#### Sample records for 3d seismic investigations

1. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

Moore, Gregory F.

2009-05-01

This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

2. High-resolution 3D seismic investigation of giant seafloor craters in the Barents Sea

Waage, Malin; Bünz, Stefan; Andreassen, Karin

2016-04-01

Multiple giant craters exist on the seafloor in an area of ~ 100 km2 east of Bear Island Trough in the west-central Barents Sea. It has been hypothesized that these craters might have been caused by gas eruptions following the last deglaciation. Gas seepage from the seafloor occurs abundantly in this area. The crater area is still likely to represent one of the largest hot-spots for shallow marine methane release in the arctic. In summer 2015, we acquired high-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic data in this area covering several of the craters and their associated pingo structures. Due to the shallow and hard Triassic bedrock, penetration of the seismic signals is limited to approximately 450 ms bsf. The crater structures are up to 1 km wide and 40 m deep. Pingo structures occur on the rim of some of the craters and are up to 700 m wide and up to 15 m high above the surrounding seafloor. The 3D seismic data reveals faults, fracture networks and weakness zone that resemble pipes or similar vertical, focused fluid-flow structures in the Triassic sedimentary rocks below the craters. The principal orientation of the faults is in a ~ NW-SE direction that coincides with regional faulting from Permo-Triassic extension. The seismic data also show high-amplitude anomalies beneath some of representing shallow gas accumulations that might be the intermediate source of the gas seepage. This might suggest that craters are caused by high pressured gas that migrated from deeper petroleum systems and accumulated in the shallow Triassic rocks during the last glaciation. Previous work indicate that craters of similar size are likely a cause of enormous blow-outs of gas. Our study discusses the formation mechanisms and timing of these potential blow-out craters and whether they formed during the last deglaciation, when this area was likely quite unstable as severe glacial erosion caused localized high isostatic rebound rates here. We also investigate the role of gas hydrates that might

3. 3D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

SciTech Connect

Levander, Alan Richard; Zelt, Colin A.

2015-03-17

The work plan for this project was to develop and apply advanced seismic reflection and wide-angle processing and inversion techniques to high resolution seismic data for the shallow subsurface to seismically characterize the shallow subsurface at hazardous waste sites as an aid to containment and cleanup activities. We proposed to continue work on seismic data that we had already acquired under a previous DoE grant, as well as to acquire additional new datasets for analysis. The project successfully developed and/or implemented the use of 3D reflection seismology algorithms, waveform tomography and finite-frequency tomography using compressional and shear waves for high resolution characterization of the shallow subsurface at two waste sites. These two sites have markedly different near-surface structures, groundwater flow patterns, and hazardous waste problems. This is documented in the list of refereed documents, conference proceedings, and Rice graduate theses, listed below.

4. Investigation of 3-D lateral variations on seismic waveform modeling, in preparation for the InSight mission to Mars

Drilleau, M.; Dubois, A.; Blanchette-Guertin, J. F.; Kawamura, T.; Lognonne, P. H.

2015-12-01

In 2016, the InSight mission will provide the very first seismic records from Mars after installing a seismometer on the surface of the Red Planet. Obtaining information on the deep 1-D seismic structure of Mars using a single geophysical station will be challenging. However, successful test inversions using body and surface waves have been presented in a preliminary study by Panning et al. (2015). Future investigations need now to focus on inversions making a complete use of the seismic waveform. An important challenge is to investigate the effects of 3-D lateral variations of seismic velocity structures on seismograms. The HOPT (Higher Order Perturbation Theory) code originally developed by P. Lognonné and E. Clévédé (Lognonné, 1991 ; Lognonné and Clévédé, 2002) and based on the perturbation theory allows for the computation of synthetic seismograms in a 3-D Earth. We adapted the code for Mars and computed surface wave synthetics in a 3-D planet, initially only considering the effects of the planet's ellipticity as well as the lateral variations in the depth of the Moho which are known through gravity measurements (e.g. Neumann et al., 2004). Additional constraints from lateral variations in topography will be the focus of future work. These synthetics can be compared to future seismic data in order to identify a suite of Martian internal structure models that best match the data. To do so, we first need to estimate the resolvable parameters concerning the Mars deep interior while considering the 3-D effects, which is the main goal of this study. Furthermore, in preparation for the InSight mission data return phase, the computation of these synthetic (but realistic) seismograms is primordial to test the softwares developed by the InSight Mars Quake and Mars Structure Services (in charge of locating the seismic events, and using them to assess the internal structure of Mars).

5. Investigation into 3D earth structure and sources using full seismic waveforms

Covellone, Brian M.

Seismograms are the result of the complex interactions between a seismic source, a propagation medium and the seismograph's response. Through the use of 3-dimensional modeling and full seismic waveform data, we quantify and minimize errors associated with the source and propagation medium within our data sets. We compile a new and unique earthquake catalog for the Middle East that is openly available to the public. We quantify the benefits of using a 3-dimensional model relative to a 1-dimensional model to minimizing error in earthquake moment tensors and identify where in the waveform 3-dimensional models outperform 1-dimensional models. Two new and unique 3-dimensional seismic wave speed models are computed for the Ontong Java plateau and eastern North American margin.Both models are significant improvements to the resolution of wave speed structures in the crust and upper mantle and provide new information for the evaluation of tectonic features.

6. 3-D seismic data for geohazards assessment

SciTech Connect

Gafford, W.T.

1996-10-01

Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data, acquired for oil and gas exploration purposes, is now being used to supplement, or in some cases, even replace conventional high resolution geohazard surveys in the Gulf of Mexico. The use of 3-D seismic data has improved the identification and understanding of some types of geohazards and has resulted in a more thorough interpretation of the shallow geologic section. The use of seismic interpretation workstations has allowed the geohazard interpreter to apply new tools in geohazard analysis. Some of the newer geohazard analysis. Some of the newer geophysical technologies used for exploration purposes are now being adapted for use in the identification and assessment of drilling hazards in the near-seafloor sedimentary section.

7. Application of 3D reflection seismic methods to mineral exploration

Urosevic, Milovan

2013-04-01

Seismic exploration for mineral deposits is often tested by excessively complex structures, regolith heterogeneity, intrinsically low signal to noise ratio, ground relief and accessibility. In brown fields, where the majority of the seismic surveys have been conducted, existing infrastructure, old pits and tailings, heavy machinery in operation, mine drainage and other mine related activities are further challenging the application of seismic methods and furthermore increasing its cost. It is therefore not surprising that the mining industry has been reluctant to use seismic methods, particularly 3D for mineral exploration, primarily due to the high cost, but also because of variable performance, and in some cases ambiguous interpretation results. However, shallow mineral reserves are becoming depleted and exploration is moving towards deeper targets. Seismic methods will be more important for deeper investigations and may become the primary exploration tool in the near future. The big issue is if we have an appropriate seismic "strategy" for exploration of deep, complex mineral reserves. From the existing case histories worldwide we know that massive ore deposits (VMS, VHMS) constitute the best case scenario for the application of 3D seismic. Direct targeting of massive ore bodies from seismic has been documented in several case histories. Sediment hosted deposits could, in some cases, can also produce a detectable seismic signature. Other deposit types such as IOCG and skarn are much more challenging for the application of seismic methods. The complexity of these deposits requires new thinking. Several 3D surveys acquired over different deposit types will be presented and discussed.

8. 3D seismic image processing for interpretation

Wu, Xinming

Extracting fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a seismic image is useful for interpretation of geologic structures and stratigraphic features. Although interpretation of these surfaces has been automated to some extent by others, significant manual effort is still required for extracting each type of these geologic surfaces. I propose methods to automatically extract all the fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a 3D seismic image. To a large degree, these methods just involve image processing or array processing which is achieved by efficiently solving partial differential equations. For fault interpretation, I propose a linked data structure, which is simpler than triangle or quad meshes, to represent a fault surface. In this simple data structure, each sample of a fault corresponds to exactly one image sample. Using this linked data structure, I extract complete and intersecting fault surfaces without holes from 3D seismic images. I use the same structure in subsequent processing to estimate fault slip vectors. I further propose two methods, using precomputed fault surfaces and slips, to undo faulting in seismic images by simultaneously moving fault blocks and faults themselves. For unconformity interpretation, I first propose a new method to compute a unconformity likelihood image that highlights both the termination areas and the corresponding parallel unconformities and correlative conformities. I then extract unconformity surfaces from the likelihood image and use these surfaces as constraints to more accurately estimate seismic normal vectors that are discontinuous near the unconformities. Finally, I use the estimated normal vectors and use the unconformities as constraints to compute a flattened image, in which seismic reflectors are all flat and vertical gaps correspond to the unconformities. Horizon extraction is straightforward after computing a map of image flattening; we can first extract horizontal slices in the flattened space

9. Walker Ranch 3D seismic images

SciTech Connect

Robert J. Mellors

2016-03-01

Amplitude images (both vertical and depth slices) extracted from 3D seismic reflection survey over area of Walker Ranch area (adjacent to Raft River). Crossline spacing of 660 feet and inline of 165 feet using a Vibroseis source. Processing included depth migration. Micro-earthquake hypocenters on images. Stratigraphic information and nearby well tracks added to images. Images are embedded in a Microsoft Word document with additional information. Exact location and depth restricted for proprietary reasons. Data collection and processing funded by Agua Caliente. Original data remains property of Agua Caliente.

10. A comparative study between a rectilinear 3-D seismic survey and a concentric-circle 3-D seismic survey

SciTech Connect

1994-12-31

Due to the rectilinear nature of the previous 3D seismic survey, the details necessary for proper interpretation were absent. Theoretically, concentric 3D seismic technology may provide an avenue for gaining more and higher quality data coverage. Problems associated with recording a rectilinear 3D seismic grid over the salt dome in this area have created the need to investigate the use of such procedures as the concentric-circle 3D seismic acquisition technique. The difficulty of imaging salt dome flanks with conventional rectilinear 3D seismic may be a result of the inability to precisely predict the lateral velocity-field variation adjacent to both salt and sediments. The dramatic difference in the interval velocities of salt and sediments causes the returning ray to severely deviate from being a hyperbolic path. This hampers the ability to predict imaging points near the salt/sediment interface. Perhaps the most difficult areas to image with rectilinear seismic surveys are underneath salt overhangs. Modeling suggests that a significant increase in the number of rays captured from beneath a salt overhang can be achieved with the concentric-circle method. This paper demonstrates the use of the ``circle shoot`` on a survey conducted over a salt dome in the Gulf of Mexico. A total of 80 concentric circles cover an area which is equivalent to 31,000 acres. The final post-stack data were sorted into bins with dimensions of 25 meters by 25 meters. A comparison of 3D rectilinear shooting vs. 3D concentric circle shooting over the same area will show an improvement in data quality and signal-to-noise characteristics.

11. Imaging fault zones using 3D seismic image processing techniques

Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve

2013-04-01

Significant advances in structural analysis of deep water structure, salt tectonic and extensional rift basin come from the descriptions of fault system geometries imaged in 3D seismic data. However, even where seismic data are excellent, in most cases the trajectory of thrust faults is highly conjectural and still significant uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop between the main faults segments, and even of the fault architectures themselves. Moreover structural interpretations that conventionally define faults by breaks and apparent offsets of seismic reflectors are commonly conditioned by a narrow range of theoretical models of fault behavior. For example, almost all interpretations of thrust geometries on seismic data rely on theoretical "end-member" behaviors where concepts as strain localization or multilayer mechanics are simply avoided. Yet analogue outcrop studies confirm that such descriptions are commonly unsatisfactory and incomplete. In order to fill these gaps and improve the 3D visualization of deformation in the subsurface, seismic attribute methods are developed here in conjunction with conventional mapping of reflector amplitudes (Marfurt & Chopra, 2007)). These signal processing techniques recently developed and applied especially by the oil industry use variations in the amplitude and phase of the seismic wavelet. These seismic attributes improve the signal interpretation and are calculated and applied to the entire 3D seismic dataset. In this contribution we will show 3D seismic examples of fault structures from gravity-driven deep-water thrust structures and extensional basin systems to indicate how 3D seismic image processing methods can not only build better the geometrical interpretations of the faults but also begin to map both strain and damage through amplitude/phase properties of the seismic signal. This is done by quantifying and delineating the short-range anomalies on the intensity of reflector amplitudes

12. Exploring the seismic expression of fault zones in 3D seismic volumes

Iacopini, D.; Butler, R. W. H.; Purves, S.; McArdle, N.; De Freslon, N.

2016-08-01

Mapping and understanding distributed deformation is a major challenge for the structural interpretation of seismic data. However, volumes of seismic signal disturbance with low signal/noise ratio are systematically observed within 3D seismic datasets around fault systems. These seismic disturbance zones (SDZ) are commonly characterized by complex perturbations of the signal and occur at the sub-seismic (10 s m) to seismic scale (100 s m). They may store important information on deformation distributed around those larger scale structures that may be readily interpreted in conventional amplitude displays of seismic data. We introduce a method to detect fault-related disturbance zones and to discriminate between this and other noise sources such as those associated with the seismic acquisition (footprint noise). Two case studies from the Taranaki basin and deep-water Niger delta are presented. These resolve SDZs using tensor and semblance attributes along with conventional seismic mapping. The tensor attribute is more efficient in tracking volumes containing structural displacements while structurally-oriented semblance coherency is commonly disturbed by small waveform variations around the fault throw. We propose a workflow to map and cross-plot seismic waveform signal properties extracted from the seismic disturbance zone as a tool to investigate the seismic signature and explore seismic facies of a SDZ.

13. Exploring the seismic expression of fault zones in 3D seismic volumes

Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve

2016-04-01

Mapping and understanding distributed deformation is a major challenge for the structural interpretation of seismic data. However, volumes of seismic signal disturbance with low signal/noise ratio are systematically observed within 3D seismic datasets around fault systems. These seismic disturbance zones (SDZ) are commonly characterized by complex perturbations of the signal and occur at the sub-seismic to seismic scale. They may store important information on deformation distributed around those larger scale structures that may be readily interpreted in conventional amplitude displays of seismic data scale. We introduce a method to detect fault-related disturbance zones and to discriminate between this and other noise sources such as those associated with the seismic acquisition (footprint noise). Two case studies, from the Taranaki basin and deep-water Niger delta are presented. These resolve structure within SDZs using tensor and semblance attributes along with conventional seismic mapping. The tensor attribute is more efficient in tracking volumes containing structural displacements while structurally-oriented semblance coherency is commonly disturbed by small waveform variations around the fault throw. We propose a workflow to map and cross-plot seismic waveform signal properties extracted from the seismic disturbance zone as a tool to investigate the seismic signature and explore seismic facies of a SDZ.

14. 3D Seismic Reflection Experiment over the Galicia Deep Basin

Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Reston, T. J.; Minshull, T. A.; Klaeschen, D.; Ranero, C.; Shillington, D. J.; Morgan, J. K.

2014-12-01

In June thru September, 2013, a 3D reflection and a long offset seismic experiment were conducted at the Galicia rifted margin by investigators from the US, UK, Germany, and Spain. The 3D multichannel experiment covered 64 km by 20 km (1280 km2), using the RV Marcus Langseth. Four streamers 6 km long were deployed at 12.5 m hydrophone channel spacing. The streamers were 200 m apart. Two airgun arrays, each 3300 cu in, were fired alternately every 37.5 m, to collectively yield a 400 m wide sail line consisting of 8 CMP lines at 50 m spacing. The long offset seismic experiment included 72 short period OBS's deployed below the 3D reflection survey box. Most of the instruments recorded all the shots from the airgun array shots. The 3D seismic box covered a variety of geologic features. The Peridotite Ridge (PR), is associated with the exhumation of upper mantle rocks to the seafloor during the final stage of the continental separation between the Galicia Bank and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The S reflector is present below most of the continental blocks under the deep Galicia basin. S is interpreted to be a low-angle detachment fault formed late in the rifting process, and a number of rotated fault block basins and ranges containing pre and syn-rift sediments. Initial observations from stacked 3D seismic data, and samples of 2D pre-stack time migrated (PSTM) 3D seismic data show that the PR is elevated above the present seafloor in the South and not exposed through the seafloor in the North. The relative smoothness of the PR surface for the entire 20 km N-S contrasts with the more complex, shorter wavelength, faulting of the continental crustal blocks to the east. The PR does not seem to show offsets or any apparent internal structure. The PSTM dip lines show substantial improvement for the structures in the deep sedimentary basin East of the PR. These seem to extend the S reflector somewhat farther to the West. The migrated data show a substantial network of

15. 3-D seismic imaging of complex geologies

SciTech Connect

Womble, D.E.; Dosanjh, S.S.; VanDyke, J.P.; Oldfield, R.A.; Greenberg, D.S.

1995-02-01

We present three codes for the Intel Paragon that address the problem of three-dimensional seismic imaging of complex geologies. The first code models acoustic wave propagation and can be used to generate data sets to calibrate and validate seismic imaging codes. This code reported the fastest timings for acoustic wave propagation codes at a recent SEG (Society of Exploration Geophysicists) meeting. The second code implements a Kirchhoff method for pre-stack depth migration. Development of this code is almost complete, and preliminary results are presented. The third code implements a wave equation approach to seismic migration and is a Paragon implementation of a code from the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite.

16. Using submarine landforms to investigate glacial history, chronology and evolution during the Late Cenozoic: A 3D seismic case study of the mid-Norwegian shelf.

2014-05-01

The mid-Norwegian continental shelf and its succession through time has in places preserved a detailed geomorphological record of glacial and interglacial ice dynamics. Most work has concentrated on the most recent glaciations and therefore the full extent and dynamics of older glaciations is poorly understood. In this work several 3D seismic volumes, from across the mid-Norwegian shelf, are used together to image the glacial-interglacial sequences and piece together a chronology of shelf edge glaciation throughout the Late Cenozoic up until the most recent Weichselian glaciation. The 3D seismic data are supplemented with a large number of 2D seismic profiles and oil industry boreholes are used for calibration and horizon dating. The work presented here will help in the effort to establish a better detailed and more tightly constrained chronology of the extent and timings of different glaciations throughout the Late Cenozoic. Developing a better chronology is of critical importance for helping to calibrate current models of ice sheet and landscape evolution so that contemporary changes may be better understood. The basic geology of the system shows a progradation of the shelf edge towards the basin. The stratigraphical succession comprises evidence for several erosional events associated with the Elsterian, Saalian and Weichselian glaciations during the mid- to late Pleistocene. At depth the pre-glacial Neogene deposits are characterized by widespread polygonal faulting. Within the 3D seismic blocks several glaciogenic structures are visible. Most notably these include an abundance of linear and curvilinear mega-scale glacial lineations, which reach lengths of over 50 km, and iceberg scours that vary in length from 100 m to over 7 km. An array of different sized channels offer insight into the flow characteristics of pro-glacial and subglacial regimes during previous glaciations. Lateral moraines are also present in the seismic data and help to delineate past

17. 3D Seismic Reflection Experiment Over the Galicia Deep Basin

Sawyer, Dale; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Morgan, Julia; Shillington, Donna; Reston, Timothy; Minshull, Timothy; Klaeschen, Dirk; Ranero, César

2014-05-01

In June thru September, 2013, a 3D reflection and a long offset seismic experiment were conducted at the Galicia rifted margin by investigators from the US, UK, Germany, and Spain. The 3D multichannel experiment covered 64 km by 20 km (1280 km2), using the RV Marcus Langseth. Four streamers 6 km long were deployed at 12.5 m hydrophone channel spacing. The streamers were 200 m apart. Two airgun arrays, each 3300 cu in, were fired alternately every 37.5 m, to collectively yield a 400 m wide sail line consisting of 8 CMP lines at 50 m spacing. The long offset seismic experiment included 72 short period OBS's deployed below the 3D reflection survey box. Most of the instruments recorded all the shots from the airgun array shots. The 3D seismic box covered a variety of geologic features. The Peridotite Ridge (PR), is associated with the exhumation of upper mantle rocks to the seafloor during the final stage of the continental separation between the Galicia Bank and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The S reflector is present below most of the continental blocks under the deep Galicia basin. S is interpreted to be a low-angle detachment fault formed late in the rifting process, and a number of rotated fault block basins and ranges containing pre and syn-rift sediments. Initial observations from stacked, but not yet migrated, 3D seismic data show that the PR is elevated above the present seafloor in the South and not exposed through the seafloor in the North. The relative smoothness of the PR surface for the entire 20 km N-S contrasts with the more complex, shorter wavelength, faulting of the continental crustal blocks to the east. The PR does not seem to show offsets or any apparent internal structure. However, migration will be required to see internal structure of the PR. Between the PR and the western most rifted continental crustal blocks, is a sedimentary basin about as wide as the PR and very different from the sedimentary basins bounded by the continental crustal

18. Lossless compression of 3D seismic data using a horizon displacement compensated 3D lifting scheme

Meftah, Anis; Antonini, Marc; Ben Amar, Chokri

2010-01-01

In this paper we present a method to optimize the computation of the wavelet transform for the 3D seismic data while reducing the energy of coefficients to the minimum. This allow us to reduce the entropy of the signal and so increase the compression ratios. The proposed method exploits the geometrical information contained in the seismic 3D data to optimize the computation of the wavelet transform. Indeed, the classic filtering is replaced by a filtering following the horizons contained in the 3D seismic images. Applying this approach in two dimensions permits us to obtain wavelets coefficients with lowest energy. The experiments show that our method permits to save extra 8% of the size of the object compared to the classic wavelet transform.

19. 3D Seismic Imaging over a Potential Collapse Structure

2016-04-01

The Middle-East has seen a recent boom in construction including the planning and development of complete new sub-sections of metropolitan areas. Before planning and construction can commence, however, the development areas need to be investigated to determine their suitability for the planned project. Subsurface parameters such as the type of material (soil/rock), thickness of top soil or rock layers, depth and elastic parameters of basement, for example, comprise important information needed before a decision concerning the suitability of the site for construction can be made. A similar problem arises in environmental impact studies, when subsurface parameters are needed to assess the geological heterogeneity of the subsurface. Environmental impact studies are typically required for each construction project, particularly for the scale of the aforementioned building boom in the Middle East. The current study was conducted in Qatar at the location of a future highway interchange to evaluate a suite of 3D seismic techniques in their effectiveness to interrogate the subsurface for the presence of karst-like collapse structures. The survey comprised an area of approximately 10,000 m2 and consisted of 550 source- and 192 receiver locations. The seismic source was an accelerated weight drop while the geophones consisted of 3-component 10 Hz velocity sensors. At present, we analyzed over 100,000 P-wave phase arrivals and performed high-resolution 3-D tomographic imaging of the shallow subsurface. Furthermore, dispersion analysis of recorded surface waves will be performed to obtain S-wave velocity profiles of the subsurface. Both results, in conjunction with density estimates, will be utilized to determine the elastic moduli of the subsurface rock layers.

20. Frozen Gaussian approximation for 3-D seismic wave propagation

Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu

2017-01-01

We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3-D earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a 3-D seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3-D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model, respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3-D crust-over-mantle model.

1. 3-D seismic exploration in the Ames hole

SciTech Connect

Ainsworth, K.R.

1995-09-01

The Ames Crater of Major County, Oklahoma has been one of the more controversial drilling projects to emerge in the Mid-Continent province in this decade. Within the crater, dolomitic and granodiorite breccias produce substantial quantities of oil and gas within structurally controlled accumulations. To understand the structural complexities of the crater, Continental Resources, in partnership with other Ames operators, acquired 3-D seismic data in four separate acquisition projects across various exploratory and development projects across the crater. Integrated seismic and subsurface control revealed four separate features within the principal crater floor oil and gas accumulation. Using the 3-D data as a lead tool, these companies identified and developed a significant number of commercial tests within the limits of the seismic surveys. Although the tool generally proved to be successful, reservoir variability, velocity variations, and interpretational errors resulted in some non-commercial and dry tests.

2. How 3-D, 3-C seismic characterized a carbonate reservoir

SciTech Connect

Arestad, J.F.; Mattocks, B.W.; Davis, T.L.; Benson, R.D.

1995-04-01

The Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP) at the Colorado School of Mines has pioneered research into 3-D, 3-C (multicomponent) reflection seismology for nearly a decade utilizing both P-wave and S-wave sources. Multicomponent-seismic surveys provide significantly more information about petroleum reservoirs than compressional-wave surveys. Initial 3-D, 3-C surveys acquired by RCP were targeted at characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The current phase of the project is oriented towards utilizing shear waves to discriminate lithologic and diagenetic changes within stratigraphic reservoirs where compressional-seismic data has not be effective. The Joffre field, Nisku reservoir, is the site of RCP`s ongoing multidisciplinary research effort in Western Canada. The research team is directed by Colorado School of Mines faculty with graduate team members from geology, geophysics and petroleum engineering departments. While this study is still in progress, some key findings and directions of this research are reported here. The following topics will be discussed: Joffre field 3-D, 3-C survey; compressional wave 3-D technique; shear-wave 3-D technique; converted-wave 3-D technique; reservoir characterization, and future directions.

3. Advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis

SciTech Connect

Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Protopopescu, V.A.

1996-06-01

The global objective of this effort is to develop advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis, and test the products using a model dataset developed under the joint aegis of the United States` Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the European Association of Exploration Geophysicists (EAEG). The goal is to enhance the value to the oil industry of the SEG/EAEG modeling project, carried out with US Department of Energy (DOE) funding in FY` 93-95. The primary objective of the ORNL Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is to spearhead the computational innovations techniques that would enable a revolutionary advance in 3-D seismic analysis. The CESAR effort is carried out in collaboration with world-class domain experts from leading universities, and in close coordination with other national laboratories and oil industry partners.

4. NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT

SciTech Connect

Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

2004-05-06

Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas

5. Seismic random noise attenuation via 3D block matching

Amani, Sajjad; Gholami, Ali; Javaheri Niestanak, Alireza

2017-01-01

The lack of signal to noise ratio increases the final errors of seismic interpretation. In the present study, we apply a new non-local transform domain method called "3 Dimensional Block Matching (3DBM)" for seismic random noise attenuation. Basically, 3DBM uses the similarities through the data for retrieving the amplitude of signal in a specific point in the f-x domain, and because of this, it is able to preserve discontinuities in the data such as fractures and faults. 3DBM considers each seismic profile as an image and thus it can be applied to both pre-stack and post-stack seismic data. It uses the block matching clustering method to gather similar blocks contained in 2D data into 3D groups in order to enhance the level of correlation in each 3D array. By applying a 2D transform and 1D transform (instead of a 3D transform) on each array, we can effectively attenuate the noise by shrinkage of the transform coefficients. The subsequent inverse 2D transform and inverse 1D transform yield estimates of all matched blocks. Finally, the random noise attenuated data is computed using the weighted average of all block estimates. We applied 3DBM on both synthetic and real pre-stack and post-stack seismic data and compared it with a Curvelet transform based denoising method which is one of the most powerful methods in this area. The results show that 3DBM method eventuates in higher signal to noise ratio, lower execution time and higher visual quality.

6. 3D seismic imaging on massively parallel computers

SciTech Connect

Womble, D.E.; Ober, C.C.; Oldfield, R.

1997-02-01

The ability to image complex geologies such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and thrusts in mountainous regions is a key to reducing the risk and cost associated with oil and gas exploration. Imaging these structures, however, is computationally expensive. Datasets can be terabytes in size, and the processing time required for the multiple iterations needed to produce a velocity model can take months, even with the massively parallel computers available today. Some algorithms, such as 3D, finite-difference, prestack, depth migration remain beyond the capacity of production seismic processing. Massively parallel processors (MPPs) and algorithms research are the tools that will enable this project to provide new seismic processing capabilities to the oil and gas industry. The goals of this work are to (1) develop finite-difference algorithms for 3D, prestack, depth migration; (2) develop efficient computational approaches for seismic imaging and for processing terabyte datasets on massively parallel computers; and (3) develop a modular, portable, seismic imaging code.

7. Investigation of surface wave amplitudes in 3-D velocity and 3-D Q models

Ruan, Y.; Zhou, Y.

2010-12-01

It has been long recognized that seismic amplitudes depend on both wave speed structures and anelasticity (Q) structures. However, the effects of lateral heterogeneities in wave speed and Q structures on seismic amplitudes has not been well understood. We investigate the effects of 3-D wave speed and 3-D anelasticity (Q) structures on surface-wave amplitudes based upon wave propagation simulations of twelve globally-distributed earthquakes and 801 stations in Earth models with and without lateral heterogeneities in wave speed and anelasticity using a Spectral Element Method (SEM). Our tomographic-like 3-D Q models are converted from a velocity model S20RTS using a set of reasonable mineralogical parameters, assuming lateral perturbations in both velocity and Q are due to temperature perturbations. Surface-wave amplitude variations of SEM seismograms are measured in the period range of 50--200 s using boxcar taper, cosine taper and Slepian multi-tapers. We calculate ray-theoretical predictions of surface-wave amplitude perturbations due to elastic focusing, attenuation, and anelastic focusing which respectively depend upon the second spatial derivative (''roughness'') of perturbations in phase velocity, 1/Q, and the roughness of perturbations in 1/Q. Both numerical experiments and theoretical calculations show that (1) for short-period (~ 50 s) surface waves, the effects of amplitude attenuation due to 3-D Q structures are comparable with elastic focusing effects due to 3-D wave speed structures; and (2) for long-period (> 100 s) surface waves, the effects of attenuation become much weaker than elastic focusing; and (3) elastic focusing effects are correlated with anelastic focusing at all periods due to the correlation between velocity and Q models; and (4) amplitude perturbations are depend on measurement techniques and therefore cannot be directly compared with ray-theoretical predictions because ray theory does not account for the effects of measurement

8. Recovering physical property information from subduction plate boundaries using 3D full-waveform seismic inversion

Bell, R. E.; Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M.

2013-12-01

Our understanding of subduction margin seismogenesis has been revolutionised in the last couple of decades with the discovery that the size of the seismogenic zone may not be controlled simply by temperature and a broad spectrum of seismic behaviour exists from stick-slip to stable sliding. Laboratory and numerical experiments suggest that physical properties, particularly fluid pressure may play an important role in controlling the seismic behaviour of subduction margins. Although drilling can provide information on physical properties along subduction thrust faults at point locations at relatively shallow depths, correlations between physical properties and seismic velocity using rock physics relationships are required to resolve physical properties along the margin and down-dip. Therefore, high resolution seismic velocity models are key to recovering physical property information at subduction plate boundaries away from drill sites. 3D Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique pioneered by the oil industry to obtain high-resolution high-fidelity models of physical properties in the sub-surface. 3D FWI involves the inversion of low-frequency (>2 to <7 Hz), early arriving (principally transmitted) seismic data, to recover the macro (intermediate to long-wavelength) velocity structure. Although 2D FWI has been used to improve velocity models of subduction plate boundaries before, 3D FWI has not yet been attempted. 3D inversions have superior convergence and accuracy, as they sample the subsurface with multi-azimuth multiply-crossing wavefields. In this contribution we perform a suite of synthetic tests to investigate if 3D FWI could be used to better resolve physical property information along subduction margin plate boundaries using conventionally collected 3D seismic data. We base our analysis on the Muroto Basin area of the Nankai margin and investigate if the acquisition parameters and geometry of the subduction margin render 3D seismic data collected across

9. Exploration 3-D Seismic Field Test/Native Tribes Initiative

SciTech Connect

Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon

1999-04-27

To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.

10. Parallel 3-D viscoelastic finite difference seismic modelling

Bohlen, Thomas

2002-10-01

Computational power has advanced to a state where we can begin to perform wavefield simulations for realistic (complex) 3-D earth models at frequencies of interest to both seismologists and engineers. On serial platforms, however, 3-D calculations are still limited to small grid sizes and short seismic wave traveltimes. To make use of the efficiency of network computers a parallel 3-D viscoelastic finite difference (FD) code is implemented which allows to distribute the work on several PCs or workstations connected via standard ethernet in an in-house network. By using the portable message passing interface standard (MPI) for the communication between processors, running times can be reduced and grid sizes can be increased significantly. Furthermore, the code shows good performance on massive parallel supercomputers which makes the computation of very large grids feasible. This implementation greatly expands the applicability of the 3-D elastic/viscoelastic finite-difference modelling technique by providing an efficient, portable and practical C-program.

11. Seismic source inversion using Green's reciprocity and a 3-D structural model for the Japanese Islands

Simutė, S.; Fichtner, A.

2015-12-01

We present a feasibility study for seismic source inversions using a 3-D velocity model for the Japanese Islands. The approach involves numerically calculating 3-D Green's tensors, which is made efficient by exploiting Green's reciprocity. The rationale for 3-D seismic source inversion has several aspects. For structurally complex regions, such as the Japan area, it is necessary to account for 3-D Earth heterogeneities to prevent unknown structure polluting source solutions. In addition, earthquake source characterisation can serve as a means to delineate existing faults. Source parameters obtained for more realistic Earth models can then facilitate improvements in seismic tomography and early warning systems, which are particularly important for seismically active areas, such as Japan. We have created a database of numerically computed 3-D Green's reciprocals for a 40°× 40°× 600 km size area around the Japanese Archipelago for >150 broadband stations. For this we used a regional 3-D velocity model, recently obtained from full waveform inversion. The model includes attenuation and radial anisotropy and explains seismic waveform data for periods between 10 - 80 s generally well. The aim is to perform source inversions using the database of 3-D Green's tensors. As preliminary steps, we present initial concepts to address issues that are at the basis of our approach. We first investigate to which extent Green's reciprocity works in a discrete domain. Considering substantial amounts of computed Green's tensors we address storage requirements and file formatting. We discuss the importance of the initial source model, as an intelligent choice can substantially reduce the search volume. Possibilities to perform a Bayesian inversion and ways to move to finite source inversion are also explored.

12. Northern California Seismic Attenuation: 3-D Qp and Qs models

Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.

2015-12-01

The northern California crust exhibits a wide range of rock types and deformation processes which produce pronounced heterogeneity in regional attenuation. Using local earthquakes, 3-D Qp and Qs crustal models have been obtained for this region which includes the San Andreas fault system, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada batholith, and the Mendocino subduction volcanic system. Path attenuation t* values were determined from P and S spectra of 959 spatially distributed earthquakes, magnitude 2.5-6.0 from 2005-2014, using 1254 stations from NCEDC networks and IRIS Mendocino and Sierra Nevada temporary arrays. The t* data were used in Q inversions, using existing hypocenters and 3-D velocity models, with basic 10-km node spacing. The uneven data coverage was accounted for with linking of nodes into larger areas in order to provide useful Q images across the 3-D volume. The results at shallow depth (< 2 km) show very low Q in the Sacramento Delta, the Eureka area, and parts of the Bay Area. In the brittle crust, fault zones that have high seismicity exhibit low Q. In the lower crust, low Q is observed along fault zones that have large cumulative displacement and have experienced grain size reduction. Underlying active volcanic areas, low Q features are apparent below 20-km depth. Moderately high Q is associated with igneous rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Salinian block, while the Franciscan subduction complex shows moderately low Q. The most prominent high Q feature is related to the Great Valley Ophiolite.

13. The USGS 3D Seismic Velocity Model for Northern California

Brocher, T. M.; Aagaard, B.; Simpson, R. W.; Jachens, R. C.

2006-12-01

We present a new regional 3D seismic velocity model for Northern California for use in strong motion simulations of the 1906 San Francisco and other earthquakes. The model includes compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), density, and intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs). These properties were assigned for each rock type in a 3D geologic model derived from surface outcrops, boreholes, gravity and magnetic data, and seismic reflection, refraction, and tomography studies. A detailed description of the model, USGS Bay Area Velocity Model 05.1.0, is available online [http://www.sf06simulation.org/geology/velocitymodel]. For ground motion simulations Vs and Qs are more important parameters than Vp and Qp because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear and surface wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, however, we first developed Vp versus depth relations for each rock type and then converted these to Vs versus depth relations. For the most important rock types in Northern California we compiled measurements of Vp versus depth using borehole logs, laboratory measurements on hand samples, seismic refraction profiles, and tomography models. These rock types include Salinian and Sierran granitic rocks, metagraywackes and greenstones of the Franciscan Complex, Tertiary and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and Quaternary and Holocene deposits (Brocher, USGS OFR 05-1317, 2005). Vp versus depth curves were converted to Vs versus depth curves using new empirical nonlinear relations between Vs and Vp (Brocher, BSSA, 2005). These relations, showing that Poisson's ratio is a nonlinear function of Vp, were similarly based on compilations of diverse Vs and Vp measurements on a large suite of rock types, mainly from California and the Pacific Northwest. The model is distributed in a discretized form with routines to query the model using C++, C, and Fortran 77 programming languages. The geologic model was discretized at

14. Drill site geohazard identification facilitated by rework of suitable existing 3D seismic data volumes

SciTech Connect

Cowlard, A.P.

1996-12-31

3D seismic volumes are increasingly being used to assist in the mapping and identification of drilling hazards. A method of reworking the 3D volume, termed the Short Offset method, is proposed which offers the benefit of optimized resolution in the shallow section and therefore provides the interpreter with an enhanced image of the near surface geology. The processing sequence contrasts markedly with conventional 3D processing and involves the inclusion of only near normal incidence traces. Two case histories are described which illustrate the application of the Short Offset method and its robustness even in conditions not conducive to enhancing frequency bandwidth. In summary, Short Offset reprocessing results in a product which offers considerably improved resolution when compared to a conventional 3D volume and far finer areal sampling when compared to a traditional 2D site survey thus providing the industry with a valuable tool for drilling hazard investigation.

15. Intraplate Seismicity and Lithospheric Strength as Inferred from 3D Seismic Models

Mooney, W. D.; Pollitz, F. F.; Ritsema, J.

2014-12-01

Focal mechanism studies and other stress indicators indicate that intraplate earthquakes in central and eastern North America are consistent with an ENE-WSW compressive stress field that acts on existing faults. Here we argue that either locally thinned lithosphere (as beneath the Reelfoot Rift, central US) or regional lithospheric thinning (as beneath the edge of the North American craton or the rifted continental margin) constitutes zones of relatively low lithospheric strength where crustal strain accumulates. We use seismic surface waves to determine the 3D shear-wave seismic velocity structure of the lithosphere, and find that the Reelfoot Rift is underlain by a zone with low mantle seismic velocities that extends to at least 200 km depth. Thus, the Reelfoot Rift, which hosts the New Madrid Seismic Zone, is unique among North American paleo-rifts in term of the properties in the mantle. We hypothesize that this low-velocity mantle volume is weaker than its surroundings and that the Reelfoot Rift consequently has relatively lower elastic plate thickness that would tend to concentrate tectonic stress within this zone. On a continental scale, the 3D velocity model clearly identifies an approximately 220-km-thick, high seismic velocity lithospheric root beneath the North America craton which has a low rate of crustal seismicity and very few events with Mw≥6. We attribute the relatively aseismic nature of the craton to dry, cold conditions within the cratonic lower crust and mantle lithosphere. Conversely, we find that a high proportion of intraplate events are concentrated around the pronounced lateral gradient in lithospheric thickness that surrounds the craton. We attribute this observation to a lateral decrease in lithospheric strength at the edge of the North American craton. This relationship between intraplate seismicity and lithospheric properties is apparent in maps that compare regional and continental lithospheric thickness with crustal seismicity. We

16. Towards Automated Seismic Moment Tensor Inversion in Australia Using 3D Structural Model

Hingee, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.; Sambridge, M.; Kennett, B. L.; Gorbatov, A.

2009-12-01

There is significant seismic activity in the region around Australia, largely due to the plate boundaries to the north and to the east of the mainland. This seismicity poses serious seismic and tsunamigenic hazard in a wider region, and risk to coastal areas of Australia, and is monitored by Geoscience Australia (GA) using a network of permanent broadband seismometers within Australia. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems were established by the Australian Government and have been using the waveforms from the GA seismological network. The permanent instruments are augmented by non-GA seismic stations based both within and outside of Australia. In particular, seismic moment tensor (MT) solutions for events around Australia as well as local distances are useful for both warning systems and geophysical studies in general. These monitoring systems, however, currently use only one dimensional, spherically-symmetric models of the Earth for source parameter determination. Recently, a novel 3D model of Australia and the surrounding area has been developed from spectral element simulations [1], taking into account not only velocity heterogeneities, but also radial anisotropy and seismic attenuation. This development, inter alia, introduces the potential of providing significant improvements in MT solution accuracy. Allowing reliable MT solutions with reduced dependence on non-GA stations is a secondary advantage. We studied the feasibility of using 1D versus 3D structural models. The accuracy of the 3D model has been investigated, confirming that these models are in most cases superior to the 1D models. A full MT inversion method using a point source approximation was developed as the first step, keeping in mind that for more complex source time functions, a finite source inversion will be needed. Synthetic experiments have been performed with random noise added to the signal to test the code in the both 1D and 3D setting, using a precomputed library of structural Greens

17. 3D Modelling of Seismically Active Parts of Underground Faults via Seismic Data Mining

Frantzeskakis, Theofanis; Konstantaras, Anthony

2015-04-01

During the last few years rapid steps have been taken towards drilling for oil in the western Mediterranean sea. Since most of the countries in the region benefit mainly from tourism and considering that the Mediterranean is a closed sea only replenishing its water once every ninety years careful measures are being taken to ensure safe drilling. In that concept this research work attempts to derive a three dimensional model of the seismically active parts of the underlying underground faults in areas of petroleum interest. For that purpose seismic spatio-temporal clustering has been applied to seismic data to identify potential distinct seismic regions in the area of interest. Results have been coalesced with two dimensional maps of underground faults from past surveys and seismic epicentres, having followed careful reallocation processing, have been used to provide information regarding the vertical extent of multiple underground faults in the region of interest. The end product is a three dimensional map of the possible underground location and extent of the seismically active parts of underground faults. Indexing terms: underground faults modelling, seismic data mining, 3D visualisation, active seismic source mapping, seismic hazard evaluation, dangerous phenomena modelling Acknowledgment This research work is supported by the ESPA Operational Programme, Education and Life Long Learning, Students Practical Placement Initiative. References [1] Alves, T.M., Kokinou, E. and Zodiatis, G.: 'A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: The South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins', Marine Pollution Bulletin, In Press, 2014 [2] Ciappa, A., Costabile, S.: 'Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea)', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 84 (1-2), pp. 44-55, 2014 [3] Ganas, A., Karastathis, V., Moshou, A., Valkaniotis, S., Mouzakiotis

18. Characterization of landslide geometry using 3D seismic refraction traveltime tomography

Samyn, K.; Travelletti, J.; Bitri, A.; Grandjean, G.; Malet, J. P.

2012-04-01

The geometry of the bedrock, internal layers and shear surfaces/bands controls the deformation pattern and the mechanisms of landslides. A challenge to progress in the forecast of landslide acceleration in terms of early-warning is therefore to characterize the 3D geometry of the unstable mass at a high level of spatial resolution, both in the horizontal and vertical directions, by integrating information from different surveying techniques. For such characterization, seismic investigations are potentially of a great interest. In the case of complex structures, the measure and the processing of seismic data need to be performed in 3D. The objective of this work is to present the implementation of a 3D seismic refraction traveltime tomography technique based on an existing 2D Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). First the processing algorithm is detailed and its performance is discussed, and second an application to the La Valette complex landslide is presented. Inversion of first-arrival traveltimes produces a 3D tomogram that underlines the presence of many areas characterized by low P-wave velocity of 500-1800 m.s-1. These low P-wave velocity structures result from the presence of reworked blocks, surficial cracks and in-depth fracture zones. These structures seem to extend to around 25 m in depth over a 80 x 130 m area. Based on borehole geotechnical data and previous geophysical investigations, an interface corresponding to an internal slip surface can be suspected near the isovalue of 1200 m.s-1 at a depth of -10 to -15 m. The stable substratum is characterized by higher values of P-wave velocity of 1800-3000 m.s-1. The features identified in the 3D tomogram allow to better (1) delineate the boundary between the landslide and the surrounding stable slopes, and (2) understand the morphological structures within the landslide at a hectometric scale. The integration of the 3D seismic tomography interpretation to previous geophysical

19. 3D AUV Microseismic Implementation for Deepwater Seabed Investigations

George, R.; Taylor, M. W.; Gravely, J. G.

2005-05-01

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) technology, developed commercially over the past 5 years, allows for the geophysical investigation of the seabed on the deepwater continental slope at resolutions, data densities and timelines not previously attainable. High-resolution geophysical systems normally employed on deepwater survey AUVs consist of multibeam bathymetry, side scan sonar and subbottom profiler. Inertial navigation allows positioning accuracies on the order of plus or minus 3 meters in depths up to 2,000 meters. C & C Technologies, Inc. owns and operates the C-Surveyor I AUV, which has collected more than 40,000 km of geohazard survey data on the continental slopes of the Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, Brazil and West Africa. The oil and gas industry routinely engineers deepwater platform-mooring systems and other bottom founded subsea systems for exploration and production developments. Resolute subbottom imaging of the foundation zone in order to identify the near-seafloor geologic conditions at these deepwater development sites is critical in order to maintain system integrity. The paper describes the methodology and post-processing techniques used to create a high-resolution (2-8 kHz) 3D seismic cube from subbottom profiler data collected from an AUV system. Data examples of the multibeam bathymetry, side scan sonar and 2D seismic profiles will be provided to complement the results of the 3D seismic cube processing. Examples of inlines, crosslines, arbitrary lines, seafloor amplitude extraction and time slices are presented for the 4-meter binned data set. Advantages, disadvantages and suggested improvements for the survey acquisition technique and post processing are discussed.

20. 3-D seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the geothermal field

SciTech Connect

Nugraha, Andri Dian; Syahputra, Ahmad; Fatkhan,; Sule, Rachmat

2013-09-09

We conducted delay time tomography to determine 3-D seismic velocity structures (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio) using micro-seismic events in the geothermal field. The P-and S-wave arrival times of these micro-seismic events have been used as input for the tomographic inversion. Our preliminary seismic velocity results show that the subsurface condition of geothermal field can be fairly delineated the characteristic of reservoir. We then extended our understanding of the subsurface physical properties through determining of attenuation structures (Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio) using micro-seismic waveform. We combined seismic velocities and attenuation structures to get much better interpretation of the reservoir characteristic. Our preliminary attanuation structures results show reservoir characterization can be more clearly by using the 3-D attenuation model of Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio combined with 3-D seismic velocity model of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio.

1. Definition of subsurface stratigraphy, structure and rock properties from 3-D seismic data

Hart, Bruce S.

1999-10-01

This paper summarizes how three-dimensional (3-D) seismic technology is being used, primarily in the petroleum industry, to define subsurface structure, stratigraphy and rock properties. A 3-D seismic data volume: (a) provides a more accurate image of the subsurface than can be obtained with 2-D seismic methods; (b) is continuous, and so has a much greater spatial sampling than is obtained with 2-D seismic or other subsurface data (e.g., wells); and (c) can be viewed and interpreted interactively from a variety of perspectives, thus enhancing the interpreter's ability to generate an accurate description of subsurface features of interest. Seismic interpretation was once the almost exclusive realm of geophysicists, however, most 3-D seismic interpretation today is conducted by multidisciplinary teams that integrate geophysical, geological, petrophysical and engineering data and concepts into the 3-D seismic interpretation. These factors, plus proper survey design, help to increase the chances of success of a 3-D seismic interpretation project. Although there are cases where the technology is not appropriate or cannot be applied (for economic reasons or otherwise), the general success of 3-D seismic has led it to become a mainstay of the petroleum industry. The approach and technology, first developed in that industry, have potential applications in other applied and fundamental earth science disciplines, including mining, environmental geology, structural geology and stratigraphy.

2. A 3D Seismic Case: Shooting around a CCS Drill Site

Wang, C.

2013-12-01

The reduction of carbon dioxide emission to lessen the global warming has become an important international issue in recent years. The CCS technique (Carbon-dioxide Capture and Storage) is among the most recommended methods. The capture of CO2 during its manufacturing process in the electric power plant and storing in the adjacent area is considered to be an economical and feasible choice. This research uses the 2D and 3D high-resolution seismic reflection method to investigate possible CCS sites along the coast in Taiwan. The site is near an electric power plant and is planned to be a CCS experiment laboratory. The main objective is to detect the proper geologic structure and to prepare the baseline data for the future CO2 monitoring. The size of the high-resolution method applied in this study is much smaller than that used in the oil exploration. The obtained high quality and high resolution data can resolve very detailed structures. The survey parameters in 2D are 4m interval, 240 channels. The bin size in 3D seismic is 8m x 4m, 288 channels. Both 2D and 3D used the Minivibe as a source with 40Hz geophones, and having an average of 30 folds. The 3D seismic survey was conducted around the planned drill site. A surrounding type of 3D data acquisition was taken with sources at outside and receivers at the center. Such a deployment design is quite suitable for the drill site investigation. The structural layer as thin as 4m is able to be detected even under a depth of 3000m. Such a high resolution allows us not only to estimate the structure, but also able to monitor the migration of CO 2 after storage. The results of seismic survey after comparing with a nearby borehole data show that : 1) the caprock is Chinshui shale which is at a depth of 880m to 1000m with a thickness about 120m, 2) the Nanchuang formation and Kueichulin formation with high porosity can be proper reservoir layers which are located at the depth between 1000m to 1700m. In conclusion, this site

3. Thrust fault growth within accretionary wedges: New Insights from 3D seismic reflection data

Orme, H.; Bell, R. E.; Jackson, C. A. L.

2015-12-01

The shallow parts of subduction megathrust faults are typically thought to be aseismic and incapable of propagating seismic rupture. The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, however, ruptured all the way to the trench, proving that in some locations rupture can propagate through the accretionary wedge. An improved understanding of the structural character and physical properties of accretionary wedges is therefore crucial to begin to assess why such anomalously shallow seismic rupture occurs. Despite its importance, we know surprisingly little regarding the 3D geometry and kinematics of thrust network development in accretionary prisms, largely due to a lack of 3D seismic reflection data providing high-resolution, 3D images of entire networks. Thus our current understanding is largely underpinned by observations from analogue and numerical modelling, with limited observational data from natural examples. In this contribution we use PSDM, 3D seismic reflection data from the Nankai margin (3D Muroto dataset, available from the UTIG Academic Seismic Portal, Marine Geoscience Data System) to examine how imbricate thrust fault networks evolve during accretionary wedge growth. Previous studies have reported en-echelon thrust fault geometries from the NW part of the dataset, and have related this complex structure to seamount subduction. We unravel the evolution of faults within the protothrust and imbricate thrust zones by interpreting multiple horizons across faults and measuring fault displacement and fold amplitude along-strike; by doing this, we are able to investigate the three dimensional accrual of strain. We document a number of local displacement minima along-strike of faults, suggesting that, the protothrust and imbricate thrusts developed from the linkage of smaller, previously isolated fault segments. We also demonstrate that the majority of faults grew upward from the décollement, although there is some evidence for downward fault propagation. Our observations

4. Initial Look at 3d Seismic Data Acquired Over the Galicia Margin

Sawyer, D. S.; Reston, T. J.; Shillington, D. J.; Minshull, T. A.; Klaeschen, D.; Morgan, J. K.

2013-12-01

In June thru September, 2013, a 3D reflection and long offset seismic experiment was conducted at the Galicia rifted margin by investigators from the US, UK, Germany, and Spain. The 3D multichannel experiment covered 64 km by 20 km (1280 km2), using the RV Marcus Langseth. Four streamers 6 km long were deployed at 12.5 m hydrophone channel spacing. The streamers were 200 m apart. Two airgun arrays, each 3300 cu in, were fired alternately every 37.5 m, to collectively yield a 400 m wide sail line consisting of 8 CMP lines at 50 m spacing. The long offset seismic experiment included 72 short period OBS's deployed below the 3D reflection survey box. Most of the instruments recorded all the shots from the airgun array shots. A few of the instruments were deployed twice, once to densify the instruments on a single profile and then to be moved into the full array. Finally, 6 of the OBS's were deployed on a profile extending 90 km to the west of the 3D box, in order to use combined MCS and OBS data to locate the boundary between the oceanic crust and exhumed upper mantle. The 3D seismic box covered a variety of geologic features including the Peridotite Ridge (PR) associated with the exhumation of upper mantle rocks to the seafloor, the S reflector interpreted to be a low-angle detachment fault formed late in the rifting process, and a number of rotated fault block basins and ranges containing pre- and syn-rift sediments. Initial observations, based only on 2D seismic dip lines (albeit 400 m apart), show the along strike variation of the PR: ~1050 m higher than adjacent basement in the South of the 3D box and much increased in size, ~2200 m high in the North. Some cross-sections of the PR show apparent internal structure that may help identify the emplacement mechanism of the feature and its relationship with the boundary between rifted continental crust blocks and exhumed upper mantle rocks. To the immediate East and West of the PR there are strong negative

5. Assessing a 3D smoothed seismicity model of induced earthquakes

Zechar, Jeremy; Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan

2016-04-01

As more energy exploration and extraction efforts cause earthquakes, it becomes increasingly important to control induced seismicity. Risk management schemes must be improved and should ultimately be based on near-real-time forecasting systems. With this goal in mind, we propose a test bench to evaluate models of induced seismicity based on metrics developed by the CSEP community. To illustrate the test bench, we consider a model based on the so-called seismogenic index and a rate decay; to produce three-dimensional forecasts, we smooth past earthquakes in space and time. We explore four variants of this model using the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 datasets to make short-term forecasts, test their consistency, and rank the model variants. Our results suggest that such a smoothed seismicity model is useful for forecasting induced seismicity within three days, and giving more weight to recent events improves forecast performance. Moreover, the location of the largest induced earthquake is forecast well by this model. Despite the good spatial performance, the model does not estimate the seismicity rate well: it frequently overestimates during stimulation and during the early post-stimulation period, and it systematically underestimates around shut-in. In this presentation, we also describe a robust estimate of information gain, a modification that can also benefit forecast experiments involving tectonic earthquakes.

6. Using 3D visualization and seismic attributes to improve structural and stratigraphic resolution of reservoirs

SciTech Connect

Kerr, J. ); Jones, G.L. )

1996-01-01

Recent advances in hardware and software have given the interpreter and engineer new ways to view 3D seismic data and well bore information. Recent papers have also highlighted the use of various statistics and seismic attributes. By combining new 3D rendering technologies with recent trends in seismic analysis, the interpreter can improve the structural and stratigraphic resolution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. This paper gives several examples using 3D visualization to better define both the structural and stratigraphic aspects of several different structural types from around the world. Statistics, 3D visualization techniques and rapid animation are used to show complex faulting and detailed channel systems. These systems would be difficult to map using either 2D or 3D data with conventional interpretation techniques.

7. Using 3D visualization and seismic attributes to improve structural and stratigraphic resolution of reservoirs

SciTech Connect

Kerr, J.; Jones, G.L.

1996-12-31

Recent advances in hardware and software have given the interpreter and engineer new ways to view 3D seismic data and well bore information. Recent papers have also highlighted the use of various statistics and seismic attributes. By combining new 3D rendering technologies with recent trends in seismic analysis, the interpreter can improve the structural and stratigraphic resolution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. This paper gives several examples using 3D visualization to better define both the structural and stratigraphic aspects of several different structural types from around the world. Statistics, 3D visualization techniques and rapid animation are used to show complex faulting and detailed channel systems. These systems would be difficult to map using either 2D or 3D data with conventional interpretation techniques.

8. 3-D seismic response of buried pipelines laid through fault

SciTech Connect

Liang, J.W.

1995-12-31

An ideal model for the non-causative fault is put forward in which the fault is assumed to be composed by three horizontally adjacent soil media. Dynamic behaviors of pipelines laid through the fault is analyzed. Although simple, this model may qualitatively illustrate the accumulation of seismic waves in the fault, so illustrate the dynamic behaviors of the pipelines. The results show that, the fault is materially different from a two soil site even if the fault width is very narrow, and the dynamic behaviors of the pipelines laid through the fault are determined by the fault width, the stiffness ratio of the three soil media, and the type of the seismic waves.

9. Seismic waves in 3-D: from mantle asymmetries to reliable seismic hazard assessment

Panza, Giuliano F.; Romanelli, Fabio

2014-10-01

A global cross-section of the Earth parallel to the tectonic equator (TE) path, the great circle representing the equator of net lithosphere rotation, shows a difference in shear wave velocities between the western and eastern flanks of the three major oceanic rift basins. The low-velocity layer in the upper asthenosphere, at a depth range of 120 to 200 km, is assumed to represent the decoupling between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle. Along the TE-perturbed (TE-pert) path, a ubiquitous LVZ, about 1,000-km-wide and 100-km-thick, occurs in the asthenosphere. The existence of the TE-pert is a necessary prerequisite for the existence of a continuous global flow within the Earth. Ground-shaking scenarios were constructed using a scenario-based method for seismic hazard analysis (NDSHA), using realistic and duly validated synthetic time series, and generating a data bank of several thousands of seismograms that account for source, propagation, and site effects. Accordingly, with basic self-organized criticality concepts, NDSHA permits the integration of available information provided by the most updated seismological, geological, geophysical, and geotechnical databases for the site of interest, as well as advanced physical modeling techniques, to provide a reliable and robust background for the development of a design basis for cultural heritage and civil infrastructures. Estimates of seismic hazard obtained using the NDSHA and standard probabilistic approaches are compared for the Italian territory, and a case-study is discussed. In order to enable a reliable estimation of the ground motion response to an earthquake, three-dimensional velocity models have to be considered, resulting in a new, very efficient, analytical procedure for computing the broadband seismic wave-field in a 3-D anelastic Earth model.

10. Time-lapse 3-D seismic imaging of shallow subsurface contaminant flow.

PubMed

McKenna, J; Sherlock, D; Evans, B

2001-12-01

This paper presents a physical modelling study outlining a technique whereby buoyant contaminant flow within water-saturated unconsolidated sand was remotely monitored utilizing the time-lapse 3-D (TL3-D) seismic response. The controlled temperature and pressure conditions, along with the high level of acquisition repeatability attainable using sandbox physical models, allow the TL3-D seismic response to pore fluid movement to be distinguished from all other effects. TL3-D seismic techniques are currently being developed to monitor hydrocarbon reserves within producing reservoirs in an endeavour to improve overall recovery. However, in many ways, sandbox models under atmospheric conditions more accurately simulate the shallow subsurface than petroleum reservoirs. For this reason, perhaps the greatest application for analogue sandbox modelling is to improve our understanding of shallow groundwater and environmental flow mechanisms. Two fluid flow simulations were conducted whereby air and kerosene were injected into separate water-saturated unconsolidated sand models. In both experiments, a base 3-D seismic volume was recorded and compared with six later monitor surveys recorded while the injection program was conducted. Normal incidence amplitude and P-wave velocity information were extracted from the TL3-D seismic data to provide visualization of contaminant migration. Reflection amplitudes displayed qualitative areal distribution of fluids when a suitable impedance contrast existed between pore fluids. TL3-D seismic reflection tomography can potentially monitor the change in areal distribution of fluid contaminants over time, indicating flow patterns. However, other research and this current work have not established a quantifiable relationship between either normal reflection amplitudes and attenuation and fluid saturation. Generally, different pore fluids will have unique seismic velocities due to differences in compressibility and density. The predictable

11. SEISVIZ3D: Stereoscopic system for the representation of seismic data - Interpretation and Immersion

von Hartmann, Hartwig; Rilling, Stefan; Bogen, Manfred; Thomas, Rüdiger

2015-04-01

The seismic method is a valuable tool for getting 3D-images from the subsurface. Seismic data acquisition today is not only a topic for oil and gas exploration but is used also for geothermal exploration, inspections of nuclear waste sites and for scientific investigations. The system presented in this contribution may also have an impact on the visualization of 3D-data of other geophysical methods. 3D-seismic data can be displayed in different ways to give a spatial impression of the subsurface.They are a combination of individual vertical cuts, possibly linked to a cubical portion of the data volume, and the stereoscopic view of the seismic data. By these methods, the spatial perception for the structures and thus of the processes in the subsurface should be increased. Stereoscopic techniques are e. g. implemented in the CAVE and the WALL, both of which require a lot of space and high technical effort. The aim of the interpretation system shown here is stereoscopic visualization of seismic data at the workplace, i.e. at the personal workstation and monitor. The system was developed with following criteria in mind: • Fast rendering of large amounts of data so that a continuous view of the data when changing the viewing angle and the data section is possible, • defining areas in stereoscopic view to translate the spatial impression directly into an interpretation, • the development of an appropriate user interface, including head-tracking, for handling the increased degrees of freedom, • the possibility of collaboration, i.e. teamwork and idea exchange with the simultaneous viewing of a scene at remote locations. The possibilities offered by the use of a stereoscopic system do not replace a conventional interpretation workflow. Rather they have to be implemented into it as an additional step. The amplitude distribution of the seismic data is a challenge for the stereoscopic display because the opacity level and the scaling and selection of the data have to

12. Salt distribution in the Louisiana South Additions area from 3D seismic data

SciTech Connect

Jamieson, G.A.

1996-12-31

This paper outlines some preliminary observations based on a large interpretation project that was carried out with a grid of 3D time migrated seismic data, covering over 7,500 mi{sup 2} of the South Additions region of offshore Louisiana. Depth migrated data, covering a smaller subset of the study area, was also utilized in the interpretation. Top and base of salt were interpreted and the resulting maps have identified patterns of salt and weld geometry that show some regional trends. Historically, 2D time migrated seismic has been the primary dataset of most of the published regional salt studies. This paper focuses on areas where 3D time migrated data potentially shows most improvement over 2D data, specifically in the subsalt regions. In particular, relationships between base-of-salt keels, welds, basins, regional faulting and basement architecture are investigated. A generalized model is outlined to help explain the current salt geometry in the study area and comparisons are made with recently published salt evolution models.

13. Experimental investigation on a novel 3D isolator made of shape memory alloy pseudo-rubber

Li, Su-chao; Guo, An-xin; Mao, Chen-xi; Li, Hui; Zhao, Yagebai

2015-04-01

Base isolation technology has been widely theoretically and experimentally investigated, and it has also been verified through many severe earthquakes. Three dimensional (3-D) isolation technology was proposed several years ago, and the 3-D isolation theory has well developed till now. However, the development of 3-D isolation technology was deeply affected by the 3-D isolator devices. Many presented 3-D isolators are generally made up of complicated components, such as rubber, springs, dampers or theirs combinations. These isolators have some problem in certain extent, such as difficult fabrication process or little energy dissipation ability along the vertical direction. This paper presents a novel 3- D isolator which is made up of martensitic shape memory alloy wires through weaving, rolling, and punching. Mechanical properties of 3-D shape memory alloy pseudo-rubber isolator (SMAPRI) are investigated including compression, shear, and compression-shear loading with different frequencies and amplitudes. The mechanical behavior of isolators with different parameters is also compared. Accordingly, the mechanism resulting in the above differences is also analyzed. Experimental results indicated that 3-D SMAPRI has good mechanical properties and energy dissipation ability along both of horizontal and vertical direction. The fabrication process of the proposed 3-D isolator is relatively easy and the mechanism of isolation is clearer than the traditional 3-D isolators. Therefore, this new kind of 3-D isolator has good potentiality in both of seismic isolation for civil infrastructures and industrial isolation for important or precision equipment.

14. 3D finite-difference seismic migration with parallel computers

SciTech Connect

Ober, C.C.; Gjertsen, R.; Minkoff, S.; Womble, D.E.

1998-11-01

The ability to image complex geologies such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and thrusts in mountainous regions is essential for reducing the risk associated with oil exploration. Imaging these structures, however, is computationally expensive as datasets can be terabytes in size. Traditional ray-tracing migration methods cannot handle complex velocity variations commonly found near such salt structures. Instead the authors use the full 3D acoustic wave equation, discretized via a finite difference algorithm. They reduce the cost of solving the apraxial wave equation by a number of numerical techniques including the method of fractional steps and pipelining the tridiagonal solves. The imaging code, Salvo, uses both frequency parallelism (generally 90% efficient) and spatial parallelism (65% efficient). Salvo has been tested on synthetic and real data and produces clear images of the subsurface even beneath complicated salt structures.

15. Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-05-01

Final Report Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS Office of Naval Research Contract number: N00014-07-1-0401 Program...COVERED (From - To) 12/11/2006-12/31/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

16. Poor boy 3D seismic effort yields South Central Kentucky discovery

SciTech Connect

Hanratty, M.

1996-11-04

Clinton County, Ky., is on the eastern flank of the Cincinnati arch and the western edge of the Appalachian basin and the Pine Mountain overthrust. Clinton County has long been known for high volume fractured carbonate wells. The discovery of these fractured reservoir, unfortunately, has historically been serendipitous. The author currently uses 2D seismic and satellite imagery to design 3D high resolution seismic shoots. This method has proven to be the most efficient and is the core of his program. The paper describes exploration methods, seismic acquisition, well data base, and seismic interpretation.

17. Understanding North Texas Seismicity: A Joint Analysis of Seismic Data and 3D Pore Pressure Modeling

DeShon, H. R.; Hornbach, M. J.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Oldham, H. R.; Hayward, C.; Stump, B. W.; Frohlich, C.; Olson, J. E.; Luetgert, J. H.

2014-12-01

In November 2013, a series of earthquakes began along a mapped ancient fault system near Azle, Texas. The Azle events are the third felt earthquake sequence in the Fort Worth (Barnett Shale) Basin since 2008, and several production and injection wells in the area are drilled to depths near the recent seismic activity. Understanding if and/or how injection and removal of fluids in the crystalline crust reactivates faults have important implications for seismology, the energy industry, and society. We assessed whether the Azle earthquakes were induced using a joint analysis of the earthquake data, subsurface geology and fault structure, and 3D pore pressure modeling. Using a 12-station temporary seismic deployment, we have recorded and located >300 events large enough to be recorded on multiple stations and 1000s of events during periods of swarm activity. High-resolution locations and focal mechanisms indicate that events occurred on NE-SW trending, steeply dipping normal faults associated with the southern end of the Newark East Fault Zone with hypocenters between 2-8 km depth. We considered multiple causes that might have changed stress along this system. Earthquakes resulting from natural processes, though perhaps unlikely in this historically inactive region, can be neither ruled out nor confirmed due to lack of information on the natural stress state of these faults. Analysis of lake and groundwater variations near Azle showed that no significant stress changes occurred prior to or during the earthquake sequence. In contrast, analysis of pore-pressure models shows that the combination of formation water production and wastewater injection near the fault could have caused pressure increases that induced earthquakes on near-critically stressed faults.

18. Q AS A LITHOLOGICAL/HYDROCARBON INDICATOR: FROM FULL WAVEFORM SONIC TO 3D SURFACE SEISMIC

SciTech Connect

Jorge O. Parra; C.L. Hackert; L. Wilson; H.A. Collier; J. Todd Thomas

2006-03-31

The goal of this project was to develop a method to exploit viscoelastic rock and fluid properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic measurements to the presence of hydrocarbon saturation. To reach the objective, Southwest Research Institute scientists used well log, lithology, production, and 3D seismic data from an oil reservoir located on the Waggoner Ranch in north central Texas. The project was organized in three phases. In the first phase, we applied modeling techniques to investigate seismic- and acoustic-frequency wave attenuation and its effect on observable wave attributes. We also gathered existing data and acquired new data from the Waggoner Ranch field, so that all needed information was in place for the second phase. During the second phase, we developed methods to extract attenuation from borehole acoustic and surface seismic data. These methods were tested on synthetic data constructed from realistic models and real data. In the third and final phase of the project, we applied this technology to a full data set from the Waggoner site. The results presented in this Final Report show that geological conditions at the site did not allow us to obtain interpretable results from the Q processing algorithm for 3D seismic data. However, the Q-log processing algorithm was successfully applied to full waveform sonic data from the Waggoner site. A significant part of this project was technology transfer. We have published several papers and conducted presentations at professional conferences. In particular, we presented the Q-log algorithm and applications at the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) Development and Production Forum in Austin, Texas, in May 2005. The presentation attracted significant interest from the attendees and, at the request of the SEG delegates, it was placed on the Southwest Research Institute Internet site. The presentation can be obtained from the following link: http://www.swri.org/4org/d15/elecsys

19. 3D Tromso survey planning: Cost efficiency through seismic data quality

SciTech Connect

Savini, L.; La Bella, G.; Ronchitelli, G.; Seldal, J.

1996-12-31

The approach described in this case history allows for the production of a full 3D dataset in order to solve the interpretation problems of the area at reduced cost. The structural definition of the main prospects in the area was unclear, mainly due to the poor quality of 2D seismic data. The committed 2D seismic survey would have probably supplied a seismic-data set of slightly better quality, but on the other hand, there would not have been a suitable improvement in the imaging of the main prospects. In an attempt to overcome these problems, an Explorative 3D survey was planned. In order to ensure a proper quality of the 3D dataset, an integrated approach to the acquisition and processing planning was adopted. Acquisition was carried out utilizing skipped configuration capable of acquiring 12 CMP lines for each sail line with a considerable reduction in cost.

20. Deep 3-D seismic reflection imaging of Precambrian sills in the crystalline crust of Alberta, Canada

Welford, Joanna Kim

2005-07-01

Using deep 3-D seismic reflection datasets collected by the Canadian petroleum exploration industry in southwestern and northwestern Alberta, the Head-Smashed-In and Winagami Precambrian sill complexes within the crystalline upper crust, previously identified on Lithoprobe 2-D multichannel reflection lines, are investigated to determine their 3-D geometries and reflective characteristics. During seismic processing of the dataset in southwestern Alberta, a recently developed wavelet-based method, Physical Wavelet Frame Denoising, is applied and shown to successfully suppress ground roll contamination while preserving low frequency signals from deeper structures. A new 3-D empirical trace interpolation scheme, DSInt, is developed to address the problem of spatial aliasing associated with 3-D data acquisition. Results from applying the algorithm to both datasets are comparable to available interpolation codes while allowing for greater flexibility in the handling of irregular acquisition geometries and interpolated trace headers. Evidence of the Head-Smashed-In reflector in southwestern Alberta is obtained using a dataset acquired to 8 s TWTT (approx. 24 km depth). From locally coherent, discontinuous pockets of basement reflectivity, the dataset appears to image the tapering western edge of the deep reflections imaged by Lithoprobe. A statistical approach of tracking reflectivity is developed and applied to obtain the spatial and temporal distribution of reflections. Simple 1-D forward modelling results reveal that the brightest reflections likely arise from a 50 to 150 m thick body of high density/high velocity material although variations in the amplitudes and lateral distribution of the reflections indicate that the thickness of the sills is laterally variable. Thus, the results are consistent with imaging the tapering edge of the sill complex. Clear evidence of the Winagami reflection sequence in northwestern Alberta, emerges from the second dataset acquired to 5

1. Thrust fault segmentation and downward fault propagation in accretionary wedges: New Insights from 3D seismic reflection data

Orme, Haydn; Bell, Rebecca; Jackson, Christopher

2016-04-01

The shallow parts of subduction megathrust faults are typically thought to be aseismic and incapable of propagating seismic rupture. The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, however, ruptured all the way to the trench, proving that in some locations rupture can propagate through the accretionary wedge. An improved understanding of the structural character and physical properties of accretionary wedges is therefore crucial to begin to assess why such anomalously shallow seismic rupture occurs. Despite its importance, we know surprisingly little regarding the 3D geometry and kinematics of thrust network development in accretionary prisms, largely due to a lack of 3D seismic reflection data providing high-resolution, 3D images of entire networks. Thus our current understanding is largely underpinned by observations from analogue and numerical modelling, with limited observational data from natural examples. In this contribution we use PSDM, 3D seismic reflection data from the Nankai margin (3D Muroto dataset, available from the UTIG Academic Seismic Portal, Marine Geoscience Data System) to examine how imbricate thrust fault networks evolve during accretionary wedge growth. We unravel the evolution of faults within the protothrust and imbricate thrust zones by interpreting multiple horizons across faults and measuring fault displacement and fold amplitude along-strike; by doing this, we are able to investigate the three dimensional accrual of strain. We document a number of local displacement minima along-strike of faults, suggesting that, the protothrust and imbricate thrusts developed from the linkage of smaller, previously isolated fault segments. Although we often assume imbricate faults are likely to have propagated upwards from the décollement we show strong evidence for fault nucleation at shallow depths and downward propagation to intersect the décollement. The complex fault interactions documented here have implications for hydraulic compartmentalisation and pore

2. Automatic detection of karstic sinkholes in seismic 3D images using circular Hough transform

Heydari Parchkoohi, Mostafa; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser; Salimi Delshad, Meysam

2015-10-01

More than 30% of hydrocarbon reservoirs are reported in carbonates that mostly include evidence of fractures and karstification. Generally, the detection of karstic sinkholes prognosticate good quality hydrocarbon reservoirs where looser sediments fill the holes penetrating hard limestone and the overburden pressure on infill sediments is mostly tolerated by their sturdier surrounding structure. They are also useful for the detection of erosional surfaces in seismic stratigraphic studies and imply possible relative sea level fall at the time of establishment. Karstic sinkholes are identified straightforwardly by using seismic geometric attributes (e.g. coherency, curvature) in which lateral variations are much more emphasized with respect to the original 3D seismic image. Then, seismic interpreters rely on their visual skills and experience in detecting roughly round objects in seismic attribute maps. In this paper, we introduce an image processing workflow to enhance selective edges in seismic attribute volumes stemming from karstic sinkholes and finally locate them in a high quality 3D seismic image by using circular Hough transform. Afterwards, we present a case study from an on-shore oilfield in southwest Iran, in which the proposed algorithm is applied and karstic sinkholes are traced.

3. Seismic Activity Seen Through Evolution of the Hurst Exponent Model in 3D

Patiño Ortiz, J.; Carreño Aguilera, R.; Balankin, A. S.; Patiño Ortiz, M.; Tovar Rodriguez, J. C.; Acevedo Mosqueda, M. A.; Martinez Cruz, M. A.; Yu, Wen

2016-10-01

The dynamics seismic activity occurred in the Cocos Plate - Mexico is analyzed through the evolution of Hurst exponent and 3D fractal dimension, under the mathematical fractal structure based on seismic activity time series, taking into account the magnitude (M) as the main parameter to be estimated. The seismic activity time series and, annual intervals are considered first for finding the Hurst exponent of each year since 1988 (the year in which the database is consistent) until 2012, and then the following years are accumulated describing the cumulative Hurst exponent. The seismic activity description is based on Cocos Plate data information; during a period conform from 1 January 1988 to 31 December 2012. Analyses were performed following methods, mainly considering that the Hurst exponent analysis provides the ability to find the seismicity behavior time-space, described by parameters obtained under the fractal dimension and complex systems.

4. Areal 3-D seismic technique for reservoir delineation: Case history from offshore Niger Delta

SciTech Connect

Idowu, A.O. )

1993-02-01

In the 1950s, early exploration period in the Niger Delta witnessed the use of 2-D (two dimensional) seismic reflection method which adequate for imaging large subsurface geologic features including growth faulting and roll-over anticlines. This technique involves the Common-Depth-Point method (CDP) which acquires a plane of seismic information in distance along the surface and in time into the geological section, and is used to improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, to remove multiples and consequently give a representation of the subsurface particularly if the data are collected up- or downdip. By mid-1980s, the obvious geological structures have, in general, been discovered and it became necessary to adopt a more sophisticated technique such as the 3-D (three dimensional) seismic method to delineate more subtle reservoirs and resolve complex fault patterns in order to aid exploration as well as facilitate efficient field development. The case history discussed in this paper involves the use of areal 3-D seismic method for delineating the reservoir characterization of the O-field located in a shallow water area of the western Niger Delta. The areal 3-D seismic technique is superior to the earlier CDP method in that a cube of seismic data can be collected in two dimensions in space and one in time by a variety of techniques including the swath seismic shooting pattern adopted for gathering the 3-D data for the O-field's reservoir which involves the line of sources. The objective is to adequately sample the subsurface so that changes in various parameters such as the amplitude phase or power in the siesmic signal or velocity of propagation can be mapped areally and interpreted as an indication of changes in the physical properties of the rock matrix.

5. High Resolution Near Surface 3D Seismic Experiments: A Carbonate Platform vs. a Siliciclastic Sequence

Filippidou, N.; Drijkoningen, G.; Braaksma, H.; Verwer, K.; Kenter, J.

2005-05-01

Interest in high-resolution 3D seismic experiments for imaging shallow targets has increased over the past years. Many case studies presented, show that producing clear seismic images with this non-evasive method, is still a challenge. We use two test-sites where nearby outcrops are present so that an accurate geological model can be built and the seismic result validated. The first so-called natural field laboratory is located in Boulonnais (N. France). It is an upper Jurassic siliciclastic sequence; age equivalent of the source rock of N. Sea. The second one is located in Cap Blanc,to the southwest of the Mallorca island(Spain); depicting an excellent example of Miocene prograding reef platform (Llucmajor Platform); it is a textbook analog for carbonate reservoirs. In both cases, the multidisciplinary experiment included the use of multicomponent and quasi- or 3D seismic recordings. The target depth does not exceed 120m. Vertical and shear portable vibrators were used as source. In the center of the setups, boreholes were drilled and Vertical Seismic Profiles were shot, along with core and borehole measurements both in situ and in the laboratory. These two geologically different sites, with different seismic stratigraphy have provided us with exceptionally high resolution seismic images. In general seismic data was processed more or less following standard procedures, a few innovative techniques on the Mallorca data, as rotation of horizontal components, 3D F-K filter and addition of parallel profiles, have improved the seismic image. In this paper we discuss the basic differences as seen on the seismic sections. The Boulonnais data present highly continuous reflection patterns of extremenly high resolution. This facilitated a high resolution stratigraphic description. Results from the VSP showed substantial wave energy attenuation. However, the high-fold (330 traces ) Mallorca seismic experiment returned a rather discontinuous pattern of possible reflectors

6. A Geo-referenced 3D model of the Juan de Fuca Slab and associated seismicity

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blair, J.L.; McCrory, P.A.; Oppenheimer, D.H.; Waldhauser, F.

2011-01-01

We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) of a new 3-dimensional (3D) model of the subducted Juan de Fuca Plate beneath western North America and associated seismicity of the Cascadia subduction system. The geo-referenced 3D model was constructed from weighted control points that integrate depth information from hypocenter locations and regional seismic velocity studies. We used the 3D model to differentiate earthquakes that occur above the Juan de Fuca Plate surface from earthquakes that occur below the plate surface. This GIS project of the Cascadia subduction system supersedes the one previously published by McCrory and others (2006). Our new slab model updates the model with new constraints. The most significant updates to the model include: (1) weighted control points to incorporate spatial uncertainty, (2) an additional gridded slab surface based on the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) Surface program which constructs surfaces based on splines in tension (see expanded description below), (3) double-differenced hypocenter locations in northern California to better constrain slab location there, and (4) revised slab shape based on new hypocenter profiles that incorporate routine depth uncertainties as well as data from new seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction studies. We also provide a 3D fly-through animation of the model for use as a visualization tool.

7. Identifying High Potential Well Targets with 3D Seismic and Mineralogy

SciTech Connect

Mellors, R. J.

2015-10-30

Seismic reflection the primary tool used in petroleum exploration and production, but use in geothermal exploration is less standard, in part due to cost but also due to the challenges in identifying the highly-permeable zones essential for economic hydrothermal systems [e.g. Louie et al., 2011; Majer, 2003]. Newer technology, such as wireless sensors and low-cost high performance computing, has helped reduce the cost and effort needed to conduct 3D surveys. The second difficulty, identifying permeable zones, has been less tractable so far. Here we report on the use of seismic attributes from a 3D seismic survey to identify and map permeable zones in a hydrothermal area.

8. An optimal transport approach for seismic tomography: application to 3D full waveform inversion

Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Mérigot, Q.; Oudet, E.; Virieux, J.

2016-11-01

The use of optimal transport distance has recently yielded significant progress in image processing for pattern recognition, shape identification, and histograms matching. In this study, the use of this distance is investigated for a seismic tomography problem exploiting the complete waveform; the full waveform inversion. In its conventional formulation, this high resolution seismic imaging method is based on the minimization of the L 2 distance between predicted and observed data. Application of this method is generally hampered by the local minima of the associated L 2 misfit function, which correspond to velocity models matching the data up to one or several phase shifts. Conversely, the optimal transport distance appears as a more suitable tool to compare the misfit between oscillatory signals, for its ability to detect shifted patterns. However, its application to the full waveform inversion is not straightforward, as the mass conservation between the compared data cannot be guaranteed, a crucial assumption for optimal transport. In this study, the use of a distance based on the Kantorovich-Rubinstein norm is introduced to overcome this difficulty. Its mathematical link with the optimal transport distance is made clear. An efficient numerical strategy for its computation, based on a proximal splitting technique, is introduced. We demonstrate that each iteration of the corresponding algorithm requires solving the Poisson equation, for which fast solvers can be used, relying either on the fast Fourier transform or on multigrid techniques. The development of this numerical method make possible applications to industrial scale data, involving tenths of millions of discrete unknowns. The results we obtain on such large scale synthetic data illustrate the potentialities of the optimal transport for seismic imaging. Starting from crude initial velocity models, optimal transport based inversion yields significantly better velocity reconstructions than those based on

9. 3-D seismic tomographic modelling of the crustal structure of northwestern Svalbard based on deep seismic soundings

Czuba, Wojciech

2016-11-01

Wide angle refraction and reflection measurements were carried out in the passive continental margin zone of the northwestern Svalbard during several expeditions in 1978-1999. Data from a set of 2-D archival and modern seismic profiles recorded in-line and off-line, and from an additional permanent seismic station, were altogether used for seismic modelling of the crustal structure of the study area. Seismic arrivals (airgun and chemical explosive sources) were recorded by land (onshore) seismic stations, ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), and ocean bottom hydrophone stations (OBH). Good quality refracted and reflected P waves have provided an excellent data base for a seismic modelling. Chemical explosive sources were recorded even up to 300 km distances. The 3-D tomographic inversion method was applied. The results are comparable to the earlier 2-D modelling. Additional off-line information allowed to develop a 3-D image of the crustal structure. The continental crust thins to the west and north. A minimum depth of about 6 km to the Moho interface was determined east of the Molloy Deep and in the Knipovich Ridge. The Moho discontinuity deepens down to about 30 km below the continental crust of Spitsbergen.

10. 3-D seismic tomographic modelling of the crustal structure of northwestern Svalbard based on deep seismic soundings

Czuba, Wojciech

2017-01-01

Wide angle refraction and reflection measurements were carried out in the passive continental margin zone of the northwestern Svalbard during several expeditions in 1978-1999. Data from a set of 2-D archival and modern seismic profiles recorded in-line and off-line, and from an additional permanent seismic station, were altogether used for seismic modelling of the crustal structure of the study area. Seismic arrivals (airgun and chemical explosive sources) were recorded by land (onshore) seismic stations, ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), and ocean bottom hydrophone stations (OBH). Good quality refracted and reflected P waves have provided an excellent data base for a seismic modelling. Chemical explosive sources were recorded even up to 300 km distances. The 3-D tomographic inversion method was applied. The results are comparable to the earlier 2-D modelling. Additional off-line information allowed to develop a 3-D image of the crustal structure. The continental crust thins to the west and north. A minimum depth of about 6 km to the Moho interface was determined east of the Molloy Deep and in the Knipovich Ridge. The Moho discontinuity deepens down to about 30 km below the continental crust of Spitsbergen.

11. Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs

SciTech Connect

James Reeves

2005-01-31

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

12. Integrating 3D seismic curvature and curvature gradient attributes for fracture characterization: Methodologies and interpretational implications

SciTech Connect

Gao, Dengliang

2013-03-01

In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.

13. Validation of 3D Seismic Velocity Models Using the Spectral Element Method

Maceira, M.; Larmat, C. S.; Porritt, R. W.; Higdon, D.; Allen, R. M.

2012-12-01

For over a decade now, many research institutions have been focusing on addressing the Earth's 3D heterogeneities and complexities by improving tomographic methods. Utilizing dense array datasets, these efforts have led to unprecedented 3D seismic images, but little is done in terms of model validation or to provide any absolute assessment of model uncertainty. Furthermore, the question of "How good is a 3D geophysical model at representing the Earth's true physics? " remains largely not addressed in a time when 3D Earth models are used for societal and energy security. In the last few years, new horizons have opened up in earth structure imaging, with the advent of new numerical and mathematical methods in computational seismology and statistical sciences. We use these methods to tackle the question of model validation taking advantage of unique and extensive High Performance Computing resources available at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We present results from a study focused on validating 3D models for the Western USA generated using both ray-theoretical and finite-frequency approximations. In this manner we do not validate just the model but also the imaging technique. For this test case, we utilize the Dynamic North America (DNA) model family of UC Berkeley, as they are readily available in both formulations. We evaluate model performances by comparing observed and synthetic seismograms generated using the Spectral Element Method. Results show that both, finite-frequency and ray-theoretical DNA09 models, predict the observations well. Waveform cross-correlation coefficients show a difference in performance between models obtained with the finite-frequency or ray-theory limited to smallest periods (<15s), with no perceptible difference at longer periods (50-200s). At those shortest periods, and based on statistical analyses on S-wave phase delay measurements, finite-frequency shows an improvement over ray theory. We are also investigating the breakdown of ray

14. Reservoir lithofacies analysis using 3D seismic data in dissimilarity space

Bagheri, M.; Riahi, M. A.; Hashemi, H.

2013-06-01

Seismic data interpretation is one of the most important steps in exploration seismology. Seismic facies analysis (SFA) with emphasis on lithofacies can be used to extract more information about structures and geology, which results in seismic interpretation enhancement. Facies analysis is based on unsupervised and supervised classification using seismic attributes. In this paper, supervised classification by a support vector machine using well logs and seismic attributes is applied. Dissimilarity as a new measuring space is employed, after which classification is carried out. Often, SFA is carried out in a feature space in which each dimension stands as a seismic attribute. Different facies show lots of class overlap in the feature space; hence, high classification error values are reported. Therefore, decreasing class overlap before classification is a necessary step to be targeted. To achieve this goal, a dissimilarity space is initially created. As a result of the definition of the new space, the class overlap between objects (seismic samples) is reduced and hence the classification can be done reliably. This strategy causes an increase in the accuracy of classification, and a more trustworthy lithofacies analysis is attained. For applying this method, 3D seismic data from an oil field in Iran were selected and the results obtained by a support vector classifier (SVC) in dissimilarity space are presented, discussed and compared with the SVC applied in conventional feature space.

15. On horizontal resolution for seismic acquisition geometries in complex 3D media

Wei, Wei; Fu, Li-Yun

2014-09-01

Spatial sampling has a crucial influence on the horizontal resolution of seismic imaging, but how to quantify the influence is still controversial especially in complex media. Most of the studies on horizontal resolution focus on the measurement of wavelet widths for seismic migration, but neglect to evaluate the effect of side-lobe perturbations on spatial resolution. The side-lobe effect, as a migration noise, is important for seismic imaging in complex media. In this article, with focal beam analysis, we define two parameters to represent the horizontal resolution of an acquisition geometry: the width of the main lobe (WML) along the inline and crossline directions and the ratio of the main-lobe amplitude to the total amplitude (RMT) in a focal beam. We provide examples of typical acquisition geometries to show how spatial sampling affects the horizontal resolution, measured in terms of WML and RMT values. WML defines the horizontal resolution to image the target, whereas RMT describes the clarity of the imaging. Migration noise reduces with increasing RMT, indirectly improving both the vertical and horizontal resolutions of seismic imaging. Case studies of seismic migration with 3D seismic data from an oil field of China, demonstrate how the acquisition geometries with different WML and RMT values influence the performance of seismic imaging. Prior WML and RMT analyses to predict the quality of acquired datasets can optimize acquisition geometries before the implementation of seismic acquisition.

16. Prestack reverse time migration for 3D marine reflection seismic data

SciTech Connect

Jang, Seonghyung; Kim, Taeyoun

2015-03-10

Prestack reverse time migration (RTM) is a method for imaging the subsurface using the inner product of wavefield extrapolation in shot domain and in receiver domain. It is well known that RTM is better for preserving amplitudes and phases than other prestack migrations. Since 3D seismic data is huge data volume and it needs heavy computing works, it requires parallel computing in order to have a meaningful depth image of the 3D subsurface. We implemented a parallelized version of 3D RTM for prestack depth migration. The results of numerical example for 3D SEG/EAGE salt model showed good agreement with the original geological model. We applied RTM to offshore 3D seismic reflection data. The study area is 12 × 25 km with 120 survey lines. Shot and receiver spacing is 25 m and 12.5 m. The line spacing is 100 m. Shot gathers were preprocessed to enhance signal to noise ratio and velocity model was calculated from conventional stack velocity. Both of them were used to obtain 3D image using RTM. The results show reasonable subsurface image.

17. 3D and 4D Seismic Imaging in the Oilfield; the state of the art

Strudley, A.

2005-05-01

Seismic imaging in the oilfield context has seen enormous changes over the last 20 years driven by a combination of improved subsurface illumination (2D to 3D), increased computational power and improved physical understanding. Today Kirchhoff Pre-stack migration (in time or depth) is the norm with anisotropic parameterisation and finite difference methods being increasingly employed. In the production context Time-Lapse (4D) Seismic is of growing importance as a tool for monitoring reservoir changes to facilitate increased productivity and recovery. In this paper we present an overview of state of the art technology in 3D and 4D seismic and look at future trends. Pre-stack Kirchhoff migration in time or depth is the imaging tool of choice for the majority of contemporary 3D datasets. Recent developments in 3D pre-stack imaging have been focussed around finite difference solutions to the acoustic wave equation, the so-called Wave Equation Migration methods (WEM). Application of finite difference solutions to imaging is certainly not new, however 3D pre-stack migration using these schemes is a relatively recent development driven by the need for imaging complex geologic structures such as sub salt, and facilitated by increased computational resources. Finally there are a class of imaging methods referred to as beam migration. These methods may be based on either the wave equation or rays, but all operate on a localised (in space and direction) part of the wavefield. These methods offer a bridge between the computational efficiency of Kirchhoff schemes and the improved image quality of WEM methods. Just as 3D seismic has had a radical impact on the quality of the static model of the reservoir, 4D seismic is having a dramatic impact on the dynamic model. Repeat shooting of seismic surveys after a period of production (typically one to several years) reveals changes in pressure and saturation through changes in the seismic response. The growth in interest in 4D seismic

18. P-Cable: New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Acquisition Technology

Planke, Sverre; Berndt, Christian; Mienert, Jürgen; Bünz, Stefan; Eriksen, Frode N.; Eriksen, Ola K.

2010-05-01

We have developed a new cost-efficient technology for acquisition of high-resolution 3D seismic data: the P-Cable system. This technology is very well suited for deep water exploration, site surveys, and studies of shallow gas and fluid migration associated with gas hydrates or leaking reservoirs. It delivers unparalleled 3D seismic images of subsurface sediment architectures. The P-Cable system consists of a seismic cable towed perpendicular to a vessel's steaming direction. This configuration allows us to image an up to 150 m wide swath of the sub-surface for each sail line. Conventional 3D seismic technology relies on several very long streamers (up to 10 km long streamers are common), large sources, and costly operations. In contrast, the P-Cable system is light-weight and fast to deploy from small vessels. Only a small source is required as the system is made for relatively shallow imaging, typically above the first water-bottom multiple. The P-Cable system is particularly useful for acquisition of small 3D cubes, 10-50 km2, in focus areas, rather than extensive mapping of large regions. The rapid deployment and recovery of the system makes it possible to acquire several small cubes (10 to 30 km2) with high-resolution (50-250 Hz) seismic data in during one cruise. The first development of the P-Cable system was a cooperative project achieved by Volcanic Basin Petroleum Research (VBPR), University of Tromsø, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, and industry partners. Field trials using a 12-streamer system were conducted on sites with active fluid-leakage systems on the Norwegian-Barents-Svalbard margin, the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Mediterranean. The second phase of the development introduced digital streamers. The new P-Cable2 system also includes integrated tow and cross cables for power and data transmission and improved doors to spread the larger cross cable. This digital system has been successfully used during six cruises by the University of Troms

19. Full Waveform 3D Synthetic Seismic Algorithm for 1D Layered Anelastic Models

Schwaiger, H. F.; Aldridge, D. F.; Haney, M. M.

2007-12-01

Numerical calculation of synthetic seismograms for 1D layered earth models remains a significant aspect of amplitude-offset investigations, surface wave studies, microseismic event location approaches, and reflection interpretation or inversion processes. Compared to 3D finite-difference algorithms, memory demand and execution time are greatly reduced, enabling rapid generation of seismic data within workstation or laptop computational environments. We have developed a frequency-wavenumber forward modeling algorithm adapted to realistic 1D geologic media, for the purpose of calculating seismograms accurately and efficiently. The earth model consists of N layers bounded by two halfspaces. Each layer/halfspace is a homogeneous and isotropic anelastic (attenuative and dispersive) solid, characterized by a rectangular relaxation spectrum of absorption mechanisms. Compressional and shear phase speeds and quality factors are specified at a particular reference frequency. Solution methodology involves 3D Fourier transforming the three coupled, second- order, integro-differential equations for particle displacements to the frequency-horizontal wavenumber domain. An analytic solution of the resulting ordinary differential system is obtained. Imposition of welded interface conditions (continuity of displacement and stress) at all interfaces, as well as radiation conditions in the two halfspaces, yields a system of 6(N+1) linear algebraic equations for the coefficients in the ODE solution. An optimized inverse 2D Fourier transform to the space domain gives the seismic wavefield on a horizontal plane. Finally, three-component seismograms are obtained by accumulating frequency spectra at designated receiver positions on this plane, followed by a 1D inverse FFT from angular frequency ω to time. Stress-free conditions may be applied at the top or bottom interfaces, and seismic waves are initiated by force or moment density sources. Examples reveal that including attenuation

20. How 3D seismic-CAEX combination affected development of N. Frisco City field in Alabama

SciTech Connect

Stephenson, M.; Cox, J.; Jones-Fuentes, P. )

1992-10-26

This paper reports that by applying the latest in 3D seismic and computer aided exploration and production (CAEX) technology, small and mid-size independents are changing the methods by which fields are discovered and profitably developed. The combination of 3D and CAEX has, in many cases, altered oilfield economics. Nuevo Energy Co.'s North Frisco City development---located in the updip Jurassic Haynesville trend of Southwest Alabama---offers a case in point. The 3D technology employed at North Frisco City produced and accurate, detailed picture of the subsurface. Ultimately it more than doubled the drilling success rate over that of a nearby, closely related field in which 3D was not used.

1. ActiveSeismoPick3D - automatic first arrival determination for large active seismic arrays

Paffrath, Marcel; Küperkoch, Ludger; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Friederich, Wolfgang

2016-04-01

We developed a tool for automatic determination of first arrivals in active seismic data based on an approach, that utilises higher order statistics (HOS) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC), commonly used in seismology, but not in active seismics. Automatic picking is highly desirable in active seismics as the number of data provided by large seismic arrays rapidly exceeds of what an analyst can evaluate in a reasonable amount of time. To bring the functionality of automatic phase picking into the context of active data, the software package ActiveSeismoPick3D was developed in Python. It uses a modified algorithm for the determination of first arrivals which searches for the HOS maximum in unfiltered data. Additionally, it offers tools for manual quality control and postprocessing, e.g. various visualisation and repicking functionalities. For flexibility, the tool also includes methods for the preparation of geometry information of large seismic arrays and improved interfaces to the Fast Marching Tomography Package (FMTOMO), which can be used for the prediction of travel times and inversion for subsurface properties. Output files are generated in the VTK format, allowing the 3D visualization of e.g. the inversion results. As a test case, a data set consisting of 9216 traces from 64 shots was gathered, recorded at 144 receivers deployed in a regular 2D array of a size of 100 x 100 m. ActiveSeismoPick3D automatically checks the determined first arrivals by a dynamic signal to noise ratio threshold. From the data a 3D model of the subsurface was generated using the export functionality of the package and FMTOMO.

2. 3D Porosity Estimation of the Nankai Trough Sediments from Core-log-seismic Integration

Park, J. O.

2015-12-01

The Nankai Trough off southwest Japan is one of the best subduction-zone to study megathrust earthquake fault. Historic, great megathrust earthquakes with a recurrence interval of 100-200 yr have generated strong motion and large tsunamis along the Nankai Trough subduction zone. At the Nankai Trough margin, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate to the northwest at a convergence rate ~4 cm/yr. The Shikoku Basin, the northern part of the PSP, is estimated to have opened between 25 and 15 Ma by backarc spreading of the Izu-Bonin arc. The >100-km-wide Nankai accretionary wedge, which has developed landward of the trench since the Miocene, mainly consists of offscraped and underplated materials from the trough-fill turbidites and the Shikoku Basin hemipelagic sediments. Particularly, physical properties of the incoming hemipelagic sediments may be critical for seismogenic behavior of the megathrust fault. We have carried out core-log-seismic integration (CLSI) to estimate 3D acoustic impedance and porosity for the incoming sediments in the Nankai Trough. For the CLSI, we used 3D seismic reflection data, P-wave velocity and density data obtained during IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expeditions 322 and 333. We computed acoustic impedance depth profiles for the IODP drilling sites from P-wave velocity and density data. We constructed seismic convolution models with the acoustic impedance profiles and a source wavelet which is extracted from the seismic data, adjusting the seismic models to observed seismic traces with inversion method. As a result, we obtained 3D acoustic impedance volume and then converted it to 3D porosity volume. In general, the 3D porosities show decrease with depth. We found a porosity anomaly zone with alteration of high and low porosities seaward of the trough axis. In this talk, we will show detailed 3D porosity of the incoming sediments, and present implications of the porosity anomaly zone for the

3. Complex Crustal Structure Beneath Western Turkey Revealed by 3D Seismic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI)

Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas

2016-04-01

We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest Turkey due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ < 10°) distances. Three component earthquake data is obtained from broadband seismic stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Center (KOERI, Turkey), Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN, Greece) and Earthquake Research Center of Turkey (AFAD-DAD). The spectral-element solver of the wave equation, SES3D algorithm, is used to simulate seismic wave propagation in 3D spherical coordinates (Fichtner, 2009). The Large Scale Seismic Inversion Framework (LASIF) workflow tool is also used to perform full seismic waveform inversion (Krischer et al., 2015). The initial 3D Earth model is implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). Discrepancies between the observed and simulated synthetic waveforms are determined using the time-frequency misfits which allows a separation between phase and amplitude information (Fichtner et al., 2008). The conjugate gradient optimization method is used to iteratively update the initial Earth model when minimizing the misfit. The inversion is terminated after 19 iterations since no further advances are observed in updated models. Our analysis revealed shear wave velocity variations of the shallow and deeper crustal structure beneath western Turkey down to depths of ~35-40 km. Low shear wave velocity anomalies are observed in the upper and mid crustal depths beneath major fault zones located in the study region. Low velocity zones also tend to mark the outline of young volcanic

4. Characterization of a landslide geometry using 3D seismic refraction traveltime tomography: The La Valette landslide case history

Samyn, K.; Travelletti, J.; Bitri, A.; Grandjean, G.; Malet, J.-P.

2012-11-01

The geometry of the bedrock, internal layers and shear surfaces/bands controls the deformation pattern and the mechanisms of landslides. A challenge to progress in the forecast of landslide acceleration in terms of early-warning is therefore to characterize the 3D geometry of the unstable mass at a high level of spatial resolution, both in the horizontal and vertical directions, by integrating information from different surveying techniques. For such characterization, seismic investigations are potentially of a great interest. In the case of complex structures, the measure and the processing of seismic data need to be performed in 3D. The objective of this work is to present the development of a 3D extension of a seismic refraction traveltime tomography technique based on a Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). First the processing algorithm is detailed and its performance is discussed, and second an application to the La Valette complex landslide is presented. Inversion of first-arrival traveltimes produces a 3D tomogram that underlines the presence of many areas characterized by low P-wave velocity of 500-1800 m.s- 1. These low P-wave velocity structures result from the presence of reworked blocks, surficial cracks and in-depth fracture zones. These structures seem to extend to around 25 m in depth over a 80 × 130 m area. Based on borehole geotechnical data and previous geophysical investigations, an interface corresponding to an internal slip surface can be suspected near the isovalue of 1200 m.s- 1 at a depth of - 10 to - 15 m. The stable substratum is characterized by higher values of P-wave velocity of 1800-3000 m.s- 1. The features identified in the 3D tomogram allow to better (1) delineate the boundary between the landslide and the surrounding stable slopes, and (2) understand the morphological structures within the landslide at a hectometric scale. The integration of the 3D seismic tomography interpretation to previous geophysical

5. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

2015-04-01

Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA's) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 - April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

6. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

SciTech Connect

Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

2015-04-24

Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

7. Combining sequence stratigraphy with 3-D seismic imaging in low-accommodation basins

SciTech Connect

Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Simmons, J.L. Jr.

1995-12-31

Pennsylvania-age rocks in several areas of the Midcontinent of the United States were deposited in low-accommodation basinal settings, that is, in basinal areas where only modest verticle reliefs could accept the sediment influx. Many thin Pennsylvanian sequences in these low-accommodation environments exhibit severe lateral heterogeneity because they have been extensively reworked by repeated transgressions and regressions of a fluctuating sea. Consequently, the distinctive geometries of relic depositional features (such as meandering channels) tend to be distorted or even totally destroyed, as compared with how such geometries appear in high-accommodation basins where depositional topography, once buried, is rarely exposed to destructive processes. Our objectives are to show examples of 3-D seismic images of several depositional topographies in a moderate- to low-accommodation basin and to explain how these thin sequences can be identified in well control and interpreted in 3-D seismic data volumes.

8. Geological model of Lobodice underground gas storage facility based on 3D seismic interpretation

Kopal, Lukáš; Čížek, Pavel; Milička, Ján

2016-06-01

The Lobodice underground gas storage (UGS) is developed in a natural aquifer reservoir located in the Central Moravian part of the Carpathian Foredeep in the Czech Republic. In order to learn more about the UGS geological structure a 3D seismic survey was performed in 2009. The reservoir is rather shallow, 400-500 m below the surface. This article describes the process workflow from the 3D seismic field data acquisition to the creation of the geological model. The outcomes of this workflow define the geometry of the UGS reservoir, its tectonics and the sealing features of the structure. Better geological knowledge of the reservoir will reduce the risks involved in the localization of new wells for increasing UGS withdrawal rates.

9. Multi-hole seismic modeling in 3-D space and cross-hole seismic tomography analysis for boulder detection

Cheng, Fei; Liu, Jiangping; Wang, Jing; Zong, Yuquan; Yu, Mingyu

2016-11-01

A boulder stone, a common geological feature in south China, is referred to the remnant of a granite body which has been unevenly weathered. Undetected boulders could adversely impact the schedule and safety of subway construction when using tunnel boring machine (TBM) method. Therefore, boulder detection has always been a key issue demanded to be solved before the construction. Nowadays, cross-hole seismic tomography is a high resolution technique capable of boulder detection, however, the method can only solve for velocity in a 2-D slice between two wells, and the size and central position of the boulder are generally difficult to be accurately obtained. In this paper, the authors conduct a multi-hole wave field simulation and characteristic analysis of a boulder model based on the 3-D elastic wave staggered-grid finite difference theory, and also a 2-D imaging analysis based on first arrival travel time. The results indicate that (1) full wave field records could be obtained from multi-hole seismic wave simulations. Simulation results describe that the seismic wave propagation pattern in cross-hole high-velocity spherical geological bodies is more detailed and can serve as a basis for the wave field analysis. (2) When a cross-hole seismic section cuts through the boulder, the proposed method provides satisfactory cross-hole tomography results; however, when the section is closely positioned to the boulder, such high-velocity object in the 3-D space would impact on the surrounding wave field. The received diffracted wave interferes with the primary wave and in consequence the picked first arrival travel time is not derived from the profile, which results in a false appearance of high-velocity geology features. Finally, the results of 2-D analysis in 3-D modeling space are comparatively analyzed with the physical model test vis-a-vis the effect of high velocity body on the seismic tomographic measurements.

10. 3D Geotechnical Soil Model of Nice, France, Inferred from Seismic Noise Measurements, for Seismic Hazard Assessment.

Bertrand, E.; Duval, A.; Castan, M.; Vidal, S.

2007-12-01

In seismic risk studies, the assessment of lithologic site effect is based on an accurate knowledge of mechanical properties and geometry of superficial geological formations. Therefore, we built a 3D subsurface model in the city of Nice, southeastern France, using not only geological and geotechnical data but also geophysical inputs. We used especially ambient vibration recordings to supply the lack of borehole data over the city. Nice spreads over 72 km2 and roughly 20% of the city is built upon recent alluvium deposits. Other parts of the city lie on Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks to the east and thick Pliocene conglomerates to the west. Nearly 450 boreholes located mainly in the alluvial valleys were used. Because they are essentially linked to previous planned constructions (such as road network or important building), their distribution is rather heterogeneous over the studied area. In the valleys moreover, less than 40% of the boreholes are reaching the rock basement. These boreholes have been analyzed and a representative soil column made of 9 sedimentary layers has been recognized. Shear wave velocity of these layers were obtained from Standard Penetration Test values using several empirical correlation law described in the literature. Because of its cost, an extended boring survey was not feasible to complete our data set. Traditional seismic profiling was also not intended, as it is not possible to use intensive explosive sources in town. Recent years have seen many studies using ambient vibration measurements for site effect estimation. Especially, the very simple H/V technique was proven to be suitable for microzoning studies although some limitation were pointed out when dealing with 2D or 3D structures. Nevertheless, this technique alone provides only the fundamental eigenfrequency of the site under investigation. But assuming the shear wave velocity in the sediment it can helps to constrain the depth of the bedrock thanks to the well known f0=VS/4H

11. Preliminary results of the CRISP 3D seismic experiment, offshore Costa Rica

Bangs, N. L.; McIntosh, K. D.; Silver, E. A.; Ranero, C. R.; Kluesner, J. W.; von Huene, R.; Cavanaugh, S.; Graf, S.; Cameselle, A. L.; Baracco, A. M.; Nuñez, E.

2011-12-01

In April and May of 2011, we acquired a new 3D seismic reflection data volume offshore Costa Rica, northwest of the Osa Peninsula. The goal of the survey was to examine the crustal structure and deformation history of this collision zone, and to clearly image the plate-boundary fault from the trench and into the seismogenic zone. These data will also help locate a deep site for riser drilling as part of the CRISP drilling program. The 3D survey covered 55 km across the upper shelf and slope, and into the trench. It extended 11 km along strike for a total survey area of 11 x 55 km. These data were acquired with the R/V Langseth using a 3300 cubic inch source shot every 50 m. We recorded the data on four 6-km-long, 468-channel streamers with 150m separation. We have preliminary results from processing 2D seismic lines extracted from the 3D volume, and from initial 3D volume processing. In the preliminary images we can trace strong seismic reflections from the plate-boundary fault down to 3 s two-way travel time (approx. 5 km depth) below the seafloor and 26 km landward from the trench. The plate-boundary fault reflection amplitudes decrease substantially with depth and are difficult to depict on these preliminary profiles. The upper plate structure shows numerous faults, many extending down to the plate-interface, and intense folding and faulting of the slope cover sequences. Currently these data are being processed by the Spanish oil company, Repsol, and should reveal far more detail with complete 3D processing.

12. Sequence stratigraphy and 3-D seismic imaging in low-accommodation basins

SciTech Connect

Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Hamilton, D.S.; Simmons, J.L. Jr. )

1996-01-01

Pennsylvanian-age rocks in several areas of the Midcontinent of the United States were deposited in low-accommodation basinal settings. Many sequences in these low-accommodation environments exhibit severe lateral heterogeneity because they have been extensively reworked by repeated transgressions and regressions. Consequently, the distinctive geometries of relic depositional features tend to be distorted or totally destroyed, in contrast to such geometries in high-accommodation basins where depositional topography, once buried, is rarely exposed to erosional processes. Our objective is to show how these thin and obscure low-accommodation sequences can be identified in well control and interpreted in 3-D seismic data volumes. Numerous, deep-rooted karst-collapse zones affected the areal continuity of many sequences in some Midcontinent basins. We combine sequence stratigraphy with 3-D seismic imaging to document that many of these karst-collapse zones originate at deep Ellenburger ( ) levels and then extend vertically for a distance of 2,000 ft (600 m) or more into Pennsylvanian-age rocks. We also offer evidence that properly chosen seismic attributes, calculated in thin, accurately defined seismic time windows that correspond to log-defined sequences, show compartmented reservoir facies in low-accommodation basins.

13. Sequence stratigraphy and 3-D seismic imaging in low-accommodation basins

SciTech Connect

Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Hamilton, D.S.; Simmons, J.L. Jr.

1996-12-31

Pennsylvanian-age rocks in several areas of the Midcontinent of the United States were deposited in low-accommodation basinal settings. Many sequences in these low-accommodation environments exhibit severe lateral heterogeneity because they have been extensively reworked by repeated transgressions and regressions. Consequently, the distinctive geometries of relic depositional features tend to be distorted or totally destroyed, in contrast to such geometries in high-accommodation basins where depositional topography, once buried, is rarely exposed to erosional processes. Our objective is to show how these thin and obscure low-accommodation sequences can be identified in well control and interpreted in 3-D seismic data volumes. Numerous, deep-rooted karst-collapse zones affected the areal continuity of many sequences in some Midcontinent basins. We combine sequence stratigraphy with 3-D seismic imaging to document that many of these karst-collapse zones originate at deep Ellenburger (?) levels and then extend vertically for a distance of 2,000 ft (600 m) or more into Pennsylvanian-age rocks. We also offer evidence that properly chosen seismic attributes, calculated in thin, accurately defined seismic time windows that correspond to log-defined sequences, show compartmented reservoir facies in low-accommodation basins.

14. Training toward Advanced 3D Seismic Methods for CO2 Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting

SciTech Connect

Christopher Liner

2012-05-31

The objective of our work is graduate and undergraduate student training related to improved 3D seismic technology that addresses key challenges related to monitoring movement and containment of CO{sub 2}, specifically better quantification and sensitivity for mapping of caprock integrity, fractures, and other potential leakage pathways. We utilize data and results developed through previous DOE-funded CO{sub 2} characterization project (DE-FG26-06NT42734) at the Dickman Field of Ness County, KS. Dickman is a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontinent to Indiana and Illinois. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. In a previous DOE-funded project, geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We believe that sequestration of CO{sub 2} will largely occur in areas of relatively flat geology and simple near surface, similar to Dickman. The challenge is not complex geology, but development of improved, lower-cost methods for detecting natural fractures and subtle faults. Our project used numerical simulation to test methods of gathering multicomponent, full azimuth data ideal for this purpose. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic methods to aide in quantifying reservoir properties and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. The purpose of the current project is graduate and undergraduate student training related to improved 3D seismic technology that addresses key challenges related to monitoring movement and containment of CO{sub 2

15. Enhanced imaging of CO2 at the Ketzin storage site: Inversion of 3D time-lapse seismic data

Gil, M.; Götz, J.; Ivanova, A.; Juhlin, C.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Lüth, S.; Yang, C.

2012-04-01

The Ketzin test site, located near Berlin, is Europe's longest-operating on-shore CO2 storage site. As of December 2011, more than 56,000 tons of food grade CO2 has been injected since June 2008 in an anticlinal structure of the Northeast German Basin. The target reservoir consists of porous, brine bearing sandstone units of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation at approximately 630 to 650 m depth. In order to enhance the understanding of the structural geometry of the site and to investigate the extension of the CO2-plume, several geophysical monitoring methods are being applied at Ketzin, among these are active seismic measurements, geoelectrics and borehole measurements. Among the various seismic techniques (e.g. 2D reflection surveys, crosshole tomography, Vertical Seismic Profiling, 2D- and 3D-Moving Source Profiling) employed at this pilot site, 3D time-lapse reflection surveys are an important component. The baseline 3D survey was acquired in 2005 and the first repeat measurements were performed in 2009 after injection of about 22,000 tons of CO2. The second repeat survey is planned to be carried out in fall 2012. These measurements allow the time-lapse signature of the injected CO2 to be imaged. The time-lapse amplitude variation attributed to the injected CO2 in the reservoir matches, considering detection limits of seismic surface measurements, the expected distribution of the CO2 plume derived from reservoir simulations. Previous attempts towards a quantitative interpretation were based on integrative considerations of different types of geophysical measurements using strict assumptions and characterized by large error bars. In order to increase the resolution and reliability of the data and to improve estimation of rock properties and especially to enhance the imaging resolution of the CO2-plume, the time-lapse 3D seismic data have now been inverted for seismic impedances with different methods, which is the focus of this presentation. One difficulty

16. Fast 3D elastic micro-seismic source location using new GPU features

Xue, Qingfeng; Wang, Yibo; Chang, Xu

2016-12-01

In this paper, we describe new GPU features and their applications in passive seismic - micro-seismic location. Locating micro-seismic events is quite important in seismic exploration, especially when searching for unconventional oil and gas resources. Different from the traditional ray-based methods, the wave equation method, such as the method we use in our paper, has a remarkable advantage in adapting to low signal-to-noise ratio conditions and does not need a person to select the data. However, because it has a conspicuous deficiency due to its computation cost, these methods are not widely used in industrial fields. To make the method useful, we implement imaging-like wave equation micro-seismic location in a 3D elastic media and use GPU to accelerate our algorithm. We also introduce some new GPU features into the implementation to solve the data transfer and GPU utilization problems. Numerical and field data experiments show that our method can achieve a more than 30% performance improvement in GPU implementation just by using these new features.

17. 3D Numerical Simulation on the Sloshing Waves Excited by the Seismic Shacking

Zhang, Lin; Wu, Tso-Ren

2016-04-01

In the event of 2015 Nepal earthquake, a video clip broadcasted worldwide showed a violent water spilling in a hotel swimming pool. This sloshing phenomenon indicates a potential water loss in the sensitive facilities, e.g. the spent fuel pools in nuclear power plant, has to be taken into account carefully under the consideration of seismic-induced ground acceleration. In the previous studies, the simulation of sloshing mainly focused on the pressure force on the structure by using a simplified Spring-Mass Method developed in the field of solid mechanics. However, restricted by the assumptions of plane water surface and limited wave height, significant error will be made in evaluating the amount of water loss in the tank. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamical model, Splash3D, was adopted for studying the sloshing problem accurately. Splash3D solved 3D Navier-Stokes Equation directly with Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulent closure. The Volume-of-fluid (VOF) method with piecewise linear interface calculation (PLIC) was used to track the complex breaking water surface. The time series acceleration of a design seismic was loaded to excite the water. With few restrictions from the assumptions, the accuracy of the simulation results were improved dramatically. A series model validations were conducted by compared to a 2D theoretical solution, and a 3D experimental data. Good comparisons can be seen. After the validation, we performed the simulation for considering a sloshing case in a rectangular water tank with a dimension of 12 m long, 8 m wide, 8 m deep, which contained water with 7 m in depth. The seismic movement was imported by considering time-series acceleration in three dimensions, which were about 0.5 g to 1.2 g in the horizontal directions, and 0.3 g to 1 g in the vertical direction. We focused the discussions on the kinematics of the water surface, wave breaking, velocity field, pressure field, water force on the side walls, and, most

18. High-resolution imaging of crustal melts using 3D full-waveform seismic inversion

Warner, M.; Morgan, J. V.

2013-12-01

A newly practical seismic imaging technique, 3D full-waveform inversion (FWI), now has the ability to image zones of melt and melt pathways throughout the crust with a better resolution than any other geophysical method. 3D FWI has recently changed practice within the petroleum industry where it is used to obtain high-resolution high-fidelity models of physical properties in the sub-surface that are both interpreted directly and used to improve the migration of deeper reflections. This technology has been spectacularly successful in improving the imaging of reservoirs beneath shallow heterogeneities produced by, for example, gas clouds, buried fluvial channels, carbonate reefs and salt bodies. During FWI, the sub-surface model is recovered principally by using the low-frequency transmitted, refracted portion of the wavefield which is most sensitive to the macro-velocity structure. In the petroleum industry, these inversions are now routinely performed using long-offset surface-streamer and ocean-bottom data to maximum source-receiver offsets of about 15 km, leading to a maximum penetration depth of around 5 km. Using longer offsets, it is possible to extend this technology to image deeper crustal targets. Localised zones of partial melt produce large changes in p-wave and s-wave properties that are restricted in their spatial extent, and that therefore form ideal targets for 3D FWI. We have performed a suite of tests to explore the use of 3D FWI in imaging melt distribution beneath the active volcano of Montserrat. We built a model of the subsurface using a 3D travel-time tomographic model obtained from the SEA CALIPSO experiment. We added two magma chambers in accordance with a model obtained using surface-elevation changes and geochemical data. We used a wide-angle, wide-azimuth acquisition geometry to generate a fully-elastic synthetic seismic dataset, added noise, and inverted the windowed transmitted arrivals only. We used an elastic code for the forward

19. Seismic Response of 3D Steel Buildings considering the Effect of PR Connections and Gravity Frames

PubMed Central

Haldar, Achintya; López-Barraza, Arturo; Rivera-Salas, J. Luz

2014-01-01

The nonlinear seismic responses of 3D steel buildings with perimeter moment resisting frames (PMRF) and interior gravity frames (IGF) are studied explicitly considering the contribution of the IGF. The effect on the structural response of the stiffness of the beam-to-column connections of the IGF, which is usually neglected, is also studied. It is commonly believed that the flexibility of shear connections is negligible and that 2D models can be used to properly represent 3D real structures. The results of the study indicate, however, that the moments developed on columns of IGF can be considerable and that modeling buildings as plane frames may result in very conservative designs. The contribution of IGF to the lateral structural resistance may be significant. The contribution increases when their connections are assumed to be partially restrained (PR). The incremented participation of IGF when the stiffness of their connections is considered helps to counteract the no conservative effect that results in practice when lateral seismic loads are not considered in IGF while designing steel buildings with PMRF. Thus, if the structural system under consideration is used, the three-dimensional model should be used in seismic analysis and the IGF and the stiffness of their connections should be considered as part of the lateral resistance system. PMID:24995357

20. Seismic response of 3D steel buildings considering the effect of PR connections and gravity frames.

PubMed

Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Bojórquez, Edén; Haldar, Achintya; López-Barraza, Arturo; Rivera-Salas, J Luz

2014-01-01

The nonlinear seismic responses of 3D steel buildings with perimeter moment resisting frames (PMRF) and interior gravity frames (IGF) are studied explicitly considering the contribution of the IGF. The effect on the structural response of the stiffness of the beam-to-column connections of the IGF, which is usually neglected, is also studied. It is commonly believed that the flexibility of shear connections is negligible and that 2D models can be used to properly represent 3D real structures. The results of the study indicate, however, that the moments developed on columns of IGF can be considerable and that modeling buildings as plane frames may result in very conservative designs. The contribution of IGF to the lateral structural resistance may be significant. The contribution increases when their connections are assumed to be partially restrained (PR). The incremented participation of IGF when the stiffness of their connections is considered helps to counteract the no conservative effect that results in practice when lateral seismic loads are not considered in IGF while designing steel buildings with PMRF. Thus, if the structural system under consideration is used, the three-dimensional model should be used in seismic analysis and the IGF and the stiffness of their connections should be considered as part of the lateral resistance system.

1. 3D Seismic Flexure Analysis for Subsurface Fault Detection and Fracture Characterization

Di, Haibin; Gao, Dengliang

2017-03-01

Seismic flexure is a new geometric attribute with the potential of delineating subtle faults and fractures from three-dimensional (3D) seismic surveys, especially those overlooked by the popular discontinuity and curvature attributes. Although the concept of flexure and its related algorithms have been published in the literature, the attribute has not been sufficiently applied to subsurface fault detection and fracture characterization. This paper provides a comprehensive study of the flexure attribute, including its definition, computation, as well as geologic implications for evaluating the fundamental fracture properties that are essential to fracture characterization and network modeling in the subsurface, through applications to the fractured reservoir at Teapot Dome, Wyoming (USA). Specifically, flexure measures the third-order variation of the geometry of a seismic reflector and is dependent on the measuring direction in 3D space; among all possible directions, flexure is considered most useful when extracted perpendicular to the orientation of dominant deformation; and flexure offers new insights into qualitative/quantitative fracture characterization, with its magnitude indicating the intensity of faulting and fracturing, its azimuth defining the orientation of most-likely fracture trends, and its sign differentiating the sense of displacement of faults and fractures.

2. 3D Seismic Flexure Analysis for Subsurface Fault Detection and Fracture Characterization

Di, Haibin; Gao, Dengliang

2016-10-01

Seismic flexure is a new geometric attribute with the potential of delineating subtle faults and fractures from three-dimensional (3D) seismic surveys, especially those overlooked by the popular discontinuity and curvature attributes. Although the concept of flexure and its related algorithms have been published in the literature, the attribute has not been sufficiently applied to subsurface fault detection and fracture characterization. This paper provides a comprehensive study of the flexure attribute, including its definition, computation, as well as geologic implications for evaluating the fundamental fracture properties that are essential to fracture characterization and network modeling in the subsurface, through applications to the fractured reservoir at Teapot Dome, Wyoming (USA). Specifically, flexure measures the third-order variation of the geometry of a seismic reflector and is dependent on the measuring direction in 3D space; among all possible directions, flexure is considered most useful when extracted perpendicular to the orientation of dominant deformation; and flexure offers new insights into qualitative/quantitative fracture characterization, with its magnitude indicating the intensity of faulting and fracturing, its azimuth defining the orientation of most-likely fracture trends, and its sign differentiating the sense of displacement of faults and fractures.

3. Detection of ancient morphology and potential hydrocarbon traps using 3-D seismic data and attribute analysis

SciTech Connect

Heggland, R.

1995-12-31

This paper presents the use of seismic attributes on 3D data to reveal Tertiary and Cretaceous geological features in Norwegian block 9/2. Some of the features would hardly be possible to map using only 2D seismic data. The method which involves a precise interpretation of horizons, attribute analysis and manipulation of colour displays, may be useful when studying morphology, faults and hydrocarbon traps. The interval of interest in this study was from 0 to 1.5 s TWT. Horizontal displays (timeslices and attribute maps), seemed to highlight very nicely geological features such as shallow channels, fractures, karst topography and faults. The attributes used for mapping these features were amplitude, total reflection energy (a volume or time interval attribute), dip and azimuth. The choice of colour scale and manipulation of colour displays were also critical for the results. The data examples clearly demonstrate how it is possible to achieve a very detailed mapping of geological features using 3D seismic data and attribute analysis. The results of this study were useful for the understanding of hydrocarbon migration paths and hydrocarbon traps.

4. Time-lapse analysis of sparse 3D seismic data from the CO2 storage pilot site at Ketzin, Germany

Ivandic, M.; Yang, C.; Lüth, S.; Cosma, C.; Juhlin, C.

2012-04-01

Capture and geological storage of CO2 is considered to be a feasible method for reducing carbon emissions. In April 2004, a research pilot project in the German town of Ketzin started as the first onshore CO2 storage project in Europe. Injection started in June 2008 and until the latest repeat survey in February 2011 around 45 kilotons of CO2 had been injected into a saline aquifer at approximately 630-650 m depth. Different seismic methods, such as time-lapse Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP), Crosswell, Moving Source Profiling (MSP) and surface seismics have been employed to detect and monitor changes in the reservoir. We present here time-lapse results from sparse 3D seismic surveying with a "star" geometry, i.e. with a radial distribution of acquisition profiles directed towards the approximate location of the injection well, which were acquired to link downhole surveys with full 3D surface seismic surveys. The main objectives of the sparse 3D surveys were (1) to identify changes in the seismic response related to the injection of CO2 between the repeat surveys and baseline survey and (2) to compare these results with those from the repeat 3D seismic survey. The results are consistent with the 3D seismic time-lapse studies over the injection site and show that the sparse 3D geometry can be used to qualitatively map the migration of the CO2 plume within the saline reservoir, as well as potential migration out of the reservoir rock at a significantly lower effort than the full 3D surveying. The latest repeat survey indicates preferential migration of the CO2 to the west. Both sparse 3D repeat surveys show that the CO2 is being confined within the aquifer, implying that there is no leakage into the caprock at the time of the repeat surveys. The same observation was obtained from the 3D dataset.

5. Pennsylvanian Subsurface Sequence Stratigraphy Based on 3D Seismic and Wireline Data in Western Osage County, Oklahoma

West, Alexander

The Pennsylvanian System in the Mid-Continent United States has been studied for nearly a century. In north central Oklahoma, the Pennsylvanian is primarily composed of cyclothems. These cyclothems are sequences of alternating carbonate, clastic, and shale members. Because of this, these zones can be difficult to differentiate. This project provides valuable insight into better understanding the Pennsylvanian System in western Osage County, Oklahoma. The scope of this project is to perform a subsurface study to produce a detailed interpretation of the depositional history and stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian sequences in western Osage County. This study features 3D seismic and well log investigations that will be used together for local and regional subsurface interpretations. The seismic surveys used in the project are the Wild Creek and Gray Horse 3D surveys in western Osage County. The well logs, digital and raster, provide respectable well control for western Osage County. Together, interpretations from the seismic data and well logs will be used to provide a better understanding of the subsurface stratigraphy and depositional history of Pennsylvanian sequences in western Osage County, Oklahoma.

6. 3-D Seismic Exploration Project, Ute Indian Tribe, Uintah and Ouray Reservation, Uintah County, Utah

SciTech Connect

Eckels, Marc T.

2002-09-09

The objectives of this North Hill Creek 3-D seismic survey were to: (1) cover as large an area as possible with available budget; (2) obtain high quality data throughout the depth range of the prospective geologic formations of 2,000' to 12,000' to image both gross structures and more subtle structural and stratigraphic elements; (3) overcome the challenges posed by a hard, reflective sandstone that cropped out or was buried just a few feet below the surface under most of the survey area; and (4) run a safe survey.

7. Complex patterns of faulting revealed by 3D seismic data at the West Galicia rifted margin

Reston, Timothy; Cresswell, Derren; Sawyer, Dale; Ranero, Cesar; Shillington, Donna; Morgan, Julia; Lymer, Gael

2015-04-01

The west Galicia margin is characterised by crust thinning to less than 3 km, well-defined fault blocks, which overlie a bright reflection (the S reflector) generally interpreted as a tectonic Moho. The margin exhibits neither voluminous magmatism nor thick sediment piles to obscure the structures and the amount of extension. As such is represents an ideal location to study the process of continental breakup both through seismic imaging and potentially through drilling. Prestack depth migration of existing 2D profiles has strongly supported the interpretation of the S reflector as both a detachment and as the crust-mantle boundary; wide-angle seismic has also shown that the mantle beneath S is serpentinised. Despite the quality of the existing 2D seismic images, a number of competing models have been advanced to explain the formation of this margin, including sequential faulting, polyphase faulting, multiple detachments and the gravitational collapse of the margin over exhumed mantle. As these models, all developed for the Galicia margin, have been subsequently applied to other margins, distinguishing between them has implications not only for the structure of the Galicia margin but for the process of rifting through to breakup more generally. To address these issues in summer of 2013 we collected a 3D combined seismic reflection and wide-angle dataset over this margin. Here we present some of the results of ongoing processing of the 3D volume, focussing on the internal structure of some of the fault blocks that overlies the S detachment. 2D processing of the data shows a relatively simple series of tilted fault block, bound by west-dipping faults that detach downwards onto the bright S reflector. However, inspection of the 3D volume produced by 3D pre-stack time migration reveals that the fault blocks contain a complex set of sedimentary packages, with strata tilted to the east, west, north and south, each package bound by faults. Furthermore, the top of crustal

8. 3D seismic attribute-assisted analysis of microseismic events in the Marcellus Shale

Hart, Ariel Kelton

Microseismic monitoring is often used during the process of oil and gas exploitation to monitor seismicity that may be triggered by hydraulic fracturing, a common practice in the Appalachian Basin. Anthropogenically-induced minor upward fracture growth is not uncommon in the Marcellus shale; however, in the area of study, significant microseismic activity was registered above the target zone. In order to ascertain whether out-of-zone growth might have been predictable and identify which areas are more likely to experience brittle failure first, 3D seismic and microseismic data were analyzed with a focus on better understanding variations in the acoustic properties associated with unconventional naturally fractured reservoirs. Ant Tracking was used to identify areas of increased local seismic discontinuity, as these areas are generally more intensely deformed and may represent zones of increased fracture intensity. Ant Tracking results reveal discontinuities in the Marcellus are oriented approximately at N52E and N41W; discontinuities do not coincide with N25E trending folds apparent in the 3D seismic, but tend to follow deeper structural trends instead. These discontinuity orientations are interpreted to be a result of continued movement on deeper faults throughout the Paleozoic; these faults possibly acted as seed points for fractures further upsection and potentially led to the precipitation of the large N25E trending imbricate backthrusts seen in the 3D seismic. The reservoir's response to hydraulic fracturing also provided insights into local stress anisotropy and into optimal well and stage spacing needed to maximize drainage area and locate additional wells during the field development phase. Microseismic, well, and pump data used to gauge the reservoir's response to a hydraulic fracture treatment indicated that the number of stages, lateral length, total proppant volume, and fracture energy heavily influence how a well produces. SHmax in the area is oriented

9. 3D insight into fault geometries, deformation, and fluid-migration within the Hosgri Fault Zone offshore central California: Results from high-resolution 3D seismic data

Kluesner, J.; Brothers, D. S.; Johnson, S. Y.; Watt, J. T.

2015-12-01

High-resolution 3D seismic P-Cable data and advanced seismic attribute analyses were used to detect and interpret complex strike-slip fault geometries, deformation patterns, and fluid-pathways across a portion of the Hosgri Fault Zone (HFZ) offshore central California. Combination of the fault attribute results with structural analysis provides 3D insight into the geometry and internal structure of restraining and releasing bends, step-over zones, fault convergence zones, and apparent paired fault bends. The 3D seismic volume covers a 13.7 km2 region along the HFZ offshore of Point Sal and was collected in 2012 as part of the PG&E Central California Seismic Imaging Project (PG&E, 2014). Application of the fault attribute workflow isolated and delineated fault strands within the 3D volume. These results revealed that the northern and southern edges of the survey region are characterized by single fault strands that exhibit an approximate 6° change in strike across the 3D volume. Between these single faults strands is a complex network of fault splays, bends, stepovers, and convergence zones. Structural analysis reveals that the southern portion of the HFZ in the region is characterized by transtensional deformation, whereas transpressional-related folding dominates the central and northern portions of the HFZ. In the central region, convergence of the Lions Head Fault from the southeast results in an apparent impinging block, leading to development of a "paired fault bend" to the west. Combination of the fault and "chimney" attribute results indicates a strong connection between faults and fluid-migration pathways. Fluid-pathways are concentrated along discrete faults in the transtensional zones, but appear to be more broadly distributed amongst fault bounded anticlines and structurally controlled traps in the transpressional zones.

10. High-resolution 3D seismic model of the crustal and uppermost mantle structure in Poland

Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin; Ostaficzuk, Stanisław R.

2016-01-01

In the area of Poland a contact between the Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe and the Carpathians has a complicated structure and a complex P-wave velocity of the sedimentary cover, crystalline crust, Moho depth and the uppermost mantle. The geometry of the uppermost several kilometers of sediments is relatively well recognized from over 100,000 boreholes. The vertical seismic profiling (VSP) from 1188 boreholes provided detailed velocity data for regional tectonic units and for stratigraphic successions from Permian to the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits. These data, however, do not provide information about the velocity and basement depth in the central part of the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and in the Carpathians. So, the data set is supplemented by 2D velocity models from 32 deep seismic sounding refraction profiles which also provide information about the crust and uppermost mantle. Together with the results of other methods: vertical seismic profiling, magnetotelluric, allow for the creation of a detailed, high-resolution 3D model for the entire Earth's crust and the uppermost mantle down to a depth of 60 km. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclise is only 0.3 to 1 km thick, which increases to 7 to 8 km along the East European Craton (EEC) margin, and 9 to 12 km in the TESZ. The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1-4 km thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sedimentary layers, up to about 20 km. The crystalline crust is differentiated and has a layered structure. The crust beneath the West European Platform (WEP; Variscan domain) is characterized by P-wave velocities of 5.8-6.6 km/s. The upper and middle crusts beneath the EEC are characterized by velocities of 6.1-6.6 km/s, and are underlain by a high velocity lower crust with a velocity of about 7 km/s. A general decrease in velocity is observed from the older to the younger tectonic domains. The TESZ is associated with a steep dip

Kleuskens, M. H. P.; Oosthoek, J. H. P.

2009-04-01

12. New results from a 3D seismic academic dataset across the west Galicia margin

Lymer, Gaël; Cresswell, Derren; Reston, Tim; Stevenson, Carl; Sawyer, Dale

2016-04-01

The west Galicia margin (western Spain) is a magma-poor margin and has limited sedimentary cover, providing ideal conditions to study the processes of continental extension and break-up through seismic imaging. The margin is characterised by hyper-extended continental crust, well defined rotated faults blocks with associated syn-kinematic sedimentary wedges, and exhumed serpentinized continental mantle. Faulted blocks overlie a bright reflection, the S reflector, generally interpreted as both a detachment and the crust-mantle boundary. But open questions remain concerning the role of the S detachment in extension leading to breakup. To study further the S reflection and its role in continental breakup, a new 3D high-resolution multi-channel seismic dataset has been acquired over the Galicia margin during summer 2013. It consists in 800 inlines and 5000 crosslines distributed on a ~680 km2 areal. This 3D dataset is thus the largest academic one of its kind. It extends across the edge of the continental crust and captures the 3D nature of extension and break-up of the northern Atlantic continental margins. Here we present some results from our interpretations of the 3D volume, which allow various horizons, including the base of the post-rift sedimentary cover, the top basement and the S reflector, to be mapped out in 3D. These maps provide 3D views of the margin structure and also reveal the texture of each horizon. We also focus on the internal structure of some of the faulted blocks through interpretation of the crustal normal faults. The main normal faults are generally connected downward on the S reflector, revealing strong interactions between crustal thinning and the S. The half-grabens and the fault blocks are dominantly N-S oriented, but the crustal structures vary both along strike and cross strike. We particularly observe an intriguingly NW-SE trend, highlighted by a pronounced low within the crest of the fault blocks. We also observe this trend from

13. Preliminary investigations on 3D PIC simulation of DPHC structure using NEPTUNE3D code

Zhao, Hailong; Dong, Ye; Zhou, Haijing; Zou, Wenkang; Wang, Qiang

2016-10-01

Cubic region (34cm × 34cm × 18cm) including the double post-hole convolute (DPHC) structure was chosen to perform a series of fully 3D PIC simulations using NEPTUNE3D codes, massive data ( 200GB) could be acquired and solved in less than 5 hours. Cold-chamber tests were performed during which only cathode electron emission was considered without temperature rise or ion emission, current loss efficiency was estimated by comparisons between output magnetic field profiles with or without electron emission. PIC simulation results showed three stages of current transforming process with election emission in DPHC structure, the maximum ( 20%) current loss was 437kA at 15ns, while only 0.46% 0.48% was lost when driving current reached its peak. DPHC structure proved valuable functions during energy transform process in PTS facility, and NEPTUNE3D provided tools to explore this sophisticated physics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant No. 11571293, 11505172.

14. Micromagnetic investigation of low-symmetry 3D particles

Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.

2017-02-01

Investigating the anisotropies of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial for further development of magnetic data storage media, MRAM, magnetic logical circuits, or magnetic quantum cellular automata. Former theoretical and experimental examinations have revealed the possibility to gain highly symmetric nanoparticles with increased numbers of magnetic states per storage element. In a recent project, we have investigated low-symmetry T-shaped 2D and 3D particles from iron using the micromagnetic simulation software MAGPAR which is based on solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation of motion for a mesh built from tetrahedral finite elements. To examine the influence of the reduced symmetry, simulations were performed on the 3D double-T particle with the field applied in different directions in the x-y base plane, ranging from 0 to 180° in 5° steps. Additionally, the external magnetic field was rotated laterally under different angles with respect to the x-y plane, i.e. 5°, 22.5°, and 45°. Similar simulations were executed for the 2D single-T particle. Our results show the strong impact of the shape anisotropy and the respective possibility to tailor magnetic anisotropies according to the desired behaviour by modifying the nanoparticles’ form.

15. Effect of Damping and Yielding on the Seismic Response of 3D Steel Buildings with PMRF

PubMed Central

Haldar, Achintya; Rodelo-López, Ramon Eduardo; Bojórquez, Eden

2014-01-01

The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases. The results show the limitations of the commonly used static equivalent lateral force procedure where local and global response parameters are reduced in the same proportion. It is concluded that estimating the effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of steel buildings by using simplified models may be a very crude approximation. Moreover, the effect of yielding should be explicitly calculated by using complex 3D MDOF models instead of estimating it in terms of equivalent viscous damping. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions. PMID:25097892

16. Effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of 3D steel buildings with PMRF.

PubMed

Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Haldar, Achintya; Rodelo-López, Ramon Eduardo; Bojórquez, Eden

2014-01-01

The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases. The results show the limitations of the commonly used static equivalent lateral force procedure where local and global response parameters are reduced in the same proportion. It is concluded that estimating the effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of steel buildings by using simplified models may be a very crude approximation. Moreover, the effect of yielding should be explicitly calculated by using complex 3D MDOF models instead of estimating it in terms of equivalent viscous damping. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions.

17. 3D geometry of the strain-field at transform plate boundaries: Implications for seismic rupture

SciTech Connect

Bodin, P.; Bilham, R. |

1994-11-01

We examine the amplitude and distribution of slip on vertical frictionless faults in the zone of concentrated shear strain that is characteristic of transform plate boundaries. We study both a 2D and a 3D approximation to this strain field. Mean displacements on ruptures within the zone of concentrated shear strain are proportional to the shear strain at failure when they are short, and are limited by plate displacements since the last major earthquake when they are long. The transition between these two behaviors occurs when the length of the dislocation approaches twice the thickness of the seismogenic crust, approximately the breadth of the zone of concentrated shear strain observed geodetically at transform plate boundaries. This result explains the observed non-linear scaling relation between seismic moment and rupture length. A geometrical consequence of the 3D model, in which the strain-field tapers downward, is that moderate earthquakes with rupture lengths similar to the thickness of the crust tend to slip more at depth than near the surface. Seismic moments estimated from surface slip in moderate earthquakes (M less than or equal to 7) will thus be underestimated. Shallow creep, if its along-strike dimension is extensive, can reduce a surface slip deficit that would otherwise develop on faults on which M less than 7 events are typical. In the absence of surface creep or other forms of off-fault deformation great earthquakes may be necessary features of transform boundaries with downward-tapering strain-fields.

18. New insights into the earliest Quaternary environments in the Central North Sea from 3D seismic

Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

2014-05-01

In the past the transition between an unconformable surface in the south to a conformable horizon towards the north has made identification and mapping the base-Quaternary in the central North Sea difficult (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). However recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) has allowed greater confidence in the correlation to the region 3D seismic datasets and thus has allowed the base-Quaternary to be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT with an elongate basin shape which is significantly deeper than the traditionally mapped surface. Using RMS amplitudes and other seismic attributes the revised base-Quaternary has been investigated along the horizon and in time slice to interpret the environments of the earliest Quaternary prior to the onset of glaciation. Combined with analysis of aligned elongate furrows over 10 km long, 100 m wide and 100 m deep suggest a deep marine environment in an almost enclosed basin with persistent strong NW-SE bottom currents in the deepest parts. Pockmarks were formed by the escape of shallow gas on the sides of a small delta in the eastern part of the basin. The progradation of large deltas from both the north and south into the basin make up the majority of the deposition of sediment into the basin. Key Words: base-Quaternary; seismic interpretation; paleoenvironments References: Gatliff, R.W, Richards, P.C, Smith, K, Graham, C.C, McCormac, M, Smith, N.J.P, Long, D, Cameron, T.D.J, Evans, D, Stevenson, A.G, Bulat, J, Ritchie, J.D, (1994) 'United Kingdom offshore regional

19. Hydrocarbon Seeps Formations: a Study Using 3-D Seismic Attributes in Combination with Satellite Data

Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.; Shedd, W.

2011-12-01

Analyzing the magnitude of oil discharges from natural hydrocarbon seeps is important in improving our understanding of carbon contribution as oil migrates from deeper sediments to the water column, and then eventually to the atmosphere. Liquid hydrocarbon seepage in the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is associated with deep cutting faults, associated with vertical salt movement, that provide conduits for the upward migration of oil and gas. Seeps transform surface geology and generate prominent geophysical targets that can be identified on 3-D seismic data as seafloor amplitude anomalies maps that correlate with the underlying deep fault systems. Using 3D seismic data, detailed mapping of the northern GOM has identified more than 21,000 geophysical anomalies across the basin. In addition to seismic data, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have proven to be a reliable tool for localizing natural seepage of oil. We used a Texture Classifier Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) to process more than 1200 SAR images collected over the GOM. We quantified more than 900 individual seep formations distributed along the continental shelf and in deep water. Comparison of the geophysical anomalies with the SAR oil slick targets shows good general agreement between the distributions of the two indicators. However, there are far fewer active oil slicks than geophysical anomalies, most of which are probably associated with gas seepage. By examining several sites where the location of active venting can be determined by submersibles observations, we found that the active oily vents are often spatially offset from the most intense geophysical targets (i.e. GC600, GC767, GC204, etc). In addition to the displacement of the oil by deep sea currents, we propose that during the 100K years of activity, the location of the vents on the seafloor probably migrate as carbonate cementation reduces the permeability of the upper sediment. Many of the geophysical targets may represent

20. 3D absolute hypocentral determination - 13 years of seismicity in Ecuadorian subduction zone

Font, Yvonne; Segovia, Monica; Theunissen, Thomas

2010-05-01

In Ecuador, the Nazca plate is subducting beneath the North Andean Block. This subduction triggered, during the last century, 4 major earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.7. Between 1994 and 2007, the Geophysical Institute (Escuela National Politecnica, Quito) recorded about 40 000 events in whole Ecuador ranging from Mb 1.5 to 6.9. Unfortunately, the local network shows great density discrepancy between the Coastal and Andean regions where numerous stations were installed to survey volcanic activity. Consequently, seismicity in and around the interplate seismogenic zone - producer of the most destructive earthquakes and tsunamis - is not well constrained. This study aims to improve the location of 13 years seismicity occurred during an interseismic period in order to better localize the seismic deformation and gaps. The first step consists in the construction of a 3D "georealistic" velocity model. Because local tomography cannot provide satisfactory model, we combined all local crustal/lithospheric information on the geometry and velocity properties of different geological units. Those information cover the oceanic Nazca plate and sedimentary coverture the subducting plate dip angle; the North Andean Block margin composed of accreted oceanic plateaus (the Moho depth is approximated using gravity modeling); the metamorphic volcanic chain (oceanic nature for the occidental cordillera and inter-andean valley, continental one for the oriental cordillera); The continental Guyana shield and sedimentary basins. The resulting 3D velocity model extends from 2°N to 6.5°S and 277°E to 283°E and reaches a depth of 300 km. It is discretized in constant velocity blocks of 12 x 12 x 3 km in x, y and z, respectively. The second step consists in selecting an adequate sub-set of seismic stations in order to correct the effect of station density disequilibrium between coastal and volcanic regions. Consequently, we only keep the most representative volcanic stations in terms

1. Testing & Validating: 3D Seismic Travel Time Tomography (Detailed Shallow Subsurface Imaging)

Marti, David; Marzan, Ignacio; Alvarez-Marron, Joaquina; Carbonell, Ramon

2016-04-01

A detailed full 3 dimensional P wave seismic velocity model was constrained by a high-resolution seismic tomography experiment. A regular and dense grid of shots and receivers was use to image a 500x500x200 m volume of the shallow subsurface. 10 GEODE's resulting in a 240 channels recording system and a 250 kg weight drop were used for the acquisition. The recording geometry consisted in 10x20m geophone grid spacing, and a 20x20 m stagered source spacing. A total of 1200 receivers and 676 source points. The study area is located within the Iberian Meseta, in Villar de Cañas (Cuenca, Spain). The lithological/geological target consisted in a Neogen sedimentary sequence formed from bottom to top by a transition from gyspum to silstones. The main objectives consisted in resolving the underground structure: contacts/discontinuities; constrain the 3D geometry of the lithology (possible cavities, faults/fractures). These targets were achieved by mapping the 3D distribution of the physical properties (P-wave velocity). The regularly space dense acquisition grid forced to acquire the survey in different stages and with a variety of weather conditions. Therefore, a careful quality control was required. More than a half million first arrivals were inverted to provide a 3D Vp velocity model that reached depths of 120 m in the areas with the highest ray coverage. An extended borehole campaign, that included borehole geophysical measurements in some wells provided unique tight constraints on the lithology an a validation scheme for the tomographic results. The final image reveals a laterally variable structure consisting of four different lithological units. In this methodological validation test travel-time tomography features a high capacity of imaging in detail the lithological contrasts for complex structures located at very shallow depths.

2. Analysis of Paleokarst Sinkholes in the Arkoma Basin using 3-D Seismic

Kumbalek, Michael

Paleokarst features are important to understand, both with regards to research geologists and to the petroleum industry. In terms of geology, understanding paleokarst features can yield more information about the depositional and surface environments of past times, and how diagenetic alteration affected the environment during the formation of karst features. In the petroleum industry, paleokarst features can have positive or negative consequence resulting in a potential reservoir with enhanced porosity due to the paleokarst features, or as a geo-hazard to prepare for or avoid when drilling. Inspired by issues faced when drilling in the Ft. Worth basin, this study utilizes multiple 3-D seismic surveys and subsurface well control to map paleokarsts within the Viola Limestone in the Arkoma Basin. Calculated seismic attribute volumes used to identify paleokarst sinkholes within the Viola Group include coherency and curvature attributes. ImageJ software was used to aid in counting and measuring paleokarst sinkholes identified using seismic mapping, coherency, and curvature attribute volumes. In addition to mapping, a cumulative distribution plot was produced from the diameters of the seismically mapped paleokarst sinkholes, allowing for an estimate to be made as to what the total amount of paleokarst sinkholes are within the study area. The methods detailed in this study proved to be effective in mapping and analyzing paleokarst sinkholes within the Viola Group. The paleokarst sinkholes mapped were determined to have been formed on the outer edge of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen, as a result of the Sylvan/Viola unconformity. In addition to this, it has been determined that these paleokarst sinkholes are linked in formation to visually similar paleokarst sinkholes located in the Ellenburger Group in the Fort Worth Basin.

3. Seismic shaking scenarios in realistic 3D crustal model of Northern Italy

Molinari, I.; Morelli, A.; Basini, P.; Berbellini, A.

2013-12-01

Simulation of seismic wave propagation in realistic crustal structures is a fundamental tool to evaluate earthquake-generated ground shaking and assess seismic hazard. Current-generation numerical codes, and modern HPC infrastructures, allow for realistic simulations in complex 3D geologic structures. We apply such methodology to the Po Plain in Northern Italy -- a region with relatively rare earthquakes but having large property and industrial exposure, as it became clear during the two M~6 events of May 20-29, 2012. Historical seismicity is well known in this region, with maximum magnitudes estimates reaching M~7, and wave field amplitudes may be significantly amplified by the presence of the very thick sedimentary basin. Our goal is to produce estimates of expected ground shaking in Northern Italy through detailed deterministic simulations of ground motion due to expected earthquakes. We defined a three-dimensional model of the earth's crust using geo-statistical tools to merge the abundant information existing in the form of borehole data and seismic reflection profiles that had been shot in the '70s and the '80s for hydrocarbon exploration. Such information, that has been used by geologists to infer the deep structural setup, had never been merged to build a 3D model to be used for seismological simulations. We implement the model in SPECFEM3D_Cartesian and a hexahedral mesh with elements of ~2km, that allows us to simulate waves with minimum period of ~2 seconds. The model has then been optimized through comparison between simulated and recorded seismograms for the ~20 moderate-magnitude events (Mw > 4.5) that have been instrumentally recorded in the last 15 years. Realistic simulations in the frequency band of most common engineering relevance -- say, ~1 Hz -- at such a large scale would require an extremely detailed structural model, currently not available, and prohibitive computational resources. However, an interest is growing in longer period ground

4. Real time 3D scanner: investigations and results

Nouri, Taoufik; Pflug, Leopold

1993-12-01

This article presents a concept of reconstruction of 3-D objects using non-invasive and touch loss techniques. The principle of this method is to display parallel interference optical fringes on an object and then to record the object under two angles of view. According to an appropriated treatment one reconstructs the 3-D object even when the object has no symmetrical plan. The 3-D surface data is available immediately in digital form for computer- visualization and for analysis software tools. The optical set-up for recording the 3-D object, the 3-D data extraction and treatment, as well as the reconstruction of the 3-D object are reported and commented on. This application is dedicated for reconstructive/cosmetic surgery, CAD, animation and research purposes.

5. 3D time-lapse seismic traveltime tomography for detecting near surface velocity variations: a case study from the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site

Zhang, Fengjiao; Juhlin, Christopher; Huang, Fei; Lüth, Stefan

2016-04-01

Time-lapse seismic methods are an important tool for monitoring CO2 migration and storage in geological formations. Near surface variations are one of the major problems which may introduce time-lapse noise in the application of land based seismic monitoring. Conventional reflection seismic methods have difficulties in imaging near surface structures (10-30 m depth) due to the limitation of the methods themselves. Traveltime tomography is a commonly used method to reconstruct the subsurface velocity model. It can often provide extra information on near surface structures which is difficult to obtain by the conventional reflection seismic method. In this study, we apply traveltime tomography to 3D time-lapse seismic data sets acquired from at the Ketzin CO2 storage site. We also test different inversion strategies for traveltime tomography to investigate which one is more suitable for this case study. The results show good correlation with near surface variations obtained by other studies.

6. On the spatial distribution of seismicity and the 3D tectonic stress field in western Greece

Kassaras, Ioannis; Kapetanidis, Vasilis; Karakonstantis, Andreas

2016-10-01

We analyzed a large number of focal mechanisms and relocated earthquake hypocenters to investigate the geodynamics of western Greece, the most seismically active part of the Aegean plate-boundary zone. This region was seismically activated multiple times during the last decade, providing a large amount of enhanced quality new information that was obtained by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN). Relocated seismicity using a double-difference method appears to be concentrated above ∼35 km depth, exhibiting spatial continuity along the convergence boundary and being clustered elsewhere. Earthquakes are confined within the accreted sediments escarpment of the down-going African plate against the un-deformed Eurasian hinterland. The data arrangement shows that Pindos constitutes a seismic boundary along which large stress heterogeneities occur. In Cephalonia no seismicity is found to be related with the offshore Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF). Onshore, Nsbnd S crustal extension dominates, while in central and south Peloponnesus the stress field appears rotated by 90°. Shearing-stress obliquity by 30° is indicated along the major strike-slip faults, consistent with clockwise crustal rotation. Within the lower crust, the stress field appears affected by plate kinematics and distributed deformation of the lower crust and upper mantle, which guide the regional geodynamics.

7. Refining seismic parameters in low seismicity areas by 3D trenching: The Alhama de Murcia fault, SE Iberia

Ferrater, Marta; Ortuño, Maria; Masana, Eulàlia; Pallàs, Raimon; Perea, Hector; Baize, Stephane; García-Meléndez, Eduardo; Martínez-Díaz, José J.; Echeverria, Anna; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Sharp, Warren D.; Medialdea, Alicia; Rhodes, Edward J.

2016-06-01

Three-dimensional paleoseismology in strike-slip faults with slip rates less than 1 mm per year involves a great methodological challenge. We adapted 3D trenching to track buried channels offset by the Alhama de Murcia seismogenic left-lateral strike-slip fault (SE Iberia). A fault net slip of 0.9 ± 0.1 mm/yr was determined using statistical analysis of piercing lines for one buried channel, whose age is constrained between 15.2 ± 1.1 ka and 21.9-22.3 cal BP. This value is larger and more accurate than the previously published slip rates for this fault. The minimum number of five paleo-earthquakes identified since the deposition of dated layers suggests a maximum average recurrence interval of approximately 5 ka. The combination of both seismic parameters yields a maximum slip per event between 5.3 and 6.3 m. We show that accurately planned trenching strategies and data processing may be key to obtaining robust paleoseismic parameters in low seismicity areas.

8. Vectorial seismic modeling for 3D objects by the classical solution

Ávila-Carrera, R.; Sánchez-Sesma, F. J.; Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.; Ortiz-Alemán, C.

2010-09-01

The analytic benchmark solution for the scattering and diffraction of elastic P- and S-waves by a single spherical obstacle is presented in a condensed format. Our aim is divulge to the scientific community this not widely known classical solution to construct a direct seismic model for 3D objects. Some of the benchmark papers are frequently plagued by misprints and none offers results on the transient response. The treatment of the vectorial case appears to be insipient in the literature. The classical solution is a superposition of incident and diffracted fields. Plane P- or S-waves are assumed. They are expressed as expansions of spherical wave functions which are tested against exact results. The diffracted field by the obstacle is calculated from the analytical enforcing of boundary conditions at the scatterer-matrix interface. The spherical obstacle is a cavity, an elastic inclusion or a fluid-filled body. A complete set of wave functions is used in terms of Bessel and Hankel radial functions. Legendre and trigonometric functions are used for the angular coordinates. In order to provide information to calibrate and approximate the seismic modeling for real objects, results are shown in time and frequency domains. Diffracted displacements amplitudes versus normalized frequency and radiation patterns for various scatterer-matrix properties are reported. To study propagation features that may be useful to geophysicists and engineers, synthetic seismograms for some relevant cases are computed.

9. 3D Euler deconvolution in the New Madrid seismic zone (eastern US)

Arroucau, P.; Vlahovic, G.; Powell, C. A.

2011-12-01

The seismicity of intraplate continental interiors is one of the most challenging -though a bit overlooked- research topics in seismology. The most famous of those is undoubtedly the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ), named after the city of New Madrid, Missouri, that was destroyed by one of the three M>7.0 earthquakes that occurred in central United States during the winter 1811-1812. After two centuries, there is still no consensus about what caused that crisis, how it is related to the current moderate magnitude activity of that region, and how likely it is that similarly large events will occur again in a near future in the NMSZ or in its vicinity. As often in such geodynamic settings, a key question is the role of structural reactivation in the current stress field. As modern earthquakes of the NMSZ mostly occur in the Precambrian basement, below the Mississippi embayment sedimentary cover and at such depths that no deformation is observed at the surface, almost no direct observation is available about faults segments that would be responsible for that seismicity. Yet the activity of the NMSZ is known to coincide with a Precambrian failed rift, the Reelfoot rift, whose geometry is mostly inferred from potential field data. In this work, we apply 3D Euler deconvolution to the total magnetic intensity field of the NMSZ. Euler deconvolution is a technique commonly used in exploration geophysics to determine the depth of magnetic sources and more generally to produce depth-to-basement maps and image deep structures buried beneath non-magnetic sedimentary cover. We obtain basement topography maps that we compare with previously published maps and with the earthquake distribution in the NMSZ.

10. Surface amplitude data: 3D-seismic for interpretation of sea floor geology (Louisiana Slope)

SciTech Connect

Roberts, H.H.

1996-09-01

Proliferation of 3D-seismic in support of hydrocarbon exploration/production has created new data for improved interpretation of sea floor and shallow subsurface geology. Processing of digital seismic data to enhance amplitude anomalies produces information for improved assessment of geohazards and identification of sensitive benthic communities protected by environmental regulations. Coupled with high resolution acoustic data and direct observation/sampling using a manned research submersible, surface amplitude maps add critical interpretive information for identification of sea floor features. Non-reflective zones (acoustic wipeouts) are associated with many slope features. Mud diapirs, mud mounds, mud volcanoes, gas-changed sediments, gas hydrates, slump deposits, carbonate hardgrounds, and various types of carbonate mounds are all features that exhibit this common response on high resolution seismic profiles. Amplitude data help make specific identifications. Since 1988, submersible data from mid-to-upper slope features (Garden Banks, Green Canyon, and Mississippi Canyon lease block areas) have been analyzed with conventional high resolution acoustic data and 313-amplitude extraction maps. Areas of rapid venting of sediment and hydrocarbon-charged formation fluids are clearly distinguishable from mud diapirs and areas of carbonate mounds (slow seepage). Gas hydrates occur as mounds and mounded zones along faults; products of moderate flux rates below (approx.) 500 in water depths. Gas hydrates function as stored trophic resources that support sensitive chemosynthetic communities. Amplitude extraction maps clearly identify these features by a strong low impedance amplitude anomaly. Refinement and {open_quotes}field calibration{close_quotes} of the surface amplitude extraction method may eventually lead to a new standard for evaluating geohazards and sensitive benthic communities.

11. Modeling the Coast Mountains Batholith, British Columbia, Canada with 3D Seismic Tomography

Quinonez, S. M.; Olaya, J. C.; Miller, K. C.; Romero, R.; Velasco, A. A.; Harder, S. H.; Cerda, I.

2011-12-01

The Coast Mountains Batholith on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada comprises a series of granitic to tonalitic plutons; where felsic continental crust is generated from the subduction of mafic oceanic crust by partial melting and fractionation, leaving ultra-mafic roots. In July of 2009, a large controlled-source experiment was conducted along a 400km east - west transect from Bella Bella into central British Columbia. Student volunteers from multiple universities deployed 1,800 one-component and 200 three-component geophones plus 2400 Texan data recorders with 200-m spacing intervals and shot spacing at 30-km. The 18-point sources ranged from 160 to 1,000 kg of high explosive. The geoscience component of the NSF-funded Cyber-ShARE project at UTEP focuses on fusing models developed from different data sets to develop 3-D Earth models. Created in 2007, the Cyber-ShARE Center brings together experts in computer science, computational mathematics, education, earth science, and environmental science. We leverage the Cyber-ShARE work to implement an enhanced 3-D finite difference tomography approach for P-wave delays times (Hole, 1992) with a graphical user interface and visualization framework. In particular, to account for model sensitivity to picked P-wave arrival times, we use a model fusion approach (Ochoa et al., 2010) to generate a model with the lowest RMS residual that a combination of a set of Monte Carlo sample models. In order to make the seismic tomography process more interactive at many points, visualizations of model perturbation at each iteration will help to troubleshoot when a model is not converging to highlight where the RMS residual values are the highest to pinpoint where changes need to be made to achieve model convergence. Finally, a model of the upper mantle using 3-D P-wave tomography will be made to determine the location of these ultra-mafic roots.

12. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

SciTech Connect

Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

2005-08-21

Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

13. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

SciTech Connect

Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

2005-09-30

Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

14. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

SciTech Connect

Bjorn N.P Paulsson

2006-05-05

Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

15. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

SciTech Connect

Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

2004-05-01

Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

16. New 3D seismicity maps using chromo-stereoscopy with two alternative freewares

Okamoto, Y.

2011-12-01

Seismicity maps play a key role in an introduction of geosciences studies or outreach programs. Various techniques are used in order to show earthquakes in a three dimensional field. To use "chromo-stereoscopy" is our simple and easier-making solution. The Chroma Depth 3D Glasses are employed for this purpose. The glasses consist of two transparent blazed grating films covered with a paper holder and cost a little (1 US\$). Looking through these glasses, the colored chart turns into three dimensional perspective due to the mechanism that the color codes make a depth dimension with dispersion. We use two complementary freewares to make maps, the GMT (Generic Mapping Tools, Wessel and Smith.1988) and the POV-Ray (Persistence of Vision Pty. Ltd. 2004). The two softwares have their own advantages; the GMT is specialized for map making with simple scripts, while the POV-Ray produces realistic 3D rendering images with more complicated scripts. The earthquakes are plotted with the rainbow color codes depending on their depths in a black background as printed or PC images. Therefore, the red colored shallow earthquakes are float in front and blue colored ones sink deeper. This effect is so amazing that the students who first wear these glasses are strongly moved and fascinated with this simple mechanism. The data used here are from JMA seismicity catalogue and USGS (ANSS) catalogue. The POV-Ray version needs coastline data, so we got them from the Coastline Extractor (NGDC) web site. Also, the POR-Ray has no function to draw lines in three dimensions, so we had to make some trials for showing them in relief. The main target of our map is "the Wadati-Beniof zone", in which the sub-ducting oceanic plate surface is fringed by deeper earthquakes colored yellow, green to blue. The active volcanic regions such as the Hawaii islands or the active fault regions such as the San Andreas Fault are also effective targets of our method. However, since their shallow complicated seismic

17. Refining the 3D seismic velocity and attenuation models for Katmai National Park, Alaska

Murphy, R. A.; Thurber, C. H.; Prejean, S. G.

2009-12-01

We invert data from approximately 4,000 local earthquakes occurring between September 2004 and August 2009 to determine the 3D P-wave velocity and P-wave attenuation structures in the Katmai volcanic region. Arrival information and waveforms for the study come from the Alaska Volcano Observatory’s permanent network of 20 seismometers in the area, which are predominantly single-component, short period instruments. The absolute and relative arrival times are used in a double-difference seismic tomography inversion to solve for an improved velocity model for the main volcanic centers. We use the resulting 3D velocity model to relocate all catalog earthquakes in Katmai between January 1996 and August 2009. Inversions for the quality factor Q are completed using a spectral decay approach to determine source parameters, t*, and site response with a nonlinear inversion. Using the final 3D velocity model to define the ray paths, t* values are then inverted to determine frequency-independent Q models. The final models developed through these inversions reveal a low velocity and low Q zone from the surface to ~7 km depth centered on the volcanic axis and extending ~25 km between Martin and Katmai volcanoes. The relocated hypocenters provide insight into the geometry of seismogenic structures in the area, revealing clustering of events into four distinct zones associated with Martin, Mageik, Trident, and Katmai. While the Martin, Mageik, and Katmai clusters are all at 3-4 km depth, the Trident cluster is slightly deeper at 4-6 km. Many new features are apparent within these clusters, including a strand of earthquakes trending NE-SW between the main Martin and Mageik clusters. Smaller linear features are also visible in the Katmai cluster along with a small migrating swarm which occurred NW of the Katmai caldera during mid-2006. Data from an array of 11 three-component broadband instruments currently deployed in the area between Mageik volcano and Katmai caldera will be

18. Interpretation of a 3D Seismic-Reflection Volume in the Basin and Range, Hawthorne, Nevada

Louie, J. N.; Kell, A. M.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Oldow, J. S.; Sabin, A.; Lazaro, M.

2009-12-01

A collaborative effort by the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at the University of Nevada, Reno, and Optim Inc. of Reno has interpreted a 3d seismic data set recorded by the U.S. Navy Geothermal Programs Office (GPO) at the Hawthorne Army Depot, Nevada. The 3d survey incorporated about 20 NNW-striking lines covering an area of approximately 3 by 10 km. The survey covered an alluvial area below the eastern flank of the Wassuk Range. In the reflection volume the most prominent events are interpreted to be the base of Quaternary alluvium, the Quaternary Wassuk Range-front normal fault zone, and sequences of intercalated Tertiary volcanic flows and sediments. Such a data set is rare in the Basin and Range. Our interpretation reveals structural and stratigraphic details that form a basis for rapid development of the geothermal-energy resources underlying the Depot. We interpret a map of the time-elevation of the Wassuk Range fault and its associated splays and basin-ward step faults. The range-front fault is the deepest, and its isochron map provides essentially a map of "economic basement" under the prospect area. There are three faults that are the most readily picked through vertical sections. The fault reflections show an uncertainty in the time-depth that we can interpret for them of 50 to 200 ms, due to the over-migrated appearance of the processing contractor’s prestack time-migrated data set. Proper assessment of velocities for mitigating the migration artifacts through prestack depth migration is not possible from this data set alone, as the offsets are not long enough for sufficiently deep velocity tomography. The three faults we interpreted appear as gradients in potential-field maps. In addition, the southern boundary of a major Tertiary graben may be seen within the volume as the northward termination of the strong reflections from older Tertiary volcanics. Using a transparent volume view across the survey gives a view of the volcanics in full

19. Constructing a 3D structural block diagram of the Central Basin in Marmara Sea by means of bathymetric and seismic data

Demirbağ, Emin; Kurt, Hülya; Düşünür, Doğa; Sarıkavak, Kerim; Çetin, Suna

2007-12-01

In this study we made a comparative interpretation of multibeam bathymetric and seismic reflection data with different resolutions and penetration properties collected in the Central Basin of the Marmara Sea. Our main objectives were (i) to investigate and compare the active tectonic deformation observed on the sea bottom and within the uppermost sedimentary layers to that of the deep-seated deformation within the limits of resolution and penetration of the available geophysical data and (ii) to build a three-dimensional (3D) block diagram of the active tectonic and buried features by means of a sliced mapping technique. In this approach, we produced slice maps of the active and buried structural features at selected depths and then combined them to form a 3D structural block diagram. Motivation for our work was to produce a 3D structural diagram to derive a more detailed image of the structural features in the Central Basin where there is no available 3D seismic data. The observations from the bathymetry and seismic data and developed 3D diagram support the presence of a through-going strike-slip fault that forms a rotational depression zone against a right-stepping strike-slip faulting causing a pull-apart basin in the Central Depression zone.

20. The 3D crustal structure of Northeastern Tibetan area from seismic tomography

Sun, Anhui

2015-04-01

The Northeastern Tibetan region is located in the border area of three sub-plates in China, i.e. the Tibetan plateau, North China block and Xinjiang block. Effected simultaneously by the extrusion driven by the India-Eurasia plat collision and the blockage of the Ordos basin, this area has complex geology, strong tectonics activities and suffered from several large historic earthquakes, such as the Haiyuan earthquake (M8.6) in 1920, the Gulang earthquake (M8.0) in 1927. To enhance our understanding of the crustal structure and the interaction between different tectonic blocks of this region, we conduct a three-dimensional (3D) tomographic study by using the arrival time date recorded by regional seismic network. We used 101101 P and 103313 S wave arrival times from 11650 local earthquakes during 1970 to 2013 recorded by 154 permanent seismic stations of the local Seismic Network, installed over five provinces in China, i.e. Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shanxi, Neimenggu. We first established a 1D primary crustal model from LITHO1.0, an updated crust and lithospheric model of the Earth by weighted averaging. To better performer ray tracing, our inversion involved three discontinuities (including the Moho) with depth variation over the mantle derived from LITHO1.0. Detailed three-dimensional seismic velocity (Vp and Vs) structures of the crust of the Northeastern Tibetan are determined with a horizontal resolution of about 35 km and a depth resolution of 6-20 km. The Poisson's ratio (σ) structure was also estimated after obtained Vp and Vs structures. We detected low-velocity anomalies in the lower crust and relative high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the Longmenshan faults zone, which are in good agreement with the results of most previous geophysical studies. Our results revealed clear different velocity variation beneath both sides of different tectonic blocks. In addition, we found the correlation between our tomographic result and previous

1. 3D Discontinuous Galerkin elastic seismic wave modeling based upon a grid injection method

Monteiller, V.

2015-12-01

Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a seismic imaging method that estimates thesub-surface physical properties with a spatial resolution of the order of thewavelength. FWI is generally recast as the iterative optimization of anobjective function that measures the distance between modeled and recordeddata. In the framework of local descent methods, FWI requires to perform atleast two seismic modelings per source and per FWI iteration.Due to the resulting computational burden, applications of elastic FWI have been usuallyrestricted to 2D geometries. Despite the continuous growth of high-performancecomputing facilities, application of 3D elastic FWI to real-scale problemsremain computationally too expensive. To perform elastic seismic modeling with a reasonable amount of time, weconsider a reduced computational domain embedded in a larger background modelin which seismic sources are located. Our aim is to compute repeatedly thefull wavefield in the targeted domain after model alteration, once theincident wavefield has been computed once for all in the background model. Toachieve this goal, we use a grid injection method referred to as the Total-Field/Scattered-Field (TF/SF) technique in theelectromagnetic community. We implemented the Total-Field/Scattered-Field approach in theDiscontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DG-FEM) that is used to performmodeling in the local domain. We show how to interface the DG-FEM with any modeling engine (analytical solution, finite difference or finite elements methods) that is suitable for the background simulation. One advantage of the Total-Field/Scattered-Field approach is related to thefact that the scattered wavefield instead of the full wavefield enter thePMLs, hence making more efficient the absorption of the outgoing waves at theouter edges of the computational domain. The domain reduction in which theDG-FEM is applied allows us to use modest computational resources opening theway for high-resolution imaging by full

2. High-Resolution Seismic Images and 3-D Seismic Velocities of the San Andreas Fault Zone at Burro Flats, Southern California

Tsai, C.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M. R.

2003-12-01

The southern San Andreas fault (SAF) has produced large earthquakes in the past 1500 yrs. Burro Flats, a basin within the San Bernardino Mountains, is bounded on the southwest by the southern San Andreas fault. Burro Flats has been the site of paleoseismological investigations to determine the slip history of the fault. Additional paleoseismic studies at this location are needed to further resolve the structure and slip history of the SAF. In addition to the main trace of the SAF at Burro Flats, there are splay faults, suggesting a complex geometry for the fault. To better understand the structure of the SAF, we acquired a 3-D, combined seismic reflection/refraction profile centered on the main trace at Burro Flats. The seismic investigation included a 60 m by 70 m rectangular array. Sensors were spaced every 5 m; seismic sources, likewise with a spacing of 5 m, consisted of a combination of down-hole explosives and shallow (approximately 0.3 m) Betsy Seisgun shots. Data were recorded without acquisition filters for 5 s at a 0.5-ms sampling rate. To analyze the data for velocity structure, we used a tomographic inversion procedure to invert first-arrival refractions. Preliminary measurements from shot gathers show that near-surface velocities range between 700 m/s and 1500 m/s. We observe apparent travel-time delays of approximately 7 ms near the main surface trace of the SAF, suggesting that seismic imaging methods may be useful in identifying this and other fault traces. These results will be useful for paleoseismic investigations.

3. 3D Seismic and Magnetic characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, southeastern Oregon.

Hess, S.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Routh, P.; Liberty, L.; Donaldson, P.

2004-05-01

As part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems, we are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs. BLHS is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. The Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben in the Northern Great Basin bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We conducted a 2D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the basin, a high-resolution 3D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the BLHS, and a high-resolution 3D magnetic survey to characterize any lineaments in the bedrock that might control fluid flow in the BLHS. Previous results from the 2D seismic survey show a mid-basin basement high aligned approximately with the hot springs. In this study we present the results from the high-resolution 3D seismic and magnetic survey of the BLHS. We acquired the 3D seismic data using an SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The seismic survey covers approximately 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. The coincidental magnetic survey was collected using a Geometrics 858G cesium vapor magnetometer. We designed both surveys to span nearly 100 active hydrothermal springs, including an approximately 50 m stepover in the trend of the surface expression of the hot springs. After preliminary processing, the 3D seismic data show continuous reflections up to 300 ms (~ 480 m). The initial interpretation of features seen in the 3D data cube include: normal faults dipping to the east and west, near-surface disturbances that are consistent with the trend of the hot springs, and significant near surface velocity anomalies

4. 3D P-wave velocity structure of the deep Galicia rifted margin: A first analysis of the Galicia 3D wide-angle seismic dataset

Bayrakci, Gaye; Minshull, Timothy A.; Davy, Richard G.; Karplus, Marianne S.; Kaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Krabbenhoeft, Anne; Sawyer, Dale; Reston, Timothy J.; Shillington, Donna J.; Ranero, César R.

2014-05-01

Galicia 3D, a reflection-refraction and long offset seismic experiment was carried out from May through September 2013, at the Galicia rifted margin (in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain) as a collaboration between US, UK, German and Spanish groups. The 3D multichannel seismic acquisition conducted by R/V Marcus Langseth covered a 64 km by 20 km (1280 km2) zone where the main geological features are the Peridotite Ridge (PR), composed of serpentinized peridotite and thought be upper mantle exhumed to the seafloor during rifting, and the S reflector which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault overlain by fault bounded, rotated, continental crustal blocks. In the 3D box, two airgun arrays of 3300 cu.in. were fired alternately (in flip-flop configuration) every 37.5 m. All shots are recorded by 44 short period four component ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and 26 ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) deployed and recovered by R/V Poseidon, as well as four 6 km hydrophone streamers with 12.5 m channel spacing towed by R/V Marcus Langseth. We present the preliminary results of the first arrival time tomography study which is carried out with a subset of the wide-angle dataset, in order to generate a 3D P-wave velocity volume for the entire depth sampled by the reflection data. After the relocation of OBSs and OBHs, an automatic first-arrival time picking approach is applied to a subset of the dataset, which comprises more than 5.5 million source-receiver pairs. Then, the first-arrival times are checked visually, in 3-dimensions. The a priori model used for the first-arrival time tomography is built up using information from previous seismic surveys carried out at the Galicia margin (e.g. ISE, 1997). The FAST algorithm of Zelt and Barton (1998) is used for the first-arrival time inversion. The 3D P-wave velocity volume can be used in interpreting the reflection dataset, as a starting point for migration, to quantify the thinning of the crustal layers

5. 3D-seismic observations of Late Pleistocene glacial dynamics on the central West Greenland margin

Hofmann, Julia; Knutz, Paul; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.

2016-04-01

Fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers exert a major control on glacial discharge from contemporary and palaeo ice sheets. Improving our understanding of the extent and dynamic behaviour of these palaeo-ice streams is therefore crucial for predictions of the response of ice sheets to present and future climate warming and the associated implications for global sea level. This poster presents results from two 3D-seismic surveys located on the shelf adjoining the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan (TMF), one of the largest glacial outlet systems in Greenland. Located at the seaward terminus of the c. 370 km long cross-shelf Disko Trough, the Disko Bay TMF was generated by highly efficient subglacial sediment delivery onto the continental slopes during repeated ice-stream advances. A variety of submarine glacial landform assemblages are recognised on the seabed reflecting past ice-stream activity presumably related to glacial-interglacial cycles. The 3D-seismic volumes cover the shallow banks located north and south of the Disko Trough. The focus of this study is the seabed and the uppermost stratigraphic interval associated with the Late Stage of TMF development, presumably covering the late Pleistocene (Hofmann et al., submitted). Seabed morphologies include multiple sets of ridges up to 20 m high that extend in NW-SE direction for c. 30 km, and cross-cutting curvilinear furrows with maximum lengths of c. 9 km and average depths of c. 4.5 m. Back-stepping, arcuate scarps facing NW define the shelf break on the northern survey, comprising average widths of c. 4.5 km and incision depths of c. 27.5 m. The large transverse ridge features on the southern survey are likely ice-marginal and are interpreted as terminal moraine ridges recording the existence of a shelf-edge terminating, grounded Late Weichselian ice sheet. The furrows, most prominent on the outer shelf adjoining the shallow banks and partly incising the moraine ridges, are interpreted as iceberg ploughmarks

6. Mount Etna: 3-D and 4-D structure using seismic tomography

Nunn, C.; Julian, B. R.; Foulger, G. R.; Patanè, D.; Ibáñez, J. M.; Briole, P.; Mhanna, N.

2015-12-01

We investigate the time-varying structure of Etna, an active stratovolcano in eastern Sicily, using seismic tomography. In volcanic systems, it is thought that the presence of fluids, cracks and pressurized gases can rapidly and drastically change the elastic properties of the host rocks. Recent work suggests that changes beneath Etna are detectable with seismic methods, and that these changes can be linked to volcanic activity. Temporal changes to Earth structure are commonly investigated by carrying out separate tomographic inversions for different epochs. However, repeated inversions of the same area are expected to vary, even if the structure itself does not change. This is due to variations in the seismic ray distribution and to observational errors. Potentially, changes between epochs which are due to experimental limitations can be misinterpreted as changes to the structure of the volcano. Consequently, we use a new tomographic program, TOMO4D, that inverts multiple data sets simultaneously [Julian & Foulger, Time-dependent seismic tomography, GJI, 2010]. This code imposes constraints which minimise the differences calculated between two epochs. The remaining structural variations are thus truly required to fit the data, and reflect changes which almost certainly exist between the two epochs. We have selected and relocated ~400 local earthquakes with at least 5 P and 5 S observations. They cover a period which includes several eruptions, from 1st November 2000 to 31st December 2006. We divide our data into different epochs and invert two epochs simultaneously. The models show a seismically fast central region, surrounded by a slower outer region. This suggests a central system of dykes or sills surrounded by volcanic sediments and country rock. At depths of 0-4 km below sea level the seismically fast region is not below the summit crater but is offset to the southwest. By monitoring the changes to the elastic parameters of the host rocks we observe temporal

7. Comparative velocity structure of active Hawaiian volcanoes from 3-D onshore-offshore seismic tomography

USGS Publications Warehouse

Park, J.; Morgan, J.K.; Zelt, C.A.; Okubo, P.G.; Peters, L.; Benesh, N.

2007-01-01

We present a 3-D P-wave velocity model of the combined subaerial and submarine portions of the southeastern part of the Island of Hawaii, based on first-arrival seismic tomography of marine airgun shots recorded by the onland seismic network. Our model shows that high-velocity materials (6.5-7.0??km/s) lie beneath Kilauea's summit, Koae fault zone, and the upper Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) and upper and middle East Rift Zone (ERZ), indicative of magma cumulates within the volcanic edifice. A separate high-velocity body of 6.5-6.9??km/s within Kilauea's lower ERZ and upper Puna Ridge suggests a distinct body of magma cumulates, possibly connected to the summit magma cumulates at depth. The two cumulate bodies within Kilauea's ERZ may have undergone separate ductile flow seaward, influencing the submarine morphology of Kilauea's south flank. Low velocities (5.0-6.3??km/s) seaward of Kilauea's Hilina fault zone, and along Mauna Loa's seaward facing Kao'iki fault zone, are attributed to thick piles of volcaniclastic sediments deposited on the submarine flanks. Loihi seamount shows high-velocity anomalies beneath the summit and along the rift zones, similar to the interpreted magma cumulates below Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, and a low-velocity anomaly beneath the oceanic crust, probably indicative of melt within the upper mantle. Around Kilauea's submarine flank, a high-velocity anomaly beneath the outer bench suggests the presence of an ancient seamount that may obstruct outward spreading of the flank. Mauna Loa's southeast flank is also marked by a large, anomalously high-velocity feature (7.0-7.4??km/s), interpreted to define an inactive, buried volcanic rift zone, which might provide a new explanation for the westward migration of Mauna Loa's current SWRZ and the growth of Kilauea's SWRZ. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

8. Evolution of Submarine Gullies on a Prograding Slope: Insights from 3D Seismic Reflection Data

Shumaker, L.; Jobe, Z. R.

2014-12-01

Submarine gullies are common features on continental slopes on both passive and active margins, but the processes dictating gully formation and the role of gullies in deep-water sediment transport are topics of debate. The geometries of gullies can provide clues to understanding the processes by which they initiate and grow, particularly when considered in the context of surrounding submarine geomorphology. Further confidence in these interpretations can be gained by tracking the temporal history of gullies with evolution of the continental margin. The 500 km2 Tui 3D seismic survey from the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, shows continental slope gullies and other channel features in a ~1 km-thick package of prograding shelf-slope clinoforms that developed over Pliocene-Pleistocene time. This dataset allows for documentation of gullies over ~3 Ma, through numerous cycles of initiation and burial. For this study, we manually interpreted clinoform packages to generate 'paleo-seafloor' surfaces that provide context such as position of the shelf edge, slope gradient and azimuth, and relative progradation and aggradation magnitudes. Gully geometries were obtained from detailed seismic interpretation guided by semblance and RMS amplitude imaging on these surfaces. Gullies are low sinuosity, with widths ranging from ~50-150 m and depths from a few tens to <100 m. Gullies are observed to grow in width and relief downslope without evidence for aggradational confinement (levees), and in some cases form gully 'complexes' hundreds of m wide in the lower slope region. These complexes are present through >150 m of stratigraphy, indicating that they are long-lived features on the slope. This further indicates that the frequency of flows along the gullies was enough to maintain their topographic expression during slope progradation and aggradation, and suggests that gullies play an integral role in transport processes on the slope.

9. High-resolution 3-D S-wave Tomography of upper crust structures in Yilan Plain from Ambient Seismic Noise

Chen, Kai-Xun; Chen, Po-Fei; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Chen, Li-Wei; Gung, YuanCheng

2015-04-01

The Yilan Plain (YP) in NE Taiwan locates on the western YP of the Okinawa Trough and displays high geothermal gradients with abundant hot springs, likely resulting from magmatism associated with the back-arc spreading as attested by the offshore volcanic island (Kueishantao). YP features NS distinctive characteristics that the South YP exhibits thin top sedimentary layer, high on-land seismicity and significant SE movements, relative those of the northern counterpart. A dense network (~2.5 km station interval) of 89 Texan instruments was deployed in Aug. 2014, covering most of the YP and its vicinity. The ray path coverage density of each 0.015 degree cells are greater than 150 km that could provide the robustness assessment of tomographic results. We analyze ambient noise signals to invert a high-resolution 3D S-wave model for shallow velocity structures in and around YP. The aim is to investigate the velocity anomalies corresponding to geothermal resources and the NS geological distinctions aforementioned. We apply the Welch's method to generate empirical Rayleigh wave Green's functions between two stations records of continuous vertical components. The group velocities of thus derived functions are then obtained by the multiple-filter analysis technique measured at the frequency range between 0.25 and 1 Hz. Finally, we implement a wavelet-based multi-scale parameterization technique to construct 3D model of S-wave velocity. Our first month results exhibit low velocity in the plain, corresponding existing sediments, those of whole YP show low velocity offshore YP and those of high-resolution south YP reveal stark velocity contrast across the Sanshin fault. Key words: ambient seismic noises, Welch's method, S-wave, Yilan Plain

10. 3-D seismic evidence of the effects of carbonate karst collapse on overlying clastic stratigraphy and reservoir compartmentalization

SciTech Connect

Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Simmons, J.L. Jr.; Jons, R.A.; Lancaster, D.E.; Elphick, R.Y.; Pendleton, V.M.

1996-09-01

A multidisciplinary team, composed of stratigraphers, petrophysicists, reservoir engineers, and geophysicists, studied a portion of Boonsville gas field in the Fort Worth Basin of north-central Texas to determine how modern techniques can be combined to understand the mechanisms by which fluvio-deltaic depositional processes create reservoir compartmentalization in a low- to moderate-accommodation basin. An extensive database involving well logs, cores, production, and pressure data from more than 200 wells, 26 mi{sup 2} of 3-D seismic data, vertical seismic profiles, and checkshots was assembled to support this investigation. The authors found the most important geologic influence on stratigraphy and reservoir compartmentalization in this basin to be the existence of numerous karst collapse chimneys over the area covered. These near-vertical karst collapses originated in, or near, the deep Ordovician-age Ellenburger carbonate section and created vertical chimneys extending as high as 2,500 ft above their point of origin, causing significant disruptions in the overlying clastic strata.

11. 3D Seismic Reflection Data: Has the Geological Hubble Retained Its Focus?

Jackson, Christopher

2016-04-01

In their seminal paper in 2002, Joe Cartwright and Mads Huuse referred to 3D seismic reflection data as the 'Geological Hubble', illustrating how these data had the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the genesis and evolution of sedimentary basins. 14 years on, I will here outline just some of the key recent advances made in our understanding of basin structure and stratigraphy, focusing on: (i) the intrusion and extrusion of igneous rocks; (ii) salt tectonics, with particular emphasis on intrasalt structure and the kinematics and mechanics of diapirism; (iii) the geometry and growth of normal faults; and (iv) the structure and emplacement of mass-transport complexes (MTCs). I will stress that future advances at least partly relies on hydrocarbon exploration companies and government agencies continuing to make their data freely available via easy-to-access data portals. I will issue a clarion call to academics, stressing that 'geodynamicists', sedimentologists, structural geologists and geomorphologists, amongst others, can benefit from utilising what I believe are currently an underused data type.

12. Effect of 3-D viscoelastic structure on post-seismic relaxation from the 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pollitz, F.; Banerjee, P.; Grijalva, K.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.

2008-01-01

The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake profoundly altered the state of stress in a large volume surrounding the ???1400 km long rupture. Induced mantle flow fields and coupled surface deformation are sensitive to the 3-D rheology structure. To predict the post-seismic motions from this earthquake, relaxation of a 3-D spherical viscoelastic earth model is simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The quasi-static deformation basis set and solution on the 3-D model is constructed using: a spherically stratified viscoelastic earth model with a linear stress-strain relation; an aspherical perturbation in viscoelastic structure; a 'static'mode basis set consisting of Earth's spheroidal and toroidal free oscillations; a "viscoelastic" mode basis set; and interaction kernels that describe the coupling among viscoelastic and static modes. Application to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake illustrates the profound modification of the post-seismic flow field at depth by a slab structure and similarly large effects on the near-field post-seismic deformation field at Earth's surface. Comparison with post-seismic GPS observations illustrates the extent to which viscoelastic relaxation contributes to the regional post-seismic deformation. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

13. CO2 mass estimation visible in time-lapse 3D seismic data from a saline aquifer and uncertainties

Ivanova, A.; Lueth, S.; Bergmann, P.; Ivandic, M.

2014-12-01

At Ketzin (Germany) the first European onshore pilot scale project for geological storage of CO2 was initiated in 2004. This project is multidisciplinary and includes 3D time-lapse seismic monitoring. A 3D pre-injection seismic survey was acquired in 2005. Then CO2 injection into a sandstone saline aquifer started at a depth of 650 m in 2008. A 1st 3D seismic repeat survey was acquired in 2009 after 22 kilotons had been injected. The imaged CO2 signature was concentrated around the injection well (200-300 m). A 2nd 3D seismic repeat survey was acquired in 2012 after 61 kilotons had been injected. The imaged CO2 signature further extended (100-200 m). The injection was terminated in 2013. Totally 67 kilotons of CO2 were injected. Time-lapse seismic processing, petrophysical data and geophysical logging on CO2 saturation have allowed for an estimate of the amount of CO2 visible in the seismic data. This estimate is dependent upon a choice of a number of parameters and contains a number of uncertainties. The main uncertainties are following. The constant reservoir porosity and CO2 density used for the estimation are probably an over-simplification since the reservoir is quite heterogeneous. May be velocity dispersion is present in the Ketzin reservoir rocks, but we do not consider it to be large enough that it could affect the mass of CO2 in our estimation. There are only a small number of direct petrophysical observations, providing a weak statistical basis for the determination of seismic velocities based on CO2 saturation and we have assumed that the petrophysical experiments were carried out on samples that are representative for the average properties of the whole reservoir. Finally, the most of the time delay values in the both 3D seismic repeat surveys within the amplitude anomaly are near the noise level of 1-2 ms, however a change of 1 ms in the time delay affects significantly the mass estimate, thus the choice of the time-delay cutoff is crucial. In spite

14. A probabilistic approach to jointly integrate 3D/4D seismic, production data and geological information for building reservoir models

Castro, Scarlet A.

Reservoir modeling aims at understanding static and dynamic components of the reservoir in order to make decisions about future surface operations. The practice of reservoir modeling calls for the integration of expertise from different disciplines, as well as the in tegration of a wide variety of data: geological data, (core data, well-logs, etc.), production data (fluid rates or volumes, pressure data, etc.), and geophysical data (3D seismic data). Although a single 3D seismic survey is the most common geophysical data available for most reservoirs, a suite of several 3D seismic surveys (4D seismic data) acquired for monitoring production can be available for mature reservoirs. The main contribution of this dissertation is to incorporate 4D seismic data within the reservoir modeling workflow while honoring all other available data. This dissertation proposes two general approaches to include 4D seismic data into the reservoir modeling workflow. The Probabilistic Data Integration approach (PDI), which consists of modeling the information content of 4D seismic through a spatial probability of facies occurrence; and the Forward Modeling (FM) approach, which consists of matching 4D seismic along with production data. The FM approach requires forward modeling the 4D seismic response, which requires to downscale the flow simulation response. This dissertation introduces a novel dynamic downscaling method that takes into account both static information (high-resolution per meability field) and dynamic information in the form of coarsened fluxes and saturations (flow simulation on the coarsened grid). The two proposed approaches (PDI and FM approaches) are applied to a prominent field in the North Sea, to model the channel facies of a fluvial reservoir. The PDI approach constrained the reservoir model to the spatial probability of facies occurrence (obtained from a calibration between well-log and 4D seismic data) as well as other static data while satisfactorily history

15. Investigation Into the Accuracy of 3D Surface Roughness Characteristics

Kumermanis, M.; Rudzitis, J.; Mozga, N.; Ancans, A.; Grislis, A.

2014-04-01

The existing standards for surface roughness cover only two dimensions, while in reality this is three-dimensional (3D). In particular, the 3D surface roughness parameters are important for solving the contact surface mechanics problems as related to the accuracy of 3D surface roughness characteristics. One of the most important factors for determination of 3D characteristics is the number of data points (NDP) on the x- and y-axes (i.e. in cut-off length). The NDP has a profound effect on the accuracy of measurement results, measuring time and volume of the output data (especially along the y-axis, where the NDP is identical to the number of parallel profiles). At a too small NDP the results will be incorrect and with too broad scatter, while a too large NDP - though not enlarging the range of basic information - considerably increases the measuring time. Therefore, the aim of the work was to find the optimal NDP for such surface processing methods as grinding, spark erosion and shot methods of surface treatment. Eksistējošie virsmas raupjuma standarti apskata virsmas raupjumu tikai divās dimensijās. Tomēr reālais virsmas raupjums pēc savas dabas ir trīsdimensiju (3D) objekts. Līdz ar to virsmas raupjums ir jāraksturo ar 3D parametriem. Un no šo parametru noteikšanas precizitātes ir atkarīgi tālākie virsmas aprēķini, piemēram, virsmu kontaktēšanās process. Viens no svarīgākajiem faktoriem, raksturojot virsmas raupjumu 3D, pielietojot kontakta tipa mēriekārtas, ir datu punktu skaits pa abām mērīšanas asīm x un y. Ar datu punktu skaitu mēs saprotam to skaitu mērīšanas bāzes garumā. Datu punktu skaits būtiski ietekmē sagaidāmo mērījumu rezultātu precizitāti, mērīšanai nepieciešamo laiku un izejas datu faila izmērus (sevišķi y-ass virzienā, kur katrs datu punkts ir paralēls profils). Datu punktu skaitam ir jābūt optimālam. Pārāk mazs punktu skaits noved pie neprecīziem rezultātiem un lielas to izkliedes, savuk

16. Using 3D Glyph Visualization to Explore Real-time Seismic Data on Immersive and High-resolution Display Systems

Nayak, A. M.; Lindquist, K.; Kilb, D.; Newman, R.; Vernon, F.; Leigh, J.; Johnson, A.; Renambot, L.

2003-12-01

The study of time-dependent, three-dimensional natural phenomena like earthquakes can be enhanced with innovative and pertinent 3D computer graphics. Here we display seismic data as 3D glyphs (graphics primitives or symbols with various geometric and color attributes), allowing us to visualize the measured, time-dependent, 3D wave field from an earthquake recorded by a certain seismic network. In addition to providing a powerful state-of-health diagnostic of the seismic network, the graphical result presents an intuitive understanding of the real-time wave field that is hard to achieve with traditional 2D visualization methods. We have named these 3D icons `seismoglyphs' to suggest visual objects built from three components of ground motion data (north-south, east-west, vertical) recorded by a seismic sensor. A seismoglyph changes color with time, spanning the spectrum, to indicate when the seismic amplitude is largest. The spatial extent of the glyph indicates the polarization of the wave field as it arrives at the recording station. We compose seismoglyphs using the real time ANZA broadband data (http://www.eqinfo.ucsd.edu) to understand the 3D behavior of a seismic wave field in Southern California. Fifteen seismoglyphs are drawn simultaneously with a 3D topography map of Southern California, as real time data is piped into the graphics software using the Antelope system. At each station location, the seismoglyph evolves with time and this graphical display allows a scientist to observe patterns and anomalies in the data. The display also provides visual clues to indicate wave arrivals and ~real-time earthquake detection. Future work will involve adding phase detections, network triggers and near real-time 2D surface shaking estimates. The visuals can be displayed in an immersive environment using the passive stereoscopic Geowall (http://www.geowall.org). The stereographic projection allows for a better understanding of attenuation due to distance and earth

17. Evaluation of Jumping and Creeping Regularization Approaches Applied to 3D Seismic Tomography

Liu, M.; Ramachandran, K.

2011-12-01

are evaluated on a synthetic 3-D true model obtained from a large scale experiment. The evaluation is performed for jumping and creeping approaches for various levels of smoothing constraints, and initial models. The final models are compared against the true models to compute residual distance between the models. Horizontal and vertical roughness in the final models are computed and compared with the true model roughness. Correlation between the true and final models is computed to evaluate the similarities of spatial patterns in the models. The study is also used to show that average 1-D models derived from the final models are very close, indicating that this will be an optimal approach to construct 1-D starting models.

18. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

SciTech Connect

Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

2006-09-30

Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400

19. Well log analysis to assist the interpretation of 3-D seismic data at Milne Point, north slope of Alaska

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lee, Myung W.

2005-01-01

In order to assess the resource potential of gas hydrate deposits in the North Slope of Alaska, 3-D seismic and well data at Milne Point were obtained from BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. The well-log analysis has three primary purposes: (1) Estimate gas hydrate or gas saturations from the well logs; (2) predict P-wave velocity where there is no measured P-wave velocity in order to generate synthetic seismograms; and (3) edit P-wave velocities where degraded borehole conditions, such as washouts, affected the P-wave measurement significantly. Edited/predicted P-wave velocities were needed to map the gas-hydrate-bearing horizons in the complexly faulted upper part of 3-D seismic volume. The estimated gas-hydrate/gas saturations from the well logs were used to relate to seismic attributes in order to map regional distribution of gas hydrate inside the 3-D seismic grid. The P-wave velocities were predicted using the modified Biot-Gassmann theory, herein referred to as BGTL, with gas-hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity logs, porosity, and clay volume content. The effect of gas on velocities was modeled using the classical Biot-Gassman theory (BGT) with parameters estimated from BGTL.

20. Seismic Hazard Maps for Seattle, Washington, Incorporating 3D Sedimentary Basin Effects, Nonlinear Site Response, and Rupture Directivity

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frankel, Arthur D.; Stephenson, William J.; Carver, David L.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Rhea, Susan

2007-01-01

This report presents probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Seattle, Washington, based on over 500 3D simulations of ground motions from scenario earthquakes. These maps include 3D sedimentary basin effects and rupture directivity. Nonlinear site response for soft-soil sites of fill and alluvium was also applied in the maps. The report describes the methodology for incorporating source and site dependent amplification factors into a probabilistic seismic hazard calculation. 3D simulations were conducted for the various earthquake sources that can affect Seattle: Seattle fault zone, Cascadia subduction zone, South Whidbey Island fault, and background shallow and deep earthquakes. The maps presented in this document used essentially the same set of faults and distributed-earthquake sources as in the 2002 national seismic hazard maps. The 3D velocity model utilized in the simulations was validated by modeling the amplitudes and waveforms of observed seismograms from five earthquakes in the region, including the 2001 M6.8 Nisqually earthquake. The probabilistic seismic hazard maps presented here depict 1 Hz response spectral accelerations with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years. The maps are based on determinations of seismic hazard for 7236 sites with a spacing of 280 m. The maps show that the most hazardous locations for this frequency band (around 1 Hz) are soft-soil sites (fill and alluvium) within the Seattle basin and along the inferred trace of the frontal fault of the Seattle fault zone. The next highest hazard is typically found for soft-soil sites in the Duwamish Valley south of the Seattle basin. In general, stiff-soil sites in the Seattle basin exhibit higher hazard than stiff-soil sites outside the basin. Sites with shallow bedrock outside the Seattle basin have the lowest estimated hazard for this frequency band.

1. SHEAR WAVE SEISMIC STUDY COMPARING 9C3D SV AND SH IMAGES WITH 3C3D C-WAVE IMAGES

SciTech Connect

John Beecherl; Bob A. Hardage

2004-07-01

The objective of this study was to compare the relative merits of shear-wave (S-wave) seismic data acquired with nine-component (9-C) technology and with three-component (3-C) technology. The original proposal was written as if the investigation would be restricted to a single 9-C seismic survey in southwest Kansas (the Ashland survey), on the basis of the assumption that both 9-C and 3-C S-wave images could be created from that one data set. The Ashland survey was designed as a 9-C seismic program. We found that although the acquisition geometry was adequate for 9-C data analysis, the source-receiver geometry did not allow 3-C data to be extracted on an equitable and competitive basis with 9-C data. To do a fair assessment of the relative value of 9-C and 3-C seismic S-wave data, we expanded the study beyond the Ashland survey and included multicomponent seismic data from surveys done in a variety of basins. These additional data were made available through the Bureau of Economic Geology, our research subcontractor. Bureau scientists have added theoretical analyses to this report that provide valuable insights into several key distinctions between 9-C and 3-C seismic data. These theoretical considerations about distinctions between 3-C and 9-C S-wave data are presented first, followed by a discussion of differences between processing 9-C common-midpoint data and 3-C common-conversion-point data. Examples of 9-C and 3-C data are illustrated and discussed in the last part of the report. The key findings of this study are that each S-wave mode (SH-SH, SV-SV, or PSV) involves a different subsurface illumination pattern and a different reflectivity behavior and that each mode senses a different Earth fabric along its propagation path because of the unique orientation of its particle-displacement vector. As a result of the distinct orientation of each mode's particle-displacement vector, one mode may react to a critical geologic condition in a more optimal way than do

2. TOMO3D: 3-D joint refraction and reflection traveltime tomography parallel code for active-source seismic data—synthetic test

Meléndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallarès, V.; Miniussi, A.; Ranero, C. R.

2015-10-01

We present a new 3-D traveltime tomography code (TOMO3D) for the modelling of active-source seismic data that uses the arrival times of both refracted and reflected seismic phases to derive the velocity distribution and the geometry of reflecting boundaries in the subsurface. This code is based on its popular 2-D version TOMO2D from which it inherited the methods to solve the forward and inverse problems. The traveltime calculations are done using a hybrid ray-tracing technique combining the graph and bending methods. The LSQR algorithm is used to perform the iterative regularized inversion to improve the initial velocity and depth models. In order to cope with an increased computational demand due to the incorporation of the third dimension, the forward problem solver, which takes most of the run time (˜90 per cent in the test presented here), has been parallelized with a combination of multi-processing and message passing interface standards. This parallelization distributes the ray-tracing and traveltime calculations among available computational resources. The code's performance is illustrated with a realistic synthetic example, including a checkerboard anomaly and two reflectors, which simulates the geometry of a subduction zone. The code is designed to invert for a single reflector at a time. A data-driven layer-stripping strategy is proposed for cases involving multiple reflectors, and it is tested for the successive inversion of the two reflectors. Layers are bound by consecutive reflectors, and an initial velocity model for each inversion step incorporates the results from previous steps. This strategy poses simpler inversion problems at each step, allowing the recovery of strong velocity discontinuities that would otherwise be smoothened.

3. Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution. Annual report, March 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

SciTech Connect

Parra, J.O.; Collier, H.A.; Owen, T.E.

1997-06-01

In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. They also may connect the borehole to remote zones of better reservoir characteristics. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based on the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. The project is a study directed toward the evaluation of acoustic logging and 3D-seismic measurement techniques as well as fluid flow and transport methods for mapping permeability anisotropy and other petrophysical parameters for the understanding of the reservoir fracture systems and associated fluid dynamics. The principal application of these measurement techniques and methods is to identify and investigate the propagation characteristics of acoustic and seismic waves in the Twin Creek hydrocarbon reservoir owned by Union Pacific Resources (UPR) and to characterize the fracture permeability distribution using production data. This site is located in the overthrust area of Utah and Wyoming. UPR drilled six horizontal wells, and presently UPR has two rigs running with many established drill hole locations. In addition, there are numerous vertical wells that exist in the area as well as 3D seismic surveys. Each horizontal well contains full FMS logs and MWD logs, gamma logs, etc.

4. Selectivity of seismic electric signal (SES) of the 2000 Izu earthquake swarm: a 3D FEM numerical simulation model.

PubMed

Huang, Qinghua; Lin, Yufeng

2010-01-01

Although seismic electric signal (SES) has been used for short-term prediction of earthquakes, selectivity of SES still remains as one of the mysterious features. As a case study, we made a numerical simulation based on a 3D finite element method (FEM) on the selectivity of SES observed in the case of the 2000 Izu earthquake swarm. Our numerical results indicated that the existence of conductive channel under Niijima island could explain the reported SES selectivity.

5. Characterization of gas hydrate distribution using conventional 3D seismic data in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wang, Xiujuan; Qiang, Jin; Collett, Timothy S.; Shi, Hesheng; Yang, Shengxiong; Yan, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanping; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Duanxin

2016-01-01

A new 3D seismic reflection data volume acquired in 2012 has allowed for the detailed mapping and characterization of gas hydrate distribution in the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the South China Sea. Previous studies of core and logging data showed that gas hydrate occurrence at high concentrations is controlled by the presence of relatively coarse-grained sediment and the upward migration of thermogenic gas from the deeper sediment section into the overlying gas hydrate stability zone (BGHSZ); however, the spatial distribution of the gas hydrate remains poorly defined. We used a constrained sparse spike inversion technique to generate acoustic-impedance images of the hydrate-bearing sedimentary section from the newly acquired 3D seismic data volume. High-amplitude reflections just above the bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) were interpreted to be associated with the accumulation of gas hydrate with elevated saturations. Enhanced seismic reflections below the BSRs were interpreted to indicate the presence of free gas. The base of the BGHSZ was established using the occurrence of BSRs. In areas absent of well-developed BSRs, the BGHSZ was calculated from a model using the inverted P-wave velocity and subsurface temperature data. Seismic attributes were also extracted along the BGHSZ that indicate variations reservoir properties and inferred hydrocarbon accumulations at each site. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the inversion of acoustic impedance of conventional 3D seismic data, along with well-log-derived rock-physics models were also used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Our analysis determined that the gas hydrate petroleum system varies significantly across the Pearl River Mouth Basin and that variability in sedimentary properties as a product of depositional processes and the upward migration of gas from deeper thermogenic sources control the distribution of gas hydrates in this basin.

6. Computer power fathoms the depths: billion-bit data processors illuminate the subsurface. [3-D Seismic techniques

SciTech Connect

Ross, J.J.

1985-01-01

Some of the same space-age signal technology being used to track events 200 miles above the earth is helping petroleum explorationists track down oil and natural gas two miles and more down into the earth. The breakthroughs, which have come in a technique called three-dimensional seismic work, could change the complexion of exploration for oil and natural gas. Thanks to this 3-D seismic approach, explorationists can make dynamic maps of sites miles beneath the surface. Then explorationists can throw these maps on space-age computer systems and manipulate them every which way - homing in sharply on salt domes, faults, sands and traps associated with oil and natural gas. ''The 3-D seismic scene has exploded within the last two years,'' says, Peiter Tackenberg, Marathon technical consultant who deals with both domestic and international exploration. The 3-D technique has been around for more than a decade, he notes, but recent achievements in space-age computer hardware and software have unlocked its full potential.

7. Seismic moment tensor inversion using 3D velocity model and its application to the 2013 Lushan earthquake sequence

Zhu, Lupei; Zhou, Xiaofeng

2016-10-01

Source inversion of small-magnitude events such as aftershocks or mine collapses requires use of relatively high frequency seismic waveforms which are strongly affected by small-scale heterogeneities in the crust. In this study, we developed a new inversion method called gCAP3D for determining general moment tensor of a seismic source using Green's functions of 3D models. It inherits the advantageous features of the "Cut-and-Paste" (CAP) method to break a full seismogram into the Pnl and surface-wave segments and to allow time shift between observed and predicted waveforms. It uses grid search for 5 source parameters (relative strengths of the isotropic and compensated-linear-vector-dipole components and the strike, dip, and rake of the double-couple component) that minimize the waveform misfit. The scalar moment is estimated using the ratio of L2 norms of the data and synthetics. Focal depth can also be determined by repeating the inversion at different depths. We applied gCAP3D to the 2013 Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake and its aftershocks using a 3D crustal-upper mantle velocity model derived from ambient noise tomography in the region. We first relocated the events using the double-difference method. We then used the finite-differences method and reciprocity principle to calculate Green's functions of the 3D model for 20 permanent broadband seismic stations within 200 km from the source region. We obtained moment tensors of the mainshock and 74 aftershocks ranging from Mw 5.2 to 3.4. The results show that the Lushan earthquake is a reverse faulting at a depth of 13-15 km on a plane dipping 40-47° to N46° W. Most of the aftershocks occurred off the main rupture plane and have similar focal mechanisms to the mainshock's, except in the proximity of the mainshock where the aftershocks' focal mechanisms display some variations.

8. An open-source Matlab code package for improved rank-reduction 3D seismic data denoising and reconstruction

Chen, Yangkang; Huang, Weilin; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Wei

2016-10-01

Simultaneous seismic data denoising and reconstruction is a currently popular research subject in modern reflection seismology. Traditional rank-reduction based 3D seismic data denoising and reconstruction algorithm will cause strong residual noise in the reconstructed data and thus affect the following processing and interpretation tasks. In this paper, we propose an improved rank-reduction method by modifying the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) formula used in the traditional method. The proposed approach can help us obtain nearly perfect reconstruction performance even in the case of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The proposed algorithm is tested via one synthetic and field data examples. Considering that seismic data interpolation and denoising source packages are seldom in the public domain, we also provide a program template for the rank-reduction based simultaneous denoising and reconstruction algorithm by providing an open-source Matlab package.

9. High-resolution 3-D P wave attenuation structure of the New Madrid Seismic Zone using local earthquake tomography

Bisrat, Shishay T.; DeShon, Heather R.; Pesicek, Jeremy; Thurber, Clifford

2014-01-01

A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution P wave seismic attenuation model for the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) is determined using P wave path attenuation (t*) values of small-magnitude earthquakes (MD < 3.9). Events were recorded at 89 broadband and short-period seismometers of the Cooperative New Madrid Seismic Zone Network and 40 short-period seismometers of the Portable Array for Numerical Data Acquisition experiment. The amplitude spectra of all the earthquakes are simultaneously inverted for source, path (t*), and site parameters. The t* values are inverted for QP using local earthquake tomography methods and a known 3-D P wave velocity model for the region. The four major seismicity arms of the NMSZ exhibit reduced QP (higher attenuation) than the surrounding crust. The highest attenuation anomalies coincide with areas of previously reported high swarm activity attributed to fluid-rich fractures along the southeast extension of the Reelfoot fault. The QP results are consistent with previous attenuation studies in the region, which showed that active fault zones and fractured crust in the NMSZ are highly attenuating.

10. Fluid Flow Processes Study: from a 3D seismic data set in the Pointer Ridge offshore SW Taiwan

Han, Wei-Chung; Liu, Char-Shine; Chen, Liwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lin, Che-Chuan

2016-04-01

This study analyzes a 3D seismic cube in the Pointer Ridge for understanding the fluid flow processes in subsurface. Pointer Ridge is a ridge situated on the passive China continental margin and is suggested as a potential prospect for future gas hydrate development. High methane flux rate, active gas venting and seismic chimneys have been observed in this area, which are direct evidences for active ongoing fluid migration processes. To find the possible fluid conduits and to understand how the fluids have migrated along those conduits, we firstly identify the structural and sedimentary features from this 3D seismic cube in our study area. Secondly, seismic attribute analyses are carried out for detecting fluid conduits and evaluating the contribution of recognized faults/fractures for fluid flow, respectively. Finally, we propose conceptual models to illustrate how fluids have migrated along those conduits to the seafloor and how those conduits have developed. The results show: 1) a major NE-SW striking normal fault (PR Fault) separates a depositional field on the hanging wall and a erosional field on the footwall; 2) the PR Fault zone itself and the chimneys in its footwall act as main conduits for focused fluid flow migrating to the seafloor; 3) the development of the chimneys in the Pointer Ridge area are highly controlled by the erosion and deposition processes. Since the ongoing fluid flow processes will increase the seafloor instabilities and the Pointer Ridge is a gas hydrate leaking site, our results could provide useful information for further risk evaluation.

11. Seismic body-wave interferometry using noise autocorrelations for crustal structure and a tutorial on 3D seismic processing and imaging using Madagascar

Olejnik, Peter

Seismic body-wave interferometry is applied to selected seismic stations from the USArray Earthscope Transportable Array (TA) by autocorrelating ambient seismic noise recordings to construct effective zero-offset reflection seismograms. The robustness of the auto-correlations of noise traces is first tested on a TA station in Nevada where body-wave reflections similar to those found in an earlier study are identified. This approach is then applied to several TA stations in the central U.S., and the results are compared with synthetic data. Different stacking time periods are then examined to find the shortest time intervals that provide stable correlation stacks. A tutorial on 3D seismic processing and imaging using the Madagascar open-source software package is next presented for educational purposes. The 3D Teapot Dome seismic data set is examined to illustrate the processing and imaging steps. A number of processing steps are applied to the data set, including amplitude gaining, muting, deconvolution, static corrections, velocity analysis, normal moveout (NMO) correction, and stacking. Post-stack time and depth migrations are then performed on the stacked data along with post-migration f-x deconvolution.

12. Joint inversion of 3-D seismic, gravimetric and magnetotelluric data for sub-basalt imaging in the Faroe-Shetland Basin

Heincke, B.; Moorkamp, M.; Jegen, M.; Hobbs, R. W.

2012-12-01

Imaging of sub-basalt sediments with reflection seismic techniques is limited due to absorption, scattering and transmission effects and the presence of peg-leg multiples. Although many of the difficulties facing conventional seismic profiles can be overcome by recording long offset data resolution of sub-basalt sediments in seismic sections is typically still largely restricted. Therefore multi-parametric approaches in general and joint inversion strategies in particular (e.g. Colombo et al., 2008, Jordan et al., 2012) are considered as alternative to gain additional information from sub-basalt structures. Here, we combine in a 3-D joint inversion first-arrival time tomography, FTG gravity and MT data to identify the base basalt and resolve potential sediments underneath. For sub-basalt exploration the three methods complement each other such that the null space is reduced and significantly better resolved models can be obtained than would be possible by the individual methods: The seismic data gives a robust model for the supra-basalt sediments whilst the gravity field is dominated by the high density basalt and basement features. The MT on the other hand is sensitive to the conductivity in both the supra- and sub-basalt sediments. We will present preliminary individual and joint inversion result for a FTG, seismic and MT data set located in the Faroe-Shetland basin. Because the investigated area is rather large (~75 x 40 km) and the individual data sets are relatively huge, we use a joint inversion framework (see Moorkamp et al., 2011) which is designed to handle large amount of data/model parameters. This program has moreover the options to link the individual parameter models either petrophysically using fixed parameter relationships or structurally using the cross-gradient approach. The seismic data set consists of a pattern of 8 intersecting wide-angle seismic profiles with maximum offsets of up to ~24 km. The 3-D gravity data set (size :~ 30 x 30 km) is

13. Next-generation seismic experiments - II: wide-angle, multi-azimuth, 3-D, full-waveform inversion of sparse field data

Morgan, Joanna; Warner, Michael; Arnoux, Gillean; Hooft, Emilie; Toomey, Douglas; VanderBeek, Brandon; Wilcock, William

2016-02-01

3-D full-waveform inversion (FWI) is an advanced seismic imaging technique that has been widely adopted by the oil and gas industry to obtain high-fidelity models of P-wave velocity that lead to improvements in migrated images of the reservoir. Most industrial applications of 3-D FWI model the acoustic wavefield, often account for the kinematic effect of anisotropy, and focus on matching the low-frequency component of the early arriving refractions that are most sensitive to P-wave velocity structure. Here, we have adopted the same approach in an application of 3-D acoustic, anisotropic FWI to an ocean-bottom-seismometer (OBS) field data set acquired across the Endeavour oceanic spreading centre in the northeastern Pacific. Starting models for P-wave velocity and anisotropy were obtained from traveltime tomography; during FWI, velocity is updated whereas anisotropy is kept fixed. We demonstrate that, for the Endeavour field data set, 3-D FWI is able to recover fine-scale velocity structure with a resolution that is 2-4 times better than conventional traveltime tomography. Quality assurance procedures have been employed to monitor each step of the workflow; these are time consuming but critical to the development of a successful inversion strategy. Finally, a suite of checkerboard tests has been performed which shows that the full potential resolution of FWI can be obtained if we acquire a 3-D survey with a slightly denser shot and receiver spacing than is usual for an academic experiment. We anticipate that this exciting development will encourage future seismic investigations of earth science targets that would benefit from the superior resolution offered by 3-D FWI.

14. Crustal density structure in northwestern South America derived from analysis and 3-D modeling of gravity and seismicity data

Sanchez-Rojas, J.; Palma, M.

2014-11-01

This paper presents a three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation of new gravity and seismicity datasets for northern South America. A 3-D forward density model was constructed on the basis of deep wide-angle seismic refraction sections, Moho depth from receiver functions, and surface geology. Density values were estimated from published borehole data for sediments by using empirical velocity-density functions and considering mineralogical-chemical composition variations under typical pressure-temperature conditions for upper and lower crustal rocks. The modeled 3-D density structure was kept as simple as possible. The continental and oceanic plates were formed by two sedimentary bodies, one crustal body, and one mantle lithosphere body overlying a sub-lithospheric mantle. The Caribbean plate was modeled with an atypical crustal thickness of ~ 18 km (including sediments). The geometry of the Caribbean plate was modeled using a combination of gravity modeling and analyses of the seismicity and focal-mechanism solutions. Intermediate seismicity and the orientation of the T-axes appeared aligned along the predicted position of the slab. As a result, the estimated slab dip angle under Maracaibo and the Mérida Andes was ~ 15° and increases up to ~ 20° after 100 km depth. The model shows two orientations in the slab strike: ~ N150°E ± 5 in western Colombia and southward underneath the Maracaibo block. The modeling results suggest that the northern South American upper and lower crusts are relatively light and the density of the Caribbean crust is typical for an oceanic crust.

15. Galicia3D seismic volume: Connections between the western termination of the S reflector and eastern termination of the Peridotite Ridge

Sawyer, Dale; Jordan, Brian; Morgan, Julia; Shillington, Donna; Reston, Timothy; Ranero, Cesar

2015-04-01

In June thru September, 2013, a 3D reflection and a long offset seismic experiment were conducted at the Galicia rifted margin by investigators from the US, UK, Germany, and Spain. The 3D multichannel experiment covered 64 km by 20 km (1280 km2), using the RV Marcus Langseth. Four streamers 6 km long were deployed at 12.5 m hydrophone channel spacing. The streamers were 200 m apart. Two airgun arrays, each 3300 cu in, were fired alternately every 37.5 m, to collectively yield a 400 m wide sail line consisting of 8 CMP lines at 50 m spacing. We draw attention to the region from the Peridotite Ridge, PR, (on the west) and the western terminus of the S reflector (on the east). The S reflector is generally thought to separate continental crust and pre- and syn-rift sediment above, and serpentinized upper mantle below. In 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, the S reflector is very bright, generally horizontal, and is terminated very abruptly at the western end. The latter is particularly clear in the 3D volume. It is about 10-15 km wide between the end of the S reflector and the midpoint of the PR. In this interval, there appear to be fault bounded blocks that may be either continental crust or pre- or syn-rift sediments. The PR is a virtually straight, N-S ridge, without apparent fault offsets. The crest of the PR is at about 4800 mbsl at the S extent and is at 6070 mbsl at the N extent of the 3D volume. The crest is approximately linear in map view or N-S extent. Both sides, East and West of the PR, appear to show landslides and other mass wasting during the late stage of the syn-rifting interval. The PR rarely shows internal seismic structure in 2D and 3D. Most importantly, under the basin to the east of the PR there are substantially more recognizable structures connecting the S reflector and the PR. These were much less interpretable in previous 2D seismic profiles.

16. Determination of porosity and facies trends in a complex carbonate reservoir, by using 3-D seismic, borehole tools, and outcrop geology

SciTech Connect

Zacharakis, T.G. Jr.; Comet, J.N.; Murillo, A.A.

1996-08-01

Mesozoic carbonate reservoirs are found in the Mediterranean Sea, off the east coast of Spain. A wide variation of porosities are found in the core samples and logs: vuggy, breccia, fractures, and cavern porosity. In addition, complex Tertiary carbonate geometries include olistostromes, breccia bodies, and reef buildups, which are found on top of Mesozoic carbonates. Predicting the porosity trends within these oil productive reservoirs requires an understanding of how primary porosity was further enhanced by secondary processes, including fractures, karstification, and dolomitization in burial conditions. Through an extensive investigation of field histories, outcrop geology, and seismic data, a series of basic reservoir styles have been identified and characterized by well log signature and seismic response. The distribution pattern of the different reservoirs styles is highly heterogeneous, but by integrating subsurface data and outcrop analogs, it is possible to distinguish field-scale and local patterns of both vertical and local variations in reservoir properties. Finally, it is important to quantify these reservoir properties through the study of seismic attributes, such as amplitude variations, and log responses at the reservoir interval. By incorporating 3-D seismic data, through the use of seismic inversion, it is possible to predict porosity trends. Further, the use of geostatistics can lead to the prediction of reservoir development within the carbonate facies.

17. Reducing Disk Storage of Full-3D Seismic Waveform Tomography (F3DT) Through Lossy Online Compression

SciTech Connect

Lindstrom, Peter; Chen, Po; Lee, En-Jui

2016-05-05

Full-3D seismic waveform tomography (F3DT) is the latest seismic tomography technique that can assimilate broadband, multi-component seismic waveform observations into high-resolution 3D subsurface seismic structure models. The main drawback in the current F3DT implementation, in particular the scattering-integral implementation (F3DT-SI), is the high disk storage cost and the associated I/O overhead of archiving the 4D space-time wavefields of the receiver- or source-side strain tensors. The strain tensor fields are needed for computing the data sensitivity kernels, which are used for constructing the Jacobian matrix in the Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm. In this study, we have successfully integrated a lossy compression algorithm into our F3DT SI workflow to significantly reduce the disk space for storing the strain tensor fields. The compressor supports a user-specified tolerance for bounding the error, and can be integrated into our finite-difference wave-propagation simulation code used for computing the strain fields. The decompressor can be integrated into the kernel calculation code that reads the strain fields from the disk and compute the data sensitivity kernels. During the wave-propagation simulations, we compress the strain fields before writing them to the disk. To compute the data sensitivity kernels, we read the compressed strain fields from the disk and decompress them before using them in kernel calculations. Experiments using a realistic dataset in our California statewide F3DT project have shown that we can reduce the strain-field disk storage by at least an order of magnitude with acceptable loss, and also improve the overall I/O performance of the entire F3DT-SI workflow significantly. The integration of the lossy online compressor may potentially open up the possibilities of the wide adoption of F3DT-SI in routine seismic tomography practices in the near future.

18. Application of Cutting-Edge 3D Seismic Attribute Technology to the Assessment of Geological Reservoirs for CO2 Sequestration

SciTech Connect

Christopher Liner; Jianjun Zeng; Po Geng Heather King Jintan Li; Jennifer Califf; John Seales

2010-03-31

The goals of this project were to develop innovative 3D seismic attribute technologies and workflows to assess the structural integrity and heterogeneity of subsurface reservoirs with potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic attributes to aide in quantifying reservoir properies and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. Our study area is the Dickman field in Ness County, Kansas, a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontent to Indiana and beyond. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. Geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We systematically tested over a dozen seismic attributes, finding that curvature, SPICE, and ANT were particularly useful for mapping discontinuities in the data that likely indicated fracture trends. Our simulation results in the deep saline aquifer indicate two effective ways of reducing free CO{sub 2}: (a) injecting CO{sub 2} with brine water, and (b) horizontal well injection. A tuned combination of these methods can reduce the amount of free CO{sub 2} in the aquifer from over 50% to less than 10%.

19. Reducing disk storage of full-3D seismic waveform tomography (F3DT) through lossy online compression

Lindstrom, Peter; Chen, Po; Lee, En-Jui

2016-08-01

Full-3D seismic waveform tomography (F3DT) is the latest seismic tomography technique that can assimilate broadband, multi-component seismic waveform observations into high-resolution 3D subsurface seismic structure models. The main drawback in the current F3DT implementation, in particular the scattering-integral implementation (F3DT-SI), is the high disk storage cost and the associated I/O overhead of archiving the 4D space-time wavefields of the receiver- or source-side strain tensors. The strain tensor fields are needed for computing the data sensitivity kernels, which are used for constructing the Jacobian matrix in the Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm. In this study, we have successfully integrated a lossy compression algorithm into our F3DT-SI workflow to significantly reduce the disk space for storing the strain tensor fields. The compressor supports a user-specified tolerance for bounding the error, and can be integrated into our finite-difference wave-propagation simulation code used for computing the strain fields. The decompressor can be integrated into the kernel calculation code that reads the strain fields from the disk and compute the data sensitivity kernels. During the wave-propagation simulations, we compress the strain fields before writing them to the disk. To compute the data sensitivity kernels, we read the compressed strain fields from the disk and decompress them before using them in kernel calculations. Experiments using a realistic dataset in our California statewide F3DT project have shown that we can reduce the strain-field disk storage by at least an order of magnitude with acceptable loss, and also improve the overall I/O performance of the entire F3DT-SI workflow significantly. The integration of the lossy online compressor may potentially open up the possibilities of the wide adoption of F3DT-SI in routine seismic tomography practices in the near future.

20. The application of seismic stratigraphic methods on exploration 3D seismic data to define a reservoir model in OPL 210, Deepwater Nigeria

SciTech Connect

Ragnhild, L.; Ventris, P.; Osahon, G.

1995-08-01

OPL 210 lies in deepwater on the northwestern flank of the Niger Delta. The partners in this block are Allied Energy and The Statoil and BP Alliance. The license has a 5 year initial exploration phase and carries a 2 well commitment. At present the database comprises a 1 x 1 km grid of 2D seismic across the block, and 450 sq. km of 3D in an area of special interest. A larger 3D survey is planned for 1995. Little is known about the reservoir in the deep water, but we expect our main target to be ponded slope and basin turbidites. As such the bulk of the shelf well data available has little or no relevance to the play type likely to be encountered. Prior to drilling, seismic stratigraphy has been one of several methods used to generate a consistent predictive reservoir model. The excellent quality and high resolution of the 3D data have allowed identification and detailed description of several distinctive seismic facies. These facies are described in terms of their internal geometries and stacking patterns. The geometries are then interpreted based on a knowledge of depositional processes from analog slope settings. This enables a predictive model to be constructed for the distribution of reservoir within the observed facies. These predictions will be tested by one of the first wells drilled in the Nigerian deepwater in mid 1995.

1. Modeling and validation of a 3D velocity structure for the Santa Clara Valley, California, for seismic-wave simulations

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Williams, R.A.; Carver, D.; Frankel, A.; Choy, G.; Liu, P.-C.; Jachens, R.C.; Brocher, T.M.; Wentworth, C.M.

2006-01-01

A 3D seismic velocity and attenuation model is developed for Santa Clara Valley, California, and its surrounding uplands to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes. The model is developed using a variety of geologic and geophysical data. Our starting point is a 3D geologic model developed primarily from geologic mapping and gravity and magnetic surveys. An initial velocity model is constructed by using seismic velocities from boreholes, reflection/refraction lines, and spatial autocorrelation microtremor surveys. This model is further refined and the seismic attenuation is estimated through waveform modeling of weak motions from small local events and strong-ground motion from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Waveforms are calculated to an upper frequency of 1 Hz using a parallelized finite-difference code that utilizes two regions with a factor of 3 difference in grid spacing to reduce memory requirements. Cenozoic basins trap and strongly amplify ground motions. This effect is particularly strong in the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the Santa Clara Valley, where the steeply dipping Silver Creek fault forms the southwestern boundary of the basin. In comparison, the Cupertino Basin on the southwestern side of the valley has a more moderate response, which is attributed to a greater age and velocity of the Cenozoic fill. Surface waves play a major role in the ground motion of sedimentary basins, and they are seen to strongly develop along the western margins of the Santa Clara Valley for our simulation of the Loma Prieta earthquake.

2. High-resolution 3D seismic imaging of a pull-apart basin in the Gulf of Cadiz

Crutchley, G.; Berndt, C.; Klaeschen, D.; Gutscher, M.

2009-12-01

In 2006, high-resolution 3D seismic data were acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean Sea aboard the RRS Charles Darwin as part of the HERMES (Hotspot Ecosystem Research on the Margins of European Seas) project. The P-Cable system, a cost-efficient set-up for fast acquisition of 3D seismic data on 12 single-channel streamers, was utilized to acquire seismic cubes at four different targets. Here, we present results from the second target - a WNW-ESE-oriented pull-apart basin in the southeastern Gulf of Cadiz. Initial processing has included: 1) spatial positioning of each recording channel from GPS data acquired on the outer two channels, 2) improved positioning of shot points and channels from the inversion of first arrival times, 3) application of a swell filter to improve reflection coherency, 4) CDP binning and stacking and 5) migration. The new data confirm that the southeastern Gulf of Cadiz north of the Rharb submarine valley is structurally controlled by numerous strike slip faults that were active until quite recently (within the resolution of the data). Given the location of this basin, between the extensional domain on the upper slope and the compressional toe of the accretionary wedge, we interpret the origin to be gravitational sliding on a detachment layer, possibly containing salt, but at this stage not imaged by our profiles.

3. Joint Stochastic Inversion of Pre-Stack 3D Seismic Data and Well Logs for High Resolution Hydrocarbon Reservoir Characterization

Torres-Verdin, C.

2007-05-01

This paper describes the successful implementation of a new 3D AVA stochastic inversion algorithm to quantitatively integrate pre-stack seismic amplitude data and well logs. The stochastic inversion algorithm is used to characterize flow units of a deepwater reservoir located in the central Gulf of Mexico. Conventional fluid/lithology sensitivity analysis indicates that the shale/sand interface represented by the top of the hydrocarbon-bearing turbidite deposits generates typical Class III AVA responses. On the other hand, layer- dependent Biot-Gassmann analysis shows significant sensitivity of the P-wave velocity and density to fluid substitution. Accordingly, AVA stochastic inversion, which combines the advantages of AVA analysis with those of geostatistical inversion, provided quantitative information about the lateral continuity of the turbidite reservoirs based on the interpretation of inverted acoustic properties (P-velocity, S-velocity, density), and lithotype (sand- shale) distributions. The quantitative use of rock/fluid information through AVA seismic amplitude data, coupled with the implementation of co-simulation via lithotype-dependent multidimensional joint probability distributions of acoustic/petrophysical properties, yields accurate 3D models of petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability. Finally, by fully integrating pre-stack seismic amplitude data and well logs, the vertical resolution of inverted products is higher than that of deterministic inversions methods.

4. Potential Geophysical Field Transformations and Combined 3D Modelling for Estimation the Seismic Site Effects on Example of Israel

Eppelbaum, Lev; Meirova, Tatiana

2015-04-01

It is well-known that the local seismic site effects may have a significant contribution to the intensity of damage and destruction (e.g., Hough et al., 1990; Regnier et al., 2000; Bonnefoy-Claudet et al., 2006; Haase et al., 2010). The thicknesses of sediments, which play a large role in amplification, usually are derived from seismic velocities. At the same time, thickness of sediments may be determined (or defined) on the basis of 3D combined gravity-magnetic modeling joined with available geological materials, seismic data and borehole section examination. Final result of such investigation is a 3D physical-geological model (PGM) reflecting main geological peculiarities of the area under study. Such a combined study needs in application of a reliable 3D mathematical algorithm of computation together with advanced methodology of 3D modeling. For this analysis the developed GSFC software was selected. The GSFC (Geological Space Field Calculation) program was developed for solving a direct 3-D gravity and magnetic prospecting problem under complex geological conditions (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2004). This program has been designed for computing the field of Δg (Bouguer, free-air or observed value anomalies), ΔZ, ΔX, ΔY , ΔT , as well as second derivatives of the gravitational potential under conditions of rugged relief and inclined magnetization. The geological space can be approximated by (1) three-dimensional, (2) semi-infinite bodies and (3) those infinite along the strike closed, L.H. non-closed, R.H. on-closed and open). Geological bodies are approximated by horizontal polygonal prisms. The program has the following main advantages (besides abovementioned ones): (1) Simultaneous computing of gravity and magnetic fields; (2) Description of the terrain relief by irregularly placed characteristic points; (3) Computation of the effect of the earth-air boundary by the method of selection directly in the process of interpretation; (4

5. 3-D Velocity Model of the Coachella Valley, Southern California Based on Explosive Shots from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project

Persaud, P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.; Scheirer, D. S.

2014-12-01

We have analyzed explosive shot data from the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) across a 2-D seismic array and 5 profiles in the Coachella Valley to produce a 3-D P-wave velocity model that will be used in calculations of strong ground shaking. Accurate maps of seismicity and active faults rely both on detailed geological field mapping and a suitable velocity model to accurately locate earthquakes. Adjoint tomography of an older version of the SCEC 3-D velocity model shows that crustal heterogeneities strongly influence seismic wave propagation from moderate earthquakes (Tape et al., 2010). These authors improve the crustal model and subsequently simulate the details of ground motion at periods of 2 s and longer for hundreds of ray paths. Even with improvements such as the above, the current SCEC velocity model for the Salton Trough does not provide a match of the timing or waveforms of the horizontal S-wave motions, which Wei et al. (2013) interpret as caused by inaccuracies in the shallow velocity structure. They effectively demonstrate that the inclusion of shallow basin structure improves the fit in both travel times and waveforms. Our velocity model benefits from the inclusion of known location and times of a subset of 126 shots detonated over a 3-week period during the SSIP. This results in an improved velocity model particularly in the shallow crust. In addition, one of the main challenges in developing 3-D velocity models is an uneven stations-source distribution. To better overcome this challenge, we also include the first arrival times of the SSIP shots at the more widely spaced Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) in our inversion, since the layout of the SSIP is complementary to the SCSN. References: Tape, C., et al., 2010, Seismic tomography of the Southern California crust based on spectral-element and adjoint methods: Geophysical Journal International, v. 180, no. 1, p. 433-462. Wei, S., et al., 2013, Complementary slip distributions

6. Seismicity patterns along the Ecuadorian subduction zone: new constraints from earthquake location in a 3-D a priori velocity model

Font, Yvonne; Segovia, Monica; Vaca, Sandro; Theunissen, Thomas

2013-04-01

To improve earthquake location, we create a 3-D a priori P-wave velocity model (3-DVM) that approximates the large velocity variations of the Ecuadorian subduction system. The 3-DVM is constructed from the integration of geophysical and geological data that depend on the structural geometry and velocity properties of the crust and the upper mantle. In addition, specific station selection is carried out to compensate for the high station density on the Andean Chain. 3-D synthetic experiments are then designed to evaluate the network capacity to recover the event position using only P arrivals and the MAXI technique. Three synthetic earthquake location experiments are proposed: (1) noise-free and (2) noisy arrivals used in the 3-DVM, and (3) noise-free arrivals used in a 1-DVM. Synthetic results indicate that, under the best conditions (exact arrival data set and 3-DVM), the spatiotemporal configuration of the Ecuadorian network can accurately locate 70 per cent of events in the frontal part of the subduction zone (average azimuthal gap is 289° ± 44°). Noisy P arrivals (up to ± 0.3 s) can accurately located 50 per cent of earthquakes. Processing earthquake location within a 1-DVM almost never allows accurate hypocentre position for offshore earthquakes (15 per cent), which highlights the role of using a 3-DVM in subduction zone. For the application to real data, the seismicity distribution from the 3-D-MAXI catalogue is also compared to the determinations obtained in a 1-D-layered VM. In addition to good-quality location uncertainties, the clustering and the depth distribution confirm the 3-D-MAXI catalogue reliability. The pattern of the seismicity distribution (a 13 yr record during the inter-seismic period of the seismic cycle) is compared to the pattern of rupture zone and asperity of the Mw = 7.9 1942 and the Mw = 7.7 1958 events (the Mw = 8.8 1906 asperity patch is not defined). We observe that the nucleation of 1942, 1958 and 1906 events coincides with

7. Use of 3D Seismic Azimuthal Iso-Frequency Volumes for the Detection and Characterization of High Porosity/Permeability Zones in Carbonate Reservoirs

Toelle, Brian E.

Among the most important properties controlling the production from conventional oil and gas reservoirs is the distribution of porosity and permeability within the producing geologic formation. The geometry of the pore space within these reservoirs, and the permeability associated with this pore space geometry, impacts not only where production can occur and at what flow rates but can also have significant influence on many other rock properties. Zones of high matrix porosity can result in an isotropic response for certain reservoir properties whereas aligned porosity/permeability, such as open, natural fracture trends, have been shown to result in reservoirs being anisotropic in many properties. The ability to identify zones within a subsurface reservoir where porosity/permeability is significantly higher and to characterize them according to their geometries would be of great significance when planning where new boreholes, particularly horizontal boreholes, should be drilled. The detection and characterization of these high porosity/permeability zones using their isotropic and anisotropic responses may be possible through the analysis of azimuthal (also referred to as azimuth-limited) 3D seismic volumes. During this study the porosity/permeability systems of a carbonate, pinnacle reef within the northern Michigan Basin undergoing enhanced oil recovery were investigated using selected seismic attributes extracted from azimuthal 3D seismic volumes. Based on the response of these seismic attributes an interpretation of the geometry of the porosity/permeability system within the reef was made. This interpretation was supported by well data that had been obtained during the primary production phase of the field. Additionally, 4D seismic data, obtained as part of the CO2 based EOR project, supported reservoir simulation results that were based on the porosity/permeability interpretation.

8. Converted-Wave Processing of a 3D-3C Refection Seismic Survey of Soda Lake Geothermal Field

Louie, J. N.; Kent, T.; Echols, J.

2012-12-01

This 3D-3C seismic survey greatly improves the structural model of the Soda Lake, Nevada geothermal system. The picked top of a mudstone interval above reservoir levels reveals a detailed fault map. The geothermal reservoir is within a complex of nested grabens. Determining a "geothermal indicator" for the deeper reservoir in the seismic signal, and processing of the 3D converted-wave data, have been unsuccessful to date. Due to a high near-surface Vp/Vs ratio the shear-wave energy is under-sampled with 220 ft receiver spacing and 550 ft (168 m) line spacing. The 2D converted-wave data that we can image shows encouraging similarity to the deep structural features in the P-wave sections, but have little resolution of shallow structures. Higher-density receivers and a better shallow shear-wave model are needed in conjunction with this deep reflection study to effectively image the 3D converted waves.

9. The use of exploration 3D seismic data to optimise oil exploration in OPL 210 deepwater, Nigeria

SciTech Connect

Nelson, L.C.; Lilletveit, R.; Sandvoll, T.

1995-08-01

Allied Energy and the Statoil and BP Alliance are currently partners in the OPL 210 license, in deepwater Nigeria. The license has a 5 year initial exploration phase which carries a two well commitment. To optimize the location of these wells in this challenging and costly drilling environment the partnership has decided to acquire extensive exploration 3D seismic data within the block. Interpretation of the first of two planned 3D surveys has led to a much clearer understanding of: (a) The structural segmentation of the prospect and thus a clearer idea of the likely hydrocarbon pool size. (b) The distribution of amplitude anomalies and thus, hopefully, a superior understanding of reservoir distribution and hydrocarbons. Here the limiting factor is clearly the lack of deepwater geophysical calibration, due to the absence of wells. Consequently, conclusions at this stage, are qualitative either than quantative. Combined with detailed seismic stratigraphic and high tech geophysical analysis, these two aspects will assist in the highgrading of segments in the prospect, prior to final decisions on the well locations. The first well, planned for 1995, will be one of the first wells drilled in the Nigerian deepwater area. Examples of both 2D and 3D data will be used to demonstrate the above and some of the first well results will be integrated into our interpretation to highlight how some of our perceptions may have changed.

10. Using 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

2010-12-01

-Fourier domain we had developed 3D code for full-wave field simulation in the elastic media which take into account nonlinearity introduced by free-surface effects. Our approach is based on the velocity-stress formulation. In the contrast to conventional formulation we defined the material properties such as density and Lame constants not at nodal points but within cells. This second order finite differences method formulated in the cell-based grid, generate numerical solutions compatible with analytical ones within the range errors determinate by dispersion analysis. Our simulator will be embedded in an inversion scheme for joint seismic- electromagnetic imaging. It also offers possibilities for preconditioning the seismic wave propagation problems in the frequency domain. References. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. (2009), Waveform inversion in the Laplace-Fourier domain, Geophys. J. Int. 177(3), 1067- 1079. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. H. (2008), Waveform inversion in the Laplace domain, Geophys. J. Int. 173(3), 922-931. Commer, M. & Newman, G. (2008), New advances in three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic inversion, Geophys. J. Int. 172(2), 513-535. Newman, G. A., Commer, M. & Carazzone, J. J. (2010), Imaging CSEM data in the presence of electrical anisotropy, Geophysics, in press.

11. Quantitative time-lapse 3D seismic data interpretation from the pilot site of Ketzin (CO2 Storage): the level of noise

Ivanova, Alexandra; Lüth, Stefan; Kempka, Thomas

2015-04-01

The first European onshore pilot scale project for geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) was initiated in 2004 near Berlin (Germany). This project is multidisciplinary including 3D seismic time-lapse surveys as an essential tool for reservoir characterization at a depth of 650 m. A 3D pre-injection baseline seismic survey was acquired in 2005. CO2 injection into a sandstone saline aquifer started in 2008 and stopped in 2013 after 67 kilotons of CO2 had been injected. The 1st and 2nd 3D seismic repeat surveys were acquired after 22 and 61 kilotons of CO2 had been injected respectively. Time-lapse seismic processing, petrophysical data and geophysical logging of CO2 saturation levels have allowed for an estimate of the total amount of CO2 visible in the seismic data to be made. The close agreement (over 85%) between the injected and observed amount is encouraging for quantitative monitoring of a CO2 storage site using seismic methods. However this estimate contains a number of uncertainties. For example the most of the time delay values in the both 3D seismic repeat surveys within the amplitude anomaly are near the noise level of 1-2 ms, however a change of 1 ms in the time delay affects significantly the mass estimate, thus the choice of the time-delay cutoff is crucial. In this study we put bounds into the noise in seismic data from Ketzin using results of 3D flow simulations.

12. 3D seismic geomorphology and geologic controls on gas hydrate accumulation mechanism in the Miyazaki-oki forearc basin, Japan

Komatsu, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Fujii, T.

2015-12-01

The stratigraphy of the Miyazaki-oki forearc basin along the Southwest Japan Arc comprises the early Miocene to early Pleistocene Miyazaki Group and the Hyuganada Group. These groups comprise sediments (up to 5000 m) deposited in deep marine to shallow marine environments. Based on characteristics of well data outside seismic exploration area and stratigraphy of land areas, the Miyazaki Group was divided into four seismic units and the Hyuganada Group was divided into two seismic units. In this area, bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) have been widely observed and considered as representing lower boundaries of methane-hydrate-bearing deposits. However, the gas hydrate accumulation mechanism for this area is not yet well understood. We show the relation between sandy sediment distribution identified from the 3D seismic geomorphological analysis and methane hydrate occurrence to identify the accumulation mechanism. A submarine fan system was subdivided into four seismic facies: Submarine canyon complexes; Leveed channel complexes; Submarine fan complexes; Mass transport complexes (MTD). Depositional systems of target layers are characterized by a transition from submarine fan deposits (Miyazaki Group) to channel-levee deposits and MTD (Hyuganada Group). This transition of depositional environments is strongly influenced by global tectonics since early Miocene in the Southwest Japan Arc. A part of channel-fill located around structural wing and middle fan deposits above the BSR is inferred as sediments intercalated with sandy layers. We consider that these deposits contain methane hydrate because the sandy sediment distribution approximately coincides with a high-velocity zone as an indicator of gas hydrate. The comparison of the areal extent of the seismic facies and the mapped structural configuration, suggest that the gas hydrate accumulation represent combination structural-stratigraphic trap.

13. 3D Seismic Imaging of a Geological Storage of CO2 Site: Hontomín (Spain)

Alcalde, Juan; Martí, David; Juhlin, Christopher; Malehmir, Alireza; Sopher, Daniel; Marzán, Ignacio; Calahorrano, Alcinoe; Ayarza, Puy; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Carbonell, Ramon

2013-04-01

A 3D seismic reflection survey was acquired in the summer of 2010 over the Hontomín CO2 storage site (Spain), with the aim of imaging its internal structure and to provide a 3D seismic baseline model prior to CO2 injection. The 36 km2 survey utilised 25 m source and receiver point spacing and 5000 shotpoints recorded with mixed source (Vibroseis and explosives). The target reservoir is a saline aquifer located at approximately 1450 m, within Lower Jurassic carbonates (Lias). The main seal is formed by inter-layered marls and marly limestones of Early to Middle Jurassic age (Dogger and Lias). The relatively complex geology and the rough topography strongly influenced the selection of parameters for the data processing. Static corrections and post stack migration were shown to be the most important processes affecting the quality of the final image. The match between the differing source wavelets is also studied here. The resulting 3D image provides information of all the relevant geological features of the storage site, including position and shape of the main underground formations. The target structure is an asymmetric dome. The steepest flank of the structure was selected as the optimum location for CO2 injection, where the updip migration of the plume is anticipated. A major strike slip fault (the South fault), crossing the study area W-E, has been mapped through the whole seismic volume. The injection position and the expected migration plume are located to the north of this main fault and away from its influence.

14. 3D density model of the upper mantle of Asia based on inversion of gravity and seismic tomography data

Kaban, Mikhail K.; Stolk, Ward; Tesauro, Magdala; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.

2016-11-01

We construct a new-generation 3D density model of the upper mantle of Asia and its surrounding areas based on a joint interpretation of several data sets. A recent model of the crust combining nearly all available seismic data is employed to calculate the impact of the crust on the gravity anomalies and observed topography and to estimate the residual mantle anomalies and residual topography. These fields are jointly inverted to calculate the density variations in the lithosphere and upper mantle down to 325 km. As an initial approximation, we estimate density variations using a seismic tomography model. Seismic velocity variations are converted into temperatures and then to density variations based on mineral physics constraints. In the Occam-type inversion, we fit both the residual mantle gravity anomalies and residual topography by finding deviations to the initial model. The obtained corrections improve the resolution of the initial model and reflect important features of the mantle structure that are not well resolved by the seismic tomography. The most significant negative corrections of the upper mantle density, found in the Siberian and East European cratons, can be associated with depleted mantle material. The most pronounced positive density anomalies are found beneath the Tarim and South Caspian basins, Barents Sea, and Bay of Bengal. We attribute these anomalies to eclogites in the uppermost mantle, which have substantially affected the evolution of the basins. Furthermore, the obtained results provide evidence for the presence of eclogites in the oceanic subducting mantle lithosphere.

15. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

SciTech Connect

Paulsson Geophysical Services

2008-03-31

The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

16. 3D crustal velocity structure beneath the broadband seismic array in the Gyeongju area of Korea by receiver function analyses

Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Jung Mo; Cho, Hyun-Moo; Kang, Tae-Seob

2016-10-01

A temporary seismic array was in operation between October 2010 and March 2013 in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Teleseismic records of the seismic array appropriate for receiver function analysis were collected, and selected seismograms were split into five groups based on epicenters-the Banda-Molucca, Sumatra, Iran, Aleutian, and Vanuatu groups. 1D velocity structures beneath each seismic station were estimated by inverting the stacked receiver functions for possible groups. The inversion was done by applying a genetic algorithm, whereas surface wave dispersion data were used as constraints to avoid non-uniqueness in the inversion. The composite velocity structure was constructed by averaging the velocity structures weighted by the number of receiver functions used in stacking. The uncertainty analysis for the velocity structures showed that the average of 95% confidence intervals was ± 0.1 km/s. The 3D velocity structure was modeled through interpolation of 1D composite velocity structures. Moho depths were determined in each composite velocity structure based on the AK135-F S-wave velocity model, and the depths were similar to the H-κ analysis results. The deepest Moho depth in the study area was found to be 31.9 km, and the shallowest, was 25.9 km. The Moho discontinuity dips in a southwestward direction beneath the area. A low velocity layer was also detected between 4 and 14 km depth. Adakitic intrusions and/or a high geothermal gradient appear to be the causes of this low velocity layer. The 3D velocity structure can be used to reliably assess seismic hazards in this area.

17. High-resolution 3D seismic reflection imaging across active faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimation in the Tokyo metropolitan area

Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kato, Naoko

2016-10-01

We collected and interpreted high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data across a hypothesized fault scarp, along the largest active fault that could generate hazardous earthquakes in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The processed and interpreted 3D seismic cube, linked with nearby borehole stratigraphy, suggests that a monocline that deforms lower Pleistocene units is unconformably overlain by middle Pleistocene conglomerates. Judging from structural patterns and vertical separation on the lower-middle Pleistocene units and the ground surface, the hypothesized scarp was interpreted as a terrace riser rather than as a manifestation of late Pleistocene structural growth resulting from repeated fault activity. Devastating earthquake scenarios had been predicted along the fault in question based on its proximity to the metropolitan area, however our new results lead to a significant decrease in estimated fault length and consequently in the estimated magnitude of future earthquakes associated with reactivation. This suggests a greatly reduced seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan area from earthquakes generated by active intraplate crustal faults.

18. 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Anisotropic Media in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

2011-12-01

Recent developments in high resolution imaging technology of subsurface objects involves a combination of different geophysical measurements (gravity, EM and seismic). A joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity and density) requires the consistent treatment of the different geophysical data due to their differing physical nature. For example, in conducting media, which is typical of the Earth's interior, EM energy propagation is defined by a diffusive mechanism and may be characterized by two specific length scales: wavelength and skin depth. However, the propagation of seismic signals is a multiwave process and is characterized by a set of wavelengths. Thus, to consistently treat seismic and electromagnetic data an additional length scale is needed for seismic data that does not directly depend on a wavelength and describes a diffusive process, similar to EM wave propagation in the subsurface. Works by Brown et al.(2005), Shin and Cha(2008), and Shin and Ha(2008) suggest that an artificial damping of seismic wave fields via Laplace-Fourier transformation can be an effective approach to obtain a seismic data that have similar spatial resolution to EM data. The key benefit of such transformation is that diffusive wave-field inversion works well for both data sets: seismic (Brown et al.,2005; Shin and Cha,2008) and electromagnetic (Commer and Newman,2008; Newman et al.,2010). With the recent interest in the Laplace-Fourier domain full waveform inversion, 3D fourth and second-order finite-difference schemes for modeling of seismic wave propagation have been developed (Petrov and Newman, 2010). Incorporation of attenuation and anisotropy into a velocity model is a necessary step for a more realistic description of subsurface media. Here we consider the extension of our method which includes attenuation and VTI anisotropy. Our approach is based on the integro-interpolation technique for velocity-stress formulation. Seven

19. Extending field life in offshore Gulf of Mexico using 3-D seismic survey

SciTech Connect

Bulling, T.P.; Olsen, R.S. )

1990-05-01

Discovered by ARCO in 1967, the High Island 24L field (lower Miocene) is located in the Texas state waters of the Gulf of Mexico. By 1986, the field had produced 320 billion ft{sup 3} of gas and 3.0 million bbl of oil. An engineering field study completed in 1986 showed the field was declining and would be unprofitable within 3 yr. Study of reservoir maps revealed three basin problems: volumetric reserve calculations were less than reserves produced, hydrocarbon-water contacts were inconsistent between wells thought to be in communication, and ultimate recoveries could not be accurately calculated. Attempts to remap the field with the existing two-dimensional seismic data base and well data proved unsuccessful. In 1986, a three-dimensional seismic survey was acquired in an effort to evaluate the true present worth and potential of the field. Remapping of 30 reservoir horizons began in 1987. The integration of detailed well log correlations tied to the dense grid of quality three dimensional seismic data improved the reservoir maps. These maps helped resolve engineering problems by defining the configuration of the reservoirs more accurately. Reservoir maps now closely match volumetrics, fluid contacts within reservoir units are consistent, and a better definition of extension well opportunities exists. The authors study resulted in six additional wells. These wells along with engineering modifications and operations cost containment resulted in the extension of the economic life of the High Island 24-L field by at least 8 yr.

20. Cataloguing Seismic Waveform Properties Recorded With a 3D Network in a Gold Mine in South Africa

Julia, J.; Nyblade, A. A.; Gok, R.; Walter, W. R.; Linzer, L.; Durrheim, R. J.; Dirks, P.

2007-12-01

The SAVUKA gold mine is located in the northwestern edge of the Witwatersrand basin, a Late Archean (3.07- 2.71~Ga) intracratonic basin in South Africa that hosts the largest known gold-uranium-pyrite ore deposits in the world. Seismic events related to the mine activity span several orders of magnitude through a variety of sources that include mine blasts, pillar collapses, and faulting events. These events are systematically recorded and catalogued through an in-mine, 3D seismic network consisting of 20, three-component, short-period stations with natural frequencies ranging between 4.5 and 28.0~Hz and deployed as deep as ~3.5 km. After 5 months of seismic monitoring of the mine, we have been able to assemble a database of over 6000 events spanning magnitudes in the -2.5 < ML < 4.4 range. The potential of this unique data set for characterizing the detailed seismic properties of the basin and studying source properties of non-double couple events is explored through simple, first-pass analysis on the recorded waveforms. Moreover, the in-mine network is complemented by a small array of 4 broadband stations interspaced ~10~km apart on the surface of the mine, and by a number of AfricaArray stations in South Africa and neighboring countries located at regional distances (50- 1000~km) from the mine. The largest mine-induced events are clearly recorded at distances as far away from the mine as 450~km and provide a unique opportunity for studying the regional propagation of seismic phases as well as the structure of the cratonic crust underlying the basin.

1. Successful gas hydrate prospecting using 3D seismic - A case study for the Mt. Elbert prospect, Milne Point, North Slope Alaska

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inks, T.L.; Agena, W.F.

2008-01-01

In February 2007, the Mt. Elbert Prospect stratigraphic test well, Milne Point, North Slope Alaska encountered thick methane gas hydrate intervals, as predicted by 3D seismic interpretation and modeling. Methane gas hydrate-saturated sediment was found in two intervals, totaling more than 100 ft., identified and mapped based on seismic character and wavelet modeling.

2. Interpretation of Late Cretaceous Volcanic Mounds and Surrounding Gulfian Series Formations Using 3D Seismic Data in Zavala County, Texas

Bennett, Laura Claire

The Late Cretaceous Gulfian series is a prominent and important series across the State of Texas that has been extensively studied since the nineteenth century. It is composed of series of southeast-dipping shelf carbonates and clastics deposited on the northwest margin of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. In south Texas, the Gulfian series was deposited in the Rio Grande Embayment and Maverick Basin and is comprised of the Eagle Ford Group, Austin Group, Anacacho Limestone, San Miguel Formation, Olmos Formation, and Escondido Formation that crop out and continue basinward in the subsurface. Late Cretaceous volcanism formed volcanic mounds composed of altered palagonite tuff that are clustered into two fields, including the Uvalde Field centered in Zavala County. Using the Pedernales 3D seismic survey, located in east-central Zavala County, several volcanic mounds were identified and mapped without the use of well log data by identifying structures and characteristics associated with the volcanic mounds. Isolating these mounds through mapping enabled the mapping of the tops surrounding Gulfian formations, Lower Eagle Ford, Upper Eagle Ford, Austin, Anacacho, and San Miguel, for which time-structure, amplitude, similarity/coherency attribute, and isochron maps were generated. By using 3D seismic data, the volcanic mounds and their relation to surrounding rocks can be better interpreted.

3. Rock formation characterization for carbon dioxide geosequestration: 3D seismic amplitude and coherency anomalies, and seismic petrophysical facies classification, Wellington and Anson-Bates Fields, Kansas, USA

Ohl, Derek; Raef, Abdelmoneam

2014-04-01

Higher resolution rock formation characterization is of paramount priority, amid growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide, CO2, into subsurface rock formations of depeleting/depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers in order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this paper, we present a case study for a Mississippian carbonate characterization integrating post-stack seismic attributes, well log porosities, and seismic petrophysical facies classification. We evaluated changes in petrophysical lithofacies and reveal structural facies-controls in the study area. Three cross-plot clusters in a plot of well log porosity and acoustic impedance corroborated a Neural Network petrophysical facies classification, which was based on training and validation utilizing three petrophysically-different wells and three volume seismic attributes, extracted from a time window including the wavelet of the reservoir-top reflection. Reworked lithofacies along small-throw faults has been revealed based on comparing coherency and seismic petrophysical facies. The main objective of this study is to put an emphasis on reservoir characterization that is both optimized for and subsequently benefiting from pilot tertiary CO2 carbon geosequestration in a depleting reservoir and also in the deeper saline aquifer of the Arbuckle Group, south central Kansas. The 3D seismic coherency attribute, we calculated from a window embracing the Mississippian top reflection event, indicated anomalous features that can be interpreted as a change in lithofacies or faulting effect. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) lithofacies modeling has been used to better understand these subtle features, and also provide petrophysical classes, which will benefit flow-simulation modeling and/or time-lapse seismic monitoring feasibility analysis. This paper emphasizes the need of paying greater attention to small-scale features when embarking upon characterization of a reservoir or saline-aquifer for CO2

4. 3D seismic velocity structure in the rupture area of the 2014 M8.2 Iquique earthquake in Northern Chile

Woollam, Jack; Fuenzallida, Amaya; Garth, Tom; Rietbrock, Andreas; Ruiz, Sergio; Tavera, Hernando

2016-04-01

Seismic velocity tomography is one of the key tools in Earth sciences to image the physical properties of the subsurface. In recent years significant advances have been made to image the Chilean subductions zone, especially in the area of the 2010 M8.8 Maule earthquake (e.g. Hicks et al., 2014), providing much needed physical constraints for earthquakes source inversions and rupture models. In 2014 the M8.2 Iquique earthquake struck the northern part of the Chilean subduction zone in close proximity to the Peruvian boarder. The pre- and aftershock sequence of this major earthquake was recorded by a densified seismological network in Northern Chile and Southern Peru, which provides an excellent data set to study in depth the 3D velocity structure along the subduction megathrust. Based on an automatic event catalogue of nearly 10,000 events spanning the time period March to May 2014 we selected approximately 450 events for a staggered 3D inversion approach. Events are selected to guarantee an even ray coverage through the inversion volume. We only select events with a minimum GAP of 200 to improve depth estimates and therefore increase resolution in the marine forearc. Additionally, we investigate secondary arrivals between the P- and S-wave arrival to improve depth location. Up to now we have processed about 450 events, from which about 150 with at least 30 P- and S-wave observations have been selected for the subsequent 3D tomography. Overall the data quality is very high, which allows arrival time estimates better than 0.05s on average. We will show results from the 1D, 2D, and preliminary 3D inversions and discuss the results together with the obtained seismicity distribution.

5. A western gray whale mitigation and monitoring program for a 3-D seismic survey, Sakhalin Island, Russia.

PubMed

Johnson, S R; Richardson, W J; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Gailey, G; Jenkerson, M R; Meier, S K; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Perlov, A S; Rutenko, S A; Würsig, B; Martin, C R; Egging, D E

2007-11-01

The introduction of anthropogenic sounds into the marine environment can impact some marine mammals. Impacts can be greatly reduced if appropriate mitigation measures and monitoring are implemented. This paper concerns such measures undertaken by Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 Consortium, during the Odoptu 3-D seismic survey conducted during 17 August-9 September 2001. The key environmental issue was protection of the critically endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which feeds in summer and fall primarily in the Piltun feeding area off northeast Sakhalin Island. Existing mitigation and monitoring practices for seismic surveys in other jurisdictions were evaluated to identify best practices for reducing impacts on feeding activity by western gray whales. Two buffer zones were established to protect whales from physical injury or undue disturbance during feeding. A 1 km buffer protected all whales from exposure to levels of sound energy potentially capable of producing physical injury. A 4-5 km buffer was established to avoid displacing western gray whales from feeding areas. Trained Marine Mammal Observers (MMOs) on the seismic ship Nordic Explorer had the authority to shut down the air guns if whales were sighted within these buffers. Additional mitigation measures were also incorporated: Temporal mitigation was provided by rescheduling the program from June-August to August-September to avoid interference with spring arrival of migrating gray whales. The survey area was reduced by 19% to avoid certain waters <20 m deep where feeding whales concentrated and where seismic acquisition was a lower priority. The number of air guns and total volume of the air guns were reduced by about half (from 28 to 14 air guns and from 3,390 in(3) to 1,640 in(3)) relative to initial plans. "Ramp-up" (="soft-start") procedures were implemented. Monitoring activities were conducted as needed to implement some mitigation measures, and to assess

6. 3-D seismic data for field development: Landslide field case study

SciTech Connect

Raeuchle, S.K.; Carr, T.R.; Tucker, R.D. )

1990-05-01

The Landslide field is located on the extreme southern flank of the San Joaquin basin, approximately 25 mi south of Bakersfield, California. The field, discovered in 1985, has produced in excess 9 million bbl of oil with an estimated ultimate recovery of more than 13 MMBO. The Miocene Stevens sands, which form the reservoir units at Landslide field, are interpreted as a series of constructional submarine fan deposits. Deposition of the fans was controlled by paleotopography with an abrupt updip pinch-out of the sands to the southwest. The three-dimensional seismic data over the field was used to locate the bottom hole of the landslide 22X-30 development well as close to this abrupt updip pinchout as possible in order to maximize oil recovery. A location was selected two traces (330 ft) from the updip pinch-out as mapped on the seismic data. The well was successfully drilled during 1989, encountering 150 ft of net sand with initial production in excess of 1,500 bbl of oil/day. A pressure buildup test indicates the presence of a boundary approximately 200 ft from the well bore. This boundary is interpreted as the updip pinchout of the Stevens sands against the paleohigh. Based on examination of changes in amplitude, the absence or presence of reservoir-quality sand can be mapped across the paleohighs. Application of three-dimensional seismic data, integration with well data, and in particular reconstruction cuts tied closely to existing wells can be used to map the ultimate extent of the field and contribute to efficient development.

7. 3D reflection seismic imaging at the 2.5 km deep COSC-1 scientific borehole, central Scandinavian Caledonides

Hedin, Peter; Almqvist, Bjarne; Berthet, Théo; Juhlin, Christopher; Buske, Stefan; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Krauß, Felix; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Alm, Per-Gunnar

2016-10-01

The 2.5 km deep scientific COSC-1 borehole (ICDP 5054-1-A) was successfully drilled with nearly complete core recovery during spring and summer of 2014. Downhole and on-core measurements through the targeted Lower Seve Nappe provide a comprehensive data set. An observed gradual increase in strain below 1700 m, with mica schists and intermittent mylonites increasing in frequency and thickness, is here interpreted as the basal thrust zone of the Lower Seve Nappe. This high strain zone was not fully penetrated at the total drilled depth and is thus greater than 800 m in thickness. To allow extrapolation of the results from downhole logging, core analysis and other experiments into the surrounding rock and to link these with the regional tectonic setting and evolution, three post-drilling high-resolution seismic experiments were conducted in and around the borehole. One of these, the first 3D seismic reflection land survey to target the nappe structures of the Scandinavian Caledonides, is presented here. It provides new information on the 3D geometry of structures both within the drilled Lower Seve Nappe and underlying rocks down to at least 9 km. The observed reflectivity correlates well with results from the core analysis and downhole logging, despite challenges in processing. Reflections from the uppermost part of the Lower Seve Nappe have limited lateral extent and varying dips, possibly related to mafic lenses or boudins of variable character within felsic rock. Reflections occurring within the high strain zone, however, are laterally continuous over distances of a kilometer or more and dip 10-15° towards the southeast. Reflections from structures beneath the high strain unit and the COSC-1 borehole can be followed through most of the seismic volume down to at least 9 km and have dips of varying degree, mainly in the east-west thrust direction of the orogen.

8. Investigation Into the Utilization of 3D Printing in Laser Cooling Experiments

Hazlett, Eric; Nelson, Brandon; de Leon, Sam Diaz; Shaw, Jonah

2016-05-01

With the advancement of 3D printing new opportunities are abound in many different fields, but with the balance between the precisions of atomic physics experiments and the material properties of current 3D printers the benefit of 3D printing technology needs to be investigated. We report on the progress of two investigations of 3D printing of benefit to atomic physics experiments: laser feedback module and the other being an optical chopper. The first investigation looks into creation of a 3D printed laser diode feedback module. This 3D printed module would allow for the quick realization of an external cavity diode laser that would have an adjustable cavity distance. We will report on the first tests of this system, by looking at Rb spectroscopy and mode-hop free tuning range as well as possibilities of using these lasers for MOT generation. We will also discuss our investigation into a 3D-printed optical chopper that utilizes an Arduino and a computer hard drive motor. By implementing an additional Arduino we create a low cost way to quickly measure laser beam waists.

9. Investigation Into the Utilization of 3D Printing in Laser Cooling Experiments

Hazlett, Eric

With the advancement of 3D printing new opportunities are abound in many different fields, but with the balance between the precisions of atomic physics experiments and the material properties of current 3D printers the benefit of 3D printing technology needs to be investigated. We report on the progress of two investigations of 3D printing of benefit to atomic physics experiments: laser feedback module and the other being an optical chopper. The first investigation looks into creation of a 3D printed laser diode feedback module. This 3D printed module would allow for the quick realization of an external cavity diode laser that would have an adjustable cavity distance. We will report on the first tests of this system, by looking at Rb spectroscopy and mode-hop free tuning range as well as possibilities of using these lasers for MOT generation. We will also discuss our investigation into a 3D-printed optical chopper that utilizes an Arduino and a computer hard drive motor. By implementing an additional Arduino we create a low cost way to quickly measure laser beam waists

10. Reducing Disk Storage of Full-3D Seismic Waveform Tomography (F3DT) Through Lossy Online Compression

DOE PAGES

Lindstrom, Peter; Chen, Po; Lee, En-Jui

2016-05-05

Full-3D seismic waveform tomography (F3DT) is the latest seismic tomography technique that can assimilate broadband, multi-component seismic waveform observations into high-resolution 3D subsurface seismic structure models. The main drawback in the current F3DT implementation, in particular the scattering-integral implementation (F3DT-SI), is the high disk storage cost and the associated I/O overhead of archiving the 4D space-time wavefields of the receiver- or source-side strain tensors. The strain tensor fields are needed for computing the data sensitivity kernels, which are used for constructing the Jacobian matrix in the Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm. In this study, we have successfully integrated a lossy compression algorithmmore » into our F3DT SI workflow to significantly reduce the disk space for storing the strain tensor fields. The compressor supports a user-specified tolerance for bounding the error, and can be integrated into our finite-difference wave-propagation simulation code used for computing the strain fields. The decompressor can be integrated into the kernel calculation code that reads the strain fields from the disk and compute the data sensitivity kernels. During the wave-propagation simulations, we compress the strain fields before writing them to the disk. To compute the data sensitivity kernels, we read the compressed strain fields from the disk and decompress them before using them in kernel calculations. Experiments using a realistic dataset in our California statewide F3DT project have shown that we can reduce the strain-field disk storage by at least an order of magnitude with acceptable loss, and also improve the overall I/O performance of the entire F3DT-SI workflow significantly. The integration of the lossy online compressor may potentially open up the possibilities of the wide adoption of F3DT-SI in routine seismic tomography practices in the near future.« less

11. Subsurface fault geometries in Southern California illuminated through Full-3D Seismic Waveform Tomography (F3DT)

Lee, En-Jui; Chen, Po

2017-04-01

More precise spatial descriptions of fault systems play an essential role in tectonic interpretations, deformation modeling, and seismic hazard assessments. The recent developed full-3D waveform tomography techniques provide high-resolution images and are able to image the material property differences across faults to assist the understanding of fault systems. In the updated seismic velocity model for Southern California, CVM-S4.26, many velocity gradients show consistency with surface geology and major faults defined in the Community Fault Model (CFM) (Plesch et al. 2007), which was constructed by using various geological and geophysical observations. In addition to faults in CFM, CVM-S4.26 reveals a velocity reversal mainly beneath the San Gabriel Mountain and Western Mojave Desert regions, which is correlated with the detachment structure that has also been found in other independent studies. The high-resolution tomographic images of CVM-S4.26 could assist the understanding of fault systems in Southern California and therefore benefit the development of fault models as well as other applications, such as seismic hazard analysis, tectonic reconstructions, and crustal deformation modeling.

12. 3D crustal seismic velocity model for the Gulf of Cadiz and adjacent areas (SW Iberia margin) based on seismic reflection and refraction profiles

Lozano, Lucía; Cantavella, Juan Vicente; Barco, Jaime; Carranza, Marta; Burforn, Elisa

2016-04-01

The Atlantic margin of the SW Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco has been subject of study during the last 30 years. Many seismic reflection and refraction profiles have been carried out offshore, providing detailed information about the crustal structure of the main seafloor tectonic domains in the region, from the South Portuguese Zone and the Gulf of Cadiz to the Abyssal Plains and the Josephine Seamount. The interest to obtain a detailed and realistic velocity model for this area, integrating the available data from these studies, is clear, mainly to improve real-time earthquake hypocentral location and for tsunami and earthquake early warning. Since currently real-time seismic location tools allow the implementation of 3D velocity models, we aim to generate a full 3D crustal model. For this purpose we have reviewed more than 50 profiles obtained in different seismic surveys, from 1980 to 2008. Data from the most relevant and reliable 2D seismic velocity published profiles were retrieved. We first generated a Moho depth map of the studied area (latitude 32°N - 41°N and longitude 15°W - 5°W) by extracting Moho depths along each digitized profile with a 10 km spacing, and then interpolating this dataset using ordinary kriging method and generating the contour isodepth map. Then, a 3D crustal velocity model has been obtained. Selected vertical sections at different distances along each profile were considered to retrieve P-wave velocity values at each interface in order to reproduce the geometry and the velocity gradient within each layer. A double linear interpolation, both in distance and depth, with sampling rates of 10 km and 1 km respectively, was carried out to generate a (latitude, longitude, depth, velocity) matrix. This database of all the profiles was interpolated to obtain the P-wave velocity distribution map every kilometer of depth. The new 3D velocity model has been integrated in NonLinLoc location program to relocate several representative

13. 3D elastic full waveform inversion: case study from a land seismic survey

Kormann, Jean; Marti, David; Rodriguez, Juan-Esteban; Marzan, Ignacio; Ferrer, Miguel; Gutierrez, Natalia; Farres, Albert; Hanzich, Mauricio; de la Puente, Josep; Carbonell, Ramon

2016-04-01

Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is one of the most advanced processing methods that is recently reaching a mature state after years of solving theoretical and technical issues such as the non-uniqueness of the solution and harnessing the huge computational power required by realistic scenarios. BSIT (Barcelona Subsurface Imaging Tools, www.bsc.es/bsit) includes a FWI algorithm that can tackle with very complex problems involving large datasets. We present here the application of this system to a 3D dataset acquired to constrain the shallow subsurface. This is where the wavefield is the most complicated, because most of the wavefield conversions takes place in the shallow region and also because the media is much more laterally heterogeneous. With this in mind, at least isotropic elastic approximation would be suitable as kernel engine for FWI. The current study explores the possibilities to apply elastic isotropic FWI using only the vertical component of the recorded seismograms. The survey covers an area of 500×500 m2, and consists in a receivers grid of 10 m×20 m combined with a 250 kg accelerated weight-drop as source on a displaced grid of 20 m×20 m. One of the main challenges in this case study is the costly 3D modeling that includes topography and substantial free surface effects. FWI is applied to a data subset (shooting lines 4 to 12), and is performed for 3 frequencies ranging from 15 to 25 Hz. The starting models are obtained from travel-time tomography and the all computation is run on 75 nodes of Mare Nostrum supercomputer during 3 days. The resulting models provide a higher resolution of the subsurface structures, and show a good correlation with the available borehole measurements. FWI allows to extend in a reliable way this 1D knowledge (borehole) to 3D.

14. 3D imaging of the Corinth rift from a new passive seismic tomography and receiver function analysis

Godano, Maxime; Gesret, Alexandrine; Noble, Mark; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Gautier, Stéphanie; Deschamps, Anne

2016-04-01

The Corinth Rift is the most seismically active zone in Europe. The area is characterized by very localized NS extension at a rate of ~ 1.5cm/year, the occurrence of frequent and intensive microseismic crises and occasional moderate to large earthquakes like in 1995 (Mw=6.1). Since the year 2000, the Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL, http://crlab.eu) consisting in a multidisciplinary natural observatory, aims at understanding the mechanics of faulting and earthquake nucleation in the Rift. Recent studies have improved our view about fault geometry and mechanics within CRL, but there is still a critical need for a better knowledge of the structure at depth both for the accuracy of earthquake locations and for mechanical interpretation of the seismicity. In this project, we aim to analyze the complete seismological database (13 years of recordings) of CRL by using recently developed methodologies of structural imaging, in order to determine at the same time and with high resolution, the local 3D structure and the earthquake locations. We perform an iterative joint determination of 3D velocity model and earthquake coordinates. In a first step, P and S velocity models are determined using first arrival time tomography method proposed by Taillandier et al. (2009). It consists in the minimization of the cost function between observed and theoretical arrival times which is achieved by the steepest descent method (e.g. Tarantola 1987). This latter requires computing the gradient of the cost function by using the adjoint state method (Chavent 1974). In a second step, earthquakes are located in the new velocity model with a non-linear inversion method based on a Bayesian formulation (Gesret et al. 2015). Step 1 and 2 are repeated until the cost function no longer decreases. We present preliminary results consisting in: (1) the adjustement of a 1D velocity model that is used as initial model of the 3D tomography and (2) a first attempt of the joint determination of 3D velocity

15. Estimating the composition of hydrates from a 3D seismic dataset near Penghu Canyon on Chinese passive margin offshore Taiwan

Chi, Wu-Cheng

2016-04-01

A bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), representing the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, can be used to estimate geothermal gradients under seafloor. However, to derive temperature estimates at the BSR, the correct hydrate composition is needed to calculate the phase boundary. Here we applied the method by Minshull and Keddie to constrain the hydrate composition and the pore fluid salinity. We used a 3D seismic dataset offshore SW Taiwan to test the method. Different from previous studies, we have considered the effects of 3D topographic effects using finite element modelling and also depth-dependent thermal conductivity. Using a pore water salinity of 2% at the BSR depth as found from the nearby core samples, we successfully used 99% methane and 1% ethane gas hydrate phase boundary to derive a sub-bottom depth vs. temperature plot which is consistent with the seafloor temperature from in-situ measurements. The results are also consistent with geochemical analyses of the pore fluids. The derived regional geothermal gradient is 40.1oC/km, which is similar to 40oC/km used in the 3D finite element modelling used in this study. This study is among the first documented successful use of Minshull and Keddie's method to constrain seafloor gas hydrate composition.

16. High-resolution 3D seismic imaging of the Longmenshan fault zone structure using double-difference seismic tomography

Wang, X.; Yu, X.; Zhang, W.

2011-12-01

The Longmenshan fault zone where the 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan, China, earthquake occurred is located in the boundary area between the Songpan-Garze block to the west and the Sichuan basin to the east. This area is characterized by complex structures and active seismotectonics. We collected both direct P wave absolute arrival times and differential arrival times from 2551 events in the period of 1992 to 1999 recorded by China National Seismic Network. The double-difference seismic tomography (tomoDD) method is used to determine event relocations and the P wave crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. Our results show that obvious velocity variations exist in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Longmenshan fault zone. The inferred velocity structure of the upper crust correlates well with the surface geological and topographic features in this area: the east of Tibet plateau is imaged as a prominent high-velocity zone, while the Longmenshan fault and Sichuan basin are imaged as a low-velocity feature. Compared with upper crust, the Longmenshan fault zone lies in the transition zone between high velocity anomalies to the west and low velocity anomalies to the east in the middle crust, where most earthquakes occurred. While in the lower crust, the fault zone lies in the transition zone between low velocity anomalies to the west and high velocity anomalies to the east. In upper mantle, a prominent low velocity anomaly exists under the Wenchuan main shock region. This suggests that lower crustal flow has affect on the occurrence of the Wenchuan earthquake. There is also a obvious velocity structure difference between the south and north segment of the Longmenshan fault zone in the whole crust and upper mantle, low velocity anomalies in the south segment and prominent lateral heterogeneous in the north segment, respectively. The velocity difference maybe resulted in the northeastwards of the Wenchuan aftershocks.

17. INCREASING OIL RECOVERY THROUGH ADVANCED REPROCESSING OF 3D SEISMIC, GRANT CANYON AND BACON FLAT FIELDS, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA

SciTech Connect

Eric H. Johnson; Don E. French

2001-06-01

Makoil, Inc., of Orange, California, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy has reprocessed and reinterpreted the 3D seismic survey of the Grant Canyon area, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The project was supported by Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG26-00BC15257. The Grant Canyon survey covers an area of 11 square miles, and includes Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields. These fields have produced over 20 million barrels of oil since 1981, from debris slides of Devonian rocks that are beneath 3,500 to 5,000 ft of Tertiary syntectonic deposits that fill the basin of Railroad Valley. High-angle and low-angle normal faults complicate the trap geometry of the fields, and there is great variability in the acoustic characteristics of the overlying valley fill. These factors combine to create an area that is challenging to interpret from seismic reflection data. A 3D seismic survey acquired in 1992-93 by the operator of the fields has been used to identify development and wildcat locations with mixed success. Makoil believed that improved techniques of processing seismic data and additional well control could enhance the interpretation enough to improve the chances of success in the survey area. The project involved the acquisition of hardware and software for survey interpretation, survey reprocessing, and reinterpretation of the survey. SeisX, published by Paradigm Geophysical Ltd., was chosen as the interpretation software, and it was installed on a Dell Precision 610 computer work station with the Windows NT operating system. The hardware and software were selected based on cost, possible addition of compatible modeling software in the future, and the experience of consulting geophysicists in the Billings area. Installation of the software and integration of the hardware into the local office network was difficult at times but was accomplished with some technical support from Paradigm and Hewlett Packard, manufacturer of some of the network equipment. A

18. Calibration of 3D Upper Mantle Structure in Eurasia Using Regional and Teleseismic Full Waveform Seismic Data

SciTech Connect

Barbara Romanowicz; Mark Panning

2005-04-23

Adequate path calibrations are crucial for improving the accuracy of seismic event location and origin time, size, and mechanism, as required for CTBT monitoring. There is considerable information on structure in broadband seismograms that is currently not fully utilized. The limitations have been largely theoretical. the development and application to solid earth problems of powerful numerical techniques, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM), has opened a new era, and theoretically, it should be possible to compute the complete predicted wavefield accurately without any restrictions on the strength or spatial extent of heterogeneity. This approach requires considerable computational power, which is currently not fully reachable in practice. We propose an approach which relies on a cascade of increasingly accurate theoretical approximations for the computation of the seismic wavefield to develop a model of regional structure for the area of Eurasia located between longitudes of 30 and 150 degrees E, and latitudes of -10 to 60 degrees North. The selected area is particularly suitable for the purpose of this experiment, as it is highly heterogeneous, presenting a challenge for calibration purposes, but it is well surrounded by earthquake sources and, even though they are sparsely distributed, a significant number of high quality broadband digital stations exist, for which data are readily accessible through IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) and the FDSN (Federation of Digital Seismic Networks). The starting models used will be a combination of a-priori 3D models recently developed for this region, combining various geophysical and seismological data, and a major goal of this study will be to refine these models so as to fit a variety of seismic waveforms and phases.

19. Improving Geologic and Engineering Models of Midcontinent Fracture and Karst-Modified Reservoirs Using New 3-D Seismic Attributes

SciTech Connect

Susan Nissen; Saibal Bhattacharya; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton

2009-03-31

Our project goal was to develop innovative seismic-based workflows for the incremental recovery of oil from karst-modified reservoirs within the onshore continental United States. Specific project objectives were: (1) to calibrate new multi-trace seismic attributes (volumetric curvature, in particular) for improved imaging of karst-modified reservoirs, (2) to develop attribute-based, cost-effective workflows to better characterize karst-modified carbonate reservoirs and fracture systems, and (3) to improve accuracy and predictiveness of resulting geomodels and reservoir simulations. In order to develop our workflows and validate our techniques, we conducted integrated studies of five karst-modified reservoirs in west Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. Our studies show that 3-D seismic volumetric curvature attributes have the ability to re-veal previously unknown features or provide enhanced visibility of karst and fracture features compared with other seismic analysis methods. Using these attributes, we recognize collapse features, solution-enlarged fractures, and geomorphologies that appear to be related to mature, cockpit landscapes. In four of our reservoir studies, volumetric curvature attributes appear to delineate reservoir compartment boundaries that impact production. The presence of these compartment boundaries was corroborated by reservoir simulations in two of the study areas. Based on our study results, we conclude that volumetric curvature attributes are valuable tools for mapping compartment boundaries in fracture- and karst-modified reservoirs, and we propose a best practices workflow for incorporating these attributes into reservoir characterization. When properly calibrated with geological and production data, these attributes can be used to predict the locations and sizes of undrained reservoir compartments. Technology transfer of our project work has been accomplished through presentations at professional society meetings, peer-reviewed publications

20. Pseudo 3-D P wave refraction seismic monitoring of permafrost in steep unstable bedrock

Krautblatter, Michael; Draebing, Daniel

2014-02-01

permafrost in steep rock walls can cause hazardous rock creep and rock slope failure. Spatial and temporal patterns of permafrost degradation that operate at the scale of instability are complex and poorly understood. For the first time, we used P wave seismic refraction tomography (SRT) to monitor the degradation of permafrost in steep rock walls. A 2.5-D survey with five 80 m long parallel transects was installed across an unstable steep NE-SW facing crestline in the Matter Valley, Switzerland. P wave velocity was calibrated in the laboratory for water-saturated low-porosity paragneiss samples between 20°C and -5°C and increases significantly along and perpendicular to the cleavage by 0.55-0.66 km/s (10-13%) and 2.4-2.7 km/s (>100%), respectively, when freezing. Seismic refraction is, thus, technically feasible to detect permafrost in low-porosity rocks that constitute steep rock walls. Ray densities up to 100 and more delimit the boundary between unfrozen and frozen bedrock and facilitate accurate active layer positioning. SRT shows monthly (August and September 2006) and annual active layer dynamics (August 2006 and 2007) and reveals a contiguous permafrost body below the NE face with annual changes of active layer depth from 2 to 10 m. Large ice-filled fractures, lateral onfreezing of glacierets, and a persistent snow cornice cause previously unreported permafrost patterns close to the surface and along the crestline which correspond to active seasonal rock displacements up to several mm/a. SRT provides a geometrically highly resolved subsurface monitoring of active layer dynamics in steep permafrost rocks at the scale of instability.

1. 3D seismic analysis of gravity-driven and basement influenced normal fault growth in the deepwater Otway Basin, Australia

Robson, A. G.; King, R. C.; Holford, S. P.

2016-08-01

We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data to analyse the structural style and growth of a normal fault array located at the present-day shelf-edge break and into the deepwater province of the Otway Basin, southern Australia. The Otway Basin is a Late Jurassic to Cenozoic, rift-to-passive margin basin. The seismic reflection data images a NW-SE (128-308) striking, normal fault array, located within Upper Cretaceous clastic sediments and which consists of ten fault segments. The fault array contains two hard-linked fault assemblages, separated by only 2 km in the dip direction. The gravity-driven, down-dip fault assemblage is entirely contained within the 3D seismic survey, is located over a basement plateau and displays growth commencing and terminating during the Campanian-Maastrichtian, with up to 1.45 km of accumulated throw (vertical displacement). The up-dip normal fault assemblage penetrates deeper than the base of the seismic survey, but is interpreted to be partially linked along strike at depth to major basement-involved normal faults that can be observed on regional 2D seismic lines. This fault assemblage displays growth initiating in the Turonian-Santonian and has accumulated up to 1.74 km of throw. Our detailed analysis of the 3D seismic data constraints post-Cenomanian fault growth of both fault assemblages into four evolutionary stages: [1] Turonian-Santonian basement reactivation during crustal extension between Australia and Antarctica. This either caused the upward propagation of basement-involved normal faults or the nucleation of a vertically isolated normal fault array in shallow cover sediments directly above the reactivated basement-involved faults; [2] continued Campanian-Maastrichtian crustal extension and sediment loading eventually created gravitational instability on the basement plateau, nucleating a second, vertically isolated normal fault array in the cover sediments; [3] eventual hard-linkage of fault segments in both fault

2. Calculating the Probability of Strong Ground Motions Using 3D Seismic Waveform Modeling - SCEC CyberShake

Gupta, N.; Callaghan, S.; Graves, R.; Mehta, G.; Zhao, L.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Okaya, D.; Cui, Y.; Field, E.; Gupta, V.; Vahi, K.; Maechling, P. J.

2006-12-01

Researchers from the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) project are utilizing the CyberShake computational platform and a distributed high performance computing environment that includes USC High Performance Computer Center and the NSF TeraGrid facilities to calculate physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard curves for several sites in the Southern California area. Traditionally, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is conducted using intensity measure relationships based on empirical attenuation relationships. However, a more physics-based approach using waveform modeling could lead to significant improvements in seismic hazard analysis. Members of the SCEC/CME Project have integrated leading-edge PSHA software tools, SCEC-developed geophysical models, validated anelastic wave modeling software, and state-of-the-art computational technologies on the TeraGrid to calculate probabilistic seismic hazard curves using 3D waveform-based modeling. The CyberShake calculations for a single probablistic seismic hazard curve require tens of thousands of CPU hours and multiple terabytes of disk storage. The CyberShake workflows are run on high performance computing systems including multiple TeraGrid sites (currently SDSC and NCSA), and the USC Center for High Performance Computing and Communications. To manage the extensive job scheduling and data requirements, CyberShake utilizes a grid-based scientific workflow system based on the Virtual Data System (VDS), the Pegasus meta-scheduler system, and the Globus toolkit. Probabilistic seismic hazard curves for spectral acceleration at 3.0 seconds have been produced for eleven sites in the Southern California region, including rock and basin sites. At low ground motion levels, there is little difference between the CyberShake and attenuation relationship curves. At higher ground motion (lower probability) levels, the curves are similar for some sites (downtown LA, I-5/SR-14 interchange) but different for

3. The Role of Faulting on the Growth of a Carbonate Platform: Evidence from 3D Seismic Analysis and Section Restoration

Nur Fathiyah Jamaludin, Siti; Pubellier, Manuel; Prasad Ghosh, Deva; Menier, David; Pierson, Bernard

2014-05-01

Tectonics in addition to other environmental factors impacts the growth of carbonate platforms and plays an important role in shaping the internal architecture of the platforms. Detailed of faults and fractures development and healing in carbonate environment have not been explored sufficiently. Using 3D seismic and well data, we attempt to reconstruct the structural evolution of a Miocene carbonate platform in Central Luconia Province, offshore Malaysia. Luconia Province is located in the NW coast of Borneo and has become one of the largest carbonate factories in SE Asia. Seismic interpretations including seismic attribute analysis are applied to the carbonate platform to discern its sedimentology and structural details. Detailed seismic interpretations highlight the relationships of carbonate deposition with syn-depositional faulting. Branching conjugate faults are common in this carbonate platform and have become a template for reef growth, attesting lateral facies changes within the carbonate environments. Structural restoration was then appropriately performed on the interpreted seismic sections based on sequential restoration techniques, and provided images different from those of horizon flattening methods. This permits us to compensate faults' displacement, remove recent sediment layers and finally restore the older rock units prior to the fault motions. It allows prediction of platform evolution as a response to faulting before and after carbonate deposition and also enhances the pitfalls of interpretation. Once updated, the reconstructions allow unravelling of the un-seen geological features underneath the carbonate platform, such as paleo-structures and paleo-topography which in turn reflects the paleo-environment before deformations took place. Interestingly, sections balancing and restoration revealed the late-phase (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) rifting of South China Sea, otherwise difficult to visualize on seismic sections. Later it is shown that

4. 3D Seismic Reflection Imaging of Crustal Formation Processes on the East Pacific Rise, 9°57-42'N

Purdy, G. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Carbotte, S. M.; Canales, J. P.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Carton, H.; Newman, K. R.; Marjanovic, M.; Xu, M.; Aghaei, O.; Stowe, L. C.

2008-12-01

Between June 29th and August 19th 2008 the research vessel Marcus G Langseth carried out its first multi- streamer 3D seismic reflection imaging cruise, MGL08-12, by conducting a program research on the East Pacific Rise centered around 9°50'N. The primary goals were to create an accurate 3D seismic reflection image of the magmatic-hydrothermal system at this Integrated Study Site of the Ridge2000 program by imaging the structure of the axial magma chamber (AMC) lid and oceanic crust at a resolution, accuracy, and scale comparable to seafloor observations. The vessel acquired data with four, 6-kilometer solid streamers each comprising 468 active channels deployed with a total separation of 450 meters. Four gun strings with total volume of 3300 cubic inches in two groups fired alternately provide the source for a shot spacing of 37.5 meters. This configuration yields eight CMP lines for each of the sail lines that were spaced 300 m apart, and a static bin size of 6.25 m × 37.5 m in the along-track and across-track directions, respectively, providing a nominal fold of 40. The cruise accomplished the acquisition of ~3,782 km of sail line data. There are 111 across axis lines that required 10 repeated lines and 14 infills. Average feathering during the cruise was 0° ± 5° (one standard deviation), with maximum values of up to 11°. This means that 18% of the total cross axis acquisition was needed for reshoots and infilling. A 25% multiplier on planned lines for a 3D grid is probably a useful figure to use in cruise planning and is fairly standard in the seismic industry. Data quality meets or exceeds industry standards. 3D coverage was achieved in two areas. The larger comprises a set of 93 equally spaced lines forming the 3D grid between 9°57'N and 9°42'N. This grid is made up of lines from all of racetracks #1 and #2 and the northern lines of racetrack#3 and covers two principal hydrothermal vent areas in a continuous fashion. The second 3D area is comprised

5. Fusion of terrestrial LiDAR and tomographic mapping data for 3D karst landform investigation

Höfle, B.; Forbriger, M.; Siart, C.; Nowaczinski, E.

2012-04-01

Highly detailed topographic information has gained in importance for studying Earth surface landforms and processes. LiDAR has evolved into the state-of-the-art technology for 3D data acquisition on various scales. This multi-sensor system can be operated on several platforms such as airborne LS (ALS), mobile LS (MLS) from moving vehicles or stationary on ground (terrestrial LS, TLS). In karst research the integral investigation of surface and subsurface components of solution depressions (e.g. sediment-filled dolines) is required to gather and quantify the linked geomorphic processes such as sediment flux and limestone dissolution. To acquire the depth of the different subsurface layers, a combination of seismic refraction tomography (SRT) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is increasingly applied. This multi-method approach allows modeling the extension of different subsurface media (i.e. colluvial fill, epikarst zone and underlying basal bedrock). Subsequent fusion of the complementary techniques - LiDAR surface and tomographic subsurface data - first-time enables 3D prospection and visualization as well as quantification of geomorphometric parameters (e.g. depth, volume, slope and aspect). This study introduces a novel GIS-based method for semi-automated fusion of TLS and geophysical data. The study area is located in the Dikti Mountains of East Crete and covers two adjacent dolines. The TLS data was acquired with a Riegl VZ-400 scanner from 12 scan positions located mainly at the doline divide. The scan positions were co-registered using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm of RiSCAN PRO. For the digital elevation rasters a resolution of 0.5 m was defined. The digital surface model (DSM) of the study was derived by moving plane interpolation of all laser points (including objects) using the OPALS software. The digital terrain model (DTM) was generated by iteratively "eroding" objects in the DSM by minimum filter, which additionally accounts for

6. Crustal high-velocity anomaly at the East European Craton margin in SE Poland (TESZ) modelled by 3-D seismic tomography of refracted and reflected arrivals

Środa, Piotr; Dec, Monika

2016-04-01

The area of Trans-European Suture Zone in SE Poland represents a contact of major tectonic units of different consolidation age - from the Precambrian East European Craton, through Palaeozoic West European Platform to Cenozoic Carpathian orogen. The region was built by several phases of crustal accretion, which resulted in a complex collage of tectonic blocks. In 2000, this region was studied by several seismic wide-angle profiles of CELEBRATION 2000 experiment, providing a dense coverage of seismic data in SE Poland and allowing for detailed investigations of the crustal structure and properties in this area. Beneath the marginal part of the EEC, the 2-D modelling of in-line data form several CELEBRATION profiles revealed a prominent high P-wave velocity anomaly in the upper crust, with Vp of 6.7-7.1 km/s, starting at 10-16 km depth (e.g., Środa et al., 2006). Anomalously high velocities are observed in the area located approximately beneath Lublin trough, to the NE of Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone. Based on 3-D tomography of first arrivals of in- and off-line CELEBRATION 2000 recordings (Malinowski et al., 2008), elevated velocities are also reported in the same area and seem to continue to the SW, off the craton margin. Gravimetric modelling also revealed anomalously high density in the same region at similar depths. High seismic velocities and densities are interpreted as indicative for a pronounced mafic intrusion, possibly related to extensional processes at the EEC margin. Previous 3-D models of the high-velocity intrusion were based on first arrivals (crustal refractions) only. In this study, also off-line reflections (not modelled up to now) are used, in order to enlarge the data set and to better constrain the geometry and properties of the velocity anomaly. A code for 3-D joint tomographic inversion of refracted and reflected arrivals, with model parametrization allowing for velocity discontinuities was used (Rawlinson, 2007). With this approach, besides the

7. 3-D geodynamic models of the India-Eurasia collision zone: Guiding numerical models with seismic and MT observations

Bischoff, S. H.; Flesch, L. M.

2015-12-01

Piecing together the uplift and growth of the Tibetan Plateau requires a robust understanding of the present-day dynamics of the India-Eurasia collision zone. To aid in the understanding of mountain building and plateau growth, we developed a 3D finite element model of the Tibetan Plateau following Flesch and Bendick (2012). Our model is based on the vast collection of published geophysical data and employs COMSOL Multiphysics (www.comsol.com). We assume model material properties from the wide variety of published seismic and MT studies, incorporated with an updated, vertically averaged, effective viscosity distribution from Flesch et al. (2001). We test potential relationships between conductance/seismic velocity and strength (viscosity) by modeling strength difference contacts at imaged interfaces. We quantify fitness of candidate 3D viscosity functions by comparing solved model surface velocities to observed surface velocities inferred from GPS and Quaternary fault slip rates. The model geometry incorporates Earth curvature and extends eastward from 65° to 110°E, northward from 15° to 45°N, and vertically down to 100 km below sea level. The physics of deformation is governed by the Stokes equations describing incompressible Newtonian fluid flow. Boundary conditions consist of free slip across the bottom surface (representing the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary) and moving edge walls constrained by a GPS-derived, continuous velocity field. Model results indicate a tradeoff between crust and mantle dominant strength. Best-fit models are achieved by a combination of strong crust/upper mantle with additional strain accommodation in localized weak zones.

8. Beyond the Seafloor: a Plio-Pleistocene Archive of Glacial Geomorphology from Basin-Wide 3D Seismic Reflection Data on the Mid-Norwegian Shelf

Newton, A.; Huuse, M.

2015-12-01

Oil and gas exploration on the mid-Norwegian shelf has created an extensive geophysical and geological database. As such, this margin has become one of the most comprehensively studied formerly-glaciated continental margins in the world. Industrial operations have concentrated on the structure and geohazard potential of glacial sediments whilst academic work has looked at reconstructing environmental conditions during and since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This has generally consisted of mapping seafloor glacial geomorphology and a limited number of shallow sediment cores. Despite the increasingly large volume of 3D seismic reflection data available across the majority of the shelf, only limited work has been carried out investigating the oldest glaciations. A Plio-Pleistocene archive of glacial-interglacial history is preserved offshore and represents a unique study site because of the availability of 100s of 3D seismic reflection datasets. This database allows numerous different glacial erosion events and glacial landforms to be imaged throughout the glacially-derived NAUST Formation. We present an inventory of glacial history for the mid-Norwegian shelf and review the implications for the glacial history of Northwest Europe. This record shows glacial landforms such as iceberg scours, mega-scale glacial lineations and grounding-zone wedges, each of which provides an insight into ice characteristics. Dating is limited to a few tentative dates based on side-wall core data but we infer a further dating chronology based on dated sediments from the Voring Plateau, fluctuations in the benthic δ18O derived global sea level record, interpretation of seismic facies and the overall architecture. Glacial evidence is present regularly throughout the stratigraphy with the earliest evidence for marine terminating ice found at the base of the NAUST Formation at ~2.8 Ma.

9. Seismic fabric and 3-D structure of the southwestern intracontinental Palmyride fold belt, Syria

SciTech Connect

Chaimov, T.A.; Barazangi, M. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Khaddour, M. )

1993-12-01

The Palmyride fold belt, a 400 x 100 km transpressive belt in central Syria that is the northeastern arm of the Syrian arc, is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic inversion of a late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, northeast-trending, linear intracontinental basin located within the northern Arabian platform. The southwestern Palmyrides, near the Dead Sea transform fault system and the Anti-Lebanon mountains, are characterized by short wavelength (5--10 km) en echelon folds separated by small intermontane basins that developed mainly in the Neogene to Holocene. A new three-dimensional data cube, 60 x 70 x 10 km, generated on a Landmark Graphics workstation and based on approximately 700 km of two-dimensional seismic reflection profiles, elucidates the structure of the upper 10 km of the crust in the southwestern Palmyrides. Visualization of the subsurface structure, which is represented by a prominent Upper Cretaceous reflection surface in the data cube, is augmented by topographical and Bouguer gravity data of the same region. Preexisting discontinuities, probable normal fault relicts of the Mesozoic Palmyride rift, likely controlled the development of individual Neogene thrusts. The new subsurface image shows important structural features not identified in outcrop. Short, west-northwest-trending transcurrent (or transfer) faults like the short, en echelon northeast-trending thrust faults and blind thrusts of the Palmyrides. A pervasive regional decollment is not observed, even though Triassic evaporites host local detachments. Unlike topographic relief, which only roughly resembles subsurface structures, the Bouguer gravity signature of the southwestern Palmyrides closely mimics underlying shallow geologic structures both on a large ([approximately]50 km wavelength) and a small ([approximately]5--10 km wavelength) scale. The structural analysis and many other recent studies of the region indicate minor right-lateral shear coupled with compression in the Palmyrides.

10. Investigation of out of plane compressive strength of 3D printed sandwich composites

Dikshit, V.; Yap, Y. L.; Goh, G. D.; Yang, H.; Lim, J. C.; Qi, X.; Yeong, W. Y.; Wei, J.

2016-07-01

In this study, the 3D printing technique was utilized to manufacture the sandwich composites. Composite filament fabrication based 3D printer was used to print the face-sheet, and inkjet 3D printer was used to print the sandwich core structure. This work aims to study the compressive failure of the sandwich structure manufactured by using these two manufacturing techniques. Two different types of core structures were investigated with the same type of face-sheet configuration. The core structures were printed using photopolymer, while the face-sheet was made using nylon/glass. The out-of-plane compressive strength of the 3D printed sandwich composite structure has been examined in accordance with ASTM standards C365/C365-M and presented in this paper.

11. Upper Crustal Structure above Off-axis Magma Lenses at RIDGE-2000 East Pacific Rise Integrated Study Site from 3D Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data

Han, S.; Carbotte, S. M.; Carton, H. D.; Newman, K. R.; Canales, J.; Nedimovic, M. R.

2010-12-01

The 2008 multi-streamer 3D seismic reflection experiment conducted aboard the R/V Marcus Langseth at the RIDGE-2000 East Pacific Rise Integrated Study Site reveals prominent near-axis crustal reflectors on both the east and west flanks of the ridge crest which are interpreted as off-axis melt lenses (OAML) injected at mid-crustal levels. These OAML are probable sites of off-axis volcanism and provide potential heat sources for localized hydrothermal circulation on the ridge flanks, which we speculate may affect off-axis upper crustal structure. To investigate the effect of OAML on the upper crustal structure, we choose two across-axis lines above a prominent OAML on the east flank of the ridge that is present in the southernmost part of our study area: Line 1428P across the middle part of the OAML near 9° 38’N and Line 1476P across the northern end of this OAML near 9° 39’N. Initial analysis includes 2D processing to produce seismic reflection images for each line and 1D travel time modeling on CMP super gathers to characterize Layer 2A and upper Layer 2B velocity structure. Comparison of seismic reflection images and upper crustal velocity structure for the two lines shows a decrease in Layer 2A thickness by 150m and a decrease in the uppermost 2B velocity by 10-20% above the central portion of OAML. We attribute these local anomalies to alteration associated with off-axis hydrothermal circulation driven by the OAML where enhanced precipitation of alteration minerals may seal porosity within lowermost Layer 2A, converting it to lower velocity uppermost Layer 2B. To further constrain the velocity structure of Layer 2A and Layer 2B, we conduct 2D P-wave tomography with downward continued shot gathers along the studied lines (Harding et al, 2007). The downward continued shot gathers simulate seismic sources and receivers located near the seafloor, and therefore provide travel time information from near-offset refractions that are normally obscured by the

12. 3-D Tomography Study of Seismic Refraction/Wide-Angle Reflection Data Across the Variscides, SW Ireland

O'Reilly, B. M.; Landes, M.; Readman, P. W.; Shannon, P. M.; Prodehl, C.

2002-12-01

The VARNET-96 seismic experiment acquired three seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles in order to examine the crustal structure in the south-west of Ireland. 170 seismic stations were used on 300 recording sites. The shotpoint geometry was designed to allow for both in-line and off-line fan shot recordings on the three profiles. A total of 34 water shots was fired. Results from 3-D raytrace and inversion modelling illustrate the pervasive lateral heterogeneity of the study area south of the Shannon Estuary. Palaeozoic strata at the south coast are about 5-6 km thick associated with the sedimentary infill of the Munster and South Munster Basins. To the north, shallow upper crust in the vicinity of the Killarney-Mallow Fault Zone is followed by a 3-4 km thick sedimentary succession in the Dingle-Shannon Basin. A zone of high-velocity upper crust (6.4-6.6 km/s) beneath the South Munster Basin correlates with a gravity high between the Kenmare-Killarney and the Leinster Granite gravity lows. Other high-velocity zones were found beneath Dingle Bay and the Kenmare River region and may be associated with the deep traces of the Killarney-Mallow Fault Zone and the Cork-Kenmare Line. The 3-D velocity model was taken as a basis for the computation of PmP reflected arrivals from the crust-mantle boundary. The Moho depth varies from about 28-29 km at the south coast to about 32-33 km beneath the Dingle-Shannon Basin, the region where the 2-D inline model shows a south-dipping reflector in the upper mantle. Pervasive Variscan deformation appears to be confined to the sedimentary and upper crustal structure and has not deformed the entire crust supporting a thin-skinned tectonic model for Variscan deformation. Deep-crustal variations only occur where they can be correlated with major tectonic features such as the Caledonian Iapetus Suture near the Shannon Estuary. The shallowing of the Moho towards the coast may result from Mesozoic crustal extension in the adjacent

13. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

DOEpatents

Anderson, R.N.; Boulanger, A.; Bagdonas, E.P.; Xu, L.; He, W.

1996-12-17

The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells. 22 figs.

14. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

DOEpatents

Anderson, Roger N.; Boulanger, Albert; Bagdonas, Edward P.; Xu, Liqing; He, Wei

1996-01-01

The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells.

15. Land 3D-seismic data: Preprocessing quality control utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, normal moveout, first breaks, and offset

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raef, A.

2009-01-01

The recent proliferation of the 3D reflection seismic method into the near-surface area of geophysical applications, especially in response to the emergence of the need to comprehensively characterize and monitor near-surface carbon dioxide sequestration in shallow saline aquifers around the world, justifies the emphasis on cost-effective and robust quality control and assurance (QC/QA) workflow of 3D seismic data preprocessing that is suitable for near-surface applications. The main purpose of our seismic data preprocessing QC is to enable the use of appropriate header information, data that are free of noise-dominated traces, and/or flawed vertical stacking in subsequent processing steps. In this article, I provide an account of utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, first breaks, and normal moveout for rapid and thorough graphical QC/QA diagnostics, which are easy to apply and efficient in the diagnosis of inconsistencies. A correlated vibroseis time-lapse 3D-seismic data set from a CO2-flood monitoring survey is used for demonstrating QC diagnostics. An important by-product of the QC workflow is establishing the number of layers for a refraction statics model in a data-driven graphical manner that capitalizes on the spatial coverage of the 3D seismic data. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

16. BM platform, B Field, Offshore Northwest Java: A case history of multi-disciplinary integration including 3D seismic, reservoir simulation and horizontal drilling

SciTech Connect

Cooke, D.; Aziz, A.; Baldauff, J.; Diswarin, N.

1996-12-31

This case history describes how a multidisciplinary team used a 3D survey and reservoir simulation to review and revise the development plans for the BM platform, located in the B Field, Offshore Northwest Java, Indonesia. The case history starts with the collection of necessary parophysical, geologic and production data. These data are input to a reservoir simulation which shows there should be no problems with the new platform. However, this initial simulation has known problems with contradicting input structure maps and fluid contacts. Hopefully, these problems can be addressed with a new 3D seismic survey - if the seismic data can be acquired, processed, interpreted and input to the simulation before drilling starts at the BM platform. The seismic acquisition could not be done with the traditional towed seismic streamer cables - instead stationary ocean bottom cables with dual geophone-hydrophone sensors were used. Processing of the seismic data was done in a way that allowed interpretation of the critical area even before acquisition of the entire survey was finished. The new 3D structure maps changed the MDT`s opinion of what reservoir and what areas contained the bulk of the oil reserves. Unfortunately, the new maps were not available until after the jacket was set but before the wells drilled. The NMT updated the simulation with the new 3D data, which led to changes in development well bottom hole locations and an ambitious horizontal well.

17. Numerical Investigation of 3D multichannel analysis of surface wave method

Wang, Limin; Xu, Yixian; Luo, Yinhe

2015-08-01

Multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is an efficient tool to obtain near-surface S-wave velocity, and it has gained popularity in engineering practice. Up to now, most examples of using the MASW technique are focused on 2D models or data from a 1D linear receiver spread. We propose a 3D MASW scheme. A finite-difference (FD) method is used to investigate the method using linear and fan-shaped receiver spreads. Results show that the 3D topography strongly affects propagation of Rayleigh waves. The energy concentration of dispersion image is distorted and bifurcated because of the influence of free-surface topography. These effects are reduced with the 3D MASW method. Lastly we investigate the relation between the array size and the resolution of dispersion measurement.

18. Quantitative 3D investigation of Neuronal network in mouse spinal cord model.

PubMed

Bukreeva, I; Campi, G; Fratini, M; Spanò, R; Bucci, D; Battaglia, G; Giove, F; Bravin, A; Uccelli, A; Venturi, C; Mastrogiacomo, M; Cedola, A

2017-01-23

The investigation of the neuronal network in mouse spinal cord models represents the basis for the research on neurodegenerative diseases. In this framework, the quantitative analysis of the single elements in different districts is a crucial task. However, conventional 3D imaging techniques do not have enough spatial resolution and contrast to allow for a quantitative investigation of the neuronal network. Exploiting the high coherence and the high flux of synchrotron sources, X-ray Phase-Contrast multiscale-Tomography allows for the 3D investigation of the neuronal microanatomy without any aggressive sample preparation or sectioning. We investigated healthy-mouse neuronal architecture by imaging the 3D distribution of the neuronal-network with a spatial resolution of 640 nm. The high quality of the obtained images enables a quantitative study of the neuronal structure on a subject-by-subject basis. We developed and applied a spatial statistical analysis on the motor neurons to obtain quantitative information on their 3D arrangement in the healthy-mice spinal cord. Then, we compared the obtained results with a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Our approach paves the way to the creation of a "database" for the characterization of the neuronal network main features for a comparative investigation of neurodegenerative diseases and therapies.

19. Quantitative 3D investigation of Neuronal network in mouse spinal cord model

PubMed Central

Bukreeva, I.; Campi, G.; Fratini, M.; Spanò, R.; Bucci, D.; Battaglia, G.; Giove, F.; Bravin, A.; Uccelli, A.; Venturi, C.; Mastrogiacomo, M.; Cedola, A.

2017-01-01

The investigation of the neuronal network in mouse spinal cord models represents the basis for the research on neurodegenerative diseases. In this framework, the quantitative analysis of the single elements in different districts is a crucial task. However, conventional 3D imaging techniques do not have enough spatial resolution and contrast to allow for a quantitative investigation of the neuronal network. Exploiting the high coherence and the high flux of synchrotron sources, X-ray Phase-Contrast multiscale-Tomography allows for the 3D investigation of the neuronal microanatomy without any aggressive sample preparation or sectioning. We investigated healthy-mouse neuronal architecture by imaging the 3D distribution of the neuronal-network with a spatial resolution of 640 nm. The high quality of the obtained images enables a quantitative study of the neuronal structure on a subject-by-subject basis. We developed and applied a spatial statistical analysis on the motor neurons to obtain quantitative information on their 3D arrangement in the healthy-mice spinal cord. Then, we compared the obtained results with a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Our approach paves the way to the creation of a “database” for the characterization of the neuronal network main features for a comparative investigation of neurodegenerative diseases and therapies. PMID:28112212

20. Quantitative 3D investigation of Neuronal network in mouse spinal cord model

Bukreeva, I.; Campi, G.; Fratini, M.; Spanò, R.; Bucci, D.; Battaglia, G.; Giove, F.; Bravin, A.; Uccelli, A.; Venturi, C.; Mastrogiacomo, M.; Cedola, A.

2017-01-01

The investigation of the neuronal network in mouse spinal cord models represents the basis for the research on neurodegenerative diseases. In this framework, the quantitative analysis of the single elements in different districts is a crucial task. However, conventional 3D imaging techniques do not have enough spatial resolution and contrast to allow for a quantitative investigation of the neuronal network. Exploiting the high coherence and the high flux of synchrotron sources, X-ray Phase-Contrast multiscale-Tomography allows for the 3D investigation of the neuronal microanatomy without any aggressive sample preparation or sectioning. We investigated healthy-mouse neuronal architecture by imaging the 3D distribution of the neuronal-network with a spatial resolution of 640 nm. The high quality of the obtained images enables a quantitative study of the neuronal structure on a subject-by-subject basis. We developed and applied a spatial statistical analysis on the motor neurons to obtain quantitative information on their 3D arrangement in the healthy-mice spinal cord. Then, we compared the obtained results with a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Our approach paves the way to the creation of a “database” for the characterization of the neuronal network main features for a comparative investigation of neurodegenerative diseases and therapies.

1. Volume estimation of rift-related magmatic features using seismic interpretation and 3D inversion of gravity data on the Guinea Plateau, West Africa

Kardell, Dominik A.

The two end-member concept of mantle plume-driven versus far field stress-driven continental rifting anticipates high volumes of magma emplaced close to the rift-initiating plume, whereas relatively low magmatic volumes are predicted at large distances from the plume where the rifting is thought to be driven by far field stresses. We test this concept at the Guinea Plateau, which represents the last area of separation between Africa and South America, by investigating for rift-related volumes of magmatism using borehole, 3D seismic, and gravity data to run structural 3D inversions in two different data areas. Despite our interpretation of igneous rocks spanning large areas of continental shelf covered by the available seismic surveys, the calculated volumes in the Guinea Plateau barely match the magmatic volumes of other magma-poor margins and thus endorse the aforementioned concept. While the volcanic units on the shelf seem to be characterized more dominantly by horizontally deposited extrusive volcanic flows distributed over larger areas, numerous paleo-seamounts pierce complexly deformed pre and syn-rift sedimentary units on the slope. As non-uniqueness is an omnipresent issue when using potential field data to model geologic features, our method faced some challenges in the areas exhibiting complicated geology. In this situation less rigid constraints were applied in the modeling process. The misfit issues were successfully addressed by filtering the frequency content of the gravity data according to the depth of the investigated geology. In this work, we classify and compare our volume estimates for rift-related magmatism between the Guinea Fracture Zone (FZ) and the Saint Paul's FZ while presenting the refinements applied to our modeling technique.

2. Reactivating of a mature oil field in the Finca-Yopales area, Venezuela, Using 3-D seismic

SciTech Connect

Sanchez, M.; Betancourt, H.

1996-08-01

The area of Finca-Yopales is located in the Eastern Venezuelan Basin in the Anzoategui State where Corpoven has the Trico and Yopales Norte fields. Based on the interpretation of 134 km{sup 2} of 3-D seismic and the geologic interpretation from 145 wells in the area, we define a better geological and structural model. We were also able to map 6 seismic reflectors corresponding to the units A8, F7, L4U and SI from the Oficina Formation, U2 top of Merecure Formation and the top of the Cretaceous, in order to generate a fault plane for all the area which was converted to depth with a lineal relationship which was obtained from wells available. From this interpretation we obtain the structural levels B4, J2, M1 and U2 which are references for the area, those being regional and trangressive events. The main feature of the structure is a high at the southeast of the area and three fault systems of Cretaceous, Miocene and post-Miocene age. This area has been exploited for a long time, having more than 93% of the inactive drilled wells. The total production up to April, 1995 is 59.14 MMbls; the Trico field is the most prolific, with more than 95% of the production. The sands L`s, U`s, O`s and S`s are the most prospective. This paper present the evaluation of the area and the analysis of the reservoir where we increased the computed reserves.

3. Investigation on 3D morphological changes of in vitro cells through digital holographic microscopy

Memmolo, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Merola, Francesco; Netti, Paolo A.; Coppola, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Pietro

2013-04-01

We report the investigation of the identification and measurement of region of interest (ROI) in quantitative phase-contrast maps (QPMs) of biological cells by digital holographic microscopy (DHM), with the aim to analyze the 3D positions and 3D morphology together. We consider as test case for our tool the in vitro bull sperm head morphometry analysis. Extraction and measurement of various morphological parameters are performed by using two methods: the anisotropic diffusion filter, that is based on the Gaussian diffusivity function which allows more accuracy of the edge position, and the simple thresholding filter. In particular we consider the calculation of area, ellipticity, perimeter, major axis, minor axis and shape factor as a morphological parameter, instead, for the estimation of 3D position, we compute the centroid, the weighted centroid and the maximum phase values. A statistical analysis on a data set composed by N = 14 holograms relative to bovine spermatozoa and its reference holograms is reported.

4. Investigations and improvements of digital holographic tomography applied for 3D studies of transmissive photonics microelements

Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Jozwicka, Agata; Kozacki, Tomasz

2008-08-01

In order to control performance of photonics microelements it is necessary to receive 3D information about their amplitude and phase distributions. To perform this task we propose to apply tomography based on projections gather by digital holography (DH). Specifically the DH capability to register several angular views of the object during a single hologram capture is employed, which may in future shorten significantly the measurement time or even allow for tomographic analysis of dynamic media. However such a new approach brings a lot of new issues to be considered. Therefore, in this paper the method limitations, with special emphasis on holographic reconstruction process, are investigated through extensive numerical experiments with special focus on 3D refractive index distribution determination.. The main errors and means of their elimination are presented. The possibility of 3D refractive index distribution determination by means of DHT is proved numerically and experimentally.

5. Seafloor surface processes and subsurface paleo-channel unconformities mapped using multi-channel seismic and multi-beam sonar data from the Galicia 3D seismic experiment.

Gibson, J. C.; Shillington, D. J.; Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Morgan, J. K.; Ranero, C.; Reston, T. J.

2015-12-01

In this study we use geophysical methods, stratigraphic relationships, and coring/drilling leg results to assess possible controls on deep-sea channel formation in order to further constrain paleo-channel (PC) and associated unconformity timing/source processes. A series of cut and fill PC are mapped in 3D multi-channel seismic (MCS) data and compared with multi-beam (MB) sonar bathymetry/backscatter data collected during the Galicia 3D survey with the R/V Marcus G. Langseth (2013). The MCS data were collected using four 6 km streamers spaced at 200 m resulting in 25 m x 25 m common mid-point bins within the ~67 km x 20 km 3D volume. The MB data were collected at an average depth of ~4900 m with a constrained swath width of 4.5 km resulting in 11.25x overlap while enabling 25-m bathymetry and 10-m backscatter grids. The PC lie below the mouth of a submarine canyon at the edge of the Galicia abyssal plain and cut pre/syn-rift sediments; they are bound by a rift block to the north and paleo-levees to the south (maximum height of ~180m). From drilling results, the most recent PC is late Miocene in age. In this study, four PC are traced into the basin as unconformities. Several of the PC/unconformities are tentatively correlated with previously interpreted Pyrenean orogeny/compressional Miocene/Oligocene tectonic events. However, one PC/unconformity within this interval has not been previously interpreted. In order test the hypothesis that the unconformities are the result of a significant change in base level indicated by a low shale/sand (SS) ratio, we use seismic surface attributes to calculate the SS ratio and trace the horizontal extent of the unconformities. Additionally, the MB/MCS seafloor morphology reveals sedimentary waves outboard of the canyon mouth. We use backscatter data to compare the extent of recent processes (e.g., Pleistocene glaciation/de-glaciation) with the unconformities by mapping the surface/shallow subsurface SS ratio (volume scattering).

6. Delineating Potential Quick-clay Areas Using High-resolution Seismic Methods: Towards a 3D Model of an Area Prone to Slide in SW Sweden

Salas Romero, S.; Malehmir, A.; Snowball, I.

2015-12-01

Quick clay can liquefy under increased stress and is responsible for major landslides in Sweden, Norway and Canada, but despite extensive investigations delineating quick clay remains a challenge. As part of a large multidisciplinary project, this study focuses on an area prone to quick-clay landslides in SW Sweden. P- and S-wave seismic, electrical resistivity tomography, and RMT (radio-magnetotelluric) data obtained in 2011 (Malehmir et al. 2013) suggested the presence of a coarse-grained layer of variable thickness sandwiched between clays, with quick clay above. The coarse-grained layer was assumed to accelerate the formation of quick clay, influencing its thickness. Additional geophysical data (reflection and refraction seismic, and RMT) and studies of three boreholes drilled in 2013, with the aim to intersect the coarse-grained layer, extended the area covered in 2011. Here we report on four seismic profiles (total length 3.5 km) acquired in 2013, combined with side-scan and single channel reflection seismic data along a river, which was believed to be important in the context of quick-clay landslides. Wireless (50-1C-10 Hz and 24-3C-broadband) and cabled sensors (323-28 Hz), 4-10 m apart, were used for the data acquisition of the longest profile (nearly 2 km long). Dynamite, accelerated weight-drop and sledgehammer were used as seismic sources. Simultaneous data acquisition for two parallel profiles, about 300 m apart, provides additional information. Preliminary results delineate the bedrock and its undulation near and in the river. We believe that overlying reflections are caused by the coarse-grained materials, whose lateral extension is considerably larger than previously thought. This may imply a wider area containing quick clay and hence at risk of slope failure. The new data and previous results are combined to construct a high-resolution 3D subsurface model that focuses on the coarse-grained layer and potential quick-clay areas. Malehmir A, Bastani M

7. Investigating the Enrichment of a 3D City Model with Various CityGML Modules

Floros, G.; Dimopoulou, E.

2016-10-01

Recent developments in the massive 3D acquisition area made possible the generation of dense and precise 3D data, ranging from the representation of a simple building to a whole city. Nowadays, increasing urbanization, rapid growth of urban areas, and subsequently development of mega cities, are among the most important changes occurring worldwide. Therefore, developing techniques to manage these cities seems quite necessary. The aim of this paper is to investigate the enrichment of a 3D City Model with additional attributes, via appropriate CityGML Modules. The paper focuses on addressing the challenging issues that derive from a complex virtual 3D city modeling. More specifically, the paper investigates a complex built-up area, presenting and analyzing its constituting structures. Within this framework, the following CityGML modules are investigated: Bridge, Transportation Complex, CityFurniture, Land Use and Vegetation. To this purpose, the BIM-Standard software Trimble SketchUp and the data conversion tool FME are used. The processes of both modeling and converting are analyzed in detail. General conclusions and future research considerations are presented.

8. Impact of 3-D seismic data on the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture development drilling program

SciTech Connect

Quam, S. )

1993-09-01

The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture has been acquiring three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data over its concessions since 1984. To date, 1700 km[sup 2] have been recorded and processed at a cumulative cost of US \$39 million. During 1991 - 1992, 20 development wells were drilled based directly on new 3-D seismic interpretations. These wells have added 148 million bbl of oil in new recoverable reserves, and to date have added 37,000 bbl/day to the joint venture's production. In addition, the 3-D interpretations have resulted in a sizable inventory of wells for future development drilling. The new 3-D interpretations provided more accurate pictures of fault patterns, fluid contacts, channel trends, stratigraphic continuity, and velocity/amplitude anomalies. In addition, the 3-D data were invaluable in designing low risk, directional well trajectories to tap relatively thin oil legs under large gas caps. Wells often were programmed to hit several objectives at their respective gas/oil contacts, resulting in maximized net oil sand pays and reducing the risk of gas production. In order to do this, directional [open quotes]sharpshooting,[close quotes] accurate depth conversion of the seismic time maps, was critical. By using the 3-D seismic, checkshot, and sonic data to develop a variable velocity space, well-top prognoses within 50 ft at depths of 6,000-10,000 ft were possible, and were key to the success of the program. As the joint venture acreage becomes more mature, development wells will be drilled for smaller numbers of stacked objectives, and sometimes for single sands. Highly accurate 3-D interpretations and depth conversions will become even more critical in order to tap thinner pay zones in a cost-effect manner.

9. Leveraging 3D Wheeler Diagrams and relative time mapping in seismic data to improve stratigraphic interpretation: Application, Assumptions, and Sequence Stratigraphic Revelations

Goggin, L. R.

2014-12-01

Our understanding of subsurface stratigraphic relationships is guided by stratigraphic concepts that were developed using many varieties and scales of data including paleontological samples, cuttings and core, outcrop analogs, well logs, and seismic. Subsurface stratigraphic correlations are strongly influenced by the type, density, and distribution of the data available. The exploration geologist typically interprets 2D and 3D seismic reflections to define prospects and plays. In structurally simple areas, he or she often assumes that seismic reflectors mark depositional boundaries that are essentially time-synchronous events represented by a single wavelet character. In reality, seismic reflectors usually display spatial wavelet variability, seldom resolve individual beds and are the product of the amplitude expression of a range of lithologic changes that encompasses a range of geologic time and depositional processes. Our assumption that seismic reflections are time-synchronous can lead to errors in stratigraphic correlation that only become evident when our prediction of well or field performance is unrealized. To mitigate the potential for this correlation error, we must modify how we interpret seismic data. In this presentation we will focus on the concept of defining or approximating time-correlative surfaces in seismic data, leverage concepts of the Wheeler transform to place these seismic reflectors into the relative time domain and then examine the diachronous nature of these time-mapped surfaces in 3D. We will then explore how the 3D mapping of time-correlative surfaces fits sequence stratigraphic concepts and discuss whether this new approach requires us to change our interpretation paradigms.

10. Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect

SciTech Connect

Frary, R.; Louie, J.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Eisses, A.

2016-08-01

Roxanna Frary, John N. Louie, Sathish Pullammanappallil, Amy Eisses, 2011, Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract T13G-07.

11. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

2017-03-01

The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

12. Hypocenter relocation using a fast grid search method and a 3-D seismic velocity model for the Sumatra region

SciTech Connect

Nugroho, Hendro; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian

2013-09-09

Determination of earthquake hypocenter in Indonesia conducted by the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) has still used a 1-D seismic velocity model. In this research, we have applied a Fast Grid Search (FGM) method and a 3-D velocity model resulting from tomographic imaging to relocate earthquakes in the Sumatran region. The data were taken from the MCGA data catalog from 2009 to 2011 comprising of subduction zone and on land fault earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 Mw. Our preliminary results show some significant changes in the depths of the relocated earthquakes which are in general deeper than the depths of hypocenters from the MCGA data catalog. The residual times resulting from the relocation process are smaller than those prior to the relocation. Encouraged by these results, we will continue to conduct hypocenter relocation for all events from the MCGA data catalog periodically in order to produce a new data catalog with good quality. We hope that the new data catalog will be useful for further studies.

13. 3D geological to geophysical modelling and seismic wave propagation simulation: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides) mining camp

Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles

2014-05-01

The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to

14. Do fault-related folds follow the same scaling law as their associated faults? A study using 3D seismic reflection data

Pitcher, Eleanor; Imber, Jonathan

2016-04-01

Fractal distributions are largely agreed to follow a power-law distribution. Power-law scaling relationships describe the size distribution of fault lengths or displacements. Being able to identify these scaling properties provides a powerful tool for predicting the numbers of geological structures, such as small-scale faults in sedimentary basins that are below the resolution of seismic reflection data. The aim of this study is to determine whether fault-related folds follow the same power law scaling properties, or if they follow a different scaling law. We use TrapTester to interpret a 3D seismic volume from the Gulf of Mexico to construct fault planes and cut-off lines along selected horizons in the vicinity of fault upper tip lines. Fault-related folds are particularly well developed above steeply plunging tip lines, but are discontinuous along the strike of the fault plane. Folding is less well developed on horizons that intersect, or lie close to, the locus of maximum throw (bullseye) of the fault plane. We then measured fold amplitudes and fault throws across these same horizons using a one-dimensional multi-line sampling approach. Graphs of fault throw and fold amplitude vs. distance parallel to fault strike show that folds occur where there is no resolvable fault throw, and that fault throw and fold amplitudes show an approximately inverse relationship. Close to the locus of maximum throw, there is largely just faulting, whilst at the upper tip line folding predominates. By plotting cumulative frequency against throw for the fault and fold data we can investigate whether the data follow a power law, log normal or exponential distribution. Plotting the data on log vs. log (power law), linear vs. log (log normal) and log vs. linear (exponential) axes allow us to establish which displays the best "straight-line fit". We observed that the fault throw data satisfied a straight-line on a log vs. log graph - implying a power law distribution - and also returned

15. 3-D seismic delineation and geologic explanation of channelization in the Frio Formation of Javelina/East McCook Field, Hidalgo County, Texas

SciTech Connect

Gibson, J.L.

1994-09-01

Sinuous, channel-form features were recognized on seismic amplitude time-slice maps of the shallow Oligocene Frio Formation on several Shell proprietary 3-D seismic surveys in west-central Hidalgo County, Texas. A case study of channel morphologies observed in the Frio Formation within the 50 mi{sup 2} 3-D seismic survey over Javelina/East McCook field was undertaken to better understand the distribution, lithology, origin, and hydrocarbon potential of these features. Ten separate channel-like amplitude features are observed in flattened time slices within a 200 m (approximately 1100 ft) interval on 3-D seismic. The channels have various azimuthal orientations and varying degrees of sinuosity. Several of the features have lengths that span the 3-D survey area (10 mi); apparent channel widths range from 200 to 2000 ft. The channelized seismic events tie to an interval of interbedded mudstones and claystones with siltstones. Two of the channels seen on seismic, and which were penetrated by wells, correlate to siftstone and mudstone intervals that have gross thicknesses of 30 to 60 ft. The lithologies and dimensions of the two channels indicate that they are probably small mudstone/siltstone-filled tributary/distributary channels deposited in a coastal floodplain environment; a comparison of the apparent channel dimensions to the dimensions of small channels/bayous of the modern-day Texas Gulf Coast supports this interpretation. Correlation of wells adjacent to the channels indicates that sandy point-bar facies are not present in association with the channel fill, which discounts the idea that high-quality reservoirs are flanking these particular mud-filled channels.

16. Rock formation characterization for CO2-EOR and carbon geosequestration; 3D seismic amplitude and coherency anomalies, Wellington Field, Kansas, USA

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ohl, D.; Raef, A.; Watnef, L.; Bhattacharya, S.

2011-01-01

In this paper, we present a workflow for a Mississipian carbonates characterization case-study integrating post-stack seismic attributes, well-logs porosities, and seismic modeling to explore relating changes in small-scale "lithofacies" properties and/or sub-seismic resolution faulting to key amplitude and coherency 3D seismic attributes. The main objective of this study is to put emphasis on reservoir characterization that is both optimized for and subsequently benefiting from pilot tertiary CO2-EOR in preparation for future carbon geosequestration in a depleting reservoir and a deep saline aquifer. The extracted 3D seismic coherency attribute indicated anomalous features that can be interpreted as a lithofacies change or a sub-seismic resolution faulting. A 2D finite difference modeling has been undertaken to understand and potentially build discriminant attributes to map structural and/or lithofacies anomalies of interest especially when embarking upon CO2-EOR and/or carbon sequestration monitoring and management projects. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

17. Mapping the North Sea base-Quaternary: using 3D seismic to fill a gap in the geological record

Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

2014-05-01

The identification and mapping of the base-Quaternary boundary in the central parts of the North Sea is problematic due to the change from an unconformable transition between Pliocene and Pleistocene deltaic deposits in the southern North Sea to a conformable one further north (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). The best estimates of the transition use seismic reflection data to identify a 'crenulated reflector' (Buckley 2012), or rely on correlating sparse biostratigraphy (Cameron et al 1987). Recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) allows greater confidence in the correlation to a regional 3D seismic dataset and show that the base-Quaternary can be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The mapped horizon is presented here alongside the difference between this new interpretation and the previously interpreted base-Quaternary (Buckley 2012). The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT or approximately 1120 m (assuming average velocity of 1800 m/s) showing an elongate basin shape that follows the underlying structure of the Central Graben. The difference between the revised base-Quaternary and the traditional base-Quaternary reaches a maximum of over 600 ms TWT or approximately 540 m in the south-west with over 300 ms TWT or approximately 270 m at the Josephine well (56° 36.11'N, 2° 27.09'E) in the centre of the basin. Mapping this new base-Quaternary allows for the interpretation of the paleo-envionrment during the earliest Quaternary. Seismic attribute analysis indicates a deep water basin with sediment deposition from multiple deltas and redistribution by deep

18. Geomorphologic characteristics of debris flows in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (Japan Sea) interpreted from 3-D seismic data and their implications

MO, C.; Park, G.; Lee, G.; Yi, B.; Yoo, D.

2012-12-01

We processed and analyzed the 3-D seismic data from the southern central part of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (Japan Sea) to investigate the geomorphologic characteristics of the debris flows. The data processing included dip moveout, post-stack migration, and acquisition footprint removal. The curvature attributes of the seafloor show numerous bubble- or dot-like features that form a N-S to NNE-SSW trending narrow (ca. 2 km wide) zone in the western part of the area. The bubble-like features correspond to the irregular seafloor in the seismic profiles. At least nine debris flows, which advanced largely north and northeastward, were identified from the seafloor to the sub-seafloor depth of about 300 m. The debris flows are lens- or wedge-shaped in cross section, characterized by structureless or transparent to chaotic internal reflections, and elongate or lobate in plan view. The largest debris flow exceeds the 3D seismic data coverage (16 km by 25 km) and its thickness reaches about 60 m. Some debris flows are very thin and amalgamated or coalesced, making it difficult to interpret the individual flows. The similarity and curvature attributes of the basal contact of some debris flows show numerous long grooves, erosional scars, and bubble- or dot-like features similar to those seen in the seafloor. The grooves, interpreted to be caused by large clasts imbedded at the base of the debris flows, diverge and become slightly wider (< 500 m in width) downslope. The grooves are better imaged away from the main transport axis of the debris flows where the bubble-like features obscure the grooves. The zone with the bubble-like features in the seafloor coincides with the main axis of the thickest and most extensive debris flow. The bubble-like features in both the seafoor and the basal contact of the debris flows may represent the active fluid seeps. The decrease in the number of the bubble-like features away from the axis of the debris flows probably suggest decreasing pore

19. Investigation of Presage 3D Dosimetry as a Method of Clinically Intuitive Quality Assurance and Comparison to a Semi-3D Delta4 System

Crockett, Ethan Van

The need for clinically intuitive metrics for patient-specific quality assurance in radiation therapy has been well-documented (Zhen, Nelms et al. 2011). A novel transform method has shown to be effective at converting full-density 3D dose measurements made in a phantom to dose values in the patient geometry, enabling comparisons using clinically intuitive metrics such as dose-volume histograms (Oldham et al. 2011). This work investigates the transform method and compares its calculated dose-volume histograms (DVHs) to DVH values calculated by a Delta4 QA device (Scandidos), marking the first comparison of a true 3D system to a semi-3D device using clinical metrics. Measurements were made using Presage 3D dosimeters, which were readout by an in-house optical-CT scanner. Three patient cases were chosen for the study: one head-and-neck VMAT treatment and two spine IMRT treatments. The transform method showed good agreement with the planned dose values for all three cases. Furthermore, the transformed DVHs adhered to the planned dose with more accuracy than the Delta4 DVHs. The similarity between the Delta4 DVHs and the transformed DVHs, however, was greater for one of the spine cases than it was for the head-and-neck case, implying that the accuracy of the Delta4 Anatomy software may vary from one treatment site to another. Overall, the transform method, which incorporates data from full-density 3D dose measurements, provides clinically intuitive results that are more accurate and consistent than the corresponding results from a semi-3D Delta 4 system.

20. A successful 3D seismic survey in the ``no-data zone,`` offshore Mississippi delta: Survey design and refraction static correction processing

SciTech Connect

Carvill, C.; Faris, N.; Chambers, R.

1996-12-31

This is a success story of survey design and refraction static correction processing of a large 3D seismic survey in the South Pass area of the Mississippi delta. In this transition zone, subaqueous mudflow gullies and lobes of the delta, in various states of consolidation and gas saturation, are strong absorbers of seismic energy. Seismic waves penetrating the mud are severely restricted in bandwidth and variously delayed by changes in mud velocity and thickness. Using a delay-time refraction static correction method, the authors find compensation for the various delays, i.e., static corrections, commonly vary 150 ms over a short distance. Application of the static corrections markedly improves the seismic stack volume. This paper shows that intelligent survey design and delay-time refraction static correction processing economically eliminate the historic no data status of this area.

1. Quantitative investigation of chemical shrinkage stress in flip chip using a 3D moire interferometry system

Su, Fei; Liu, Lie; Yi, Sung; Chian, Kerm S.

2002-06-01

Thermo-mechanical reliability is a key issue of IC packaging. In this paper, the chemical shrinkage stress caused by the underfill curing is quantitatively investigated: DSC test result provides the basis for the determination of temperature profile for the curing of underfill. The 3D deformation of the flip chip during the underfill curing process is measured with 3D Moire interferometry system. Also a simple theoretical model is set up for this problem, DMA test provide the necessary parameters for this model. The experimental and theoretical results agree well with each other, both results show that the chemical shrinkage stress is fairly small when compared with the thermal residual stress, so this part of residual stress can be neglected in the commonly used finite element analysis (FEA) model.

2. An investigation of unsteady 3D effects on trailing edge flaps

Jost, E.; Fischer, A.; Lutz, T.; Krämer, E.

2016-09-01

The present study investigates the impact of unsteady and viscous three-dimensional aerodynamic effects on a wind turbine blade with trailing edge flap by means of CFD. Harmonic oscillations are simulated on the DTU 10 MW rotor with a flap of 10% chord extent ranging from 70% to 80% blade radius. The deflection frequency is varied in the range between 1p and 6p. To quantify 3D effects, rotor simulations are compared to 2D airfoil computations. A significant influence of trailing and shed vortex structures has been found which leads to a reduction of the lift amplitude and hysteresis effects in the lift response with regard to the flap deflection. In the 3D rotor results greater amplitude reductions and less hystereses have been found compared to the 2D airfoil simulations.

3. Investigation of osteoblast cells behavior in polymeric 3D micropatterned scaffolds using digital holographic microscopy.

PubMed

Mihailescu, M; Popescu, R C; Matei, A; Acasandrei, A; Paun, I A; Dinescu, M

2014-08-01

The effect of micropatterned polymeric scaffolds on the features of the cultured cells at different time intervals after seeding was investigated by digital holographic microscopy. Both parallel and perpendicular walls, with different heights, were fabricated using two-photon lithography on photopolymers. The walls were subsequently coated with polypyrrole-based thin films using the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique. Osteoblast-like cells, MG-63 line, were cultured on these polymeric 3D micropatterned scaffolds. To analyze these scaffolds with/without cultured cells, an inverted digital holographic microscope, which provides 3D images, was used. Information about the samples' refractive indices and heights was obtained from the phase shift introduced in the optical path. Characteristics of cell adhesion, alignment, orientation, and morphology as a function of the wall heights and time from seeding were highlighted.

4. Investigating the Bag-of-Words Method for 3D Shape Retrieval

Li, Xiaolan; Godil, Afzal

2010-12-01

This paper investigates the capabilities of the Bag-of-Words (BWs) method in the 3D shape retrieval field. The contributions of this paper are (1) the 3D shape retrieval task is categorized from different points of view: specific versus generic, partial-to-global retrieval (PGR) versus global-to-global retrieval (GGR), and articulated versus nonarticulated (2) the spatial information, represented as concentric spheres, is integrated into the framework to improve the discriminative ability (3) the analysis of the experimental results on Purdue Engineering Benchmark (PEB) reveals that some properties of the BW approach make it perform better on the PGR task than the GGR task (4) the BW approach is evaluated on nonarticulated database PEB and articulated database McGill Shape Benchmark (MSB) and compared to other methods.

5. Analysis of shallow gas and fluid migration within the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the SW Barents Sea continental margin using 3D seismic data

Andreassen, Karin; Nilssen, Espen Glad; Ødegaard, Christian M.

2007-06-01

Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data acquired for hydrocarbon exploration reveal that gas accumulations are common within the 2 3 km thick Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphic column of the south-western Barents Sea continental margin. The 3D seismic data have relatively low-frequency content (<40 Hz) but, due to dense spatial sampling, long source-receiver offsets, 3D migration and advanced interpretation techniques, they provide surprisingly detailed images of inferred gas accumulations and the sedimentary environments in which they occur. The presence of gas is inferred from seismic reflection segments with anomalously high amplitude and reversed phase, compared with the seafloor reflection, so-called bright spots. Fluid migration is inferred from vertical zones of acoustic masking and acoustic pipes. The 3D seismic volume allows a spatial analysis of amplitude anomalies inferred to reflect the presence of gas and fluids. At several locations, seismic attribute maps reveal detailed images of flat spots, inferred to represent gas water interfaces. The data indicate a focused fluid migration system, where sub-vertical faults and zones of highly fractured sediments are conduits for the migration of gas-bearing fluids in Plio-Pleistocene sediments. Gas is interpreted to appear in high-porosity fan-shaped sediment lobes, channel and delta deposits, glacigenic debris flows and sediment blocks, probably sealed by low-permeability, clayey till and/or (glacio)marine sediments. Gas and fluid flow are here attributed mainly to rapid Plio-Pleistocene sedimentation that loaded large amounts of sedimentary material over lower-density, fine-grained Eocene oozes. This probably caused pore-fluid dewatering of the high-fluid content oozes through a network of polygonal faults. The study area is suggested to have experienced cycles of fluid expulsion and hydrocarbon migration associated with glacial interglacial cycles.

6. Geomorphology of Late Quaternary Mass Movement Deposits using a Decimetre-Resolution 3D Seismic Volume: Case Studies from Windermere, UK, and Trondheimsfjorden, Norway

Vardy, M. E.; Dix, J. K.; Henstock, T.; Bull, J. M.; Pinson, L.; L'Heureux, J.; Longva, O.; Hansen, L.; Chand, S.; Gutowski, M.

2009-12-01

We present results from decimetre resolution 3D seismic volumes acquired over Late Quaternary mass movement deposits in both Lake Windermere, UK, and the Trondheim Harbour area, central Norway. Both deposits were imaged using the 3D Chirp sub-bottom profiler, which combines the known, highly repeatable source waveform of Chirp profilers with the coherent processing and interpretation afforded by true 3D seismic volumes. Reflector morphology from these two volumes are used to identify and map structure on scales of 10s cm to 100s metres. This shows the applicability of the method for the interpretation of failure mechanism, flow morphology and depositional style in these two environments. In Windermere, Younger Dryas deposits have been substantially reworked by the episodic redistribution of sediment from the steep lakesides into the basin. Within the 100 x 400 m 3D seismic volume we identify two small debris flow deposits (1500 m3 and 60,000 m3) and one large (500,000 m3) erosive mass flow deposit. These two depositional mechanisms are distinct. The debris flows have high amplitude, chaotic internal reflections, with a high amplitude reflector representing a lower erosional boundary, discontinuous low amplitude top reflector, and thin out rapidly with distance from the lake margin. The thicker mass flow unit lacks internal structure, and has high amplitude top and base reflectors,. In the Trondheim Harbour we image the down-slope extent of three large slide blocks (which have a net volume > 1 x 106 m3), mobilised by a landslide in 1990, in the 100 x 450 m 3D seismic volume. The morphology of these mass movement deposits is distinct again; demonstrating translational failure along a clear slip plane, leaving well defined slide scars, and forming prominent compressional/extensional structures.

7. Multicomponent, 3-D, and High-Resolution 2-D Seismic Characterization of Gas Hydrate Study Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

Haines, S. S.; Hart, P. E.; Ruppel, C. D.; Collett, T. S.; Shedd, W.; Lee, M. W.; Miller, J.

2012-12-01

High saturations of gas hydrates have been identified within coarse-grained sediments in the Green Canyon 955 and Walker Ridge 313 lease blocks of the deepwater northern Gulf of Mexico. The thickness, lateral extent, and hydrate saturations in these deposits are constrained by geological and geophysical data and state-of-the-art logging-while-drilling information obtained in multiple boreholes at each site during a 2009 expedition. Presently lacking are multicomponent seismic data that can provide a thorough understanding of the in-situ compressional and shear seismic properties of the hydrate-bearing sediments. Such data may represent an important tool for future characterization of gas hydrate resources. To address this data gap, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management will collaborate on a 20-day research expedition to acquire wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer and high-resolution vertical incidence 2-D seismic data at the study sites. In preparation for this mid-2013 expedition, we have analyzed existing industry 3-D seismic data, along with numerically modeled multicomponent data. The 3-D seismic data allow us to identify and rank specific survey targets and can be combined with the numerical modeling results to determine optimal survey line orientation and acquisition parameters. Together, these data also provide a more thorough understanding of the gas hydrate systems at these two sites.

8. Investigating the feasibility of 3D dosimetry in the RPC IMRT H&N phantom

Sakhalkar, H. S.; Sterling, D.; Adamovics, J.; Ibbott, G.; Oldham, M.

2009-05-01

An urgent requirement for 3D dosimetry has been recognized because of high failure rate (~25%) in RPC credentialing, which relies on point and 2D dose measurements. Comprehensive 3D dosimetry is likely to resolve more errors and improve IMRT quality assurance. This work presents an investigation of the feasibility of PRESAGE/optical-CT 3D dosimetry in the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) IMRT H&N phantom. The RPC H&N phantom (with standard and PRESAGE dosimetry inserts alternately) was irradiated with the same IMRT plan. The TLD and EBT film measurement data from standard insert irradiation was provided by RPC. The 3D dose measurement data from PRESAGE insert irradiation was readout using the OCTOPUS™ 5X optical-CT scanner at Duke. TLD, EBT and PRESAGE dose measurements were inter-compared with Eclipse calculations to evaluate consistency of planning and delivery. Results showed that the TLD point dose measurements agreed with Eclipse calculations to within 5% dose-difference. Relative dose comparison between Eclipse dose, EBT dose and PRESAGE dose was conducted using profiles and gamma comparisons (4% dose-difference and 4 mm distance-to-agreement). Profiles showed good agreement between measurement and calculation except along steep dose gradient regions where Eclipse modelling might be inaccurate. Gamma comparisons showed that the measurement and calculation showed good agreement (>96%) if edge artefacts in measurements are ignored. In conclusion, the PRESAGE/optical-CT dosimetry system was found to be feasible as an independent dosimetry tool in the RPC IMRT H&N phantom.

9. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

SciTech Connect

1996-10-01

The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field.

10. Integration of 2D and 3D reflection seismic data with deep boreholes in the Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, northern Finland

Koivisto, Emilia; Malehmir, Alireza; Voipio, Teemu; Wijns, Chris

2013-04-01

Kevitsa is a large disseminated sulphide Ni-Cu-PGE deposit hosted by the Kevitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion in northern Finland and dated as about 2.06 Ga old. The Geological Survey of Finland first discovered the Kevitsa deposit in 1987. Open pit mining by Kevitsa Mining Oy/First Quantum Minerals Ltd. commenced in June 2012. The final pit depth is planned to be 550-600 m. The estimated ore reserves of the Kevitsa intrusion are about 240 million tones (using a nickel cut-off grade of 0.1%). The expected life-of-mine is 20-30 years. More than 400 hundred holes have been drilled in the Kevitsa area, but most are concentrated close to the known deposit and do not provide a comprehensive understanding of the extent of the intrusion. The basal contact of the intrusion is penetrated by only about 30 drill holes, most of which are shallow. A better knowledge of the geometry of the intrusion would provide a framework for near-mine and deep exploration in the area. An exact knowledge on the basal contact of the intrusion would also provide an exploration target for the contact-type mineralization that is often more massive and richer in Ni-Cu. In December 2007, a series of 2D reflection seismic profiles was acquired in the Kevitsa area. It consisted of four connected survey lines between 6 and 11 km long. In 2010, the initial positive results of the 2D seismic survey led Kevitsa Mining Oy/First Quantum Minerals Ltd. to initiate a 3D reflection seismic survey. The 3D seismic survey is limited to the closer vicinity of the known deposit, while the 2D seismic survey was designed to provide a more regional view of the Kevitsa intrusive complex. The main aims of the 2D and 3D seismic surveys were to delineate the shape and extent of the ore-bearing Kevitsa intrusion and the geometry of some of the host rock and surrounding units, and extract information about the larger-scale structures and structures important for mine-planning purposes. The 2D and 3D seismic data were used to

11. COMBINING A NEW 3-D SEISMIC S-WAVE PROPAGATION ANALYSIS FOR REMOTE FRACTURE DETECTION WITH A ROBUST SUBSURFACE MICROFRACTURE-BASED VERIFICATION TECHNIQUE

SciTech Connect

Bob Hardage; M.M. Backus; M.V. DeAngelo; R.J. Graebner; S.E. Laubach; Paul Murray

2004-02-01

Fractures within the producing reservoirs at McElroy Field could not be studied with the industry-provided 3C3D seismic data used as a cost-sharing contribution in this study. The signal-to-noise character of the converted-SV data across the targeted reservoirs in these contributed data was not adequate for interpreting azimuth-dependent data effects. After illustrating the low signal quality of the converted-SV data at McElroy Field, the seismic portion of this report abandons the McElroy study site and defers to 3C3D seismic data acquired across a different fractured carbonate reservoir system to illustrate how 3C3D seismic data can provide useful information about fracture systems. Using these latter data, we illustrate how fast-S and slow-S data effects can be analyzed in the prestack domain to recognize fracture azimuth, and then demonstrate how fast-S and slow-S data volumes can be analyzed in the poststack domain to estimate fracture intensity. In the geologic portion of the report, we analyze published regional stress data near McElroy Field and numerous formation multi-imager (FMI) logs acquired across McElroy to develop possible fracture models for the McElroy system. Regional stress data imply a fracture orientation different from the orientations observed in most of the FMI logs. This report culminates Phase 2 of the study, ''Combining a New 3-D Seismic S-Wave Propagation Analysis for Remote Fracture Detection with a Robust Subsurface Microfracture-Based Verification Technique''. Phase 3 will not be initiated because wells were to be drilled in Phase 3 of the project to verify the validity of fracture-orientation maps and fracture-intensity maps produced in Phase 2. Such maps cannot be made across McElroy Field because of the limitations of the available 3C3D seismic data at the depth level of the reservoir target.

12. Investigation of a 3D head-mounted projection display using retro-reflective screen.

PubMed

Héricz, Dalma; Sarkadi, Tamás; Lucza, Viktor; Kovács, Viktor; Koppa, Pál

2014-07-28

We propose a compact head-worn 3D display which provides glasses-free full motion parallax. Two picoprojectors placed on the viewer's head project images on a retro-reflective screen that reflects left and right images to the appropriate eyes of the viewer. The properties of different retro-reflective screen materials have been investigated, and the key parameters of the projection - brightness and cross-talk - have been calculated. A demonstration system comprising two projectors, a screen tracking system and a commercial retro-reflective screen has been developed to test the visual quality of the proposed approach.

13. 3-D frequency-domain seismic wave modelling in heterogeneous, anisotropic media using a Gaussian Quadrature Grid (GQG) approach

Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Maurer, Hansruedi

2010-05-01

We have developed a modified version of the spectral element method (SEM), called the Gaussian Quadrature Grid (GQG) approach, for frequency domain 3D seismic modelling in arbitrary heterogeneous, anisotropic media. The model may incorporate an arbitrary free-surface topography and irregular subsurface interfaces. Unlike the SEM ,it does not require a powerful mesh generator such as the Delauney Triangular or TetGen. Rather, the GQG approach replaces the element mesh with Gaussian quadrature abscissae to directly sample the physical properties of the model parameters and compute the weighted residual or variational integral. This renders the model discretisation simple and easily matched to the model topography, as well as direct control of the model paramterisation for subsequent inversion. In addition, it offers high accuracy in numerical modelling provided that an appropriate density of the Gaussian quadrature abscissae is employed. The second innovation of the GQG is the incorporation of a new implementation of perfectly matched layers to suppress artificial reflections from the domain margins. We employ PML model parameters (specified complex valued density and elastic moduli) rather than explicitly solving the governing wave equation with a complex co-ordinate system as in conventional approaches. Such an implementation is simple, general, effective and easily extendable to any class of anisotropy and other numerical modelling methods. The accuracy of the GQG approach is controlled by the number of Gaussian quadrature points per minimum wavelength, the so-called sampling density. The optimal sampling density should be the one which enables high definition of geological characteristics and high precision of the variational integral evaluation and spatial differentiation. Our experiments show that satisfactory results can be obtained using sampling densities of 5 points per minimum wavelength. Efficiency of the GQG approach mainly depends on the linear

14. 3D seismic analysis of the Collyhurst Sandstone: implications for CO2 sequestration in the East Irish Sea Basin

Gamboa, Davide; Williams, John; Kirk, Karen; Gent, Christopher; Bentham, Michelle; Fellgett, Mark; Schofield, David

2016-04-01

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a vital technology towards low-carbon energy resources and the mitigation of global warming trends induced by rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The East Irish Sea Basin (EISB) is a key area for CCS in the western UK, having high CO2 storage potentials in explored hydrocarbon fields and in saline aquifers within the Permo-Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Formation. However, the theoretical storage potential of the EISB could be poorly estimated as the reservoir-prone Lower Permian formations are not considered in detail by current estimations. This work aims to fill this gap, focusing on the characterisation of the Lower Permian Collyhurst Sandstone Formation as a viable storage unit. The potential for CO2 storage is estimated as the total volume/area of suitable closures that are isolated by structural traps, occurring at depths suitable for CO2 injection and containment (>800m). Detailed structural and stratigraphic interpretations were made using 3D seismic data to assess the storage potential of the Collyhurst Sandstone Formation in the southern EISB. The basin strata is compartmentalised by numerous N-S trending faults. A higher degree of compartmentalisation occurs within regional anticlines where elongated tilted blocks are observed, bound by predominantly west-dipping faults that induce a variable offset of the Collyhurst Sandstone strata. Contrastingly, higher lateral continuity of this formation is observed within graben basins were faults are less frequent and with minor offset, thus potentially creating larger storage closures. Fault dip orientation in the grabens is variable, with west and east dipping faults occurring as a function of large east-dipping listric faults. This study was complemented by the stress modelling of the interpreted faults in order to assess the risk of CO2 leakage. Analysis of borehole breakouts observed in four approximately vertical wells in the EISB suggest a maximum horizontal stress

15. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forging Process to Reproduce a 3D Aluminium Foam Complex Shape

SciTech Connect

Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Umbrello, Domenico; Shivpuri, Rajiv

2007-05-17

Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load.

16. Multinational seismic investigation focuses on Rabaul volcano

Gudmundsson, O.; Johnson, R. W.; Finlayson, D. M.; Nishimura, Y.; Shimamura, H.; Terashima, A.; Itikarai, I.; Thurber, C.

An improved disaster-reduction strategy for civil authorities and communities on the Gazelle Peninsula in Papua New Guinea is anticipated as a result of a multinational seismic investigation now under way there. Data collection has been completed but interpretation is at a preliminary stage. Volcanic eruptions in 1994 devastated the town of Rabaul and other communities on the peninsula.The investigation, known as the Rabaul Earthquake Location and Caldera Structure (RELACS) program, is building a seismic tomography image of the Rabaul volcano that will improve the precision with which volcano-related earthquakes can be located in real time. This will enable the Rabaul Volcanological Observatory (RVO) to interpret seismicity patterns in detail and provide better advice to civil authorities. Among other things, the scientific analytical capacity of RVO will be upgraded by improving knowledge about the subsurface structure of the caldera. Conducting the work are scientists from the Australian Geological Survey Organisation (AGSO), the Australian National University (ANU), the University of Hokkaido in Japan, and the University of Wisconsin (UW) in the United States.

17. Gas in Place Resource Assessment for Concentrated Hydrate Deposits in the Kumano Forearc Basin, Offshore Japan, from NanTroSEIZE and 3D Seismic Data

2015-12-01

Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) are crystalline inclusion compounds that form within the pore spaces of marine sediments along continental margins worldwide. It has been proposed that these NGH deposits are the largest dynamic reservoir of organic carbon on this planet, yet global estimates for the amount of gas in place (GIP) range across several orders of magnitude. Thus there is a tremendous need for climate scientists and countries seeking energy security to better constrain the amount of GIP locked up in NGHs through the development of rigorous exploration strategies and standardized reservoir characterization methods. This research utilizes NanTroSEIZE drilling data from International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites C0002 and C0009 to constrain 3D seismic interpretations of the gas hydrate petroleum system in the Kumano Forearc Basin. We investigate the gas source, fluid migration mechanisms and pathways, and the 3D distribution of prospective HCZs. There is empirical and interpretive evidence that deeply sourced fluids charge concentrated NGH deposits just above the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) appearing in the seismic data as continuous bottoms simulating reflections (BSRs). These HCZs cover an area of 11 by 18 km, range in thickness between 10 - 80 m with an average thickness of 40 m, and are analogous to the confirmed HCZs at Daini Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough where the first offshore NGH production trial was conducted in 2013. For consistency, we calculated a volumetric GIP estimate using the same method employed by Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) to estimate GIP in the eastern Nankai Trough. Double BSRs are also common throughout the basin, and BGHS modeling along with drilling indicators for gas hydrates beneath the primary BSRs provides compelling evidence that the double BSRs reflect a BGHS for structure-II methane-ethane hydrates beneath a structure-I methane hydrate phase boundary. Additional drilling

18. A Detailed 3D Seismic Velocity Structure of the Subducting Pacific Slab Beneath Hokkaido, Tohoku and Kanto, Japan, by Double-Difference Tomography

Tsuji, Y.; Nakajima, J.; Kita, S.; Okada, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hasegawa, A.

2007-12-01

Three-dimensional heterogeneous structure beneath northeastern (NE) Japan has been investigated by previous studies and an inclined seismic low-velocity zone is imaged in the mantle wedge sub-parallel to the down-dip direction of the subducting slab (Zhao et al., 1992, Nakajima et al., 2001). However, the heterogeneous structure within the slab has not been well studied even though it is very important to understand the whole process of water transportation from the slab to the surface. Here we show a detailed 3D seismic velocity structure within the subducted Pacific slab around Japan and propose a water-transportation path from the slab to the mantle wedge. In this study, we estimated 3D velocity structure within the Pacific slab by the double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We divided the study area, from Hokkaido to Kanto, into 6 areas due to the limitation of memory and computation time. In each area, arrival-time data of 7,500-17,000 events recorded at 70-170 stations were used in the analysis. The total number of absolute travel-time data was about 140,000-312,000 for P wave and 123,000-268,000 for S wave, and differential data were about 736,000-1,920,000 for P wave and 644,000-1,488,000 for S wave. Horizontal and vertical grid separations are 10-25 km and 6.5 km, respectively. RMS residuals of travel times for P wave decreased from 0.23s to 0.09s and for S wave from 0.35s to 0.13s. The obtained results are as follows: (1) a remarkable low-Vs zone exists in the uppermost part of the subducting slab, (2) it extends down to a depth of about 80 km, (3) the termination of this low-Vs zone almost corresponds to the "seismic belt" recently detected in the upper plane of the double seismic zone (Kita et al.,2006; Hasegawa et al., 2007), (4) at depths deeper than 80 km, a low-Vs and high-Vp/Vs zone is apparently distributed in the mantle wedge, immediately above the slab crust. We consider that these features reflect water-transportation processes

19. Estimation of gas-hydrate distribution from 3-D seismic data in a small area of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

Yi, Bo-Yeon; Kang, Nyeon-Keon; Yoo, Dong-Geun; Lee, Gwang-Hoon

2014-05-01

We estimated the gas-hydrate resource in a small (5 km x 5 km) area of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea from 3-D seismic and well-log data together with core measurement data, using seismic inversion and multi-attribute transform techniques. Multi-attribute transform technique finds the relationship between measured logs and the combination of the seismic attributes and various post-stack and pre-stack attributes computed from inversion. First, the gas-hydrate saturation and S-wave velocity at the wells were estimated from the simplified three-phase Biot-type equation (STPBE). The core X-ray diffraction data were used to compute the elastic properties of solid components of sediment, which are the key input parameters to the STPBE. Next, simultaneous pre-stack inversion was carried out to obtain P-wave impedance, S-wave impedance, density and lambda-mu-rho attributes. Then, the porosity and gas-hydrate saturation of 3-D seismic volume were predicted from multi-attribute transform. Finally, the gas-hydrate resource was computed by the multiplication of the porosity and gas-hydrate saturation volumes.

20. Numerical and experimental investigation of the 3D free surface flow in a model Pelton turbine

Fiereder, R.; Riemann, S.; Schilling, R.

2010-08-01

This investigation focuses on the numerical and experimental analysis of the 3D free surface flow in a Pelton turbine. In particular, two typical flow conditions occurring in a full scale Pelton turbine - a configuration with a straight inlet as well as a configuration with a 90 degree elbow upstream of the nozzle - are considered. Thereby, the effect of secondary flow due to the 90 degree bending of the upstream pipe on the characteristics of the jet is explored. The hybrid flow field consists of pure liquid flow within the conduit and free surface two component flow of the liquid jet emerging out of the nozzle into air. The numerical results are validated against experimental investigations performed in the laboratory of the Institute of Fluid Mechanics (FLM). For the numerical simulation of the flow the in-house unstructured fully parallelized finite volume solver solver3D is utilized. An advanced interface capturing model based on the classic Volume of Fluid method is applied. In order to ensure sharp interface resolution an additional convection term is added to the transport equation of the volume fraction. A collocated variable arrangement is used and the set of non-linear equations, containing fluid conservation equations and model equations for turbulence and volume fraction, are solved in a segregated manner. For pressure-velocity coupling the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented. Detailed analysis of the observed flow patterns in the jet and of the jet geometry are presented.

1. Earthquake relocation using a 3D a-priori geological velocity model from the western Alps to Corsica: Implication for seismic hazard

Béthoux, Nicole; Theunissen, Thomas; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Font, Yvonne; Thouvenot, François; Dessa, Jean-Xavier; Simon, Soazig; Courrioux, Gabriel; Guillen, Antonio

2016-02-01

The region between the inner zones of the Alps and Corsica juxtaposes an overthickened crust to an oceanic domain, which makes difficult to ascertain the focal depth of seismic events using routine location codes and average 1D velocity models. The aim of this article is to show that, even with a rather lose monitoring network, accurate routine locations can be achieved by using realistic 3D modelling and advanced location techniques. Previous earthquake tomography studies cover the whole region with spatial resolutions of several tens of kilometres on land, but they fail to resolve the marine domain due to the absence of station coverage and sparse seismicity. To overcome these limitations, we first construct a 3D a-priori P and S velocity model integrating known geophysical and geological information. Significant progress has been achieved in the 3D numerical modelling of complex geological structures by the development of dedicated softwares (e.g. 3D GeoModeller), capable at once of elaborating a 3D structural model from geological and geophysical constraints and, possibly, of refining it by inversion processes (Calcagno et al., 2008). Then, we build an arrival-time catalogue of 1500 events recorded from 2000 to 2011. Hypocentres are then located in this model using a numerical code based on the maximum intersection method (Font et al., 2004), updated by Theunissen et al. (2012), as well as another 3D location technique, the NonLinLoc software (Lomax and Curtis, 2001). The reduction of arrival-time residuals and uncertainties (dh, dz) with respect to classical 1D locations demonstrates the improved accuracy allowed by our approach and confirms the coherence of the 3D geological model built and used in this study. Our results are also compared with previous works that benefitted from the installation of dense temporary networks surrounding the studied epicentre area. The resulting 3D location catalogue allows us to improve the regional seismic hazard assessment

2. Investigation of the performance of the General Electric ADVANCE positron emission tomograph in 3D mode

SciTech Connect

Lewellen, T.K.; Kohlmyer, S.G.; Miyaoka, R.S.; Kaplan, M.S.; Stearns, C.W.; Schubert, S.F.

1996-08-01

Performance measurements of the General Electric ADVANCE Positron Emission Tomograph operating with the septa retracted (3D mode) were made. All reconstructions were performed with the GE ADVANCE 3D package. Performance tests were carried out with: the NEMA phantoms; a 3D Hoffman phantom; a Data Spectrum torso phantom with lung and cardiac inserts; and the Utah 3D evaluation phantom. Data collected included: transaxial and axial resolution, uniformity, recovery coefficients, count rate performance, dead time accuracy, and effect of scatter correction.

3. Urban shear-wave reflection seismics: Reconstruction support by combined shallow seismic and engineering geology investigations

Polom, U.; Guenther, A.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, P.; Krawczyk, C. M.

2009-12-01

After the big 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the massive reconstruction activities in the Aceh province (Northern Sumatra) were promoted by the Republic of Indonesia and the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development. The aims of the project MANGEONAD (Management of Georisk Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam). are to establish geoscientific on the ground support for a sustainable development and management of save building constructions, lifelines, infrastructure and also natural resources. Therefore, shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in close combination to engineering geology investigations in the period between 2005-2009 since depth and internal structure of the Krueng Aceh River delta (mainly young alluvial sediments) were widely unknown. Due to the requirements in the densely populated Banda Aceh region, lacking also traffic infrastructure, a small and lightweight engineering seismic setup of high mobility and high subsurface resolution capability was chosen. The S-wave land streamer system with 48 channels was applied successfully together with the ELVIS vibratory source using S- and P-waves on paved roads within the city of Banda Aceh. The performance of the S-wave system enabled the detailed seismic investigation of the shallow subsurface down to 50-150 m depth generating shaking frequencies between 20 Hz to 200 Hz. This also provides depth information extending the maximum depths of boreholes and Standard Penetrometer Testings (SPT), which could only be applied to max. 20 m depth. To integrate the results gained from all three methods, and further to provide a fast statistical analysis tool for engineering use, the Information System Engineering Geology (ISEG, BGR) was developed. This geospatial information tool includes the seismic data, all borehole information, geotechnical SPT and laboratory results from samples available in the investigation area. Thereby, the geotechnical 3D analysis of the subsurface units is enabled. The

4. Reconstructing the retreat dynamics of the Bjørnøyrenna Ice Stream based on new 3D seismic data from the central Barents Sea

Piasecka, Emilia D.; Winsborrow, Monica C. M.; Andreassen, Karin; Stokes, Chris R.

2016-11-01

The stability of contemporary ice sheets is influenced by the discharge from ice streams - corridors of fast-flowing ice bounded by ice flowing an order of magnitude slower. Reconstructions of palaeo-ice stream dynamics contribute to our understanding of ice stream sensitivity to the ocean-climate system and can aid in the numerical modelling and prediction of future changes in contemporary ice sheets. Here we use 3D seismic data, covering 13,000 km2 in the central Bjørnøyrenna (Bear Island Trough), Barents Sea, to investigate the record of ice streaming preserved on the seafloor and on a buried palaeo-seafloor surface. The unusually broad coverage and high resolution of the dataset, as well as its location in the central area of the trough, enables improved reconstruction of dynamics of the former Bjørnøyrenna Ice Stream in terms of number of streaming events, their trajectory, and their relative age sequence during deglaciation. Our results reveal major changes in the configuration and flow dynamics of the ice stream, with up to 10 flow-switching events identified. For the first time, we also document ice streaming sourced from the eastern Barents Sea around the time of the LGM. This high degree of flow variability is suggested to have resulted from climate-driven changes in ice sheet geometry (and ice divide migration), and variations in topography that influenced calving at the ice stream terminus.

5. New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Imagery of Deformation and Fault Architecture Along Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon Fault in the Inner California Borderlands

Holmes, J. J.; Bormann, J. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Harding, A. J.; Wesnousky, S. G.

2014-12-01

The tectonic deformation and geomorphology of the Inner California Borderlands (ICB) records the transition from a convergent plate margin to a predominantly dextral strike-slip system. Geodetic measurements of plate boundary deformation onshore indicate that approximately 15%, or 6-8 mm/yr, of the total Pacific-North American relative plate motion is accommodated by faults offshore. The largest near-shore fault system, the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon (NI/RC) fault complex, has a Holocene slip rate estimate of 1.5-2.0 mm/yr, according to onshore trenching, and current models suggest the potential to produce an Mw 7.0+ earthquake. The fault zone extends approximately 120 km, initiating from the south near downtown San Diego and striking northwards with a constraining bend north of Mt. Soledad in La Jolla and continuing northwestward along the continental shelf, eventually stepping onshore at Newport Beach, California. In late 2013, we completed the first high-resolution 3D seismic survey (3.125 m bins) of the NI/RC fault offshore of San Onofre as part of the Southern California Regional Fault Mapping project. We present new constraints on fault geometry and segmentation of the fault system that may play a role in limiting the extent of future earthquake ruptures. In addition, slip rate estimates using piercing points such as offset channels will be explored. These new observations will allow us to investigate recent deformation and strain transfer along the NI/RC fault system.

6. 3D investigation of inclusions in diamonds using X-ray micro-tomography

Parisatto, M.; Nestola, F.; Artioli, G.; Nimis, P.; Harris, J. W.; Kopylova, M.; Pearson, G. D.

2012-04-01

The study of mineral inclusions in diamonds is providing invaluable insights into the geochemistry, geodynamics and geophysics of the Earth's mantle. Over the last two decades, the identification of different inclusion assemblages allowed to recognize diamonds deriving from the deep upper mantle, the transition zone and even the lower mantle. In such research field the in-situ investigation of inclusions using non-destructive techniques is often essential but still remains a challenging task. In particular, conventional 2D imaging techniques (e.g. SEM) are limited to the investigation of surfaces and the lack of access to the third dimension represents a major limitation when trying to extract quantitative information. Another critical aspect is related to sample preparation (cutting, polishing) which is typically very invasive. Nowadays, X-ray computed micro-tomography (X-μCT) allows to overcome such limitations, enabling the internal microstructure of totally undisturbed samples to be visualized in a three-dimensional (3D) manner at the sub-micrometric scale. The final output of a micro-tomography experiment is a greyvalue 3D map of the variations of the X-ray attenuation coefficient (µ) within the studied object. The high X-ray absorption contrast between diamond (almost transparent to X-rays) and the typical inclusion-forming minerals (olivines, garnets, pyroxenes, oxides and sulphides) makes X-μCT a straightforward method for the 3D visualization of inclusions and for the study of their spatial relationships with the diamond host. In this work we applied microfocus X-μCT to investigate silicate inclusions still trapped in diamonds, in order to obtain in-situ information on their exact position, crystal size, shape and X-ray absorption coefficient (which is related to their composition). We selected diamond samples from different deposits containing mainly olivine and garnet inclusions. The investigated samples derived from the Udachnaya pipe (Siberia

7. An investigation of PRESAGE® 3D dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT radiation therapy treatment verification

Jackson, Jake; Juang, Titania; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

2015-03-01

The purpose of this work was to characterize three formulations of PRESAGE® dosimeters (DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX) and to identify optimal readout timing and procedures for accurate in-house 3D dosimetry. The optimal formulation and procedure was then applied for the verification of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment technique. PRESAGE® formulations were studied for their temporal stability post-irradiation, sensitivity, and linearity of dose response. Dosimeters were read out using a high-resolution optical-CT scanner. Small volumes of PRESAGE® were irradiated to investigate possible differences in sensitivity for large and small volumes (‘volume effect’). The optimal formulation and read-out technique was applied to the verification of two patient treatments: an IMRT plan and a VMAT plan. A gradual decrease in post-irradiation optical-density was observed in all formulations with DEA-1 exhibiting the best temporal stability with less than 4% variation between 2-22 h post-irradiation. A linear dose response at the 4 h time point was observed for all formulations with an R2 value >0.99. A large volume effect was observed for DEA-1 with sensitivity of the large dosimeter being ~63% less than the sensitivity of the cuvettes. For the IMRT and VMAT treatments, the 3D gamma passing rates for 3%/3 mm criteria using absolute measured dose were 99.6 and 94.5% for the IMRT and VMAT treatments, respectively. In summary, this work shows that accurate 3D dosimetry is possible with all three PRESAGE® formulations. The optimal imaging windows post-irradiation were 3-24 h, 2-6 h, and immediately for the DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX formulations, respectively. Because of the large volume effect, small volume cuvettes are not yet a reliable method for calibration of larger dosimeters to absolute dose. Finally, PRESAGE® is observed to be a useful method of 3D verification when careful consideration is given

8. An investigation of PRESAGE® 3D dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT radiation therapy treatment verification

PubMed Central

Jackson, Jake; Juang, Titania; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

2016-01-01

The purpose of this work was to characterize three formulations of PRESAGE® dosimeters (DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX) and to identify optimal readout timing and procedures for accurate in-house 3D dosimetry. The optimal formulation and procedure was then applied for the verification of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment technique. PRESAGE® formulations were studied for their temporal stability postirradiation, sensitivity, and linearity of dose response. Dosimeters were read out using a high-resolution optical-CT scanner. Small volumes of PRESAGE® were irradiated to investigate possible differences in sensitivity for large and small volumes (‘volume effect’). The optimal formulation and read-out technique was applied to the verification of two patient treatments: an IMRT plan and a VMAT plan. A gradual decrease in post-irradiation optical-density was observed in all formulations with DEA-1 exhibiting the best temporal stability with less than 4% variation between 2–22 h post-irradiation. A linear dose response at the 4 h time point was observed for all formulations with an R2 value >0.99. A large volume effect was observed for DEA-1 with sensitivity of the large dosimeter being ~63% less than the sensitivity of the cuvettes. For the IMRT and VMAT treatments, the 3D gamma passing rates for 3%/3 mm criteria using absolute measured dose were 99.6 and 94.5% for the IMRT and VMAT treatments, respectively. In summary, this work shows that accurate 3D dosimetry is possible with all three PRESAGE® formulations. The optimal imaging windows post-irradiation were 3–24 h, 2–6 h, and immediately for the DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX formulations, respectively. Because of the large volume effect, small volume cuvettes are not yet a reliable method for calibration of larger dosimeters to absolute dose. Finally, PRESAGE® is observed to be a useful method of 3D verification when careful consideration is given to the

9. Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia.

PubMed

Gailey, Glenn; Würsig, Bernd; McDonald, Trent L

2007-11-01

A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and proximity to the seismic survey by employing scan sampling, focal follow, and theodolite tracking methodologies. These data were analyzed in relation to temporal, environmental, and seismic related variables to evaluate potential disturbance reactions of gray whales to the seismic survey. The relative numbers of whales and pods recorded from five shore-based stations were not significantly different during periods when seismic surveys were occurring compared to periods when no seismic surveys were occurring and to the post-seismic period. Univariate analyses indicated no significant statistical correlation between seismic survey variables and any of the eleven movement and behavior variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after accounting for temporal and environmental variables, 6 of 11 movement and behavior variables (linearity, acceleration, mean direction, blows per surfacing, and surface-dive blow rate) were not significantly associated with seismic survey variables, and 5 of 11 variables (leg speed, reorientation rate, distance-from-shore, blow interval, and dive time) were significantly associated with seismic survey variables. In summary, after accounting for environmental variables, no correlation was found between seismic survey variables and the linearity of whale movements, changes in whale swimming speed between theodolite fixes, mean direction of whale movement, mean number of whale exhalations per minute at the surface, mean time at the surface, and mean number of exhalations per minute during a whales surface-to-dive cycle. In contrast, at higher

10. Experimental Investigation About Stamping Behaviour of 3D Warp Interlock Composite Preforms

Dufour, Clément; Wang, Peng; Boussu, François; Soulat, Damien

2014-10-01

Forming of continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled prepregs can be performed at room temperature due to its similar textile structure. The "cool" forming stage is better controlled and more economical. The increase of temperature and the resin consolidation phases after the forming can be carried out under the isothermal condition thanks to a closed system. It can avoid the manufacturing defects easily experienced in the non-isothermal thermoforming, in particular the wrinkling [1]. Glass/Polypropylene commingled yarns have been woven inside different three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics and then formed using a double-curved shape stamping tool. The present study investigates the in-plane and through-thickness behaviour of the 3D warp interlock fibrous reinforcements during forming with a hemispherical punch. Experimental data allow analysing the forming behaviour in the warp and weft directions and on the influence of warp interlock architectures. The results point out that the layer to layer warp interlock preform has a better stamping behaviour, in particular no forming defects and good homogeneity in thickness.

11. [Investigation of the surface layer of 3D-matrices for tissue engineering].

PubMed

Chernonosova, V S; Kvon, R I; Kiseleva, E V; Stepanova, A O; Laktionov, P P

2017-01-01

Electrospinning is a convenient and promising manufacturing method a variety of materials for tissue engineering. 3D matrices fabricated by electrospinning from solutions of polycaprolactone with human serum albumin or gelatin in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol were studied. The microstructure of the 3D matrices and surface of the fibers were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Protein distribution in the surface layer was studied by modification of protein amino groups with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenazine and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown, that concentration of the proteins in the surface layer of fibers exceeded their concentration in the initial electrospun solution up to 12 times and the surface layer was enriched in the protein inversely to the concentration of the protein in solution. The minor part of the proteins was released from fibers during first 30-60 min after swelling in water. Treatment of matrices with proteinase K hydrolyzed about 1/3 of the surface exposed human serum albumin. Thus, both methods can be used to study the surface content of the materials produced by electrospinning from blends of synthetic and natural polymers, however X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy appears to be more convenient and informative.

12. 3D Calculation of Seismic Wave Interaction with Topography and Near-surface Structures at the LSBB Underground Laboratory, Rustrel, France

Maufroy, E.; Gaffet, S.; Operto, S.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Senechal, G.; Dietrich, M.; Zeyen, H.; Sardou, O.; Boyer, D.

2008-12-01

The understanding of seismic wave interaction with both topography and geological structures is one of a principal focus of seismic risk characterization. Seasonal or artificial variations of water (or more generally fluid or gas) saturation in the medium revealed by local variations of rheological parameters (VP, VS, QP, QS, and density) may strongly impact the seismic and the hydro-mechanical site response. The problem addressed here is the characterization of these potential site effects, which are of great interest in the context of underground storage and effects of anthropogenic structures. With the foregoing in mind, a seismic experiment was carried out in 2006 at the LSBB Underground Laboratory (http://lsbb.unice.fr), Rustrel, France. A total of 189 seismometers (3D 0.1 Hz Agecodagis) were spread on the surface of the massif with a slope of 30%, 150 vertical geophones (14 Hz) distributed along the roof of the 800 m long tunnel at LSBB. A two-dimensional profile of 100 shots (150 g equiv. TNT) were used for imaging the rheological properties of the subterranean karstic medium. A 3D P-velocity model was obtained from the reflection and surface to depth transmission P-wave travel times featuring the foregoing 2D tomographic profile. Main faults and P-wave velocities correlate well with the two main lithological formations (Barremian and Bedoulian limestones) [S.S.B.S. program, 1965]. As a preliminary step, finite difference modelling [Shake3D, Cruz-Atienza et al., 2007] using fixed VP/VS ratio provided a means for topographic site effect assessment. With these parameters, deduced mean amplification factors reach values from 3 to 6. There are shadow regions with low ground motion. There are also seismic lenses where seismic energy focusing occurs. These depend on the topography shape and relative source location. In a more realistic medium deduced from full waveform inversion [Operto et al., 2004], variations of VP/VS ratio and quality factors QP, QS, are

13. Seismic investigations in downtown Copenhagen, Denmark

Martinez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Olsen, H.

2009-12-01

Near surface geophysics are gaining widespread use in major infrastructure projects with respect to geotechnical and engineering applications. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey production, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic investigation was conducted in Copenhagen aiming to produce information needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling assessments related to the planned Cityringen underground metro project. The particular objectives were a) map variations in subsurface Quaternary and limestone properties b) to map for near surface structural features. The geological setting in the Copenhagen region is characterized by several interlaced layers of glacial till and meltwater sand deposits. These layers, which are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present in varying thicknesses, overlie limestone of different generations. There are common occurrences of incised valley structures containing localized instances of weathered or fractured limestone. The surveys consisted of combined seismic reflection and refraction profiles accounting for approximately 13 km along sections of the projected metro line. The data acquisition was carried out using standard 192 channels arrays, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 5 m spacing. In order to improve the resolution of the data, 29 Walkaway-Vertical Seismic Profiles were performed at selected wells along the surface seismic lines. The refraction data was processed with travel-time tomography and the reflection data underwent standard interpretation. The refraction data inversion was performed twofold; a surface refraction alone and combined with the VSP data. Three

14. Investigation of 3D surface acoustic waves in granular media with 3-color digital holography

Leclercq, Mathieu; Picart, Pascal; Penelet, Guillaume; Tournat, Vincent

2017-01-01

This paper reports the implementation of digital color holography to investigate elastic waves propagating along a layer of a granular medium. The holographic set-up provides simultaneous recording and measurement of the 3D dynamic displacement at the surface. Full-field measurements of the acoustic amplitude and phase at different excitation frequencies are obtained. It is shown that the experimental data can be used to obtain the dispersion curve of the modes propagating in this granular medium layer. The experimental dispersion curve and that obtained from a finite element modeling of the problem are found to be in good agreement. In addition, full-field images of the interaction of an acoustic wave guided in the granular layer with a buried object are also shown.

15. Investigation into the influence of build parameters on failure of 3D printed parts

Fornasini, Giacomo

Additive manufacturing, including fused deposition modeling (FDM), is transforming the built world and engineering education. Deep understanding of parts created through FDM technology has lagged behind its adoption in home, work, and academic environments. Properties of parts created from bulk materials through traditional manufacturing are understood well enough to accurately predict their behavior through analytical models. Unfortunately, Additive Manufacturing (AM) process parameters create anisotropy on a scale that fundamentally affects the part properties. Understanding AM process parameters (implemented by program algorithms called slicers) is necessary to predict part behavior. Investigating algorithms controlling print parameters (slicers) revealed stark differences between the generation of part layers. In this work, tensile testing experiments, including a full factorial design, determined that three key factors, width, thickness, infill density, and their interactions, significantly affect the tensile properties of 3D printed test samples.

16. Investigation of gravitational effects in pulse tube cryocoolers using 3-D CFD

Mulcahey, T. I.; Conrad, T. J.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Pathak, M. G.

2014-01-01

Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (PTC) are often selected for cryogenic cooling applications for their robustness and mechanical simplicity, having no moving parts at the cold end of the cooler. Originally designed for space applications, increased terrestrial use in tactical applications as well as ground testing of space systems has revealed that some PTCs exhibit sensitivity to gravitational orientation, often losing significant cooling performance unless situated with the cold end pointing downward. Previous investigations have indicated that some coolers exhibit sensitivity while others do not; however, a reliable method of predicting the level of sensitivity during the design process has not been developed. We have utilized 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict the percent of cooling capacity lost as a result of off-axis operation. The computational model has been validated experimentally on a number of coolers to enhance confidence in the method used.

17. pySeismicFMM: Python based travel time calculation in regular 2D and 3D grids in Cartesian and geographic coordinates using Fast Marching Method

Polkowski, Marcin

2016-04-01

Seismic wave travel time calculation is the most common numerical operation in seismology. The most efficient is travel time calculation in 1D velocity model - for given source, receiver depths and angular distance time is calculated within fraction of a second. Unfortunately, in most cases 1D is not enough to encounter differentiating local and regional structures. Whenever possible travel time through 3D velocity model has to be calculated. It can be achieved using ray calculation or time propagation in space. While single ray path calculation is quick it is complicated to find the ray path that connects source with the receiver. Time propagation in space using Fast Marching Method seems more efficient in most cases, especially when there are multiple receivers. In this presentation a Python module pySeismicFMM is presented - simple and very efficient tool for calculating travel time from sources to receivers. Calculation requires regular 2D or 3D velocity grid either in Cartesian or geographic coordinates. On desktop class computer calculation speed is 200k grid cells per second. Calculation has to be performed once for every source location and provides travel time to all receivers. pySeismicFMM is free and open source. Development of this tool is a part of authors PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

18. Experimental investigation of high mach number 3D hydrodynamic jets at the National Ignition Facility

SciTech Connect

Blue, B E; Weber, S; Glendinning, S; Lanier, N; Woods, D; Bono, M; Dixit, S; Haynam, C; Holder, J; Kalantar, D; MacGowan, B; Nikitin, A; Rekow, V; Van Wonterghem, B; Moses, E; Stry, P; Wilde, B; Hsing, W; Robey, H

2004-09-24

The first hydrodynamics experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility. A supersonic jet was formed via the interaction of a laser driven shock ({approx}40 Mbars) with 2D and 3D density perturbations. The temporal evolution of the jet's spatial scales and ejected mass were measured with point projection x-ray radiography. Measurements of the large-scale features and mass are in good agreement with 2D and 3D numerical simulations. These experiments are the first quantitative measurements of the evolution of 3D supersonic jets and provide insight into their 3D behavior.

19. Ceramic scaffolds produced by computer-assisted 3D printing and sintering: characterization and biocompatibility investigations.

PubMed

Warnke, Patrick H; Seitz, Hermann; Warnke, Frauke; Becker, Stephan T; Sivananthan, Sureshan; Sherry, Eugene; Liu, Qin; Wiltfang, Jörg; Douglas, Timothy

2010-04-01

Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) are two very common ceramic materials for bone replacement. However, in general HAP and TCP scaffolds are not tailored to the exact dimensions of the defect site and are mainly used as granules or beads. Some scaffolds are available as ordinary blocks, but cannot be customized for individual perfect fit. Using computer-assisted 3D printing, an emerging rapid prototyping technique, individual three-dimensional ceramic scaffolds can be built up from TCP or HAP powder layer by layer with subsequent sintering. These scaffolds have precise dimensions and highly defined and regular internal characteristics such as pore size. External shape and internal characteristics such as pore size can be fabricated using Computer Assisted Design (CAD) based on individual patient data. Thus, these scaffolds could be designed as perfect fit replacements to reconstruct the patient's skeleton. Before their use as bone replacement materials in vivo, in vitro testing of these scaffolds is necessary. In this study, the behavior of human osteoblasts on HAP and TCP scaffolds was investigated. The commonly used bone replacement material BioOss(R) served as control. Biocompatibility was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy after staining for cell vitality with fluorescin diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) and the MTT, LDH, and WST biocompatibility tests. Both versions were colonised by human osteoblasts, however more cells were seen on HAP scaffolds than TCP scaffolds. Cell vitality staining and MTT, LDH, and WST tests showed superior biocompatibility of HAP scaffolds to BioOss, while BioOss was more compatible than TCP. Further experiments are necessary to determine biocompatibility in vivo. Future modifications of 3D printed scaffolds offer advantageous features for Tissue Engineering. The integration of channels could allow for vascular and nerve ingrowth into the scaffold. Also the complex shapes

20. Joint 3D seismic travel time and full channel electrical resistivity inversion with cross gradient structure constraint

Gao, J.; Zhang, H.

2015-12-01

Near surface geophysical exploration for the purpose of engineering design or construction For this reason, geophysical imaging demands a higher resolution and a better quantitative interpretation. Seismic travel time tomography and direct current resistivity tomography are two main methods for the near surface survey. Because of the limited coverage of observation system and the complex physical relationship between physical parameters and observations, individual geophysical method suffers issues of non-uniqueness and resolution limitation to some degree. We have developed a joint inversion method to combine seismic travel time tomography and full channel resistivity tomography. For the full channel resistivity survey, it uses two electrodes for power supply and all the other electrodes for recording. Compared with the traditional resistivity method, it collects more data and has a better model converge. Our joint inversion strategy relies on the structure constraint enforced through minimizing cross gradients between seismic velocity and resistivity models (Gallardo, 2003). For resistivity tomography, sensitivity kernels are obtained through the adjoint method by solving the electrostatic field equation with the finite-difference method. For seismic travel time tomography, ray paths and travel times are calculated using the fast marching method. We have tested our joint inversion method for a 2D cross-hole problem where two small zones with high and low velocity/resistivity anomalies. Seismic/electrical sources/receivers are installed in two boreholes. For separate seismic inversion, the smearing effect is evident and two anomaly zones are distorted and misplaced. For separate electric resistivity inversion, although two anomaly zones are positioned correctly their values are not accurate. By joint inversion, two velocity anomaly zones are clearly imaged and the smearing effect is greatly reduced. In comparison, for the resistivity model, the two anomaly zones

1. Numerical Investigation of T-joints with 3D Four Directional Braided Composite Fillers Under Tensile Loading

Li, Xiao-kang; Liu, Zhen-guo; Hu, Long; Wang, Yi-bo; Lei, Bing; Huang, Xiang

2017-02-01

Numerical studied on T-joints with three-dimensional four directional (3D4D) braided composite fillers was presented in this article. Compared with conventional unidirectional prepreg fillers, the 3D braided composite fillers have excellent ability to prevent crack from penetrating trigone fillers, which constantly occurred in the conventional fillers. Meanwhile, the 3D braided composite fillers had higher fiber volume fraction and eliminated the fiber folding problem in unidirectional prepreg fillers. The braiding technology and mechanical performance of 3D4D braided fillers were studied. The numerical model of carbon fiber T-joints with 3D4D braided composite fillers was built by finite element analysis software. The damage formation, extension and failing process of T-joints with 3D4D braided fillers under tensile load were investigated. Further investigation was extended to the effect of 3D4D braided fillers with different braiding angles on mechanical behavior of the T-joints. The study results revealed that the filling area was the weakest part of the T-joints where the damage first appeared and the crack then rapidly spread to the glue film around the filling area and the interface between over-laminate and soleplate. The 3D4D braided fillers were undamaged and the braiding angle change induced a little effect on the bearing capacity of T-joints.

2. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forging Process to Reproduce a 3D Aluminium Foam Complex Shape

Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Shivpuri, Rajiv; Umbrello, Domenico

2007-05-01

Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D®) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load.

3. 3D Seismic Reflection Images of An Off-Axis Melt Lens And Its Associated Upper Crust Around 9°39'N, East Pacific Rise

Han, S.; Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Canales, J.; Nedimović, M. R.

2011-12-01

During the 3D multi-channel seismic (MCS) survey MGL0812 aboard the R/V Langseth, several mid-crust reflectors were discovered off axis on both flanks of the East Pacific Rise from 9°35.6-57.0'N. The reversed polarity of these off-axis reflections with respect to the seafloor and Moho reflections and the high attenuation of the crust detected beneath two of them in the north suggest that they arise from melts residing at the mid-crust level outside the axial low velocity zone (Canales et al. 2010). These off-axis melt lenses (OAML) are probable sites of off-axis volcanism and potential heat sources for localized hydrothermal circulation on the ridge flanks. We focus here on a prominent OAML discovered on the eastern flank around 9°39'N. Results from 1D travel time modeling and 2D streamer tomography of downward continued shot gathers show the presence of a thinner seismic layer 2A above the center of the OAML compared with its surrounding crust. We attribute this thinning to the effects of alteration associated with localized off-axis hydrothermal circulation driven by the OAML, where precipitation of secondary minerals infills pore space within the lower basalt section, leading to increased seismic velocities and thereby converting the lowermost seismic layer 2A into seismic layer 2B. To further constrain the respective 3D geometries of the OAML and the AMC, their spatial relations, and the spatial extent and shape of the region of altered upper crust associated with the OAML, we conduct 3D processing of a small MCS grid that encompasses most of this OAML, aimed at imaging both on- and off-axis melt lens events and the base of seismic layer 2A. This grid covers an ~4 km x 24 km area centered on the ridge crest between ˜9°37.5'-40'N and extending on both flanks, within which a third order ridge axis discontinuity and two high temperature hydrothermal vents identified during Alvin dives in 1991 and 1994 are present. The data were recorded by four 468-channel

4. 3D numerical investigation on landslide generated tsunamis around a conical island

Montagna, Francesca; Bellotti, Giorgio

2010-05-01

This paper presents numerical computations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and submerged landslides falling along the flank of a conical island. The study is inspired by the tsunamis that on 30th December 2002 attacked the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli (South Tyrrhenian sea, Italy). In particular this paper analyzes the important feature of the lateral spreading of landside generated tsunamis and the associated flooding hazard. The numerical model used in this study is the full three dimensional commercial code FLOW-3D. The model has already been successfully used (Choi et al., 2007; 2008; Chopakatla et al, 2008) to study the interaction of waves and structures. In the simulations carried out in this work a particular feature of the code has been employed: the GMO (General Moving Object) algorithm. It allows to reproduce the interaction between moving objects, as a landslide, and the water. FLOW-3D has been firstly validated using available 3D experiments reproducing tsunamis generated by landslides at the flank of a conical island. The experiments have been carried out in the LIC laboratory of the Polytechnic of Bari, Italy (Di Risio et al., 2009). Numerical and experimental time series of run-up and sea level recorded at gauges located at the flanks of the island and offshore have been successfully compared. This analysis shows that the model can accurately represent the generation, the propagation and the inundation of landslide generated tsunamis and suggests the use of the numerical model as a tool for preparing inundation maps. At the conference we will present the validation of the model and parametric analyses aimed to investigate how wave properties depend on the landslide kinematic and on further parameters such as the landslide volume and shape, as well as the radius of the island. The expected final results of the research are precomputed inundation maps that depend on the characteristics of the landslide and of the island. Finally we

5. 3D seismic interpretation of subsurface eruptive centers in a Permian large igneous province, Tazhong Uplift, central Tarim Basin, NW China

Yang, Jiangfeng; Zhu, Wenbin; Guan, Da; Zhu, Beibei; Yuan, Liansheng; Xiang, Xuemei; Su, Jinbao; He, Jingwen; Wu, Xinhui

2016-11-01

A 1445-km2 high-resolution 3D seismic reflection dataset is used to analyze the Permian large igneous province in the subsurface of the Tazhong area in the central Tarim Basin in northwestern China. Constrained by the synthetic seismograms of four wells, the top and base of the igneous rocks were identified in the seismic data. Seven large volcanic craters, each >10 km2 in area, have been discovered via the application of coherency and amplitude attributes. The thickness and volume of the igneous rocks were obtained by time-depth transformation. In the study area, all of the igneous rocks, with thicknesses from 120 to 1133 m, were formed by eruptions in the Early Permian. These events produced huge erupted volumes (178 km3) and multiple closely spaced volcanic edifices (<13 km). These features suggest that the study area may be the part of the eruptive center of the Permian igneous rocks in the Tarim Basin.

6. Intersymbol Interference Investigations Using a 3D Time-Dependent Traveling Wave Tube Model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kory, Carol L.; Andro, Monty

2002-01-01

For the first time, a time-dependent, physics-based computational model has been used to provide a direct description of the effects of the traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) on modulated digital signals. The TWT model comprehensively takes into account the effects of frequency dependent AM/AM and AM/PM conversion; gain and phase ripple; drive-induced oscillations; harmonic generation; intermodulation products; and backward waves. Thus, signal integrity can be investigated in the presence of these sources of potential distortion as a function of the physical geometry and operating characteristics of the high power amplifier and the operational digital signal. This method promises superior predictive fidelity compared to methods using TWT models based on swept- amplitude and/or swept-frequency data. First, the TWT model using the three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic code MAFIA is presented. Then, this comprehensive model is used to investigate approximations made in conventional TWT black-box models used in communication system level simulations. To quantitatively demonstrate the effects these approximations have on digital signal performance predictions, including intersymbol interference (ISI), the MAFIA results are compared to the system level analysis tool, Signal Processing Workstation (SPW), using high order modulation schemes including 16 and 64-QAM.

7. Intersymbol Interference Investigations Using a 3D Time-Dependent Traveling Wave Tube Model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kory, Carol L.; Andro, Monty; Downey, Alan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

For the first time, a physics based computational model has been used to provide a direct description of the effects of the TWT (Traveling Wave Tube) on modulated digital signals. The TWT model comprehensively takes into account the effects of frequency dependent AM/AM and AM/PM conversion; gain and phase ripple; drive-induced oscillations; harmonic generation; intermodulation products; and backward waves. Thus, signal integrity can be investigated in the presence of these sources of potential distortion as a function of the physical geometry of the high power amplifier and the operational digital signal. This method promises superior predictive fidelity compared to methods using TWT models based on swept amplitude and/or swept frequency data. The fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, TWT interaction model using the electromagnetic code MAFIA is presented. This model is used to investigate assumptions made in TWT black box models used in communication system level simulations. In addition, digital signal performance, including intersymbol interference (ISI), is compared using direct data input into the MAFIA model and using the system level analysis tool, SPW (Signal Processing Worksystem).

8. 3D modelling of the active normal fault network in the Apulian Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean Sea): Integration of seismic and bathymetric data with implicit surface methods

Bistacchi, Andrea; Pellegrini, Caludio; Savini, Alessandra; Marchese, Fabio

2016-04-01

The Apulian ridge (North-eastern Ionian Sea, Mediterranean), interposed between the facing Apennines and Hellenides subduction zones (to the west and east respectively), is characterized by thick cretaceous carbonatic sequences and discontinuous tertiary deposits crosscut by a penetrative network of NNW-SSE normal faults. These are exposed onshore in Puglia, and are well represented offshore in a dataset composed of 2D seismics and wells collected by oil companies from the '60s to the '80s, more recent seismics collected during research projects in the '90s, recent very high resolution seismics (VHRS - Sparker and Chirp-sonar data), multibeam echosounder bathymetry, and sedimentological and geo-chronological analyses of sediment samples collected on the seabed. Faults are evident in 2D seismics at all scales, and their along-strike geometry and continuity can be characterized with multibeam bathymetric data, which show continuous fault scarps on the seabed (only partly reworked by currents and covered by landslides). Fault scarps also reveal the finite displacement accumulated in the Holocene-Pleistocene. We reconstructed a 3D model of the fault network and suitable geological boundaries (mainly unconformities due to the discontinuous distribution of quaternary and tertiary sediments) with implicit surface methods implemented in SKUA/GOCAD. This approach can be considered very effective and allowed reconstructing in details complex structures, like the frequent relay zones that are particularly well imaged by seafloor geomorphology. Mutual cross-cutting relationships have been recognized between fault scarps and submarine mass-wasting deposits (Holocene-Pleistocene), indicating that, at least in places, these features are coeval, hence the fault network should be considered active. At the regional scale, the 3D model allowed measuring the horizontal WSW-ENE stretching, which can be associated to the bending moment applied to the Apulian Plate by the combined effect

9. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

SciTech Connect

Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

2014-09-03

Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

10. Investigation of Dynamic Crack Coalescence Using a Gypsum-Like 3D Printing Material

Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng; Zhu, Jianbo; Zhao, Yi-Xin; Shen, Luming

2016-10-01

Dynamic crack coalescence attracts great attention in rock mechanics. However, specimen preparation in experimental study is a time-consuming and difficult procedure. In this work, a gypsum-like material by powder bed and inkjet 3D printing technique was applied to produce specimens with preset cracks for split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test. From micro X-ray CT test, it was found that the 3D printing technique could successfully prepare specimens that contain preset cracks with width of 0.2 mm. Basic mechanical properties of the 3D printing material, i.e., the elastic modulus, the Poisson's ratio, the density, the compressive strength, the indirect tensile strength, and the fracture toughness, were obtained and reported. Unlike 3D printed specimens using polylactic acid, these gypsum-like specimens can produce failure patterns much closer to those observed in classical rock mechanical tests. Finally, the dynamic crack coalescence of the 3D printed specimens with preset cracks were captured using a high-speed camera during SHPB tests. Failure patterns of these 3D printed specimens are similar to the specimens made by Portland cement concrete. Our results indicate that sample preparation by 3D printing is highly competitive due to its quickness in prototyping, precision and flexibility on the geometry, and high material homogeneity.

11. Numerical investigation of 3D effects on a 2D-dominated shocked mixing layer

Reese, Daniel; Weber, Christopher

2016-11-01

A nominally two-dimensional interface, unstable to the Rayleigh-Taylor or Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, will become three-dimensional at high Reynolds numbers due to the growth of background noise and 3D effects like vortex stretching. This three-dimensionality changes macroscopic features, such as the perturbation growth rate and mixing, as it enhances turbulent dissipation. In this study, a 2D perturbation with small-scale, 3D fluctuations is modeled using the hydrodynamics code Miranda. A Mach 1.95 shockwave accelerates a helium-over-SF6 interface, similar to the experiments of Motl et al. ["Experimental validation of a Richtmyer-Meshkov scaling law over large density ratio and shock strength ranges," Phys. Fluids 21(12), 126102 (2009)], to explore the regime where a 2D dominated flow will experience 3D effects. We report on the structure, growth, and mixing of the post-shocked interface in 2D and 3D.

12. Mixing and entrainment in mantle plumes: A 3D experimental investigation

Newsome, William; Cotel, Aline; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina; Hart, Stanley; Whitehead, John

2011-11-01

Significant differences exist between isotopic signatures of typical mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and those associated with many ocean islands, with ocean island basalts (OIB) generally exhibiting more variability in trace element concentrations and also a bias towards enrichment in radiogenic isotopes such as Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb. Such observations coupled with other geophysical evidence have been used to suggest that OIB's are surface manifestations of thermal plumes originating in the deep interior near the core-mantle boundary that interact with distinct, heterogeneous reservoirs as material is transported from the Earth's interior to the surface. We experimentally investigate the structure and transport characteristics of isolated thermal plumes in corn syrup. The 3D velocity field is measured using a scanning stereoscopic particle image velocimetry system. Two types of tracer particles are simultaneously utilized, with thermochromic liquid crystals providing an estimate of the temperature field. Lagrangian coherent structures computed from the velocity field identify key material lines and surfaces that provide a taxonomic picture of plumes operating in different regimes. These govern how the plume interacts with the ambient during its ascent.

13. Investigation of thermal degradation with extrusion-based dispensing modules for 3D bioprinting technology.

PubMed

Lee, Hyungseok; Yoo, James J; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Cho, Dong-Woo

2016-02-04

Recently, numerous three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting systems have been introduced for the artificial regeneration of tissues. Among them, the extrusion-based dispensing module is the most widely used because of the processability it gives various biomaterials. The module uses high forces and temperature to dispense materials through a micro-nozzle. Generally, the harsh conditions induce thermal degradation of the material in the dispensing procedure. The thermal degradation affects the properties of the materials, and the change of the properties should be carefully controlled, because it severely affects the regeneration of tissues. Therefore, in this research, the relationship between the dispensing module and the thermal degradation of material was investigated. Extrusion-based dispensing modules can be divided into the syringe type (ST) and filament type (FT) based on working principles. We prepared a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold with the two methods at various time points. Then, the characteristics of the printed scaffolds were assessed by measuring molecular weight (M w), glass transition temperature (T g), in vitro degradation, compressive modulus, and cytocompatibility. The results showed that the PLGA scaffold with the FT dispensing module maintained its properties regardless of printing time points. In contrast, severe thermal degradation was observed in the scaffold group prepared by the ST dispensing module. Consequentially, it was obvious that the FT dispensing module was more suitable for producing scaffolds without severe thermal degradation.

14. Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques

Wang, Chien-Hsun; Tsai, Ho-Lin; Wu, Yu-Che; Hwang, Weng-Sing

2016-09-01

This study investigated the transient transport phenomenon during the pile up of molten lead-free solder via the inkjet printing method. With regard to the droplet impact velocity, the distance from nozzle to substrate can be controlled by using the pulse voltage and distance control apparatus. A high-speed digital camera was used to record the solder impact and examine the accuracy of the pile up. These impact conditions correspond to We  =  2.1-15.1 and Oh  =  5.4  ×  10-3-3.8  ×  10-3. The effects of impact velocity and relative distance between two types of molten droplets on the shape of the impact mode are examined. The results show that the optimal parameters of the distance from nozzle to substrate and the spreading factor in this experiment are 0.5 mm and 1.33. The diameter, volume and velocity of the inkjet solder droplet are around 37-65 μm, 25-144 picoliters, and 2.0-3.7 m s-1, respectively. The vertical and inclined column structures of molten lead-free solder can be fabricated using piezoelectric ink-jet printing systems. The end-shapes of the 3D micro structure have been found to be dependent upon the distance from nozzle to substrate and the impact velocity of the molten lead-free solder droplet.

15. 3-D Numerical Investigation of the Tsaoling Landslide Induced by Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan.

Tang, C.; Hu, J.

2004-12-01

Large landslides occurred in the mountainous area near the epicenter of the Sept. 21st, 1999, Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. These landslides were triggered by the Mw = 7.6 earthquake, which resulted in more than 2,400 human casualties and widespread damage. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake triggered a catastrophic Tsaloing landslide, which mobilized about 0.125 km3 of rock and soil that slid across the Chingshui River and created a 5 km long natural dam. One fifth of the landslide mass dropped into the Chingshui River, the rest jumped over the river. At least five large landslides occurred in Tsaoling area are induced by big earthquake and heavy rainfalls since 1862 to 1999. Geological investigation shows that the prevailing attitude of sedimentary formation is about N45W with a dipping angle of 12S. First we used Remark Method to calculate the stability of slope. The bottom of slope has been eroded by Chingshui stream, and the PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration) in Chi-Chi earthquake was exceeded the yield acceleration along the sliding surface. The landslide mechanism may be including flowing, rolling, bouncing and sliding. The rock on the fault plane during faulting can generate pseudotachylyte resulted from melted rock by frictional heat energy along the sliding surface. The frictional melted rocks were found out in the Chiu-Fen-Erh-Shan collapses. However, we didn¡¦t found out the frictional melted rock in Tsaoling area. If we calculated the kinetic energy which was converted to heat energy, the increase of temperature was enough to melt the rocks on sliding surface. When the rocks on the sliding surface had been melted, the friction on the sliding surface must be decrease. Therefore, the 0.125 km3 debris had sufficient kinetic energy to across Chingshui River to the other side of the river. Using 3D distinct-element modeling (PFC3d code), we try to simulate kinematic process of Tsaoling landslide. Our numerical model was compose of about 10,000 spherical

16. Determination of Percent Body Fat Using 3D Whole Body Laser Scanning: A Preliminary Investigation

DTIC Science & Technology

2006-11-01

circumferences, 3D whole body laser scans and DEXA scans were performed on fifty-one men and women age 18-62. Mean percent body fat was not statistically...3D whole body laser scan , and DEXA scan to measure individuals during a one hour measurement session. 1 Report Documentation Page Form...underwent a 6 minute whole body DEXA scan using a GE Lunar Prodigy DEXA scanner running software version 7.53. Percent body fat was calculated from the

17. 3D Seismic, Mechanical Stratigraphy, and Petrophysical Analysis of the Marcellus Shale in Taylor County, West Virginia

Weicht, Derek

The Marcellus Shale is a Devonian age black shale formed during the Acadian Orogeny along the eastern margin of North America. The Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale is an unconventional shale-gas reservoir that has been a major target of seismic exploration and gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling. This study focuses on analyses of seismic response, mechanical, and petrophysical properties of the Marcellus Shale and surrounding strata in Taylor County, West Virginia. Spectral blueing was performed on the post stack migration seismic volume to enhance the resolution. The resolution of the volume was increased from 61 feet to 47 feet, which improved the detail observed in the seismic response and provided additional insights in the interpretation of the Marcellus and bounding intervals. The isochore map created from the modified Marcellus picks shows greater variability in the thickness of the Marcellus, with an overall trend of thickening to the east. Within the thicker part of the Marcellus, a second negative reflection event appeared that was not obvious in the post stack migration. This event was interpreted to be part of the Lower Marcellus Shale. Lambda-rho and Mu-rho parameters were calculated using compressional and shear wave vibrations and density obtained from the well logs. When combined with the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, these cross-plots are indicative of favorable brittle and total organic carbon (TOC) rich zones that highlight potential drilling targets in the Marcellus. TOC was estimated using the Schmoker and Passey methods, and provide very similar estimates within the Marcellus Shale. Specifically note that the Middle and Lower Marcellus are generally the more TOC rich and productive Marcellus zones.

18. 3D Seismic Interpretation, Mechanical Stratigraphy and Production Analysis of the Marcellus Shale in Northern West Virginia

Kish, Mollie K.

The Marcellus shale is one of the most developed unconventional shale gas reservoirs in the world with a calculated 84.5 trillion cubic feet in proved natural gas reserves in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. To better exploit this resource all geological aspects of the Marcellus shale are being studied. In this study, mechanical stratigraphy and interpreted seismic fracture zones within the Marcellus shale are examined. These geologic criteria are assessed for potential to impact gas production by analyzing the gas production of fourteen horizontal Marcellus shale wells within and around the study area. Mechanical stratigraphy is evaluated from the top of the Tully limestone to the base of the Onondaga limestone to assess vertical heterogeneity of brittleness within and around the Marcellus shale. Brittleness estimations are derived from petrophysical well logs including bulk density, shear velocity and compressional velocity. Mineralogy assessment is completed using Schlumberger's SpectroLithRTM gamma ray spectroscopy mineralogy logs. Elastic moduli including Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and Lame's parameters are assessed in terms of brittleness and total organic content to develop constraints for areas of high brittleness and high total organic content. The constraints developed at the study well are compared to studies at four other unconventional shale gas sites. The results suggest that mechanical properties are variable and site dependent. Conclusive ranges for Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus constraints for areas of high brittleness and high total organic cannot be developed for an entire shale play but may be useful in local analyses. Seismic discontinuities were extracted from two three dimensional seismic surveys using a post-stack processing workflow that included Ant-Tracking. They are interpreted to be associated with small faults and fracture zones. The relationship between the number of seismic discontinuities intersecting horizontal wells in

19. The comparison of DYNA3D to approximate solutions for a partially- full waste storage tank subjected to seismic loading

SciTech Connect

Zaslawsky, M.; Kennedy, W.N.

1992-09-30

Mathematical solutions to the problem consisting of a partially-full waste tank subjected to seismic loading, embedded in soil, is classically difficult in that one has to address: soil-structure interaction, fluid-structure interaction, non-linear behavior of material, dynamic effects. Separating the problem and applying numerous assumptions will yield approximate solutions. This paper explores methods for generating these solutions accurately.

20. Method for inverting reflection trace data from 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys and identifying subsurface fluid and pathways in and among hydrocarbon reservoirs based on impedance models

DOEpatents

He, Wei; Anderson, Roger N.

1998-01-01

A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management.

1. Method for inverting reflection trace data from 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys and identifying subsurface fluid and pathways in and among hydrocarbon reservoirs based on impedance models

DOEpatents

He, W.; Anderson, R.N.

1998-08-25

A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management. 20 figs.

2. Seismic investigations in the Skagerrak and Kattegat

Behrens, Klaus; Hansen, Jochen; Flüh, Ernst R.; Goldflam, Stan; Hirschleber, Hans

1986-09-01

During the Meteor 66 cruise in the offshore areas surrounding Jutland in November 1983, seismic reflection and refraction measurements were made. A streamer, Ocean Bottom Seismographs, and land stations were deployed, which enabled both vertical-incidence and wide-angle reflections to be recorded. Seismic energy was provided by an airgun array fired at two-minute intervals. For the reflection seismic observations, this resulted in onefold coverage only, but it was established that airguns are a suitable energy source for crustal refraction seismic measurements out to distances of more than 100 km, and in areas with considerable sedimentary cover. This observation was an important contribution to the planning of the EUGENO-S project. Simultaneous application of reflection and refraction seismic methods at sea permits the observation of both the sedimentary horizons and the lower crust. This provided insight into the deeper sedimentary layers to the north of Jutland. No evidence for deep-reaching faults below the Norwegian Channel is indicated. We are thus able to reinforce the theory of glacial erosion. The seismic survey failed to confirm any seismic evidence for the gravity and magnetic anomaly near Kristiansand. A seismic section obtained by a land station in Sweden clearly delineates the upper-lower crust and the crust-mantle transitions. Strong S-waves, converted at the sea floor, were also observed.

3. Investigations on Local Seismic Phases and Modeling of Seismic Signals

DTIC Science & Technology

1993-10-31

Brocher, T. M., 1987. Coincident seismic reflection/refraction studies of the continental lithosphere: a global review, Rev. Geophys., 25, 723-742...36.39 Laza 300889 42.105 -07.516 13. 3.7 3.9 35.37 Nazare 310389 39.601 -09.493 25 ? 3.7 3.5 33.35 Camero 2009 87 42.138 - 02.476 05. 3.5 3.6 34.35 Aldea ...used might be accurate enough to describe the global waveforms recorded. NEAR SOURCE SITE EFFECTS EXPECTED AT YUCCA FLAT The map of Paleozoic basement

4. Imaging Active and Relict Seafloor Methane Seep Sites: a Comparison of Seafloor 3D Seismic Reflectivity and Multibeam Sonar Backscatter Intensity at Omakere Ridge, Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

Golding, T. V.; Pecher, I. A.; Crutchley, G. J.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C. A.; Bialas, J.; Greinert, J.; Townend, J.; SO214 Shipboard Scientific Party

2011-12-01

Omakere Ridge is an anticlinal thrust ridge in water depths of 1100-1700 m on the Hikurangi Margin, east of the North Island of New Zealand, and an area of active seafloor methane seepage associated with an extensive gas hydrate province. Methane seep sites on the Hikurangi Margin are characterised by localised build-ups of hard authigenic carbonate and chemosynthetic seep fauna that exist on a seafloor otherwise characterised by soft, muddy sediments. Previous studies have shown that these seep sites appear as areas of high backscatter in sonar images, but backscatter data alone do not provide detailed information on the present level of activity of a seep site, or the thickness of the carbonate build-up. Here we present a comparison of seafloor seismic reflectivity and multibeam sonar backscatter intensity data collected from active and relict methane seep sites on Omakere Ridge. High-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic reflection data and 12 kHz EM120 multibeam sonar data were collected in March 2011 during the RV Sonne cruise SO214. Seafloor seismic amplitude maps have been derived from the shipboard post-stack migrated data cube. A pronounced acquisition artifact is manifest in the seafloor horizon slice as high and low amplitude stripes that alternate periodically in the crossline direction. We have removed this artifact from the seafloor horizon slice using Kx-Ky filtering, followed by direct sampling and deterministic removal of the very-low-frequency components in the spatial domain. The seismic amplitude map has then been transformed into a calibrated seafloor reflection coefficient map. Sonar backscatter mosaics have been created after correcting for instrument response, angular variation in backscatter and bathymetry. Several backscatter mosaics were incorporated into a stacked mosaic over the study area to attenuate random noise. The high sonar backscatter response at the seep sites is generally accompanied by high seismic reflectivity. However, the

5. 3D Reservoir Modeling of Semutang Gas Field: A lonely Gas field in Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt, with Integrated Well Log, 2D Seismic Reflectivity and Attributes.

Salehin, Z.; Woobaidullah, A. S. M.; Snigdha, S. S.

2015-12-01

Bengal Basin with its prolific gas rich province provides needed energy to Bangladesh. Present energy situation demands more Hydrocarbon explorations. Only 'Semutang' is discovered in the high amplitude structures, where rest of are in the gentle to moderate structures of western part of Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt. But it has some major thrust faults which have strongly breached the reservoir zone. The major objectives of this research are interpretation of gas horizons and faults, then to perform velocity model, structural and property modeling to obtain reservoir properties. It is needed to properly identify the faults and reservoir heterogeneities. 3D modeling is widely used to reveal the subsurface structure in faulted zone where planning and development drilling is major challenge. Thirteen 2D seismic and six well logs have been used to identify six gas bearing horizons and a network of faults and to map the structure at reservoir level. Variance attributes were used to identify faults. Velocity model is performed for domain conversion. Synthetics were prepared from two wells where sonic and density logs are available. Well to seismic tie at reservoir zone shows good match with Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator on seismic section. Vsh, porosity, water saturation and permeability have been calculated and various cross plots among porosity logs have been shown. Structural modeling is used to make zone and layering accordance with minimum sand thickness. Fault model shows the possible fault network, those liable for several dry wells. Facies model have been constrained with Sequential Indicator Simulation method to show the facies distribution along the depth surfaces. Petrophysical models have been prepared with Sequential Gaussian Simulation to estimate petrophysical parameters away from the existing wells to other parts of the field and to observe heterogeneities in reservoir. Average porosity map for each gas zone were constructed. The outcomes of the research

6. Investigation of foam flow in a 3D printed porous medium in the presence of oil.

PubMed

Osei-Bonsu, Kofi; Grassia, Paul; Shokri, Nima

2017-03-15

Foams demonstrate great potential for displacing fluids in porous media which is applicable to a variety of subsurface operations such as the enhanced oil recovery and soil remediation. The application of foam in these processes is due to its unique ability to reduce gas mobility by increasing its effective viscosity and to divert gas to un-swept low permeability zones in porous media. The presence of oil in porous media is detrimental to the stability of foams which can influence its success as a displacing fluid. In the present work, we have conducted a systematic series of experiments using a well-characterised porous medium manufactured by 3D printing technique to evaluate the influence of oil on the dynamics of foam displacement under different boundary conditions. The effects of the type of oil, foam quality and foam flow rate were investigated. Our results reveal that generation of stable foam is delayed in the presence of light oil in the porous medium compared to heavy oil. Additionally, it was observed that the dynamics of oil entrapment was dictated by the stability of foam in the presence of oil. Furthermore, foams with high gas fraction appeared to be less stable in the presence of oil lowering its recovery efficiency. Pore-scale inspection of foam-oil dynamics during displacement revealed formation of a less stable front as the foam quality increased, leading to less oil recovery. This study extends the physical understanding of oil displacement by foam in porous media and provides new physical insights regarding the parameters influencing this process.

7. Experimental Investigation of Material Flows Within FSWs Using 3D Tomography

SciTech Connect

Charles R. Tolle; Timothy A. White; Karen S. Miller; Denis E. Clark; Herschel B. Smartt

2008-06-01

There exists significant prior work using tracers or pre-placed hardened markers within friction stir welding (FSWing) to experimentally explore material flow within the FSW process. Our experiments replaced markers with a thin sheet of copper foil placed between the 6061 aluminum lap and butt joints that were then welded. The absorption characteristics of x-rays for copper and aluminum are significantly different allowing for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods such as x-ray computed tomography (CT) to be used to demonstrate the material movement within the weldment on a much larger scale than previously shown. 3D CT reconstruction of the copper components of the weldment allows for a unique view into the final turbulent state of the welding process as process parameters are varied. The x-ray CT data of a section of the weld region was collected using a cone-beam x-ray imaging system developed at the INL. Six-hundred projections were collected over 360-degrees using a 160-kVp Bremsstrahlung x-ray generator (25-micrometer focal spot) and amorphoussilicon x-ray detector. The region of the object that was imaged was about 3cm tall and 1.5cm x 1cm in cross section, and was imaged at a magnification of about 3.6x. The data were reconstructed on a 0.5x0.5x0.5 mm3 voxel grid. After reconstruction, the aluminum and copper could be easily discriminated using a gray level threshold allowing visualization of the copper components. Fractal analysis of the tomographic reconstructed material topology is investigated as a means to quantify macro level material flow based on process parameters. The results of multi-pass FSWs show increased refinement of the copper trace material. Implications of these techniques for quantifying process flow are discussed.

8. Oscillating optical tweezer-based 3-D confocal microrheometer for investigating the intracellular micromechanics and structures

Ou-Yang, H. D.; Rickter, E. A.; Pu, C.; Latinovic, O.; Kumar, A.; Mengistu, M.; Lowe-Krentz, L.; Chien, S.

2005-08-01

Mechanical properties of living biological cells are important for cells to maintain their shapes, support mechanical stresses and move through tissue matrix. The use of optical tweezers to measure micromechanical properties of cells has recently made significant progresses. This paper presents a new approach, the oscillating optical tweezer cytorheometer (OOTC), which takes advantage of the coherent detection of harmonically modulated particle motions by a lock-in amplifier to increase sensitivity, temporal resolution and simplicity. We demonstrate that OOTC can measure the dynamic mechanical modulus in the frequency range of 0.1-6,000 Hz at a rate as fast as 1 data point per second with submicron spatial resolution. More importantly, OOTC is capable of distinguishing the intrinsic non-random temporal variations from random fluctuations due to Brownian motion; this capability, not achievable by conventional approaches, is particular useful because living systems are highly dynamic and often exhibit non-thermal, rhythmic behavior in a broad time scale from a fraction of a second to hours or days. Although OOTC is effective in measuring the intracellular micromechanical properties, unless we can visualize the cytoskeleton in situ, the mechanical property data would only be as informative as that of "Blind men and the Elephant". To solve this problem, we take two steps, the first, to use of fluorescent imaging to identify the granular structures trapped by optical tweezers, and second, to integrate OOTC with 3-D confocal microscopy so we can take simultaneous, in situ measurements of the micromechanics and intracellular structure in living cells. In this paper, we discuss examples of applying the oscillating tweezer-based cytorheometer for investigating cultured bovine endothelial cells, the identification of caveolae as some of the granular structures in the cell as well as our approach to integrate optical tweezers with a spinning disk confocal microscope.

9. Spectroscopic investigation of the 3d 2D → nf 2F transitions in lithium

Shahzada, S.; Shah, M.; Haq, S. U.; Nawaz, M.; Ahmed, M.; Nadeem, Ali

2016-05-01

We report term energies and effective quantum numbers of the odd parity 3d 2D → nf 2F series of lithium using multi-step and multi-photon laser excitation schemes. The experiments were performed using three dye lasers simultaneously pumped by the second harmonic (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with an atomic beam apparatus and thermionic diode ion detector. The first ionization potential of lithium has been determined as 43,487.13 ± 0.02 cm- 1 from the much extended 3d 2D → nf 2F (17 ≤ n ≤ 70) series. In addition, the oscillator strengths of the 3d 2D → nf 2F (15 ≤ n ≤ 48) transitions have been determined, showing a decreasing trend with the increase in principal quantum number n.

10. Investigation of the 3-D actinic flux field in mountainous terrain

PubMed Central

Wagner, J.E.; Angelini, F.; Blumthaler, M.; Fitzka, M.; Gobbi, G.P.; Kift, R.; Kreuter, A.; Rieder, H.E.; Simic, S.; Webb, A.; Weihs, P.

2011-01-01

During three field campaigns spectral actinic flux was measured from 290–500 nm under clear sky conditions in Alpine terrain and the associated O3- and NO2-photolysis frequencies were calculated and the measurement products were then compared with 1-D- and 3-D-model calculations. To do this 3-D-radiative transfer model was adapted for actinic flux calculations in mountainous terrain and the maps of the actinic flux field at the surface, calculated with the 3-D-radiative transfer model, are given. The differences between the 3-D- and 1-D-model results for selected days during the campaigns are shown, together with the ratios of the modeled actinic flux values to the measurements. In many cases the 1-D-model overestimates actinic flux by more than the measurement uncertainty of 10%. The results of using a 3-D-model generally show significantly lower values, and can underestimate the actinic flux by up to 30%. This case study attempts to quantify the impact of snow cover in combination with topography on spectral actinic flux. The impact of snow cover on the actinic flux was ~ 25% in narrow snow covered valleys, but for snow free areas there were no significant changes due snow cover in the surrounding area and it is found that the effect snow-cover at distances over 5 km from the point of interest was below 5%. Overall the 3-D-model can calculate actinic flux to the same accuracy as the 1-D-model for single points, but gives a much more realistic view of the surface actinic flux field in mountains as topography and obstruction of the horizon are taken into account. PMID:26412915

11. Investigation of leakage current and breakdown voltage in irradiated double-sided 3D silicon sensors

Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Ayllon, N.; Boscardin, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Mattiazzo, S.; McDuff, H.; Mendicino, R.; Povoli, M.; Seidel, S.; Sultan, D. M. S.; Zorzi, N.

2016-09-01

We report on an experimental study aimed at gaining deeper insight into the leakage current and breakdown voltage of irradiated double-sided 3D silicon sensors from FBK, so as to improve both the design and the fabrication technology for use at future hadron colliders such as the High Luminosity LHC. Several 3D diode samples of different technologies and layout are considered, as well as several irradiations with different particle types. While the leakage current follows the expected linear trend with radiation fluence, the breakdown voltage is found to depend on both the bulk damage and the surface damage, and its values can vary significantly with sensor geometry and process details.

12. State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation

PubMed Central

Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Docchio, Franco

2009-01-01

3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a “sensor fusion” approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications. PMID:22389618

13. Regional seismic wavefield computation on a 3-D heterogeneous Earth model by means of coupled traveling wave synthesis

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pollitz, F.F.

2002-01-01

I present a new algorithm for calculating seismic wave propagation through a three-dimensional heterogeneous medium using the framework of mode coupling theory originally developed to perform very low frequency (f < ???0.01-0.05 Hz) seismic wavefield computation. It is a Greens function approach for multiple scattering within a defined volume and employs a truncated traveling wave basis set using the locked mode approximation. Interactions between incident and scattered wavefields are prescribed by mode coupling theory and account for the coupling among surface waves, body waves, and evanescent waves. The described algorithm is, in principle, applicable to global and regional wave propagation problems, but I focus on higher frequency (typically f ??????0.25 Hz) applications at regional and local distances where the locked mode approximation is best utilized and which involve wavefields strongly shaped by propagation through a highly heterogeneous crust. Synthetic examples are shown for P-SV-wave propagation through a semi-ellipsoidal basin and SH-wave propagation through a fault zone.

14. Lead-oriented synthesis: Investigation of organolithium-mediated routes to 3-D scaffolds and 3-D shape analysis of a virtual lead-like library.

PubMed

Lüthy, Monique; Wheldon, Mary C; Haji-Cheteh, Chehasnah; Atobe, Masakazu; Bond, Paul S; O'Brien, Peter; Hubbard, Roderick E; Fairlamb, Ian J S

2015-06-01

Synthetic routes to six 3-D scaffolds containing piperazine, pyrrolidine and piperidine cores have been developed. The synthetic methodology focused on the use of N-Boc α-lithiation-trapping chemistry. Notably, suitably protected and/or functionalised medicinal chemistry building blocks were synthesised via concise, connective methodology. This represents a rare example of lead-oriented synthesis. A virtual library of 190 compounds was then enumerated from the six scaffolds. Of these, 92 compounds (48%) fit the lead-like criteria of: (i) -1⩽AlogP⩽3; (ii) 14⩽number of heavy atoms⩽26; (iii) total polar surface area⩾50Å(2). The 3-D shapes of the 190 compounds were analysed using a triangular plot of normalised principal moments of inertia (PMI). From this, 46 compounds were identified which had lead-like properties and possessed 3-D shapes in under-represented areas of pharmaceutical space. Thus, the PMI analysis of the 190 member virtual library showed that whilst scaffolds which may appear on paper to be 3-D in shape, only 24% of the compounds actually had 3-D structures in the more interesting areas of 3-D drug space.

15. The boundary conditions for simulations of a shake-table experiment on the seismic response of 3D slope

Tang, Liang; Cong, Shengyi; Ling, Xianzhang; Ju, Nengpan

2017-01-01

Boundary conditions can significantly affect a slope's behavior under strong earthquakes. To evaluate the importance of boundary conditions for finite element (FE) simulations of a shake-table experiment on the slope response, a validated three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear FE model is presented, and the numerical and experimental results are compared. For that purpose, the robust graphical user-interface "SlopeSAR", based on the open-source computational platform OpenSees, is employed, which simplifies the effort-intensive pre- and post-processing phases. The mesh resolution effect is also addressed. A parametric study is performed to evaluate the influence of boundary conditions on the FE model involving the boundary extent and three types of boundary conditions at the end faces. Generally, variations in the boundary extent produce inconsistent slope deformations. For the two end faces, fixing the y-direction displacement is not appropriate to simulate the shake-table experiment, in which the end walls are rigid and rough. In addition, the influence of the length of the 3D slope's top face and the width of the slope play an important role in the difference between two types of boundary conditions at the end faces (fixing the y-direction displacement and fixing the ( y, z) direction displacement). Overall, this study highlights that the assessment of a comparison between a simulation and an experimental result should be performed with due consideration to the effect of the boundary conditions.

16. How Children Determine the Size of 3D Structures: Investigating Factors Influencing Strategy Choice

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vasilyeva, Marina; Ganley, Colleen M.; Casey, Beth M.; Dulaney, Alana; Tillinger, Miriam; Anderson, Karen

2013-01-01

This study explores changes in students' strategies as they solve different types of volume problems. Fifth graders were presented with pictures showing 3D objects and a unit cube; they determined how many cubes made up the object and explained their responses. We examined whether children transferred strategies across problem types, varying in…

17. Experimental investigation of 3D scanheads for laser micro-processing

Penchev, Pavel; Dimov, Stefan; Bhaduri, Debajyoti

2016-07-01

The broader use of laser micro-processing technology increases the demand for executing complex machining and joining operations on free-from (3D) workpieces. To satisfy these growing requirements it is necessary to utilise 3D scanheads that integrate beam deflectors (X and Y optical axes) and Z modules with high dynamics. The research presented in this communication proposes an experimental technique to quantify the dynamic capabilities of Z modules, also called Dynamic Focusing Modules (DFM), of such 3D scanheads that are essential for efficient, accurate and repeatable laser micro-processing of free form surfaces. The proposed experimental technique is validated on state-of-art laser micro-machining platform and the results show that the DFM dynamic capabilities are substantially inferior than those of X and Y beam deflectors, in particular the maximum speed of the Z module is less than 10% of the maximum speeds achievable with X and Y optical axes of the scanhead. Thus, the DFM dynamics deficiencies can become a major obstacle for the broader use of high frequency laser sources that necessitate high dynamics 3D scanheads for executing cost effectively free-form surface processing operations.

18. Successful integration of 3-D seismic and multidisciplinary approaches in exploring the Zechstein 2 carbonates in northeast Netherlands

SciTech Connect

Casson, N. ); Van Wees, B.; Reijers, T. ); Henk Rebel )

1993-09-01

Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij has been actively involved in the exploration of the Zechstein 2 carbonate play for over 40 yr. This exploration effort, concentrated mainly in the Drenthe and Schoonebeek area of northeast Netherlands, has resulted in the discovery of 20 gas fields with cumulative reserves of more than 40 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] of gas. The wealth of subsurface data collected in the exploration and development of these fields has lead to the establishment of detailed depositional and diagenetic models of the Zechstein 2 carbonates. More recently, extensive three-dimensional seismic coverage, the integration of lateral prediction techniques, and detailed fracture studies in cores have provided powerful predicting tools in the comprehension and exploitation of the play. Successful integration of the various disciplines now allows exploration of subtle low-relief structures in the mature Zechstein hydrocarbon province and helps target directional exploration and development wells.

19. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

2002-12-01

Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

20. Seismically Inferred Rupture Process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake by Using Data-Validated 3D and 2.5D Green's Tensor Waveforms

Okamoto, T.; Takenaka, H.; Hara, T.; Nakamura, T.; Aoki, T.

2014-12-01

We analyze "seismic" rupture process of the March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (GCMT Mw9.1) by using a non-linear multi-time-window waveform inversion method. We incorporate the effect of the near-source laterally heterogeneous structure on the synthetic Green's tensor waveforms; otherwise the analysis may result in erroneous solutions [1]. To increase the resolution we use teleseismic and strong-motion seismograms jointly because the one-sided distribution of strong-motion station may cause reduced resolution near the trench axis [2]. We use a 2.5D FDM [3] for teleseismic P-waves and a full 3D FDM that incorporates topography, oceanic water layer, 3D heterogeneity and attenuation for strong-motions [4]. We apply multi-GPU acceleration by using the TSUBAME supercomputer in Tokyo Institute of Technology [5]. We "validated" the Green's tensor waveforms with a point-source moment tensor inversion analysis for a small (Mw5.8) shallow event: we confirm the observed waveforms are reproduced well with the synthetics.The inferred slip distribution using the 2.5D and 3D Green's functions has large slips (max. 37 m) near the hypocenter and small slips near the trench (figure). Also an isolated slip region is identified close to Fukushima prefecture. These features are similar to those obtained by our preliminary study [4]. The land-ward large slips and trench-ward small slips have also been reported by [2]. It is remarkable that we confirmed these features by using data-validated Green's functions. On the other hand very large slips are inferred close to the trench when we apply "1D" Green's functions that do not incorporate the lateral heterogeneity. Our result suggests the trench-ward large deformation that caused large tsunamis did not radiate strong seismic waves. Very slow slips (e.g., the tsunami earthquake), delayed slips and anelastic deformation are among the candidates of the physical processes of the deformation.[1] Okamoto and Takenaka, EPS, 61, e17-e20, 2009

1. Neoarchaean tectonic history of the Witwatersrand Basin and Ventersdorp Supergroup: New constraints from high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data

Manzi, Musa S. D.; Hein, Kim A. A.; King, Nick; Durrheim, Raymond J.

2013-04-01

First-order scale structures in the West Wits Line and West Rand goldfields of the Witwatersrand Basin (South Africa) were mapped using the high-resolution 3D reflection seismic method. Structural models constrain the magnitude of displacement of thrusts and faults, the gross structural architecture and Neoarchaean tectonic evolution of the West Rand and Bank fault zones, which offset the gold-bearing reefs of the basin. The merging of several 3D seismic surveys made clear the gross strato-structural architecture of the goldfields; a macroscopic fold-thrust belt is crosscut by a macroscopic extensional fault array. These are dissected, eroded and overlain by the Transvaal Supergroup above an angular unconformity. The seismic sections confirm that the West Rand Group (ca. 2985-2902 Ma) is unconformably overlain by the Central Rand Group (ca. 2902-2849 Ma), with tilting of the West Rand Group syn- to post-erosion at ca. 2.9 Ga. The seismic sections also confirm that an unconformable relationship exists between the Central Rand Group and the auriferous Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR), with an easterly-verging fold-thrust belt being initiated concomitant to deposition of the VCR at approximately 2.72 Ga. Fold-thrust formation included development of the (1) newly identified first-order scale Libanon Anticline, (2) Tandeka and Jabulani thrusts which displace the West Rand Group, and (3) parasite folds. The fold-thrust belt is crosscut by a macroscopic extensional fault array (or rift-like system of faults) which incepted towards the end of extrusion of the Ventersdorp lavas, and certainly during deposition of the Platberg Group (2709-2643 Ma) when a mantle plume may have heated the lithosphere. The West Rand and Bank fault zones formed at this time and include (1) the West Rand and Bank faults which are scissors faults; (2) second and third-order scale normal faults in the immediate footwall and hanging wall of the faults; (3) drag synclines, and (4) rollover anticlines.

2. Earthquakes in Action: Incorporating Multimedia, Internet Resources, Large-scale Seismic Data, and 3-D Visualizations into Innovative Activities and Research Projects for Today's High School Students

Smith-Konter, B.; Jacobs, A.; Lawrence, K.; Kilb, D.

2006-12-01

The most effective means of communicating science to today's "high-tech" students is through the use of visually attractive and animated lessons, hands-on activities, and interactive Internet-based exercises. To address these needs, we have developed Earthquakes in Action, a summer high school enrichment course offered through the California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) Program at the University of California, San Diego. The summer course consists of classroom lectures, lab experiments, and a final research project designed to foster geophysical innovations, technological inquiries, and effective scientific communication (http://topex.ucsd.edu/cosmos/earthquakes). Course content includes lessons on plate tectonics, seismic wave behavior, seismometer construction, fault characteristics, California seismicity, global seismic hazards, earthquake stress triggering, tsunami generation, and geodetic measurements of the Earth's crust. Students are introduced to these topics through lectures-made-fun using a range of multimedia, including computer animations, videos, and interactive 3-D visualizations. These lessons are further enforced through both hands-on lab experiments and computer-based exercises. Lab experiments included building hand-held seismometers, simulating the frictional behavior of faults using bricks and sandpaper, simulating tsunami generation in a mini-wave pool, and using the Internet to collect global earthquake data on a daily basis and map earthquake locations using a large classroom map. Students also use Internet resources like Google Earth and UNAVCO/EarthScope's Jules Verne Voyager Jr. interactive mapping tool to study Earth Science on a global scale. All computer-based exercises and experiments developed for Earthquakes in Action have been distributed to teachers participating in the 2006 Earthquake Education Workshop, hosted by the Visualization Center at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (http

3. Active Fault Geometry and Crustal Deformation Along the San Andreas Fault System Through San Gorgonio Pass, California: The View in 3D From Seismicity

Nicholson, C.; Hauksson, E.; Plesch, A.

2012-12-01

Understanding the 3D geometry and deformation style of the San Andreas fault (SAF) is critical to accurate dynamic rupture and ground motion prediction models. We use 3D alignments of hypocenter and focal mechanism nodal planes within a relocated earthquake catalog (1981-2011) [Hauksson et al., 2012] to develop improved 3D fault models for active strands of the SAF and adjacent secondary structures. Through San Gorgonio Pass (SGP), earthquakes define a mechanically layered crust with predominantly high-angle strike-slip faults in the upper ~10 km, while at greater depth, intersecting sets of strike-slip, oblique slip and low-angle thrust faults define a wedge-shaped volume deformation of the lower crust. In some places, this interface between upper and lower crustal deformation may be an active detachment fault, and may have controlled the down-dip extent of recent fault rupture. Alignments of hypocenters and nodal planes define multiple principal slip surfaces through SGP, including a through-going steeply-dipping predominantly strike-slip Banning fault strand at depth that upward truncates a more moderately dipping (40°-50°) blind, oblique North Palm Springs fault. The North Palm Springs fault may be the active down-dip extension of the San Gorgonio Pass thrust offset at depth by the principal, through-going Banning strand. In the northern Coachella Valley, seismicity indicates that the Garnet Hill and Banning fault strands are most likely sub-parallel and steeply dipping (~70°NE) to depths of 8-10 km, where they intersect and merge with a stack of moderately dipping to low-angle oblique thrust faults. Gravity and water well data confirm that these faults are sub-parallel and near vertical in the upper 2-3 km. Although the dense wedge of deep seismicity below SGP and largely south of the SAF contains multiple secondary fault sets of different orientations, the predominant fault set appears to be a series of en echelon NW-striking oblique strike-slip faults

4. Investigating the capabilities of semantic enrichment of 3D CityEngine data

Solou, Dimitra; Dimopoulou, Efi

2016-08-01

In recent years the development of technology and the lifting of several technical limitations, has brought the third dimension to the fore. The complexity of urban environments and the strong need for land administration, intensify the need of using a three-dimensional cadastral system. Despite the progress in the field of geographic information systems and 3D modeling techniques, there is no fully digital 3D cadastre. The existing geographic information systems and the different methods of three-dimensional modeling allow for better management, visualization and dissemination of information. Nevertheless, these opportunities cannot be totally exploited because of deficiencies in standardization and interoperability in these systems. Within this context, CityGML was developed as an international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for 3D city models' representation and exchange. CityGML defines geometry and topology for city modeling, also focusing on semantic aspects of 3D city information. The scope of CityGML is to reach common terminology, also addressing the imperative need for interoperability and data integration, taking into account the number of available geographic information systems and modeling techniques. The aim of this paper is to develop an application for managing semantic information of a model generated based on procedural modeling. The model was initially implemented in CityEngine ESRI's software, and then imported to ArcGIS environment. Final goal was the original model's semantic enrichment and then its conversion to CityGML format. Semantic information management and interoperability seemed to be feasible by the use of the 3DCities Project ESRI tools, since its database structure ensures adding semantic information to the CityEngine model and therefore automatically convert to CityGML for advanced analysis and visualization in different application areas.

5. Multi-Source 3d Models Supporting Ultrasonic Test to Investigate AN Egyptian Sculpture of the Archaeological Museum in Bologna

Di Pietra, V.; Donadio, E.; Picchi, D.; Sambuelli, L.; Spanò, A.

2017-02-01

The paper presents the workflow and the results of an ultrasonic 3D investigation and a 3D survey application aimed at the assessment of the internal integrity of an ancient sculpture. The work aimed at highlighting the ability of methods devoted to the 3D geometry acquisition of small objects when applied to diagnosis performed by geophysical investigation. In particular, two methods widely applied for small objects modelling are considered and compared, the digital Photogrammetry with the Structure from Motion (SFM) technique and hand-held 3D scanners. The study concludes with the aim to enhance the final graphical representation of the tomographic results and to subject the obtained results to a quantitative analysis. The survey is applied to the Egyptian naophorous statue of Amenmes and Reshpu, which dates to the reign of Ramses II (1279-1213 BC) or later and is now preserved in the Civic Archaeological Museum in Bologna. In order to evaluate the internal persistency of fractures and visible damages, a 3D Ultrasonic Tomographic Imaging (UTI) test has been performed and a multi-sensor survey (image and range based) was conducted, in order to evaluate the locations of the source and receiver points as accurate as possible The presented test allowed to evaluate the material characteristics, its porosity and degradation state, which particularly affect the lower part of the statue. More in general, the project demonstrated how solution coming from the field of 3D modelling of Cultural Heritage allow the application of 3D ultrasonic tomography also on objects with complex shapes, in addition to the improved representation of the obtained results.

6. Investigating the Use of 3d Geovisualizations for Urban Design in Informal Settlement Upgrading in South Africa

Rautenbach, V.; Coetzee, S.; Çöltekin, A.

2016-06-01

Informal settlements are a common occurrence in South Africa, and to improve in-situ circumstances of communities living in informal settlements, upgrades and urban design processes are necessary. Spatial data and maps are essential throughout these processes to understand the current environment, plan new developments, and communicate the planned developments. All stakeholders need to understand maps to actively participate in the process. However, previous research demonstrated that map literacy was relatively low for many planning professionals in South Africa, which might hinder effective planning. Because 3D visualizations resemble the real environment more than traditional maps, many researchers posited that they would be easier to interpret. Thus, our goal is to investigate the effectiveness of 3D geovisualizations for urban design in informal settlement upgrading in South Africa. We consider all involved processes: 3D modelling, visualization design, and cognitive processes during map reading. We found that procedural modelling is a feasible alternative to time-consuming manual modelling, and can produce high quality models. When investigating the visualization design, the visual characteristics of 3D models and relevance of a subset of visual variables for urban design activities of informal settlement upgrades were qualitatively assessed. The results of three qualitative user experiments contributed to understanding the impact of various levels of complexity in 3D city models and map literacy of future geoinformatics and planning professionals when using 2D maps and 3D models. The research results can assist planners in designing suitable 3D models that can be used throughout all phases of the process.

7. Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints' Applications

Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Wang, Ying; Yudhanto, Arief; Joesbury, Adam; Potluri, Prasad; Lubineau, Gilles; Soutis, Constantinos

2016-09-01

The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure (~140 %) followed by AI (~105 %) and lastly LTL (~85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints' applications.

8. Numerical investigation of band gaps in 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterials

Qureshi, Awais; Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.

2016-06-01

In this research, the negative effective mass behavior of elastic/mechanical metamaterials is exhibited by a cantilever-in-mass structure as a proposed design for creating frequency stopping band gaps, based on local resonance of the internal structure. The mass-in-mass unit cell model is transformed into a cantilever-in-mass model using the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. An analytical model of the cantilever-in-mass structure is derived and the effects of geometrical dimensions and material parameters to create frequency band gaps are examined. A two-dimensional finite element model is created to validate the analytical results, and excellent agreement is achieved. The analytical model establishes an easily tunable metamaterial design to realize wave attenuation based on locally resonant frequency. To demonstrate feasibility for 3D printing, the analytical model is employed to design and fabricate 3D printable mechanical metamaterial. A three-dimensional numerical experiment is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to validate the wave attenuation performance. Results show that the cantilever-in-mass metamaterial is capable of mitigating stress waves at the desired resonance frequency. Our study successfully presents the use of one constituent material to create a 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterial with negative effective mass density for stress wave mitigation purposes.

9. Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints' Applications

Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Wang, Ying; Yudhanto, Arief; Joesbury, Adam; Potluri, Prasad; Lubineau, Gilles; Soutis, Constantinos

2017-04-01

The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure ( 140 %) followed by AI ( 105 %) and lastly LTL ( 85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints' applications.

10. Numerical investigations on cavitation intensity for 3D homogeneous unsteady viscous flows

Leclercq, C.; Archer, A.; Fortes-Patella, R.

2016-11-01

The cavitation erosion remains an industrial issue. In this paper, we deal with the cavitation intensity which can be described as the aggressiveness - or erosive capacity - of a cavitating flow. The estimation of this intensity is a challenging problem both in terms of modelling the cavitating flow and predicting the erosion due to cavitation. For this purpose, a model was proposed to estimate cavitation intensity from 3D unsteady cavitating flow simulations. An intensity model based on pressure and void fraction derivatives was developped and applied to a NACA 65012 hydrofoil tested at LMH-EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) [1]. 2D and 3D unsteady cavitating simulations were performed using a homogeneous model with void fraction transport equation included in Code_Saturne with cavitating module [2]. The article presents a description of the numerical code and the physical approach considered. Comparisons between 2D and 3D simulations, as well as between numerical and experimental results obtained by pitting tests, are analyzed in the paper.

11. Numerical investigation of band gaps in 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterials

PubMed Central

Qureshi, Awais; Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.

2016-01-01

In this research, the negative effective mass behavior of elastic/mechanical metamaterials is exhibited by a cantilever-in-mass structure as a proposed design for creating frequency stopping band gaps, based on local resonance of the internal structure. The mass-in-mass unit cell model is transformed into a cantilever-in-mass model using the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. An analytical model of the cantilever-in-mass structure is derived and the effects of geometrical dimensions and material parameters to create frequency band gaps are examined. A two-dimensional finite element model is created to validate the analytical results, and excellent agreement is achieved. The analytical model establishes an easily tunable metamaterial design to realize wave attenuation based on locally resonant frequency. To demonstrate feasibility for 3D printing, the analytical model is employed to design and fabricate 3D printable mechanical metamaterial. A three-dimensional numerical experiment is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to validate the wave attenuation performance. Results show that the cantilever-in-mass metamaterial is capable of mitigating stress waves at the desired resonance frequency. Our study successfully presents the use of one constituent material to create a 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterial with negative effective mass density for stress wave mitigation purposes. PMID:27329828

12. Planar Gradient Diffusion System to Investigate Chemotaxis in a 3D Collagen Matrix.

PubMed

Stout, David A; Toyjanova, Jennet; Franck, Christian

2015-06-12

The importance of cell migration can be seen through the development of human life. When cells migrate, they generate forces and transfer these forces to their surrounding area, leading to cell movement and migration. In order to understand the mechanisms that can alter and/or affect cell migration, one can study these forces. In theory, understanding the fundamental mechanisms and forces underlying cell migration holds the promise of effective approaches for treating diseases and promoting cellular transplantation. Unfortunately, modern chemotaxis chambers that have been developed are usually restricted to two dimensions (2D) and have complex diffusion gradients that make the experiment difficult to interpret. To this end, we have developed, and describe in this paper, a direct-viewing chamber for chemotaxis studies, which allows one to overcome modern chemotaxis chamber obstacles able to measure cell forces and specific concentration within the chamber in a 3D environment to study cell 3D migration. More compelling, this approach allows one to successfully model diffusion through 3D collagen matrices and calculate the coefficient of diffusion of a chemoattractant through multiple different concentrations of collagen, while keeping the system simple and user friendly for traction force microscopy (TFM) and digital volume correlation (DVC) analysis.

13. 3D ultrasound system to investigate intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates

Kishimoto, J.; de Ribaupierre, S.; Lee, D. S. C.; Mehta, R.; St. Lawrence, K.; Fenster, A.

2013-11-01

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common disorder among preterm neonates that is routinely diagnosed and monitored by 2D cranial ultrasound (US). The cerebral ventricles of patients with IVH often have a period of ventricular dilation (ventriculomegaly). This initial increase in ventricle size can either spontaneously resolve, which often shows clinically as a period of stabilization in ventricle size and eventual decline back towards a more normal size, or progressive ventricular dilation that does not stabilize and which may require interventional therapy to reduce symptoms relating to increased intracranial pressure. To improve the characterization of ventricle dilation, we developed a 3D US imaging system that can be used with a conventional clinical US scanner to image the ventricular system of preterm neonates at risk of ventriculomegaly. A motorized transducer housing was designed specifically for hand-held use inside an incubator using a transducer commonly used for cranial 2D US scans. This system was validated using geometric phantoms, US/MRI compatible ventricle volume phantoms, and patient images to determine 3D reconstruction accuracy and inter- and intra-observer volume estimation variability. 3D US geometric reconstruction was found to be accurate with an error of <0.2%. Measured volumes of a US/MRI compatible ventricle-like phantom were within 5% of gold standard water displacement measurements. Intra-class correlation for the three observers was 0.97, showing very high agreement between observers. The coefficient of variation was between 1.8-6.3% for repeated segmentations of the same patient. The minimum detectable difference was calculated to be 0.63 cm3 for a single observer. Results from ANOVA for three observers segmenting three patients of IVH grade II did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) for the measured ventricle volumes between observers. This 3D US system can reliably produce 3D US images of the neonatal ventricular

14. 3D modeling of the Buhi debris avalanche deposit of Iriga Volcano, Philippines by integrating shallow-seismic reflection and geological data

Minimo, Likha G.; Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

2016-06-01

Numerical models for simulating volcanic debris avalanches commonly lack a critical initiation parameter, the source volume, which is difficult to estimate without data on the deposit thickness. This, in turn, limits how rheology can be characterized for simulating flow. Leapfrog Geo, a 3D geological modeling software, was used to integrate shallow-seismic reflection profiles with field and borehole data to determine the volume of the Buhi debris avalanche and the pre-collapse structure of Iriga Volcano. Volumes of the deposit calculated in this way are 34-71% larger than previous estimates. This technique may improve models of debris avalanches elsewhere in the world, and more precisely depict landslide runout and lateral extent, thus improving disaster prevention and mitigation for the many cities located near volcanoes.

15. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

SciTech Connect

Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

2002-03-11

The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

16. Integrated Tsunami Database: simulation and identification of seismic tsunami sources, 3D visualization and post-disaster assessment on the shore

Krivorot'ko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey; Marinin, Igor; Karas, Adel; Khidasheli, David

2013-04-01

One of the most important problems of tsunami investigation is the problem of seismic tsunami source reconstruction. Non-profit organization WAPMERR (http://wapmerr.org) has provided a historical database of alleged tsunami sources around the world that obtained with the help of information about seaquakes. WAPMERR also has a database of observations of the tsunami waves in coastal areas. The main idea of presentation consists of determining of the tsunami source parameters using seismic data and observations of the tsunami waves on the shore, and the expansion and refinement of the database of presupposed tsunami sources for operative and accurate prediction of hazards and assessment of risks and consequences. Also we present 3D visualization of real-time tsunami wave propagation and loss assessment, characterizing the nature of the building stock in cities at risk, and monitoring by satellite images using modern GIS technology ITRIS (Integrated Tsunami Research and Information System) developed by WAPMERR and Informap Ltd. The special scientific plug-in components are embedded in a specially developed GIS-type graphic shell for easy data retrieval, visualization and processing. The most suitable physical models related to simulation of tsunamis are based on shallow water equations. We consider the initial-boundary value problem in Î© := {(x,y) ?R2 : x ?(0,Lx ), y ?(0,Ly ), Lx,Ly > 0} for the well-known linear shallow water equations in the Cartesian coordinate system in terms of the liquid flow components in dimensional form Here ?(x,y,t) defines the free water surface vertical displacement, i.e. amplitude of a tsunami wave, q(x,y) is the initial amplitude of a tsunami wave. The lateral boundary is assumed to be a non-reflecting boundary of the domain, that is, it allows the free passage of the propagating waves. Assume that the free surface oscillation data at points (xm, ym) are given as a measured output data from tsunami records: fm(t) := ? (xm, ym,t), (xm

17. Contrasting fluvial styles across the mid-Pleistocene climate transition in the northern shelf of the South China Sea: Evidence from 3D seismic data

Zhuo, Haiteng; Wang, Yingmin; Shi, Hesheng; He, Min; Chen, Weitao; Li, Hua; Wang, Ying; Yan, Weiyao

2015-12-01

Multiple successions of buried fluvial channel systems were identified in the Quaternary section of the mid-shelf region of the northern South China Sea, providing a new case study for understanding the interplay between sea level variations and climate change. Using three commercial 3D seismic surveys, accompanied by several 2D lines and a few shallow boreholes, the sequence stratigraphy, seismic geomorphology and stratal architecture of these fluvial channels were carefully investigated. Based on their origin, dimensions, planform geometries and infill architectures, six classes of channel systems, from Class 1 to Class 6, were recognized within five sequences of Quaternary section (SQ1 to SQ5). Three types of fluvial systems among them are incised in their nature, including the trunk incised valleys (Class 1), medium incised valleys (Class 2) and incised tributaries (Class 3). The other three types are unincised, which comprise the trunk channels (Class 4), lateral migrating channels (Class 5) and the stable channels (Class 6). The trunk channels and/or the major valleys that contain braided channels at their base are hypothesized to be a product of deposition from the "big rivers" that have puzzled the sedimentologists for the last decade, providing evidence for the existence of such rivers in the ancient record. Absolute age dates from a few shallow boreholes indicate that the landscapes that were associated with these fluvial systems changed significantly near the completion of the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (MPT), which approximately corresponds to horizon SB2 with an age of ∼0.6 Ma BP. Below SB2, the Early Pleistocene sequence (SQ1) is dominated by a range of different types of unincised fluvial systems. Evidence of incised valleys is absent in SQ1. In contrast, extensive fluvial incision occurred in the successions above horizon SB2 (within SQ2-SQ5). Although recent studies call for increased incision being a product of climate

18. Along-strike variations of structural styles in the imbricated Molasse of Salzburg and Upper Austria: a 3-D seismic perspective

Hinsch, Ralph; Linzer, Hans-Gert

2010-05-01

At the southern border of the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin syntectonic deposits (Molasse Sediments) are partly incorporated into Alpine contractional deformation. Along the alpine chain style and timing of this deformation varies significantly. In this study we use one of the largest European on-shore 3-D seismic datasets, spanning the Molasse basin of Upper Austria and Salzburg states, to investigate the along-strike structural architecture of the alpine deformation front. In the Austrian Part of the Molasse basin, foredeep sedimentation started in Upper-Eocene times (Wagner, 1996). The sediments cover the European margin, consisting of a crystalline basement covered by variously thick Mesozoic sediments (Nachtmann und Wagner, 1987). In Oligocene to Lower Miocene times, syntectonic foredeep sedimentation took place in a deep marine environment, comprising an axial channel system (Linzer 2001, DeRuig and Hubbard, 2006). Parts of these syntectonic sediments are subsequently affected by the advancing thrust wedge. Within the study area, three distinct fold-and-thrust belt segments of different structural architecture can be defined. 1) The Perwang Imbricates are a promontory mostly situated in Salzburg at the border to Germany. Complexly deformed small thrust sheets evolve above a detachment horizon situated in Late Cretaceous shaly marls in Oligocene times. Syntectonic piggy-back and thrust top basins evolve (Covault et al. 2008), which are partly affected by subsequent Miocene overthrusting. 2) The Regau Segment is the area west of the Perwang lobe. It is dominated by few number of thrust sheets in the Molasse sediments. Instead, over-thrusting by the alpine wedge (pre-deformed Flysch and Helvetic thrust sheets) dominates. 3) The Sierning Imbricates segment is located further to the east, at the border of Upper Austria to Lower Austria. The structural inventory of this thrust belt is comprises varying numbers of thrust sheets along strike (1-5), ramp

19. Ice-sheet dynamics through the Quaternary on the mid-Norwegian continental margin inferred from 3D seismic data.

PubMed

Montelli, A; Dowdeswell, J A; Ottesen, D; Johansen, S E

2017-02-01

Reconstructing the evolution of ice sheets is critical to our understanding of the global environmental system, but most detailed palaeo-glaciological reconstructions have hitherto focused on the very recent history of ice sheets. Here, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the changing nature of ice-sheet derived sedimentary architecture through the Quaternary Ice Age of almost 3 Ma. An extensive geophysical record documents a marine-terminating, calving Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) margin present periodically on the mid-Norwegian shelf since the beginning of the Quaternary. Spatial and temporal variability of the FIS is illustrated by the gradual development of fast-flowing ice streams and associated intensification of focused glacial erosion and sedimentation since that time. Buried subglacial landforms reveal a complex and dynamic ice sheet, with converging palaeo-ice streams and several flow-switching events that may reflect major changes in topography and basal thermal regime. Lack of major subglacial meltwater channels suggests a largely distributed drainage system beneath the marine-terminating part of the FIS. This palaeo-environmental examination of the FIS provides a useful framework for ice-sheet modelling and shows that fragmentary preservation of buried surfaces and variability of ice-sheet dynamics should be taken into account when reconstructing glacial history from spatially limited datasets.

20. Crustal Seismicity and 3-D Velocity Structure in the Principal Cordillera of Central Chile (33- 34.5 S, 69.5-71 W): Implications on Andean Geodynamic and Seismic Hazard

Pardo, M.; Monfret, T.; Vera, E.; Yañez, G.; Eisenberg, A.

2007-12-01

Based on data from a dense local temporary seismological network, crustal seismicity is characterized, and a 3- D body wave velocity structure is obtained by tomographic inversion down to the subducted slab. In the framework of Fondecyt 1050758, GeoAzur-IRD and ACT-18 projects, 35 broadband and short period instruments, were deployed in the studied zone for 135 days recording in continuous mode. At this zone the Andean active volcanism reappears after a gap of volcanic activity since late Miocene occurring north of 33 S due to the Central Chile flat slab subduction zone. Crustal seismicity in the depth range 0-30 km is well correlated with known geological faults that become now important in the assessment of the regional seismic hazard. This seismicity also clusters around the giant porphyry cooper deposits in the region (Rio Blanco, El Teniente), and are neither related to mine-blasts nor induced by mining activity. Moreover, the local 3-D velocity structure shows that the zone surrounding each deposit is characterized by high Vp/Vs greater than 1.8, which may indicate fluid phases located in the weakest and more fractured zone of the crust. The body wave velocity pattern shown at depth by the local tomography indicates channels of high Vp/Vs connecting the subducted slab with the surface at places where active volcanism is present, suggesting upward migration of hydrous or melted rocks. This pattern agrees with the one observed with a previous regional tomography that includes this zone, while this Vp/Vs pattern tends to be horizontal at the flat slab zone. At depths of 20-25 km, a layer of high Vp/Vs is observed beneath the Andes Cordillera that could be associated to changes in the rheological properties between the upper and lower crust, or to accumulation of magma. The average stress tensor, derived from focal mechanisms, indicate that the Andean zone is under compression in the plate convergence direction.

1. Seismic Anisotropy and SKS Splitting in the Sangihe Subduction Zone Predicted from 3-D Mantle Flow Models

Di Leo, J. F.; Li, Z.; Walker, A. M.; Wookey, J.; Kendall, J.; Ribe, N. M.; Tommasi, A.

2012-12-01

Observations of shear wave splitting are often interpreted as being due to strain-induced crystal alignment of olivine in the convecting upper mantle, and the polarization of the fast shear wave is frequently taken to directly indicate the direction of mantle flow. Caution must be exercised when making such inferences, as the relationship between olivine lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) and fast direction is dependent on many factors, including the entire deformation history. This is especially the case in regions where complex time-dependent mantle flow is expected, e.g., subduction zones. Observations of shear wave splitting at subduction zones are varied, ranging from trench-perpendicular to -parallel fast directions, or a combination of both. Rigorously interpreting this variety of observations requires modeling which properly accounts for LPO development in the near-slab mantle environment. To this end, we simulate olivine LPO evolution caused by defomation of polycrystalline aggregates as they deform and move along pathlines extracted from a 3-D mantle flow model at a subduction zone (Li & Ribe, 2012). The model is based on 3-D boundary-element numerical simulations of a dense fluid sheet (representing the slab) with a geometry approximating that of the Sangihe subduction zone in Indonesia, where trench-parallel fast directions have recently been measured and ascribed to trench-parallel sub-slab mantle flow (Di Leo et al., 2012). This subduction zone is unique in that it is part of the only double-sided subduction system on Earth. At the Sangihe trench, the Molucca Sea plate is subducting westwards beneath the Eurasian plate. However, this microplate is also subducting eastwards at the nearby Halmahera trench. To test whether the measured trench-parallel fast directions are due to sub-slab mantle flow, and whether this is only possible due to the double-sided geometry, we use two different flow models: one with single- and one with double-sided subduction

2. Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake rupture process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data

PubMed Central

Romano, F.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Piromallo, C.; Piatanesi, A.; Ito, Y.; Zhao, D.; Hirata, K.; Lanucara, P.; Cocco, M.

2014-01-01

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow rupture propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the main deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the rupture, initially confining the deeper rupture and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to rupture along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40 m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68 MPa and ~0.10, respectively. PMID:25005351

3. Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake rupture process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data.

PubMed

Romano, F; Trasatti, E; Lorito, S; Piromallo, C; Piatanesi, A; Ito, Y; Zhao, D; Hirata, K; Lanucara, P; Cocco, M

2014-07-09

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow rupture propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the main deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the rupture, initially confining the deeper rupture and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to rupture along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40 m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68 MPa and ~0.10, respectively.

4. Thermal Investigation of Common 2d FETs and New Generation of 3d FETs Using Boltzmann Transport Equation in Nanoscale

Samian, R. S.; Abbassi, A.; Ghazanfarian, J.

2013-09-01

The thermal performance of two-dimensional (2D) field-effect transistors (FET) is investigated frequently by solving the Fourier heat diffusion law and the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). With the introduction of the new generation of 3D FETs in which their thickness is less than the phonon mean-free-path it is necessary to carefully simulate the thermal performance of such devices. This paper numerically integrates the BTE in common 2D transistors including planar single layer and Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) transistor, and the new generation of 3D transistors including FinFET and Tri-Gate devices. In order to decrease the directional dependency of results in 3D simulations; the Legendre equal-weight (PN-EW) quadrature set has been employed. It is found that if similar switching time is assumed for 3D and 2D FETs while the new generation of 3D FETs has less net energy consumption, they have higher hot-spot temperature. The results show continuous heat flux distribution normal to the silicon/oxide interface while the temperature jump is seen at the interface in double layer transistors.

5. Investigation of inclined dual-fiber optical tweezers for 3D manipulation and force sensing.

PubMed

Liu, Yuxiang; Yu, Miao

2009-08-03

Optical tweezers provide a versatile tool in biological and physical researches. Optical tweezers based on optical fibers are more flexible and ready to be integrated when compared with those based on microscope objectives. In this paper, the three-dimensional (3D) trapping ability of an inclined dual-fiber optical tweezers is demonstrated. The trapping efficiency with respect to displacement is experimentally calibrated along two dimensions. The system is studied numerically using a modified ray-optics model. The spring constants obtained in the experiment are predicted by simulations. It is found both experimentally and numerically that there is a critical value for the fiber inclination angle to retain the 3D trapping ability. The inclined dual-fiber optical tweezers are demonstrated to be more robust to z-axis misalignment than the counter-propagating fiber optical tweezers, which is a special case of th former when the fiber inclination angle is 90 masculine. This inclined dual-fiber optical tweezers can serve as both a manipulator and a force sensor in integrated systems, such as microfluidic systems and lab-on-a-chip systems.

6. The Role of Grid Computing in the Geosciences: Developing a 3D Seismic Waveform Propagation Tool for Seismologists and EarthScope Research

Seber, D.; Kaiser, T.; Youn, C.; Santini, C.; Greer, D.; Larsen, S.; Glassley, B.

2004-12-01

Advances in the area of information technology (IT) have started to have a significant impact on how geoscientists conduct their daily research activities. Integrated and coordinated resource sharing in the areas of Grid computing, web/grid services, semantic data integration, information management and ontologies along with national computational grids such as TeraGrid now provide tremendous opportunities for geoscientists to conduct novel and efficient research in many areas of the geosciences. One of the national scale projects in this area is the GEON Cyberinfrastructure for the Geosciences Project funded by the NSF. As part of GEON's grid computing environment we have started developing a grid-enabled application (SYNSEIS - SYNthetic SEISmogram generation tool) to help seismologists as well as any other researchers calculate synthetic 3D regional seismic waveforms using a well-tested, finite difference code, E3D, developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SYNSEIS is built as a grid application and accesses distributed data centers and large computational clusters minimizing the requirements needed to conduct such advance calculations. With SYNSEIS users only need to have access to the Internet and a browser. The entire system is web-based and is accessible from the GEONgrid portal web page (www.geongrid.org). It is built using a service-based architecture and each sub-component in the system is also exposed as a web service, allowing multiple use scenarios for each component if other researchers choose to re-use some of the resources. It provides an interactive user interface with mapping tools and event/station/waveform extraction tools that allow users to seamlessly access IRIS Data Management Center's archives. Though the system currently accesses one 3D crustal model across the US, when more models become available they will be incorporated into the system. Users are able to interactively set their study region, retrieve seismic event and

7. Late Permian topography at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin: Paleogeography inferred from 3D seismic analysis

Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.; Rasmussen, Jens A.

2013-04-01

, the dipping of the strata which are exposed in the hills, and the similar seismic signature of the strata exposed in the hills indicate that the hills are remnants of a footwall high which is progressively eroded from the north. The ridges are associated with minor faults offsetting the TPZ surface, but more importantly the internal reflections within the ridges resemble those of Zechstein carbonate reefs observed in the southern Permian Basin. The lateral distribution of the Zechstein facies and the adjacent land topography show that the topography at the TPZ surface was generated before and during the Zechstein due to faulting and relative uplift of footwalls. The footwall crests of minor faults constituted when flooded, areas with lesser water depth and consequently display different sediment facies. The study thus demonstrates a unique and detailed insight into the TPZ paleogeography which has significant implications for the understanding of the geological development in the eastern North Sea Basin, and may be of importance during the evaluation of the future hydrocarbon potential of the eastern North Sea Basin.

8. Sub-glacial processes interpreted from 3D and high-resolution 2D seismic data from the Central North Sea

Buckley, Francis

2013-04-01

A near complete record of Quaternary deposition, comprising more than 1000m of sediments, is preserved within the Central North Sea (CNS). This study presents evidence interpreted from seismic data of sub-glacial processes at a variety of scales for several Pleistocene glacial events. The study area has been the subject of hydrocarbon exploration since the mid 1960s and is covered by 3D seismic datasets up to 1000km2 as well as high-resolution 2D (HR2D) seismic datasets covering areas of 1-25km2. These data have been examined using a variety of techniques and attributes, including time-slicing, horizon slicing, topographic mapping and attribute analysis, to map erosion surfaces, depositional bodies, sedimentary textures and deformation events. An Early Pleistocene seismic event has been identified on 3D data, at 800-1000m MSL, within the southern part of the CNS, which marks the first appearance of iceberg ploughmarks. This event has been traced into the northern part of the study area, where iceberg ploughmarks are absent, but a set of mega-scale lineations at 700-800ms TWT are interpreted as ice-stream scour marks. A series of complex seismic events overlying the ice-scoured surface are interpreted as glacial deposits, at the top of which a network of channels, interpreted to be the result of glacial meltwaters, is associated with features interpreted as over-bank sand bodies. Higher in the sequence, timeslice images of Early to Middle Pleistocene deposits show trains of sub-parallel, curvi-linear, events, several km in length and 50-300m in width. Analysis of these events on HR2D data reveals them to consist of series of short, imbricated, dipping reflectors, terminated by complex, mounded structures. Individual sheets display up to 60ms TWT (55m) vertical displacement over horizontal distances of 200-250m. Two deformed packages are evident on HR2D data. A lower sequence, consisting of discrete thrust sheets lies above an erosion or dislocation surface (MP1

9. SU-E-J-135: An Investigation of Ultrasound Imaging for 3D Intra-Fraction Prostate Motion Estimation

SciTech Connect

O'Shea, T; Harris, E; Bamber, J; Evans, P

2014-06-01

Purpose: This study investigates the use of a mechanically swept 3D ultrasound (US) probe to estimate intra-fraction motion of the prostate during radiation therapy using an US phantom and simulated transperineal imaging. Methods: A 3D motion platform was used to translate an US speckle phantom while simulating transperineal US imaging. Motion patterns for five representative types of prostate motion, generated from patient data previously acquired with a Calypso system, were using to move the phantom in 3D. The phantom was also implanted with fiducial markers and subsequently tracked using the CyberKnife kV x-ray system for comparison. A normalised cross correlation block matching algorithm was used to track speckle patterns in 3D and 2D US data. Motion estimation results were compared with known phantom translations. Results: Transperineal 3D US could track superior-inferior (axial) and anterior-posterior (lateral) motion to better than 0.8 mm root-mean-square error (RMSE) at a volume rate of 1.7 Hz (comparable with kV x-ray tracking RMSE). Motion estimation accuracy was poorest along the US probe's swept axis (right-left; RL; RMSE < 4.2 mm) but simple regularisation methods could be used to improve RMSE (< 2 mm). 2D US was found to be feasible for slowly varying motion (RMSE < 0.5 mm). 3D US could also allow accurate radiation beam gating with displacement thresholds of 2 mm and 5 mm exhibiting a RMSE of less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: 2D and 3D US speckle tracking is feasible for prostate motion estimation during radiation delivery. Since RL prostate motion is small in magnitude and frequency, 2D or a hybrid (2D/3D) US imaging approach which also accounts for potential prostate rotations could be used. Regularisation methods could be used to ensure the accuracy of tracking data, making US a feasible approach for gating or tracking in standard or hypo-fractionated prostate treatments.

10. 3D image of Brittle/Ductile transition in active volcanic area and its implication on seismicity: The Campi Flegrei caldera case study

Castaldo, Raffaele; Luca, D'auria; Susi, Pepe; Giuseppe, Solaro; Pietro, Tizzani

2015-04-01

determine the rheological stratification of the crust beneath caldera. The best-fit model suggested that the uprising of a ductile layer, which connects the upper mantle to the volcanic feeding system, could have determined the stress condition that controls the distribution and magnitude of seismicity. Indeed, the computed 3D imaging of Brittle/Ductile transition agreed well with the distribution of earthquake hypocenters in the considered area. The location of the Benioff strain release, of the energy and of the number of earthquakes point out clearly that most of the seismicity occurs above 3500-4000 [m] depth, where the transition zone is individuated. Finally, our analysis revealed that the distribution of the Brittle/Ductile transition has also important implication in constraining the potential seismogenic volume. The inferred depth of 4000 [m] (for ɛ= 10-8 [s-1]), implies that a fault spanning the whole caldera (about 8000 [m]) with a stress drop of 4 [bar] would result in an event with magnitude 5.1. However, because of its highly fractured structure, such a long seismic rupture is unrealistic for CF caldera, at least in pre-eruptive conditions. In this scenario, a more realistic fault sizes (i.e. 4000x4000 [m2]) suggest as magnitude of pre-eruptive earthquakes at CF caldera lower than 5.

11. Passive seismic investigation of Harrat Rahat

SciTech Connect

Mellors, Robert J.

2016-04-07

Ambient noise correlation was applied to 18 months of continuous seismic data from 14 stations. The procedure of Bensen et al [2007] was followed with some changes to optimize signal-to-noise of the results. The 18 months of correlations (representing about 1 week of CPU time on a 12 core machine) were stacked and manually inspected to yield about 40 cross-correlations. These cross-correlations represent the Green’s function between the station pairs and will be analyzed in part two of this project to yield velocity structure.

12. Enigmatic structures within salt walls of the Santos Basin-Part 1: Geometry and kinematics from 3D seismic reflection and well data

Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Hudec, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Clara R.

2015-06-01

Understanding intrasalt structure may elucidate the fundamental kinematics and, ultimately, the mechanics of diapir growth. However, there have been relatively few studies of the internal structure of salt diapirs outside the mining industry because their cores are only partly exposed in the field and poorly imaged on seismic reflection data. This study uses 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the São Paulo Plateau, Santos Basin, offshore Brazil to document the variability in intrasalt structural style in natural salt diapirs. We document a range of intrasalt structures that record: (i) initial diapir rise; (ii) rise of lower mobile halite through an arched and thinned roof of denser, layered evaporites, and emplacement of an intrasalt sheet or canopy; (iii) formation of synclinal flaps kinematically linked to emplacement of the intrasalt allochthonous bodies; and (iv) diapir squeezing. Most salt walls contain simple internal anticlines. Only a few salt walls contain allochthonous bodies and breakout-related flaps. The latter occur in an area having a density inversion within the autochthonous salt layer, such that upper, anhydrite-rich, layered evaporites are denser than lower, more halite-rich evaporites. We thus interpret that most diapirs rose through simple fold amplification of internal salt stratigraphy but that locally, where a density inversion existed in the autochthonous salt, Rayleigh-Taylor overturn within the growing diapir resulted in the ascent of less dense evaporites into the diapir crest by breaching of the internal anticline. This resulted in the formation of steep salt-ascension zones or feeders and the emplacement of high-level intrasalt allocthonous sheets underlain by breakout-related flaps. Although regional shortening undoubtedly occurred on the São Paulo Plateau during the Late Cretaceous, we suggest this was only partly responsible for the complex intrasalt deformation. We suggest that, although based on the Santos Basin, our

13. Flow dynamics and sedimentation of lateral accretion packages in sinuous deep-water channels: A 3D seismic case study from the northwestern South China Sea margin

Li, Shengli; Gong, Chenglin

2016-07-01

The current study uses 3D seismic data to document architectural styles and flow dynamics of lateral accretion packages (LAPs) associated with sinuous deep-water channels, contributing to a better understanding of flow processes and sedimentation associated with LAPs. The documented LAPs underwent three main stages of architectural evolution, including the early incision stages characterized by intense downcutting, active migration stages characterized by active migration and avulsion of the individual channels, and late abandonment stages characterized by the termination of sediment gravity-flows and LAP growth. These three stages of LAP growth repeated through time, yielding a fining-upward pattern from sandy channel-fill turbidites, into sand-mud couplets, all capped by muddy turbidites. A river-reversed helical flow circulation was created by an imbalance, through the flow depth, of inwardly directed pressure gradient forces near the bed and outwardly directed centrifugal forces near the surface. It consists of low-velocity cores near the outer banks and low-velocity cores along the inner banks. Such river-reversed helical flow pattern is evidenced by volumetrically extensive LAPs and toplap and downlap terminations along the gentle banks and by aerially restricted, seismically unresolvable levees and truncation terminations near the steep banks. This river-reversed helical flow circulation favors asymmetric intra-channel deposition characterized by inner bank deposition versus outer bank erosion, and which, in turn, forced individual channels to consistently migrate towards outer banks, resulting in significant asymmetric cross-channel profiles with aerially extensive LAPs along inner banks.

14. Dynamics of Submarine Landslides in an Active Margin from Analysis of Particle Size, Cores, and 3D Seismic Data: Site C0021, IODP Expedition 338, Offshore Japan

Sawyer, D.; Moore, Z. T.

2013-12-01

The deposits of submarine landslides, termed mass transport deposits (MTDs), were drilled and cored at Site C0021 in the Nankai Trough during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 338. Two MTDs were identified at 94-117 mbsf and 133-176 mbsf. Each MTD includes mud clasts, tilted bedding, and/or chaotic bedding, an increase in shear strength, a decrease in porosity, the occurrence of shear zones/faults, and a semi-transparent seismic facies. We conducted laser particle size analyses of sediments throughout the entire cored interval at Site C0021 (0 - 5 mbsf and 90 - 194 mbsf). Particle size distributions show that sediments shallower than 155 mbsf are composed of approximately 80% silt-sized, 15% clay-sized, and 5% sand-sized particles. Sediments deeper than 155 mbsf are predominantly composed of approximately 65% silt-sized, 15% clay-sized, and 20% sand-sized particles. MTDs have no obvious differences from non-MTD particle size distributions. We are examining the MTDs to gain insight into their dynamic behavior by mapping them in 3D seismic data. We measure slope geometry, runout distance, and characterize the depositional features preserved within the MTDs in the basal surface, top surface, and internal body. We use slope geometry to calculate regional gravitational shear stress and we use runout distance and morphology as indicators of the dynamic behavior of the landslide. Future work will focus on back-analysis estimates of shear stress and shear strength parameters. Our goal is to distinguish whether these landslides occurred as relatively rapid-moving, low-viscosity events or relatively slow-moving, high-viscosity events. This is an important distinction to make given that initial acceleration of a landslide is a critical variable that determines amplitude of slide-generated tsunami.

15. Tomography 3D models of S wave from cross-correlation of seismic noise to explore irregularities of subsoil under the artificial lake of Chapultepec Park

Cárdenas-Soto, M.; Valdes, J. E.; Escobedo-Zenil, D.

2013-05-01

In June 2006, the base of the artificial lake in Chapultepec Park collapsed. 20 thousand liters of water were filtered to the ground through a crack increasing the dimensions of initial gap. Studies indicated that the collapse was due to saturated material associated with a sudden and massive water filtration process. Geological studies indicates that all the area of this section the subsoil is composed of vulcano-sedimentary materials that were economically exploited in the mid-20th century, leaving a series of underground mines that were rehabilitated for the construction of the Park. Currently, the Lake is rehabilitated and running for recreational activities. In this study we have applied two methods of seismic noise correlation; seismic interferometry (SI) in time domain and the Spatial Power Auto Correlation (SPAC) in frequency domain, in order to explore the 3D subsoil velocity structure. The aim is to highlight major variations in velocity that can be associated with irregularities in the subsoil that may pose a risk to the stability of the Lake. For this purpose we use 96 vertical geophones of 4.5 Hz with 5-m spacing that conform a semi-circular array that provide a length of 480 m around the lake zone. For both correlation methods, we extract the phase velocity associated with the dispersion characteristics between each pair of stations in the frequency range from 4 to 12 Hz. In the SPAC method the process was through the dispersion curve, and in SI method we use the time delay of the maximum amplitude in the correlation pulse, which was previously filtered in multiple frequency bands. The results of both processes were captured in 3D velocity volumes (in the case SI a process of traveltime tomography was applied). We observed that in the frequency range from 6 to 8 Hz, appear irregular structures, with high velocity contrast in relation with the shear wave velocity of surface layer (ten thick m of saturated sediments). One of these anomalies is related

16. Mixing and entrainment in mantle plumes: A 3D experimental investigation

Newsome, W.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Cotel, A. J.; Hart, S. R.; Whitehead, J. A.

2009-12-01

Significant differences exist between isotopic signatures of typical mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and those associated with many ocean islands, with ocean island basalts (OIB) generally exhibiting more variability in trace element concentrations and a bias towards enrichment in more primitive isotopes as well in some cases. Such observations coupled with other geophysical evidence have been used to suggest that OIB’s are surface manifestations of upwellings originating in the deep interior near the core-mantle boundary that interact with distinct, heterogeneous reservoirs as material is transported from the Earth’s interior to the surface. Although many have studied the chemistry and dynamics of these mantle plumes, fundamental questions remain. Such questions can be grouped into two general issues: a) Plume structure and dynamical interaction with the surrounding mantle, b) The degree of entrainment and mixing in mantle plumes of chemically distinct material from the deep mantle. We address these fundamental questions via detailed fluid dynamical experiments to determine the structure, temperature, velocity, entrained mass origin, and degree of entrainment in thermal plumes. Heat is used as the driving convective mechanism to form a single thermal plume in corn syrup. The experiments are conducted using Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) and Thermochromic Liquid Crystals (TLC’s) to measure the 3D flow and temperature fields within the tank. A finite volume numerical model using SPIV velocities as inputs permits reconstruction of temperature values for warmer regions where the fluid temperature is beyond the working range of the TLC’s. Preliminary results further strengthen arguments that the classical view of plumes having well-developed scroll heads may be more a characteristic of injection-type experiments than a fundamental feature of all thermal upwellings, particularly those sourced from a thermal boundary layer. Hence, such scroll

17. Mixing and Entrainment in Mantle Plumes: A 3D Experimental Investigation

Newsome, W.; Cotel, A.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Hart, S.; Whitehead, J.

2008-12-01

Significant differences exist between isotopic signatures of typical mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and those associated with many ocean islands, with ocean island basalts (OIB) generally exhibiting more variability in trace element concentrations and a bias towards enrichment in more primitive isotopes as well in some cases. Such observations coupled with other geophysical evidence have been used to suggest that OIB's are surface manifestations of upwellings originating in the deep interior near the core-mantle boundary that interact with distinct, heterogeneous reservoirs as material is transported from the Earth's interior to the surface. Although many have studied the chemistry and dynamics of these mantle plumes, fundamental questions remain. Such questions can be grouped into two general issues: a) Plume structure and dynamical interaction with the surrounding mantle, b) The degree of entrainment and mixing in mantle plumes of chemically distinct material from the deep mantle. We address these fundamental questions by performing detailed fluid dynamical experiments to determine the structure, temperature, velocity, and degree of entrainment in thermal plumes. Heat is used as the driving convective mechanism to form a single thermal plume. The experiments are conducted in a Plexiglas tank (inner dimensions of 26.5×26.5×26.5 cm). A small heater of 2.0 cm diameter and centered in the tank bottom is connected to programmable power supply. By varying voltage settings we can simulate varying heat fluxes in the deep mantle. Our experiments utilize Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) and Thermochromic Liquid Crystals (TLC's) to reconstruct the 3D flow and temperature fields within the tank. Penetration height and plume head size are related to the varying buoyancy flux. In addition, velocity and vorticity fields determined using SPIV provide insight into the plume structure and the nature of the entrainment process.

18. SU-E-T-393: Investigation of Hot Spots in Tomotherapy 3D Conformal Breast Plan

SciTech Connect

Chen, Q; Siebers, J; Khandelwal, S

2014-06-01

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the root-cause of hotspots inherent to Tomotherapy static beam 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for breast treatment. ASTRO (ref here) recommends that IMRT be avoided for breast treatments. Despite Tomotherapy's inherent IMRT-like optimization and delivery, our experience at a Tomotherapy-only site has been that Tomotherapy 3DCRT fail to produce a clinically acceptable plan for 79% of our breast patients. Hot-spots have been one of the major obstacles. Methods: Eight lumpectomy patients were planned according to RTOG-1005 specification. Two or four tangential beams were used for 3DCRT breast planning. To spare the contralateral breast and ipsilateral lung, part of the PTV was not covered by the primary beam, yielding adjacent hot-spots. We hypothesize that the planning system creates hotspots adjacent to the cold spots to yield scatter radiation dose compensation in the blocked region. Various phantom and patient setup were used to test the hypothesis. Results: Hot spots outside of PTV in the range of 135% - 174% were observed for patient plan. It is confirmed that the PTV partial block causes the adjacent hot spot. The root cause is the optimizer quadratic objective function over- weighs improving the cold spot. The IMRT flexibility offered by Tomotherapy is counter-productive in static-beam 3DCRT breast treatment. For phantom case, as the Modulation-Factor increases from 1.1 to 5, the hot spot increases from 110% to 300%. Limiting the 3DCRT intensity modulation is shown to produce clinically acceptable plan. Conclusion: Most of the hot spots in Tomotherapy 3DCRT breast plan originate from the planning-system optimizer attempting to cover PTV cold spots rather than from the beam energy. Altering the objective function could improve clinical acceptability of static beam Tomotherapy 3DCRT.

19. Monte Carlo - Metropolis Investigations of Shape and Matrix Effects in 2D and 3D Spin-Crossover Nanoparticles

Guerroudj, Salim; Caballero, Rafael; De Zela, Francisco; Jureschi, Catalin; Linares, Jorge; Boukheddaden, Kamel

2016-08-01

The Ising like model, taking into account short-, long-range interaction as well as surface effects is used to investigate size and shape effects on the thermal behaviour of 2D and 3D spin crossover (SCO) nanoparticles embedded in a matrix. We analyze the role of the parametert, representing the ratio between the number of surface and volume molecules, on the unusual thermal hysteresis behaviour (appearance of the hysteresis and a re-entrance phase transition) at small scales.

20. Structure Segmentation and Transfer Faults in the Marcellus Shale, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania: Implications for Gas Recovery Efficiency and Risk Assessment Using 3D Seismic Attribute Analysis

Roberts, Emily D.

The Marcellus Shale has become an important unconventional gas reservoir in the oil and gas industry. Fractures within this organic-rich black shale serve as an important component of porosity and permeability useful in enhancing production. Horizontal drilling is the primary approach for extracting hydrocarbons in the Marcellus Shale. Typically, wells are drilled perpendicular to natural fractures in an attempt to intersect fractures for effective hydraulic stimulation. If the fractures are contained within the shale, then hydraulic fracturing can enhance permeability by further breaking the already weakened rock. However, natural fractures can affect hydraulic stimulations by absorbing and/or redirecting the energy away from the wellbore, causing a decreased efficiency in gas recovery, as has been the case for the Clearfield County, Pennsylvania study area. Estimating appropriate distances away from faults and fractures, which may limit hydrocarbon recovery, is essential to reducing the risk of injection fluid migration along these faults. In an attempt to mitigate the negative influences of natural fractures on hydrocarbon extraction within the Marcellus Shale, fractures were analyzed through the aid of both traditional and advanced seismic attributes including variance, curvature, ant tracking, and waveform model regression. Through the integration of well log interpretations and seismic data, a detailed assessment of structural discontinuities that may decrease the recovery efficiency of hydrocarbons was conducted. High-quality 3D seismic data in Central Pennsylvania show regional folds and thrusts above the major detachment interval of the Salina Salt. In addition to the regional detachment folds and thrusts, cross-regional, northwest-trending lineaments were mapped. These lineaments may pose a threat to hydrocarbon productivity and recovery efficiency due to faults and fractures acting as paths of least resistance for induced hydraulic stimulation fluids

1. Using Averaging-Based Factorization to Compare Seismic Hazard Models Derived from 3D Earthquake Simulations with NGA Ground Motion Prediction Equations

Wang, F.; Jordan, T. H.

2012-12-01

Seismic hazard models based on empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) employ a model-based factorization to account for source, propagation, and path effects. An alternative is to simulate these effects directly using earthquake source models combined with three-dimensional (3D) models of Earth structure. We have developed an averaging-based factorization (ABF) scheme that facilitates the geographically explicit comparison of these two types of seismic hazard models. For any fault source k with epicentral position x, slip spatial and temporal distribution f, and moment magnitude m, we calculate the excitation functions G(s, k, x, m, f) for sites s in a geographical region R, such as 5% damped spectral acceleration at a particular period. Through a sequence of weighted-averaging and normalization operations following a certain hierarchy over f, m, x, k, and s, we uniquely factorize G(s, k, x, m, f) into six components: A, B(s), C(s, k), D(s, k, x), E(s, k, x, m), and F(s, k, x, m, f). Factors for a target model can be divided by those of a reference model to obtain six corresponding factor ratios, or residual factors: a, b(s), c(s, k), d(s, k, x), e(s, k, x, m), and f(s, k, x, m, f). We show that these residual factors characterize differences in basin effects primarily through b(s), distance scaling primarily through c(s, k), and source directivity primarily through d(s, k, x). We illustrate the ABF scheme by comparing CyberShake Hazard Model (CSHM) for the Los Angeles region (Graves et. al. 2010) with the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) GMPEs modified according to the directivity relations of Spudich and Chiou (2008). Relative to CSHM, all NGA models underestimate the directivity and basin effects. In particular, the NGA models do not account for the coupling between source directivity and basin excitation that substantially enhance the low-frequency seismic hazards in the sedimentary basins of the Los Angeles region. Assuming Cyber

2. Meteoroid and debris special investigation group; status of 3-D crater analysis from binocular imagery

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sapp, Clyde A.; See, Thomas H.; Zolensky, Michael E.

1992-01-01

During the 3 month deintegration of the LDEF, the M&D SIG generated approximately 5000 digital color stereo image pairs of impact related features from all space exposed surfaces. Currently, these images are being processed at JSC to yield more accurate feature information. Work is currently underway to determine the minimum number of data points necessary to parametrically define impact crater morphologies in order to minimize the man-hour intensive task of tie point selection. Initial attempts at deriving accurate crater depth and diameter measurements from binocular imagery were based on the assumption that the crater geometries were best defined by paraboloid. We made no assumptions regarding the crater depth/diameter ratios but instead allowed each crater to define its own coefficients by performing a least-squares fit based on user-selected tiepoints. Initial test cases resulted in larger errors than desired, so it was decided to test our basic assumptions that the crater geometries could be parametrically defined as paraboloids. The method for testing this assumption was to carefully slice test craters (experimentally produced in an appropriate aluminum alloy) vertically through the center resulting in a readily visible cross-section of the crater geometry. Initially, five separate craters were cross-sectioned in this fashion. A digital image of each cross-section was then created, and the 2-D crater geometry was then hand-digitized to create a table of XY position for each crater. A 2nd order polynomial (parabolic) was fitted to the data using a least-squares approach. The differences between the fit equation and the actual data were fairly significant, and easily large enough to account for the errors found in the 3-D fits. The differences between the curve fit and the actual data were consistent between the caters. This consistency suggested that the differences were due to the fact that a parabola did not sufficiently define the generic crater geometry

3. 3D micro-XRF for cultural heritage objects: new analysis strategies for the investigation of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

PubMed

Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Wolff, Timo; Hahn, Oliver; Rabin, Ira; Lühl, Lars; Pagels, Marcel; Malzer, Wolfgang; Kanngiesser, Birgit

2011-08-15

A combination of 3D micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (3D micro-XRF) and micro-XRF was utilized for the investigation of a small collection of highly heterogeneous, partly degraded Dead Sea Scroll parchment samples from known excavation sites. The quantitative combination of the two techniques proves to be suitable for the identification of reliable marker elements which may be used for classification and provenance studies. With 3D micro-XRF, the three-dimensional nature, i.e. the depth-resolved elemental composition as well as density variations, of the samples was investigated and bromine could be identified as a suitable marker element. It is shown through a comparison of quantitative and semiquantitative values for the bromine content derived using both techniques that, for elements which are homogeneously distributed in the sample matrix, quantification with micro-XRF using a one-layer model is feasible. Thus, the possibility for routine provenance studies using portable micro-XRF instrumentation on a vast amount of samples, even on site, is obtained through this work.

4. Investigation of different cross-linking approaches on 3D gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering application: A comparative analysis.

PubMed

Shankar, K Gopal; Gostynska, Natalia; Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Sprio, Simone; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio; Tampieri, Anna; Sandri, Monica

2017-02-01

The present study aims to investigate the physical-chemical and biological features exhibited by porous scaffolds for regeneration of cartilaginous tissues obtained through stabilization of 3D gelatin hydrogels by physical (DHT), chemical (BDDGE) and natural (Genipin) cross-linking approaches. The study aimed at comparatively assessing the porous microstructure and the long-term resistance of the scaffolds upon degradation in wet physiological conditions (37°C, pH=7.4). The degree of cross-linking increases as function of incorporation of cross-linkers which was maximum up to 73% for BDDGE. The infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirmed the gelatin structure was preserved during the cross-linking treatments. Mechanical properties of the scaffolds were analysed by static and dynamic compression test, which showed different viscoelastic behaviour upon various cross-linking strategies. The biological performance of the scaffolds investigated using human chondrocytes showed good cell adhesion, viability and proliferation, as well as extensive 3D scaffold colonization. Besides, the analysis of gene expression related to the formation of new chondral tissue reported increasing ability with time in the formation of new extra-cellular matrix. In conclusion, out of three different cross-linking methods, the gelatin scaffolds subjected to dehydrothermal treatment (DHT) represented to be the most favourable 3D scaffold for cartilage regeneration.

5. Deformation above mobile substrates, salt rheology and spatial distribution of salt structures: A 3D seismic study of the Permian southern North Sea

Hernandez, Karina; Mitchell, Neil; Huuse, Mads

2016-04-01

At ~255 Ma, cycles of evaporation of seawater led to deposition of evaporites including halite (rock salt) in the North Sea Basin. After later burial by denser sediments, the salt beds rose as pillows and diapirs. Assuming mobilization is due to Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability of heavy fluid (sediments) overlying light fluid (salts), theory suggests that the spacing between diapirs should be proportional to the original thickness of the salt layer. For example, a description of the theory in Turcotte and Schubert (1982) predicts structure wavelength to be 2.6 times the salt thickness. Previous research has explored mobilization of salt deposits assuming they have uniform rheology. However, this is not justified as halite rheology varies with temperature, grain size and pore brine content. Furthermore, evaporitic sequences contain various minerals besides halite (e.g., anhydrite, gypsum), which have different rheological properties. 3D seismic and well data reveal the internal structure of salt beds. The data have allowed characterization of structure wavelengths and salt thickness, so that the impact of internal composition and other properties on halokinetic behaviour can be assessed.

6. Supra-salt normal fault growth during the rise and fall of a diapir: Perspectives from 3D seismic reflection data, Norwegian North Sea

Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

2016-10-01

Normal faulting and the deep subsurface flow of salt are key processes controlling the structural development of many salt-bearing sedimentary basins. However, our detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal relationship between normal faulting and salt movement is poor due to a lack of natural examples constraining their geometric and kinematic relationship in three-dimensions. To improve our understanding of these processes, we here use 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway, to determine the structure and growth of a normal fault array formed during the birth, growth and decay of an array of salt structures. We show that the fault array and salt structures developed in response to: (i) Late Triassic-to-Middle Jurassic extension, which involved thick-skinned, sub-salt and thin-skinned supra-salt faulting with the latter driving reactive diapirism; (ii) Early Cretaceous extensional collapse of the walls; and (iii) Jurassic-to-Neogene, active and passive diapirism, which was at least partly coeval with and occurred along-strike from areas of reactive diapirism and wall collapse. Our study supports physical model predictions, showcasing a three-dimensional example of how protracted, multiphase salt diapirism can influence the structure and growth of normal fault arrays.

7. Seismic site characterization of an urban dedimentary basin, Livermore Valley, California: Site tesponse, basin-edge-induced surface waves, and 3D simulations

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hartzell, Stephen; Leeds, Alena L.; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Allen, James P.; Schmitt, Robert G.

2016-01-01

Thirty‐two accelerometers were deployed in the Livermore Valley, California, for approximately one year to study sedimentary basin effects. Many local and near‐regional earthquakes were recorded, including the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa, California, earthquake. The resulting ground‐motion data set is used to quantify the seismic response of the Livermore basin, a major structural depression in the California Coast Range Province bounded by active faults. Site response is calculated by two methods: the reference‐site spectral ratio method and a source‐site spectral inversion method. Longer‐period (≥1  s) amplification factors follow the same general pattern as Bouguer gravity anomaly contours. Site response spectra are inverted for shallow shear‐wave velocity profiles, which are consistent with independent information. Frequency–wavenumber analysis is used to analyze plane‐wave propagation across the Livermore Valley and to identify basin‐edge‐induced surface waves with back azimuths different from the source back azimuth. Finite‐element simulations in a 3D velocity model of the region illustrate the generation of basin‐edge‐induced surface waves and point out strips of elevated ground velocities along the margins of the basin.

8. A System to investigate 3-D droplet impact on leaf surfaces

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A system was developed to investigate droplet dynamic impact and retention on leaf surfaces. The system consisted of a uniform droplet generator, two high speed digital video cameras, a constant speed track, a leaf holder, and a cool light source. The droplet generator produced mono-sized droplets r...

9. LLNL-Earth3D

SciTech Connect

2013-10-01

Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

10. Analytical and numerical investigations on the accuracy and robustness of geometric features extracted from 3D point cloud data

Dittrich, André; Weinmann, Martin; Hinz, Stefan

2017-04-01

In photogrammetry, remote sensing, computer vision and robotics, a topic of major interest is represented by the automatic analysis of 3D point cloud data. This task often relies on the use of geometric features amongst which particularly the ones derived from the eigenvalues of the 3D structure tensor (e.g. the three dimensionality features of linearity, planarity and sphericity) have proven to be descriptive and are therefore commonly involved for classification tasks. Although these geometric features are meanwhile considered as standard, very little attention has been paid to their accuracy and robustness. In this paper, we hence focus on the influence of discretization and noise on the most commonly used geometric features. More specifically, we investigate the accuracy and robustness of the eigenvalues of the 3D structure tensor and also of the features derived from these eigenvalues. Thereby, we provide both analytical and numerical considerations which clearly reveal that certain features are more susceptible to discretization and noise whereas others are more robust.

11. Seismic investigation of the lunar interior

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.; Stein, S.

1976-01-01

The velocity and attenuation structure of the moon below the crust is examined using surface events. The moon is divided into an upper mantle and a lower mantle, the division at a depth of about 500 km being marked by a reflector identified on polarization filtered record sections. The upper mantle has a P-wave velocity of about 8 km/sec, a Poisson's ratio of about 0.25 and a Q for P waves of about 5000. This region contains no partial melt and is depleted in volatiles, notably water. The lower mantle has a lower S-wave velocity and probably a lower P-wave velocity than the upper mantle, with a Poisson's ratio of about 0.34. The lower mantle has a Q for P waves of approximately 1500, substantially lower than the upper mantle but probably still high enough to preclude partial melting. The velocity structure and the current value of the moment of inertia factor indicate an increase of density below about 500 km, perhaps due to an increase in iron content. We do not have any information directly pertaining to seismic velocities below 1000 km depth.

12. Investigation of techniques for the development of seismic design basis using the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

SciTech Connect

Bernreuter, D.L.; Boissonnade, A.C.; Short, C.M.

1998-04-01

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission asked Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to form a group of experts to assist them in revising the seismic and geologic siting criteria for nuclear power plants, Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This document describes a deterministic approach for determining a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) Ground Motion for a nuclear power plant site. One disadvantage of this approach is the difficulty of integrating differences of opinions and differing interpretations into seismic hazard characterization. In answer to this, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies incorporate differences of opinion and interpretations among earth science experts. For this reason, probabilistic hazard methods were selected for determining SSEs for the revised regulation, 10 CFR Part 100.23. However, because these methodologies provide a composite analysis of all possible earthquakes that may occur, they do not provide the familiar link between seismic design loading requirements and engineering design practice. Therefore, approaches used to characterize seismic events (magnitude and distance) which best represent the ground motion level determined with the probabilistic hazard analysis were investigated. This report summarizes investigations conducted at 69 nuclear reactor sites in the central and eastern U.S. for determining SSEs using probabilistic analyses. Alternative techniques are presented along with justification for key choices. 16 refs., 32 figs., 60 tabs.

13. Microstructure of 3D-Printed Polymer Composites Investigated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

Kang, Tae Hui; Compton, Brett G.; Heller, William T.; Urban, Voker S.; Duty, Chad E.; Do, Changwoo

Polymer composites printed from the large scale printer at Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). For the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)/Carbon Fiber (CF) composites, the microstructure of polymer domains and the alignment of CF have been characterized across the layer from the printed piece. CF shows strong anisotropic alignment along the printing direction due to the flow of polymer melt at the nozzle. Order parameter of the anisotropy which ranges from -0.11 to -0.06 exhibits strong correlation with the position within the layer: stronger alignment near the layer interface. It is also confirmed that the existence of CF reduces the polymer domain correlation length significantly and reinforces the mechanical strength of the polymer composites. For the Epoxy/nano-clay platelet composites, the effect of processing condition, nozzle size, and the addition of the another filler, Silicon Carbide (SC), have been investigated by SANS. Nano-clay platelet shows strong anisotropic alignment along the printing direction as well. Order parameter of the anisotropy varies according to nozzle size and presence of the SC, and difference disappears at high Q region. Scientific User Facilities Division and Materials Sciences and Energy Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

14. Investigating the sonophoresis effect on the permeation of diclofenac sodium using 3D skin equivalent.

PubMed

Aldwaikat, Mai; Alarjah, Mohammed

2015-01-01

Ultrasound temporally increases skin permeability by altering stratum corneum SC function (sonophoresis). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of variable ultrasound conditions on the permeation of diclofenac sodium DS with range of physicochemical properties through EpiDerm™. Permeation studies were carried out in vitro using Franz diffusion cell. HPLC method was used for the determination of the concentration of diclofenac sodium in receiving compartment. Parameters like ultrasound frequency, application time, amplitude, and mode of sonication and distance of ultrasound horn from skin were investigated, and the conditions where the maximum enhancement rate obtained were determined. Application of ultrasound enhanced permeation of diclofenac sodium across EpiDerm™ by fivefolds. The most effective enhancing parameters were power sonication of 20kHz frequency, 20% amplitude at continuous mode for 5min.

15. Research on quick seismic damage investigation using smartphone

Zhao, Xuefeng; Han, Ruicong; Yu, Yan; Li, Mingchu

2016-04-01

Quick seismic damage investigation in earthquake zone is significant to provide guidance for emergency response and rescue after disaster. In this paper, the damage investigation software is developed, which integrates the functions of questionnaire and picture collection for phenomenon register and image acquisition. The software has been updated to online version, all the information collected can be uploaded to the website with their GPS information, and demonstrated on a map. The expert can evaluate the seismic damage by analyzing the photos and recordings collected, which reduce the waste of human and time.

16. Imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH): Details of passive-source seismic deployment and preliminary 3-D velocity structure

Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K. C.; Moran, S. C.; Abers, G. A.; Denlinger, R. P.; Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Vidale, J. E.; Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Schultz, A.

2014-12-01

The imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment aims to delineate the extent of the magmatic system beneath Mount St. Helens (MSH) in Washington State. The experiment involves active- and passive-source seismology, magnetotellurics, and geochemistry/petrology. Seventy passive-source broadband seismometers were deployed in a 100-km-diameter array centered on MSH, with an average spacing of 10 km, and a planned duration of two years. The deployment over two weeks in June 2014 involved a group of 18 people split into 6 teams. Approximately half of the seismic stations have aircell batteries and/or pole-mounted solar panels in order to maintain power through deep snow at higher elevations during the winter months. Data will be retrieved 2-4 times a year throughout the duration of the experiment. The first service run performed in mid-July 2014 had a 98.4% data recovery. This is one of the largest wide-aperture two-dimensional arrays covering a volcano anywhere. The active-source portion of the experiment successfully set off 23 shots in late-July 2014. These were recorded clearly at permanent stations run by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network up to 200 km away, and are expected to be well-recorded on many of the 70 broadband seismometers in addition to the 2500 Reftek "Texans" deployed temporarily for this purpose. For the 2-4 weeks of broadband data collected in July, local earthquakes down to magnitude 0 are recorded across the array, with clear P- and S- arrivals. Earthquakes of this size occur daily within 50 km of MSH. We are keeping a careful catalog of all activity in the region for the duration of the iMUSH experiment. We will pick P- and S-wave travel times at the 70 broadband stations from local earthquakes and active shots, for available data from between June and October 2014. We will also use a tomographic code (Preston et al, 2003, Science) to invert the travel times to obtain preliminary earthquake location and 3-D velocity structure.

17. Investigation on 3D t wake flow structures of swimming bionic fish

Shen, G.-X.; Tan, G.-K.; Lai, G.-J.

2012-10-01

A bionic experimental platform was designed for the purpose of investigating time accurate three-dimensional flow field, using digital particle image velocimetry (DSPIV). The wake behind the flapping trail of a robotic fish model was studied at high spatial resolution. The study was performed in a water channel. A robot fish model was designed and built. The model was fixed onto a rigid support framework using a cable-supporting method, with twelve stretched wires. The entire tail of the model can perform prescribed motions in two degrees of freedom, mainly in carangiform mode, by driving its afterbody and lunate caudal fin respectively. The DSPIV system was set up to operate in a translational manner, measuring velocity field in a series of parallel slices. Phase locked measurements were repeated for a number of runs, allowing reconstruction of phase average flow field. Vortex structures with phase history of the wake were obtained. The study reveals some new and complex three-dimensional flow structures in the wake of the fish, including "reverse hairpin vortex" and "reverse Karman S-H vortex rings", allowing insight into physics of this complex flow.

18. Investigation of Parametric Excitation of Whistler Waves Using 3D Particle-In-Cell Simulations

Caplinger, James; Sotnikov, Vladimir; Main, Daniel; Rose, David; Paraschiv, Ioana

2016-10-01

Previous theoretical work has shown that a parametric interaction between quasi-electrostatic lower oblique resonance (LOR) and lower frequency (ω < ωLH) ion acoustic or extremely low frequency (ELF) waves can produce electromagnetic whistler waves in a cold magnetized plasma. It was also demonstrated theoretically that this interaction can more efficiently generate electromagnetic whistler waves than by direct excitation by a conventional loop antenna, operating at a single frequency. For the purpose of numerically validating the above result, a series of particle-in-cell simulations were carried out. We first demonstrate the ability to accurately model whistler wave excitation producing the familiar resonant surfaces which comprise the LOR using a modeled loop antenna. Next we demonstrate the ability to generate ion acoustic waves as well as ELF waves, both of which are shown to agree with the expected linear dispersion relations. Finally, we investigate the existence of any nonlinear interaction which indicates the desired parametric excitation and attempt to analyze the efficiency of this method of excitation and radiated power going into the whistler part of the VLF wave spectrum.

19. Numerical investigation of the 3D flow field generated by a self-propelling manta ray

Pederzani, Jean-Noel; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

2010-11-01

A mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian approach is used to solve the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equation around a self-propelling manta ray. The motion of the manta ray is prescribed using a kinematic model fitted to actual biological data. The dependence of thrust production mechanism on Strouhal and Reynolds numbers is investigated. The vortex core structures are accurately plotted using the λ2 criteria; and a correlation between wake structures and propulsive performance is established. This insight is critical in understanding the key flow features that a bio-inspired autonomous vehicle should reproduce in order to swim efficiently. The solution method is implemented on a block-structured Cartesian grid using a volume of fluid approach. To enhance the computational efficiency, a parallel adaptive mesh refinement technique is used. The present method is validated for the flow around a sphere. A basic station keeping control problem for a pitching and lagging wing is also analyzed to show the capability of the code to aid in controller design and stability analysis.

20. Ab initio investigation of high-entropy alloys of 3d elements

Tian, Fuyang; Varga, Lajos Karoly; Chen, Nanxian; Delczeg, Lorand; Vitos, Levente

2013-02-01

Single-phase high-entropy alloys are investigated using the exact muffin-tin orbitals (EMTO) method in combination with the coherent potential approximation (CPA). Choosing the paramagnetic face-centered-cubic NiCoFeCr alloy as an example, we compare the CPA results with those obtained using the supercell (SC) method. For the equilibrium Wigner-Seitz radius and elastic properties, the single-site mean-field approximation turns out to yield consistent results with the SC approach. Next, we employ the EMTO-CPA method to study the bulk properties of CuNiCoFeCrTix (x=0.0-0.5,1.0) and NiCoFeCrTi high-entropy alloys. A detailed comparison between the theoretical results and the available experimental data demonstrates that ab initio theory can properly describe the fundamental properties of this important class of engineering alloys. Theory predicts NiCoFeCr and CuNiCoFeCr to be more isotropic and less ductile than the Ti-containing single-phase alloys (CuNiCoFeCrTix with x≳0.4 and NiCoFeCrTi).

1. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts.

PubMed

Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R

2016-05-01

Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

2. The Florence Baptistery: 3-D Survey as a Knowledge Tool for Historical and Structural Investigations

Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Fiorini, L.; Conti, A.

2016-06-01

The Baptistery of San Giovanni is one of the most important pieces of architecture in Florence. It is an octagonal building, encrusted with marble both internally and externally (including the pyramidal roof) and covered inside by a magnificent dome with sparkling gold mosaics. During Dante's time, it appeared much older than the other monuments, so its origins were considered as hailing straight from Florence's most remote and mythical history. Even though we have much more data now, scholars still disagree over the interpretations on the origin and construction sequence of the monument. Survey has always been considered a main instrument for understanding historical architecture, mostly from constructional and structural points of view. During the last century, the Baptistery was surveyed using both traditional techniques and the most up-to-date instruments available at the time, such as topography, close-range photogrammetry and laser scanning. So, a review of those early applications, even if partial or isolated, can significantly attest to the state of the art and evolution of survey techniques. During recent years, the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore promoted new research and a wide range of diagnostic investigations aimed at acquiring greater knowledge of the monument in anticipation of the cleaning and restoration of the outer wall surfaces during 2015. Among this research, GeCo Lab carried out a new systematic and complete laser scanner survey of the whole Baptistery, acquiring data for the more inaccessible parts that were given little attention during other survey campaigns. First of all, the paper analyses recent contributions given by instrumental surveys in advancing knowledge of the building, with references to the cutting-edge techniques and measurement tools used at the time. Then, it describes the new survey campaign, illustrating the approach followed in the planning, data acquisition and data elaboration phases; finally, it gives examples of some

3. Investigation of Seismic Events associated with the Sinkhole at Napoleonville Salt Dome, Louisiana