Science.gov

Sample records for 3d serial digitizing

  1. Automated Serial Sectioning for 3D Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkemper, Jen; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    Some aspects of an apparatus and method for automated serial sectioning of a specimen of a solder, aluminum, or other relatively soft opaque material are discussed. The apparatus includes a small milling machine (micromiller) that takes precise, shallow cuts (increments of depth as small as 1 micron) to expose successive sections. A microscope equipped with an electronic camera, mounted in a fixed position on the micromiller, takes pictures of the newly exposed specimen surface at each increment of depth. The images are digitized, and the resulting data are subsequently processed to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) features of the specimen.

  2. Alignment, segmentation and 3-D reconstruction of serial sections based on automated algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Weiguo; Tang, Shaojie; Xu, Qiong; Lian, Qin; Wang, Jin; Li, Dichen

    2012-12-01

    A well-defined three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of bone-cartilage transitional structures is crucial for the osteochondral restoration. This paper presents an accurate, computationally efficient and fully-automated algorithm for the alignment and segmentation of two-dimensional (2-D) serial to construct the 3-D model of bone-cartilage transitional structures. Entire system includes the following five components: (1) image harvest, (2) image registration, (3) image segmentation, (4) 3-D reconstruction and visualization, and (5) evaluation. A computer program was developed in the environment of Matlab for the automatic alignment and segmentation of serial sections. Automatic alignment algorithm based on the position's cross-correlation of the anatomical characteristic feature points of two sequential sections. A method combining an automatic segmentation and an image threshold processing was applied to capture the regions and structures of interest. SEM micrograph and 3-D model reconstructed directly in digital microscope were used to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of this strategy. The morphology of 3-D model constructed by serial sections is consistent with the results of SEM micrograph and 3-D model of digital microscope.

  3. Tissue-plastinated vs. celloidin-embedded large serial sections in video, analog and digital photographic on-screen reproduction: a preliminary step to exact virtual 3D modelling, exemplified in the normal midface and cleft-lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Landes, Constantin A; Weichert, Frank; Geis, Philipp; Wernstedt, Katrin; Wilde, Anja; Fritsch, Helga; Wagner, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses tissue-plastinated vs. celloidin-embedded large serial sections, their inherent artefacts and aptitude with common video, analog or digital photographic on-screen reproduction. Subsequent virtual 3D microanatomical reconstruction will increase our knowledge of normal and pathological microanatomy for cleft-lip-palate (clp) reconstructive surgery. Of 18 fetal (six clp, 12 control) specimens, six randomized specimens (two clp) were BiodurE12-plastinated, sawn, burnished 90 µm thick transversely (five) or frontally (one), stained with azureII/methylene blue, and counterstained with basic-fuchsin (TP-AMF). Twelve remaining specimens (four clp) were celloidin-embedded, microtome-sectioned 75 µm thick transversely (ten) or frontally (two), and stained with haematoxylin–eosin (CE-HE). Computed-planimetry gauged artefacts, structure differentiation was compared with light microscopy on video, analog and digital photography. Total artefact was 0.9% (TP-AMF) and 2.1% (CE-HE); TP-AMF showed higher colour contrast, gamut and luminance, and CE-HE more red contrast, saturation and hue (P < 0.4). All (100%) structures of interest were light microscopically discerned, 83% on video, 76% on analog photography and 98% in digital photography. Computed image analysis assessed the greatest colour contrast, gamut, luminance and saturation on video; the most detailed, colour-balanced and sharpest images were obatined with digital photography (P < 0.02). TP-AMF retained spatial oversight, covered the entire area of interest and should be combined in different specimens with CE-HE which enables more refined muscle fibre reproduction. Digital photography is preferred for on-screen analysis. PMID:16050904

  4. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  5. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  6. The Digital Space Shuttle, 3D Graphics, and Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.; Keller, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Shuttle is a knowledge management project that seeks to define symbiotic relationships between 3D graphics and formal knowledge representations (ontologies). 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content, in 2D and 3D CAD forms, and the capability to display systems knowledge. Because the data is so heterogeneous, and the interrelated data structures are complex, 3D graphics combined with ontologies provides mechanisms for navigating the data and visualizing relationships.

  7. Fully automatic and robust 3D registration of serial-section microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Budiman Gosno, Eric; Li, Yen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Robust and fully automatic 3D registration of serial-section microscopic images is critical for detailed anatomical reconstruction of large biological specimens, such as reconstructions of dense neuronal tissues or 3D histology reconstruction to gain new structural insights. However, robust and fully automatic 3D image registration for biological data is difficult due to complex deformations, unbalanced staining and variations on data appearance. This study presents a fully automatic and robust 3D registration technique for microscopic image reconstruction, and we demonstrate our method on two ssTEM datasets of drosophila brain neural tissues, serial confocal laser scanning microscopic images of a drosophila brain, serial histopathological images of renal cortical tissues and a synthetic test case. The results show that the presented fully automatic method is promising to reassemble continuous volumes and minimize artificial deformations for all data and outperforms four state-of-the-art 3D registration techniques to consistently produce solid 3D reconstructed anatomies with less discontinuities and deformations. PMID:26449756

  8. A 3D digital medical photography system in paediatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susanne K; Ellis, Lloyd A; Williams, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, traditional clinical photography services at the Educational Resource Centre were extended using new technology. This paper describes the establishment of a 3D digital imaging system in a paediatric setting at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne.

  9. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  10. A systematized WYSIWYG pipeline for digital stereoscopic 3D filmmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Robert; Ward, Chris; Hušák, Michal

    2008-02-01

    Digital tools are transforming stereoscopic 3D content creation and delivery, creating an opportunity for the broad acceptance and success of stereoscopic 3D films. Beginning in late 2005, a series of mostly CGI features has successfully initiated the public to this new generation of highly-comfortable, artifact-free digital 3D. While the response has been decidedly favorable, a lack of high-quality live-action films could hinder long-term success. Liveaction stereoscopic films have historically been more time-consuming, costly, and creatively-limiting than 2D films - thus a need arises for a live-action 3D filmmaking process which minimizes such limitations. A unique 'systematized' what-you-see-is-what-you-get (WYSIWYG) pipeline is described which allows the efficient, intuitive and accurate capture and integration of 3D and 2D elements from multiple shoots and sources - both live-action and CGI. Throughout this pipeline, digital tools utilize a consistent algorithm to provide meaningful and accurate visual depth references with respect to the viewing audience in the target theater environment. This intuitive, visual approach introduces efficiency and creativity to the 3D filmmaking process by eliminating both the need for a 'mathematician mentality' of spreadsheets and calculators, as well as any trial and error guesswork, while enabling the most comfortable, 'pixel-perfect', artifact-free 3D product possible.

  11. Dental impressions using 3D digital scanners: virtual becomes reality.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Nathan S; Aaronson, Heidi B

    2008-10-01

    The technologies that have made the use of three-dimensional (3D) digital scanners an integral part of many industries for decades have been improved and refined for application to dentistry. Since the introduction of the first dental impressioning digital scanner in the 1980s, development engineers at a number of companies have enhanced the technologies and created in-office scanners that are increasingly user-friendly and able to produce precisely fitting dental restorations. These systems are capable of capturing 3D virtual images of tooth preparations, from which restorations may be fabricated directly (ie, CAD/CAM systems) or fabricated indirectly (ie, dedicated impression scanning systems for the creation of accurate master models). The use of these products is increasing rapidly around the world and presents a paradigm shift in the way in which dental impressions are made. Several of the leading 3D dental digital scanning systems are presented and discussed in this article.

  12. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, M.; Redel, T.; Struffert, T.; Hornegger, J.; Doerfler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling.

  13. Development of a 3D digitizer for breast surgery procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Larena, Jorge; Canal Bienzobas, Fernando

    1999-03-01

    The planning of a breast reconstruction surgical operation has to resolve the problem of measuring directly on the patient meaningful anthropometric points from which distances, areas and volumes have to be calculated. In this paper, we propose using a 3D optical digitizer to perform this task.

  14. 3D Digital Legos for Teaching Security Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Li; Harrison, L.; Lu, Aidong; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Weichao

    2011-01-01

    We have designed and developed a 3D digital Lego system as an education tool for teaching security protocols effectively in Information Assurance courses (Lego is a trademark of the LEGO Group. Here, we use it only to represent the pieces of a construction set.). Our approach applies the pedagogical methods learned from toy construction sets by…

  15. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. Digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts with complex internal geometries. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that these technologies can bring to geosciences and present early experiences with coupled multiscale experimental and numerical analysis using 3D printed fractured rock specimens. In particular, we discuss the processes of selection and printing of transparent fractured specimens based on 3D reconstruction of micro-fractured rock to study fluid flow characterization and manipulation. Micro-particle image velocimetry is used to directly visualize 3D single and multiphase flow velocity in 3D fracture networks. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  16. Case study: The Avengers 3D: cinematic techniques and digitally created 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Graham D.

    2013-03-01

    Marvel's THE AVENGERS was the third film Stereo D collaborated on with Marvel; it was a summation of our artistic development of what Digitally Created 3D and Stereo D's artists and toolsets affords Marvel's filmmakers; the ability to shape stereographic space to support the film and story, in a way that balances human perception and live photography. We took our artistic lead from the cinematic intentions of Marvel, the Director Joss Whedon, and Director of Photography Seamus McGarvey. In the digital creation of a 3D film from a 2D image capture, recommendations to the filmmakers cinematic techniques are offered by Stereo D at each step from pre-production onwards, through set, into post. As the footage arrives at our facility we respond in depth to the cinematic qualities of the imagery in context of the edit and story, with the guidance of the Directors and Studio, creating stereoscopic imagery. Our involvement in The Avengers was early in production, after reading the script we had the opportunity and honor to meet and work with the Director Joss Whedon, and DP Seamus McGarvey on set, and into post. We presented what is obvious to such great filmmakers in the ways of cinematic techniques as they related to the standard depth cues and story points we would use to evaluate depth for their film. Our hope was any cinematic habits that supported better 3D would be emphasized. In searching for a 3D statement for the studio and filmmakers we arrived at a stereographic style that allowed for comfort and maximum visual engagement to the viewer.

  17. Serial Pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E D

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and “one-hot” counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  18. The spatial accuracy of cellular dose estimates obtained from 3D reconstructed serial tissue autoradiographs.

    PubMed

    Humm, J L; Macklis, R M; Lu, X Q; Yang, Y; Bump, K; Beresford, B; Chin, L M

    1995-01-01

    In order to better predict and understand the effects of radiopharmaceuticals used for therapy, it is necessary to determine more accurately the radiation absorbed dose to cells in tissue. Using thin-section autoradiography, the spatial distribution of sources relative to the cells can be obtained from a single section with micrometre resolution. By collecting and analysing serial sections, the 3D microscopic distribution of radionuclide relative to the cellular histology, and therefore the dose rate distribution, can be established. In this paper, a method of 3D reconstruction of serial sections is proposed, and measurements are reported of (i) the accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative autoradiography and (ii) the spatial precision with which tissue features from one section can be related to adjacent sections. Uncertainties in the activity determination for the specimen result from activity losses during tissue processing (4-11%), and the variation of grain count per unit activity between batches of serial sections (6-25%). Correlation of the section activity to grain count densities showed deviations ranging from 6-34%. The spatial alignment uncertainties were assessed using nylon fibre fiduciary markers incorporated into the tissue block, and compared to those for alignment based on internal tissue landmarks. The standard deviation for the variation in nylon fibre fiduciary alignment was measured to be 41 microns cm-1, compared to 69 microns cm-1 when internal tissue histology landmarks were used. In addition, tissue shrinkage during histological processing of up to 10% was observed. The implications of these measured activity and spatial distribution uncertainties upon the estimate of cellular dose rate distribution depends upon the range of the radiation emissions. For long-range beta particles, uncertainties in both the activity and spatial distribution translate linearly to the uncertainty in dose rate of < 15%. For short-range emitters (< 100

  19. 3D Topography of the Young Adult Anal Sphincter Complex Reconstructed from Undeformed Serial Anatomical Sections

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F.; Hagoort, Jaco; Shan, Jin-Lu; Tan, Li-Wen; Fang, Bin-Ji; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pelvic-floor anatomy is usually studied by artifact-prone dissection or imaging, which requires prior anatomical knowledge. We used the serial-section approach to settle contentious issues and an interactive 3D-pdf to make the results widely accessible. Method 3D reconstructions of undeformed thin serial anatomical sections of 4 females and 2 males (21–35y) of the Chinese Visible Human database. Findings Based on tendinous septa and muscle-fiber orientation as segmentation guides, the anal-sphincter complex (ASC) comprised the subcutaneous external anal sphincter (EAS) and the U-shaped puborectal muscle, a part of the levator ani muscle (LAM). The anococcygeal ligament fixed the EAS to the coccygeal bone. The puborectal-muscle loops, which define the levator hiatus, passed around the anorectal junction and inserted anteriorly on the perineal body and pubic bone. The LAM had a common anterior attachment to the pubic bone, but separated posteriorly into puborectal and “pubovisceral” muscles. This pubovisceral muscle was bilayered: its internal layer attached to the conjoint longitudinal muscle of the rectum and the rectococcygeal fascia, while its outer, patchy layer reinforced the inner layer. ASC contraction makes the ano-rectal bend more acute and lifts the pelvic floor. Extensions of the rectal longitudinal smooth muscle to the coccygeal bone (rectococcygeal muscle), perineal body (rectoperineal muscle), and endopelvic fascia (conjoint longitudinal and pubovisceral muscles) formed a “diaphragm” at the inferior boundary of the mesorectum that suspended the anorectal junction. Its contraction should straighten the anorectal bend. Conclusion The serial-section approach settled contentious topographic issues of the pelvic floor. We propose that the ASC is involved in continence and the rectal diaphragm in defecation. PMID:26305117

  20. Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.

  1. Overview of 3D surface digitization technologies in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the different 3D surface digitization technologies commercially available in the European market. The solutions for 3D surface measurement offered by major European companies can be divided into different groups depending on various characteristics, such as technology (e.g. laser scanning, white light projection), system construction (e.g. fix, on CMM/robot/arm) or measurement type (e.g. surface scanning, profile scanning). Crossing between the categories is possible, however, the majority of commercial products can be divided into the following groups: (a) laser profilers mounted on CMM, (b) portable coded light projection systems, (c) desktop solutions with laser profiler or coded light projectin system and multi-axes platform, (d) laser point measurement systems where both sensor and object move, (e) hand operated laser profilers, hand held laser profiler or point measurement systems, (f) dedicated systems. This paper presents the different 3D surface digitization technologies and describes them with their advantages and disadvantages. Various examples of their use are shown for different application fields. A special interest is given to applications regarding the 3D surface measurement of the human body.

  2. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. For example, digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts, to the point where parts might be cheaper to print than to make by traditional means in a plant and ship. Some key benefits of additive manufacturing include short lead times, complex shapes, parts on demand, zero required inventory and less material waste. Even subtractive processing, such as milling and etching, may be economized by additive manufacturing. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that the marriage of these technologies can bring to geosciences, including examples from our current research initiatives in developing constitutive laws for transport and geomechanics via digital rock physics. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of

  3. Optimal Alignment novel software procedure for 3D reconstruction of electronmicroscopic serial sections.

    PubMed

    Simon, László; Garab, Sándor; Noszek, Annamária; Römmer, Elizabeth; Záborszky, László

    2007-03-30

    3D reconstruction from electronmicroscopic (EM) serial sections substantially differs from modeling body parts by linking convoluted planes delivered by CT and NMR. Namely, variations both in relative X-Y position and rotation of the target elements between the adjacent images and also additional problems caused by deformed, deteriorated or missing sections can only be overruled by an aligning paradigm, which exploits all the pixel-level information, and results in an optimal fitting with selected precision. This paper presents a complex computer program called Optimal Alignment, which performs the precise elaboration of X-Y shift and relative rotation of two consecutive images. The required searching process will be customized by setting four independent parameters which relate the span and density of the pixel-scanning basic process. Optimalization of fitting accuracy versus running time can be achieved by a rather short training period. The potential precision of Optimal Alignment based on complex algorithms is far superior to manual aligning of EM photographs with the eye-wrist-mouse facility. The resulted database of alignment orientation parameters can serve as an advanced source for the 3D reconstructing programs. Optimal Alignment software tool (supported by Hungarian Space Office grant TP 138) will be demonstrated on a basal forebrain NPY+ axonal reconstruction, performed in L. Záborszky's laboratory (supported by NIH grant NSO23945).

  4. 3D robust digital image correlation for vibration measurement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Xianmin; Fatikow, Sergej

    2016-03-01

    Discrepancies of speckle images under dynamic measurement due to the different viewing angles will deteriorate the correspondence in 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for vibration measurement. Facing this kind of bottleneck, this paper presents two types of robust 3D-DIC methods for vibration measurement, SSD-robust and SWD-robust, which use a sum of square difference (SSD) estimator plus a Geman-McClure regulating term and a Welch estimator plus a Geman-McClure regulating term, respectively. Because the regulating term with an adaptive rejecting bound can lessen the influence of the abnormal pixel data in the dynamical measuring process, the robustness of the algorithm is enhanced. The robustness and precision evaluation experiments using a dual-frequency laser interferometer are implemented. The experimental results indicate that the two presented robust estimators can suppress the effects of the abnormality in the speckle images and, meanwhile, keep higher precision in vibration measurement in contrast with the traditional SSD method; thus, the SWD-robust and SSD-robust methods are suitable for weak image noise and strong image noise, respectively. PMID:26974624

  5. Optimizing radioimmunotherapy by matching dose distribution with tumor structure using 3D reconstructions of serial images.

    PubMed

    Flynn, A A; Pedley, R B; Green, A J; Boxer, G M; Boden, R; Begent, R H

    2001-10-01

    The biological effect of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is most commonly assessed in terms of the absorbed radiation dose. In tumor, conventional dosimetry methods assume a uniform radionuclide and calculate a mean dose throughout the tumor. However, the vasculature of solid tumors tends to be highly irregular and the systemic delivery of antibodies is therefore heterogeneous. Tumor-specific antibodies preferentially localize in the viable, radiosensitive parts of the tumor whereas non-specific antibodies can penetrate into the necrosis where the dose is wasted. As a result, the observed biological effect can be very different to the predicted effect from conventional dose estimates. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential for optimizing the biological effect of RIT by matching the dose-distribution with tumor structure through the selection of appropriate antibodies and radionuclides. Storage phosphor plate technology was used to acquire images of the antibody distribution in serial tumor sections. Images of the distributions of a trivalent (TFM), bivalent (A5B7-IgG), monovalent (MFE-23) and a non-specific antibody (MOPC) were obtained. These images were registered with corresponding images showing tumor morphology. Serial images were reconstructed to form 3D maps of the antibody distribution and tumor structure. Convolution of the image of antibody distribution with beta dose point kernals generated dose-rate distributions for 14C, 131I and 90Y. These were statistically compared with the tumor structure. The highest correlation was obtained for the multivalent antibodies combined with 131I, due to specific retention in viable areas of tumor coupled with the fact that much of the dose was deposted locally. With decreasing avidity the correlation also decreased and with the non-specific antibody this correlation was negative, indicating higher concentrations in the necrotic regions. In conclusion, the dose distribution can be optimized in tumor by selecting

  6. Standard 3D digital atlas of zebrafish embryonic development for projection of experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeek, Fons J.; den Broeder, M. J.; Boon, Paul J.; Buitendijk, B.; Doerry, E.; van Raaij, E. J.; Zivkovic, D.

    1999-12-01

    In developmental biology an overwhelming amount of experimental data concerning patterns of gene expression is produced revealing the genetic layout of the embryo and finding evidence for anomalies. Genes are part of complex genetic cascades and consequently their study requires tools for handling combinatorial problems. Gene expression is spatio-temporal and generally, imagin is used to analyze expression in four dimensions. Reporting and retrieving experimental data has become so complex that printed literature is no longer adequate and therefore databases are being implemented. Zebrafish is a popular model system in developmental biology. We are developing a 3D digital atlas of the zebrafish embryo, which is envisaged as standard allowing comparisons of experimentally induced and normally developing embryos. This 3D atlas is based on microscopical anatomy. From serial sections 3D images are reconstructed by capturing section images and registering these images respectively. This is accomplished for al developmental stages. Data management is solved using XML which is platform independent, ASCII-based, interchangeable and allows easy browsing. Applying supervised segmentation accomplishes a completely anatomically annotated 3D image. It divides the image into domains required for comparison and mapping. Experts provided with dedicated software and Internet-access to the images review annotations. Complete annotation and review is stored in a database.

  7. New 3D optical digitizer for orthodontic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal Bienzobas, Fernando; Dios, Federico; Garcia-Mateos, Jorge; Rivera, Alejandro

    2002-05-01

    A new three-dimensional optical digitizer working with white light and high accuracy has been developed for applications in orthodontic diagnosis, to store and analyze data taken from plaster dental casts. The scanner consists basically of a triangulation device made of a CCD camera and an active light projector using Gray code and the phase stepping method to sample the surfaces under tests. Dense clouds of 3D points of the object's surface, related to the device's reference system, are generated, from which very exact measurements can be taken. This technique allows us to greatly improve the accuracy of results that previously were obtained by using mainly manual methods. Our system has been tested successfully on many different samples.

  8. 3D reconstruction of digitized histological sections for vasculature quantification in the mouse hind limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Gibson, Eli; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and micro computed tomography, digital histology reveals multiple stained tissue features at high resolution (0.25μm/pixel). However, the two-dimensional (2D) nature of histology challenges three-dimensional (3D) quantification and visualization of the different tissue components, cellular structures, and subcellular elements. This limitation is particularly relevant to the vasculature, which has a complex and variable structure within tissues. The objective of this study was to perform a fully automated 3D reconstruction of histology tissue in the mouse hind limb preserving the accurate systemic orientation of the tissues, stained with hematoxylin and immunostained for smooth muscle α actin. We performed a 3D reconstruction using pairwise rigid registrations of 5μm thick, paraffin-embedded serial sections, digitized at 0.25μm/pixel. Each registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm on blood vessel landmarks. Landmarks were vessel centroids, determined according to a signed distance map of each pixel to a decision boundary in hue-saturation-value color space; this decision boundary was determined based on manual annotation of a separate training set. Cell nuclei were then automatically extracted and corresponded to refine the vessel landmark registration. Homologous nucleus landmark pairs appearing on not more than two adjacent slides were chosen to avoid registrations which force curved or non-sectionorthogonal structures to be straight and section-orthogonal. The median accumulated target registration errors ± interquartile ranges for the vessel landmark registration, and the nucleus landmark refinement were 43.4+/-42.8μm and 2.9+/-1.7μm, respectively (p<0.0001). Fully automatic and accurate 3D rigid reconstruction of mouse hind limb histology imaging is feasible based on extracted vasculature and nuclei.

  9. 3D Color Digital Elevation Map of AFM Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image is a three dimensional (3D) view of a digital elevation map of a sample collected by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The particle was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress' delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The AFM is part of Phoenix's microscopic station called MECA, or the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Eye-safe digital 3-D sensing for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Blais, Francois; Rioux, Marc; Cournoyer, Luc; Laurin, Denis G.; MacLean, Steve G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the characteristics and performance of an eye-safe laser range scanner (LARS) with short- and medium-range 3D sensing capabilities for space applications. This versatile LARS is a precision measurement tool that will complement the current Canadian Space Vision System. The major advantages of the LARS over conventional video- based imaging are its ability to operate with sunlight shining directly into the scanner and its immunity to spurious reflections and shadows, which occur frequently in space. Because the LARS is equipped with two high-speed galvanometers to steer the laser beam, any spatial location within the field of view of the camera can be addressed. This versatility enables the LARS to operate in two basis scan pattern modes: (1) variable-scan-resolution mode and (2) raster-scan mode. In the variable-resolution mode, the LARS can search and track targets and geometrical features on objects located within a field of view of 30 by 30 deg and with corresponding range from about 0.5 to 2000 m. The tracking mode can reach a refresh rate of up to 130 Hz. The raster mode is used primarily for the measurement of registered range and intensity information on large stationary objects. It allows, among other things, target- based measurements, feature-based measurements, and surface- reflectance monitoring. The digitizing and modeling of human subjects, cargo payloads, and environments are also possible with the LARS. Examples illustrating its capabilities are presented.

  11. 3D Modeling Techniques for Print and Digital Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Megan Ashley

    In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create 3D models, 3D scanning, and 3D printing. The models created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a model of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart models from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and 3D scanning, and successfully printed 3D heart models. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate models for use in both animation and print media. The 3D scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to 3D print using two different techniques as well.

  12. The development of a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial histological sections for E-learning environments.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jeremy A; Wilson, Timothy D; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated with improved learning outcomes, but similar tools have not been created for histology education to visualize complex cellular structure-function relationships. This study outlines steps in creating a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial, semi-thin, histological sections obtained from epoxy resin-embedded kidney tissue. The virtual renal corpuscle model was generated by digital segmentation to identify: Bowman's capsule, nuclei of epithelial cells in the parietal capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerular capillaries, podocyte nuclei, nuclei of extraglomerular mesangial cells, nuclei of epithelial cells of the macula densa in the distal convoluted tubule. In addition to the imported images of the original sections the software generates, and allows for visualization of, images of virtual sections generated in any desired orientation, thus serving as a "virtual microtome". These sections can be viewed separately or with the 3D model in transparency. This approach allows for the development of interactive e-learning tools designed to enhance histology education of microscopic structures with complex cellular interrelationships. Future studies will focus on testing the efficacy of interactive virtual 3D models for histology education.

  13. The development of a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial histological sections for E-learning environments.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jeremy A; Wilson, Timothy D; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated with improved learning outcomes, but similar tools have not been created for histology education to visualize complex cellular structure-function relationships. This study outlines steps in creating a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial, semi-thin, histological sections obtained from epoxy resin-embedded kidney tissue. The virtual renal corpuscle model was generated by digital segmentation to identify: Bowman's capsule, nuclei of epithelial cells in the parietal capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerular capillaries, podocyte nuclei, nuclei of extraglomerular mesangial cells, nuclei of epithelial cells of the macula densa in the distal convoluted tubule. In addition to the imported images of the original sections the software generates, and allows for visualization of, images of virtual sections generated in any desired orientation, thus serving as a "virtual microtome". These sections can be viewed separately or with the 3D model in transparency. This approach allows for the development of interactive e-learning tools designed to enhance histology education of microscopic structures with complex cellular interrelationships. Future studies will focus on testing the efficacy of interactive virtual 3D models for histology education. PMID:25808044

  14. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  15. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  16. Focussed ion beam serial sectioning and imaging of monolithic materials for 3D reconstruction and morphological parameter evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Mercedes; Moore, David; He, Xiaoyun; Ben Azouz, Aymen; Nesterenko, Ekaterina; Nesterenko, Pavel; Paull, Brett; Brabazon, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    A new characterisation method, based on the utilisation of focussed ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), has been employed for the evaluation of morphological parameters in porous monolithic materials. Sample FIB serial sectioning, SEM imaging and image processing techniques were used to extract the pore boundaries and reconstruct the 3D porous structure of carbon and silica-based monoliths. Since silica is a non-conducting material, a commercial silica monolith modified with activated carbon was employed instead to minimise the charge build-up during FIB sectioning. This work therefore presents a novel methodology that can be successfully employed for 3D reconstruction of porous monolithic materials which are or can be made conductive through surface or bulk modification. Furthermore, the 3D reconstructions were used for calculation of the monolith macroporosity, which was in good agreement with the porosity values obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP).

  17. Use of laser 3D surface digitizer in data collection and 3D modeling of anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Kelly; Van Der Wall, Hans; Vu, Dzung H.

    2006-02-01

    A laser digitizer (Konica-Minolta Vivid 910) is used to obtain 3-dimensional surface scans of anatomical structures with a maximum resolution of 0.1mm. Placing the specimen on a turntable allows multiple scans allaround because the scanner only captures data from the portion facing its lens. A computer model is generated using 3D modeling software such as Geomagic. The 3D model can be manipulated on screen for repeated analysis of anatomical features, a useful capability when the specimens are rare or inaccessible (museum collection, fossils, imprints in rock formation.). As accurate measurements can be performed on the computer model, instead of taking measurements on actual specimens only at the archeological excavation site e.g., a variety of quantitative data can be later obtained on the computer model in the laboratory as new ideas come to mind. Our group had used a mechanical contact digitizer (Microscribe) for this purpose, but with the surface digitizer, we have been obtaining data sets more accurately and more quickly.

  18. Direct inversion of digital 3D Fraunhofer holography maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podorov, Sergei G.; Förster, Eckhart

    2016-01-01

    The Differential Fourier Holography (DFH) gives an exact mathematical solution of the inverse problem of diffraction in the Fraunhofer regime. After the first publication [1] the Differential Fourier Holography was successfully applied in many experiments to obtain amplitude and phase information about two-dimensional (2D) images. In this article we demonstrate numerically the possibility to apply the DFH also for investigation of unknown 3D Objects. The first simulation is made for a double-spiral structure plus a line as a reference object.

  19. Dual wavelength digital holography for 3D particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grare, S.; Coëtmellec, S.,; Allano, D.; Grehan, G.; Brunel, M.; Lebrun, D.

    2015-02-01

    A multi-exposure digital in-line hologram of a moving particle field is recorded by two different wavelengths and at different times. As a result, during the reconstruction step, each hologram can be independently and accurately reconstructed for each wavelength. This procedure enables avoiding the superimposition of particles images that may be close to each other in multi-exposure holography. The feasibility is demonstrated by using a standard particle sizing reticle and shows the potential of this method for particle velocity measurement.

  20. Rethinking Design Process: Using 3D Digital Models as an Interface in Collaborative Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital models. The collaborative session took place in a 3D AutoCAD class for a real world project. The 3D models served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…

  1. Literary and Historical 3D Digital Game-Based Learning: Design Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, David O.; Shelton, Brett E.

    2010-01-01

    As 3D digital game-based learning (3D-DGBL) for the teaching of literature and history gradually gains acceptance, important questions will need to be asked regarding its method of design, development, and deployment. This article offers a synthesis of contemporary pedagogical, instructional design, new media, and literary-historical theories to…

  2. Combination of Virtual Tours, 3d Model and Digital Data in a 3d Archaeological Knowledge and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.; Brigand, N.

    2012-08-01

    The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc.), digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.). The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic photographic image

  3. Towards 3C-3D digital holographic fluid velocity vector field measurement—tomographic digital holographic PIV (Tomo-HPIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, J.; Atkinson, C.

    2008-07-01

    Most unsteady and/or turbulent flows of geophysical and engineering interest have a highly three-dimensional (3D) complex topology and their experimental investigation is in pressing need of quantitative velocity measurement methods that are robust and can provide instantaneous 3C-3D velocity field data over a significant volumetric domain of the flow. This paper introduces and demonstrates a new method that uses multiple digital CCD array cameras to record in-line digital holograms of the same volume of seed particles from multiple orientations. This technique uses the same basic equipment as Tomo-PIV minus the camera lenses, it overcomes the depth-of-field problem of digital in-line holography and does not require the complex optical calibration of Tomo-PIV. The digital sensors can be oriented in an optimal manner to overcome the depth-of-field limitation of in-line holograms recorded using digital CCD or CMOS array cameras, resulting in a 3D reconstruction of the seed particles within the volume of interest, which can subsequently be analysed using 3D cross-correlation PIV analysis to yield a 3C-3D velocity field. A demonstration experiment of Tomo-HPIV using uniform translation with nominally 11 µm diameter seed particles shows that the 3D displacement derived from 3D cross-correlation Tomo-HPIV analysis can be measured within 5% of the imposed uniform translation, where the imposed uniform translation has an estimated standard uncertainty of 4.3%. So this paper proposes a multi-camera digital holographic imaging 3C-3D PIV method, which is identified as tomographic digital holographic PIV or Tomo-HPIV.

  4. 3D digitization methods based on laser excitation and active triangulation: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubreton, Olivier; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    3D reconstruction of surfaces is an important topic in computer vision and corresponds to a large field of applications: industrial inspection, reverse engineering, object recognition, biometry, archeology… Because of the large varieties of applications, one can find in the literature a lot of approaches which can be classified into two families: passive and active [1]. Certainly because of their reliability, active approaches, using imaging system with an additional controlled light source, seem to be the most commonly used in the industrial field. In this domain, the 3D digitization approach based on active 3D triangulation has had important developments during the last ten years [2] and seems to be mature today if considering the important number of systems proposed by manufacturers. Unfortunately, the performances of active 3D scanners depend on the optical properties of the surface to digitize. As an example, on Fig 1.a, a 3D shape with a diffuse surface has been digitized with Comet V scanner (Steinbichler). The 3D reconstruction is presented on Fig 1.b. The same experiment was carried out on a similar object (same shape) but presenting a specular surface (Fig 1.c and Fig 1.d) ; it can clearly be observed, that the specularity influences of the performance of the digitization.

  5. Possibility of reconstruction of dental plaster cast from 3D digital study models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare traditional plaster casts, digital models and 3D printed copies of dental plaster casts based on various criteria. To determine whether 3D printed copies obtained using open source system RepRap can replace traditional plaster casts in dental practice. To compare and contrast the qualities of two possible 3D printing options – open source system RepRap and commercially available 3D printing. Design and settings A method comparison study on 10 dental plaster casts from the Orthodontic department, Department of Stomatology, 2nd medical Faulty, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic. Material and methods Each of 10 plaster casts were scanned by inEos Blue scanner and the printed on 3D printer RepRap [10 models] and ProJet HD3000 3D printer [1 model]. Linear measurements between selected points on the dental arches of upper and lower jaws on plaster casts and its 3D copy were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results 3D printed copies have many advantages over traditional plaster casts. The precision and accuracy of the RepRap 3D printed copies of plaster casts were confirmed based on the statistical analysis. Although the commercially available 3D printing enables to print more details than the RepRap system, it is expensive and for the purpose of clinical use can be replaced by the cheaper prints obtained from RepRap printed copies. Conclusions Scanning of the traditional plaster casts to obtain a digital model offers a pragmatic approach. The scans can subsequently be used as a template to print the plaster casts as required. Using 3D printers can replace traditional plaster casts primarily due to their accuracy and price. PMID:23721330

  6. Digital holographic microscopy for imaging growth and treatment response in 3D tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

    2014-03-01

    While three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable tools in cancer research, the ability to longitudinally visualize the 3D tumor architecture restored by these systems is limited with microscopy techniques that provide only qualitative insight into sample depth, or which require terminal fixation for depth-resolved 3D imaging. Here we report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, non-destructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro 3D tumor models. Following established methods we prepared 3D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple timepoints throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify nodule thickness over time under normal growth, and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

  7. Design of a 3D-IC multi-resolution digital pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochard, N.; Nebhen, J.; Dubois, J.; Ginhac, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a digital pixel sensor (DPS) integrating a sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at pixel level. The digital pixel includes a photodiode, a delta-sigma modulation and a digital decimation filter. It features adaptive dynamic range and multiple resolutions (up to 10-bit) with a high linearity. A specific row decoder and column decoder are also designed to permit to read a specific pixel chosen in the matrix and its neighborhood of 4 x 4. Finally, a complete design with the CMOS 130 nm 3D-IC FaStack Tezzaron technology is also described, revealing a high fill-factor of about 80%.

  8. The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jimin; Jiang, Yijian; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-04-01

    Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hi-tech which combines traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. At the present time there are four levels application: The printed 3D model is the first and simple application. The surgery makes use of the model to plan the processing before operation. The second is customized operation tools such as implant guide. It helps doctor to operate with special tools rather than the normal medical tools. The third level application of 3D printing in medical area is to print artificial bones or teeth to implant into human body. The big challenge is the fourth level which is to print organs with 3D printing technology. In this paper we introduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. We use 3D printing to print guide for invasion operation. Puncture needles were guided by printed guide in face tumors operation. It is concluded that this new type guide is dominantly advantageous.

  9. A framework for quantification of regional cardiac fibrosis from serial sections using 3D whole slide imaging.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Stephen H; Bernus, Olivier; White, Ed; Roberts, Nick; Treanor, Darren; Magee, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Pathological cardiac fibrosis is important in predisposing the heart to arrhythmia and mechanical failure. The regional distribution of fibrosis is often described qualitatively and quantitatively in histological studies of animal hearts after staining collagen with specific colored stains. Currently this description is often piecemeal, as it lacks rigorous spatial registration, matching and methodological standardization between animals and between study groups. We propose a strategy for the quantification of regional fibrosis using the American Heart Association (AHA) cardiac segmentation model. We quantify fibrosis after whole heart 3D histological reconstruction in one normal rat heart and in one rat heart in right heart failure induced by monocrotaline. We then assess the minimum spaced histological sampling which allows for accurate assessment of regional fibrosis. We show that using every section of a set of 5 μm serial sections quantifies regional right ventricular fibrosis, with highly significant (p <; 0.001) differences between heart failure and control hearts. We show that the absolute error of collagen quantification is low when sections are taken spaced by up to 100 μm (error 5.7±5.8%). Likewise, absolute error associated with sectioning starting position is low for sections spaced up to 100 μm (error 13.3±17.2%). Above 100 μm section spacing quantification error is large (tending to 50%) and error associated with sectioning starting position is large (tending to 60%).

  10. Structuring Narrative in 3D Digital Game-Based Learning Environments to Support Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, David O.

    2010-01-01

    The essay is a conceptual analysis from an instructional design perspective exploring the feasibility of using three-dimensional digital game-based learning (3D-DGBL) environments to assist in second language acquisition (SLA). It examines the shared characteristics of narrative within theories of situated cognition, context-based approaches to…

  11. 3D measurement of the position of gold particles via evanescent digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Shin-ichi; Unno, Noriyuki; Nakata, Shuichiro; Taniguchi, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A new technique based on digital holography and evanescent waves was developed for 3D measurements of the position of gold nanoparticles in water. In this technique, an intensity profile is taken from a holographic image of a gold particle. To detect the position of the gold particle with high accuracy, its holographic image is recorded on a nanosized step made of MEXFLON, which has a refractive index close to that of water, and the position of the particle is reconstructed by means of digital holography. The height of the nanosized step was measured by using a profilometer and the digitally reconstructed height of the glass substrate had good agreement with the measured value. Furthermore, this method can be used to accurately track the 3D position of a gold particle in water.

  12. 3D evaluation of palatal rugae for human identification using digital study models

    PubMed Central

    Taneva, Emilia D.; Johnson, Andrew; Viana, Grace; Evans, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While there is literature suggesting that the palatal rugae could be used for human identification, most of these studies use two-dimensional (2D) approach. Aim: The aims of this study were to evaluate palatal ruga patterns using three-dimensional (3D) digital models; compare the most clinically relevant digital model conversion techniques for identification of the palatal rugae; develop a protocol for overlay registration; determine changes in palatal ruga individual patterns through time; and investigate the efficiency and accuracy of 3D matching processes between different individuals’ patterns. Material and Methods: Five cross sections in the anteroposterior dimension and four cross sections in the transverse dimension were computed which generated 18 2D variables. In addition, 13 3D variables were defined: The posterior point of incisive papilla (IP), and the most medial and lateral end points of the palatal rugae (R1MR, R1ML, R1LR, R1LL, R2MR, R2ML, R2LR, R2LL, R3MR, R3ML, R3LR, and R3LL). The deviation magnitude for each variable was statistically analyzed in this study. Five different data sets with the same 31 landmarks were evaluated in this study. Results: The results demonstrated that 2D images and linear measurements in the anteroposterior and transverse dimensions were not sufficient for comparing different digital model conversion techniques using the palatal rugae. 3D digital models proved to be a highly effective tool in evaluating different palatal ruga patterns. The 3D landmarks showed no statistically significant mean differences over time or as a result of orthodontic treatment. No statistically significant mean differences were found between different digital model conversion techniques, that is, between OrthoCAD™ and Ortho Insight 3D™, and between Ortho Insight 3D™ and the iTero® scans, when using 12 3D palatal rugae landmarks for comparison. Conclusion: Although 12 palatal 3D landmarks could be used for human

  13. The Effect of Rate of Presentation on Digit Serial Recall in Reading Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Jennifer; Tymchuk, Alexander J.

    This study examined the effect of presentation rate on accuracy of digit serial recall and on serial position curves of digit strings of different lengths with 18 boys classified as reading retarded and a comparison group of children (ages for both groups averaged 11 years) who read at grade level. The results indicated that normal children…

  14. Breast mass detection using slice conspicuity in 3D reconstructed digital breast volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Kim, Dae Hoe; Ro, Yong Man

    2014-09-01

    In digital breast tomosynthesis, the three dimensional (3D) reconstructed volumes only provide quasi-3D structure information with limited resolution along the depth direction due to insufficient sampling in depth direction and the limited angular range. The limitation could seriously hamper the conventional 3D image analysis techniques for detecting masses because the limited number of projection views causes blurring in the out-of-focus planes. In this paper, we propose a novel mass detection approach using slice conspicuity in the 3D reconstructed digital breast volumes to overcome the above limitation. First, to overcome the limited resolution along the depth direction, we detect regions of interest (ROIs) on each reconstructed slice and separately utilize the depth directional information to combine the ROIs effectively. Furthermore, we measure the blurriness of each slice for resolving the degradation of performance caused by the blur in the out-of-focus plane. Finally, mass features are extracted from the selected in focus slices and analyzed by a support vector machine classifier to reduce the false positives. Comparative experiments have been conducted on a clinical data set. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the conventional 3D approach by achieving a high sensitivity with a small number of false positives.

  15. An object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system.

    PubMed

    Seyyedi, Saeed; Cengiz, Kubra; Kamasak, Mustafa; Yildirim, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV) are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values. PMID:24371468

  16. A comparative analysis of 2D and 3D CAD for calcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Conant, Emily F.

    2015-03-01

    Many medical centers offer digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and 2D digital mammography acquired under the same compression (i.e., "Combo" examination) for screening. This paper compares a conventional 2D CAD algorithm (Hologic® ImageChecker® CAD v9.4) for calcification detection against a prototype 3D algorithm (Hologic® ImageChecker® 3D Calc CAD v1.0). Due to the newness of DBT, the development of this 3D CAD algorithm is ongoing, and it is currently not FDA-approved in the United States. For this study, DBT screening cases with suspicious calcifications were identified retrospectively at the University of Pennsylvania. An expert radiologist (E.F.C.) reviewed images with both 2D and DBT CAD marks, and compared the marks to biopsy results. Control cases with one-year negative follow-up were also studied; these cases either possess clearly benign calcifications or lacked calcifications. To allow the user to alter the sensitivity for cancer detection, an operating point is assigned to each CAD mark. As expected from conventional 2D CAD, increasing the operating point in 3D CAD increases sensitivity and reduces specificity. Additionally, we showed that some cancers are occult to 2D CAD at all operating points. By contrast, 3D CAD allows for detection of some cancers that are missed on 2D CAD. We also demonstrated that some non-cancerous CAD marks in 3D are not present at analogous locations in the 2D image. Hence, there are additional marks when using both 2D and 3D CAD in combination, leading to lower specificity than with conventional 2D CAD alone.

  17. Research of aluminium alloy aerospace structure aperture measurement based on 3D digital speckle correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Hongbo; Zhou, Jiangfan; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Hui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the aperture change of the aluminium alloy aerospace structure under real load is researched. Static experiments are carried on which is simulated the load environment of flight course. Compared with the traditional methods, through experiments results, it's proved that 3D digital speckle correlation method has good adaptability and precision on testing aperture change, and it can satisfy measurement on non-contact,real-time 3D deformation or stress concentration. The test results of new method is compared with the traditional method.

  18. Pre-Processing of Point-Data from Contact and Optical 3D Digitization Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Budak, Igor; Vukelić, Djordje; Bračun, Drago; Hodolič, Janko; Soković, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary 3D digitization systems employed by reverse engineering (RE) feature ever-growing scanning speeds with the ability to generate large quantity of points in a unit of time. Although advantageous for the quality and efficiency of RE modelling, the huge number of point datas can turn into a serious practical problem, later on, when the CAD model is generated. In addition, 3D digitization processes are very often plagued by measuring errors, which can be attributed to the very nature of measuring systems, various characteristics of the digitized objects and subjective errors by the operator, which also contribute to problems in the CAD model generation process. This paper presents an integral system for the pre-processing of point data, i.e., filtering, smoothing and reduction, based on a cross-sectional RE approach. In the course of the proposed system development, major emphasis was placed on the module for point data reduction, which was designed according to a novel approach with integrated deviation analysis and fuzzy logic reasoning. The developed system was verified through its application on three case studies, on point data from objects of versatile geometries obtained by contact and laser 3D digitization systems. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. PMID:22368513

  19. 3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie

    2013-03-01

    With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.

  20. Knowledge-based system for computer-aided process planning of laser sensor 3D digitizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Alain; Davillerd, Stephane; Sidot, Benoit

    1999-11-01

    This paper introduces some results of a research work carried out on the automation of digitizing process of complex part using a precision 3D-laser sensor. Indeed, most of the operations are generally still manual to perform digitalization. In fact, redundancies, lacks or forgetting in point acquisition are possible. Moreover, digitization time of a part, i.e. immobilization of the machine, is thus not optimized overall. So, it is important, for time- compression during product development, to minimize time consuming of reverse engineering step. A new way to scan automatically a complex 3D part is presented to order to measure and to compare the acquired data with the reference CAD model. After introducing digitization, the environment used for the experiments is presented, based on a CMM machine and a plane laser sensor. Then the proposed strategy is introduced for the adaptation of this environment to a robotic CAD software in order to be able to simulate and validate 3D-laser-scanning paths. The CAPP (Computer Aided Process Planning) system used for the automatic generation of the laser scanning process is also presented.

  1. Demonstration of digital hologram recording and 3D-scenes reconstruction in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Kulakov, Mikhail N.; Kurbatova, Ekaterina A.; Molodtsov, Dmitriy Y.; Rodin, Vladislav G.

    2016-04-01

    Digital holography is technique that allows to reconstruct information about 2D-objects and 3D-scenes. This is achieved by registration of interference pattern formed by two beams: object and reference ones. Pattern registered by the digital camera is processed. This allows to obtain amplitude and phase of the object beam. Reconstruction of shape of the 2D objects and 3D-scenes can be obtained numerically (using computer) and optically (using spatial light modulators - SLMs). In this work camera Megaplus II ES11000 was used for digital holograms recording. The camera has 4008 × 2672 pixels with sizes of 9 μm × 9 μm. For hologram recording, 50 mW frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with wavelength 532 nm was used. Liquid crystal on silicon SLM HoloEye PLUTO VIS was used for optical reconstruction of digital holograms. SLM has 1920 × 1080 pixels with sizes of 8 μm × 8 μm. At objects reconstruction 10 mW He-Ne laser with wavelength 632.8 nm was used. Setups for digital holograms recording and their optical reconstruction with the SLM were combined as follows. MegaPlus Central Control Software allows to display registered frames by the camera with a little delay on the computer monitor. The SLM can work as additional monitor. In result displayed frames can be shown on the SLM display in near real-time. Thus recording and reconstruction of the 3D-scenes was obtained in real-time. Preliminary, resolution of displayed frames was chosen equaled to the SLM one. Quantity of the pixels was limited by the SLM resolution. Frame rate was limited by the camera one. This holographic video setup was applied without additional program implementations that would increase time delays between hologram recording and object reconstruction. The setup was demonstrated for reconstruction of 3D-scenes.

  2. Novel fully integrated computer system for custom footwear: from 3D digitization to manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, Pascal-Simon; Beaulieu, Eric; Liu, Zhaoheng

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a recently developed custom footwear system, which integrates 3D digitization technology, range image fusion techniques, a 3D graphical environment for corrective actions, parametric curved surface representation and computer numerical control (CNC) machining. In this system, a support designed with the help of biomechanics experts can stabilize the foot in a correct and neutral position. The foot surface is then captured by a 3D camera using active ranging techniques. A software using a library of documented foot pathologies suggests corrective actions on the orthosis. Three kinds of deformations can be achieved. The first method uses previously scanned pad surfaces by our 3D scanner, which can be easily mapped onto the foot surface to locally modify the surface shape. The second kind of deformation is construction of B-Spline surfaces by manipulating control points and modifying knot vectors in a 3D graphical environment to build desired deformation. The last one is a manual electronic 3D pen, which may be of different shapes and sizes, and has an adjustable 'pressure' information. All applied deformations should respect a G1 surface continuity, which ensure that the surface can accustom a foot. Once the surface modification process is completed, the resulting data is sent to manufacturing software for CNC machining.

  3. Digital mono- and 3D stereo-photogrammetry for geological and geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapozza, Cristian; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Castelletti, Claudio; Bozzini, Claudio; Ambrosi, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The generalization of application of digital tools for managing, mapping and updating geological data have become widely accepted in the last decennia. Despite the increasing quality and availability of digital topographical maps, orthorectified aerial photographs (orthophotos) and high resolution (5 up to 0.5 m) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), a correct recognition of the kind, the nature and the boundaries of geological formations and geomophological landforms, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits or slope instabilities is often very difficult on conventional two-dimensional (2D) products, in particular in steep zones (rock walls and talus slopes), under the forest cover, for a very complex topography and in deeply urbanised zones. In many cases, photo-interpretative maps drawn only by 2D data sets must be improved by field verifications or, at least, by field oblique photographs. This is logical, because our natural perception of the real world is three-dimensional (3D), which is partially disabled by the application of 2D visualization techniques. Here we present some examples of application of digital mapping based on a 3D visualization (for aerial and satellite images photo-interpretation) or on a terrestrial perception by digital mono-photogrammetry (for oblique photographs). The 3D digital mapping was performed thanks to an extension of the software ESRI® ArcGIS™ called ArcGDS™. This methodology was also applied on historical aerial photographs (normally analysed by optical stereo-photogrammetry), which were digitized by scanning and then oriented and aero-triangulated thanks to the ArcGDS™ software, allowing the 3D visualisation and the mapping in a GIS environment (Ambrosi and Scapozza, 2015). The mono-photogrammetry (or monoplotting) is the technique of photogrammetrical georeferentiation of single oblique unrectified photographs, which are related to a DEM. In other words, the monoplotting allows relating each pixel of the photograph to the

  4. Investigation on 3D morphological changes of in vitro cells through digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memmolo, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Merola, Francesco; Netti, Paolo A.; Coppola, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Pietro

    2013-04-01

    We report the investigation of the identification and measurement of region of interest (ROI) in quantitative phase-contrast maps (QPMs) of biological cells by digital holographic microscopy (DHM), with the aim to analyze the 3D positions and 3D morphology together. We consider as test case for our tool the in vitro bull sperm head morphometry analysis. Extraction and measurement of various morphological parameters are performed by using two methods: the anisotropic diffusion filter, that is based on the Gaussian diffusivity function which allows more accuracy of the edge position, and the simple thresholding filter. In particular we consider the calculation of area, ellipticity, perimeter, major axis, minor axis and shape factor as a morphological parameter, instead, for the estimation of 3D position, we compute the centroid, the weighted centroid and the maximum phase values. A statistical analysis on a data set composed by N = 14 holograms relative to bovine spermatozoa and its reference holograms is reported.

  5. 3D Digital Surveying and Modelling of Cave Geometry: Application to Paleolithic Rock Art

    PubMed Central

    González-Aguilera, Diego; Muñoz-Nieto, Angel; Gómez-Lahoz, Javier; Herrero-Pascual, Jesus; Gutierrez-Alonso, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    3D digital surveying and modelling of cave geometry represents a relevant approach for research, management and preservation of our cultural and geological legacy. In this paper, a multi-sensor approach based on a terrestrial laser scanner, a high-resolution digital camera and a total station is presented. Two emblematic caves of Paleolithic human occupation and situated in northern Spain, “Las Caldas” and “Peña de Candamo”, have been chosen to put in practise this approach. As a result, an integral and multi-scalable 3D model is generated which may allow other scientists, pre-historians, geologists…, to work on two different levels, integrating different Paleolithic Art datasets: (1) a basic level based on the accurate and metric support provided by the laser scanner; and (2) a advanced level using the range and image-based modelling. PMID:22399958

  6. Mackay campus of environmental education and digital cultural construction: the application of 3D virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shao-Chi; Chung, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Jun-Yi; Chang, Jhih-Ting; He, Cai-Ying; Cheng, Yi-Wen

    2012-04-01

    This study uses 3D virtual reality technology to create the "Mackay campus of the environmental education and digital cultural 3D navigation system" for local historical sites in the Tamsui (Hoba) area, in hopes of providing tourism information and navigation through historical sites using a 3D navigation system. We used Auto CAD, Sketch Up, and SpaceEyes 3D software to construct the virtual reality scenes and create the school's historical sites, such as the House of Reverends, the House of Maidens, the Residence of Mackay, and the Education Hall. We used this technology to complete the environmental education and digital cultural Mackay campus . The platform we established can indeed achieve the desired function of providing tourism information and historical site navigation. The interactive multimedia style and the presentation of the information will allow users to obtain a direct information response. In addition to showing the external appearances of buildings, the navigation platform can also allow users to enter the buildings to view lifelike scenes and textual information related to the historical sites. The historical sites are designed according to their actual size, which gives users a more realistic feel. In terms of the navigation route, the navigation system does not force users along a fixed route, but instead allows users to freely control the route they would like to take to view the historical sites on the platform.

  7. Mask free intravenous 3D digital subtraction angiography (IV 3D-DSA) from a single C-arm acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Niu, Kai; Yang, Pengfei; Aagaard-Kienitz, Beveley; Niemann, David B.; Ahmed, Azam S.; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Currently, clinical acquisition of IV 3D-DSA requires two separate scans: one mask scan without contrast medium and a filled scan with contrast injection. Having two separate scans adds radiation dose to the patient and increases the likelihood of suffering inadvertent patient motion induced mis-registration and the associated mis-registraion artifacts in IV 3D-DSA images. In this paper, a new technique, SMART-RECON is introduced to generate IV 3D-DSA images from a single Cone Beam CT (CBCT) acquisition to eliminate the mask scan. Potential benefits of eliminating mask scan would be: (1) both radiation dose and scan time can be reduced by a factor of 2; (2) intra-sweep motion can be eliminated; (3) inter-sweep motion can be mitigated. Numerical simulations were used to validate the algorithm in terms of contrast recoverability and the ability to mitigate limited view artifacts.

  8. High-accuracy 3-D modeling of cultural heritage: the digitizing of Donatello's "Maddalena".

    PubMed

    Guidi, Gabriele; Beraldin, J Angelo; Atzeni, Carlo

    2004-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital modeling of Heritage works of art through optical scanners, has been demonstrated in recent years with results of exceptional interest. However, the routine application of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling to Heritage conservation still requires the systematic investigation of a number of technical problems. In this paper, the acquisition process of the 3-D digital model of the Maddalena by Donatello, a wooden statue representing one of the major masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance which was swept away by the Florence flood of 1966 and successively restored, is described. The paper reports all the steps of the acquisition procedure, from the project planning to the solution of the various problems due to range camera calibration and to material non optically cooperative. Since the scientific focus is centered on the 3-D model overall dimensional accuracy, a methodology for its quality control is described. Such control has demonstrated how, in some situations, the ICP-based alignment can lead to incorrect results. To circumvent this difficulty we propose an alignment technique based on the fusion of ICP with close-range digital photogrammetry and a non-invasive procedure in order to generate a final accurate model. In the end detailed results are presented, demonstrating the improvement of the final model, and how the proposed sensor fusion ensure a pre-specified level of accuracy.

  9. ["Aachen 3-D-finger". Development of a 3-D-digitizer for use in dental, oral and maxillary treatment].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, W; Pawelke, S; Meissen, T

    1990-04-01

    The "AACHEN 3D Finger" is a three-dimensional measuring system for use in all fields of dentistry. The system can equally as well be installed on a plane table, as fixed to the head of a patient. The measuring device is computer-assisted, and is able to localize, register and calculate any combination of points in the oral and maxillofacial area. The reference system can be changed at any time. The "AACHEN 3D Finger" can be used as a computer-a ded system in dentistry as well as in implantology or dental and maxillofacial surgery.

  10. Stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsies on a digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis system.

    PubMed

    Viala, Juliette; Gignier, Pierre; Perret, Baudouin; Hovasse, Claudie; Hovasse, Denis; Chancelier-Galan, Marie-Dominique; Bornet, Gregoire; Hamrouni, Adel; Lasry, Jean-Louis; Convard, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe our operating process and to report results of 118 stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsies performed on a digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis system. From October 2009 to December 2010, 118 stereotactic vacuum assisted biopsies have been performed on a digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis system. Informed consent was obtained for all patients. A total of 106 patients had a lesion, six had two lesions. Sixty-one lesions were clusters of micro-calcifications, 54 were masses and three were architectural distortions. Patients were in lateral decubitus position to allow shortest skin-target approach (or sitting). Specific compression paddle, adapted on the system, performed, and graduated, allowing localization in X-Y. Tomosynthesis views define the depth of lesion. Graduated Coaxial localization kit determines the beginning of the biopsy window. Biopsies were performed with an ATEC-Suros, 9 Gauge handpiece. All biopsies, except one, have reached the lesions. Five hemorrhages were incurred in the process, but no interruption was needed. Eight breast hematomas, were all spontaneously resolved. One was an infection. About 40% of patients had a skin ecchymosis. Processing is fast, easy, and requires lower irradiation dose than with classical stereotactic biopsies. Histology analysis reported 45 benign clusters of micro-calcifications, 16 malignant clusters of micro-calcifications, 24 benign masses, and 33 malignant masses. Of 13 malignant lesions, digital 2D-mammography failed to detect eight lesions and underestimated the classification of five lesions. Digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis depicts malignant lesions not visualized on digital 2D-mammography. Development of tomosynthesis biopsy unit integrated to stereotactic system will permit histology analysis for suspicious lesions.

  11. A Prototype Digital Library for 3D Collections: Tools To Capture, Model, Analyze, and Query Complex 3D Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Jeremy; Razdan, Anshuman

    The Partnership for Research in Spatial Modeling (PRISM) project at Arizona State University (ASU) developed modeling and analytic tools to respond to the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) data representations perceived by affiliated discipline scientists, and to take advantage of the enhanced capabilities of three-dimensional (3D) data that…

  12. Reverse engineering physical models employing a sensor integration between 3D stereo detection and contact digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Lin, Grier C. I.

    1997-12-01

    A vision-drive automatic digitization process for free-form surface reconstruction has been developed, with a coordinate measurement machine (CMM) equipped with a touch-triggered probe and a CCD camera, in reverse engineering physical models. The process integrates 3D stereo detection, data filtering, Delaunay triangulation, adaptive surface digitization into a single process of surface reconstruction. By using this innovative approach, surface reconstruction can be implemented automatically and accurately. Least-squares B- spline surface models with the controlled accuracy of digitization can be generated for further application in product design and manufacturing processes. One industrial application indicates that this approach is feasible, and the processing time required in reverse engineering process can be significantly reduced up to more than 85%.

  13. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  14. High fidelity digital inline holographic method for 3D flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Toloui, Mostafa; Hong, Jiarong

    2015-10-19

    Among all the 3D optical flow diagnostic techniques, digital inline holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DIH-PTV) provides the highest spatial resolution with low cost, simple and compact optical setups. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, and expensive computations. These limitations prevent this technique from being widely used for high resolution 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present a novel holographic particle extraction method with the goal of overcoming all the major limitations of DIH-PTV. The proposed method consists of multiple steps involving 3D deconvolution, automatic signal-to-noise ratio enhancement and thresholding, and inverse iterative particle extraction. The entire method is implemented using GPU-based algorithm to increase the computational speed significantly. Validated with synthetic particle holograms, the proposed method can achieve particle extraction rate above 95% with fake particles less than 3% and maximum position error below 1.6 particle diameter for holograms with particle concentration above 3000 particles/mm3. The applicability of the proposed method for DIH-PTV has been further validated using the experiment of laminar flow in a microchannel and the synthetic tracer flow fields generated using a DNS turbulent channel flow database. Such improvements will substantially enhance the implementation of DIH-PTV for 3D flow measurements and enable the potential commercialization of this technique. PMID:26480377

  15. Combining laser scan and photogrammetry for 3D object modeling using a single digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2009-07-01

    In the fields of industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation, physical objects are usually digitalized by reverse engineering through some 3D scanning methods. Laser scan and photogrammetry are two main methods to be used. For laser scan, a video camera and a laser source are necessary, and for photogrammetry, a digital still camera with high resolution pixels is indispensable. In some 3D modeling tasks, two methods are often integrated to get satisfactory results. Although many research works have been done on how to combine the results of the two methods, no work has been reported to design an integrated device at low cost. In this paper, a new 3D scan system combining laser scan and photogrammetry using a single consumer digital camera is proposed. Nowadays there are many consumer digital cameras, such as Canon EOS 5D Mark II, they usually have features of more than 10M pixels still photo recording and full 1080p HD movie recording, so a integrated scan system can be designed using such a camera. A square plate glued with coded marks is used to place the 3d objects, and two straight wood rulers also glued with coded marks can be laid on the plate freely. In the photogrammetry module, the coded marks on the plate make up a world coordinate and can be used as control network to calibrate the camera, and the planes of two rulers can also be determined. The feature points of the object and the rough volume representation from the silhouettes can be obtained in this module. In the laser scan module, a hand-held line laser is used to scan the object, and the two straight rulers are used as reference planes to determine the position of the laser. The laser scan results in dense points cloud which can be aligned together automatically through calibrated camera parameters. The final complete digital model is obtained through a new a patchwise energy functional method by fusion of the feature points, rough volume and the dense points cloud. The design

  16. Serial Position Effects in the Identification of Letters, Digits, and Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tydgat, Ilse; Grainger, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated the form of serial position functions for identification of letters, digits, and symbols presented in strings. The results replicated findings obtained with the target search paradigm, showing an interaction between the effects of serial position and type of stimulus, with symbols generating a distinct…

  17. Computation of elastic properties of 3D digital cores from the Longmaxi shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Fu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Yan; Jin, Wei-Jun

    2016-06-01

    The dependence of elastic moduli of shales on the mineralogy and microstructure of shales is important for the prediction of sweet spots and shale gas production. Based on 3D digital images of the microstructure of Longmaxi black shale samples using X-ray CT, we built detailed 3D digital images of cores with porosity properties and mineral contents. Next, we used finite-element (FE) methods to derive the elastic properties of the samples. The FE method can accurately model the shale mineralogy. Particular attention is paid to the derived elastic properties and their dependence on porosity and kerogen. The elastic moduli generally decrease with increasing porosity and kerogen, and there is a critical porosity (0.75) and kerogen content (ca. ≤3%) over which the elastic moduli decrease rapidly and slowly, respectively. The derived elastic moduli of gas- and oil-saturated digital cores differ little probably because of the low porosity (4.5%) of the Longmaxi black shale. Clearly, the numerical experiments demonstrated the feasibility of combining microstructure images of shale samples with elastic moduli calculations to predict shale properties.

  18. Urban 3D GIS From LiDAR and digital aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Song, C.; Simmers, J.; Cheng, P.

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a method, which integrates image knowledge and Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data for urban digital terrain model (DTM) and digital building model (DBM) generation. The DBM is an Object-Oriented data structure, in which each building is considered as a building object, i.e., an entity of the building class. The attributes of each building include roof types, polygons of the roof surfaces, height, parameters describing the roof surfaces, and the LiDAR point array within the roof surfaces. Each polygon represents a roof surface of building. This type of data structure is flexible for adding other building attributes in future, such as texture information and wall information. Using image knowledge extracted, we developed a new method of interpolating LiDAR raw data into grid digital surface model (DSM) with considering the steep discontinuities of buildings. In this interpolation method, the LiDAR data points, which are located in the polygon of roof surfaces, first are determined, and then interpolation via planar equation is employed for grid DSM generation. The basic steps of our research are: (1) edge detection by digital image processing algorithms; (2) complete extraction of the building roof edges by digital image processing and human-computer interactive operation; (3) establishment of DBM; (4) generation of DTM by removing surface objects. Finally, we implement the above functions by MS VC++ programming. The outcome of urban 3D DSM, DTM and DBM is exported into urban database for urban 3D GIS.

  19. A novel method to acquire 3D data from serial 2D images of a dental cast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Chen, Qi; Shao, Jun; Li, Xinshe; Liu, Zhiqin

    2007-05-01

    This paper introduced a newly developed method to acquire three-dimensional data from serial two-dimensional images of a dental cast. The system consists of a computer and a set of data acquiring device. The data acquiring device is used to take serial pictures of the a dental cast; an artificial neural network works to translate two-dimensional pictures to three-dimensional data; then three-dimensional image can reconstruct by the computer. The three-dimensional data acquiring of dental casts is the foundation of computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics.

  20. The simulation of 3D microcalcification clusters in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, Eman; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Zanca, Federica; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marshall, Nicholas; Jacobs, Jurgen; Young, Kenneth C.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D models of microcalcification clusters and describes the validation of their realistic appearance when simulated into 2D digital mammograms and into breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: A micro-CT unit was used to scan 23 breast biopsy specimens of microcalcification clusters with malignant and benign characteristics and their 3D reconstructed datasets were segmented to obtain 3D models of microcalcification clusters. These models were then adjusted for the x-ray spectrum used and for the system resolution and simulated into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. Six radiologists were asked to distinguish between 40 real and 40 simulated clusters of microcalcifications in two separate studies on 2D mammography and tomosynthesis datasets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to test the ability of each observer to distinguish between simulated and real microcalcification clusters. The kappa statistic was applied to assess how often the individual simulated and real microcalcification clusters had received similar scores (''agreement'') on their realistic appearance in both modalities. This analysis was performed for all readers and for the real and the simulated group of microcalcification clusters separately. ''Poor'' agreement would reflect radiologists' confusion between simulated and real clusters, i.e., lesions not systematically evaluated in both modalities as either simulated or real, and would therefore be interpreted as a success of the present models. Results: The area under the ROC curve, averaged over the observers, was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [0.44, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.46 (95% confidence interval [0.29, 0.64]) for the tomosynthesis study, indicating no statistically significant difference between real and simulated

  1. Detection of micromechanical deformation under rigid body displacement using twin-pulsed 3D digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Lopez, Carlos; Hernandez-Montes, Maria del Socorro; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2005-02-01

    Twin-pulsed digital holography in its 3D set up is used to recover exclusively the micro-mechanical deformation of an object. The test object is allowed to have rigid body movements such as rotation and translation, with the result that the fringe patterns contain information of the latter and the object deformation, a feature that may significantly modify the interpretation of the results. Experimental results from a flat metal plate subject to micro stress and a displacement in the x-z plane are presented to demonstrate that using this optical method it is possible to recover exclusively the contribution of the micro stress.

  2. A new 3D tracking method exploiting the capabilities of digital holography in microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Fusco, S.; Embrione, V.; Netti, P. A.; Ferraro, P.

    2013-04-01

    A method for 3D tracking has been developed exploiting Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) features. In the framework of self-consistent platform for manipulation and measurement of biological specimen we use DHM for quantitative and completely label free analysis of specimen with low amplitude contrast. Tracking capability extend the potentiality of DHM allowing to monitor the motion of appropriate probes and correlate it with sample properties. Complete 3D tracking has been obtained for the probes avoiding the issue of amplitude refocusing in traditional tracking processing. Our technique belongs to the video tracking methods that, conversely from Quadrant Photo-Diode method, opens the possibility to track multiples probes. All the common used video tracking algorithms are based on the numerical analysis of amplitude images in the focus plane and the shift of the maxima in the image plane are measured after the application of an appropriate threshold. Our approach for video tracking uses different theoretical basis. A set of interferograms is recorded and the complex wavefields are managed numerically to obtain three dimensional displacements of the probes. The procedure works properly on an higher number of probes and independently from their size. This method overcomes the traditional video tracking issues as the inability to measure the axial movement and the choice of suitable threshold mask. The novel configuration allows 3D tracking of micro-particles and simultaneously can furnish Quantitative Phase-contrast maps of tracked micro-objects by interference microscopy, without changing the configuration. In this paper, we show a new concept for a compact interferometric microscope that can ensure the multifunctionality, accomplishing accurate 3D tracking and quantitative phase-contrast analysis. Experimental results are presented and discussed for in vitro cells. Through a very simple and compact optical arrangement we show how two different functionalities

  3. Magnetic ordering in digital alloys of group-IV semiconductors with 3d-transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Otrokov, M. M.; Tugushev, V. V.; Ernst, A.; Ostanin, S. A.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2011-04-15

    The ab initio investigation of the magnetic ordering in digital alloys consisting of monolayers of 3d-transition metals Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni introduced into the Si, Ge, and Si{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5} semiconductor hosts is reported. The calculations of the parameters of the exchange interactions and total-energy calculations indicate that the ferromagnetic order appears only in the manganese monolayers, whereas the antiferromagnetic order is more probable in V, Cr, and Fe monolayers, and Ti, Co, and Ni monolayers are nonmagnetic. The stability of the ferromagnetic phase in digital alloys containing manganese monolayers has been analyzed using the calculations of magnon spectra.

  4. The feasibility of photo-based 3D modeling for the structures by using a common digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Jin-quan; Li, Wan-heng; Lv, Jian-ming; Wang, Xin-zheng

    2011-12-01

    This article explored the method of photo-based 3D modeling for the arc bridge structures by ordinary digital camera. Firstly, a series of processes had been studied by using ordinary digital camera that included the camera calibration, data acquisition, data management, and 3D orientation, setting scale and textures, etc., then the 3D model from photos can be built. The model can be measured, edited and close to the real structures. Take an interior masonry arch bridge as an example, build 3D model through the processes above by using camera HP CB350. The 3D model can be integrated with the loading conditions and material properties, to provide the detailed data for analyzing the structure. This paper has accumulated the experience in data acquisition and modeling methods. The methods can be applied to other structural analysis, and other conditions of 3D modeling with fast and economic advantages.

  5. Surface strain-field determination of tympanic membrane using 3D-digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Montes, María del S.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Muñoz, Silvino; Perez, Carlos; de la Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-08-01

    In order to increase the understanding of soft tissues mechanical properties, 3D Digital Holographic Interferometry (3D-DHI) was used to quantify the strain-field on a cat tympanic membrane (TM) surface. The experiments were carried out applying a constant sound-stimuli pressure of 90 dB SPL (0.632 Pa) on the TM at 1.2 kHz. The technique allows the accurate acquisition of the micro-displacement data along the x, y and z directions, which is a must for a full characterization of the tissue mechanical behavior under load, and for the calculation of the strain-field in situ. The displacements repeatability in z direction shows a standard deviation of 0.062 μm at 95% confidence level. In order to realize the full 3D characterization correctly the contour of the TM surface was measured employing the optically non-contact two-illumination positions contouring method. The x, y and z displacements combined with the TM contour data allow the evaluation its strain-field by spatially differentiating the u(m,n), v(m,n), and w(m,n) deformation components. The accurate and correct determination of the TM strain-field leads to describing its elasticity, which is an important parameter needed to improve ear biomechanics studies, audition processes and TM mobility in both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis of ear functionality and its modeling.

  6. 3D digital holographic interferometry as a tool to measure the tympanic membrane motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, M.; Muñoz Solis, S.; Mendoza Santoyo, F.

    2012-10-01

    Most of the current optical non-invasive methodologies used to characterize the tympanic membrane (TM) motion generate data in the z direction only, i.e., employ an out-of-plane sensitive configuration. In this paper, 3-D digital holographic interferometry (3-D DHI), is used to measure micrometer displacements from the TM surface. The proposed optical configuration provides information from three sensitivity vectors that separate the contributions from x, y and z displacement components. In order to achieve high accuracy of the sensitivity vector and to obtain the complete determination of the 3-D TM displacements, its surface contour is obtained by moving only two object illumination sources chosen from any pair within the DHI optical setup. Results are presented from measurements corresponding to individual displacements maps for the three orthogonal displacements components x, y and z combined with the TM shape from an ex-vivo cat. These results will no doubt contribute to enhance the understanding and determinate the mechanical properties of this complex tissue.

  7. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L; Qi, H Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers - digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications. PMID:27071543

  8. Detectability limitations with 3-D point reconstruction algorithms using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Erik

    2015-03-31

    The estimated impact of pores in clusters on component fatigue will be highly conservative when based on 2-D rather than 3-D pore positions. To 3-D position and size defects using digital radiography and 3-D point reconstruction algorithms in general require a lower inspection time and in some cases work better with planar geometries than X-ray computed tomography. However, the increase in prior assumptions about the object and the defects will increase the intrinsic uncertainty in the resulting nondestructive evaluation output. In this paper this uncertainty arising when detecting pore defect clusters with point reconstruction algorithms is quantified using simulations. The simulation model is compared to and mapped to experimental data. The main issue with the uncertainty is the possible masking (detectability zero) of smaller defects around some other slightly larger defect. In addition, the uncertainty is explored in connection to the expected effects on the component fatigue life and for different amount of prior object-defect assumptions made.

  9. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers – digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications.

  10. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L; Qi, H Jerry

    2016-04-13

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers - digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications.

  11. Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiangtao; Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Isakov, Michael; Mao, Yiqi; Wang, Tiejun; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Recent research using 3D printing to create active structures has added an exciting new dimension to 3D printing technology. After being printed, these active, often composite, materials can change their shape over time; this has been termed as 4D printing. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and manufacture of active composites that can take multiple shapes, depending on the environmental temperature. This is achieved by 3D printing layered composite structures with multiple families of shape memory polymer (SMP) fibers – digital SMPs - with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) to control the transformation of the structure. After a simple single-step thermomechanical programming process, the fiber families can be sequentially activated to bend when the temperature is increased. By tuning the volume fraction of the fibers, bending deformation can be controlled. We develop a theoretical model to predict the deformation behavior for better understanding the phenomena and aiding the design. We also design and print several flat 2D structures that can be programmed to fold and open themselves when subjected to heat. With the advantages of an easy fabrication process and the controllable multi-shape memory effect, the printed SMP composites have a great potential in 4D printing applications. PMID:27071543

  12. Breast density measurement: 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images versus 2D digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer. However, breast density is currently estimated using mammograms which are intrinsically 2D in nature and cannot accurately represent the real breast anatomy. In this study, a novel technique for measuring breast density based on the segmentation of 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) images was developed and the results were compared to those obtained from 2D digital mammograms. 16 mastectomy breast specimens were imaged with a bench top flat-panel based CBCT system. The reconstructed 3D CT images were corrected for the cupping artifacts and then filtered to reduce the noise level, followed by using threshold-based segmentation to separate the dense tissue from the adipose tissue. For each breast specimen, volumes of the dense tissue structures and the entire breast were computed and used to calculate the volumetric breast density. BI-RADS categories were derived from the measured breast densities and compared with those estimated from conventional digital mammograms. The results show that in 10 of 16 cases the BI-RADS categories derived from the CBCT images were lower than those derived from the mammograms by one category. Thus, breasts considered as dense in mammographic examinations may not be considered as dense with the CBCT images. This result indicates that the relation between breast cancer risk and true (volumetric) breast density needs to be further investigated.

  13. Sequential Self-Folding Structures by 3D Printed Digital Shape Memory Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yiqi; Yu, Kai; Isakov, Michael S.; Wu, Jiangtao; Dunn, Martin L.; Jerry Qi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Folding is ubiquitous in nature with examples ranging from the formation of cellular components to winged insects. It finds technological applications including packaging of solar cells and space structures, deployable biomedical devices, and self-assembling robots and airbags. Here we demonstrate sequential self-folding structures realized by thermal activation of spatially-variable patterns that are 3D printed with digital shape memory polymers, which are digital materials with different shape memory behaviors. The time-dependent behavior of each polymer allows the temporal sequencing of activation when the structure is subjected to a uniform temperature. This is demonstrated via a series of 3D printed structures that respond rapidly to a thermal stimulus, and self-fold to specified shapes in controlled shape changing sequences. Measurements of the spatial and temporal nature of self-folding structures are in good agreement with the companion finite element simulations. A simplified reduced-order model is also developed to rapidly and accurately describe the self-folding physics. An important aspect of self-folding is the management of self-collisions, where different portions of the folding structure contact and then block further folding. A metric is developed to predict collisions and is used together with the reduced-order model to design self-folding structures that lock themselves into stable desired configurations. PMID:26346202

  14. Sequential Self-Folding Structures by 3D Printed Digital Shape Memory Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yiqi; Yu, Kai; Isakov, Michael S.; Wu, Jiangtao; Dunn, Martin L.; Jerry Qi, H.

    2015-09-01

    Folding is ubiquitous in nature with examples ranging from the formation of cellular components to winged insects. It finds technological applications including packaging of solar cells and space structures, deployable biomedical devices, and self-assembling robots and airbags. Here we demonstrate sequential self-folding structures realized by thermal activation of spatially-variable patterns that are 3D printed with digital shape memory polymers, which are digital materials with different shape memory behaviors. The time-dependent behavior of each polymer allows the temporal sequencing of activation when the structure is subjected to a uniform temperature. This is demonstrated via a series of 3D printed structures that respond rapidly to a thermal stimulus, and self-fold to specified shapes in controlled shape changing sequences. Measurements of the spatial and temporal nature of self-folding structures are in good agreement with the companion finite element simulations. A simplified reduced-order model is also developed to rapidly and accurately describe the self-folding physics. An important aspect of self-folding is the management of self-collisions, where different portions of the folding structure contact and then block further folding. A metric is developed to predict collisions and is used together with the reduced-order model to design self-folding structures that lock themselves into stable desired configurations.

  15. Sequential Self-Folding Structures by 3D Printed Digital Shape Memory Polymers.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yiqi; Yu, Kai; Isakov, Michael S; Wu, Jiangtao; Dunn, Martin L; Jerry Qi, H

    2015-01-01

    Folding is ubiquitous in nature with examples ranging from the formation of cellular components to winged insects. It finds technological applications including packaging of solar cells and space structures, deployable biomedical devices, and self-assembling robots and airbags. Here we demonstrate sequential self-folding structures realized by thermal activation of spatially-variable patterns that are 3D printed with digital shape memory polymers, which are digital materials with different shape memory behaviors. The time-dependent behavior of each polymer allows the temporal sequencing of activation when the structure is subjected to a uniform temperature. This is demonstrated via a series of 3D printed structures that respond rapidly to a thermal stimulus, and self-fold to specified shapes in controlled shape changing sequences. Measurements of the spatial and temporal nature of self-folding structures are in good agreement with the companion finite element simulations. A simplified reduced-order model is also developed to rapidly and accurately describe the self-folding physics. An important aspect of self-folding is the management of self-collisions, where different portions of the folding structure contact and then block further folding. A metric is developed to predict collisions and is used together with the reduced-order model to design self-folding structures that lock themselves into stable desired configurations. PMID:26346202

  16. The bust of Francesco II Gonzaga: from digital documentation to 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, A.; Balletti, C.; Fassi, F.; Fregonese, L.; Guerra, F.; Taffurelli, L.; Vernier, P.

    2015-08-01

    Geomatics technics and methods are now able to provide a great contribution to the Cultural Heritage (CH) processes, being adaptable to different purposes: management, diagnosis, restoration, protection, study and research, communication, formation and fruition of the Cultural Heritage. This experimentation was done with an eye to encouraging and promoting the development of principles and good practices for recording, documentation and information management of cultural heritage. This research focuses on the documentation path of a cultural asset, in particular a Renaissance statue, aimed to achieve a three dimensional model useful for many digital applications and for solid reproduction. The digital copy can be used in many contexts and represents an efficient tool to preserve and promote CH. It can be included in virtual museum archives and catalogues, shared on network with cultural operators and users, and it permits the contextualization of the asset in its artistic and historical background. Moreover, the possibility to obtain a hard copy, reproduced through 3D printing, allows to reach new opportunities of interaction with CH. In this article, two techniques for the digitization of the terracotta bust of Francesco II Gonzaga, in the City Museum of Mantua, are described: the triangulation scanner and dense image matching photogrammetry. As well as the description of the acquisition and the elaborations, other aspects are taken into account: the characteristics of the object, the place for the acquisition, the ultimate goal and the economic availability. There are also highlighted the optimization pipeline to get the correct three-dimensional models and a 3D printed copy. A separate section discusses the comparison of the realized model to identify the positive and negative aspects of each adopted application.

  17. Comparative Analysis of 3D Expression Patterns of Transcription Factor Genes and Digit Fate Maps in the Developing Chick Wing

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Irene; Bain, Andrew; Planzer, Thorsten; Sherman, Adrian; Sang, Helen; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-01-01

    Hoxd13, Tbx2, Tbx3, Sall1 and Sall3 genes are candidates for encoding antero-posterior positional values in the developing chick wing and specifying digit identity. In order to build up a detailed profile of gene expression patterns in cell lineages that give rise to each of the digits over time, we compared 3 dimensional (3D) expression patterns of these genes during wing development and related them to digit fate maps. 3D gene expression data at stages 21, 24 and 27 spanning early bud to digital plate formation, captured from in situ hybridisation whole mounts using Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) were mapped to reference wing bud models. Grafts of wing bud tissue from GFP chicken embryos were used to fate map regions of the wing bud giving rise to each digit; 3D images of the grafts were captured using OPT and mapped on to the same models. Computational analysis of the combined computerised data revealed that Tbx2 and Tbx3 are expressed in digit 3 and 4 progenitors at all stages, consistent with encoding stable antero-posterior positional values established in the early bud; Hoxd13 and Sall1 expression is more dynamic, being associated with posterior digit 3 and 4 progenitors in the early bud but later becoming associated with anterior digit 2 progenitors in the digital plate. Sox9 expression in digit condensations lies within domains of digit progenitors defined by fate mapping; digit 3 condensations express Hoxd13 and Sall1, digit 4 condensations Hoxd13, Tbx3 and to a lesser extent Tbx2. Sall3 is only transiently expressed in digit 3 progenitors at stage 24 together with Sall1 and Hoxd13; then becomes excluded from the digital plate. These dynamic patterns of expression suggest that these genes may play different roles in digit identity either together or in combination at different stages including the digit condensation stage. PMID:21526123

  18. General application of rapid 3-D digitizing and tool path generation for complex shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, K.S.; Loucks, C.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-09-01

    A system for automatic tool path generation was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for finish machining operations. The system consists of a commercially available 5-axis milling machine controlled by Sandia developed software. This system was used to remove overspray on cast turbine blades. A laser-based, structured-light sensor, mounted on a tool holder, is used to collect 3D data points around the surface of the turbine blade. Using the digitized model of the blade, a tool path is generated which will drive a 0.375 inch grinding pin around the tip of the blade. A fuzzified digital filter was developed to properly eliminate false sensor readings caused by burrs, holes and overspray. The digital filter was found to successfully generate the correct tool path for a blade with intentionally scanned holes and defects. The fuzzified filter improved the computation efficiency by a factor of 25. For application to general parts, an adaptive scanning algorithm was developed and presented with simulation and experimental results. A right pyramid and an ellipsoid were scanned successfully with the adaptive algorithm in simulation studies. In actual experiments, a nose cone and a turbine blade were successfully scanned. A complex shaped turbine blade was successfully scanned and finished machined using these algorithms.

  19. Minimum slice spacing required to reconstruct 3D shape for serial sections of breast tissue for comparison with medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Sara; Eiben, Bjoern; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Hipwell, John; Hermsen, Meyke; van der Laak, Jeroen; Pinder, Sarah; Bult, Peter; Hawkes, David

    2015-03-01

    There is currently an increasing interest in combining the information obtained from radiology and histology with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how different tumour morphologies can lead to distinctive radiological signs which might predict overall treatment outcome. Relating information at different resolution scales is challenging. Reconstructing 3D volumes from histology images could be the key to interpreting and relating the radiological image signal to tissue microstructure. The goal of this study is to determine the minimum sampling (maximum spacing between histological sections through a fixed surgical specimen) required to create a 3D reconstruction of the specimen to a specific tolerance. We present initial results for one lumpectomy specimen case where 33 consecutive histology slides were acquired.

  20. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (<300Euros) Windows tablets. However, the lack of flexibility in data structure makes for cumbersome workflows when trying to interface our existing shapefile-centric data structures to Move. Nonetheless, in spring 2014 we will experiment with full-3D immersion in the field using the full Move software package in combination with ground based LiDAR and photogrammetry. One new workflow suggested by our initial experiments is that field geologists should consider using photogrammetry software to capture 3D visualizations of key outcrops. This process is now straightforward in several software packages, and

  1. Performance analysis of different surface reconstruction algorithms for 3D reconstruction of outdoor objects from their digital images.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Abhik; Chakravarty, Debashish

    2016-01-01

    3D reconstruction of geo-objects from their digital images is a time-efficient and convenient way of studying the structural features of the object being modelled. This paper presents a 3D reconstruction methodology which can be used to generate photo-realistic 3D watertight surface of different irregular shaped objects, from digital image sequences of the objects. The 3D reconstruction approach described here is robust, simplistic and can be readily used in reconstructing watertight 3D surface of any object from its digital image sequence. Here, digital images of different objects are used to build sparse, followed by dense 3D point clouds of the objects. These image-obtained point clouds are then used for generation of photo-realistic 3D surfaces, using different surface reconstruction algorithms such as Poisson reconstruction and Ball-pivoting algorithm. Different control parameters of these algorithms are identified, which affect the quality and computation time of the reconstructed 3D surface. The effects of these control parameters in generation of 3D surface from point clouds of different density are studied. It is shown that the reconstructed surface quality of Poisson reconstruction depends on Samples per node (SN) significantly, greater SN values resulting in better quality surfaces. Also, the quality of the 3D surface generated using Ball-Pivoting algorithm is found to be highly depend upon Clustering radius and Angle threshold values. The results obtained from this study give the readers of the article a valuable insight into the effects of different control parameters on determining the reconstructed surface quality. PMID:27386376

  2. Performance analysis of different surface reconstruction algorithms for 3D reconstruction of outdoor objects from their digital images.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Abhik; Chakravarty, Debashish

    2016-01-01

    3D reconstruction of geo-objects from their digital images is a time-efficient and convenient way of studying the structural features of the object being modelled. This paper presents a 3D reconstruction methodology which can be used to generate photo-realistic 3D watertight surface of different irregular shaped objects, from digital image sequences of the objects. The 3D reconstruction approach described here is robust, simplistic and can be readily used in reconstructing watertight 3D surface of any object from its digital image sequence. Here, digital images of different objects are used to build sparse, followed by dense 3D point clouds of the objects. These image-obtained point clouds are then used for generation of photo-realistic 3D surfaces, using different surface reconstruction algorithms such as Poisson reconstruction and Ball-pivoting algorithm. Different control parameters of these algorithms are identified, which affect the quality and computation time of the reconstructed 3D surface. The effects of these control parameters in generation of 3D surface from point clouds of different density are studied. It is shown that the reconstructed surface quality of Poisson reconstruction depends on Samples per node (SN) significantly, greater SN values resulting in better quality surfaces. Also, the quality of the 3D surface generated using Ball-Pivoting algorithm is found to be highly depend upon Clustering radius and Angle threshold values. The results obtained from this study give the readers of the article a valuable insight into the effects of different control parameters on determining the reconstructed surface quality.

  3. Strain determination in bone sections with simultaneous 3D digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Araceli Sánchez; De la Torre Ibarra, Manuel H.; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza; Anaya, Tonatiuh-Saucedo

    2014-06-01

    A 3D digital holographic interferometer was used to measure the surface strain components in two different bovine's bone sections. The applied force on the sample was induced by a precisely controlled lateral micro compression. The simultaneous acquisition capability of the system helps to record a fast sequence of images, each one containing three independent holograms that result in three orthogonal displacement components u, v and w from which the surface strain components ɛx, ɛy and γxy over the bone's field of view were calculated. This research study was carried out in two different bone sections: the cortical bone and the medullary cavity/yellow marrow section. The resulting strain concentrators are of great importance to better understand the mechanical response of complex biological structures such as this bovine femoral bone.

  4. Accuracy assessment of high frequency 3D ultrasound for digital impression-taking of prepared teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, Stefan; Vollborn, Thorsten; Tinschert, Joachim; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Silicone based impression-taking of prepared teeth followed by plaster casting is well-established but potentially less reliable, error-prone and inefficient, particularly in combination with emerging techniques like computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental prosthesis. Intra-oral optical scanners for digital impression-taking have been introduced but until now some drawbacks still exist. Because optical waves can hardly penetrate liquids or soft-tissues, sub-gingival preparations still need to be uncovered invasively prior to scanning. High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based micro-scanning has been recently investigated as an alternative to optical intra-oral scanning. Ultrasound is less sensitive against oral fluids and in principal able to penetrate gingiva without invasively exposing of sub-gingival preparations. Nevertheless, spatial resolution as well as digitization accuracy of an ultrasound based micro-scanning system remains a critical parameter because the ultrasound wavelength in water-like media such as gingiva is typically smaller than that of optical waves. In this contribution, the in-vitro accuracy of ultrasound based micro-scanning for tooth geometry reconstruction is being investigated and compared to its extra-oral optical counterpart. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the system, 2nd harmonic frequencies from a mechanically driven focused single element transducer were separated and corresponding 3D surface models were calculated for both fundamentals and 2nd harmonics. Measurements on phantoms, model teeth and human teeth were carried out for evaluation of spatial resolution and surface detection accuracy. Comparison of optical and ultrasound digital impression taking indicate that, in terms of accuracy, ultrasound based tooth digitization can be an alternative for optical impression-taking.

  5. GPU accelerated generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs for 2-D/3-D image registration.

    PubMed

    Dorgham, Osama M; Laycock, Stephen D; Fisher, Mark H

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in programming languages for graphics processing units (GPUs) provide developers with a convenient way of implementing applications which can be executed on the CPU and GPU interchangeably. GPUs are becoming relatively cheap, powerful, and widely available hardware components, which can be used to perform intensive calculations. The last decade of hardware performance developments shows that GPU-based computation is progressing significantly faster than CPU-based computation, particularly if one considers the execution of highly parallelisable algorithms. Future predictions illustrate that this trend is likely to continue. In this paper, we introduce a way of accelerating 2-D/3-D image registration by developing a hybrid system which executes on the CPU and utilizes the GPU for parallelizing the generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Based on the advancements of the GPU over the CPU, it is timely to exploit the benefits of many-core GPU technology by developing algorithms for DRR generation. Although some previous work has investigated the rendering of DRRs using the GPU, this paper investigates approximations which reduce the computational overhead while still maintaining a quality consistent with that needed for 2-D/3-D registration with sufficient accuracy to be clinically acceptable in certain applications of radiation oncology. Furthermore, by comparing implementations of 2-D/3-D registration on the CPU and GPU, we investigate current performance and propose an optimal framework for PC implementations addressing the rigid registration problem. Using this framework, we are able to render DRR images from a 256×256×133 CT volume in ~24 ms using an NVidia GeForce 8800 GTX and in ~2 ms using NVidia GeForce GTX 580. In addition to applications requiring fast automatic patient setup, these levels of performance suggest image-guided radiation therapy at video frame rates is technically feasible using relatively low cost PC

  6. Digital breast tomosynthesis: computerized detection of microcalcifications in reconstructed breast volume using a 3D approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Zhou, Chuan; Helvie, Mark A.

    2010-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this preliminary study, we investigated the approach of detecting microcalcifications in the tomosynthesized volume. The DBT volume is first enhanced by 3D multi-scale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices with a calcification response function and signal-to-noise ratio enhancement filtering. Potential signal sites are identified in the enhanced volume and local analysis is performed to further characterize each object. A 3D dynamic clustering procedure is designed to locate potential clusters using hierarchical criteria. We collected a pilot data set of two-view DBT mammograms of 39 breasts containing microcalcification clusters (17 malignant, 22 benign) with IRB approval. A total of 74 clusters were identified by an experienced radiologist in the 78 DBT views. Our prototype CAD system achieved view-based sensitivity of 90% and 80% at an average FP rate of 7.3 and 2.0 clusters per volume, respectively. At the same levels of case-based sensitivity, the FP rates were 3.6 and 1.3 clusters per volume, respectively. For the subset of malignant clusters, the view-based detection sensitivity was 94% and 82% at an average FP rate of 6.0 and 1.5 FP clusters per volume, respectively. At the same levels of case-based sensitivity, the FP rates were 1.2 and 0.9 clusters per volume, respectively. This study demonstrated that computerized microcalcification detection in 3D is a promising approach to the development of a CAD system for DBT. Study is underway to further improve the computer-vision methods and to optimize the processing parameters using a larger data set.

  7. Damage Assessment and Digital 2D-3D Documentation of PetraTreasury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala'awi, Fadi; Alshawabkeh, Yahya; Alawneh, Firas; Masri, Eyed al

    The treasury is the icon monument of the world heritage site of ancient Petra city. Unfortunately, this important part of the world's cultural heritage is gradually being diminished due to weathering and erosion problems. This give rise to the need to have a comprehensive study and full documentation of the monument in order to evaluate its status. In this research a comprehensive approach utilizing 2D-3D documentation of the structure using laser scanner and photogrammetry is carried parallel with a laboratory analysis and a correlation study of the salt content and the surface weathering forms. In addition, the research extends to evaluate a set of chemical and physical properties of the case study monument. Studies of stone texture and spatial distribution of soluble salts were carried out at the monument in order to explain the mechanism of the weathering problem. Then a series of field work investigations and laboratory work were undertaken to study the effect of relative humidity, temperature, and wind are the main factors in the salt damage process. The 3D modelling provides accurate geometric and radiometric properties of the damage shape. In order to support the visual quality of 3D surface details and cracks, a hybrid approach combining data from the laser scanner and the digital imagery was developed. Based on the findings, salt damage appears to be one of the main problems at this monument. Although, the total soluble salt content are quite low, but the salts contamination is all over the tested samples in all seasons, with higher concentrations at deep intervals. The thermodynamic calculations carried out by this research have also shown that salt damage could be minimised by controlling the surrounding relative humidity conditions. This measure is undoubtedly the most challenging of all, and its application, if deemed feasible, should be carried out in parallel with other conservation measures.

  8. 3D quantitative imaging of the microvasculature with the Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Botvinick, Elliott L.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Gough, David A.

    2001-11-01

    There is a growing need for developing 3D quantitative imaging tools that can operate at high speed enabling real-time visualization for the field of biology, material science, and the semiconductor industry. We will present our 3D quantitative imaging system based on a confocal microscope built with a Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). By using the DMD as a spatial light modulator, confocal transverse surface (x, y) scanning can be performed in parallel at speeds faster than video rate without physical movement of the sample. The DMD allows us to programmably configure the source and the detection pinhole array in the lateral direction to achieve the best signal and to reduce the crosstalk noise. Investigations of the microcirculation were performed on 40 g to 45 g golden Syrian hamsters fit with dorsal skin fold window chambers. FITC-Dextran or Red blood cells from donor hamsters, stained with Celltracker CM-DiI, were injected into the circulation and imaged with the confocal microscope. We will present the measured results for the axial resolution, in vivo, as well as experimental results from imaging the window chamber.

  9. Local characterization of hindered Brownian motion by using digital video microscopy and 3D particle tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Dettmer, Simon L.; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Pagliara, Stefano

    2014-02-15

    In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g., electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces.

  10. Digital holographic measurements of shape and 3D sound-induced displacements of Tympanic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weina; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

    2014-01-01

    Acoustically-induced vibrations of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) play a primary role in the hearing process, in that these motions are the initial mechanical response of the ear to airborne sound. Characterization of the shape and 3D displacement patterns of the TM is a crucial step to a better understanding of the complicated mechanics of sound reception by the ear. In this paper, shape and sound-induced 3D displacements of the TM in cadaveric chinchillas are measured by a lensless Dual-Wavelength Digital Holography system (DWDHS). The DWDHS consists of Laser Delivery (LD), Optical Head (OH), and Computing Platform (CP) subsystems. Shape measurements are performed in double-exposure mode and with the use of two wavelengths of a tunable laser while nanometer-scale displacements are measured along a single sensitivity direction and with a constant wavelength. In order to extract the three principal components of displacement in full-field-of-view, and taking into consideration the anatomical dimensions of the TM, we combine principles of thin-shell theory together with both, displacement measurements along the single sensitivity vector and TM surface shape. To computationally test this approach, Finite Element Methods (FEM) are applied to the study of artificial geometries. PMID:24790255

  11. Photopolymerization of 3D conductive polypyrrole structures via digital light processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron D.

    2016-04-01

    The intrinsically conductive polymer polypyrrole is conventionally synthesized as monolithic films that exhibit significant actuation strains when subjected to an applied electric potential. Though numerous linear and bending actuators based on polypyrrole films have been investigated, the limitations inherent to planar film geometries inhibit the realization of more complex behaviours. Hence, three-dimensional polypyrrole structures are sought to greatly expand the potential applications for conductive polymer actuators. This research aims to develop a novel additive manufacturing method for the fabrication of three-dimensional structures of conductive polypyrrole. In this investigation, radiation-curing techniques are employed by means of digital light processing (DLP) technology. DLP is an additive manufacturing technique where programmed light patterns emitted from a dedicated source are used to selectively cure a specially formulated polymer resin. Successive curing operations lead to a layered 3D structure into which fine features may be incorporated. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is subsequently employed to examine the unique microstructural features of the resultant 3D printed polymer morphology in order to elucidate the nature of the conductivity. These polymer microstructures are highly desirable since actuation response times are highly dependent on ion transport distances, and hence the ability to fabricate fine features offers a potential mechanism to improve actuator performance.

  12. Characteristics of digital micromirror projection for 3D shape measurement at extreme speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfling, Roland; Aswendt, Petra; Leischnig, Frank; Förster, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    3D shape measurement is one of the growing industrial applications of the Texas Instruments DLP® micro-mirror device. This paper presents investigations on precision and repeatability of that spatial light modulators output when it is driven up to its high-speed limit. The study concerns the basic switching behavior of the individual micro-mirror at different frame rates ranging over three orders of magnitude. The 3D shape measuring methodologies are focused on phase encoded triangulation, i.e. the projection of sinusoidal patterns. The DLP chip is a bi-stable device providing an on/off pattern at each certain moment in time, i.e. it has a native binary output. Sinusoidal patterns are the result of either a temporal integration of multiple on/off patterns or a spatial integration within one on/off pattern. Both approaches are studied experimentally with respect to precision and stability of the pattern output. The STAR-07 industrial projection unit, based upon the 0.7" DLP Discovery™4100 chipset, has been used for this work and the pattern frame rates cover the range from 225 frames per second (fps) to 50,000 fps. The STAR-07 output is detected by a photodiode, amplified, and analyzed in a Yokogawa digital storage oscilloscope. All results prove the very high precision and repeatability of the STAR-07 pattern projection, up to the extreme speed of 50,000 fps.

  13. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, Eman De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly

  14. Fabrication of digital rainbow holograms and 3-D imaging using SEM based e-beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Firsov, An; Firsov, A; Loechel, B; Erko, A; Svintsov, A; Zaitsev, S

    2014-11-17

    Here we present an approach for creating full-color digital rainbow holograms based on mixing three basic colors. Much like in a color TV with three luminescent points per single screen pixel, each color pixel of initial image is presented by three (R, G, B) distinct diffractive gratings in a hologram structure. Change of either duty cycle or area of the gratings are used to provide proper R, G, B intensities. Special algorithms allow one to design rather complicated 3D images (that might even be replacing each other with hologram rotation). The software developed ("RainBow") provides stability of colorization of rotated image by means of equalizing of angular blur from gratings responsible for R, G, B basic colors. The approach based on R, G, B color synthesis allows one to fabricate gray-tone rainbow hologram containing white color what is hardly possible in traditional dot-matrix technology. Budgetary electron beam lithography based on SEM column was used to fabricate practical examples of digital rainbow hologram. The results of fabrication of large rainbow holograms from design to imprinting are presented. Advantages of the EBL in comparison to traditional optical (dot-matrix) technology is considered. PMID:25402115

  15. Structural health monitoring of helicopter hard landing using 3D digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, Bruce; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter

    2010-03-01

    During operation of vehicles and structures, excessive transient loading can lead to reduced fatigue life and even mechanical failure. It has been shown that when a structure undergoes a damaging sequence of events, such as those occurring during a helicopter hard landing, the structural health of a specimen can be severely affected. In order to effectively quantify damage and monitor the structural health of the specimen, experimental data is required across a wide area of the helicopter. Within this paper the use of three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation (DIC) and dynamic photogrammetry (DP) is examined as a possible method to acquire the necessary data to perform structural health monitoring in a non-obtrusive manner. DIC and DP are a non-contacting measurement techniques that utilizes a stereo pair of digital cameras to track prescribed surface pattern or optical targets placed on the structure. The approaches can provide global information about changes to the structure over the entire field of view. A scale laboratory test is performed on a helicopter to simulate several loading scenarios. The changes in the structural shape and strain field of the model helicopter fuselage as a direct result of the loadings are identified. The tests demonstrate that this technique is a valid way to determine the damage inflicted on the structure due to an excessive applied loading or dynamic maneuver. Practical applications and common limitations of the technique are discussed.

  16. Fabrication of digital rainbow holograms and 3-D imaging using SEM based e-beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Firsov, An; Firsov, A; Loechel, B; Erko, A; Svintsov, A; Zaitsev, S

    2014-11-17

    Here we present an approach for creating full-color digital rainbow holograms based on mixing three basic colors. Much like in a color TV with three luminescent points per single screen pixel, each color pixel of initial image is presented by three (R, G, B) distinct diffractive gratings in a hologram structure. Change of either duty cycle or area of the gratings are used to provide proper R, G, B intensities. Special algorithms allow one to design rather complicated 3D images (that might even be replacing each other with hologram rotation). The software developed ("RainBow") provides stability of colorization of rotated image by means of equalizing of angular blur from gratings responsible for R, G, B basic colors. The approach based on R, G, B color synthesis allows one to fabricate gray-tone rainbow hologram containing white color what is hardly possible in traditional dot-matrix technology. Budgetary electron beam lithography based on SEM column was used to fabricate practical examples of digital rainbow hologram. The results of fabrication of large rainbow holograms from design to imprinting are presented. Advantages of the EBL in comparison to traditional optical (dot-matrix) technology is considered.

  17. Technical Note: Guidelines for the digital computation of 2D and 3D enamel thickness in hominoid teeth.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Panetta, Daniele; Fornai, Cinzia; Toussaint, Michel; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-02-01

    The study of enamel thickness has received considerable attention in regard to the taxonomic, phylogenetic and dietary assessment of human and non-human primates. Recent developments based on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) digital techniques have facilitated accurate analyses, preserving the original object from invasive procedures. Various digital protocols have been proposed. These include several procedures based on manual handling of the virtual models and technical shortcomings, which prevent other scholars from confidently reproducing the entire digital protocol. There is a compelling need for standard, reproducible, and well-tailored protocols for the digital analysis of 2D and 3D dental enamel thickness. In this contribution we provide essential guidelines for the digital computation of 2D and 3D enamel thickness in hominoid molars, premolars, canines and incisors. We modify previous techniques suggested for 2D analysis and we develop a new approach for 3D analysis that can also be applied to premolars and anterior teeth. For each tooth class, the cervical line should be considered as the fundamental morphological feature both to isolate the crown from the root (for 3D analysis) and to define the direction of the cross-sections (for 2D analysis).

  18. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis: A 3D approach

    PubMed Central

    Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Lu, Yao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To design a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications in reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volumes and to perform a preliminary evaluation of the CADe system. Methods: IRB approval and informed consent were obtained in this study. A data set of two-view DBT of 72 breasts containing microcalcification clusters was collected from 72 subjects who were scheduled to undergo breast biopsy. Based on tissue sampling results, 17 cases had breast cancer and 55 were benign. A separate data set of two-view DBT of 38 breasts free of clustered microcalcifications from 38 subjects was collected to independently estimate the number of false-positives (FPs) generated by the CADe system. A radiologist experienced in breast imaging marked the biopsied cluster of microcalcifications with a 3D bounding box using all available clinical and imaging information. A CADe system was designed to detect microcalcification clusters in the reconstructed volume. The system consisted of prescreening, clustering, and false-positive reduction stages. In the prescreening stage, the conspicuity of microcalcification-like objects was increased by an enhancement-modulated 3D calcification response function. An iterative thresholding and 3D object growing method was used to detect cluster seed objects, which were used as potential centers of microcalcification clusters. In the cluster detection stage, microcalcification candidates were identified using a second iterative thresholding procedure, which was applied to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhanced image voxels with a positive calcification response. Starting with each cluster seed object as the initial cluster center, a dynamic clustering algorithm formed a cluster candidate by including microcalcification candidates within a 3D neighborhood of the cluster seed object that satisfied the clustering criteria. The number, size, and SNR of the microcalcifications in a cluster candidate and the

  19. Digital structural interpretation of mountain-scale photogrammetric 3D models (Kamnik Alps, Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolžan, Erazem; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    From the earliest days of geological science, mountainous terrains with their extreme topographic relief and sparse to non-existent vegetation were utilized to a great advantage for gaining 3D insight into geological structure. But whereas Alpine vistas may offer perfect panoramic views of geology, the steep mountain slopes and vertical cliffs make it very time-consuming and difficult (if not impossible) to acquire quantitative mapping data such as precisely georeferenced traces of geological boundaries and attitudes of structural planes. We faced this problem in mapping the central Kamnik Alps of northern Slovenia, which are built up from Mid to Late Triassic succession of carbonate rocks. Polyphase brittle tectonic evolution, monotonous lithology and the presence of temporally and spatially irregular facies boundary between bedded platform carbonates and massive reef limestones considerably complicate the structural interpretation of otherwise perfectly exposed, but hardly accessible massif. We used Agisoft Photoscan Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric software to process a series of overlapping high-resolution (~0.25 m ground resolution) vertical aerial photographs originally acquired by the Geodetic Authority of the Republic of Slovenia for surveying purposes, to derive very detailed 3D triangular mesh models of terrain and associated photographic textures. Phototextures are crucial for geological interpretation of the models as they provide additional levels of detail and lithological information which is not resolvable from geometrical mesh models alone. We then exported the models to Paradigm Gocad software to refine and optimize the meshing. Structural interpretation of the models, including mapping of traces and surfaces of faults and stratigraphic boundaries and determining dips of structural planes, was performed in MVE Move suite which offers a range of useful tools for digital mapping and interpretation. Photogrammetric model was complemented by

  20. Testing 3D landform quantification methods with synthetic drumlins in a real digital elevation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, John K.; Smith, Mike J.

    2012-06-01

    Metrics such as height and volume quantifying the 3D morphology of landforms are important observations that reflect and constrain Earth surface processes. Errors in such measurements are, however, poorly understood. A novel approach, using statistically valid ‘synthetic' landscapes to quantify the errors is presented. The utility of the approach is illustrated using a case study of 184 drumlins observed in Scotland as quantified from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by the ‘cookie cutter' extraction method. To create the synthetic DEMs, observed drumlins were removed from the measured DEM and replaced by elongate 3D Gaussian ones of equivalent dimensions positioned randomly with respect to the ‘noise' (e.g. trees) and regional trends (e.g. hills) that cause the errors. Then, errors in the cookie cutter extraction method were investigated by using it to quantify these ‘synthetic' drumlins, whose location and size is known. Thus, the approach determines which key metrics are recovered accurately. For example, mean height of 6.8 m is recovered poorly at 12.5 ± 0.6 (2σ) m, but mean volume is recovered correctly. Additionally, quantification methods can be compared: A variant on the cookie cutter using an un-tensioned spline induced about twice (× 1.79) as much error. Finally, a previously reportedly statistically significant (p = 0.007) difference in mean volume between sub-populations of different ages, which may reflect formational processes, is demonstrated to be only 30-50% likely to exist in reality. Critically, the synthetic DEMs are demonstrated to realistically model parameter recovery, primarily because they are still almost entirely the original landscape. Results are insensitive to the exact method used to create the synthetic DEMs, and the approach could be readily adapted to assess a variety of landforms (e.g. craters, dunes and volcanoes).

  1. Persistent and automatic intraoperative 3D digitization of surfaces under dynamic magnifications of an operating microscope

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ankur N.; Miga, Michael I.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Chambless, Lola B.; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges impeding advancement in image-guided surgical (IGS) systems is the soft-tissue deformation during surgical procedures. These deformations reduce the utility of the patient’s preoperative images and may produce inaccuracies in the application of preoperative surgical plans. Solutions to compensate for the tissue deformations include the acquisition of intraoperative tomographic images of the whole organ for direct displacement measurement and techniques that combines intraoperative organ surface measurements with computational biomechanical models to predict subsurface displacements. The later solution has the advantage of being less expensive and amenable to surgical workflow. Several modalities such as textured laser scanners, conoscopic holography, and stereo-pair cameras have been proposed for the intraoperative 3D estimation of organ surfaces to drive patient-specific biomechanical models for the intraoperative update of preoperative images. Though each modality has its respective advantages and disadvantages, stereo-pair camera approaches used within a standard operating microscope is the focus of this article. A new method that permits the automatic and near real-time estimation of 3D surfaces (at 1Hz) under varying magnifications of the operating microscope is proposed. This method has been evaluated on a CAD phantom object and on full-length neurosurgery video sequences (~1 hour) acquired intraoperatively by the proposed stereovision system. To the best of our knowledge, this type of validation study on full-length brain tumor surgery videos has not been done before. The method for estimating the unknown magnification factor of the operating microscope achieves accuracy within 0.02 of the theoretical value on a CAD phantom and within 0.06 on 4 clinical videos of the entire brain tumor surgery. When compared to a laser range scanner, the proposed method for reconstructing 3D surfaces intraoperatively achieves root mean square

  2. UAV based 3D digital surface model to estimate paleolandscape in high mountainous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, János; Árvai, Mátyás; Kohán, Balázs; Deák, Márton; Nagy, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    Our method to present current state of a peat bog was focused on the possible use of a UAV-system and later Structure-from-motion algorithms as processing technique. The peat bog site is located on the Vinderel Plateau, Farcǎu Massif, Maramures Mountains (Romania). The peat bog (1530 m a.s.l., N47°54'11", E24°26'37") lies below Rugasu ridge (c. 1820 m a.s.l.) and the locality serves as a conservation area for fallen down coniferous trees. Peat deposits were formed in a landslide concavity on the western slope of Farcǎu Massif. Nowadays the site is surrounded by a completely deforested landscape, and Farcǎu Massif lies above the depressed treeline. The peat bog has an extraordinary geomorphological situation, because a gully reached the bog and drained the water. In the recent past sedimentological and dendrochronological researches have been initiated. However, an accurate 3D digital surface model also needed for a complex paleoenvironmental research. Last autumn the bog and its surroundings were finally surveyed by a multirotor UAV developed in-house based on an open-source flight management unit and its firmware. During this survey a lightweight action camera (mainly to decrease payload weight) was used to take aerial photographs. While our quadcopter is capable to fly automatically on a predefined flight route, several over- and sidelapping flight lines were generated prior to the actual survey on the ground using a control software running on a notebook. Despite those precautions, limited number of batteries and severe weather affected our final flights, resulting a reduced surveyed area around peat bog. Later, during the processing we looked for a reliable tool which powerful enough to process more than 500 photos taken during flights. After testing several software Agisoft PhotoScan was used to create 3D point cloud and mesh about bog and its environment. Due to large number of photographs PhotoScan had to be configured for network processing to get

  3. 3D Reconstruction of VZV Infected Cell Nuclei and PML Nuclear Cages by Serial Section Array Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Mike; Joubert, Lydia; Perrino, John; Koh, Ai Leen; Phanwar, Ibanri; Arvin, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Like all herpesviruses, the VZV DNA genome is replicated in the nucleus and packaged into nucleocapsids that must egress across the nuclear membrane for incorporation into virus particles in the cytoplasm. Our recent work showed that VZV nucleocapsids are sequestered in nuclear cages formed from promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) in vitro and in human dorsal root ganglia and skin xenografts in vivo. We sought a method to determine the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of nucleocapsids in the nuclei of herpesvirus-infected cells as well as the 3D shape, volume and ultrastructure of these unique PML subnuclear domains. Here we report the development of a novel 3D imaging and reconstruction strategy that we term Serial Section Array-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SSA-SEM) and its application to the analysis of VZV-infected cells and these nuclear PML cages. We show that SSA-SEM permits large volume imaging and 3D reconstruction at a resolution sufficient to localize, count and distinguish different types of VZV nucleocapsids and to visualize complete PML cages. This method allowed a quantitative determination of how many nucleocapsids can be sequestered within individual PML cages (sequestration capacity), what proportion of nucleocapsids are entrapped in single nuclei (sequestration efficiency) and revealed the ultrastructural detail of the PML cages. More than 98% of all nucleocapsids in reconstructed nuclear volumes were contained in PML cages and single PML cages sequestered up to 2,780 nucleocapsids, which were shown by electron tomography to be embedded and cross-linked by an filamentous electron-dense meshwork within these unique subnuclear domains. This SSA-SEM analysis extends our recent characterization of PML cages and provides a proof of concept for this new strategy to investigate events during virion assembly at the single cell

  4. 3D measurements of live cells via digital holographic microscopy and terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Yong; Oser, Dorian; Iapozzuto, Peter; Norbury, Sean; Mahajan, Supriya; Khmaladze, Alexander; Sharikova, Anna

    2016-03-01

    This is a study of the central nervous system (CNS) cells, including brain micro vascular endothelial cells (BMV) that constitute the blood brain barrier, and C6 glial cells that are the predominant cell in the brain. The cells are exposed to various chemicals by non-invasive, label-free methods. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a technique that records an interference pattern between an object and reference waves, so that the computationally reconstructed holographic image contains both amplitude and phase information, and 3D images are obtained. The measurement of cell cultures by digital holographic microscopy yields information about cell death mechanisms, since these processes are correlated with individual cell volume. Our in-house DHM combines a visible (red) laser source with a conventional microscope base, and LabVIEW-run data processing. Terahertz spectral signatures are associated with structural changes in molecules and provide complementary information about cells. Both CNS cells BMV and C6 cells are treated with the drug "Methamphetamine" (METH), which induces apoptosis in neuronal cells and exhibits decrease in cell volume, a characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis (induced cell death). METH can cause CNS cell death by cross-talk between mitochondria-, endoplasmic reticulum-, and receptor-mediated apoptotic events, all of which results in drug induced changes in neuroplasticity and significant neuropathology. Doxorubicin (DOX), a popular anticancer drug, is used as a control. We observe that METH treatment resulted in more pronounced cell volume shrinkage in both the BMV and C6 cells, as compared to DOX-induced cell apoptosis.

  5. Numerical estimation of transport properties of cementitious materials using 3D digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukrainczyk, N.; Koenders, E. A. B.; van Breugel, K.

    2013-07-01

    A multi-scale characterisation of the transport process within cementitious microstructure possesses a great challenge in terms of modelling and schematization. In this paper a numerical method is proposed to mitigate the resolution problems in numerical methods for calculating effective transport properties of porous materials using 3D digital images. The method up-scales sub-voxel information from the fractional occupancy level of the interface voxels, i.e. voxels containing phaseboundary, to increase the accuracy of the pore schematization and hence the accuracy of the numerical transport calculation as well. The numerical identification of the subvoxels that is associated with their level of occupancy by each phase is obtained by increasing the pre-processing resolution. The proposed method is presented and employed for hydrated cement paste microstructures obtained from Hymostruc, a numerical model for cement hydration and microstructure simulation. The new method significantly reduces computational efforts, is relatively easy to implement, and improves the accuracy of the estimation of the effective transport property.

  6. Euro-Maps 3D- A Transnational, High-Resolution Digital Surface Model For Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttenthaler, A.; Barner, F.; Hass, T.; Makiola, J.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.; Carl, S.; Steiner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Euro-Maps 3D is a homogeneous 5 m spaced digital surface model (DSM) semi-automatically derived by Euromap from 2.5 m in-flight stereo data provided by the Indian IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 satellite. This new and innovative product has been developed in close co- operation with the Remote Sensing Technology Institute (IMF) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and is being jointly exploited. The very detailed and accurate representation of the surface is achieved by using a sophisticated and well adapted algorithm implemented on the basis of the Semi-Global Matching approach. In addition, the final product includes detailed flanking information consisting of several pixel-based quality and traceability layers also including an ortho layer. The product is believed to provide maximum accuracy and transparency. The DSM product meets and exceeds HRE80 qualification standards. The DSM product will be made available transnational in a homogeneous quality for most parts of Europe, North Africa and Turkey by Euromap step-by-step. Other areas around the world are processed on demand.

  7. The use of an MEG device as 3D digitizer and motion monitoring system.

    PubMed

    de Munck, J C; Verbunt, J P; Van't Ent, D; Van Dijk, B W

    2001-08-01

    An algorithm is described that localizes a set of simultaneously activated coils using MEG detectors. These coil positions are used for continuous or intermittent head position registration during long MEG sessions, to coregistrate MR and MEG data and to localize EEG electrodes attached to the scalp, when EEG and MEG are recorded simultaneously. The algorithm is based on a mathematical model in which the coils are described as stationary magnetic dipoles with known source time functions. This knowledge makes it possible to detect and remove bad channels automatically. It is also assumed that the source time functions are orthogonal. Therefore, the localization problem splits into independent localization problems. for each coil. The method is validated in a phantom experiment, where the relative coil positions were known. From this experiment it is found that the average error is 0.25 cm. An error of 0.23 cm was found in an experiment where 64 electrode positions were measured four times independently. Examples of the applications of the method are presented. Our method eliminates the use of an external 3D digitizer and maps the MEG directly onto other modalities. This is not only a practical advantage, but it also reduces the gross registration error. Furthermore, head motions can be monitored and MEG data can be corrected for these motions.

  8. Detection of the aortic intimal tears by using 3D digital topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohou, Christophe; Miguel, Bruno

    2011-03-01

    Aortic dissection is a real problem of public health, it is a medical emergency and may quickly lead to death. Aortic dissection is caused by aortal tissue perforation because of blood pressure. It consists of tears (or holes of the intimal tissue) inside lumens. These tears are difficult to detect because they do not correspond to a filled organ to segment; they are usually visually retrieved by radiologists by examining gray level variation on successive image slices, but it remains a very difficult and error-prone task. Our purpose is to detect these intimal tears to help cardiac surgeons in making diagnosis. It would be useful either during a preoperative phase (visualization and location of tears, endoprothesis sizing); or during a peroperative phase (a registration of tears on angiographic images would lead to a more accuracy of surgeon's gestures and thus would enhance care of patient). At this aim, we use Aktouf et al.'s holes filling algorithm proposed in the field of digital topology. This algorithm permits the filling of holes of a 3D binary object by using topological notions - the holes are precisely the intimal tears for our aortic dissection images, after a first preprocessing step. As far as we know, this is the first time that such a proposal is made, even if it is a crucial data for cardiac surgeons. Our study is a preliminary and innovative work; our results are nevertheless considered satisfactory. This approach would also gain to be known to specialists of other diseases.

  9. Recording High Resolution 3D Lagrangian Motions In Marine Dinoflagellates using Digital Holographic Microscopic Cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.; Place, A. R.; Belas, R.

    2006-11-01

    Detailed data on swimming behavior and locomotion for dense population of dinoflagellates constitutes a key component to understanding cell migration, cell-cell interactions and predator-prey dynamics, all of which affect algae bloom dynamics. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of flagellated cell motions, spatial-temporal Lagrangian measurements of multiple cells in high concentration are very limited. Here we present detailed data on 3D Lagrangian motions for three marine dinoflagellates: Oxyrrhis marina, Karlodinium veneficum, and Pfiesteria piscicida, using digital holographic microscopic cinematography. The measurements are performed in a 5x5x25mm cuvette with cell densities varying from 50,000 ˜ 90,000 cells/ml. Approximately 200-500 cells are tracked simultaneously for 12s at 60fps in a sample volume of 1x1x5 mm at a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4x2 μm. We fully resolve the longitudinal flagella (˜200nm) along with the Lagrangian trajectory of each organism. Species dependent swimming behavior are identified and categorized quantitatively by velocities, radii of curvature, and rotations of pitch. Statistics on locomotion, temporal & spatial scales, and diffusion rate show substantial differences between species. The scaling between turning radius and cell dimension can be explained by a distributed stokeslet model for a self-propelled body.

  10. Development and Characterization of Embedded Sensory Particles Using Multi-Scale 3D Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Stephen R.; Leser, William P.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Newman, John A.; Hartl, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    A method for detecting fatigue cracks has been explored at NASA Langley Research Center. Microscopic NiTi shape memory alloy (sensory) particles were embedded in a 7050 aluminum alloy matrix to detect the presence of fatigue cracks. Cracks exhibit an elevated stress field near their tip inducing a martensitic phase transformation in nearby sensory particles. Detectable levels of acoustic energy are emitted upon particle phase transformation such that the existence and location of fatigue cracks can be detected. To test this concept, a fatigue crack was grown in a mode-I single-edge notch fatigue crack growth specimen containing sensory particles. As the crack approached the sensory particles, measurements of particle strain, matrix-particle debonding, and phase transformation behavior of the sensory particles were performed. Full-field deformation measurements were performed using a novel multi-scale optical 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. This information will be used in a finite element-based study to determine optimal sensory material behavior and density.

  11. Remapping of digital subtraction angiography on a standard fluoroscopy system using 2D-3D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhrishy, Mazen G.; Varnavas, Andreas; Guyot, Alexis; Carrell, Tom; King, Andrew; Penney, Graeme

    2015-03-01

    Fluoroscopy-guided endovascular interventions are being performing for more and more complex cases with longer screening times. However, X-ray is much better at visualizing interventional devices and dense structures compared to vasculature. To visualise vasculature, angiography screening is essential but requires the use of iodinated contrast medium (ICM) which is nephrotoxic. Acute kidney injury is the main life-threatening complication of ICM. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is also often a major contributor to overall patient radiation dose (81% reported). Furthermore, a DSA image is only valid for the current interventional view and not the new view once the C-arm is moved. In this paper, we propose the use of 2D-3D image registration between intraoperative images and the preoperative CT volume to facilitate DSA remapping using a standard fluoroscopy system. This allows repeated ICM-free DSA and has the potential to enable a reduction in ICM usage and radiation dose. Experiments were carried out using 9 clinical datasets. In total, 41 DSA images were remapped. For each dataset, the maximum and averaged remapping accuracy error were calculated and presented. Numerical results showed an overall averaged error of 2.50 mm, with 7 patients scoring averaged errors < 3 mm and 2 patients < 6 mm.

  12. A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.

  13. Improved Visualization of Intracranial Vessels with Intraoperative Coregistration of Rotational Digital Subtraction Angiography and Intraoperative 3D Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Podlesek, Dino; Meyer, Tobias; Morgenstern, Ute; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound can visualize and update the vessel status in real time during cerebral vascular surgery. We studied the depiction of parent vessels and aneurysms with a high-resolution 3D intraoperative ultrasound imaging system during aneurysm clipping using rotational digital subtraction angiography as a reference. Methods We analyzed 3D intraoperative ultrasound in 39 patients with cerebral aneurysms to visualize the aneurysm intraoperatively and the nearby vascular tree before and after clipping. Simultaneous coregistration of preoperative subtraction angiography data with 3D intraoperative ultrasound was performed to verify the anatomical assignment. Results Intraoperative ultrasound detected 35 of 43 aneurysms (81%) in 39 patients. Thirty-nine intraoperative ultrasound measurements were matched with rotational digital subtraction angiography and were successfully reconstructed during the procedure. In 7 patients, the aneurysm was partially visualized by 3D-ioUS or was not in field of view. Post-clipping intraoperative ultrasound was obtained in 26 and successfully reconstructed in 18 patients (69%) despite clip related artefacts. The overlap between 3D-ioUS aneurysm volume and preoperative rDSA aneurysm volume resulted in a mean accuracy of 0.71 (Dice coefficient). Conclusions Intraoperative coregistration of 3D intraoperative ultrasound data with preoperative rotational digital subtraction angiography is possible with high accuracy. It allows the immediate visualization of vessels beyond the microscopic field, as well as parallel assessment of blood velocity, aneurysm and vascular tree configuration. Although spatial resolution is lower than for standard angiography, the method provides an excellent vascular overview, advantageous interpretation of 3D-ioUS and immediate intraoperative feedback of the vascular status. A prerequisite for understanding vascular intraoperative ultrasound is image quality and a successful match with preoperative

  14. Examination of heterogeneous crossing sequences between toner and rollerball pen strokes by digital microscopy and 3-D laser profilometry.

    PubMed

    Montani, Isabelle; Mazzella, Williams; Guichard, Marion; Marquis, Raymond

    2012-07-01

    The determination of line crossing sequences between rollerball pens and laser printers presents difficulties that may not be overcome using traditional techniques. This research aimed to study the potential of digital microscopy and 3-D laser profilometry to determine line crossing sequences between a toner and an aqueous ink line. Different paper types, rollerball pens, and writing pressure were tested. Correct opinions of the sequence were given for all case scenarios, using both techniques. When the toner was printed before the ink, a light reflection was observed in all crossing specimens, while this was never observed in the other sequence types. The 3-D laser profilometry, more time-consuming, presented the main advantage of providing quantitative results. The findings confirm the potential of the 3-D laser profilometry and demonstrate the efficiency of digital microscopy as a new technique for determining the sequence of line crossings involving rollerball pen ink and toner. PMID:22390180

  15. Digital relief 3D model of the Khibiny massive (Kola peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    On the basis of maps of 1: 50,000 and 1: 200,000 3D model Khibiny massif developed. We used software ARC / INFO v10.2 ESRI. This project will be organised to build background for gas pollution monitoring network. We planned to use the model to estimate local heterogeneities in the composition of the atmosphere at the emanation of greenhouse gases in the area, the construction of models of vertical distribution of the content of trace gases in the rock mass. In addition to the project GIS digital elevation model contains layers of geological and tectonic map that allows us to estimate the area of the output of certain petrographic rock groups characterized by different ratios of emitted hydrocarbons (CH4/ H2). The model allows to construct a classification of fault in the array. At first glance, there are two groups of faults - the ancient associated with the formation of the intrusive phases sequence, and the young - due to recent tectonic shifts. Ancient faults form a common semicircular structure of the pluton cause overall asymmetry Khibin heights with the transition to the border area between the Khibiny and Lovoozero. Modern tectonics mainly represented by radial and chord faults which are formed narrow mountain valleys and troughs. It remains an open question as to which system fault (old or young) is more productive to gas emanations? On the one hand the system characterized by a large old depth, on the other hand a young more active faults. Address these issues require further detailed observations. The essential question is to assess the possibility of maintaining a constant concentration gradient of these impurities in the atmosphere due to gas emanations of fracture zones and areas enriched occluded gases. In the simulation of these processes can be used initially set parameters: 1 the flow rate of the gas impurities 2 the value of wind flows in closed and open valley 3 Assessment of thermal diffusion coefficients determined by the temperature gradient

  16. A serial digital data communications device. [for real time flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetter, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    A general purpose computer peripheral device which is used to provide a full-duplex, serial, digital data transmission link between a Xerox Sigma computer and a wide variety of external equipment, including computers, terminals, and special purpose devices is reported. The interface has an extensive set of user defined options to assist the user in establishing the necessary data links. This report describes those options and other features of the serial communications interface and its performance by discussing its application to a particular problem.

  17. From digital mapping to GIS-based 3D visualization of geological maps: example from the Western Alps geological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestro, Gianni; Cassulo, Roberto; Festa, Andrea; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Nicolò, Gabriele; Perotti, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Collection of field geological data and sharing of geological maps are nowadays greatly enhanced by using digital tools and IT (Information Technology) applications. Portable hardware allows accurate GPS localization of data and homogeneous storing of information in field databases, whereas GIS (Geographic Information Systems) applications enable generalization of field data and realization of geological map databases. A further step in the digital processing of geological map information consists of building virtual visualization by means of GIS-based 3D viewers, that allow projection and draping of significant geological features over photo-realistic terrain models. Digital fieldwork activities carried out by the Authors in the Western Alps, together with building of geological map databases and related 3D visualizations, are an example of application of the above described digital technologies. Digital geological mapping was performed by means of a GIS mobile software loaded on a rugged handheld device, and lithological, structural and geomorphological features with their attributes were stored in different layers that form the field database. The latter was then generalized through usual map processing steps such as outcrops interpolation, characterization of geological boundaries and selection of meaningful punctual observations. This map databases was used for building virtual visualizations through a GIS-based 3D-viewer that loaded detailed DTM (resolution of 5 meters) and aerial images. 3D visualizations were focused on projection and draping of significant stratigraphic contacts (e.g. contacts that separate different Quaternary deposits) and tectonic contacts (i.e. exhumation-related contacts that dismembered original ophiolite sequences). In our experience digital geological mapping and related databases ensured homogeneous data storing and effective sharing of information, and allowed subsequent building of 3D GIS-based visualizations. The latters gave

  18. An automated serial Grinding, Imaging and Reconstruction Instrument (GIRI) for digital modeling of samples with weak density contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloof, A. C.; Samuels, B.; Mehra, A.; Spatzier, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first results from the new Princeton University Grinder Lab dedicated to the digital reconstruction of hidden objects through serial grinding and imaging. The purpose of a destructive technique like serial grinding is to facilitate the discovery of embedded objects with weak density contrasts outside the sensitivity limits of X-ray CT-scanning devices (Feature segmentation and object reconstruction are based on color and textural contrasts in the stack of images rather than density). The device we have developed is a retrofit imaging station designed for a precision CNC surface. The instrument is capable of processing a sample 20x25x40 cm in size at 1 micron resolution in x, y and z axes. Directly coupled to the vertical axis of the grinder is an 80 megapixel medium format camera and specialty macro lens capable of imaging a 4x5 cm surface at 5 micron resolution in full 16 bit color. The system is automated such that after each surface grind, the sample is cleaned, travels to the opposite end of the bed from the grinder wheel, is photographed, and then moved back to the grinding position. This process establishes a comprehensive archive of the specimen that is used for digital reconstruction and quantitative analysis. For example, in one night, a 7 cm thick sample can be imaged completely at 20 micron horizontal and vertical resolution without human supervision. Some of the initial results we present here include new digital reconstructions of early animal fossils, 3D sedimentary bedforms, the size and shape distribution of chondrules in chondritic meteorites, and the porosity structure of carbonate cemented reservoir rocks.

  19. Patient-Specific Carotid Plaque Progression Simulation Using 3D Meshless Generalized Finite Difference Models with Fluid-Structure Interactions Based on Serial In Vivo MRI Data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Atluri, Satya

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we introduced a computational procedure based on three-dimensional meshless generalized finite difference (MGFD) method and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to quantify patient-specific carotid atherosclerotic plaque growth functions and simulate plaque progression. Structure-only models were used in our previous report. In this paper, fluid-stricture interaction (FSI) was added to improve on prediction accuracy. One participating patient was scanned three times (T1, T2, and T3, at intervals of about 18 months) to obtain plaque progression data. Blood flow was assumed to laminar, Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. The Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation were used as the governing equations. Plaque material was assumed to be uniform, homogeneous, isotropic, linear, and nearly incompressible. The linear elastic model was used. The 3D FSI plaque model was discretized and solved using a meshless generalized finite difference (GFD) method. Growth functions with a) morphology alone; b) morphology and plaque wall stress (PWS); morphology and flow shear stress (FSS), and d) morphology, PWS and FSS were introduced to predict future plaque growth based on previous time point data. Starting from the T2 plaque geometry, plaque progression was simulated by solving the FSI model and adjusting plaque geometry using plaque growth functions iteratively until T3 is reached. Numerically simulated plaque progression agreed very well with the target T3 plaque geometry with errors ranging from 8.62%, 7.22%, 5.77% and 4.39%, with the growth function including morphology, plaque wall stress and flow shear stress terms giving the best predictions. Adding flow shear stress term to the growth function improved the prediction error from 7.22% to 4.39%, a 40% improvement. We believe this is the first time 3D plaque progression FSI simulation based on multi-year patient-tracking data was reported. Serial MRI-based progression

  20. Linear and circular digital spectral analysis of serial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods of digital spectral analysis of unevenly sampled data are developed and illustrated here. One method uses a linear function of time (or space), the other uses circular functions. The circular method turns out to be essentially equivalent to a least-squares sine-wave analysis. The linear, anharmonic method uses only the field of real numbers and elementary algebraic operations, and hence it can be made computationally very fast and accurate. Both methods are very general, properly handling all kinds of time series ranging from simple series consisting only of the times of events to complicated series consisting of pulses with long duty cycles. The two methods are here applied to the analysis of annual mean relative sunspot numbers.

  1. Application of 2D and 3D Digital Image Correlation on CO2-like altered carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zinsmeister, Louis; Dautriat, Jérémie; Dimanov, Alexandre; Raphanel, Jean; Bornert, Michel

    2013-04-01

    In order to provide mechanical constitutive laws for reservoir monitoring during CO2 long term storage, we studied the mechanical properties of Lavoux limestone before and after a homogeneous alteration following the protocol of acid treatments defined by Egermann et al, (2006). The mechanical data have been analysed at the light of systematic microstructural investigations. Firstly, the alteration impact on the evolution of flow properties related to microstructural changes was studied at successive levels of alteration by classical petrophysical measurements of porosity and permeability (including NMR, mercury porosimetry and laser diffraction) and by observations of microstructures on thin sections and by SEM. Secondly, the mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by classical (macroscopic) triaxial and uniaxial tests and are discussed in terms of the structural modifications. The macroscopic tests indicate that the alteration weakens the material, according to the observed decrease of elastic moduli and Uniaxial Compressive Strengths, from 29MPa to 19MPa after 6 cycles of acid treatments. The study is further complemented by 2D full (mechanical) field measurements, thanks to Digital Image Correlation (DIC) performed on images acquired during the uniaxial tests. This technique allows for continuous quantitative micro-mechanical monitoring in terms of deformation history and localisation processes during compression. This technique was applied on both intact and altered materials and at different scales of observation: (i) cm-sized samples were compressed in a classical load frame and optically imaged, (ii) mm-sized samples were loaded with a miniaturized compression rig implemented within a Scanning Electron Microscope. At last, 3D full field measurements were performed by 3D-DIC on mm-sized samples, which were compressed "in-situ" an X-ray microtomograph thanks to a miniaturized triaxial cell allowing for confining pressures of up to 15 MPa. At

  2. Digital Reconstruction of AN Archaeological Site Based on the Integration of 3d Data and Historical Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.; Russo, M.; Angheleddu, D.

    2013-02-01

    The methodology proposed in this paper in based on an integrated approach for creating a 3D digital reconstruction of an archaeological site, using extensively the 3D documentation of the site in its current state, followed by an iterative interaction between archaeologists and digital modelers, leading to a progressive refinement of the reconstructive hypotheses. The starting point of the method is the reality-based model, which, together with ancient drawings and documents, is used for generating the first reconstructive step. Such rough approximation of a possible architectural structure can be annotated through archaeological considerations that has to be confronted with geometrical constraints, producing a reduction of the reconstructive hypotheses to a limited set, each one to be archaeologically evaluated. This refinement loop on the reconstructive choices is iterated until the result become convincing by both points of view, integrating in the best way all the available sources. The proposed method has been verified on the ruins of five temples in the My Son site, a wide archaeological area located in central Vietnam. The integration of 3D surveyed data and historical documentation has allowed to support a digital reconstruction of not existing architectures, developing their three-dimensional digital models step by step, from rough shapes to highly sophisticate virtual prototypes.

  3. Fish body surface data measurement based on 3D digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Qian, Chen; Yang, Wenkai

    2016-01-01

    To film the moving fish in the glass tank, light will be bent at the interface of air and glass, glass and water. Based on binocular stereo vision and refraction principle, we establish a mathematical model of 3D image correlation to reconstruct the 3D coordinates of samples in the water. Marking speckle in fish surface, a series of real-time speckle images of swimming fish will be obtained by two high-speed cameras, and instantaneous 3D shape, strain, displacement etc. of fish will be reconstructed.

  4. Laser Transfer of Metals and Metal Alloys for Digital Microfabrication of 3D Objects.

    PubMed

    Zenou, Michael; Sa'ar, Amir; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-09-01

    3D copper logos printed on epoxy glass laminates are demonstrated. The structures are printed using laser transfer of molten metal microdroplets. The example in the image shows letters of 50 µm width, with each letter being taller than the last, from a height of 40 µm ('s') to 190 µm ('l'). The scanning microscopy image is taken at a tilt, and the topographic image was taken using interferometric 3D microscopy, to show the effective control of this technique. PMID:25966320

  5. Digital microfabrication of user-defined 3D microstructures in cell-laden hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Pranav; Chung, Peter H.; Zhang, Alvin; Chen, Shaochen

    2013-01-01

    Complex 3D interfacial arrangements of cells are found in several in vivo biosystems such as blood vasculature, renal glomeruli, and intestinal villi. Current tissue engineering techniques fail to develop suitable 3D microenvironments to evaluate the concurrent effects of complex topography and cell encapsulation. There is a need to develop new fabrication approaches that control cell density and distribution within complex 3D features. In this work, we present a dynamic projection printing process that allows rapid construction of complex 3D structures using custom-defined computer-aided-design (CAD) files. Gelatin-methacrylate (GelMA) constructs featuring user-defined spiral, pyramid, flower, and dome micro-geometries were fabricated with and without encapsulated cells. Encapsulated cells demonstrate good cell viability across all geometries both on the scaffold surface and internal to the structures. Cells respond to geometric cues individually as well as collectively throughout the larger-scale patterns. Time-lapse observations also reveal the dynamic nature of mechanical interactions between cells and micro-geometry. When compared to conventional cell-seeding, cell encapsulation within complex 3D patterned scaffolds provides long-term control over proliferation, cell morphology, and geometric guidance. Overall, this biofabrication technique offers a flexible platform to evaluate cell interactions with complex 3D micro-features, with the ability to scale-up towards high-throughput screening platforms. PMID:23686741

  6. Digital microfabrication of user-defined 3D microstructures in cell-laden hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Soman, Pranav; Chung, Peter H; Zhang, A Ping; Chen, Shaochen

    2013-11-01

    Complex 3D interfacial arrangements of cells are found in several in vivo biosystems such as blood vasculature, renal glomeruli, and intestinal villi. Current tissue engineering techniques fail to develop suitable 3D microenvironments to evaluate the concurrent effects of complex topography and cell encapsulation. There is a need to develop new fabrication approaches that control cell density and distribution within complex 3D features. In this work, we present a dynamic projection printing process that allows rapid construction of complex 3D structures using custom-defined computer-aided-design (CAD) files. Gelatin-methacrylate (GelMA) constructs featuring user-defined spiral, pyramid, flower, and dome micro-geometries were fabricated with and without encapsulated cells. Encapsulated cells demonstrate good cell viability across all geometries both on the scaffold surface and internal to the structures. Cells respond to geometric cues individually as well as collectively throughout the larger-scale patterns. Time-lapse observations also reveal the dynamic nature of mechanical interactions between cells and micro-geometry. When compared to conventional cell-seeding, cell encapsulation within complex 3D patterned scaffolds provides long-term control over proliferation, cell morphology, and geometric guidance. Overall, this biofabrication technique offers a flexible platform to evaluate cell interactions with complex 3D micro-features, with the ability to scale-up towards high-throughput screening platforms.

  7. User-Appropriate Viewer for High Resolution Interactive Engagement with 3d Digital Cultural Artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, D.; La Pensée, A.; Cooper, M.

    2013-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) laser scanning is an important documentation technique for cultural heritage. This technology has been adopted from the engineering and aeronautical industry and is an invaluable tool for the documentation of objects within museum collections (La Pensée, 2008). The datasets created via close range laser scanning are extremely accurate and the created 3D dataset allows for a more detailed analysis in comparison to other documentation technologies such as photography. The dataset can be used for a range of different applications including: documentation; archiving; surface monitoring; replication; gallery interactives; educational sessions; conservation and visualization. However, the novel nature of a 3D dataset is presenting a rather unique challenge with respect to its sharing and dissemination. This is in part due to the need for specialised 3D software and a supported graphics card to display high resolution 3D models. This can be detrimental to one of the main goals of cultural institutions, which is to share knowledge and enable activities such as research, education and entertainment. This has limited the presentation of 3D models of cultural heritage objects to mainly either images or videos. Yet with recent developments in computer graphics, increased internet speed and emerging technologies such as Adobe's Stage 3D (Adobe, 2013) and WebGL (Khronos, 2013), it is now possible to share a dataset directly within a webpage. This allows website visitors to interact with the 3D dataset allowing them to explore every angle of the object, gaining an insight into its shape and nature. This can be very important considering that it is difficult to offer the same level of understanding of the object through the use of traditional mediums such as photographs and videos. Yet this presents a range of problems: this is a very novel experience and very few people have engaged with 3D objects outside of 3D software packages or games. This paper

  8. Imaging bacterial 3D motion using digital in-line holographic microscopy and correlation-based de-noising algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Better understanding of bacteria environment interactions in the context of biofilm formation requires accurate 3-dimentional measurements of bacteria motility. Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) has demonstrated its capability in resolving 3D distribution and mobility of particulates in a dense suspension. Due to their low scattering efficiency, bacteria are substantially difficult to be imaged by DHM. In this paper, we introduce a novel correlation-based de-noising algorithm to remove the background noise and enhance the quality of the hologram. Implemented in conjunction with DHM, we demonstrate that the method allows DHM to resolve 3-D E. coli bacteria locations of a dense suspension (>107 cells/ml) with submicron resolutions (<0.5 µm) over substantial depth and to obtain thousands of 3D cell trajectories. PMID:25607177

  9. Study of 3D solder-paste profilometer by dual digital fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Yi-Hua; Yih, Jeng-Nan; Cheng, Nai-Jen

    2013-09-01

    In a 3D profilometer by the fringe projection, the shadow will be produced inevitably, thus the fringes cannot be detected in the region of the shadow. In addition, a smooth surface or a metal surface produces the specular reflection, and then, no projection fringe can be recorded in the region of oversaturation on CCD. This paper reveals a proposed system for improved these defects and shows some preliminary improved 3D profiles by the proposed dual fringe projection. To obtain the profile of sample hided in the shadow and the oversaturation, this study used the dual-projection system by two projectors. This system adopted two different directions of fringe projection and illuminates them alternately, therefore, the shadow and the oversaturation produced in their corresponding locations. Two raw 3D profiles obtained from taking the dual-projection by the four-step phase-shift. A set of algorithms used to identify the pixels of the shadow and the oversaturation, and create an error-map. According to the error-map to compensate, two 3D profiles merged into an error-reduced 3D profile. We used the solder paste as a testing sample. After comparatively analyzing the 3D images obtained by our measurement system and by a contact stylus profilometer, the result shows that our measurement system can effectively reduce the error caused by shadows and oversaturation. Fringe projection system by using a projector is a non-contact, full field and quickly measuring system. The proposed dual-projection by dual-projectors can effectively reduce the shadow and the oversaturation errors and enhance the scope of application of the 3D contour detection, especially in the detection of precision structure parts with specular reflection.

  10. Ultra-high-resolution 3D digitalized imaging of the cerebral angioarchitecture in rats using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhou, Luo; Deng, Qian-Fang; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Cao, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Chen, Xu-Meng; Yin, Xian-Zhen; Xiao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The angioarchitecture is a fundamental aspect of brain development and physiology. However, available imaging tools are unsuited for non-destructive cerebral mapping of the functionally important three-dimensional (3D) vascular microstructures. To address this issue, we developed an ultra-high resolution 3D digitalized angioarchitectural map for rat brain, based on synchrotron radiation phase contrast imaging (SR-PCI) with pixel size of 5.92 μm. This approach provides a systematic and detailed view of the cerebrovascular anatomy at the micrometer level without any need for contrast agents. From qualitative and quantitative perspectives, the present 3D data provide a considerable insight into the spatial vascular network for whole rodent brain, particularly for functionally important regions of interest, such as the hippocampus, pre-frontal cerebral cortex and the corpus striatum. We extended these results to synchrotron-based virtual micro-endoscopy, thus revealing the trajectory of targeted vessels in 3D. The SR-PCI method for systematic visualization of cerebral microvasculature holds considerable promise for wider application in life sciences, including 3D micro-imaging in experimental models of neurodevelopmental and vascular disorders. PMID:26443231

  11. Hard Copy to Digital Transfer: 3D Models that Match 2D Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes technical drawing techniques applied in a project involving digitizing of existing hard copy subsurface mapping for the preparation of three dimensional graphic and mathematical models. The intent of this research was to identify work flows that would support the project, ensure the accuracy of the digital data obtained,…

  12. Micro 3D printing using a digital projector and its application in the study of soft materials mechanics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Howon; Fang, Nicholas X

    2012-11-27

    Buckling is a classical topic in mechanics. While buckling has long been studied as one of the major structural failure modes(1), it has recently drawn new attention as a unique mechanism for pattern transformation. Nature is full of such examples where a wealth of exotic patterns are formed through mechanical instability(2-5). Inspired by this elegant mechanism, many studies have demonstrated creation and transformation of patterns using soft materials such as elastomers and hydrogels(6-11). Swelling gels are of particular interest because they can spontaneously trigger mechanical instability to create various patterns without the need of external force(6-10). Recently, we have reported demonstration of full control over buckling pattern of micro-scaled tubular gels using projection micro-stereolithography (PμSL), a three-dimensional (3D) manufacturing technology capable of rapidly converting computer generated 3D models into physical objects at high resolution(12,13). Here we present a simple method to build up a simplified PμSL system using a commercially available digital data projector to study swelling-induced buckling instability for controlled pattern transformation. A simple desktop 3D printer is built using an off-the-shelf digital data projector and simple optical components such as a convex lens and a mirror(14). Cross-sectional images extracted from a 3D solid model is projected on the photosensitive resin surface in sequence, polymerizing liquid resin into a desired 3D solid structure in a layer-by-layer fashion. Even with this simple configuration and easy process, arbitrary 3D objects can be readily fabricated with sub-100 μm resolution. This desktop 3D printer holds potential in the study of soft material mechanics by offering a great opportunity to explore various 3D geometries. We use this system to fabricate tubular shaped hydrogel structure with different dimensions. Fixed on the bottom to the substrate, the tubular gel develops

  13. Micro 3D Printing Using a Digital Projector and its Application in the Study of Soft Materials Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Howon; Fang, Nicholas X.

    2012-01-01

    Buckling is a classical topic in mechanics. While buckling has long been studied as one of the major structural failure modes1, it has recently drawn new attention as a unique mechanism for pattern transformation. Nature is full of such examples where a wealth of exotic patterns are formed through mechanical instability2-5. Inspired by this elegant mechanism, many studies have demonstrated creation and transformation of patterns using soft materials such as elastomers and hydrogels6-11. Swelling gels are of particular interest because they can spontaneously trigger mechanical instability to create various patterns without the need of external force6-10. Recently, we have reported demonstration of full control over buckling pattern of micro-scaled tubular gels using projection micro-stereolithography (PμSL), a three-dimensional (3D) manufacturing technology capable of rapidly converting computer generated 3D models into physical objects at high resolution12,13. Here we present a simple method to build up a simplified PμSL system using a commercially available digital data projector to study swelling-induced buckling instability for controlled pattern transformation. A simple desktop 3D printer is built using an off-the-shelf digital data projector and simple optical components such as a convex lens and a mirror14. Cross-sectional images extracted from a 3D solid model is projected on the photosensitive resin surface in sequence, polymerizing liquid resin into a desired 3D solid structure in a layer-by-layer fashion. Even with this simple configuration and easy process, arbitrary 3D objects can be readily fabricated with sub-100 μm resolution. This desktop 3D printer holds potential in the study of soft material mechanics by offering a great opportunity to explore various 3D geometries. We use this system to fabricate tubular shaped hydrogel structure with different dimensions. Fixed on the bottom to the substrate, the tubular gel develops inhomogeneous stress

  14. Micro 3D printing using a digital projector and its application in the study of soft materials mechanics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Howon; Fang, Nicholas X

    2012-01-01

    Buckling is a classical topic in mechanics. While buckling has long been studied as one of the major structural failure modes(1), it has recently drawn new attention as a unique mechanism for pattern transformation. Nature is full of such examples where a wealth of exotic patterns are formed through mechanical instability(2-5). Inspired by this elegant mechanism, many studies have demonstrated creation and transformation of patterns using soft materials such as elastomers and hydrogels(6-11). Swelling gels are of particular interest because they can spontaneously trigger mechanical instability to create various patterns without the need of external force(6-10). Recently, we have reported demonstration of full control over buckling pattern of micro-scaled tubular gels using projection micro-stereolithography (PμSL), a three-dimensional (3D) manufacturing technology capable of rapidly converting computer generated 3D models into physical objects at high resolution(12,13). Here we present a simple method to build up a simplified PμSL system using a commercially available digital data projector to study swelling-induced buckling instability for controlled pattern transformation. A simple desktop 3D printer is built using an off-the-shelf digital data projector and simple optical components such as a convex lens and a mirror(14). Cross-sectional images extracted from a 3D solid model is projected on the photosensitive resin surface in sequence, polymerizing liquid resin into a desired 3D solid structure in a layer-by-layer fashion. Even with this simple configuration and easy process, arbitrary 3D objects can be readily fabricated with sub-100 μm resolution. This desktop 3D printer holds potential in the study of soft material mechanics by offering a great opportunity to explore various 3D geometries. We use this system to fabricate tubular shaped hydrogel structure with different dimensions. Fixed on the bottom to the substrate, the tubular gel develops

  15. Teaching Digital Natives: 3-D Virtual Science Lab in the Middle School Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Teresa J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a 3-D virtual environment in Second Life for the delivery of standards-based science content for middle school students in the rural Appalachian region of Southeast Ohio. A mixed method approach in which quantitative results of improved student learning and qualitative observations of implementation within…

  16. Pre-Peak and Post-Peak Rock Strain Characteristics During Uniaxial Compression by 3D Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-07-01

    A non-contact optical method for strain measurement applying three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) in uniaxial compression is presented. A series of monotonic uniaxial compression tests under quasi-static loading conditions on Hawkesbury sandstone specimens were conducted. A prescribed constant lateral-strain rate to control the applied axial load in a closed-loop system allowed capturing the complete stress-strain behaviour of the rock, i.e. the pre-peak and post-peak stress-strain regimes. 3D DIC uses two digital cameras to acquire images of the undeformed and deformed shape of an object to perform image analysis and provides deformation and motion measurements. Observations showed that 3D DIC provides strains free from bedding error in contrast to strains from LVDT. Erroneous measurements due to the compliance of the compressive machine are also eliminated. Furthermore, by 3D DIC technique relatively large strains developed in the post-peak regime, in particular within localised zones, difficult to capture by bonded strain gauges, can be measured in a straight forward manner. Field of strains and eventual strain localisation in the rock surface were analysed by 3D DIC method, coupled with the respective stress levels in the rock. Field strain development in the rock samples, both in axial and shear strain domains suggested that strain localisation takes place progressively and develops at a lower rate in pre-peak regime. It is accelerated, otherwise, in post-peak regime associated with the increasing rate of strength degradation. The results show that a major failure plane, due to strain localisation, becomes noticeable only long after the peak stress took place. In addition, post-peak stress-strain behaviour was observed to be either in a form of localised strain in a shearing zone or inelastic unloading outside of the shearing zone.

  17. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography and its application to high-speed 3D imaging of dynamic object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Xia, Peng; Wang, Yexin; Matoba, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Digital holography is a technique of 3D measurement of object. The technique uses an image sensor to record the interference fringe image containing the complex amplitude of object, and numerically reconstructs the complex amplitude by computer. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography is capable of accurate 3D measurement of dynamic object. This is because this technique can reconstruct the complex amplitude of object, on which the undesired images are not superimposed, form a single hologram. The undesired images are the non-diffraction wave and the conjugate image which are associated with holography. In parallel phase-shifting digital holography, a hologram, whose phase of the reference wave is spatially and periodically shifted every other pixel, is recorded to obtain complex amplitude of object by single-shot exposure. The recorded hologram is decomposed into multiple holograms required for phase-shifting digital holography. The complex amplitude of the object is free from the undesired images is reconstructed from the multiple holograms. To validate parallel phase-shifting digital holography, a high-speed parallel phase-shifting digital holography system was constructed. The system consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a continuous-wave laser, and a high-speed polarization imaging camera. Phase motion picture of dynamic air flow sprayed from a nozzle was recorded at 180,000 frames per second (FPS) have been recorded by the system. Also phase motion picture of dynamic air induced by discharge between two electrodes has been recorded at 1,000,000 FPS, when high voltage was applied between the electrodes.

  18. Rapid 3D video/laser sensing and digital archiving with immediate on-scene feedback for 3D crime scene/mass disaster data collection and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.; Oliver, William R.; Altschuler, Martin D.

    1996-02-01

    We describe a system for rapid and convenient video data acquisition and 3-D numerical coordinate data calculation able to provide precise 3-D topographical maps and 3-D archival data sufficient to reconstruct a 3-D virtual reality display of a crime scene or mass disaster area. Under a joint U.S. army/U.S. Air Force project with collateral U.S. Navy support, to create a 3-D surgical robotic inspection device -- a mobile, multi-sensor robotic surgical assistant to aid the surgeon in diagnosis, continual surveillance of patient condition, and robotic surgical telemedicine of combat casualties -- the technology is being perfected for remote, non-destructive, quantitative 3-D mapping of objects of varied sizes. This technology is being advanced with hyper-speed parallel video technology and compact, very fast laser electro-optics, such that the acquisition of 3-D surface map data will shortly be acquired within the time frame of conventional 2-D video. With simple field-capable calibration, and mobile or portable platforms, the crime scene investigator could set up and survey the entire crime scene, or portions of it at high resolution, with almost the simplicity and speed of video or still photography. The survey apparatus would record relative position, location, and instantly archive thousands of artifacts at the site with 3-D data points capable of creating unbiased virtual reality reconstructions, or actual physical replicas, for the investigators, prosecutors, and jury.

  19. Sexual dimorphism in human browridge volume measured from 3D models of dry crania: a new digital morphometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Brian M; Sholts, Sabrina B; Garvin, Heather M; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2012-10-10

    Sex estimation from the human skull is often a necessary step when constructing a biological profile from unidentified human remains. Traditional methods for determining the sex of a skull require observers to rank the expression of sexually dimorphic skeletal traits by subjectively assessing their qualitative differences. One of these traits is the prominence of the glabellar region above the browridge. In this paper, the volume of the browridge region was measured from digital 3D models of 128 dry crania (65 female, 63 male). The 3D models were created with a desktop laser scanner, and the browridge region of each 3D model was isolated using geometric planes defined by cranial landmarks. Statistical analysis of browridge-to-cranium volume ratios revealed significant differences between male and female crania. Differences were also observed between geographically distinct populations, and between temporally distinct populations from the same locale. The results suggest that in the future, sex determination of human crania may be assisted by quantitative computer-based volume calculations from 3D models, which can provide increased objectivity and repeatability when compared to traditional forensic techniques. The method presented in this paper can easily be extended to other volumetric regions of the human cranium.

  20. Serial position effects in implicit memory for multiple-digit numbers.

    PubMed

    Raanaas, Ruth K; Magnussen, Svein

    2006-01-01

    Serial position effects in implicit and explicit memory were investigated in a short-term memory task. A study list composed of four, spatially distributed, two-digit numbers was presented, followed by an item recognition task (explicit test) and an implicit memory task in which participants were asked to verify a simple addition equation where the presented answer was either primed or not primed by one of the number pairs in the study list. Similar serial position effects were observed in explicit and implicit memory, with faster response times for correct decisions on the first than on the later list positions. The presence of a primacy effect but no recency effect is consistent with previous studies of explicit memory with visual presentation. The results suggest that similar principles of temporal information processing govern priming and episodic short-term memory.

  1. Application of three-dimensional digital image processing for reconstruction of microstructural volume from serial sections

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, A.; Gokhale, A.M.

    2000-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital image processing is useful for reconstruction of microstructural volume from a stack of serial sections. Application of this technique is demonstrated via reconstruction of a volume segment of the liquid-phase sintered microstructure of a tungsten heavy alloy processed in the microgravity environment of NASA's space shuttle, Columbia. Ninety serial sections (approximately one micrometer apart) were used for reconstruction of the three-dimensional microstructure. The three-dimensional microstructural reconstruction clearly revealed that the tungsten grains are almost completely connected in three-dimensional space. Both the matrix and the grains are topologically co-continuous, although the alloy was liquid-phase sintered in microgravity. Therefore, absence of gravity did not produced a microstructure consisting of discrete isolated W grains uniformly dispersed in the liquid Ni-Fe alloy matrix at the sintering temperature.

  2. Web-based 3D digital pathology framework for large-mapping data scanned by FF-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, ChiaKai; Tsai, Chien-Chung; Chien, Meng-Ting; Li, Yu-I.; Shun, Chia-Tung; Huang, Sheng-Lung

    2015-03-01

    Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is a high resolution instrument in 3 dimensional (3D) space, including lateral and longitudinal direction. With FF-OCT, we can perform 3D scanning for excised biopsy or cell culture sample to obtain cellular information. In this work, we have set up a high resolution FF-OCT scanning instrument that can perform cellular resolution tomography scanning of skin tissue for histopathology study. In a scan range of 1cm(x), 1cm(y), 106μm(z), for example, digital data occupies 253 GB capacity. Copying these materials is time consuming, not to mention efficient browsing and analyzing of these data. To solve the problem of information delivery, we have established a network service to browse and analyze the huge volume data.

  3. Application of digital interferogram evaluation techniques to the measurement of 3-D flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Friedhelm; Yu, Yung H.

    1987-01-01

    A system for digitally evaluating interferograms, based on an image processing system connected to a host computer, was implemented. The system supports one- and two-dimensional interferogram evaluations. Interferograms are digitized, enhanced, and then segmented. The fringe coordinates are extracted, and the fringes are represented as polygonal data structures. Fringe numbering and fringe interpolation modules are implemented. The system supports editing and interactive features, as well as graphic visualization. An application of the system to the evaluation of double exposure interferograms from the transonic flow field around a helicopter blade and the reconstruction of the three dimensional flow field is given.

  4. Digital micromirror device (DMD)-based 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mott, Eric J; Busso, Mallory; Luo, Xinyi; Dolder, Courtney; Wang, Martha O; Fisher, John P; Dean, David

    2016-04-01

    Our recent investigations into the 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), a linear polyester, using a DMD-based system brought us to a resin that used titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an ultraviolet (UV) filter for controlling cure depth. However, this material hindered the 3D printing process due to undesirable lateral or "dark" curing (i.e., in areas not exposed to light from the DMD chip). Well known from its use in sunscreen, another UV filter, oxybenzone, has previously been used in conjunction with TiO2. In this study we hypothesize that combining these two UV filters will result in a synergistic effect that controls cure depth and avoids dark cure. A resin mixture (i.e., polymer, initiator, UV filters) was identified that worked well. The resin was then further characterized through mechanical testing, cure testing, and cytotoxicity testing to investigate its use as a material for bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Results show that the final resin eliminated dark cure as shown through image analysis. Mechanically the new scaffolds proved to be far weaker than those printed from previous resins, with compressive strengths of 7.8 ± 0.5 MPa vs. 36.5 ± 1.6 MPa, respectively. The new scaffolds showed a 90% reduction in elastic modulus and a 74% increase in max strain. These properties may be useful in tissue engineering applications where resorption is required. Initial cytotoxicity evaluation was negative. As hypothesized, the use of TiO2 and oxybenzone showed synergistic effects in the 3D printing of PPF tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:26838854

  5. Digital micromirror device (DMD)-based 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mott, Eric J; Busso, Mallory; Luo, Xinyi; Dolder, Courtney; Wang, Martha O; Fisher, John P; Dean, David

    2016-04-01

    Our recent investigations into the 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), a linear polyester, using a DMD-based system brought us to a resin that used titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an ultraviolet (UV) filter for controlling cure depth. However, this material hindered the 3D printing process due to undesirable lateral or "dark" curing (i.e., in areas not exposed to light from the DMD chip). Well known from its use in sunscreen, another UV filter, oxybenzone, has previously been used in conjunction with TiO2. In this study we hypothesize that combining these two UV filters will result in a synergistic effect that controls cure depth and avoids dark cure. A resin mixture (i.e., polymer, initiator, UV filters) was identified that worked well. The resin was then further characterized through mechanical testing, cure testing, and cytotoxicity testing to investigate its use as a material for bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Results show that the final resin eliminated dark cure as shown through image analysis. Mechanically the new scaffolds proved to be far weaker than those printed from previous resins, with compressive strengths of 7.8 ± 0.5 MPa vs. 36.5 ± 1.6 MPa, respectively. The new scaffolds showed a 90% reduction in elastic modulus and a 74% increase in max strain. These properties may be useful in tissue engineering applications where resorption is required. Initial cytotoxicity evaluation was negative. As hypothesized, the use of TiO2 and oxybenzone showed synergistic effects in the 3D printing of PPF tissue engineering scaffolds.

  6. Quantification of gully volume using very high resolution DSM generated through 3D reconstruction from airborne and field digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Laredo, Mario; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    Major advances have been made recently in automatic 3D photo-reconstruction techniques using uncalibrated and non-metric cameras (James and Robson, 2012). However, its application on soil conservation studies and landscape feature identification is currently at the outset. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of a remote sensing technique using a digital camera mounted on an airborne platform, with 3D photo-reconstruction, a method already validated for gully erosion assessment purposes (Castillo et al., 2012). A field survey was conducted in November 2012 in a 250 m-long gully located in field crops on a Vertisol in Cordoba (Spain). The airborne campaign was conducted with a 4000x3000 digital camera installed onboard an aircraft flying at 300 m above ground level to acquire 6 cm resolution imagery. A total of 990 images were acquired over the area ensuring a large overlap in the across- and along-track direction of the aircraft. An ortho-mosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were obtained through automatic aerial triangulation and camera calibration methods. For the field-level photo-reconstruction technique, the gully was divided in several reaches to allow appropriate reconstruction (about 150 pictures taken per reach) and, finally, the resulting point clouds were merged into a unique mesh. A centimetric-accuracy GPS provided a benchmark dataset for gully perimeter and distinguishable reference points in order to allow the assessment of measurement errors of the airborne technique and the georeferenciation of the photo-reconstruction 3D model. The uncertainty on the gully limits definition was explicitly addressed by comparison of several criteria obtained by 3D models (slope and second derivative) with the outer perimeter obtained by the GPS operator identifying visually the change in slope at the top of the gully walls. In this study we discussed the magnitude of planimetric and altimetric errors and the differences observed between the

  7. Dual-wavelength digital holography for 3D particle image velocimetry: experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Grare, S; Allano, D; Coëtmellec, S; Perret, G; Corbin, F; Brunel, M; Gréhan, G; Lebrun, D

    2016-01-20

    A multi-exposure digital in-line hologram of a particle field is recorded by two successive pulses of different wavelengths. During the reconstruction step, each recording can be independently analyzed by selecting a given wavelength. This procedure enables avoiding the superimposition of particle images that may be close to each other.

  8. A Quantitative 3D Motility Analysis of Trypanosoma brucei by Use of Digital In-line Holographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Weiße, Sebastian; Heddergott, Niko; Heydt, Matthias; Pflästerer, Daniel; Maier, Timo; Haraszti, Tamás; Grunze, Michael; Engstler, Markus; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantitative 3D analysis of the motility of the blood parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Digital in-line holographic microscopy has been used to track single cells with high temporal and spatial accuracy to obtain quantitative data on their behavior. Comparing bloodstream form and insect form trypanosomes as well as mutant and wildtype cells under varying external conditions we were able to derive a general two-state-run-and-tumble-model for trypanosome motility. Differences in the motility of distinct strains indicate that adaption of the trypanosomes to their natural environments involves a change in their mode of swimming. PMID:22629379

  9. Faster and improved 3-D head digitization in MEG using Kinect.

    PubMed

    Vema Krishna Murthy, Santosh; MacLellan, Matthew; Beyea, Steven; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy in localizing the brain areas that generate neuromagnetic activity in magnetoencephalography (MEG) is dependent on properly co-registering MEG data to the participant's structural magnetic resonance image (MRI). Effective MEG-MRI co-registration is, in turn, dependent on how accurately we can digitize anatomical landmarks on the surface of the head. In this study, we compared the performance of three devices-Polhemus electromagnetic system, NextEngine laser scanner and Microsoft Kinect for Windows-for source localization accuracy and MEG-MRI co-registration. A calibrated phantom was used for verifying the source localization accuracy. The Kinect improved source localization accuracy over the Polhemus and the laser scanner by 2.23 mm (137%) and 0.81 mm (50%), respectively. MEG-MRI co-registration accuracy was verified on data from five healthy human participants, who received the digitization process using all three devices. The Kinect device captured approximately 2000 times more surface points than the Polhemus in one third of the time (1 min compared to 3 min) and thrice as many points as the NextEngine laser scanner. Following automated surface matching, the calculated mean MEG-MRI co-registration error for the Kinect was improved by 2.85 mm with respect to the Polhemus device, and equivalent to the laser scanner. Importantly, the Kinect device automatically aligns 20-30 images per second in real-time, reducing the limitations on participant head movement during digitization that are implicit in the NextEngine laser scan (~1 min). We conclude that the Kinect scanner is an effective device for head digitization in MEG, providing the necessary accuracy in source localization and MEG-MRI co-registration, while reducing digitization time.

  10. Faster and improved 3-D head digitization in MEG using Kinect

    PubMed Central

    Vema Krishna Murthy, Santosh; MacLellan, Matthew; Beyea, Steven; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy in localizing the brain areas that generate neuromagnetic activity in magnetoencephalography (MEG) is dependent on properly co-registering MEG data to the participant's structural magnetic resonance image (MRI). Effective MEG-MRI co-registration is, in turn, dependent on how accurately we can digitize anatomical landmarks on the surface of the head. In this study, we compared the performance of three devices—Polhemus electromagnetic system, NextEngine laser scanner and Microsoft Kinect for Windows—for source localization accuracy and MEG-MRI co-registration. A calibrated phantom was used for verifying the source localization accuracy. The Kinect improved source localization accuracy over the Polhemus and the laser scanner by 2.23 mm (137%) and 0.81 mm (50%), respectively. MEG-MRI co-registration accuracy was verified on data from five healthy human participants, who received the digitization process using all three devices. The Kinect device captured approximately 2000 times more surface points than the Polhemus in one third of the time (1 min compared to 3 min) and thrice as many points as the NextEngine laser scanner. Following automated surface matching, the calculated mean MEG-MRI co-registration error for the Kinect was improved by 2.85 mm with respect to the Polhemus device, and equivalent to the laser scanner. Importantly, the Kinect device automatically aligns 20–30 images per second in real-time, reducing the limitations on participant head movement during digitization that are implicit in the NextEngine laser scan (~1 min). We conclude that the Kinect scanner is an effective device for head digitization in MEG, providing the necessary accuracy in source localization and MEG-MRI co-registration, while reducing digitization time. PMID:25389382

  11. Intrinsic spatial shift of local focus metric curves in digital inline holography for accurate 3D morphology measurement of irregular micro-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingchun; Wu, Xuecheng; Lebrun, Denis; Brunel, Marc; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Chen, Jia; Gréhan, Gérard

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model of digital inline holography system reveals that the local focus metric curves (FMCs) of different parts of an irregular micro-object present spatial shift in the depth direction which is resulted from the depth shift. Thus, the 3D morphology of an irregular micro-object can be accurately measured using the cross correlation of the local FMCs. This method retrieves the 3D depth information directly, avoiding the uncertainty inherited from the depth position determination. Typical 3D morphology measurements, including the 3D boundary lines of tilted carbon fibers and irregular coal particles, and the 3D swimming gesture of a live Caenorhabdities elegans, are presented.

  12. Multi-modal digital holographic microscopy for wide-field fluorescence and 3D phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Xiangyu; Xia, Peng; Matoba, Osamu; Nitta, Koichi; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Multi-modal digital holographic microscopy is a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and digital holographic microscopy, the main function of which is to obtain images from fluorescence intensity and quantified phase contrasts, simultaneously. The proposed system is mostly beneficial to biological studies, with the reason that often the studies are depending on fluorescent labeling techniques to detect certain intracellular molecules, while phase information reflecting properties of unstained transparent elements. This paper is presenting our latest researches on applications such as randomly moving micro-fluorescent beads and living cells of Physcomitrella patens. The experiments are succeeded on obtaining a succession of wide-field fluorescent images and holograms from micro-beads, and different depths focusing is realized via numerical reconstruction. Living cells of Physcomitrella patens are recorded in the static manner, the reconstruction distance indicates thickness of cellular structure. These results are implementing practical applications toward many biomedical science researches.

  13. Digital Inventory and Documentation of Korea's Important Cultural Properties Using 3D Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongseok, K.; Gyesoo, K.; Siro, K.; Eunhwa, K.

    2015-08-01

    As a country with 11 properties included on the World Heritage List and approximately 12,000 important cultural properties, Korea has been continuously carrying out the inventory and documentation of cultural properties to conserve and manage them since the 1960s. The inventory of cultural properties had been carried out by making and managing a register which recorded basic information mainly on state-designated cultural properties such as their size, quantity, and location. The documentation of cultural properties was also carried out by making measured drawings. However, the inventory and documentation done under the previous analog method had a limit to the information it could provide for the effective conservation and management of cultural properties. Moreover, in recent times important cultural properties have frequently been damaged by man-made and natural disasters such as arson, forest fires, and floods, so an alternative was required. Accordingly, Korea actively introduced digital techniques led by the government for the inventory and documentation of important cultural properties. In this process, the government established the concept of a digital set, built a more efficie nt integrated data management system, and created standardized guidelines to maximize the effectiveness of data acquisition, management, and utilization that greatly increased the level of digital inventory, documentation, and archiving.

  14. 3D digitizing path planning for part inspection with laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Mussa; Joannic, David; Fontaine, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    If the first work relating to the automation of the digitalization of machine elements goes back to approximately 25 years, the process of digitalization of parts with non-contact sensor remains nevertheless complex. It is not completely solved today, in particular from a metrological point of view. In this article, we consider the determination of the trajectory planning within the framework of the control of dimensional and geometrical specifications. The sensor used in this application is a laser planner scanner with CCD camera oriented and moved by a CMM. For this purpose, we have focused on the methodology used to determine the best possible viewpoints which will satisfy the digitizing of a mechanical part. The developed method is based on the concept of visibility: for each facet of a part CAD Model (STL) a set of orientations, called real visibility chart, is calculated under condition of measurement uncertainties. By application of several optimisation criteria, the real visibility chart is reduced to create a viewpoint set from which the path planning is built.

  15. The Digital Bee Brain: Integrating and Managing Neurons in a Common 3D Reference System

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Jürgen; Kuß, Anja; Lamecker, Hans; Zachow, Stefan; Hege, Hans-Christian; Lienhard, Matthias; Singer, Jochen; Neubert, Kerstin; Menzel, Randolf

    2010-01-01

    The honeybee standard brain (HSB) serves as an interactive tool for relating morphologies of bee brain neurons and provides a reference system for functional and bibliographical properties (http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/beebrain/). The ultimate goal is to document not only the morphological network properties of neurons collected from separate brains, but also to establish a graphical user interface for a neuron-related data base. Here, we review the current methods and protocols used to incorporate neuronal reconstructions into the HSB. Our registration protocol consists of two separate steps applied to imaging data from two-channel confocal microscopy scans: (1) The reconstruction of the neuron, facilitated by an automatic extraction of the neuron's skeleton based on threshold segmentation, and (2) the semi-automatic 3D segmentation of the neuropils and their registration with the HSB. The integration of neurons in the HSB is performed by applying the transformation computed in step (2) to the reconstructed neurons of step (1). The most critical issue of this protocol in terms of user interaction time – the segmentation process – is drastically improved by the use of a model-based segmentation process. Furthermore, the underlying statistical shape models (SSM) allow the visualization and analysis of characteristic variations in large sets of bee brain data. The anatomy of neural networks composed of multiple neurons that are registered into the HSB are visualized by depicting the 3D reconstructions together with semantic information with the objective to integrate data from multiple sources (electrophysiology, imaging, immunocytochemistry, molecular biology). Ultimately, this will allow the user to specify cell types and retrieve their morphologies along with physiological characterizations. PMID:20827403

  16. Building continental-scale 3D subsurface layers in the Digital Crust project: constrained interpolation and uncertainty estimation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulaeva, E.; Fan, Y.; Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.; Bristol, S.; Peters, S. E.; Zaslavsky, I.; Ingebritsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Digital Crust EarthCube building block creates a framework for integrating disparate 3D/4D information from multiple sources into a comprehensive model of the structure and composition of the Earth's upper crust, and to demonstrate the utility of this model in several research scenarios. One of such scenarios is estimation of various crustal properties related to fluid dynamics (e.g. permeability and porosity) at each node of any arbitrary unstructured 3D grid to support continental-scale numerical models of fluid flow and transport. Starting from Macrostrat, an existing 4D database of 33,903 chronostratigraphic units, and employing GeoDeepDive, a software system for extracting structured information from unstructured documents, we construct 3D gridded fields of sediment/rock porosity, permeability and geochemistry for large sedimentary basins of North America, which will be used to improve our understanding of large-scale fluid flow, chemical weathering rates, and geochemical fluxes into the ocean. In this talk, we discuss the methods, data gaps (particularly in geologically complex terrain), and various physical and geological constraints on interpolation and uncertainty estimation.

  17. Near-wall 3D velocity measurements above biomimetic shark skin denticles using Digital In-line Holographic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloui, Mostafa; Brajkovic, David; Hong, Jiarong

    2014-11-01

    Digital In-line Holography is employed to image 3D flow structures in the vicinity of a transparent rough surface consisting of closely packed biomimetic shark skin denticles as roughness elements. The 3D printed surface replicates the morphological features of real shark skin, and the denticles have a geometrical scale of 2 mm, i.e. 10 times of the real ones. In order to minimize optical aberrations near the fluid-roughness interface and enable flow measurements around denticles, the optical refractive index of the fluid medium is maintained the same as that of the denticle model in an index-matched flow facility using NaI solution as the working fluid. The experiment is conducted in a 1.2 m long test section with 50 mm × 50 mm cross section. The sampling volume is located in the downstream region of a shark skin replica of 12'' stretch where the turbulent flow is fully-developed and the transitional effect from smooth to the rough surface becomes negligible. Several instantaneous realizations of the 3D velocity field are obtained and are used to illustrate turbulent coherent structures induced by shark-skin denticles. This information will provide insights on the hydrodynamic function of shark's unique surface ornamentation.

  18. Development of CT and 3D-CT Using Flat Panel Detector Based Real-Time Digital Radiography System

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindran, V. R.; Sreelakshmi, C.; Vibin

    2008-09-26

    The application of Digital Radiography in the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of space vehicle components is a recent development in India. A Real-time DR system based on amorphous silicon Flat Panel Detector has been developed for the NDE of solid rocket motors at Rocket Propellant Plant of VSSC in a few years back. The technique has been successfully established for the nondestructive evaluation of solid rocket motors. The DR images recorded for a few solid rocket specimens are presented in the paper. The Real-time DR system is capable of generating sufficient digital X-ray image data with object rotation for the CT image reconstruction. In this paper the indigenous development of CT imaging based on the Realtime DR system for solid rocket motor is presented. Studies are also carried out to generate 3D-CT image from a set of adjacent CT images of the rocket motor. The capability of revealing the spatial location and characterisation of defect is demonstrated by the CT and 3D-CT images generated.

  19. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks.

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, K

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from ~450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of ~2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with ~1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of Emuon greater than 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  20. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, K.; Dey, B.; Aston, D.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; Roberts, D.; Ruckman, L.; Shtol, D.; Varner, G.S.; Va'vra, J.; Vavra, Jerry; /SLAC

    2012-07-30

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from {approx}450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of {approx}2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with {approx}1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of E{sub muon} > 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  1. 3D fingerprint analysis using transmission-mode multi-wavelength digital holographic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeywickrema, Ujitha; Banerjee, Partha; Kota, Akash; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Swiontek, Stephen E.

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of fingerprints is important for biometric identification. Two-wavelength digital holographic interferometry is used to study the topography of various types of fingerprints. This topography depends on several conditions such as the temperature, time of the day, and the proportions of eccrine and sebaceous sweat. With two-wavelength holographic interferometry, surface information can be measured with a better accuracy compared to single-wavelength phase-retrieving techniques. Latent fingerprints on transparent glass, a forensically relevant substrate are first developed by the deposition of 50-1000-nm-thick columnar thin films, and then analyzed using the transmission-mode two-wavelength digital holographic technique. In this technique, a tunable Argon-ion laser (457.9 nm to 514.5 nm) is used and holograms are recorded on a CCD camera sequentially for several sets of two wavelengths. Then the phase is reconstructed for each wavelength, and the phase difference which corresponds to the synthetic wavelength (4 μm to 48 μm) is calculated. Finally, the topography is obtained by applying proper phase-unwrapping techniques to the phase difference. Interferometric setups that utilize light reflected from the surface of interest have several disadvantages such as the effect of multiple reflections as well as the effects of the tilt of the object and its shadow (for the Mach-Zehnder configuration). To overcome these drawbacks, digital holograms of fingerprints in a transmission geometry are used. An approximately in-line geometry employing a slightly tilted reference beam to facilitate separation of various diffraction orders during holographic reconstruction is employed.

  2. Developments in digital in-line holography enable validated measurement of 3D particle field dynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert

    2013-12-01

    Digital in-line holography is an optical technique which can be applied to measure the size, three-dimensional position, and three-component velocity of disperse particle fields. This work summarizes recent developments at Sandia National Laboratories focused on improvement in measurement accuracy, experimental validation, and applications to multiphase flows. New routines are presented which reduce the uncertainty in measured position along the optical axis to a fraction of the particle diameter. Furthermore, application to liquid atomization highlights the ability to measure complex, three-dimensional structures. Finally, investigation of particles traveling at near sonic conditions prove accuracy despite significant experimental noise due to shock-waves.

  3. Calibration and optimization of 3D digital breast tomosynthesis guided near infrared spectral tomography

    PubMed Central

    Michaelsen, Kelly E.; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Shi, Linxi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Poplack, Steven P.; Karellas, Andrew; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    Calibration of a three-dimensional multimodal digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) x-ray and non-fiber based near infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system is challenging but essential for clinical studies. Phantom imaging results yielded linear contrast recovery of total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration for cylindrical inclusions of 15 mm, 10 mm and 7 mm with a 3.5% decrease in the HbT estimate for each 1 cm increase in inclusion depth. A clinical exam of a patient’s breast containing both benign and malignant lesions was successfully imaged, with greater HbT was found in the malignancy relative to the benign abnormality and fibroglandular regions (11 μM vs. 9.5 μM). Tools developed improved imaging system characterization and optimization of signal quality, which will ultimately improve patient selection and subsequent clinical trial results. PMID:26713210

  4. Metric Potential of a 3D Measurement System Based on Digital Compact Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Ablanedo, Enoc; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Ramón; Arias-Sánchez, Pedro; Armesto, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an optical measuring system based on low cost, high resolution digital cameras. Once the cameras are synchronised, the portable and adjustable system can be used to observe living beings, bodies in motion, or deformations of very different sizes. Each of the cameras has been modelled individually and studied with regard to the photogrammetric potential of the system. We have investigated the photogrammetric precision obtained from the crossing of rays, the repeatability of results, and the accuracy of the coordinates obtained. Systematic and random errors are identified in validity assessment of the definition of the precision of the system from crossing of rays or from marking residuals in images. The results have clearly demonstrated the capability of a low-cost multiple-camera system to measure with sub-millimetre precision. PMID:22408520

  5. The Development of a Virtual 3D Model of the Renal Corpuscle from Serial Histological Sections for E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Jeremy A.; Wilson, Timothy D.; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated…

  6. Improved grid-noise removal in single-frame digital moiré 3D shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Kofman, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    A single-frame grid-noise removal technique was developed for application in single-frame digital-moiré 3D shape measurement. The ability of the stationary wavelet transform (SWT) to prevent oscillation artifacts near discontinuities, and the ability of the Fourier transform (FFT) applied to wavelet coefficients to separate grid-noise from useful image information, were combined in a new technique, SWT-FFT, to remove grid-noise from moiré-pattern images generated by digital moiré. In comparison to previous grid-noise removal techniques in moiré, SWT-FFT avoids the requirement for mechanical translation of optical components and capture of multiple frames, to enable single-frame moiré-based measurement. Experiments using FFT, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), DWT-FFT, and SWT-FFT were performed on moiré-pattern images containing grid noise, generated by digital moiré, for several test objects. SWT-FFT had the best performance in removing high-frequency grid-noise, both straight and curved lines, minimizing artifacts, and preserving the moiré pattern without blurring and degradation. SWT-FFT also had the lowest noise amplitude in the reconstructed height and lowest roughness index for all test objects, indicating best grid-noise removal in comparison to the other techniques.

  7. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  8. Initial testing of a 3D printed perfusion phantom using digital subtraction angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Rachel P.; Khobragade, Parag; Ying, Leslie; Snyder, Kenneth; Wack, David; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2015-03-01

    Perfusion imaging is the most applied modality for the assessment of acute stroke. Parameters such as Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF), Cerebral Blood volume (CBV) and Mean Transit Time (MTT) are used to distinguish the tissue infarct core and ischemic penumbra. Due to lack of standardization these parameters vary significantly between vendors and software even when provided with the same data set. There is a critical need to standardize the systems and make them more reliable. We have designed a uniform phantom to test and verify the perfusion systems. We implemented a flow loop with different flow rates (250, 300, 350 ml/min) and injected the same amount of contrast. The images of the phantom were acquired using a Digital Angiographic system. Since this phantom is uniform, projection images obtained using DSA is sufficient for initial validation. To validate the phantom we measured the contrast concentration at three regions of interest (arterial input, venous output, perfused area) and derived time density curves (TDC). We then calculated the maximum slope, area under the TDCs and flow. The maximum slope calculations were linearly increasing with increase in flow rate, the area under the curve decreases with increase in flow rate. There was 25% error between the calculated flow and measured flow. The derived TDCs were clinically relevant and the calculated flow, maximum slope and areas under the curve were sensitive to the measured flow. We have created a systematic way to calibrate existing perfusion systems and assess their reliability.

  9. Ceboruco Volcano Seismicity Study using a 3D Single Digital Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Uribe, M. C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Ceboruco stratovolcano (2,280 m.a.s.l.) is located in Nayarit, Mexico, at the west of the Mexican volcanic belt and towards the Sierra de San Pedro southeast. It last eruptive activity was in 1875, and during the following five years it presents superficial activity such as vapor emissions, ash falls and riodacític composition lava flows along the southeast side. We use data recorded from March 2003 to July 2008 at the CEBN triaxial short period digital station located at the southwest side of the volcano. Our final data set consist of 139 volcanic earthquakes. We classified them according waveform characteristics of the east-west horizontal component. We obtained four groups: impulsive arrivals, extended coda, bobbin form, and wave package amplitude modulation earthquakes. The extended coda is the group with more earthquakes and present durations of 50 seconds. Using the moving particle technique, we read the P and S wave arrival times and estimate azimuth arrivals. A P-wave velocity of 3.0 km/s was used to locate the earthquakes, the hypocenters are below the volcanic building within a circular perimeter of 5 km of radius and its depths are calculated relative to the CEBN elevation as follows. The impulsive arrivals earthquakes present hypocenters between 0 and 1 km while the other groups between 0 and 4 km. The epicenters show similar directions as the tectonic structures of the area (Tepic-Zacoalco Graben and regional faults). Results suggest fluid activity inside the volcanic building that could be related to fumes on the volcano. We conclude that the Ceboruco volcano is active. Therefore, it should be continuously monitored due to the risk that represent to the surrounding communities and economic activities.

  10. 3rd Tech DeltaSphere-3000 Laser 3D Scene Digitizer infrared laser scanner hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-02-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the 3rd Tech model DeltaSphere-3000{reg_sign} Laser 3D Scene Digitizer, infrared laser scanner model based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers. The portable scanner system is used in the Robotic Manufacturing Science and Engineering Laboratory (RMSEL). This scanning system had been proposed to be a demonstrator for a new application. The manufacture lists the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) as less than 2 meters. It was necessary that SNL validate this NOHD prior to its use as a demonstrator involving the general public. A formal laser hazard analysis is presented for the typical mode of operation for the current configuration as well as a possible modified mode and alternative configuration.

  11. Feasibility of CT-based 3D anatomic mapping with a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagowski, Jordan M.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Dunkerley, David A. P.; Speidel, Michael A.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of obtaining CT-derived 3D surfaces from data provided by the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system. Simulated SBDX short-scan acquisitions of a Shepp-Logan and a thorax phantom containing a high contrast spherical volume were generated. 3D reconstructions were performed using a penalized weighted least squares method with total variation regularization (PWLS-TV), as well as a more efficient variant employing gridding of projection data to parallel rays (gPWLS-TV). Voxel noise, edge blurring, and surface accuracy were compared to gridded filtered back projection (gFBP). PWLS reconstruction of a noise-free reduced-size Shepp-Logan phantom had 1.4% rRMSE. In noisy gPWLS-TV reconstructions of a reduced-size thorax phantom, 99% of points on the segmented sphere perimeter were within 0.33, 0.47, and 0.70 mm of the ground truth, respectively, for fluences comparable to imaging through 18.0, 27.2, and 34.6 cm acrylic. Surface accuracies of gFBP and gPWLS-TV were similar at high fluences, while gPWLS-TV offered improvement at the lowest fluence. The gPWLS-TV voxel noise was reduced by 60% relative to gFBP, on average. High-contrast linespread functions measured 1.25 mm and 0.96 mm (FWHM) for gPWLS-TV and gFBP. In a simulation of gated and truncated projection data from a full-sized thorax, gPWLS-TV reconstruction yielded segmented surface points which were within 1.41 mm of ground truth. Results support the feasibility of 3D surface segmentation with SBDX. Further investigation of artifacts caused by data truncation and patient motion is warranted.

  12. Digitized crime scene forensics: automated trace separation of toolmarks on high-resolution 2D/3D CLSM surface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausing, Eric; Vielhauer, Claus

    2015-03-01

    Locksmith forensics is an important and very challenging part of classic crime scene forensics. In prior work, we propose a partial transfer to the digital domain, to effectively support forensic experts and present approaches for a full process chain consisting of five steps: Trace positioning, 2D/3D acquisition with a confocal 3D laser scanning microscope, detection by segmentation, trace type determination, and determination of the opening method. In particular the step of trace segmentation on high-resolution 3D surfaces thereby turned out to be the part most difficult to implement. The reason for that is the highly structured and complex surfaces to be analyzed. These surfaces are cluttered with a high number of toolmarks, which overlap and distort each other. In Clausing et al., we present an improved approach for a reliable segmentation of relevant trace regions but without the possibility of separating single traces out of segmented trace regions. However, in our past research, especially features based on shape and dimension turned out to be highly relevant for a fully automated analysis and interpretation. In this paper, we consequently propose an approach for this separation. To achieve this goal, we use our segmentation approach and expand it with a combination of the watershed algorithm with a graph-based analysis. Found sub-regions are compared based on their surface character and are connected or divided depending on their similarity. We evaluate our approach with a test set of about 1,300 single traces on the exemplary locking cylinder component 'key pin' and thereby are able of showing the high suitability of our approach.

  13. Characterization of counter-rotating vortices past trapezoidal tabs: simulations and visualization via 3D digitized reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeongmoon; Pagan-Vazquez, Axy; Alvarado, Jorge; Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Lux, Scott; Marsh, Charles; CERL Collaboration; UIUC Collaboration; TAMU Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of the turbulence generated by passive vortex generators has been a matter of intense research due to their relevance in applications ranging from aerodynamic efficiency to turbulence mixing. The advection diffusion patterns of the induced vortical structures are heavily controlled by the topology of the vortex generators. In this study, self-sustaining counter-rotating vortex pairs (CVP) generated from a series of trapezoidal tabs have been characterized numerically and experimentally to understand the role of the tab geometries on the flow turbulence. The trapezoidal tabs were fabricated using a 3D printer and defined in terms of inclination and taper angles. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were performed to quantify turbulence statistics and vorticity in the wake of the tabs. Flow fields were experimentally visualized via smoke technique and qualitatively compared with the numerical simulations. 3D vortices were digitally reconstructed by interpolating several 2D images taken at various spanwise planes. The role of the tabs geometry on the stability and features of the vortical structures is discussed for a Reynolds number of 2100 based on the channel depth.

  14. Serial position effects in the identification of letters, digits, symbols, and shapes in peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Chanceaux, Myriam; Grainger, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Three experiments measured serial position functions for character-in-string identification in peripheral vision. In Experiment 1, random strings of five letters (e.g., P F H T M) or five symbols (e.g., λ Б Þ Ψ ¥) were briefly presented to the left or to the right of fixation, and identification accuracy was measured at each position in the string using a post-cued two-alternative forced-choice task (e.g., was there a T or a B at the 4th position). In Experiment 2 the performance to letter stimuli was compared with familiar two-dimensional shapes (e.g., square, triangle, circle), and in Experiment 3 we compared digit strings (e.g., 6 3 7 9 2) with a set of keyboard symbols (e.g., % § @ < ?). Eye-movements were monitored to ensure central fixation. The results revealed a triple interaction between the nature of the stimulus (letters/digits vs. symbols/shapes), eccentricity, and visual field. In all experiments this interaction reflected a selective left visual field advantage for letter or digit stimuli compared with symbol or shape stimuli for targets presented at the greatest eccentricity. The results are in line with the predictions of the modified receptive field hypothesis proposed by Tydgat and Grainger (2009), and the predictions of the SERIOL2 model of letter string encoding. PMID:22964055

  15. An Approach to 3d Digital Modeling of Surfaces with Poor Texture by Range Imaging Techniques. `SHAPE from Stereo' VS. `SHAPE from Silhouette' in Digitizing Jorge Oteiza's Sculptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, J.; Álvaro Tordesillas, A.; Barba, S.

    2015-02-01

    Despite eminent development of digital range imaging techniques, difficulties persist in the virtualization of objects with poor radiometric information, in other words, objects consisting of homogeneous colours (totally white, black, etc.), repetitive patterns, translucence, or materials with specular reflection. This is the case for much of the Jorge Oteiza's works, particularly in the sculpture collection of the Museo Fundación Jorge Oteiza (Navarra, Spain). The present study intend to analyse and asses the performance of two digital 3D-modeling methods based on imaging techniques, facing cultural heritage in singular cases, determined by radiometric characteristics as mentioned: Shape from Silhouette and Shape from Stereo. On the other hand, the text proposes the definition of a documentation workflow and presents the results of its application in the collection of sculptures created by Oteiza.

  16. Automated 3D detection and classification of Giardia lamblia cysts using digital holographic microscopy with partially coherent source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mallahi, A.; Detavernier, A.; Yourassowsky, C.; Dubois, F.

    2012-06-01

    Over the past century, monitoring of Giardia lamblia became a matter of concern for all drinking water suppliers worldwide. Indeed, this parasitic flagellated protozoan is responsible for giardiasis, a widespread diarrhoeal disease (200 million symptomatic individuals) that can lead immunocompromised individuals to death. The major difficulty raised by Giardia lamblia's cyst, its vegetative transmission form, is its ability to survive for long periods in harsh environments, including the chlorine concentrations and treatment duration used traditionally in water disinfection. Currently, there is a need for a reliable, inexpensive, and easy-to-use sensor for the identification and quantification of cysts in the incoming water. For this purpose, we investigated the use of a digital holographic microscope working with partially coherent spatial illumination that reduces the coherent noise. Digital holography allows one to numerically investigate a volume by refocusing the different plane of depth of a hologram. In this paper, we perform an automated 3D analysis that computes the complex amplitude of each hologram, detects all the particles present in the whole volume given by one hologram and refocuses them if there are out of focus using a refocusing criterion based on the integrated complex amplitude modulus and we obtain the (x,y,z) coordinates of each particle. Then the segmentation of the particles is processed and a set of morphological and textures features characteristic to Giardia lamblia cysts is computed in order to classify each particles in the right classes.

  17. A New Total Digital Smile Planning Technique (3D-DSP) to Fabricate CAD-CAM Mockups for Esthetic Crowns and Veneers.

    PubMed

    Cattoni, F; Mastrangelo, F; Gherlone, E F; Gastaldi, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Recently, the request of patients is changed in terms of not only esthetic but also previsualization therapy planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new 3D-CAD-CAM digital planning technique that uses a total digital smile process. Materials and Methods. Study participants included 28 adult dental patients, aged 19 to 53 years, with no oral, periodontal, or systemic diseases. For each patient, 3 intra- and extraoral pictures and intraoral digital impressions were taken. The digital images improved from the 2D Digital Smile System software and the scanner stereolithographic (STL) file was matched into the 3D-Digital Smile System to obtain a virtual previsualization of teeth and smile design. Then, the mockups were milled using a CAM system. Minimally invasive preparation was carried out on the enamel surface with the mockups as position guides. Results. The patients found both the digital smile design previsualization (64.3%) and the milling mockup test (85.7%) very effective. Conclusions. The new total 3D digital planning technique is a predictably and minimally invasive technique, allows easy diagnosis, and improves the communication with the patient and helps to reduce the working time and the errors usually associated with the classical prosthodontic manual step. PMID:27478442

  18. A New Total Digital Smile Planning Technique (3D-DSP) to Fabricate CAD-CAM Mockups for Esthetic Crowns and Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, F.; Gherlone, E. F.; Gastaldi, G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Recently, the request of patients is changed in terms of not only esthetic but also previsualization therapy planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new 3D-CAD-CAM digital planning technique that uses a total digital smile process. Materials and Methods. Study participants included 28 adult dental patients, aged 19 to 53 years, with no oral, periodontal, or systemic diseases. For each patient, 3 intra- and extraoral pictures and intraoral digital impressions were taken. The digital images improved from the 2D Digital Smile System software and the scanner stereolithographic (STL) file was matched into the 3D-Digital Smile System to obtain a virtual previsualization of teeth and smile design. Then, the mockups were milled using a CAM system. Minimally invasive preparation was carried out on the enamel surface with the mockups as position guides. Results. The patients found both the digital smile design previsualization (64.3%) and the milling mockup test (85.7%) very effective. Conclusions. The new total 3D digital planning technique is a predictably and minimally invasive technique, allows easy diagnosis, and improves the communication with the patient and helps to reduce the working time and the errors usually associated with the classical prosthodontic manual step. PMID:27478442

  19. A New Total Digital Smile Planning Technique (3D-DSP) to Fabricate CAD-CAM Mockups for Esthetic Crowns and Veneers.

    PubMed

    Cattoni, F; Mastrangelo, F; Gherlone, E F; Gastaldi, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Recently, the request of patients is changed in terms of not only esthetic but also previsualization therapy planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new 3D-CAD-CAM digital planning technique that uses a total digital smile process. Materials and Methods. Study participants included 28 adult dental patients, aged 19 to 53 years, with no oral, periodontal, or systemic diseases. For each patient, 3 intra- and extraoral pictures and intraoral digital impressions were taken. The digital images improved from the 2D Digital Smile System software and the scanner stereolithographic (STL) file was matched into the 3D-Digital Smile System to obtain a virtual previsualization of teeth and smile design. Then, the mockups were milled using a CAM system. Minimally invasive preparation was carried out on the enamel surface with the mockups as position guides. Results. The patients found both the digital smile design previsualization (64.3%) and the milling mockup test (85.7%) very effective. Conclusions. The new total 3D digital planning technique is a predictably and minimally invasive technique, allows easy diagnosis, and improves the communication with the patient and helps to reduce the working time and the errors usually associated with the classical prosthodontic manual step.

  20. Experimental validation of 3D printed patient-specific implants using digital image correlation and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, Alok; Park, Jaejong; Carrau, Diana; Miller, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    With the dawn of 3D printing technology, patient-specific implant designs are set to have a paradigm shift. A topology optimization method in designing patient-specific craniofacial implants has been developed to ensure adequate load transfer mechanism and restore the form and function of the mid-face. Patient-specific finite element models are used to design these implants and to validate whether they are viable for physiological loading such as mastication. Validation of these topology optimized finite element models using mechanical testing is a critical step. Instead of inserting the implants into a cadaver or patient, we embed the implants into the computer-aided skull model of a patient and, fuse them together to 3D print the complete skull model with the implant. Masticatory forces are applied in the molar region to simulate chewing and measure the stress-strain trajectory. Until recently, strain gages have been used to measure strains for validation. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method is a relatively new technique for full-field strain measurement which provides a continuous deformation field data. The main objective of this study is to validate the finite element model of patient-specific craniofacial implants against the strain data from the DIC obtained during the mastication simulation and show that the optimized shapes provide adequate load-transfer mechanism. Patient-specific models are obtained from CT scans. The principal maximum and minimum strains are compared. The computational and experimental approach to designing patient-specific implants proved to be a viable technique for mid-face craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:24992729

  1. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV) Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnowski, Aleksander; Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition. This paper presents the results of experiments in the use of digital images in the construction of photo-realistic 3D model of a historical building (Raphaelsohns' Sawmill in Olsztyn). The aim of the study at the first stage was to determine the meteorological and technical conditions for the acquisition of aerial and ground-based photographs. At the next stage, the technology of 3D modelling was developed using only ground-based or only aerial non-metric digital images. At the last stage of the study, an experiment was conducted to assess the possibility of 3D modelling with the comprehensive use of aerial (UAV) and ground-based digital photographs in terms of their labour intensity and precision of development. Data integration and automatic photo-realistic 3D construction of the models was done with Pix4Dmapper and Agisoft PhotoScan software Analyses have shown that when certain parameters established in an experiment are kept, the process of developing the stock-taking documentation for a historical building moves from the standards of analogue to digital technology with considerably reduced cost.

  2. Recent improvement of a FIB-SEM serial-sectioning method for precise 3D image reconstruction - application of the orthogonally-arranged FIB-SEM.

    PubMed

    Hara, Toru

    2014-11-01

    IntroductionWe installed the first "orthogonally-arranged" FIB-SEM in 2011. The most characteristic point of this instrument is that the FIB and SEM columns are perpendicularly mounted; this is specially designed to obtain a serial-sectioning dataset more accurately and precisely with higher contrast and higher spatial resolution compare to other current FIB-SEMs [1]. Since the installation in 2011, we have developed the hardware and methodology of the serial-sectioning based on this orthogonal FIB-SEM. In order to develop this technique, we have widely opened this instrument to every researcher of all fields. In the presentation, I would like to introduce some of application results that are obtained by users of this instrument. The characteristic points of the orthogonal systemFigure 1 shows a difference between the standard and the orthogonal FIB-SEM systems: In the standard system, shown in Fig.1(a), optical axes of a FIB and a SEM crosses around 60deg., while in the orthogonal system (Fig.1(b)), they are perpendicular to each other. The standard arrangement (a) is certainly suitable for TEM lamellae preparation etc. because the FIB and the SEM can see the same position simultaneously. However, for a serial-sectioning, it is not to say the best arrangement. One of the reasons is that the sliced plane by the FIB is not perpendicular to the electron beam so that the background contrast is not uniform and observed plane is distorted. On the other hand, in case of the orthogonally-arranged system,(b), these problems are resolved. In addition, spatial resolution can keep high enough even in a low accelerating voltage (e.g. 500V) because a working distance is set very small, 2mm. From these special design, we can obtain the serial-sectioning dataset from rather wide area (∼100um) with high spatial resolution (Max. 2×2×2nm). As this system has many kinds of detectors: SE, ET, Backscatter Electron(Energy-selective), EDS, EBSD, STEM(BF&ADF), with Ar+ ion-gun and a

  3. Improvement of the size estimation of 3D tracked droplets using digital in-line holography with joint estimation reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrier, N.; Grosjean, N.; Dib, E.; Méès, L.; Fournier, C.; Marié, J.-L.

    2016-04-01

    Digital holography is a valuable tool for three-dimensional information extraction. Among existing configurations, the originally proposed set-up (i.e. Gabor, or in-line holography), is reasonably immune to variations in the experimental environment making it a method of choice for studies of fluid dynamics. Nevertheless, standard hologram reconstruction techniques, based on numerical light back-propagation are prone to artifacts such as twin images or aliases that limit both the quality and quantity of information extracted from the acquired holograms. To get round this issue, the hologram reconstruction as a parametric inverse problem has been shown to accurately estimate 3D positions and the size of seeding particles directly from the hologram. To push the bounds of accuracy on size estimation still further, we propose to fully exploit the information redundancy of a hologram video sequence using joint estimation reconstruction. Applying this approach in a bench-top experiment, we show that it led to a relative precision of 0.13% (for a 60 μm diameter droplet) for droplet size estimation, and a tracking precision of {σx}× {σy}× {σz}=0.15× 0.15× 1~\\text{pixels} .

  4. Characterization of High Strain Rate Mechanical behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy using 3D Digital Image Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Xu, Hanbing; ERDMAN III, DONALD L; Starbuck, J Michael; Simunovic, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of the material mechanical behavior at sub-Hopkinson regime (0.1 to 1000 s{sup -1}) is very challenging due to instrumentation limitations and the complexity of data analysis involved in dynamic loading. In this study, AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet specimens are tested using a custom designed servo-hydraulic machine in tension at nominal strain rates up to 1000 s{sup -1}. In order to resolve strain measurement artifacts, the specimen displacement is measured using 3D Digital Image correlation instead from actuator motion. The total strain is measured up to {approx} 30%, which is far beyond the measurable range of electric resistance strain gages. Stresses are calculated based on the elastic strains in the tab of a standard dog-bone shaped specimen. Using this technique, the stresses measured for strain rates of 100 s{sup -1} and lower show little or no noise comparing to load cell signals. When the strain rates are higher than 250 s{sup -1}, the noises and oscillations in the stress measurements are significantly decreased from {approx} 250 to 50 MPa. Overall, it is found that there are no significant differences in the elongation, although the material exhibits slight work hardening when the strain rate is increased from 1 to 100 s{sup -1}.

  5. 2D and 3D registration methods for dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Kristen C.; Roth, Susan; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2014-03-01

    Contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (CE-DBT) uses an iodinated contrast agent to image the threedimensional breast vasculature. The University of Pennsylvania is conducting a CE-DBT clinical study in patients with known breast cancers. The breast is compressed continuously and imaged at four time points (1 pre-contrast; 3 postcontrast). A hybrid subtraction scheme is proposed. First, dual-energy (DE) images are obtained by a weighted logarithmic subtraction of the high-energy and low-energy image pairs. Then, post-contrast DE images are subtracted from the pre-contrast DE image. This hybrid temporal subtraction of DE images is performed to analyze iodine uptake, but suffers from motion artifacts. Employing image registration further helps to correct for motion, enhancing the evaluation of vascular kinetics. Registration using ANTS (Advanced Normalization Tools) is performed in an iterative manner. Mutual information optimization first corrects large-scale motions. Normalized cross-correlation optimization then iteratively corrects fine-scale misalignment. Two methods have been evaluated: a 2D method using a slice-by-slice approach, and a 3D method using a volumetric approach to account for out-of-plane breast motion. Our results demonstrate that iterative registration qualitatively improves with each iteration (five iterations total). Motion artifacts near the edge of the breast are corrected effectively and structures within the breast (e.g. blood vessels, surgical clip) are better visualized. Statistical and clinical evaluations of registration accuracy in the CE-DBT images are ongoing.

  6. 3D reconstructions with pixel-based images are made possible by digitally clearing plant and animal tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reconstruction of 3D images from a series of 2D images has been restricted by the limited capacity to decrease the opacity of surrounding tissue. Commercial software that allows color-keying and manipulation of 2D images in true 3D space allowed us to produce 3D reconstructions from pixel based imag...

  7. Calibrated breast density methods for full field digital mammography: A system for serial quality control and inter-system generalization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, B.; Smallwood, A. M.; Sellers, T. A.; Drukteinis, J. S.; Heine, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are developing a system for calibrated breast density measurements using full field digital mammography (FFDM). Breast tissue equivalent (BTE) phantom images are used to establish baseline (BL) calibration curves at time zero. For a given FFDM unit, the full BL dataset is comprised of approximately 160 phantom images, acquired prior to calibrating prospective patient mammograms. BL curves are monitored serially to ensure they produce accurate calibration and require updating when calibration accuracy degrades beyond an acceptable tolerance, rather than acquiring full BL datasets repeatedly. BL updating is a special case of generalizing calibration datasets across FFDM units, referred to as cross-calibration. Serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration techniques were developed and evaluated. Methods: BL curves were established for three Hologic Selenia FFDM units at time zero. In addition, one set of serial phantom images, comprised of equal proportions of adipose and fibroglandular BTE materials (50/50 compositions) of a fixed height, was acquired biweekly and monitored with the cumulative sum (Cusum) technique. These 50/50 composition images were used to update the BL curves when the calibration accuracy degraded beyond a preset tolerance of ±4 standardized units. A second set of serial images, comprised of a wide-range of BTE compositions, was acquired biweekly to evaluate serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration techniques. Results: Calibration accuracy can degrade serially and is a function of acquisition technique and phantom height. The authors demonstrated that all heights could be monitored simultaneously while acquiring images of a 50/50 phantom with a fixed height for each acquisition technique biweekly, translating into approximately 16 image acquisitions biweekly per FFDM unit. The same serial images are sufficient for serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration. Serial calibration accuracy was

  8. Direct measurement of particle size and 3D velocity of a gas-solid pipe flow with digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingchun; Wu, Xuecheng; Yao, Longchao; Gréhan, Gérard; Cen, Kefa

    2015-03-20

    The 3D measurement of the particles in a gas-solid pipe flow is of great interest, but remains challenging due to curved pipe walls in various engineering applications. Because of the astigmatism induced by the pipe, concentric ellipse fringes in the hologram of spherical particles are observed in the experiments. With a theoretical analysis of the particle holography by an ABCD matrix, the in-focus particle image can be reconstructed by the modified convolution method and fractional Fourier transform. Thereafter, the particle size, 3D position, and velocity are simultaneously measured by digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DHPTV). The successful application of DHPTV to the particle size and 3D velocity measurement in a glass pipe's flow can facilitate its 3D diagnostics.

  9. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography for evaluation of intracranial aneurysms after endosaccular packing with Guglielmi detachable coils: comparison with 3D digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Okahara, Mika; Kiyosue, Hiro; Hori, Yuzo; Yamashita, Masanori; Nagatomi, Hirofumi; Mori, Hiromu

    2004-07-01

    The sensitivities and specificities of three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (3D-TOF MRA) and 3D digital subtraction angiography (3D-DSA) were compared for evaluation of cerebral aneurysms after endosaccular packing with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). Thirty-three patients with 33 aneurysms were included in this prospective study. 3D-TOF MRA and 3D-DSA were performed in the same week on all patients. Maximal intensity projection (MIP) and 3D reconstructed MRA images were compared with 3D-DSA images. The diameters of residual/recurrent aneurysms detected on 3D-DSA were calculated on a workstation. In 3 (9%) of 33 aneurysms, 3D-TOF MRA did not provide reliable information due to significant susceptibility artifacts on MRA. The sensitivity and specificity rates of MRA were 72.7 and 90.9%, respectively, for the diagnosis of residual/recurrent aneurysm. The diameters of residual/recurrent aneurysms that could not be detected by MRA were significantly smaller than those of detected aneurysms (mean 1.1 vs mean 2.3 mm). In one aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA), the relationship between the residual aneurysm and the ACoA was more evident on MRA than DSA images. MRA can detect the recurrent/residual lumen of aneurysms treated with GDCs of up to at least 1.8 mm in diameter. 3D-TOF MRA is useful for follow-up of intracranial aneurysms treated with GDCs, and could partly replace DSA.

  10. The 3D Structure of the Apical Complex and Association with the Flagellar Apparatus Revealed by Serial TEM Tomography in Psammosa pacifica, a Distant Relative of the Apicomplexa

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Noriko; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The apical complex is one of the defining features of apicomplexan parasites, including the malaria parasite Plasmodium, where it mediates host penetration and invasion. The apical complex is also known in a few related lineages, including several non-parasitic heterotrophs, where it mediates feeding behaviour. The origin of the apical complex is unclear, and one reason for this is that in apicomplexans it exists in only part of the life cycle, and never simultaneously with other major cytoskeletal structures like flagella and basal bodies. Here, we used conventional TEM and serial TEM tomography to reconstruct the three dimensional structure of the apical complex in Psammosa pacifica, a predatory relative of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates that retains the archetype apical complex and the flagellar apparatus simultaneously. The P. pacifica apical complex is associated with the gullet and consists of the pseudoconoid, micronemes, and electron dense vesicles. The pseudoconoid is a convex sheet consisting of eight short microtubules, plus a band made up of microtubules that originate from the flagellar apparatus. The flagellar apparatus consists of three microtubular roots. One of the microtubular roots attached to the posterior basal body is connected to bypassing microtubular strands, which are themselves connected to the extension of the pseudoconoid. These complex connections where the apical complex is an extension of the flagellar apparatus, reflect the ancestral state of both, dating back to the common ancestor of apicaomplexans and dinoflagellates. PMID:24392150

  11. FPGA architectures for electronically scanned wide-band RF beams using 3-D FIR/IIR digital filters for rectangular array aperture receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayaratna, Sewwandi; Madanayake, Arjuna; Beall, Brandon D.; Bruton, Len T.

    2014-05-01

    Real-time digital implementation of three-dimensional (3-D) infinite impulse response (IIR) beam filters are discussed. The 3-D IIR filter building blocks have filter coefficients, which are defined using algebraic closed-form expressions that are functions of desired beam personalities, such as the look-direction of the aperture, the bandwidth and sampling frequency of interest, inter antenna spacing, and 3dB beam size. Real-time steering of such 3-D beam filters are obtained by proposed calculation of filter coefficients. Application specific computing units for rapidly calculating the 3-D IIR filter coefficients at nanosecond speed potentially allows fast real-time tracking of low radar cross section (RCS) objects at close range. Proposed design consists of 3-D IIR beam filter with 4 4 antenna grid and the filter coefficient generation block in separate FPGAs. The hardware is designed and co-simulated using a Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T FPGA. The 3-D filter operates over 90 MHz and filter coefficient computing structure can operate at up to 145 MHz.

  12. Coherent digital demodulation of single-camera N-projections for 3D-object shape measurement: co-phased profilometry.

    PubMed

    Servin, M; Garnica, G; Estrada, J C; Quiroga, A

    2013-10-21

    Fringe projection profilometry is a well-known technique to digitize 3-dimensional (3D) objects and it is widely used in robotic vision and industrial inspection. Probably the single most important problem in single-camera, single-projection profilometry are the shadows and specular reflections generated by the 3D object under analysis. Here a single-camera along with N-fringe-projections is (digital) coherent demodulated in a single-step, solving the shadows and specular reflections problem. Co-phased profilometry coherently phase-demodulates a whole set of N-fringe-pattern perspectives in a single demodulation and unwrapping process. The mathematical theory behind digital co-phasing N-fringe-patterns is mathematically similar to co-phasing a segmented N-mirror telescope.

  13. Correlative 3D-imaging of Pipistrellus penis micromorphology: Validating quantitative microCT images with undecalcified serial ground section histomorphology.

    PubMed

    Herdina, Anna Nele; Plenk, Hanns; Benda, Petr; Lina, Peter H C; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Hilgers, Helge; Metscher, Brian D

    2015-06-01

    Detailed knowledge of histomorphology is a prerequisite for the understanding of function, variation, and development. In bats, as in other mammals, penis and baculum morphology are important in species discrimination and phylogenetic studies. In this study, nondestructive 3D-microtomographic (microCT, µCT) images of bacula and iodine-stained penes of Pipistrellus pipistrellus were correlated with light microscopic images from undecalcified surface-stained ground sections of three of these penes of P. pipistrellus (1 juvenile). The results were then compared with µCT-images of bacula of P. pygmaeus, P. hanaki, and P. nathusii. The Y-shaped baculum in all studied Pipistrellus species has a proximal base with two club-shaped branches, a long slender shaft, and a forked distal tip. The branches contain a medullary cavity of variable size, which tapers into a central canal of variable length in the proximal baculum shaft. Both are surrounded by a lamellar and a woven bone layer and contain fatty marrow and blood vessels. The distal shaft consists of woven bone only, without a vascular canal. The proximal ends of the branches are connected with the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa via entheses. In the penis shaft, the corpus spongiosum-surrounded urethra lies in a ventral grove of the corpora cavernosa, and continues in the glans under the baculum. The glans penis predominantly comprises an enlarged corpus spongiosum, which surrounds urethra and baculum. In the 12 studied juvenile and subadult P. pipistrellus specimens the proximal branches of the baculum were shorter and without marrow cavity, while shaft and distal tip appeared already fully developed. The present combination with light microscopic images from one species enabled a more reliable interpretation of histomorphological structures in the µCT-images from all four Pipistrellus species. PMID:25703625

  14. Correlative 3D-imaging of Pipistrellus penis micromorphology: Validating quantitative microCT images with undecalcified serial ground section histomorphology.

    PubMed

    Herdina, Anna Nele; Plenk, Hanns; Benda, Petr; Lina, Peter H C; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Hilgers, Helge; Metscher, Brian D

    2015-06-01

    Detailed knowledge of histomorphology is a prerequisite for the understanding of function, variation, and development. In bats, as in other mammals, penis and baculum morphology are important in species discrimination and phylogenetic studies. In this study, nondestructive 3D-microtomographic (microCT, µCT) images of bacula and iodine-stained penes of Pipistrellus pipistrellus were correlated with light microscopic images from undecalcified surface-stained ground sections of three of these penes of P. pipistrellus (1 juvenile). The results were then compared with µCT-images of bacula of P. pygmaeus, P. hanaki, and P. nathusii. The Y-shaped baculum in all studied Pipistrellus species has a proximal base with two club-shaped branches, a long slender shaft, and a forked distal tip. The branches contain a medullary cavity of variable size, which tapers into a central canal of variable length in the proximal baculum shaft. Both are surrounded by a lamellar and a woven bone layer and contain fatty marrow and blood vessels. The distal shaft consists of woven bone only, without a vascular canal. The proximal ends of the branches are connected with the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa via entheses. In the penis shaft, the corpus spongiosum-surrounded urethra lies in a ventral grove of the corpora cavernosa, and continues in the glans under the baculum. The glans penis predominantly comprises an enlarged corpus spongiosum, which surrounds urethra and baculum. In the 12 studied juvenile and subadult P. pipistrellus specimens the proximal branches of the baculum were shorter and without marrow cavity, while shaft and distal tip appeared already fully developed. The present combination with light microscopic images from one species enabled a more reliable interpretation of histomorphological structures in the µCT-images from all four Pipistrellus species.

  15. Digital Geology from field to 3D modelling and Google Earth virtual environment: methods and goals from the Furlo Gorge (Northern Apennines - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara

    2014-05-01

    A new map of the Furlo Gorge was surveyed and elaborated in a digital way. In every step of work we used digital tools as mobile GIS and 3D modelling software. Phase 1st Starting in the lab, planning the field project development, base cartography, forms and data base were designed in the way we thought was the best for collecting and store data in order of producing a digital n­-dimensional map. Bedding attitudes, outcrops sketches and description, stratigraphic logs, structural features and other informations were collected and organised in a structured database using rugged tablet PC, GPS receiver, digital cameras and later also an Android smartphone with some survey apps in-­house developed. A new mobile GIS (BeeGIS) was developed starting from an open source GIS (uDig): a number of tools like GPS connection, pen drawing annotations, geonotes, fieldbook, photo synchronization and geotagging were originally designed. Phase 2nd After some month of digital field work, all the informations were elaborated for drawing a geologic map in GIS environment. For that we use both commercial (ArcGIS) and open source (gvSig, QGIS, uDig) without big technical problems. Phase 3rd When we get to the step of building a 3D model (using 3DMove), passing trough the assisted drawing of cross-­sections (2DMove), we discovered a number of problems in the interpretation of geological structures (thrusts, normal faults) and more in the interpretation of stratigraphic thickness and boundaries and their relationships with topography. Phase 4th Before an "on­-armchair" redrawing of map, we decide to go back to the field and check directly what was wrong. Two main vantages came from this: (1) the mistakes we found could be reinterpreted and corrected directly in the field having all digital tools we need; (2) previous interpretations could be stored in GIS layers keeping memory of the previous work (also mistakes). Phase 5th A 3D model built with 3D Move is already almost self

  16. Development and evaluation of a new 3-D digitization and computer graphic system to study the anatomic tissue and restoration surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dastane, A; Vaidyanathan, T K; Vaidyanathan, J; Mehra, R; Hesby, R

    1996-01-01

    It is necessary to visualize and reconstruct tissue anatomic surfaces accurately for a variety of oral rehabilitation applications such as surface wear characterization and automated fabrication of dental restorations, accuracy of reproduction of impression and die materials, etc. In this investigation, a 3-D digitization and computer-graphic system was developed for surface characterization. The hardware consists of a profiler assembly for digitization in an MTS biomechanical test system with an artificial mouth, an IBM PS/2 computer model 70 for data processing and a Hewlett-Packard laser printer for hardcopy outputs. The software used includes a commercially available Surfer 3-D graphics package, a public domain data-fitting alignment software and an inhouse Pascal program for intercommunication plus some other limited tasks. Surfaces were digitized before and after rotation by angular displacement, the digital data were interpolated by Surfer to provide a data grid and the surfaces were computer graphically reconstructed: Misaligned surfaces were aligned by the data-fitting alignment software under different choices of parameters. The effect of different interpolation parameters (e.g. grid size, method of interpolation) and extent of rotation on the alignment accuracy was determined. The results indicate that improved alignment accuracy results from optimization of interpolation parameters and minimization of the initial misorientation between the digitized surfaces. The method provides important advantages for surface reconstruction and visualization, such as overlay of sequentially generated surfaces and accurate alignment of pairs of surfaces with small misalignment.

  17. Method for dose-reduced 3D catheter tracking on a scanning-beam digital x-ray system using dynamic electronic collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerley, David A. P.; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system capable of tomosynthesis-based 3D catheter tracking. This work proposes a method of dose-reduced 3D tracking using dynamic electronic collimation (DEC) of the SBDX scanning x-ray tube. Positions in the 2D focal spot array are selectively activated to create a regionof- interest (ROI) x-ray field around the tracked catheter. The ROI position is updated for each frame based on a motion vector calculated from the two most recent 3D tracking results. The technique was evaluated with SBDX data acquired as a catheter tip inside a chest phantom was pulled along a 3D trajectory. DEC scans were retrospectively generated from the detector images stored for each focal spot position. DEC imaging of a catheter tip in a volume measuring 11.4 cm across at isocenter required 340 active focal spots per frame, versus 4473 spots in full-FOV mode. The dose-area-product (DAP) and peak skin dose (PSD) for DEC versus full field-of-view (FOV) scanning were calculated using an SBDX Monte Carlo simulation code. DAP was reduced to 7.4% to 8.4% of the full-FOV value, consistent with the relative number of active focal spots (7.6%). For image sequences with a moving catheter, PSD was 33.6% to 34.8% of the full-FOV value. The root-mean-squared-deviation between DEC-based 3D tracking coordinates and full-FOV 3D tracking coordinates was less than 0.1 mm. The 3D distance between the tracked tip and the sheath centerline averaged 0.75 mm. Dynamic electronic collimation can reduce dose with minimal change in tracking performance.

  18. Estimating elastic moduli of rocks from thin sections: Digital rock study of 3D properties from 2D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Nishank; Mavko, Gary

    2016-03-01

    Estimation of elastic rock moduli using 2D plane strain computations from thin sections has several numerical and analytical advantages over using 3D rock images, including faster computation, smaller memory requirements, and the availability of cheap thin sections. These advantages, however, must be weighed against the estimation accuracy of 3D rock properties from thin sections. We present a new method for predicting elastic properties of natural rocks using thin sections. Our method is based on a simple power-law transform that correlates computed 2D thin section moduli and the corresponding 3D rock moduli. The validity of this transform is established using a dataset comprised of FEM-computed elastic moduli of rock samples from various geologic formations, including Fontainebleau sandstone, Berea sandstone, Bituminous sand, and Grossmont carbonate. We note that using the power-law transform with a power-law coefficient between 0.4-0.6 contains 2D moduli to 3D moduli transformations for all rocks that are considered in this study. We also find that reliable estimates of P-wave (Vp) and S-wave velocity (Vs) trends can be obtained using 2D thin sections.

  19. Development of a strain analyzer system for sheet metal stamped parts based on an optical 3D digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasusan, Eusebio; Canal, Fernando

    2003-05-01

    In this paper a new automatic strain analyzer system for sheet metal stamped parts is presented. This device is based on an optic 3D scanner working with structure white light, that performs measurements with high speed and accuracy. This new device can be a very useful tool in manufacturing industry.

  20. STXM goes 3D: digital reconstruction of focal stacks as novel approach towards confocal soft x-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Späth, Andreas; Scho Ll, Simon; Riess, Christian; Schmidtel, Daniel; Paradossi, Gaio; Raabe, Jo Rg; Hornegger, Joachim; Fink, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Fresnel zone plate based soft x-ray transmission microspectroscopy has developed into a routine technique for high-resolution elemental or chemical 2D imaging of thin film specimens. The availability of high resolution Fresnel lenses with short depth of focus offers the possibility of optical slicing (in the third dimension) by focus series with resolutions in the submicron regime. We introduce a 3D reconstruction algorithm that uses a variance-based metric to assign a focus measure as basis for volume rendering. The algorithm is applied to simulated geometries and opaque soft matter specimens thus enabling 3D visualization. These studies with z-resolution of few 100nm serve as important step towards the vision of a confocal transmission x-ray microscope.

  1. Design, construction and mechanical testing of digital 3D anatomical data-based PCL-HA bone tissue engineering scaffold.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingqiang; Wei, Bo; Guo, Yang; Jin, Chengzhe; Du, Xiaotao; Yan, Chao; Yan, Junwei; Hu, Wenhao; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Yijin; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the techniques of design and construction of CT 3D reconstructional data-based polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold. Femoral and lumbar spinal specimens of eight male New Zealand white rabbits were performed CT and laser scanning data-based 3D printing scaffold processing using PCL-HA powder. Each group was performed eight scaffolds. The CAD-based 3D printed porous cylindrical stents were 16 piece × 3 groups, including the orthogonal scaffold, the Pozi-hole scaffold and the triangular hole scaffold. The gross forms, fiber scaffold diameters and porosities of the scaffolds were measured, and the mechanical testing was performed towards eight pieces of the three kinds of cylindrical scaffolds, respectively. The loading force, deformation, maximum-affordable pressure and deformation value were recorded. The pore-connection rate of each scaffold was 100 % within each group, there was no significant difference in the gross parameters and micro-structural parameters of each scaffold when compared with the design values (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the loading force, deformation and deformation value under the maximum-affordable pressure of the three different cylinder scaffolds when the load was above 320 N. The combination of CT and CAD reverse technology could accomplish the design and manufacturing of complex bone tissue engineering scaffolds, with no significant difference in the impacts of the microstructures towards the physical properties of different porous scaffolds under large load.

  2. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  3. High-resolution superconductive serial analog-to-digital converter for on-focal plane data conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Deepnarayan; Rylov, Sergey V.; Gaidarenko, Dmitri V.

    1998-09-01

    We have developed a high-resolution, superconducting analog- to-digital converter (ADC) based on phase modulation- demodulation architecture. The circuit is implemented in rapid single flux quantum electronics, using niobium technology. Extremely low on-chip power dissipation makes this ADC attractive for digital readout of cooled IR detectors. The output of the ADC is serially extracted from the chip to minimize the thermal load of input-output cables connecting the cold ADC to the room-temperature data acquisition system. The ADC performance can be enhanced by a multiple channel synchronize and a decimation filter. Designs of the various ADC circuits with increasing complexity and performance are discussed. Experimental results of 12-bit and 16-bit serial ADC circuits are also described. Recent developments in improving the performance of cryogenic laser diodes are discussed in relation to the possibility of optical readout of the ADC output. We also report the development of a compact packaging module for the ADC chip and the laser.

  4. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR): Performance Analysis During the Eco-3D 2011 and Summer 2012 Flight Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Carter, Lynn; Ranson, K. Jon; Vega, Manuel; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, SeungKuk; Sun, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art airborne radar developed at NASA/Goddard for the implementation, and testing of digital beamforming techniques applicable to Earth and planetary sciences. The DBSAR measurements have been employed to study: The estimation of vegetation biomass and structure - critical parameters in the study of the carbon cycle; The measurement of geological features - to explore its applicability to planetary science by measuring planetary analogue targets. The instrument flew two test campaigns over the East coast of the United States in 2011, and 2012. During the campaigns the instrument operated in full polarimetric mode collecting data from vegetation and topography features.

  5. 3D tracking and phase-contrast imaging by twin-beams digital holographic microscope in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Finizio, A.; Paturzo, M.; Merola, F.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.

    2012-06-01

    A compact twin-beam interferometer that can be adopted as a flexible diagnostic tool in microfluidic platforms is presented. The devise has two functionalities, as explained in the follow, and can be easily integrated in microfluidic chip. The configuration allows 3D tracking of micro-particles and, at same time, furnishes Quantitative Phase-Contrast maps of tracked micro-objects by interference microscopy. Experimental demonstration of its effectiveness and compatibility with biological field is given on for in vitro cells in microfluidic environment. Nowadays, several microfluidic configuration exist and many of them are commercially available, their development is due to the possibility for manipulating droplets, handling micro and nano-objects, visualize and quantify processes occurring in small volumes and, clearly, for direct applications on lab-on-a chip devices. In microfluidic research field, optical/photonics approaches are the more suitable ones because they have various advantages as to be non-contact, full-field, non-invasive and can be packaged thanks to the development of integrable optics. Moreover, phase contrast approaches, adapted to a lab-on-a-chip configurations, give the possibility to get quantitative information with remarkable lateral and vertical resolution directly in situ without the need to dye and/or kill cells. Furthermore, numerical techniques for tracking of micro-objects needs to be developed for measuring velocity fields, trajectories patterns, motility of cancer cell and so on. Here, we present a compact holographic microscope that can ensure, by the same configuration and simultaneously, accurate 3D tracking and quantitative phase-contrast analysis. The system, simple and solid, is based on twin laser beams coming from a single laser source. Through a easy conceptual design, we show how these two different functionalities can be accomplished by the same optical setup. The working principle, the optical setup and the mathematical

  6. A 3D multi-modal and multi-dimensional digital brain model as a framework for data sharing.

    PubMed

    Mailly, Philippe; Haber, Suzanne N; Groenewegen, Henk J; Deniau, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-15

    Computer based three-dimensional reconstruction and co-registration of experimental data provide powerful tools for integration of observation derived from various technical approaches leading to better understanding of brain functions. Here we describe a method to build a 3D multi-modal and multi-dimensional model of brain structures providing framework for data sharing. All image processing, registration and 3D reconstruction were performed using open source software IMOD package software and ImageJ. The reconstruction procedure is based on series of AChE and Nissl stained sections aligned to blockface pictures. Integration of experimental data into the reference model is achieved by co-registration of Nissl sections of experimental brain cases by positioning landmarks on corresponding anatomical structures. To overcome the challenge of comparing for experimental sections with those of the reference model, adjustment of experimental model to the brain model was done section by section and limited to the structures of interest. For this adjustment we stress the use of cytoarchitectural criteria for accurate registration of anatomical structures and co-registration procedures.

  7. Digital-Particle-Image-Velocimetry (DPIV) in a scanning light-sheet: 3D starting flow around a short cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücker, Ch.

    1995-08-01

    Scanning-Particle-Image-Velocimetry Technique (SPIV), introduced by Brücker (1992) and Brücker and Althaus (1992), offers the quantitative investigation of three-dimensional vortical structures in unsteady flows. On principle, this technique combines classical Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) with volume scanning using a scanning light-sheet. In our previous studies, single scans obtained from photographic frame series were evaluated to show the instantaneous vortical structure of the respective flow phenomena. Here, continuous video recordings are processed to capture also the temporal information for the study of the set-up of 3D effects in the cylinder wake. The flow is continuously sampled in depth by the scanning light-sheet and in each of the parallel planes frame-to-frame cross-correlation of the video images (DPIV) is applied to obtain the 2D velocity field. Because the scanning frequency and repetition rate is high in comparison with the characteristic time-scale of the flow, the evaluation provides a complete time-record of the 3D flow during the starting process. With use of the continuity concept as described by Robinson and Rockwell (1993), we obtained in addition the out-of-plane component of the velocity in spanwise direction. This in view, the described technique enabled the reconstruction of the three-dimensional time-dependent velocity and vorticity field. The visualization of the dynamical behaviour of these quantities as, e.g. by video, gave a good impression of the spanwise flow showing the “tornado-like” suction effect of the starting vortices.

  8. Optimal angular dose distribution to acquire 3D and extra 2D images for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Ye-Seul; Lee, Haeng-Hwa; Gang, Won-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Choi, Young-Wook; Choi, JaeGu

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal non-uniform angular dose distribution to improve the quality of the 3D reconstructed images and to acquire extra 2D projection images. In this analysis, 7 acquisition sets were generated by using four different values for the number of projections (11, 15, 21, and 29) and total angular range (±14°, ±17.5°, ±21°, and ±24.5° ). For all acquisition sets, the zero-degree projection was used as the 2D image that was close to that of standard conventional mammography (CM). Exposures used were 50, 100, 150, and 200 mR for the zero-degree projection, and the remaining dose was distributed over the remaining projection angles. To quantitatively evaluate image quality, we computed the CNR (contrast-to-noise ratio) and the ASF (artifact spread function) for the same radiation dose. The results indicate that, for microcalcifications, acquisition sets with approximately 4 times higher exposure on the zero-degree projection than the average exposure for the remaining projection angles yielded higher CNR values and were 3% higher than the uniform distribution. However, very high dose concentrations toward the zero-degree projection may reduce the quality of the reconstructed images due to increasing noise in the peripheral views. The zero-degree projection of the non-uniform dose distribution offers a 2D image similar to that of standard CM, but with a significantly lower radiation dose. Therefore, we need to evaluate the diagnostic potential of extra 2D projection image when diagnose breast cancer by using 3D images with non-uniform angular dose distributions.

  9. Postmortem examination of patient H.M.’s brain based on histological sectioning and digital 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annese, Jacopo; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Bartsch, Hauke; Maechler, Paul; Sheh, Colleen; Thomas, Natasha; Kayano, Junya; Ghatan, Alexander; Bresler, Noah; Frosch, Matthew P.; Klaming, Ruth; Corkin, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific knowledge of how memory functions are organized in the human brain originated from the case of Henry G. Molaison (H.M.), an epileptic patient whose amnesia ensued unexpectedly following a bilateral surgical ablation of medial temporal lobe structures, including the hippocampus. The neuroanatomical extent of the 1953 operation could not be assessed definitively during H.M.’s life. Here we describe the results of a procedure designed to reconstruct a microscopic anatomical model of the whole brain and conduct detailed 3D measurements in the medial temporal lobe region. This approach, combined with cellular-level imaging of stained histological slices, demonstrates a significant amount of residual hippocampal tissue with distinctive cytoarchitecture. Our study also reveals diffuse pathology in the deep white matter and a small, circumscribed lesion in the left orbitofrontal cortex. The findings constitute new evidence that may help elucidate the consequences of H.M.’s operation in the context of the brain’s overall pathology.

  10. Postmortem examination of patient H.M.’s brain based on histological sectioning and digital 3D reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Annese, Jacopo; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Bartsch, Hauke; Maechler, Paul; Sheh, Colleen; Thomas, Natasha; Kayano, Junya; Ghatan, Alexander; Bresler, Noah; Frosch, Matthew P.; Klaming, Ruth; Corkin, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific knowledge of how memory functions are organized in the human brain originated from the case of Henry G. Molaison (H.M.), an epileptic patient whose amnesia ensued unexpectedly following a bilateral surgical ablation of medial temporal lobe structures, including the hippocampus. The neuroanatomical extent of the 1953 operation could not be assessed definitively during H.M.’s life. Here we describe the results of a procedure designed to reconstruct a microscopic anatomical model of the whole brain and conduct detailed 3D measurements in the medial temporal lobe region. This approach, combined with cellular-level imaging of stained histological slices, demonstrates a significant amount of residual hippocampal tissue with distinctive cytoarchitecture. Our study also reveals diffuse pathology in the deep white matter and a small, circumscribed lesion in the left orbitofrontal cortex. The findings constitute new evidence that may help elucidate the consequences of H.M.’s operation in the context of the brain’s overall pathology. PMID:24473151

  11. Tooteko: a Case Study of Augmented Reality for AN Accessible Cultural Heritage. Digitization, 3d Printing and Sensors for AN Audio-Tactile Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agnano, F.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2015-02-01

    Tooteko is a smart ring that allows to navigate any 3D surface with your finger tips and get in return an audio content that is relevant in relation to the part of the surface you are touching in that moment. Tooteko can be applied to any tactile surface, object or sheet. However, in a more specific domain, it wants to make traditional art venues accessible to the blind, while providing support to the reading of the work for all through the recovery of the tactile dimension in order to facilitate the experience of contact with art that is not only "under glass." The system is made of three elements: a high-tech ring, a tactile surface tagged with NFC sensors, and an app for tablet or smartphone. The ring detects and reads the NFC tags and, thanks to the Tooteko app, communicates in wireless mode with the smart device. During the tactile navigation of the surface, when the finger reaches a hotspot, the ring identifies the NFC tag and activates, through the app, the audio track that is related to that specific hotspot. Thus a relevant audio content relates to each hotspot. The production process of the tactile surfaces involves scanning, digitization of data and 3D printing. The first experiment was modelled on the facade of the church of San Michele in Isola, made by Mauro Codussi in the late fifteenth century, and which marks the beginning of the Renaissance in Venice. Due to the absence of recent documentation on the church, the Correr Museum asked the Laboratorio di Fotogrammetria to provide it with the aim of setting up an exhibition about the order of the Camaldolesi, owners of the San Michele island and church. The Laboratorio has made the survey of the facade through laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry. The point clouds were the starting point for prototypation and 3D printing on different supports. The idea of the integration between a 3D printed tactile surface and sensors was born as a final thesis project at the Postgraduate Mastercourse in Digital

  12. 3D expression patterns of cell cycle genes in the developing chick wing and comparison with expression patterns of genes implicated in digit specification.

    PubMed

    Welten, Monique; Pavlovska, Gordana; Chen, Yu; Teruoka, Yuko; Fisher, Malcolm; Bangs, Fiona; Towers, Matthew; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-05-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling controls integrated specification of digit pattern and growth in the chick wing but downstream gene networks remain to be unravelled. We analysed 3D expression patterns of genes encoding cell cycle regulators using Optical Projection Tomography. Hierarchical clustering of spatial matrices of gene expression revealed a dorsal layer of the wing bud, in which almost all genes were expressed, and that genes encoding positive cell cycle regulators had similar expression patterns while those of N-myc and CyclinD2 were distinct but closely related. We compared these patterns computationally with those of genes implicated in digit specification and Ptch1, 50 genes in total. Nineteen genes have similar posterior expression to Ptch1, including Hoxd13, Sall1, Hoxd11, and Bmp2, all likely Gli targets in mouse limb, and cell cycle genes, N-myc, CyclinD2. We suggest that these genes contribute to a network integrating digit specification and growth in response to Shh.

  13. 3D digital image processing for biofilm quantification from confocal laser scanning microscopy: Multidimensional statistical analysis of biofilm modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Jerzy S.

    The dramatic increase in number and volume of digital images produced in medical diagnostics, and the escalating demand for rapid access to these relevant medical data, along with the need for interpretation and retrieval has become of paramount importance to a modern healthcare system. Therefore, there is an ever growing need for processed, interpreted and saved images of various types. Due to the high cost and unreliability of human-dependent image analysis, it is necessary to develop an automated method for feature extraction, using sophisticated mathematical algorithms and reasoning. This work is focused on digital image signal processing of biological and biomedical data in one- two- and three-dimensional space. Methods and algorithms presented in this work were used to acquire data from genomic sequences, breast cancer, and biofilm images. One-dimensional analysis was applied to DNA sequences which were presented as a non-stationary sequence and modeled by a time-dependent autoregressive moving average (TD-ARMA) model. Two-dimensional analyses used 2D-ARMA model and applied it to detect breast cancer from x-ray mammograms or ultrasound images. Three-dimensional detection and classification techniques were applied to biofilm images acquired using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Modern medical images are geometrically arranged arrays of data. The broadening scope of imaging as a way to organize our observations of the biophysical world has led to a dramatic increase in our ability to apply new processing techniques and to combine multiple channels of data into sophisticated and complex mathematical models of physiological function and dysfunction. With explosion of the amount of data produced in a field of biomedicine, it is crucial to be able to construct accurate mathematical models of the data at hand. Two main purposes of signal modeling are: data size conservation and parameter extraction. Specifically, in biomedical imaging we have four key problems

  14. A versatile pipeline for the multi-scale digital reconstruction and quantitative analysis of 3D tissue architecture

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Navarrete, Hernán; Segovia-Miranda, Fabián; Klukowski, Piotr; Meyer, Kirstin; Nonaka, Hidenori; Marsico, Giovanni; Chernykh, Mikhail; Kalaidzidis, Alexander; Zerial, Marino; Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite for the systems biology analysis of tissues is an accurate digital three-dimensional reconstruction of tissue structure based on images of markers covering multiple scales. Here, we designed a flexible pipeline for the multi-scale reconstruction and quantitative morphological analysis of tissue architecture from microscopy images. Our pipeline includes newly developed algorithms that address specific challenges of thick dense tissue reconstruction. Our implementation allows for a flexible workflow, scalable to high-throughput analysis and applicable to various mammalian tissues. We applied it to the analysis of liver tissue and extracted quantitative parameters of sinusoids, bile canaliculi and cell shapes, recognizing different liver cell types with high accuracy. Using our platform, we uncovered an unexpected zonation pattern of hepatocytes with different size, nuclei and DNA content, thus revealing new features of liver tissue organization. The pipeline also proved effective to analyse lung and kidney tissue, demonstrating its generality and robustness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11214.001 PMID:26673893

  15. Digital breast tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) screening: A pictorial review of screen-detected cancers and false recalls attributed to tomosynthesis in prospective screening trials.

    PubMed

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lång, Kristina; Bernardi, Daniela; Tagliafico, Alberto; Zackrisson, Sophia; Skaane, Per

    2016-04-01

    This pictorial review highlights cancers detected only at tomosynthesis screening and screens falsely recalled in the course of breast tomosynthesis screening, illustrating both true-positive (TP) and false-positive (FP) detection attributed to tomosynthesis. Images and descriptive data were used to characterise cases of screen-detection with tomosynthesis, sourced from prospective screening trials that performed standard (2D) digital mammography (DM) and tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) in the same screening participants. Exemplar cases from four trials highlight common themes of relevance to screening practice including: the type of lesions frequently made more conspicuous or perceptible by tomosynthesis (spiculated masses, and architectural distortions); the histologic findings (both TP and FP) of tomosynthesis-only detection; and the need to extend breast work-up protocols (additional imaging including ultrasound and MRI, and tomosynthesis-guided biopsy) if tomosynthesis is adopted for primary screening. PMID:27017251

  16. Creation of 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model actual patient non-rigid body motion as determined from MRI and position tracking studies of volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, C. M.; Konik, A.; Dasari, P. K. R.; Segars, P.; Zheng, S.; Johnson, K. L.; Dey, J.; King, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Patient motion can cause artifacts, which can lead to difficulty in interpretation. The purpose of this study is to create 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model the location of the structures of the chest and upper abdomen of human volunteers undergoing a series of clinically relevant motions. The 3D anatomy is modeled using the XCAT phantom and based on MRI studies. The NURBS surfaces of the XCAT are interactively adapted to fit the MRI studies. A detailed XCAT phantom is first developed from an EKG triggered Navigator acquisition composed of sagittal slices with a 3 x 3 x 3 mm voxel dimension. Rigid body motion states are then acquired at breath-hold as sagittal slices partially covering the thorax, centered on the heart, with 9 mm gaps between them. For non-rigid body motion requiring greater sampling, modified Navigator sequences covering the entire thorax with 3 mm gaps between slices are obtained. The structures of the initial XCAT are then adapted to fit these different motion states. Simultaneous to MRI imaging the positions of multiple reflective markers on stretchy bands about the volunteer's chest and abdomen are optically tracked in 3D via stereo imaging. These phantoms with combined position tracking will be used to investigate both imaging-data-driven and motion-tracking strategies to estimate and correct for patient motion. Our initial application will be to cardiacperfusion SPECT imaging where the XCAT phantoms will be used to create patient activity and attenuation distributions for each volunteer with corresponding motion tracking data from the markers on the body-surface. Monte Carlo methods will then be used to simulate SPECT acquisitions, which will be used to evaluate various motion estimation and correction strategies.

  17. 3D mechanical analysis of aeronautical plain bearings: Validation of a finite element model from measurement of displacement fields by digital volume correlation and optical scanning tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germaneau, A.; Peyruseigt, F.; Mistou, S.; Doumalin, P.; Dupré, J.-C.

    2010-06-01

    On Airbus aircraft, spherical plain bearings are used on many components; in particular to link engine to pylon or pylon to wing. Design of bearings is based on contact pressure distribution on spherical surfaces. To determine this distribution, a 3D analysis of the mechanical behaviour of aeronautical plain bearing is presented in this paper. A numerical model has been built and validated from a comparison with 3D experimental measurements of kinematic components. For that, digital volume correlation (DVC) coupled with optical scanning tomography (OST) is employed to study the mechanical response of a plain bearing model made in epoxy resin. Experimental results have been compared with the ones obtained from the simulated model. This comparison enables us to study the influence of various boundary conditions to build the FE model. Some factors have been highlighted like the fitting behaviour which can radically change contact pressure distribution. This work shows the contribution of a representative mechanical environment to study precisely mechanical response of aeronautical plain bearings.

  18. Predation by the Dwarf Seahorse on Copepods: Quantifying Motion and Flows Using 3D High Speed Digital Holographic Cinematography - When Seahorses Attack!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmell, Brad; Sheng, Jian; Buskey, Ed

    2008-11-01

    Copepods are an important planktonic food source for most of the world's fish species. This high predation pressure has led copepods to evolve an extremely effective escape response, with reaction times to hydrodynamic disturbances of less than 4 ms and escape speeds of over 500 body lengths per second. Using 3D high speed digital holographic cinematography (up to 2000 frames per second) we elucidate the role of entrainment flow fields generated by a natural visual predator, the dwarf seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) during attacks on its prey, Acartia tonsa. Using phytoplankton as a tracer, we recorded and reconstructed 3D flow fields around the head of the seahorse and its prey during both successful and unsuccessful attacks to better understand how some attacks lead to capture with little or no detection from the copepod while others result in failed attacks. Attacks start with a slow approach to minimize the hydro-mechanical disturbance which is used by copepods to detect the approach of a potential predator. Successful attacks result in the seahorse using its pipette-like mouth to create suction faster than the copepod's response latency. As these characteristic scales of entrainment increase, a successful escape becomes more likely.

  19. 3D micro-scale deformations of wood in bending: synchrotron radiation muCT data analyzed with digital volume correlation.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, F; Mooser, R; Arnold, M; Hack, E; Wyss, P

    2008-12-01

    A micro-scale three-point-bending experiment with a wood specimen was carried out and monitored by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. The full three-dimensional wood structure of the 1.57x3.42x0.75mm(3) specimen was reconstructed at cellular level in different loading states. Furthermore, the full three-dimensional deformation field of the loaded wood specimen was determined by digital volume correlation, applied to the reconstructed data at successive loading states. Results from two selected regions within the wood specimen are presented as continuous displacement and strain fields in both 2D and 3D. The applied combination of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and digital volume correlation for the deformation analysis of wood under bending stress is a novel application in wood material science. The method offers the potential for the simultaneous observation of structural changes and quantified deformations during in situ micro-mechanical experiments. Moreover, the high spatial resolution allows studying the influence of anatomical features on the fracture behaviour of wood. Possible applications of this method range from bio-mechanical observations in fresh plant tissue to fracture mechanics aspects in structural timber. PMID:18804168

  20. 3D micro-scale deformations of wood in bending: synchrotron radiation muCT data analyzed with digital volume correlation.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, F; Mooser, R; Arnold, M; Hack, E; Wyss, P

    2008-12-01

    A micro-scale three-point-bending experiment with a wood specimen was carried out and monitored by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. The full three-dimensional wood structure of the 1.57x3.42x0.75mm(3) specimen was reconstructed at cellular level in different loading states. Furthermore, the full three-dimensional deformation field of the loaded wood specimen was determined by digital volume correlation, applied to the reconstructed data at successive loading states. Results from two selected regions within the wood specimen are presented as continuous displacement and strain fields in both 2D and 3D. The applied combination of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and digital volume correlation for the deformation analysis of wood under bending stress is a novel application in wood material science. The method offers the potential for the simultaneous observation of structural changes and quantified deformations during in situ micro-mechanical experiments. Moreover, the high spatial resolution allows studying the influence of anatomical features on the fracture behaviour of wood. Possible applications of this method range from bio-mechanical observations in fresh plant tissue to fracture mechanics aspects in structural timber.

  1. 3D reconstruction of a human heart fascicle using SurfDriver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, Robert J.; Phillips, Steven J.; LaFollette, Paul S., Jr.

    2000-06-01

    The Temple University Medical School has a sequence of over 400 serial sections of adult normal ventricular human heart tissue, cut at 25 micrometer thickness. We used a Zeiss Ultraphot with a 4x planapo objective and a Pixera digital camera to make a series of 45 sequential montages to use in the 3D reconstruction of a fascicle (muscle bundle). We wrote custom software to merge 4 smaller image fields from each section into one composite image. We used SurfDriver software, developed by Scott Lozanoff of the University of Hawaii and David Moody of the University of Alberta, for registration, object boundary identification, and 3D surface reconstruction. We used an Epson Stylus Color 900 printer to get photo-quality prints. We describe the challenge and our solution to the following problems: image acquisition and digitization, image merge, alignment and registration, boundary identification, 3D surface reconstruction, 3D visualization and orientation, snapshot, and photo-quality prints.

  2. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  3. Analysis of trabecular bone architectural changes induced by osteoarthritis in rabbit femur using 3D active shape model and digital topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P. K.; Rajapakse, C. S.; Williams, D. S.; Duong, L.; Coimbra, A.

    2007-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disease, which causes the cartilage between the bone joints to wear away, leading to pain and stiffness. Currently, progression of OA is monitored by measuring joint space width using x-ray or cartilage volume using MRI. However, OA affects all periarticular tissues, including cartilage and bone. It has been shown previously that in animal models of OA, trabecular bone (TB) architecture is particularly affected. Furthermore, relative changes in architecture are dependent on the depth of the TB region with respect to the bone surface and main direction of load on the bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for accurately evaluating 3D architectural changes induced by OA in TB. Determining the TB test domain that represents the same anatomic region across different animals is crucial for studying disease etiology, progression and response to therapy. It also represents a major technical challenge in analyzing architectural changes. Here, we solve this problem using a new active shape model (ASM)-based approach. A new and effective semi-automatic landmark selection approach has been developed for rabbit distal femur surface that can easily be adopted for many other anatomical regions. It has been observed that, on average, a trained operator can complete the user interaction part of landmark specification process in less than 15 minutes for each bone data set. Digital topological analysis and fuzzy distance transform derived parameters are used for quantifying TB architecture. The method has been applied on micro-CT data of excised rabbit femur joints from anterior cruciate ligament transected (ACLT) (n = 6) and sham (n = 9) operated groups collected at two and two-to-eight week post-surgery, respectively. An ASM of the rabbit right distal femur has been generated from the sham group micro-CT data. The results suggest that, in conjunction with ASM, digital topological parameters are suitable for

  4. A compact 3D-printed interface for coupling open digital microchips with Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Bi; Chen, Ting-Ru; Chang, Chia-Hsien; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L

    2015-03-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) based on the electrowetting-on-dielectric phenomenon is a convenient way of handling microlitre-volume aliquots of solutions prior to analysis. Although it was shown to be compatible with on-line mass spectrometric detection, due to numerous technical obstacles, the implementation of DMF in conjunction with MS is still beyond the reach of many analytical laboratories. Here we present a facile method for coupling open DMF microchips to mass spectrometers using Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization operated at atmospheric pressure. The proposed interface comprises a 3D-printed body that can easily be "clipped" at the inlet of a standard mass spectrometer. The accessory features all the necessary connections for an open-architecture DMF microchip with T-shaped electrode arrangement, thermostatting of the microchip, purification of air (to prevent accidental contamination of the microchip), a Venturi pump, and two microfluidic pumps to facilitate transfer of samples and reagents onto the microchip. The system also incorporates a touch-screen panel and remote control for user-friendly operation. It is based on the use of popular open-source electronic modules, and can readily be assembled at low expense.

  5. Analysis and Visualization of 2D and 3D Grain and Pore Size ofFontainebleau Sandstone Using Digital Rock Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latief, FDE

    2016-08-01

    Fontainebleau sandstone is sandstone found in one of the cities in France. This sandstone has unique characteristics, which is a clean-fme sandstone, composed of 99% quartz, virtually devoid of clay, with the grain size of about 200 μm. Fontainebleau sandstone is widely used as a reference in the study of rock microstructure analysis and modelling. In this work analysis regarding the grain and pore size of Fontainebleau is presented. Calculation of 2D pore size and grain size distribution were done on the 299 slice of digital image of the Fontainebleau sandstone using Feret's diameters, equivalent diameters (d = 4A/P), and by means of local thickness/separation using plate model. For the 3D grain and pore size distribution, calculation of local thickness and local separation of the structure were used. Two dimensional analysis by means of Feret's diameter and equivalent diameter reveal that both grain and pore size distributions are in the form of reverse-J shaped (right skewed) while the local thickness/separation approach produces almost similar to symmetric Gaussian distribution. Three dimensional analysis produces fairly symmetric Gaussian distribution for both the grain and pore size. Further image processing were conducted and were succeed in producing three dimensional visual of the colour coded structure thickness (grain related) and structure separation (pore related).

  6. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  7. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  8. HIPPI/Serial-HIPPI

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E. ); Halvorson, M.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) is a simple high-performance, point-to-point channel for transmitting digital data at peak data rates of 800 or 1600 Mbit/S. The transmission distance between data processing equipment using copper cabling can be up to 25 meters. This distance may be increased by using a Serial-HIPPI extender. This paper describes the HIPPI channel, the choices considered for a serial extender, and the resulting agreement for the Serial-HIPPI specification. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  9. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  10. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day.

  11. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day. PMID:27242064

  12. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    Apollo's 3-dimensional graphics hardware, but does not take advantage of the shading and hidden line/surface removal capabilities of the Apollo DN10000. Although this implementation does not offer a capability for putting text on plots, it does support the use of a mouse to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. The version 3.6b+ Apollo implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12789) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12785) were developed for use on Apollo computers running UNIX System V with BSD 4.3 extensions and the graphics library GMR3D Version 2.0. The standard distribution media for each of these programs is a 9-track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: 1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); 2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777, ARC-12781); 3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations (ARC-12783, ARC-12782). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard, Incorporated. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

  13. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    Apollo's 3-dimensional graphics hardware, but does not take advantage of the shading and hidden line/surface removal capabilities of the Apollo DN10000. Although this implementation does not offer a capability for putting text on plots, it does support the use of a mouse to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. The version 3.6b+ Apollo implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12789) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12785) were developed for use on Apollo computers running UNIX System V with BSD 4.3 extensions and the graphics library GMR3D Version 2.0. The standard distribution media for each of these programs is a 9-track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: 1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); 2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777, ARC-12781); 3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations (ARC-12783, ARC-12782). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard, Incorporated. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

  14. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  15. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  16. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  17. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  18. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  19. Design of smart 3D-digital X-ray microtomographic scanners for non-destructive testing of materials and components of electronic devices with a multilayered structure

    SciTech Connect

    Syryamkin, V. I. Klestov, S. A. Echina, E. S.; Suntsov, S. B.

    2015-10-27

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. Chapter 4 covers general procedures of defect search, which is based on vector analysis principles. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  20. Application of 3-D digital deconvolution to optically sectioned images for improving the automatic analysis of fluorescent-labeled tumor specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockett, Stephen J.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Herman, Brian

    1992-06-01

    The analysis of fluorescent stained clusters of cells has been improved by recording multiple images of the same microscopic scene at different focal planes and then applying a three dimensional (3-D) out of focus background subtraction algorithm. The algorithm significantly reduced the out of focus signal and improved the spatial resolution. The method was tested on specimens of 10 micrometers diameter ((phi) ) beads embedded in agarose and on a 5 micrometers breast tumor section labeled with a fluorescent DNA stain. The images were analyzed using an algorithm for automatically detecting fluorescent objects. The proportion of correctly detected in focus beads and breast nuclei increased from 1/8 to 8/8 and from 56/104 to 81/104 respectively after processing by the subtraction algorithm. Furthermore, the subtraction algorithm reduced the proportion of out of focus relative to in focus total intensity detected in the bead images from 51% to 33%. Further developments of these techniques, that utilize the 3-D point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system and a 3-D segmentation algorithm, should result in the correct detection and precise quantification of virtually all cells in solid tumor specimens. Thus the approach should serve as a highly reliable automated screening method for a wide variety of clinical specimens.

  1. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  2. Showing their true colors: a practical approach to volume rendering from serial sections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In comparison to more modern imaging methods, conventional light microscopy still offers a range of substantial advantages with regard to contrast options, accessible specimen size, and resolution. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. To date, this method has only very rarely been applied to image stacks taken from serial sections, whereas surface rendering is still the most prevalent method for presenting such data sets three-dimensionally. The aim of this study was to develop standard protocols for volume rendering of image stacks of serial sections, while retaining the benefits of light microscopy such as resolution and color information. Results Here we provide a set of protocols for acquiring high-resolution 3D images of diverse microscopic samples through volume rendering based on serial light microscopical sections using the 3D reconstruction software Amira (Visage Imaging Inc.). We overcome several technical obstacles and show that these renderings are comparable in quality and resolution to 3D visualizations using other methods. This practical approach for visualizing 3D micro-morphology in full color takes advantage of both the sub-micron resolution of light microscopy and the specificity of histological stains, by combining conventional histological sectioning techniques, digital image acquisition, three-dimensional image filtering, and 3D image manipulation and visualization technologies. Conclusions We show that this method can yield "true"-colored high-resolution 3D views of tissues as well as cellular and sub-cellular structures and thus represents a powerful tool for morphological, developmental, and comparative investigations. We conclude that the presented approach fills an important gap in the field of micro-anatomical 3D imaging and visualization methods by combining histological resolution and differentiation of details with 3D rendering of whole

  3. Investigation, development and application of optimal output feedback theory. Volume 2: Development of an optimal, limited state feedback outer-loop digital flight control system for 3-D terminal area operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.; Halyo, N.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains the development of a digital outer-loop three dimensional radio navigation (3-D RNAV) flight control system for a small commercial jet transport. The outer-loop control system is designed using optimal stochastic limited state feedback techniques. Options investigated using the optimal limited state feedback approach include integrated versus hierarchical control loop designs, 20 samples per second versus 5 samples per second outer-loop operation and alternative Type 1 integration command errors. Command generator tracking techniques used in the digital control design enable the jet transport to automatically track arbitrary curved flight paths generated by waypoints. The performance of the design is demonstrated using detailed nonlinear aircraft simulations in the terminal area, frequency domain multi-input sigma plots, frequency domain single-input Bode plots and closed-loop poles. The response of the system to a severe wind shear during a landing approach is also presented.

  4. Application of 3D digital image correlation for development and validation of FEM model of self-supporting metal plates structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malowany, Krzysztof; Malesa, Marcin; Piekarczuk, Artur; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Skrzypczak, Paweł; Wiech, Przemysław

    2016-04-01

    Many building structures due to complex geometry and nonlinear material properties are difficult to be analyzed with FEM methods. A good example is a self-supporting metal plates structure. Considering uncommon geometry and material characteristic of a metal plate (due to plastic deformations, cross section of a trough, a goffer pattern), the local loss of stability can occur in unexpected regions. Therefore, the hybrid experimental-numerical methodology of analysis and optimization of metal plates structures has been developed. The methodology is based on three steps of development and validation of a numerical model with utilization of Digital Image Correlation measurements. In each step, the measurements are performed in different environments, with different accuracies and different scales. In this paper, the results of analysis performed with Digital Image Correlation, that enabled development and validation of FEM model are presented. The performed modification of a measurement setup is also described.

  5. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  6. Pilot Study on the Detection of Simulated Lesions Using a 2D and 3D Digital Full-Field Mammography System with a Newly Developed High Resolution Detector Based on Two Shifts of a-Se.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Wendtland, R; Bani, M; Lux, M P; Schwab, S; Loehberg, C R; Jud, S M; Rauh, C; Bayer, C M; Beckmann, M W; Uder, M; Fasching, P A; Adamietz, B; Meier-Meitinger, M

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Experimental study of a new system for digital 2D and 3D full-field mammography (FFDM) using a high resolution detector based on two shifts of a-Se. Material and Methods: Images were acquired using the new FFDM system Amulet® (FujiFilm, Tokio, Japan), an a-Se detector (receptor 24 × 30 cm(2), pixel size 50 µm, memory depth 12 bit, spatial resolution 10 lp/mm, DQE > 0.50). Integrated in the detector is a new method for data transfer, based on optical switch technology. The object of investigation was the Wisconsin Mammographic Random Phantom, Model 152A (Radiation Measurement Inc., Middleton, WI, USA) and the same parameters and exposure data (Tungsten, 100 mAs, 30 kV) were consistently used. We acquired 3 different pairs of images in the c-c and ml planes (2D) and in the c-c and c-c planes with an angle of 4 degrees (3D). Five radiologists experienced in mammography (experience ranging from 3 months to more than 5 years) analyzed the images (monitoring) which had been randomly encoded (random generator) with regard to the recognition of details such as specks of aluminum oxide (200-740 µm), nylon fibers (0.4-1.6 mm) and round lesions/masses (diameters 5-14 mm), using special linear glasses for 3D visualization, and compared the results. Results: A total of 225 correct positive decisions could be detected: we found 222 (98.7 %) correct positive results for 2D and 3D visualization in each case. Conclusion: The results of this phantom study showed the same detection rates for both 2D and 3D imaging using full field digital mammography. Our results must be confirmed in further clinical trials.

  7. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  8. 3D Imaging by Mass Spectrometry: A New Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Erin H.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Imaging mass spectrometry can generate three-dimensional volumes showing molecular distributions in an entire organ or animal through registration and stacking of serial tissue sections. Here we review the current state of 3D imaging mass spectrometry as well as provide insights and perspectives on the process of generating 3D mass spectral data along with a discussion of the process necessary to generate a 3D image volume. PMID:22276611

  9. Serial interface controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  10. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  11. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  12. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  13. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  14. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  15. Serial Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    In a year filled with drama and hyperbole, the serials marketplace churned toward a future whose shape is the subject of fierce debate. Forecasts from commercial publishers touting collapse and disaster seemed oddly out of sync with the profits they enjoyed--around 25 percent on average. Nevertheless, in a market where prices continued to rise and…

  16. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  17. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  18. Localizing Protein in 3D Neural Stem Cell Culture: a Hybrid Visualization Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of 3-dimensional (3D) topography in influencing neural stem and progenitor cell (NPC) phenotype is widely acknowledged yet challenging to study. When dissociated from embryonic or post-natal brain, single NPCs will proliferate in suspension to form neurospheres. Daughter cells within these cultures spontaneously adopt distinct developmental lineages (neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes) over the course of expansion despite being exposed to the same extracellular milieu. This progression recapitulates many of the stages observed over the course of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in post-natal brain and is often used to study basic NPC biology within a controlled environment. Assessing the full impact of 3D topography and cellular positioning within these cultures on NPC fate is, however, difficult. To localize target proteins and identify NPC lineages by immunocytochemistry, free-floating neurospheres must be plated on a substrate or serially sectioned. This processing is required to ensure equivalent cell permeabilization and antibody access throughout the sphere. As a result, 2D epifluorescent images of cryosections or confocal reconstructions of 3D Z-stacks can only provide spatial information about cell position within discrete physical or digital 3D slices and do not visualize cellular position in the intact sphere. Here, to reiterate the topography of the neurosphere culture and permit spatial analysis of protein expression throughout the entire culture, we present a protocol for isolation, expansion, and serial sectioning of post-natal hippocampal neurospheres suitable for epifluorescent or confocal immunodetection of target proteins. Connexin29 (Cx29) is analyzed as an example. Next, using a hybrid of graphic editing and 3D modelling softwares rigorously applied to maintain biological detail, we describe how to re-assemble the 3D structural positioning of these images and digitally map labelled cells within the complete neurosphere. This

  19. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  20. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  1. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  2. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  3. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  4. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  5. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  6. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  7. Hypereutectic AlSi Alloy: Gathering of 3D Microstructure Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaberger-Zimmermann, E.; Mathes, M.; Zimmermann, G.

    2016-08-01

    Hypereutectic and eutectic AlSi-base alloys find frequent application in casting automotive components. The properties of this type of alloy depend significantly on their solidification microstructure, especially the size, shape, and distribution of primary and eutectic silicon. The serial sectioning technique was applied for determining the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of an Al-18wt.%Si alloy. For clear identification of both the larger primary Si particles grown in the melt and the fine lamellar eutectic Si, a series of two-dimensional equidistant cross sections were metallographically prepared. The microstructure in these cross sections was detected and observed at high resolution using a light microscope. The images were stored in a digital library. The 3D reconstruction of primary Si particles and AlSi eutectic was achieved through the application of various software tools. This provided data about the faceted growth behavior of octahedral Si particles and feathery eutectic Si. The image stack was also imported to hierarchical data format (version 5) (HDF5) open source format, thus, enabling availability of the 3D image data to the wider community. In this way, 3D reconstructions of this kind can contribute to a greater understanding of processing/microstructure property relationships in hypereutectic AlSi alloys.

  8. Hypereutectic AlSi Alloy: Gathering of 3D Microstructure Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaberger-Zimmermann, E.; Mathes, M.; Zimmermann, G.

    2016-06-01

    Hypereutectic and eutectic AlSi-base alloys find frequent application in casting automotive components. The properties of this type of alloy depend significantly on their solidification microstructure, especially the size, shape, and distribution of primary and eutectic silicon. The serial sectioning technique was applied for determining the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of an Al-18wt.%Si alloy. For clear identification of both the larger primary Si particles grown in the melt and the fine lamellar eutectic Si, a series of two-dimensional equidistant cross sections were metallographically prepared. The microstructure in these cross sections was detected and observed at high resolution using a light microscope. The images were stored in a digital library. The 3D reconstruction of primary Si particles and AlSi eutectic was achieved through the application of various software tools. This provided data about the faceted growth behavior of octahedral Si particles and feathery eutectic Si. The image stack was also imported to hierarchical data format (version 5) (HDF5) open source format, thus, enabling availability of the 3D image data to the wider community. In this way, 3D reconstructions of this kind can contribute to a greater understanding of processing/microstructure property relationships in hypereutectic AlSi alloys.

  9. Crashworthiness simulations with DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, D.A.; Hoover, C.G.; Kay, G.J.; Lee, A.S.; De Groot, A.J.

    1996-04-01

    Current progress in parallel algorithm research and applications in vehicle crash simulation is described for the explicit, finite element algorithms in DYNA3D. Problem partitioning methods and parallel algorithms for contact at material interfaces are the two challenging algorithm research problems that are addressed. Two prototype parallel contact algorithms have been developed for treating the cases of local and arbitrary contact. Demonstration problems for local contact are crashworthiness simulations with 222 locally defined contact surfaces and a vehicle/barrier collision modeled with arbitrary contact. A simulation of crash tests conducted for a vehicle impacting a U-channel small sign post embedded in soil has been run on both the serial and parallel versions of DYNA3D. A significant reduction in computational time has been observed when running these problems on the parallel version. However, to achieve maximum efficiency, complex problems must be appropriately partitioned, especially when contact dominates the computation.

  10. Invertible authentication for 3D meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jana; Benedens, Oliver

    2003-06-01

    Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. Based on the introduced media independent protocol schemes for invertible data authentication in references 2, 4 and 5 we discuss the design of a new 3D invertible labeling technique to ensure and require high data integrity. We combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable integrity. Furthermore the protocol steps in the other papers to ensure that the original data can only be reproduced with a secret key is adopted for 3D meshes. The goal is to show how the existing protocol can be used for 3D meshes to provide solutions for authentication watermarking. In our design concept and evaluation we see that due to the nature of 3D meshes the invertible function are different from the image and audio concepts to achieve invertibility to guaranty reversibility of the original. Therefore we introduce a concept for distortion free invertibility and a concept for adjustable minimum distortion invertibility.

  11. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  12. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  13. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  14. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  16. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    PubMed

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  18. Microbial metabolic exchange in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Watrous, Jeramie D; Phelan, Vanessa V; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Moree, Wilna J; Duggan, Brendan M; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2013-01-01

    Mono- and multispecies microbial populations alter the chemistry of their surrounding environments during colony development thereby influencing multicellular behavior and interspecies interactions of neighboring microbes. Here we present a methodology that enables the creation of three-dimensional (3D) models of a microbial chemotype that can be correlated to the colony phenotype through multimodal imaging analysis. These models are generated by performing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) on serial cross-sections of microbial colonies grown on 8 mm deep agar, registering data sets of each serial section in MATLAB to create a model, and then superimposing the model with a photograph of the colonies themselves. As proof-of-principle, 3D models were used to visualize metabolic exchange during microbial interactions between Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces coelicolor, as well as, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The resulting models were able to capture the depth profile of secreted metabolites within the agar medium and revealed properties of certain mass signals that were previously not observable using two-dimensional MALDI-TOF IMS. Most significantly, the 3D models were capable of mapping previously unobserved chemical distributions within the array of sub-surface hyphae of C. albicans and how this chemistry is altered by the presence of P. aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen known to alter virulence of C. albicans. It was determined that the presence of C. albicans triggered increased rhamnolipid production by P. aeruginosa, which in turn was capable of inhibiting embedded hyphal growth produced beneath the C. albicans colony at ambient temperature. PMID:23283018

  19. Multiple 3D medical data watermarking for healthcare data management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk-Hwan; Kwon, Ki-Ryong

    2011-12-01

    The rapid development of healthcare information management for 3D digital medical libraries, 3D PACS, and 3D medical diagnosis has addressed the security issues pertaining to medical IT technology. This paper presents multiple watermarking schemes for a healthcare information management system for 3D medical image data for the protection, authentication, indexing, and hiding of diagnosis information. The proposed scheme, which is based on POCS watermarking, embeds a robust watermark for a doctor's digital signature and an information retrieval indexing key to the distribution of vertex curvedness; the scheme also embeds a fragile watermark for diagnosis information and an authentication reference message to the vertex distance difference. The multiple embedding process creates three convex sets for robustness, fragileness, and invisibility and projects the 3D medical image data onto these three convex sets alternately and iteratively. Experimental results confirmed that the proposed scheme has the robustness and fragileness to handle various 3D geometric and mesh modifiers simultaneously.

  20. Parallel CARLOS-3D code development

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, J.M.; Kotulski, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

  1. Monolithic 3D CMOS Using Layered Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Sachid, Angada B; Tosun, Mahmut; Desai, Sujay B; Hsu, Ching-Yi; Lien, Der-Hsien; Madhvapathy, Surabhi R; Chen, Yu-Ze; Hettick, Mark; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Zeng, Yuping; He, Jr-Hau; Chang, Edward Yi; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Javey, Ali; Hu, Chenming

    2016-04-01

    Monolithic 3D integrated circuits using transition metal dichalcogenide materials and low-temperature processing are reported. A variety of digital and analog circuits are implemented on two sequentially integrated layers of devices. Inverter circuit operation at an ultralow supply voltage of 150 mV is achieved, paving the way to high-density, ultralow-voltage, and ultralow-power applications. PMID:26833783

  2. 2D and 3D MALDI-imaging: conceptual strategies for visualization and data mining.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Herbert; Heldmann, Stefan; Trede, Dennis; Strehlow, Jan; Wirtz, Stefan; Dreher, Wolfgang; Berger, Judith; Oetjen, Janina; Kobarg, Jan Hendrik; Fischer, Bernd; Maass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    registration techniques. Different strategies for automatic serial image registration applied to MS datasets are outlined in detail. The third image modality is histology driven, i.e. a digital scan of the histological stained slices in high-resolution. After fusion of reconstructed scan images and MRI the slice-related coordinates of the mass spectra can be propagated into 3D-space. After image registration of scan images and histological stained images, the anatomical information from histology is fused with the mass spectra from MALDI-MSI. As a result of the described pipeline we have a set of 3 dimensional images representing the same anatomies, i.e. the reconstructed slice scans, the spectral images as well as corresponding clustering results, and the acquired MRI. Great emphasis is put on the fact that the co-registered MRI providing anatomical details improves the interpretation of 3D MALDI images. The ability to relate mass spectrometry derived molecular information with in vivo and in vitro imaging has potentially important implications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23467008

  3. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  4. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  5. 3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…

  6. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  7. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  8. MAP3D: a media processor approach for high-end 3D graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsa, Lucia; Stadnicki, Steven; Basoglu, Chris

    1999-12-01

    Equator Technologies, Inc. has used a software-first approach to produce several programmable and advanced VLIW processor architectures that have the flexibility to run both traditional systems tasks and an array of media-rich applications. For example, Equator's MAP1000A is the world's fastest single-chip programmable signal and image processor targeted for digital consumer and office automation markets. The Equator MAP3D is a proposal for the architecture of the next generation of the Equator MAP family. The MAP3D is designed to achieve high-end 3D performance and a variety of customizable special effects by combining special graphics features with high performance floating-point and media processor architecture. As a programmable media processor, it offers the advantages of a completely configurable 3D pipeline--allowing developers to experiment with different algorithms and to tailor their pipeline to achieve the highest performance for a particular application. With the support of Equator's advanced C compiler and toolkit, MAP3D programs can be written in a high-level language. This allows the compiler to successfully find and exploit any parallelism in a programmer's code, thus decreasing the time to market of a given applications. The ability to run an operating system makes it possible to run concurrent applications in the MAP3D chip, such as video decoding while executing the 3D pipelines, so that integration of applications is easily achieved--using real-time decoded imagery for texturing 3D objects, for instance. This novel architecture enables an affordable, integrated solution for high performance 3D graphics.

  9. Multizone Paper Platform for 3D Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Derda, Ratmir; Hong, Estrella; Mwangi, Martin; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro 3D culture is an important model for tissues in vivo. Cells in different locations of 3D tissues are physiologically different, because they are exposed to different concentrations of oxygen, nutrients, and signaling molecules, and to other environmental factors (temperature, mechanical stress, etc). The majority of high-throughput assays based on 3D cultures, however, can only detect the average behavior of cells in the whole 3D construct. Isolation of cells from specific regions of 3D cultures is possible, but relies on low-throughput techniques such as tissue sectioning and micromanipulation. Based on a procedure reported previously (“cells-in-gels-in-paper” or CiGiP), this paper describes a simple method for culture of arrays of thin planar sections of tissues, either alone or stacked to create more complex 3D tissue structures. This procedure starts with sheets of paper patterned with hydrophobic regions that form 96 hydrophilic zones. Serial spotting of cells suspended in extracellular matrix (ECM) gel onto the patterned paper creates an array of 200 micron-thick slabs of ECM gel (supported mechanically by cellulose fibers) containing cells. Stacking the sheets with zones aligned on top of one another assembles 96 3D multilayer constructs. De-stacking the layers of the 3D culture, by peeling apart the sheets of paper, “sections” all 96 cultures at once. It is, thus, simple to isolate 200-micron-thick cell-containing slabs from each 3D culture in the 96-zone array. Because the 3D cultures are assembled from multiple layers, the number of cells plated initially in each layer determines the spatial distribution of cells in the stacked 3D cultures. This capability made it possible to compare the growth of 3D tumor models of different spatial composition, and to examine the migration of cells in these structures. PMID:21573103

  10. Developing 3D SEM in a broad biological context

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, A; Lippens, S; Bartunkova, S; Asselbergh, B; Blanpain, C; Fendrych, M; Goossens, A; Holt, M; Janssens, S; Krols, M; Larsimont, J-C; Mc Guire, C; Nowack, MK; Saelens, X; Schertel, A; Schepens, B; Slezak, M; Timmerman, V; Theunis, C; Van Brempt, R; Visser, Y; GuÉRin, CJ

    2015-01-01

    When electron microscopy (EM) was introduced in the 1930s it gave scientists their first look into the nanoworld of cells. Over the last 80 years EM has vastly increased our understanding of the complex cellular structures that underlie the diverse functions that cells need to maintain life. One drawback that has been difficult to overcome was the inherent lack of volume information, mainly due to the limit on the thickness of sections that could be viewed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). For many years scientists struggled to achieve three-dimensional (3D) EM using serial section reconstructions, TEM tomography, and scanning EM (SEM) techniques such as freeze-fracture. Although each technique yielded some special information, they required a significant amount of time and specialist expertise to obtain even a very small 3D EM dataset. Almost 20 years ago scientists began to exploit SEMs to image blocks of embedded tissues and perform serial sectioning of these tissues inside the SEM chamber. Using first focused ion beams (FIB) and subsequently robotic ultramicrotomes (serial block-face, SBF-SEM) microscopists were able to collect large volumes of 3D EM information at resolutions that could address many important biological questions, and do so in an efficient manner. We present here some examples of 3D EM taken from the many diverse specimens that have been imaged in our core facility. We propose that the next major step forward will be to efficiently correlate functional information obtained using light microscopy (LM) with 3D EM datasets to more completely investigate the important links between cell structures and their functions. Lay Description Life happens in three dimensions. For many years, first light, and then EM struggled to image the smallest parts of cells in 3D. With recent advances in technology and corresponding improvements in computing, scientists can now see the 3D world of the cell at the nanoscale. In this paper we present the

  11. 3D printing: making things at the library.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    3D printers are a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Uses for these printers include printing models, parts, and toys. 3D printers are also being developed for medical applications, including printed bone, skin, and even complete organs. Although medical printing lags behind other uses for 3D printing, it has the potential to radically change the practice of medicine over the next decade. Falling costs for hardware have made 3D printers an inexpensive technology that libraries can offer their patrons. Medical librarians will want to be familiar with this technology, as it is sure to have wide-reaching effects on the practice of medicine. PMID:23394423

  12. 3D printing: making things at the library.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    3D printers are a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Uses for these printers include printing models, parts, and toys. 3D printers are also being developed for medical applications, including printed bone, skin, and even complete organs. Although medical printing lags behind other uses for 3D printing, it has the potential to radically change the practice of medicine over the next decade. Falling costs for hardware have made 3D printers an inexpensive technology that libraries can offer their patrons. Medical librarians will want to be familiar with this technology, as it is sure to have wide-reaching effects on the practice of medicine.

  13. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct. PMID:26826637

  14. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct.

  15. Collaborative annotation of 3D crystallographic models.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J; Henderson, M; Khan, I

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AnnoCryst system-a tool that was designed to enable authenticated collaborators to share online discussions about 3D crystallographic structures through the asynchronous attachment, storage, and retrieval of annotations. Annotations are personal comments, interpretations, questions, assessments, or references that can be attached to files, data, digital objects, or Web pages. The AnnoCryst system enables annotations to be attached to 3D crystallographic models retrieved from either private local repositories (e.g., Fedora) or public online databases (e.g., Protein Data Bank or Inorganic Crystal Structure Database) via a Web browser. The system uses the Jmol plugin for viewing and manipulating the 3D crystal structures but extends Jmol by providing an additional interface through which annotations can be created, attached, stored, searched, browsed, and retrieved. The annotations are stored on a standardized Web annotation server (Annotea), which has been extended to support 3D macromolecular structures. Finally, the system is embedded within a security framework that is capable of authenticating users and restricting access only to trusted colleagues.

  16. An efficient and robust 3D mesh compression based on 3D watermarking and wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrouba, Ezzeddine; Ben Jabra, Saoussen; Didi, Yosra

    2011-06-01

    The compression and watermarking of 3D meshes are very important in many areas of activity including digital cinematography, virtual reality as well as CAD design. However, most studies on 3D watermarking and 3D compression are done independently. To verify a good trade-off between protection and a fast transfer of 3D meshes, this paper proposes a new approach which combines 3D mesh compression with mesh watermarking. This combination is based on a wavelet transformation. In fact, the used compression method is decomposed to two stages: geometric encoding and topologic encoding. The proposed approach consists to insert a signature between these two stages. First, the wavelet transformation is applied to the original mesh to obtain two components: wavelets coefficients and a coarse mesh. Then, the geometric encoding is done on these two components. The obtained coarse mesh will be marked using a robust mesh watermarking scheme. This insertion into coarse mesh allows obtaining high robustness to several attacks. Finally, the topologic encoding is applied to the marked coarse mesh to obtain the compressed mesh. The combination of compression and watermarking permits to detect the presence of signature after a compression of the marked mesh. In plus, it allows transferring protected 3D meshes with the minimum size. The experiments and evaluations show that the proposed approach presents efficient results in terms of compression gain, invisibility and robustness of the signature against of many attacks.

  17. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  18. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  19. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  20. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  1. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  2. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  3. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  4. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  5. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  6. Real time 3D scanner: investigations and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Taoufik; Pflug, Leopold

    1993-12-01

    This article presents a concept of reconstruction of 3-D objects using non-invasive and touch loss techniques. The principle of this method is to display parallel interference optical fringes on an object and then to record the object under two angles of view. According to an appropriated treatment one reconstructs the 3-D object even when the object has no symmetrical plan. The 3-D surface data is available immediately in digital form for computer- visualization and for analysis software tools. The optical set-up for recording the 3-D object, the 3-D data extraction and treatment, as well as the reconstruction of the 3-D object are reported and commented on. This application is dedicated for reconstructive/cosmetic surgery, CAD, animation and research purposes.

  7. Teat Morphology Characterization With 3D Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Heidi M; Corfe, Ian J; Sinkkonen, Ville; Iivanainen, Antti; Jernvall, Jukka; Laakkonen, Juha

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to visualize, in a novel way, the morphological characteristics of bovine teats to gain a better understanding of the detailed teat morphology. We applied silicone casting and 3D digital imaging in order to obtain a more detailed image of the teat structures than that seen in previous studies. Teat samples from 65 dairy cows over 12 months of age were obtained from cows slaughtered at an abattoir. The teats were classified according to the teat condition scoring used in Finland and the lengths of the teat canals were measured. Silicone molds were made from the external teat surface surrounding the teat orifice and from the internal surface of the teat consisting of the papillary duct, Fürstenberg's rosette, and distal part of the teat cistern. The external and internal surface molds of 35 cows were scanned with a 3D laser scanner. The molds and the digital 3D models were used to evaluate internal and external teat surface morphology. A number of measurements were taken from the silicone molds. The 3D models reproduced the morphology of the teats accurately with high repeatability. Breed didn't correlate with the teat classification score. The rosette was found to have significant variation in its size and number of mucosal folds. The internal surface morphology of the rosette did not correlate with the external surface morphology of the teat implying that it is relatively independent of milking parameters that may impact the teat canal and the external surface of the teat. PMID:25382725

  8. DSI3D-RCS: Theory manual

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, N.; Steich, D.; Cook, G.; Eme, B.

    1995-03-16

    The DSI3D-RCS code is designed to numerically evaluate radar cross sections on complex objects by solving Maxwell`s curl equations in the time-domain and in three space dimensions. The code has been designed to run on the new parallel processing computers as well as on conventional serial computers. The DSI3D-RCS code is unique for the following reasons: Allows the use of unstructured non-orthogonal grids, allows a variety of cell or element types, reduces to be the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method when orthogonal grids are used, preserves charge or divergence locally (and globally), is conditionally stable, is non-dissipative, is accurate for non-orthogonal grids. This method is derived using a Discrete Surface Integration (DSI) technique. As formulated, the DSI technique can be used with essentially arbitrary unstructured grids composed of convex polyhedral cells. This implementation of the DSI algorithm allows the use of unstructured grids that are composed of combinations of non-orthogonal hexahedrons, tetrahedrons, triangular prisms and pyramids. This algorithm reduces to the conventional FDTD method when applied on a structured orthogonal hexahedral grid.

  9. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  10. Reconstruction for time-domain in vivo EPR 3D multigradient oximetric imaging--a parallel processing perspective.

    PubMed

    Dharmaraj, Christopher D; Thadikonda, Kishan; Fletcher, Anthony R; Doan, Phuc N; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Matsumoto, Shingo; Johnson, Calvin A; Cook, John A; Mitchell, James B; Subramanian, Sankaran; Krishna, Murali C

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23 x 23 x 23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet). The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time.

  11. Scanning transmission and computer-aided volumic electron microscopy: 3-D modeling of entire cells by electronic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bron, Christophe; Gremillet, Philip; Launay, D.; Jourlin, Michel; Gautschi, H. P.; Baechi, Thomas; Schuepbach, Joerg

    1990-05-01

    The digital processing of electron microscopic images from serial sections containing laser-induced topographical references allows a 3-D reconstruction at a depth resolution of 30 to 40 nm of entire cells by the use of image analysis methods, as already demonstrated for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) coupled with a video camera. We decided to use a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) to get higher contrast and better resolution at medium magnification. The scanning of our specimens at video frequencies is an attractive and easy way to link a STEM with an image processing system but the hysteresis of the electronic spools responsible for the magnetic deviation of the scanning electron beam induces deformations of images which have to be modelized and corrected before registration. Computer algorithms developed for image analysis and treatment correct the artifacts caused by the use of STEM and by serial sectioning to automatically reconstruct the third dimension of the cells. They permit the normalization of the images through logarithmic processing of the original grey level infonnation. The automatic extraction of cell limits allows to link the image analysis and treatments with image synthesis methods by minimal human intervention. The surface representation and the registered images provide an ultrastructural data base from which quantitative 3-D morphological parameters, as well as otherwise impossible visualizations, can be computed. This 3-D image processing named C.A.V.U.M. for Computer Aided Volumic Ultra-Microscopy offers a new tool for the documentation and analysis of cell ultrastructure and for 3-D morphometric studies at EM magnifications. Further, a virtual observer can be computed in such a way as to simulate a visit of the reconstructed object.

  12. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  13. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  14. Simple 3D images from fossil and recent micromaterial using light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Haug, J T; Haug, C; Maas, A; Fayers, S R; Trewin, N H; Waloszek, D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We present a technique for extracting 3D information from small-scale fossil and Recent material and give a summary of other contemporary techniques for 3D methods of investigation. The only hardware needed for the here-presented technique is a microscope that can perform dark field and/or differential interference contrast with a mounted digital camera and a computer. Serial images are taken while the focus is successively shifted from the uppermost end of the specimen to the lowermost end, resulting in about 200 photographs. The data are then processed almost completely automatically by successive use of three freely available programs. Firstly, the stack of images is aligned by the use of CombineZM, which is used to produce a combined image with a high depth of field. Secondly, the aligned images are cropped and sharp edges extracted with the aid of ImageJ. Thirdly, although ImageJ is also capable of producing 3D representations, we preferred to process the image stack further using osirix as it has the facility to export various formats. One of the interesting export formats is a virtual Quicktime movie file (QTVR), which can be used for documentation, and stereo images can also be produced from this Quicktime VR. This method is easy to apply and can be used for documenting specimens in 3D (at least some aspects) without having to prepare them. Therefore, it is particularly useful as a safe method for documenting limited material, before using methods that may destroy the specimen of interest, or to investigate type material that cannot be treated with any preparatory technique. As light microscopes are available in most labs and free computer programs are easily accessible, this method can be readily applied. PMID:19196416

  15. 3D scanning and printing skeletal tissues for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Hiscox, Jessica D; Dixon, Blair J; Potgieter, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Detailed anatomical models can be produced with consumer-level 3D scanning and printing systems. 3D replication techniques are significant advances for anatomical education as they allow practitioners to more easily introduce diverse or numerous specimens into classrooms. Here we present a methodology for producing anatomical models in-house, with the chondrocranium cartilage from a spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and the skeleton of a cane toad (Rhinella marina) as case studies. 3D digital replicas were produced using two consumer-level scanners and specimens were 3D-printed with selective laser sintering. The fidelity of the two case study models was determined with respect to key anatomical features. Larger-scale features of the dogfish chondrocranium and frog skeleton were all well-resolved and distinct in the 3D digital models, and many finer-scale features were also well-resolved, but some more subtle features were absent from the digital models (e.g. endolymphatic foramina in chondrocranium). All characters identified in the digital chondrocranium could be identified in the subsequent 3D print; however, three characters in the 3D-printed frog skeleton could not be clearly delimited (palatines, parasphenoid and pubis). Characters that were absent in the digital models or 3D prints had low-relief in the original scanned specimen and represent a minor loss of fidelity. Our method description and case studies show that minimal equipment and training is needed to produce durable skeletal specimens. These technologies support the tailored production of models for specific classes or research aims. PMID:27146106

  16. 3D scanning and printing skeletal tissues for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Hiscox, Jessica D; Dixon, Blair J; Potgieter, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Detailed anatomical models can be produced with consumer-level 3D scanning and printing systems. 3D replication techniques are significant advances for anatomical education as they allow practitioners to more easily introduce diverse or numerous specimens into classrooms. Here we present a methodology for producing anatomical models in-house, with the chondrocranium cartilage from a spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and the skeleton of a cane toad (Rhinella marina) as case studies. 3D digital replicas were produced using two consumer-level scanners and specimens were 3D-printed with selective laser sintering. The fidelity of the two case study models was determined with respect to key anatomical features. Larger-scale features of the dogfish chondrocranium and frog skeleton were all well-resolved and distinct in the 3D digital models, and many finer-scale features were also well-resolved, but some more subtle features were absent from the digital models (e.g. endolymphatic foramina in chondrocranium). All characters identified in the digital chondrocranium could be identified in the subsequent 3D print; however, three characters in the 3D-printed frog skeleton could not be clearly delimited (palatines, parasphenoid and pubis). Characters that were absent in the digital models or 3D prints had low-relief in the original scanned specimen and represent a minor loss of fidelity. Our method description and case studies show that minimal equipment and training is needed to produce durable skeletal specimens. These technologies support the tailored production of models for specific classes or research aims.

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    calculations on a supercomputer, the Supercomputer/IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers advanced 3-D, view manipulation, and animation capabilities. Shading and hidden line/surface removal can be used to enhance depth perception and other aspects of the graphical displays. A mouse can be used to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. Files for several types of output can be produced. Two animation options are available. Simple animation sequences can be created on the IRIS, or,if an appropriately modified version of ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is accesible on the supercomputer, files can be created for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program which offers more complex rendering and animation capabilities and options for recording images to digital disk, video tape, or 16-mm film. The version 3.6b+ Supercomputer/IRIS implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12779) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12784) are suitable for use on CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and ALLIANT computers with a remote Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstation. These programs are distributed on .25 inch magnetic tape cartridges in IRIS TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations (ARC-12783, ARC-12782); (2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC12777, ARC-12781); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 - which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    calculations on a supercomputer, the Supercomputer/IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers advanced 3-D, view manipulation, and animation capabilities. Shading and hidden line/surface removal can be used to enhance depth perception and other aspects of the graphical displays. A mouse can be used to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. Files for several types of output can be produced. Two animation options are available. Simple animation sequences can be created on the IRIS, or,if an appropriately modified version of ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is accesible on the supercomputer, files can be created for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program which offers more complex rendering and animation capabilities and options for recording images to digital disk, video tape, or 16-mm film. The version 3.6b+ Supercomputer/IRIS implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12779) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12784) are suitable for use on CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and ALLIANT computers with a remote Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstation. These programs are distributed on .25 inch magnetic tape cartridges in IRIS TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations (ARC-12783, ARC-12782); (2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC12777, ARC-12781); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 - which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates

  19. Three-dimensional reconstruction and quantification of cervical carcinoma invasion fronts from histological serial sections.

    PubMed

    Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kuska, Jens-Peer; Einenkel, Jens; Horn, Lars-Christian; Löffler, Markus; Höckel, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The analysis of the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of tumoral invasion fronts of carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the prerequisite for understanding their architectural-functional relationship. The variation range of the invasion patterns known so far reaches from a smooth tumor-host boundary surface to more diffusely spreading patterns, which all are supposed to have a different prognostic relevance. As a very decisive limitation of previous studies, all morphological assessments just could be done verbally referring to single histological sections. Therefore, the intention of this paper is to get an objective quantification of tumor invasion based on 3-D reconstructed tumoral tissue data. The image processing chain introduced here is capable to reconstruct selected parts of tumor invasion fronts from histological serial sections of remarkable extent (90-500 slices). While potentially gaining good accuracy and reasonably high resolution, microtome cutting of large serial sections especially may induce severe artifacts like distortions, folds, fissures or gaps. Starting from stacks of digitized transmitted light color images, an overall of three registration steps are the main parts of the presented algorithm. By this, we achieved the most detailed 3-D reconstruction of the invasion of solid tumors so far. Once reconstructed, the invasion front of the segmented tumor is quantified using discrete compactness.

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    well as 2-D and 3-D lines, but does not support graphics features requiring 3-D polygons (shading and hidden line removal, for example). Views can be manipulated using keyboard commands. This version of PLOT3D is potentially able to produce files for a variety of output devices; however, site-specific capabilities will vary depending on the device drivers supplied with the user's DISSPLA library. If ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is installed on the user's VAX, the VMS/DISSPLA version of PLOT3D can also be used to create files for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program capable of animating and recording images on film. The version 3.6b+ VMS/DISSPLA implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12777) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12781) were developed for use on VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0. The standard distribution media for each of these programs is a 9-track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12783, ARC12782); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    well as 2-D and 3-D lines, but does not support graphics features requiring 3-D polygons (shading and hidden line removal, for example). Views can be manipulated using keyboard commands. This version of PLOT3D is potentially able to produce files for a variety of output devices; however, site-specific capabilities will vary depending on the device drivers supplied with the user's DISSPLA library. If ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is installed on the user's VAX, the VMS/DISSPLA version of PLOT3D can also be used to create files for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program capable of animating and recording images on film. The version 3.6b+ VMS/DISSPLA implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12777) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12781) were developed for use on VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0. The standard distribution media for each of these programs is a 9-track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12783, ARC12782); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a

  2. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  3. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  4. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  5. 3-D movies using microprocessor-controlled optoelectronic spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2012-02-01

    Despite rapid advances in technology, 3-D movies are impractical for general movie viewing. A new approach that opens all content for casual 3-D viewing is needed. 3Deeps--advanced microprocessor controlled optoelectronic spectacles--provides such a new approach to 3-D. 3Deeps works on a different principle than other methods for 3-D. 3-D movies typically use the asymmetry of dual images to produce stereopsis, necessitating costly dual-image content, complex formatting and transmission standards, and viewing via a corresponding selection device. In contrast, all 3Deeps requires to view movies in realistic depth is an illumination asymmetry--a controlled difference in optical density between the lenses. When a 2-D movie has been projected for viewing, 3Deeps converts every scene containing lateral motion into realistic 3-D. Put on 3Deeps spectacles for 3-D viewing, or remove them for viewing in 2-D. 3Deeps works for all analogue and digital 2-D content, by any mode of transmission, and for projection screens, digital or analogue monitors. An example using aerial photography is presented. A movie consisting of successive monoscopic aerial photographs appears in realistic 3-D when viewed through 3Deeps spectacles.

  6. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    advanced features which aid visualization efforts. Shading and hidden line/surface removal can be used to enhance depth perception and other aspects of the graphical displays. A mouse can be used to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. Files for several types of output can be produced. Two animation options are even offered: creation of simple animation sequences without the need for other software; and, creation of files for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program which offers more complex rendering and animation capabilities and can record images to digital disk, video tape, or 16-mm film. The version 3.6b+ SGI implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12783) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12782) were developed for use on Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations. These programs are each distributed on one .25 inch magnetic tape cartridge in IRIS TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777,ARC-12781); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    advanced features which aid visualization efforts. Shading and hidden line/surface removal can be used to enhance depth perception and other aspects of the graphical displays. A mouse can be used to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. Files for several types of output can be produced. Two animation options are even offered: creation of simple animation sequences without the need for other software; and, creation of files for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program which offers more complex rendering and animation capabilities and can record images to digital disk, video tape, or 16-mm film. The version 3.6b+ SGI implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12783) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12782) were developed for use on Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations. These programs are each distributed on one .25 inch magnetic tape cartridge in IRIS TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777,ARC-12781); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are

  8. 3D-printed microfluidic automation.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F; Chang, Tim C; Folch, Albert

    2015-04-21

    Microfluidic automation - the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels - generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology's use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer.

  9. 3D-printed microfluidic automation.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F; Chang, Tim C; Folch, Albert

    2015-04-21

    Microfluidic automation - the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels - generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology's use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer. PMID:25738695

  10. 3D-Printed Microfluidic Automation

    PubMed Central

    Au, Anthony K.; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F.; Chang, Tim C.; Folch, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic automation – the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels – generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology’s use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer. PMID:25738695

  11. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  12. Developments in Serials: 1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

  13. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    well as 2-D and 3-D lines, but does not support graphics features requiring 3-D polygons (shading and hidden line removal, for example). Views can be manipulated using keyboard commands. This version of PLOT3D is potentially able to produce files for a variety of output devices; however, site-specific capabilities will vary depending on the device drivers supplied with the user's DISSPLA library. The version 3.6b+ UNIX/DISSPLA implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12788) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12778) were developed for use on computers running UNIX SYSTEM 5 with BSD 4.3 extensions. The standard distribution media for each ofthese programs is a 9track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12783, ARC-12782); (3) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777, ARC-12781); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard, Incorporated. System 5 is a trademark of Bell Labs, Incorporated. BSD4.3 is a trademark of the University of California at Berkeley. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    well as 2-D and 3-D lines, but does not support graphics features requiring 3-D polygons (shading and hidden line removal, for example). Views can be manipulated using keyboard commands. This version of PLOT3D is potentially able to produce files for a variety of output devices; however, site-specific capabilities will vary depending on the device drivers supplied with the user's DISSPLA library. The version 3.6b+ UNIX/DISSPLA implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12788) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12778) were developed for use on computers running UNIX SYSTEM 5 with BSD 4.3 extensions. The standard distribution media for each ofthese programs is a 9track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12783, ARC-12782); (3) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777, ARC-12781); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard, Incorporated. System 5 is a trademark of Bell Labs, Incorporated. BSD4.3 is a trademark of the University of California at Berkeley. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

  15. Polish Experience with Advanced Digital Heritage Recording Methodology, including 3D Laser Scanning, CAD, and GIS Application, as the Most Accurate and Flexible Response for Archaeology and Conservation Needs at Jan III Sobieski's Residence in Wilanów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, P.; Czajkowski, K.; Gładki, M.; Morysiński, T.; Szambelan, R.; Rzonca, A.

    Review of recent critical points for introduction of laser technology into the field of heritage documentation, management, conservation, and archaeology will be discussed. The relationship of benefit versus cost of 3D laser scanning technique for complex multitask heritage recording project at Wilanow is presented. Definition of basic criteria for the successful use of such heritage detailed record as laser scanning is given.

  16. Serials in Review: 1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Daisy

    1973-01-01

    Major trends in the processing and acquisition of serials during 1972 are reviewed. Principal events were the Williams and Wilkins controversy, the tripling of serials cataloging production at the Library of Congress and progress towards a machine-readable source of serial cataloging information. (23 references) (SM)

  17. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  18. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics.

    PubMed

    Patrick, William G; Nielsen, Alec A K; Keating, Steven J; Levy, Taylor J; Wang, Che-Wei; Rivera, Jaime J; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Carr, Peter A; Voigt, Christopher A; Oxman, Neri; Kong, David S

    2015-01-01

    The process of connecting genetic parts-DNA assembly-is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology. PMID:26716448

  19. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Nielsen, Alec A. K.; Keating, Steven J.; Levy, Taylor J.; Wang, Che-Wei; Rivera, Jaime J.; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Carr, Peter A.; Voigt, Christopher A.; Oxman, Neri; Kong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The process of connecting genetic parts—DNA assembly—is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology. PMID:26716448

  20. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  1. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  2. Understanding Crystal Populations; Looking Towards 3D Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerram, D. A.; Morgan, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand volcanic systems, the potential record held within crystal populations needs to be revealed. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that the crystal populations that arrive at the surface in volcanic eruptions are commonly mixtures of crystals, which may be representative of simple crystallization, recycling of crystals and incorporation of alien crystals. If we can quantify the true 3D population within a sample then we will be able to separate crystals with different histories and begin to interrogate the true and complex plumbing within the volcanic system. Modeling crystal populations is one area where we can investigate the best methodologies to use when dealing with sections through 3D populations. By producing known 3D shapes and sizes with virtual textures and looking at the statistics of shape and size when such populations are sectioned, we are able to gain confidence about what our 2D information is telling us about the population. We can also use this approach to test the size of population we need to analyze. 3D imaging through serial sectioning or x-ray CT, provides a complete 3D quantification of a rocks texture. Individual phases can be identified and in principle the true 3D statistics of the population can be interrogated. In practice we need to develop strategies (as with 2D-3D transformations), that enable a true characterization of the 3D data, and an understanding of the errors and pitfalls that exist. Ultimately, the reproduction of true 3D textures and the wealth of information they hold, is now within our reach.

  3. 3D printing of functional biomaterials for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Ma, Xuanyi; Gou, Maling; Mei, Deqing; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-08-01

    3D printing is emerging as a powerful tool for tissue engineering by enabling 3D cell culture within complex 3D biomimetic architectures. This review discusses the prevailing 3D printing techniques and their most recent applications in building tissue constructs. The work associated with relatively well-known inkjet and extrusion-based bioprinting is presented with the latest advances in the fields. Emphasis is put on introducing two relatively new light-assisted bioprinting techniques, including digital light processing (DLP)-based bioprinting and laser based two photon polymerization (TPP) bioprinting. 3D bioprinting of vasculature network is particularly discussed for its foremost significance in maintaining tissue viability and promoting functional maturation. Limitations to current bioprinting approaches, as well as future directions of bioprinting functional tissues are also discussed. PMID:27043763

  4. 3D Printing: Print the future of ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) printer is a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in the medical field, where it is beginning to revolutionize medical and surgical possibilities. It is already providing medicine with powerful tools that facilitate education, surgical planning, and organ transplantation research. A good understanding of this technology will be beneficial to ophthalmologists. The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology, both current and future, are explored in this article.

  5. Scientific Objectives of Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and Deployable Camera 3 Digital (DCAM3-D): Observation of an Ejecta Curtain and a Crater Formed on the Surface of Ryugu by an Artificial High-Velocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Saiki, T.; Kadono, T.; Takagi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okamoto, C.; Yano, H.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakazawa, S.; Hirata, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Imamura, H.; Ogawa, K.; Sakatani, N.; Iijima, Y.; Honda, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sawada, H.

    2016-10-01

    The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) equipped on Hayabusa2 was developed to produce an artificial impact crater on the primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 162173 Ryugu (Ryugu) in order to explore the asteroid subsurface material unaffected by space weathering and thermal alteration by solar radiation. An exposed fresh surface by the impactor and/or the ejecta deposit excavated from the crater will be observed by remote sensing instruments, and a subsurface fresh sample of the asteroid will be collected there. The SCI impact experiment will be observed by a Deployable CAMera 3-D (DCAM3-D) at a distance of ˜1 km from the impact point, and the time evolution of the ejecta curtain will be observed by this camera to confirm the impact point on the asteroid surface. As a result of the observation of the ejecta curtain by DCAM3-D and the crater morphology by onboard cameras, the subsurface structure and the physical properties of the constituting materials will be derived from crater scaling laws. Moreover, the SCI experiment on Ryugu gives us a precious opportunity to clarify effects of microgravity on the cratering process and to validate numerical simulations and models of the cratering process.

  6. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  7. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Sydney S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3–4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14–17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4–6 hr; printing = 9–11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1–5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes. PMID:26295459

  8. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    PubMed

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  9. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    PubMed

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes. PMID:26295459

  10. Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2013-08-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3

  11. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  12. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  13. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  14. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  15. 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    Coupling the photoreduction of a metal precursor with 3D-printing technology is shown to allow the fabrication of conductive 3D hybrid structures consisting of metal nanoparticles and organic polymers shaped in complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated incorporating silver nitrate into a photocurable oligomer in the presence of suitable photoinitiators and exposing them to a digital light system.

  16. Advanced system for 3D dental anatomy reconstruction and 3D tooth movement simulation during orthodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Carlos; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Albalat, Salvador E.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for 3D orthodontics treatment simulation developed for an orthodontics planning system (MAGALLANES). We develop an original system for 3D capturing and reconstruction of dental anatomy that avoid use of dental casts in orthodontic treatments. Two original techniques are presented, one direct in which data are acquired directly form patient's mouth by mean of low cost 3D digitizers, and one mixed in which data are obtained by 3D digitizing of hydrocollids molds. FOr this purpose we have designed and manufactured an optimized optical measuring system based on laser structured light. We apply these 3D dental models to simulate 3D movement of teeth, including rotations, during orthodontic treatment. The proposed algorithms enable to quantify the effect of orthodontic appliance on tooth movement. The developed techniques has been integrated in a system named MAGALLANES. This original system present several tools for 3D simulation and planning of orthodontic treatments. The prototype system has been tested in several orthodontic clinic with very good results.

  17. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  18. 3D printing of versatile reactionware for chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan; Chen, Wei; Lin, Chang-Gen; Song, Yu-Fei; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing) techniques have moved beyond their traditional applications in the fields of industrial manufacturing and prototyping to increasingly find roles in scientific research contexts, such as synthetic chemistry. We present a general approach for the production of bespoke chemical reactors, termed reactionware, using two different approaches to extrusion-based 3D printing. This protocol describes the printing of an inert polypropylene (PP) architecture with the concurrent printing of soft material catalyst composites, using two different 3D printer setups. The steps of the PROCEDURE describe the design and preparation of a 3D digital model of the desired reactionware device and the preparation of this model for use with fused deposition modeling (FDM) type 3D printers. The protocol then further describes the preparation of composite catalyst-silicone materials for incorporation into the 3D-printed device and the steps required to fabricate a reactionware device. This combined approach allows versatility in the design and use of reactionware based on the specific needs of the experimental user. To illustrate this, we present a detailed procedure for the production of one such reactionware device that will result in the production of a sealed reactor capable of effecting a multistep organic synthesis. Depending on the design time of the 3D model, and including time for curing and drying of materials, this procedure can be completed in ∼3 d.

  19. 3D printing of versatile reactionware for chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan; Chen, Wei; Lin, Chang-Gen; Song, Yu-Fei; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing) techniques have moved beyond their traditional applications in the fields of industrial manufacturing and prototyping to increasingly find roles in scientific research contexts, such as synthetic chemistry. We present a general approach for the production of bespoke chemical reactors, termed reactionware, using two different approaches to extrusion-based 3D printing. This protocol describes the printing of an inert polypropylene (PP) architecture with the concurrent printing of soft material catalyst composites, using two different 3D printer setups. The steps of the PROCEDURE describe the design and preparation of a 3D digital model of the desired reactionware device and the preparation of this model for use with fused deposition modeling (FDM) type 3D printers. The protocol then further describes the preparation of composite catalyst-silicone materials for incorporation into the 3D-printed device and the steps required to fabricate a reactionware device. This combined approach allows versatility in the design and use of reactionware based on the specific needs of the experimental user. To illustrate this, we present a detailed procedure for the production of one such reactionware device that will result in the production of a sealed reactor capable of effecting a multistep organic synthesis. Depending on the design time of the 3D model, and including time for curing and drying of materials, this procedure can be completed in ∼3 d. PMID:27077333

  20. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  1. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  2. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  3. Inspection of 3D parts using high accuracy range data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Flavio; Lepage, Richard; Boulanger, Pierre; Redarce, Tanneguy

    2000-03-01

    The use of a laser range sensor in the 3D part digitalization process for inspection tasks allows very significant improvement in acquisition speed and in 3D measurement points density but does not equal the accuracy obtained with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Inspection consists in verifying the accuracy of a part related to a given set of tolerances. It is thus necessary that the 3D measurements be accurate. In the 3D capture of a part, several sources of error can alter the measured values. So, we have to find and model the most influent parameters affecting the accuracy of the range sensor in the digitalization process. This model is used to produce a sensing plan to acquire completely and accurately the geometry of a part. The sensing plan is composed of the set of viewpoints which defines the exact position and orientation of the camera relative to the part. The 3D cloud obtained from the sensing plan is registered with the CAD model of the part and then segmented according to the different surfaces. Segmentation results are used to check tolerances of the part. By using the noise model, we introduce a dispersion value for each 3D point acquired according to the sensing plan. This value of dispersion is shown as a weight factor in the inspection results.

  4. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  5. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  6. 3-D Packaging: A Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Mark; Johnson, R. Wayne; Gerke, David

    2005-01-01

    Traditional electronics are assembled as a planar arrangement of components on a printed circuit board (PCB) or other type of substrate. These planar assemblies may then be plugged into a motherboard or card cage creating a volume of electronics. This architecture is common in many military and space electronic systems as well as large computer and telecommunications systems and industrial electronics. The individual PCB assemblies can be replaced if defective or for system upgrade. Some applications are constrained by the volume or the shape of the system and are not compatible with the motherboard or card cage architecture. Examples include missiles, camcorders, and digital cameras. In these systems, planar rigid-flex substrates are folded to create complex 3-D shapes. The flex circuit serves the role of motherboard, providing interconnection between the rigid boards. An example of a planar rigid - flex assembly prior to folding is shown. In both architectures, the interconnection is effectively 2-D.

  7. Deconvolution in 3-D optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, P

    1994-09-01

    Fluorescent probes are becoming ever more widely used in the study of subcellular structure, and determination of their three-dimensional distributions has become very important. Confocal microscopy is now a common technique for overcoming the problem of out-of-focus flare in fluorescence imaging, but an alternative method uses digital image processing of conventional fluorescence images--a technique often termed 'deconvolution' or 'restoration'. This review attempts to explain image deconvolution in a non-technical manner. It is also applicable to 3-D confocal images, and can provide a further significant improvement in clarity and interpretability of such images. Some examples of the application of image deconvolution to both conventional and confocal fluorescence images are shown.

  8. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  9. 3-D Virtual and Physical Reconstruction of Bendego Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, S. L. R.; Zucolotto, M. E.; Fontes, R. C.; dos Santos, J. R. L.

    2012-09-01

    The use of 3D laser scanning to meteoritic to preserve the original shape of the meteorites before cutting and the facility of saved the datas in STL format (stereolithography) to print three-dimensional physical models and generate a digital replica.

  10. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  11. Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

  12. Virtual VMASC: A 3D Game Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manepalli, Suchitra; Shen, Yuzhong; Garcia, Hector M.; Lawsure, Kaleen

    2010-01-01

    The advantages of creating interactive 3D simulations that allow viewing, exploring, and interacting with land improvements, such as buildings, in digital form are manifold and range from allowing individuals from anywhere in the world to explore those virtual land improvements online, to training military personnel in dealing with war-time environments, and to making those land improvements available in virtual worlds such as Second Life. While we haven't fully explored the true potential of such simulations, we have identified a requirement within our organization to use simulations like those to replace our front-desk personnel and allow visitors to query, naVigate, and communicate virtually with various entities within the building. We implemented the Virtual VMASC 3D simulation of the Virginia Modeling Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC) office building to not only meet our front-desk requirement but also to evaluate the effort required in designing such a simulation and, thereby, leverage the experience we gained in future projects of this kind. This paper describes the goals we set for our implementation, the software approach taken, the modeling contribution made, and the technologies used such as XNA Game Studio, .NET framework, Autodesk software packages, and, finally, the applicability of our implementation on a variety of architectures including Xbox 360 and PC. This paper also summarizes the result of our evaluation and the lessons learned from our effort.

  13. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  14. Parallelization of ARC3D with Computer-Aided Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang; Hribar, Michelle; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A series of efforts have been devoted to investigating methods of porting and parallelizing applications quickly and efficiently for new architectures, such as the SCSI Origin 2000 and Cray T3E. This report presents the parallelization of a CFD application, ARC3D, using the computer-aided tools, Cesspools. Steps of parallelizing this code and requirements of achieving better performance are discussed. The generated parallel version has achieved reasonably well performance, for example, having a speedup of 30 for 36 Cray T3E processors. However, this performance could not be obtained without modification of the original serial code. It is suggested that in many cases improving serial code and performing necessary code transformations are important parts for the automated parallelization process although user intervention in many of these parts are still necessary. Nevertheless, development and improvement of useful software tools, such as Cesspools, can help trim down many tedious parallelization details and improve the processing efficiency.

  15. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  16. Serial Dilution Simulation Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.

  17. Automated Serials Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Elizabeth

    In 1967, the New York State Library at Albany (NYSL) developed a tape-oriented, off-line serials control system for 10,000 active titles. The system would perform all the serials control functions: bibliographic control, check-in of current receipts, claiming for gaps in receipts and late issues, binding notification for completed sets,…

  18. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  19. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    PubMed

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©. PMID:26921815

  20. Examination of 3D visual attention in stereoscopic video content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh-Thu, Quan; Schiatti, Luca

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in video technology and digital cinema have made it possible to produce entertaining 3D stereoscopic content that can be viewed for an extended duration without necessarily causing extreme fatigue, visual strain and discomfort. Viewers focus naturally their attention on specific areas of interest in their visual field. Visual attention is an important aspect of perception and its understanding is therefore an important aspect for the creation of 3D stereoscopic content. Most of the studies on visual attention have focused on the case of still images or 2D video. Only a very few studies have investigated eye movement patterns in 3D stereoscopic moving sequences, and how these may differ from viewing 2D video content. In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a subjective experiment that we conducted using an eye-tracking apparatus to record observers' gaze patterns. Participants were asked to watch the same set of video clips in a free-viewing task. Each clip was shown in a 3D stereoscopic version and 2D version. Our results indicate that the extent of areas of interests is not necessarily wider in 3D. We found a very strong content dependency in the difference of density and locations of fixations between 2D and 3D stereoscopic content. However, we found that saccades were overall faster and that fixation durations were overall lower when observers viewed the 3D stereoscopic version.

  1. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    PubMed

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©.

  2. Fast serial link using optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    In virtue of offering complete immunity from EMI, fiber-optics links for digital data are useful in the isolation of sensitive detecting apparatus from noisy digital computers. Attention is presently given to one such serial data link employing commercially available transmitter, receiver, cable and connector components together with an encoder/decoder circuit employing standard TTL digital logic components. Although designed for high speed fiber-optic operation, the circuit is equally well suited to medium- or low-speed operation over wires and does not have to transmit a separate clock. A data error rate is measured through operation of the link for a lengthy period of time.

  3. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  4. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  5. 3D imaging of soil pore network: two different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrecano, M.; Di Matteo, B.; Mele, G.; Terribile, F.

    2009-04-01

    Pore geometry imaging and its quantitative description is a key factor for advances in the knowledge of physical, chemical and biological soil processes. For many years photos from flattened surfaces of undisturbed soil samples impregnated with fluorescent resin and from soil thin sections under microscope have been the only way available for exploring pore architecture at different scales. Earlier 3D representations of the internal structure of the soil based on not destructive methods have been obtained using medical tomographic systems (NMR and X-ray CT). However, images provided using such equipments, show strong limitations in terms of spatial resolution. In the last decade very good results have then been obtained using imaging from very expensive systems based on synchrotron radiation. More recently, X-ray Micro-Tomography has resulted the most widely applied being the technique showing the best compromise between costs, resolution and size of the images. Conversely, the conceptually simpler but destructive method of "serial sectioning" has been progressively neglected for technical problems in sample preparation and time consumption needed to obtain an adequate number of serial sections for correct 3D reconstruction of soil pore geometry. In this work a comparison between the two methods above has been carried out in order to define advantages, shortcomings and to point out their different potential. A cylindrical undisturbed soil sample 6.5cm in diameter and 6.5cm height of an Ap horizon of an alluvial soil showing vertic characteristics, has been reconstructed using both a desktop X-ray micro-tomograph Skyscan 1172 and the new automatic serial sectioning system SSAT (Sequential Section Automatic Tomography) set up at CNR ISAFOM in Ercolano (Italy) with the aim to overcome most of the typical limitations of such a technique. Image best resolution of 7.5 µm per voxel resulted using X-ray Micro CT while 20 µm was the best value using the serial sectioning

  6. V3D enables real-time 3D visualization and quantitative analysis of large-scale biological image data sets.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hanchuan; Ruan, Zongcai; Long, Fuhui; Simpson, Julie H; Myers, Eugene W

    2010-04-01

    The V3D system provides three-dimensional (3D) visualization of gigabyte-sized microscopy image stacks in real time on current laptops and desktops. V3D streamlines the online analysis, measurement and proofreading of complicated image patterns by combining ergonomic functions for selecting a location in an image directly in 3D space and for displaying biological measurements, such as from fluorescent probes, using the overlaid surface objects. V3D runs on all major computer platforms and can be enhanced by software plug-ins to address specific biological problems. To demonstrate this extensibility, we built a V3D-based application, V3D-Neuron, to reconstruct complex 3D neuronal structures from high-resolution brain images. V3D-Neuron can precisely digitize the morphology of a single neuron in a fruitfly brain in minutes, with about a 17-fold improvement in reliability and tenfold savings in time compared with other neuron reconstruction tools. Using V3D-Neuron, we demonstrate the feasibility of building a 3D digital atlas of neurite tracts in the fruitfly brain. PMID:20231818

  7. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  8. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    PubMed

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  9. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  10. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  11. Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi

    2009-05-01

    3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.

  12. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  13. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  14. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  15. Combined elasticity and 3D imaging of the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinbo; Hossack, John A.

    2005-04-01

    A method is described for repeatably assessing elasticity and 3D extent of suspected prostate cancers. Elasticity is measured by controlled water inflation of a sheath placed over a modified transrectal ultrasound transducer. The benefit of using fluid inflation is that it should be possible to make repeatable, accurate, measurements of elasticity that are of interest in the serial assessment of prostate cancer progression or remission. The second aspect of the work uses auxiliary tracking arrays placed at each end of the central imaging array that allow the transducer to be rotated while simultaneously collected 'tracking' information thus allowing the position of successive image planes to be located with approximately 11% volumetric accuracy in 3D space. In this way, we present a technique for quantifying volumetric extent of suspected cancer in addition to making measures of elastic anomalies.

  16. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    On page 3712, E. Fantino, A. Chiappone, and co-workers fabricate conductive 3D hybrid structures by coupling the photo-reduction of metal precursors with 3D printing technology. The generated structures consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix shaped into complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated with a digital light-processing printer incorporating silver salt into photocurable formulations. PMID:27167030

  17. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    On page 3712, E. Fantino, A. Chiappone, and co-workers fabricate conductive 3D hybrid structures by coupling the photo-reduction of metal precursors with 3D printing technology. The generated structures consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix shaped into complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated with a digital light-processing printer incorporating silver salt into photocurable formulations.

  18. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  19. Subcellular Microanatomy by 3D Deconvolution Brightfield Microscopy: Method and Analysis Using Human Chromatin in the Interphase Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Tadrous, Paul Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy has advanced using 3-dimensional (3D) studies at macroscopic (e.g., dissection, injection moulding of vessels, radiology) and microscopic (e.g., serial section reconstruction with light and electron microscopy) levels. This paper presents the first results in human cells of a new method of subcellular 3D brightfield microscopy. Unlike traditional 3D deconvolution and confocal techniques, this method is suitable for general application to brightfield microscopy. Unlike brightfield serial sectioning it has subcellular resolution. Results are presented of the 3D structure of chromatin in the interphase nucleus of two human cell types, hepatocyte and plasma cell. I show how the freedom to examine these structures in 3D allows greater morphological discrimination between and within cell types and the 3D structural basis for the classical “clock-face” motif of the plasma cell nucleus is revealed. Potential for further applications discussed. PMID:22567315

  20. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  1. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  2. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    to LoD4. The accuracy and structural complexity of the 3D objects increases with the LoD level where LoD0 is the simplest LoD (2.5D; Digital Terrain Model (DTM) + building or roof print) while LoD4 is the most complex LoD (architectural details with interior structures). Semantic information is one of the main components in CityGML and 3D City Models, and provides important information for any analyses. However, more often than not, the semantic information is not available for the 3D city model due to the unstandardized modelling process. One of the examples is where a building is normally generated as one object (without specific feature layers such as Roof, Ground floor, Level 1, Level 2, Block A, Block B, etc). This research attempts to develop a method to improve the semantic data updating process by segmenting the 3D building into simpler parts which will make it easier for the users to select and update the semantic information. The methodology is implemented for 3D buildings in LoD2 where the buildings are generated without architectural details but with distinct roof structures. This paper also introduces hybrid semantic-geometric 3D segmentation method that deals with hierarchical segmentation of a 3D building based on its semantic value and surface characteristics, fitted by one of the predefined primitives. For future work, the segmentation method will be implemented as part of the change detection module that can detect any changes on the 3D buildings, store and retrieve semantic information of the changed structure, automatically updates the 3D models and visualize the results in a userfriendly graphical user interface (GUI).

  3. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  4. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  5. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  6. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

  7. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  8. Demonstration of three gorges archaeological relics based on 3D-visualization technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenli

    2015-12-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the digital demonstration of three gorges archeological relics to exhibit the achievements of the protective measures. A novel and effective method based on 3D-visualization technology, which includes large-scaled landscape reconstruction, virtual studio, and virtual panoramic roaming, etc, is proposed to create a digitized interactive demonstration system. The method contains three stages: pre-processing, 3D modeling and integration. Firstly, abundant archaeological information is classified according to its history and geographical information. Secondly, build up a 3D-model library with the technology of digital images processing and 3D modeling. Thirdly, use virtual reality technology to display the archaeological scenes and cultural relics vividly and realistically. The present work promotes the application of virtual reality to digital projects and enriches the content of digital archaeology.

  9. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  10. Classifying serial killers.

    PubMed

    Promish, D I; Lester, D

    1999-11-01

    We attempted to match the appearance and demeanor of 27 serial killers to the postmortem 'signatures' found on their victims' bodies. Our results suggest that a link may exist between postmortem signatures and two complementary appearance-demeanor types.

  11. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  12. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  13. Parallel contact detection algorithm for transient solid dynamics simulations using PRONTO3D

    SciTech Connect

    Attaway, S.W.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Plimpton, S.J.

    1996-09-01

    An efficient, scalable, parallel algorithm for treating material surface contacts in solid mechanics finite element programs has been implemented in a modular way for MIMD parallel computers. The serial contact detection algorithm that was developed previously for the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO3D has been extended for use in parallel computation by devising a dynamic (adaptive) processor load balancing scheme.

  14. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  15. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.

    2010-05-01

    Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (3D) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional 3D geological models based on archival geological data. Such models have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based 3D stratigraphic model of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological modeling in this area. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x

  16. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  17. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  18. 3D Visualization of Sheath Folds in Roman Marble from Ephesus, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wex, Sebastian; Passchier, Cornelis W.; de Kemp, Eric A.; Ilhan, Sinan

    2013-04-01

    Excavation of a palatial 2nd century AD house (Terrace House Two) in the ancient city of Ephesus, Turkey in the 1970s produced 10.313 pieces of colored, folded marble which belonged to 54 marble plates of 1.6 cm thickness that originally covered the walls of the banquet hall of the house. The marble plates were completely reassembled and restored by a team of workers over the last 6 years. The plates were recognized as having been sawn from two separate large blocks of "Cipollino verde", a green mylonitized marble from Karystos on the Island of Euboea, Greece. After restoration, it became clear that all slabs had been placed on the wall in approximately the sequence in which they had been cut off by a Roman stone saw. As a result, the marble plates give a full 3D insight in the folded internal structure of 1m3 block of mylonite. The restoration of the slabs was recognized as a first, unique opportunity for detailed reconstruction of the 3D geometry of m-scale folds in mylonitized marble. Photographs were taken of each slab and used to reconstruct their exact arrangement within the originally quarried blocks. Outlines of layers were digitized and a full 3D reconstruction of the internal structure of the block was created using ArcMap and GOCAD. Fold structures in the block include curtain folds and multilayered sheath folds. Several different layers showing these structures were digitized on the photographs of the slab surfaces and virtually mounted back together within the model of the marble block. Due to the serial sectioning into slabs, with cm-scale spacing, the visualization of the 3D geometry of sheath folds was accomplished with a resolution better than 4 cm. Final assembled 3D images reveal how sheath folds emerge from continuous layers and show their overall consistency as well as a constant hinge line orientation of the fold structures. Observations suggest that a single deformation phase was responsible for the evolution of "Cipollino verde" structures

  19. Scatterer size and concentration estimation technique based on a 3D acoustic impedance map from histologic sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamou, Jonathan; Oelze, Michael L.; O'Brien, William D.; Zachary, James F.

    2001-05-01

    Accurate estimates of scatterer parameters (size and acoustic concentration) are beneficial adjuncts to characterize disease from ultrasonic backscatterer measurements. An estimation technique was developed to obtain parameter estimates from the Fourier transform of the spatial autocorrelation function (SAF). A 3D impedance map (3DZM) is used to obtain the SAF of tissue. 3DZMs are obtained by aligning digitized light microscope images from histologic preparations of tissue. Estimates were obtained for simulated 3DZMs containing spherical scatterers randomly located: relative errors were less than 3%. Estimates were also obtained from a rat fibroadenoma and a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor (MMT). Tissues were fixed (10% neutral-buffered formalin), embedded in paraffin, serially sectioned and stained with H&E. 3DZM results were compared to estimates obtained independently against ultrasonic backscatter measurements. For the fibroadenoma and MMT, average scatterer diameters were 91 and 31.5 μm, respectively. Ultrasonic measurements yielded average scatterer diameters of 105 and 30 μm, respectively. The 3DZM estimation scheme showed results similar to those obtained by the independent ultrasonic measurements. The 3D impedance maps show promise as a powerful tool to characterize ultrasonic scattering sites of tissue. [Work supported by the University of Illinois Research Board.

  20. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  1. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  2. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  3. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  4. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  5. Theta rotation and serial registration of light microscopical images using a novel camera rotating device.

    PubMed

    Duerstock, Bradley S; Cirillo, John; Rajwa, Bartek

    2010-06-01

    An electromechanical video camera coupler was developed to rotate a light microscope field of view (FOV) in real time without the need to physically rotate the stage or specimen. The device, referred to as the Camera Thetarotator, rotated microscopical views 240 degrees to assist microscopists to orient specimens within the FOV prior to image capture. The Camera Thetarotator eliminated the effort and artifacts created when rotating photomicrographs using conventional graphics software. The Camera Thetarotator could also be used to semimanually register a dataset of histological sections for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by superimposing the transparent, real-time FOV to the previously captured section in the series. When compared to Fourier-based software registration, alignment of serial sections using the Camera Thetarotator was more exact, resulting in more accurate 3D reconstructions with no computer-generated null space. When software-based registration was performed after prealigning sections with the Camera Thetarotator, registration was further enhanced. The Camera Thetarotator expanded microscopical viewing and digital photomicrography and provided a novel, accurate registration method for 3D reconstruction. The Camera Thetarotator would also be useful for performing automated microscopical functions necessary for telemicroscopy, high-throughput image acquisition and analysis, and other light microscopy applications.

  6. Quality of 3D Models Generated by SFM Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčiš, Marián

    2013-12-01

    Using various types of automation in digital photogrammetry is associated with questions such as the accuracy of a 3D model generated on various types of surfaces and textures, the financial costs of the equipment needed, and also the time costs of the processing. This topic deals with the actual technology of computer vision, which allows the automated exterior orientation of images, camera calibration, and the generation of 3D models directly from images of the object itself, based on the automatic detection of significant points. Detailed testing is done using the Agisoft PhotoScan system, and the camera configuration is solved with respect to the accuracy of the 3D model generated and the time consumption of the calculations for the different types of textures and the different settings for the processing.

  7. Development of a 3D printer using scanning projection stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael P; Cooper, Geoffrey J T; Hinkley, Trevor; Gibson, Graham M; Padgett, Miles J; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-04-23

    We have developed a system for the rapid fabrication of low cost 3D devices and systems in the laboratory with micro-scale features yet cm-scale objects. Our system is inspired by maskless lithography, where a digital micromirror device (DMD) is used to project patterns with resolution up to 10 µm onto a layer of photoresist. Large area objects can be fabricated by stitching projected images over a 5 cm(2) area. The addition of a z-stage allows multiple layers to be stacked to create 3D objects, removing the need for any developing or etching steps but at the same time leading to true 3D devices which are robust, configurable and scalable. We demonstrate the applications of the system by printing a range of micro-scale objects as well as a fully functioning microfluidic droplet device and test its integrity by pumping dye through the channels.

  8. DspaceOgreTerrain 3D Terrain Visualization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myint, Steven; Jain, Abhinandan; Pomerantz, Marc I.

    2012-01-01

    DspaceOgreTerrain is an extension to the DspaceOgre 3D visualization tool that supports real-time visualization of various terrain types, including digital elevation maps, planets, and meshes. DspaceOgreTerrain supports creating 3D representations of terrains and placing them in a scene graph. The 3D representations allow for a continuous level of detail, GPU-based rendering, and overlaying graphics like wheel tracks and shadows. It supports reading data from the SimScape terrain- modeling library. DspaceOgreTerrain solves the problem of displaying the results of simulations that involve very large terrains. In the past, it has been used to visualize simulations of vehicle traverses on Lunar and Martian terrains. These terrains were made up of billions of vertices and would not have been renderable in real-time without using a continuous level of detail rendering technique.

  9. Development of a 3D printer using scanning projection stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael P; Cooper, Geoffrey J T; Hinkley, Trevor; Gibson, Graham M; Padgett, Miles J; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a system for the rapid fabrication of low cost 3D devices and systems in the laboratory with micro-scale features yet cm-scale objects. Our system is inspired by maskless lithography, where a digital micromirror device (DMD) is used to project patterns with resolution up to 10 µm onto a layer of photoresist. Large area objects can be fabricated by stitching projected images over a 5 cm(2) area. The addition of a z-stage allows multiple layers to be stacked to create 3D objects, removing the need for any developing or etching steps but at the same time leading to true 3D devices which are robust, configurable and scalable. We demonstrate the applications of the system by printing a range of micro-scale objects as well as a fully functioning microfluidic droplet device and test its integrity by pumping dye through the channels. PMID:25906401

  10. Development of a 3D printer using scanning projection stereolithography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael P.; Cooper, Geoffrey J. T.; Hinkley, Trevor; Gibson, Graham M.; Padgett, Miles J.; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a system for the rapid fabrication of low cost 3D devices and systems in the laboratory with micro-scale features yet cm-scale objects. Our system is inspired by maskless lithography, where a digital micromirror device (DMD) is used to project patterns with resolution up to 10 µm onto a layer of photoresist. Large area objects can be fabricated by stitching projected images over a 5cm2 area. The addition of a z-stage allows multiple layers to be stacked to create 3D objects, removing the need for any developing or etching steps but at the same time leading to true 3D devices which are robust, configurable and scalable. We demonstrate the applications of the system by printing a range of micro-scale objects as well as a fully functioning microfluidic droplet device and test its integrity by pumping dye through the channels. PMID:25906401

  11. 3D Image Reconstructions and the Nyquist-Shannon Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficker, T.; Martišek, D.

    2015-09-01

    Fracture surfaces are occasionally modelled by Fourier's two-dimensional series that can be converted into digital 3D reliefs mapping the morphology of solid surfaces. Such digital replicas may suffer from various artefacts when processed inconveniently. Spatial aliasing is one of those artefacts that may devalue Fourier's replicas. According to the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem the spatial aliasing occurs when Fourier's frequencies exceed the Nyquist critical frequency. In the present paper it is shown that the Nyquist frequency is not the only critical limit determining aliasing artefacts but there are some other frequencies that intensify aliasing phenomena and form an infinite set of points at which numerical results abruptly and dramatically change their values. This unusual type of spatial aliasing is explored and some consequences for 3D computer reconstructions are presented.

  12. Ideal Positions: 3D Sonography, Medical Visuality, Popular Culture.

    PubMed

    Seiber, Tim

    2016-03-01

    As digital technologies are integrated into medical environments, they continue to transform the experience of contemporary health care. Importantly, medicine is increasingly visual. In the history of sonography, visibility has played an important role in accessing fetal bodies for diagnostic and entertainment purposes. With the advent of three-dimensional (3D) rendering, sonography presents the fetus visually as already a child. The aesthetics of this process and the resulting imagery, made possible in digital networks, discloses important changes in the relationship between technology and biology, reproductive health and political debates, and biotechnology and culture.

  13. Forward ramp in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.

    The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  14. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  15. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  16. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  17. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  18. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  19. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  20. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  1. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  2. 3-D laser radar simulation for autonomous spacecraft landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiley, Michael F.; Carmer, Dwayne C.; Pont, W. F.

    1991-01-01

    A sophisticated 3D laser radar sensor simulation, developed and applied to the task of autonomous hazard detection and avoidance, is presented. This simulation includes a backward ray trace to sensor subpixels, incoherent subpixel integration, range dependent noise, sensor point spread function effects, digitization noise, and AM-CW modulation. Specific sensor parameters, spacecraft lander trajectory, and terrain type have been selected to generate simulated sensor data.

  3. Reconstruction and 3D visualisation based on objective real 3D based documentation.

    PubMed

    Bolliger, Michael J; Buck, Ursula; Thali, Michael J; Bolliger, Stephan A

    2012-09-01

    Reconstructions based directly upon forensic evidence alone are called primary information. Historically this consists of documentation of findings by verbal protocols, photographs and other visual means. Currently modern imaging techniques such as 3D surface scanning and radiological methods (computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) are also applied. Secondary interpretation is based on facts and the examiner's experience. Usually such reconstructive expertises are given in written form, and are often enhanced by sketches. However, narrative interpretations can, especially in complex courses of action, be difficult to present and can be misunderstood. In this report we demonstrate the use of graphic reconstruction of secondary interpretation with supporting pictorial evidence, applying digital visualisation (using 'Poser') or scientific animation (using '3D Studio Max', 'Maya') and present methods of clearly distinguishing between factual documentation and examiners' interpretation based on three cases. The first case involved a pedestrian who was initially struck by a car on a motorway and was then run over by a second car. The second case involved a suicidal gunshot to the head with a rifle, in which the trigger was pushed with a rod. The third case dealt with a collision between two motorcycles. Pictorial reconstruction of the secondary interpretation of these cases has several advantages. The images enable an immediate overview, give rise to enhanced clarity, and compel the examiner to look at all details if he or she is to create a complete image. PMID:21979427

  4. 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    Coupling the photoreduction of a metal precursor with 3D-printing technology is shown to allow the fabrication of conductive 3D hybrid structures consisting of metal nanoparticles and organic polymers shaped in complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated incorporating silver nitrate into a photocurable oligomer in the presence of suitable photoinitiators and exposing them to a digital light system. PMID:26992060

  5. Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.

    PubMed

    Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E

    2014-01-01

    Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2).

  6. An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.

  7. Authentication of digital video evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beser, Nicholas D.; Duerr, Thomas E.; Staisiunas, Gregory P.

    2003-11-01

    In response to a requirement from the United States Postal Inspection Service, the Technical Support Working Group tasked The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to develop a technique tha will ensure the authenticity, or integrity, of digital video (DV). Verifiable integrity is needed if DV evidence is to withstand a challenge to its admissibility in court on the grounds that it can be easily edited. Specifically, the verification technique must detect additions, deletions, or modifications to DV and satisfy the two-part criteria pertaining to scientific evidence as articulated in Daubert et al. v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 43 F3d (9th Circuit, 1995). JHU/APL has developed a prototype digital video authenticator (DVA) that generates digital signatures based on public key cryptography at the frame level of the DV. Signature generation and recording is accomplished at the same time as DV is recorded by the camcorder. Throughput supports the consumer-grade camcorder data rate of 25 Mbps. The DVA software is implemented on a commercial laptop computer, which is connected to a commercial digital camcorder via the IEEE-1394 serial interface. A security token provides agent identification and the interface to the public key infrastructure (PKI) that is needed for management of the public keys central to DV integrity verification.

  8. DSI3D-RCS test case manual

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, N.; Steich, D.; Cook, G.; Eme, B.

    1995-08-01

    The DSI3D-RCS code is designed to numerically evaluate radar cross sections on complex objects by solving Maxwell`s curl equations in the time-domain and in three space dimensions. The code has been designed to run on the new parallel processing computers as well as on conventional serial computers. The DSI3D-RCS code has been used to solve the following problems: (1) wedge cylinder--thin flat metal plate; (2) wedge cylinder with plate extension--thin flat metal plate; (3) plate with half cylinder extension--thin flat metal plate; (4) rectangular plate (business card)--thin flat metal plate; (5) wedge cylinder with gap--thin flat metal plate; (6) NASA Almond; (7) wavelength circular cavity. In order to generate each of the angle sweeps, it was necessary to run DSI3D once for each data point on the graphs. This is because these are backscatter calculations, and the incident pulse comes from a different direction as the angle {phi} is changed.

  9. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  10. 3D thermography imaging standardization technique for inflammation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Xiangyang; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Siebert, J. Paul

    2005-01-01

    We develop a 3D thermography imaging standardization technique to allow quantitative data analysis. Medical Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging is very sensitive and reliable mean of graphically mapping and display skin surface temperature. It allows doctors to visualise in colour and quantify temperature changes in skin surface. The spectrum of colours indicates both hot and cold responses which may co-exist if the pain associate with an inflammatory focus excites an increase in sympathetic activity. However, due to thermograph provides only qualitative diagnosis information, it has not gained acceptance in the medical and veterinary communities as a necessary or effective tool in inflammation and tumor detection. Here, our technique is based on the combination of visual 3D imaging technique and thermal imaging technique, which maps the 2D thermography images on to 3D anatomical model. Then we rectify the 3D thermogram into a view independent thermogram and conform it a standard shape template. The combination of these imaging facilities allows the generation of combined 3D and thermal data from which thermal signatures can be quantified.

  11. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  12. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  13. How 3D immersive visualization is changing medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, Anton H. J.

    2011-03-01

    Originally the only way to look inside the human body without opening it up was by means of two dimensional (2D) images obtained using X-ray equipment. The fact that human anatomy is inherently three dimensional leads to ambiguities in interpretation and problems of occlusion. Three dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as CT, MRI and 3D ultrasound remove these drawbacks and are now part of routine medical care. While most hospitals 'have gone digital', meaning that the images are no longer printed on film, they are still being viewed on 2D screens. However, this way valuable depth information is lost, and some interactions become unnecessarily complex or even unfeasible. Using a virtual reality (VR) system to present volumetric data means that depth information is presented to the viewer and 3D interaction is made possible. At the Erasmus MC we have developed V-Scope, an immersive volume visualization system for visualizing a variety of (bio-)medical volumetric datasets, ranging from 3D ultrasound, via CT and MRI, to confocal microscopy, OPT and 3D electron-microscopy data. In this talk we will address the advantages of such a system for both medical diagnostics as well as for (bio)medical research.

  14. 3D Medical Collaboration Technology to Enhance Emergency Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Söderholm, Hanna M.; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Ampalam, Manoj; Krishnan, Srinivas; Noel, Vincent; Noland, Michael; Manning, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) videoconferencing has been explored widely in the past 15–20 years to support collaboration in healthcare. Two issues that arise in most evaluations of 2D videoconferencing in telemedicine are the difficulty obtaining optimal camera views and poor depth perception. To address these problems, we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to reconstruct dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and of events taking place within. The 3D views could be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote healthcare professionals equipped with fixed displays or with mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs). The remote professionals’ viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically (continuously) via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewers head-slaved or hand-slaved virtual cameras for monoscopic or stereoscopic viewing of the dynamic reconstructions. We call this idea remote 3D medical collaboration. In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical collaboration technology; we describe the relevant computer vision, computer graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present evaluation results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical collaboration technology could offer benefits over conventional 2D videoconferencing in emergency healthcare. PMID:19521951

  15. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters.

  16. 3D wavefront image formation for NIITEK GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Ton, Tuan; Howard, Pete

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining (HD) Research and Development Program focuses on developing, testing, demonstrating, and validating new technology for immediate use in humanitarian demining operations around the globe. Beginning in the late 1990's, the U.S. Army Countermine Division funded the development of the NIITEK ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detection of anti-tank (AT) landmines. This work is concerned with signal processing algorithms to suppress sources of artifacts in the NIITEK GPR, and formation of three-dimensional (3D) imagery from the resultant data. We first show that the NIITEK GPR data correspond to a 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) database. An adaptive filtering method is utilized to suppress ground return and self-induced resonance (SIR) signals that are generated by the interaction of the radar-carrying platform and the transmitted radar signal. We examine signal processing methods to improve the fidelity of imagery for this 3D SAR system using pre-processing methods that suppress Doppler aliasing as well as other side lobe leakage artifacts that are introduced by the radar radiation pattern. The algorithm, known as digital spotlighting, imposes a filtering scheme on the azimuth-compressed SAR data, and manipulates the resultant spectral data to achieve a higher PRF to suppress the Doppler aliasing. We also present the 3D version of the Fourier-based wavefront reconstruction, a computationally-efficient and approximation-free SAR imaging method, for image formation with the NIITEK 3D SAR database.

  17. 3D medical collaboration technology to enhance emergency healthcare.

    PubMed

    Welch, Gregory F; Sonnenwald, Diane H; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Söderholm, Hanna M; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Ampalam, Manoj K; Krishnan, Srinivas; Noel, Vincent; Noland, Michael; Manning, James E

    2009-04-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) videoconferencing has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years to support collaboration in healthcare. Two issues that arise in most evaluations of 2D videoconferencing in telemedicine are the difficulty obtaining optimal camera views and poor depth perception. To address these problems, we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to reconstruct dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and of events taking place within. The 3D views could be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote healthcare professionals equipped with fixed displays or with mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs). The remote professionals' viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically (continuously) via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewers head-slaved or hand-slaved virtual cameras for monoscopic or stereoscopic viewing of the dynamic reconstructions. We call this idea remote 3D medical collaboration. In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical collaboration technology; we describe the relevant computer vision, computer graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present evaluation results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical collaboration technology could offer benefits over conventional 2D videoconferencing in emergency healthcare.