollen carried by five species of Andrena. Our data suggest two native ericaceous plants, Kalmia angustifolia L. and Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenheim), provide important alternative floral resources. We conclude that Maine blueberry croplands are populated with a species-rich bee community that fluctuates in time and space. We suggest growers develop and maintain wild bee forage and nest sites.

  5. Abundance and Diversity of Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Found in Lowbush Blueberry Growing Regions of Downeast Maine.

    PubMed

    Bushmann, Sara L; Drummond, Francis A

    2015-08-01

    Insect-mediated pollination is critical for lowbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) fruit development. Past research shows a persistent presence of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) providing pollination services even when commercial pollinators are present. We undertook the study to 1) provide a description of bee communities found in lowbush blueberry-growing regions, 2) identify field characteristics or farm management practices that influence those communities, 3) identify key wild bee pollinators that provide pollination services for the blueberry crop, and 4) identify non-crop plants found within the cropping system that provide forage for wild bees. During a 4-year period, we collected solitary and eusocial bees in over 40 fields during and after blueberry bloom, determining a management description for each field. We collected 4,474 solitary bees representing 124 species and 1,315 summer bumble bees representing nine species. No bumble bee species were previously unknown in Maine, yet we document seven solitary bee species new for the state. These include species of the genera Nomada, Lasioglossum, Calliopsis, and Augochloropsis. No field characteristic or farm management practice related to bee community structure, except bumble bee species richness was higher in certified organic fields. Pollen analysis determined scopal loads of 67-99% ericaceous pollen carried by five species of Andrena. Our data suggest two native ericaceous plants, Kalmia angustifolia L. and Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenheim), provide important alternative floral resources. We conclude that Maine blueberry croplands are populated with a species-rich bee community that fluctuates in time and space. We suggest growers develop and maintain wild bee forage and nest sites. PMID:26314043

  6. 3D Simulations of the Beehive Proplyd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitosa, J. A.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Cerqueira, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Some star formation regions, like the Orion nebula, have stars of different masses, from massive stars, responsible for strong ionizing winds and HII regions, to low-mass stars, which spend a long time in the protostellar phase, and are frequently associated with protostellar disks and jets. Massive O or B stars emit a great deal of UV radiation, able to dissociate the hydrogen molecule (FUV radiation, energies between 6-13 eV), to ionize the atomic hydrogen (EUV radiation, energies greater than 13.6 eV) and heat the gas. Around these stars, a large and hot (10^{4}K) region is formed, known as HII region. T-Tauri stars inside HII regions produce a type of young stellar object, a proplyd, described with accuracy in O'Dell et al. (1993). Proplyds exhibit a cometary shape from which we can distinguish a central low-mass star with an accretion disk, an ionization front, a photodissociation region and, sometimes, an external bow shock and a protostellar jet. Its morphological characteristics depends on the distance between the low-mass star and the source of the ionizing radiation. The Beehive, a giant proplyd in Orion Nebula, has attracted attention due to its exotic system of rings coaxial to the HH540 jet's axis. Bally et al. (2005) suggested that the rings are perturbations due to the crossing of the ionization front by the jet. In this work, we test this hypothesis making 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations over an adaptive grid, using the Yguazú-A code (Raga et al., 2000), properly adapted for the Beehive conditions. Our results show that the jet causes a perturbation in the ionization front of the proplyd, but is necessary to adjust carefully some parameters of the jet like its velocity and ejection frequency in order to have the results matching the observations.

  7. Space Partitioning for Privacy Enabled 3D City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippovska, Y.; Wichmann, A.; Kada, M.

    2016-10-01

    Due to recent technological progress, data capturing and processing of highly detailed (3D) data has become extensive. And despite all prospects of potential uses, data that includes personal living spaces and public buildings can also be considered as a serious intrusion into people's privacy and a threat to security. It becomes especially critical if data is visible by the general public. Thus, a compromise is needed between open access to data and privacy requirements which can be very different for each application. As privacy is a complex and versatile topic, the focus of this work particularly lies on the visualization of 3D urban data sets. For the purpose of privacy enabled visualizations of 3D city models, we propose to partition the (living) spaces into privacy regions, each featuring its own level of anonymity. Within each region, the depicted 2D and 3D geometry and imagery is anonymized with cartographic generalization techniques. The underlying spatial partitioning is realized as a 2D map generated as a straight skeleton of the open space between buildings. The resulting privacy cells are then merged according to the privacy requirements associated with each building to form larger regions, their borderlines smoothed, and transition zones established between privacy regions to have a harmonious visual appearance. It is exemplarily demonstrated how the proposed method generates privacy enabled 3D city models.

  8. Compositional equivalence of insect-protected glyphosate-tolerant soybean MON 87701 × MON 89788 to conventional soybean extends across different world regions and multiple growing seasons.

    PubMed

    Berman, Kristina H; Harrigan, George G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Oliveira, Wladecir S; Berger, Geraldo U; Tagliaferro, Fabio S

    2011-11-01

    The soybean product MON 87701 × MON 89788 expresses both the cry1Ac gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis and the cp4 epsps (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4. Each biotechnology-derived trait confers specific benefits of insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance, respectively. The purpose of this study was to compare the composition of seed and forage from this combined-trait product to those of conventional soybean grown in geographically and climatically distinct regions. Field trials were conducted in the United States during the 2007 growing season, in Argentina during the 2007-2008 growing season, and in the northern and southern soybean regions of Brazil during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 growing seasons. Results demonstrated that the compositional equivalence of MON 87701 × MON 89788 to the conventional soybean extended across all regions and growing seasons. Further evaluation of the data showed that natural variation (region and growing season) contributed more to compositional variability in soybean, particularly for such components as isoflavones, fatty acids, and vitamin E, than transgene insertion.

  9. FlexyDos3D: a deformable anthropomorphic 3D radiation dosimeter: radiation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Y.; Skyt, P. S.; Hil, R.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image registration software. A new three dimensional anthropomorphically shaped flexible dosimeter, further called ‘FlexyDos3D’, has been constructed and a new fast optical scanning method has been implemented that enables scanning of irregular shaped dosimeters. The FlexyDos3D phantom can be actuated and deformed during the actual treatment. FlexyDos3D offers the additional advantage that it is easy to fabricate, is non-toxic and can be molded in an arbitrary shape with high geometrical precision. The dosimeter formulation has been optimized in terms of dose sensitivity. The influence of the casting material and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence. The first authors Y De Deene and P S Skyt made an equivalent contribution to the experimental work presented in this paper.

  10. Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.

  11. Spatiotemporal properties of growing season indices during 1961-2010 and possible association with agroclimatological regionalization of dominant crops in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Liu, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Variations of frost days and growing season length (GSL) have been drawing increasing attention due to their impact on agriculture. The Xinjiang region in China is climatically an arid region and plays an important role in agriculture development. In this study, the GSL and frost events are analyzed in both space and time, based on the daily minimum, mean and maximum air surface temperature data covering a period of 1961-2010. Results indicate that: (1) a significant lengthening of GSL is detected during 1961-2010 in Xinjiang, China. The increasing rate of GSL over Xinjiang is about 2.5 days per decade. Besides, the starting time of growing season is 0.7 days earlier per decade and the ending time is 1.6 days later per decade. Generally, GSL in southern Xinjiang has larger increasing magnitude when compared to other regions of Xinjiang; (2) longer GSL and larger changing magnitude of growing season start (GSS), growing season end (GSE) and GSL in southern Xinjiang implies higher sensitivity of the growing season response to climate warming. Besides, GSL is in close relation with latitude, and higher latitude usually corresponds to later start and earlier end of growing season, and hence shorter GSL. In general, a northward increase of 1° latitude triggers an 8-day delay of the starting time of growing season, 6-day advance of the ending time of growing season, and thus the GSL is 14 days shorter; (3) GSL under different rates can reflect light and heat resources over Xinjiang. The GSL related to 80 % guarantee rate is 5-14 days shorter than the long-term annual mean GSL; (4) Lengthening of GSL has the potential to increase agricultural production. However, negative influences by climate warming, such as enhanced evapotranspiration, increasing weeds, insects, and pathogen-mediated plant diseases, should also be considered in planning, management and development of agriculture in Xinjiang.

  12. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  13. Automatic 3D video format detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  14. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  15. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.

    2010-05-01

    Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (3D) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional 3D geological models based on archival geological data. Such models have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based 3D stratigraphic model of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological modeling in this area. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x

  16. Initial Efficacy Results of RTOG 0319: Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT) Confined to the Region of the Lumpectomy Cavity for Stage I/ II Breast Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank; Winter, Kathryn; Wong, John

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: This prospective study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0319) examines the use of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Initial data on efficacy and toxicity are presented. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage I or II breast cancer with lesions {<=}3 cm, negative margins and with {<=}3 positive nodes were eligible. The 3D-CRT was 38.5 Gy in 3.85 Gy/fraction delivered 2x/day. Ipsilateral breast, ipsilateral nodal, contralateral breast, and distant failure (IBF, INF, CBF, DF) were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Mastectomy-free, disease-free, and overall survival (MFS, DFS, OS) were recorded. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, was used to grade acute and late toxicity. Results: Fifty-eight patients were entered and 52 patients are eligible and evaluable for efficacy. The median age of patients was 61 years with the following characteristics: 46% tumor size <1 cm; 87% invasive ductal histology; 94% American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage I; 65% postmenopausal; 83% no chemotherapy; and 71% with no hormone therapy. Median follow-up is 4.5 years (1.7-4.8). Four-year estimates (95% CI) of efficacy are: IBF 6% (0-12%) [4% within field (0-9%)]; INF 2% (0-6%); CBF 0%; DF 8% (0-15%); MFS 90% (78-96%); DFS 84% (71-92%); and OS 96% (85-99%). Only two (4%) Grade 3 toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Initial efficacy and toxicity using 3D-CRT to deliver APBI appears comparable to other experiences with similar follow-up. However, additional patients, further follow-up, and mature Phase III data are needed to evaluate the extent of application, limitations, and value of this particular form of APBI.

  17. 3D Structured Grid Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; Hafez, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Grid adaptation for structured meshes is the art of using information from an existing, but poorly resolved, solution to automatically redistribute the grid points in such a way as to improve the resolution in regions of high error, and thus the quality of the solution. This involves: (1) generate a grid vis some standard algorithm, (2) calculate a solution on this grid, (3) adapt the grid to this solution, (4) recalculate the solution on this adapted grid, and (5) repeat steps 3 and 4 to satisfaction. Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated until some 'optimal' grid is converged to but typically this is not worth the effort and just two or three repeat calculations are necessary. They also may be repeated every 5-10 time steps for unsteady calculations.

  18. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Coordination by SDMI and AMEC avoids duplication of effort and ensures a unified approach to consistent, statewide data acquisition; the enhancement of existing data; and support for emerging applications. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  19. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  20. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  1. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  2. Combining Remote Sensing and Landscape Metrics to monitor Urban Spatial Variation - Examples from Growing and Shrinking Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzband, M.

    2011-12-01

    also fragmentation of recreational sites within metropolitan areas and of built-up areas within green spaces in suburban areas. Dynamic urban area indicators refer to typology of changes and the transition from one land-use class to another. A methodological approach is presented applied to different parts of Europe in growing as well as shrinking urban regions, after which monitoring and evaluation of a landscape diversity in suburban landscapes are feasible on the basis of medium and high resolution satellite data.

  3. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  4. Low Complexity Mode Decision for 3D-HEVC

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nana; Gan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. PMID:25254237

  5. Low complexity mode decision for 3D-HEVC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuwen; Li, Nana; Gan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. PMID:25254237

  6. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  7. Calculations of the integral invariant coordinates I and L* in the magnetosphere and mapping of the regions where I is conserved, using a particle tracer (ptr3D v2.0), LANL*, SPENVIS, and IRBEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, K.; Sarris, T.

    2015-09-01

    The integral invariant coordinate I and Roederer's L or L* are proxies for the second and third adiabatic invariants, respectively, that characterize charged particle motion in a magnetic field. Their usefulness lies in the fact that they are expressed in more instructive ways than their counterparts: I is equivalent to the path length of the particle motion between two mirror points, whereas L*, although dimensionless, is equivalent to the distance from the center of the Earth to the equatorial point of a given field line, in units of Earth radii, in the simplified case of a dipole magnetic field. However, care should be taken when calculating the above invariants, as the assumption of their conservation is not valid everywhere in the Earth's magnetosphere. This is not clearly stated in state-of-the-art models that are widely used for the calculation of these invariants. The purpose of this work is thus to investigate where in the near-Earth magnetosphere we can safely calculate I and L* with tools with widespread use in the field of space physics, for various magnetospheric conditions and particle initial conditions. More particularly, in this paper we compare the values of I and L* as calculated using LANL*, an artificial neural network developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, SPENVIS, a space environment online tool, IRBEM, a software library dedicated to radiation belt modeling, and ptr3D, a 3-D particle tracing code that was developed for this study. We then attempt to quantify the variations between the calculations of I and L* of those models. The deviation between the results given by the models depends on particle initial position, pitch angle and magnetospheric conditions. Using the ptr3D v2.0 particle tracer we map the areas in the Earth's magnetosphere where I and L* can be assumed to be conserved by monitoring the constancy of I for energetic protons propagating forwards and backwards in time. These areas are found to be centered on the noon

  8. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  9. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  10. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  11. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  12. 3D Location of Small Solar Wind Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Portela, C.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Panasenco, O.; Gibson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The so-called "blobs" as defined in Sheeley et al., 1997, are small-scale structures embedded in the continuously expanding white-light solar corona and are considered to be tracers of the slow solar wind. As blobs are very faint structures, we considered long periods (around 2 to 5 days) where there were no coronal mass ejections (CME). The scarce presence of CMEs during the extended past solar minimum has permitted the identification of continuous blobs detachments, allowing us to estimate their un-projected trajectories between 2 and 15 solar radii (Mierla et al., 2008). In agreement with the idea that blobs are liberated from the cusps of helmet steamers (Wang et al., 1998), we constrained the observing region of interest in the coronagraphs field of view to ±30° from the Sun's equator. We studied cases where blobs were detected by the coronagraphs C2/LASCO and COR2/SECCHI, and inferred their source locations using two packages that implement the 3D potential field source surface (PFSS) model: (1) PFSS developed by De Rosa (2010) and (2) PFSS (De Rosa) in FORWARD (people.hao.ucar.edu/sgibson/FORWARD/). The locations of the origin of blobs that we find, support previous results that track down the origin of the slow solar wind to regions near the helmet streamers and pseudostreamers (Wang et al., 2012, Riley&Luhmann, 2012). Additionally, we found that in some cases blobs are coming from the boundaries of growing or decaying equatorial coronal holes, where the interchange reconnection issupposed to be faster.

  13. Time-lapse 3D electrical resistivity tomography to monitor soil-plant interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Matteo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Putti, Mario

    2013-04-01

    In this work we present the application of time-lapse non-invasive 3D micro- electrical tomography (ERT) to monitor soil-plant interactions in the root zone in the framework of the FP7 Project CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins). The goal of the study is to gain a better understanding of the soil-vegetation interactions by the use of non-invasive techniques. We designed, built and installed a 3D electrical tomography apparatus for the monitoring of the root zone of a single apple tree in an orchard located in the Trentino region, Northern Italy. The micro-ERT apparatus consists of 48 buried electrodes on 4 instrumented micro boreholes plus 24 mini-electrodes on the surface spaced 0.1 m on a square grid. We collected repeated ERT and TDR soil moisture measurements for one year and performed two different controlled irrigation tests: one during a very dry Summer and one during a very wet and highly dynamic plant growing Spring period. We also ran laboratory analyses on soil specimens, in order to evaluate the electrical response at different saturation steps. The results demonstrate that 3D micro-ERT is capable of characterizing subsoil conditions and monitoring root zone activities, especially in terms of root zone suction regions. In particular, we note that in very dry conditions, 3D micro ERT can image water plumes in the shallow subsoil produced by a drip irrigation system. In the very dynamic growing season, under abundant irrigation, micro 3D ERT can detect the main suction zones caused by the tree root activity. Even though the quantitative use of this technique for moisture content balance suffers from well-known inversion difficulties, even the pure imaging of the active root zone is a valuable contribution. However the integration of the measurements in a fully coupled hydrogeophysical inversion is the way forward for a better understanding of subsoil interactions between biomass, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

  14. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  15. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  16. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  17. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  18. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  19. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  20. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  1. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  2. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  3. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  4. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  5. 3-D Mixed Mode Delamination Fracture Criteria - An Experimentalist's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Many delamination failure criteria based on fracture toughness have been suggested over the past few decades, but most only covered the region containing mode I and mode II components of loading because that is where toughness data existed. With new analysis tools, more 3D analyses are being conducted that capture a mode III component of loading. This has increased the need for a fracture criterion that incorporates mode III loading. The introduction of a pure mode III fracture toughness test has also produced data on which to base a full 3D fracture criterion. In this paper, a new framework for visualizing 3D fracture criteria is introduced. The common 2D power law fracture criterion was evaluated to produce unexpected predictions with the introduction of mode III and did not perform well in the critical high mode I region. Another 2D criterion that has been shown to model a wide range of materials well was used as the basis for a new 3D criterion. The new criterion is based on assumptions that the relationship between mode I and mode III toughness is similar to the relation between mode I and mode II and that a linear interpolation can be used between mode II and mode III. Until mixed-mode data exists with a mode III component of loading, 3D fracture criteria cannot be properly evaluated, but these assumptions seem reasonable.

  6. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  7. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  8. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate

    PubMed Central

    Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values. PMID:26693303

  9. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  10. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  11. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  12. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  13. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  14. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  15. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.

  16. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  17. Using GNG to improve 3D feature extraction--application to 6DoF egomotion.

    PubMed

    Viejo, Diego; Garcia, Jose; Cazorla, Miguel; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus

    2012-08-01

    Several recent works deal with 3D data in mobile robotic problems, e.g. mapping or egomotion. Data comes from any kind of sensor such as stereo vision systems, time of flight cameras or 3D lasers, providing a huge amount of unorganized 3D data. In this paper, we describe an efficient method to build complete 3D models from a Growing Neural Gas (GNG). The GNG is applied to the 3D raw data and it reduces both the subjacent error and the number of points, keeping the topology of the 3D data. The GNG output is then used in a 3D feature extraction method. We have performed a deep study in which we quantitatively show that the use of GNG improves the 3D feature extraction method. We also show that our method can be applied to any kind of 3D data. The 3D features obtained are used as input in an Iterative Closest Point (ICP)-like method to compute the 6DoF movement performed by a mobile robot. A comparison with standard ICP is performed, showing that the use of GNG improves the results. Final results of 3D mapping from the egomotion calculated are also shown. PMID:22386789

  18. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  19. Mapping the human cerebral cortex using 3-D medial manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekely, Gabor; Brechbuehler, Christian; Kuebler, Olaf; Ogniewicz, Robert; Budinger, Thomas F.

    1992-09-01

    Novel imaging technologies provide a detailed look at structure and function of the tremendously complex and variable human brain. Optimal exploitation of the information stored in the rapidly growing collection of acquired and segmented MRI data calls for robust and reliable descriptions of the individual geometry of the cerebral cortex. A mathematical description and representation of 3-D shape, capable of dealing with form of variable appearance, is at the focus of this paper. We base our development on the Medial Axis Transformation (MAT) customarily defined in 2-D although the concept generalizes to any number of dimensions. Our implementation of the 3-D MAT combines full 3-D Voronoitesselation generated by the set of all border points with regularization procedures to obtain geometrically and topologically correct medial manifolds. The proposed algorithm was tested on synthetic objects and has been applied to 3-D MRI data of 1 mm isotropic resolution to obtain a description of the sulci in the cerebral cortex. Description and representation of the cortical anatomy is significant in clinical applications, medical research, and instrumentation developments.

  20. FUN3D and CFL3D Computations for the First High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes were used to compute flow over the NASA Trapezoidal Wing at high lift conditions for the 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop, held in Chicago in June 2010. The unstructured-grid code FUN3D and the structured-grid code CFL3D were applied to several different grid systems. The effects of code, grid system, turbulence model, viscous term treatment, and brackets were studied. The SST model on this configuration predicted lower lift than the Spalart-Allmaras model at high angles of attack; the Spalart-Allmaras model agreed better with experiment. Neglecting viscous cross-derivative terms caused poorer prediction in the wing tip vortex region. Output-based grid adaptation was applied to the unstructured-grid solutions. The adapted grids better resolved wake structures and reduced flap flow separation, which was also observed in uniform grid refinement studies. Limitations of the adaptation method as well as areas for future improvement were identified.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  6. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  7. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  8. VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

    2005-11-01

    A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

  9. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  10. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  11. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  12. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  13. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  14. Investigations in massive 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo; Scatena, Eslley

    2011-05-15

    Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

  15. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  16. A method to fabricate disconnected silver nanostructures in 3D.

    PubMed

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Mazur, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The standard nanofabrication toolkit includes techniques primarily aimed at creating 2D patterns in dielectric media. Creating metal patterns on a submicron scale requires a combination of nanofabrication tools and several material processing steps. For example, steps to create planar metal structures using ultraviolet photolithography and electron-beam lithography can include sample exposure, sample development, metal deposition, and metal liftoff. To create 3D metal structures, the sequence is repeated multiple times. The complexity and difficulty of stacking and aligning multiple layers limits practical implementations of 3D metal structuring using standard nanofabrication tools. Femtosecond-laser direct-writing has emerged as a pre-eminent technique for 3D nanofabrication.(1,2) Femtosecond lasers are frequently used to create 3D patterns in polymers and glasses.(3-7) However, 3D metal direct-writing remains a challenge. Here, we describe a method to fabricate silver nanostructures embedded inside a polymer matrix using a femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm. The method enables the fabrication of patterns not feasible using other techniques, such as 3D arrays of disconnected silver voxels.(8) Disconnected 3D metal patterns are useful for metamaterials where unit cells are not in contact with each other,(9) such as coupled metal dot(10,11)or coupled metal rod(12,13) resonators. Potential applications include negative index metamaterials, invisibility cloaks, and perfect lenses. In femtosecond-laser direct-writing, the laser wavelength is chosen such that photons are not linearly absorbed in the target medium. When the laser pulse duration is compressed to the femtosecond time scale and the radiation is tightly focused inside the target, the extremely high intensity induces nonlinear absorption. Multiple photons are absorbed simultaneously to cause electronic transitions that lead to material modification within the focused region. Using this approach, one can

  17. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L.; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-01-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson–Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  18. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  19. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  20. A Volume Rendering Framework for Visualizing 3D Flow Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Hsien-Hsi; Li, Liya; Shen, Han-Wei; Tai, Wen-Kai

    In this paper, we present a volume rendering framework for visualizing 3D flow fields. We introduce the concept of coherence field which evaluates the representativeness of a given streamline set for the underlying 3D vector field. Visualization of the coherence field can provide effective visual feedback to the user for incremental insertion of more streamline seeds. Given an initial set of streamlines, a coherence volume is constructed from a distance field to measure the similarity between the existing streamlines and those in their nearby regions based on the difference between the approximate and the actual vector directions. With the visual feedback obtained from rendering the coherence volume, new streamline seeds can be selected by the user or by a heuristic seed selection algorithm to adaptively improve the coherence volume. An improved volume rendering technique that can render user-defined appearance textures is proposed to facilitate macro-visualization of 3D vector fields.

  1. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The technology to reliably transmit high-resolution visual imagery over short to medium distances in real time has led to the serious considerations of the use of telemedicine, telepresence, and telerobotics in the delivery of health care. These concepts may involve, and evolve toward: consultation from remote expert teaching centers; diagnosis; triage; real-time remote advice to the surgeon; and real-time remote surgical instrument manipulation (telerobotics with virtual reality). Further extrapolation leads to teledesign and telereplication of spare surgical parts through quantitative teleimaging of 3-D surfaces tied to CAD/CAM devices and an artificially intelligent archival data base of 'normal' shapes. The ability to generate 'topogrames' or 3-D surface numerical tables of coordinate values capable of creating computer-generated virtual holographic-like displays, machine part replication, and statistical diagnostic shape assessment is critical to the progression of telemedicine. Any virtual reality simulation will remain in 'video-game' realm until realistic dimensional and spatial relational inputs from real measurements in vivo during surgeries are added to an ever-growing statistical data archive. The challenges of managing and interpreting this 3-D data base, which would include radiographic and surface quantitative data, are considerable. As technology drives toward dynamic and continuous 3-D surface measurements, presenting millions of X, Y, Z data points per second of flexing, stretching, moving human organs, the knowledge base and interpretive capabilities of 'brilliant robots' to work as a surgeon's tireless assistants becomes imaginable. The brilliant robot would 'see' what the surgeon sees--and more, for the robot could quantify its 3-D sensing and would 'see' in a wider spectral range than humans, and could zoom its 'eyes' from the macro world to long-distance microscopy. Unerring robot hands could rapidly perform machine-aided suturing with

  2. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experimen