Science.gov

Sample records for 3d spherical geometry

  1. Vector spherical harmonics application to 3-D tomography problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, A. L.

    2007-04-01

    A method of series expansion with the aid of vector spherical harmonics intended for inverting line integrated data is proposed to investigate 3-D vector fields in the spherical plasmas. A set of numerical computations demonstrating the 3-D reconstruction of the model vector fields has been performed to assess the inversion method proposed.

  2. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  3. 3D geometry applied to atmospheric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Faivre, Michael

    Epipolar geometry is an efficient method for generating 3D representations of objects. Here we present an original application of this method to the case of atmospheric layers. Two synchronized simultaneous images of the same scene are taken in two sites at a distance D. The 36*36 fields of view are oriented face to face along the same line of sight, but in opposite directions. The elevation angle of the optical axis above the horizon is 17. The observed objects are airglow emissions or cirrus clouds or aircraft trails. In the case of clouds, the shape of the objects is diffuse. To obtain a superposition of the common observed zone, it is necessary to calculate a normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC) to identify pairs of matching points in both images. The perspective effect in the rectangular images is inverted to produce a satellite-type view of the atmospheric layer as could be seen from an overlying satellite. We developed a triangulation algorithm to retrieve the 3D surface of the observed layer. The stereoscopic method was used to retrieve the wavy structure of the OH emissive layer at the altitude of 87 km. The distance between the observing sites was 600 km. Results obtained in Peru from the sites of Cerro Cosmos and Cerro Verde will be presented. We are currently extending the stereoscopic procedure to the study of troposphere cirruses, of natural origin or induced by aircraft engines. In this case, the distance between observation sites is D 60 km.

  4. Learning the spherical harmonic features for 3-D face recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peijiang; Wang, Yunhong; Huang, Di; Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liming

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a competitive method for 3-D face recognition (FR) using spherical harmonic features (SHF) is proposed. With this solution, 3-D face models are characterized by the energies contained in spherical harmonics with different frequencies, thereby enabling the capture of both gross shape and fine surface details of a 3-D facial surface. This is in clear contrast to most 3-D FR techniques which are either holistic or feature based, using local features extracted from distinctive points. First, 3-D face models are represented in a canonical representation, namely, spherical depth map, by which SHF can be calculated. Then, considering the predictive contribution of each SHF feature, especially in the presence of facial expression and occlusion, feature selection methods are used to improve the predictive performance and provide faster and more cost-effective predictors. Experiments have been carried out on three public 3-D face datasets, SHREC2007, FRGC v2.0, and Bosphorus, with increasing difficulties in terms of facial expression, pose, and occlusion, and which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:23060332

  5. 3-D Spherical Mantle Convection with Radial Basis Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flyer, N.; Wright, G. B.; Yuen, D.

    2008-12-01

    In the past 25 years a wide variety of numerical methods, such as finite-difference, finite-volume , finite- elements, and pseudospectral methods have been employed to study the problem of 3-D mantle convection. All have specialized strengths but also serious weaknesses. The first three methods are generally considered low-order and can involve high algorithmic complexity (as in triangular elements). Spectrally accurate methods do not practically allow for local mesh refinement and often involve cumbersome algebra. Here, we introduce a new grid/mesh-free approach using radial basis functions (RBFs). It has the advantage of being spectrally accurate for arbitrary node layouts in multi-dimensions with extreme algorithmic simplicity, and naturally permits local node refinement. It has been shown for shallow-water equations and vortex flows that RBFs outperform other numerical methods in the sense that they obtain a much higher accuracy for the same spatial resolution while being able to take unusually large time steps. One virtue of the RBF scheme is the ability to use a simple Cartesian geometry while implementing the required boundary conditions for the temperature, velocity and stresses on a spherical surface of both the outer( planetary surface ) and inner shell ( core-mantle boundary ). The velocity and stress components are expressed in terms of the scalar potential approach (Zebib and Schubert, 1982) and the other remaining variable is the perturbed temperature field. We have studied the problem from the onset of convection to a modest nonlinear regime.

  6. Using Cabri3D Diagrams for Teaching Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accascina, Giuseppe; Rogora, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Cabri3D is a potentially very useful software for learning and teaching 3D geometry. The dynamic nature of the digital diagrams produced with it provides a useful aid for helping students to better develop concept images of geometric concepts. However, since any Cabri3D diagram represents three-dimensional objects on the two dimensional screen of…

  7. Unit cell geometry of 3-D braided structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank K.

    1993-01-01

    The traditional approach used in modeling of composites reinforced by three-dimensional (3-D) braids is to assume a simple unit cell geometry of a 3-D braided structure with known fiber volume fraction and orientation. In this article, we first examine 3-D braiding methods in the light of braid structures, followed by the development of geometric models for 3-D braids using a unit cell approach. The unit cell geometry of 3-D braids is identified and the relationship of structural parameters such as yarn orientation angle and fiber volume fraction with the key processing parameters established. The limiting geometry has been computed by establishing the point at which yarns jam against each other. Using this factor makes it possible to identify the complete range of allowable geometric arrangements for 3-D braided preforms. This identified unit cell geometry can be translated to mechanical models which relate the geometrical properties of fabric preforms to the mechanical responses of composite systems.

  8. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  9. Using 3D Geometric Models to Teach Spatial Geometry Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoline, Gary R.

    1991-01-01

    An explanation of 3-D Computer Aided Design (CAD) usage to teach spatial geometry concepts using nontraditional techniques is presented. The software packages CADKEY and AutoCAD are described as well as their usefulness in solving space geometry problems. (KR)

  10. A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver

    SciTech Connect

    Van Criekingen, S.

    2006-07-01

    A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)

  11. Automatic visualization of 3D geometry contained in online databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; John, Nigel W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, the application of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) for efficient database visualization is analyzed. With the help of JAVA programming, three examples of automatic visualization from a database containing 3-D Geometry are given. The first example is used to create basic geometries. The second example is used to create cylinders with a defined start point and end point. The third example is used to processs data from an old copper mine complex in Cheshire, United Kingdom. Interactive 3-D visualization of all geometric data in an online database is achieved with JSP technology.

  12. Novel 3D Compression Methods for Geometry, Connectivity and Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    A large number of applications in medical visualization, games, engineering design, entertainment, heritage, e-commerce and so on require the transmission of 3D models over the Internet or over local networks. 3D data compression is an important requirement for fast data storage, access and transmission within bandwidth limitations. The Wavefront OBJ (object) file format is commonly used to share models due to its clear simple design. Normally each OBJ file contains a large amount of data (e.g. vertices and triangulated faces, normals, texture coordinates and other parameters) describing the mesh surface. In this paper we introduce a new method to compress geometry, connectivity and texture coordinates by a novel Geometry Minimization Algorithm (GM-Algorithm) in connection with arithmetic coding. First, each vertex ( x, y, z) coordinates are encoded to a single value by the GM-Algorithm. Second, triangle faces are encoded by computing the differences between two adjacent vertex locations, which are compressed by arithmetic coding together with texture coordinates. We demonstrate the method on large data sets achieving compression ratios between 87 and 99 % without reduction in the number of reconstructed vertices and triangle faces. The decompression step is based on a Parallel Fast Matching Search Algorithm (Parallel-FMS) to recover the structure of the 3D mesh. A comparative analysis of compression ratios is provided with a number of commonly used 3D file formats such as VRML, OpenCTM and STL highlighting the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Eccentricity in Images of Circular and Spherical Targets and its Impact to 3D Object Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, T.

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses a feature of projective geometry which causes eccentricity in the image measurement of circular and spherical targets. While it is commonly known that flat circular targets can have a significant displacement of the elliptical image centre with respect to the true imaged circle centre, it can also be shown that the a similar effect exists for spherical targets. Both types of targets are imaged with an elliptical contour. As a result, if measurement methods based on ellipses are used to detect the target (e.g. best-fit ellipses), the calculated ellipse centre does not correspond to the desired target centre in 3D space. This paper firstly discusses the use and measurement of circular and spherical targets. It then describes the geometrical projection model in order to demonstrate the eccentricity in image space. Based on numerical simulations, the eccentricity in the image is further quantified and investigated. Finally, the resulting effect in 3D space is estimated for stereo and multi-image intersections. It can be stated that the eccentricity is larger than usually assumed, and must be compensated for high-accuracy applications. Spherical targets do not show better results than circular targets. The paper is an updated version of Luhmann (2014) new experimental investigations on the effect of length measurement errors.

  14. A spherical harmonics intensity model for 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.

    PubMed

    Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

    2016-08-01

    The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463

  15. A linguistic geometry for 3D strategic planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilman, Boris

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a new step in the development and application of the Linguistic Geometry. This formal theory is intended to discover the inner properties of human expert heuristics, which have been successful in a certain class of complex control systems, and apply them to different systems. In this paper we investigate heuristics extracted in the form of hierarchical networks of planning paths of autonomous agents. Employing Linguistic Geometry tools the dynamic hierarchy of networks is represented as a hierarchy of formal attribute languages. The main ideas of this methodology are shown in this paper on the new pilot example of the solution of the extremely complex 3D optimization problem of strategic planning for the space combat of autonomous vehicles. This example demonstrates deep and highly selective search in comparison with conventional search algorithms.

  16. Stochastic Modeling of Calcium in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Tomáš; Raymond, Rebecca; Raymond-Stintz, Mary; Jett, Stephen; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2009-01-01

    Release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells in type 1 immediate-hypersensitivity allergic reactions relies on antigen-dependent increases in cytosolic calcium. Here, we used a series of electron microscopy images to build a 3D reconstruction representing a slice through a rat tumor mast cell, which then served as a basis for stochastic modeling of inositol-trisphosphate-mediated calcium responses. The stochastic approach was verified by reaction-diffusion modeling within the same geometry. Local proximity of the endoplasmic reticulum to either the plasma membrane or mitochondria is predicted to differentially impact local inositol trisphosphate receptor transport. The explicit consideration of organelle spatial relationships represents an important step toward building a comprehensive, realistic model of cellular calcium dynamics. PMID:19254531

  17. Modeling ICF Spherical Implosion Instabilities in 3D with Exact Energy Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory

    2009-11-01

    We will present the results of 3D instability simulations performed on spherically convergent geometries with a new 3D Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, cooper. The code uses a compatible discretization of the conservation equations to ensure that energy is conserved to within machine round off error [Caramana JCP 146, 227 (1998)]. Modifications are made to the discrete equations to ensure that spherically symmetric implosions can be performed on non-orthogonal Cartesian grids [Caramana JCP 157, 89 (2000)]. Subzonal restoring forces counteract anomalous grid distortions [Carmana JCP 142, 521 (1998)] and an edge-centered viscosity is used to capture shocks [Caramana JCP 215, 385 (2006)]. Cooper is parallelized using domain decomposition. This is necessary due to the large processor and memory requirements associated with simulations in three dimensions. Advanced computational libraries are used to reduce the complexity of the code without sacrificing features. One example is the MOAB library [Tautges Engr. Comput. 20, 286 (2004)] which manages the mesh and is responsible for communicating information between processes.

  18. 3D stochastic geophysical inversion for contact surface geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelièvre, Peter; Farquharson, Colin; Bijani, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. As such, 3D geological Earth models typically comprise wireframe contact surfaces of tessellated triangles or other polygonal planar facets. In contrast, standard minimum-structure geophysical inversions are performed on meshes of space-filling cells (typically prisms or tetrahedra) and recover smoothly varying physical property distributions that are inconsistent with typical geological interpretations. There are several approaches through which mesh-based geophysical inversion can help recover models with some of the desired characteristics. However, a more effective strategy is to consider a fundamentally different type of inversion that works directly with models that comprise surfaces representing contacts between rock units. We are researching such an approach, our goal being to perform geophysical forward and inverse modelling directly with 3D geological models of any complexity. Geological and geophysical models should be specified using the same parameterization such that they are, in essence, the same Earth model. We parameterize the wireframe contact surfaces in a 3D model as the coordinates of the nodes (facet vertices). The physical properties of each rock unit in a model remain fixed while the geophysical inversion controls the position of the contact surfaces via the control nodes, perturbing the surfaces as required to fit the geophysical data responses. This is essentially a "geometry inversion", which can be used to recover the unknown geometry of a target body or to investigate the viability of a proposed Earth model. We apply global optimization strategies to solve the inverse problem, including stochastic sampling to obtain statistical information regarding the likelihood of particular features in the model, helping to assess the viability of a proposed model. Jointly inverting multiple types of geophysical data is simple

  19. The 3-D world modeling with updating capability based on combinatorial geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M.; Pin, F. G.; Desaussure, G.; Weisbin, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    A 3-D world modeling technique using range data is discribed. Range data quantify the distances from the sensor focal plane to the object surface, i.e., the 3-D coordinates of discrete points on the object surface are known. The approach proposed herein for 3-D world modeling is based on the Combinatorial Geometry (CG) method which is widely used in Monte Carlo particle transport calculations. First, each measured point on the object surface is surrounded by a small sphere with a radius determined by the range to that point. Then, the 3-D shapes of the visible surfaces are obtained by taking the (Boolean) union of all the spheres. The result is an unambiguous representation of the object's boundary surfaces. The pre-learned partial knowledge of the environment can be also represented using the CG Method with a relatively small amount of data. Using the CG type of representation, distances in desired directions to boundary surfaces of various objects are efficiently calculated. This feature is particularly useful for continuously verifying the world model against the data provided by a range finder, and for integrating range data from successive locations of the robot during motion. The efficiency of the proposed approach is illustrated by simulations of a spherical robot in a 3-D room in the presence of moving obstacles and inadequate prelearned partial knowledge of the environment.

  20. Information geometry of the spherical model.

    PubMed

    Janke, W; Johnston, D A; Kenna, R

    2003-04-01

    Motivated by the observation that geometrizing statistical mechanics offers an interesting alternative to more standard approaches, we calculate the scaling behavior of the curvature R of the information geometry metric for the spherical model. We find that R approximately epsilon(-2), where epsilon=beta(c)-beta is the distance from criticality. The discrepancy from the naively expected scaling R approximately epsilon(-3) is explained and compared with that for the Ising model on planar random graphs, which shares the same critical exponents. PMID:12786435

  1. The COMET method in 3-D hexagonal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, K. J.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    The hybrid stochastic-deterministic coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) method developed at Georgia Tech now solves reactor core problems in 3-D hexagonal geometry. In this paper, the method is used to solve three preliminary test problems designed to challenge the method with steep flux gradients, high leakage, and strong asymmetry and heterogeneity in the core. The test problems are composed of blocks taken from a high temperature test reactor benchmark problem. As the method is still in development, these problems and their results are strictly preliminary. Results are compared to whole core Monte Carlo reference solutions in order to verify the method. Relative errors are on the order of 50 pcm in core eigenvalue, and mean relative error in pin fission density calculations is less than 1% in these difficult test cores. The method requires the one-time pre-computation of a response expansion coefficient library, which may be compiled in a comparable amount of time to a single whole core Monte Carlo calculation. After the library has been computed, COMET may solve any number of core configurations on the order of an hour, representing a significant gain in efficiency over other methods for whole core transport calculations. (authors)

  2. Indoor Modelling Benchmark for 3D Geometry Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, C.; Boehm, J.

    2014-06-01

    A combination of faster, cheaper and more accurate hardware, more sophisticated software, and greater industry acceptance have all laid the foundations for an increased desire for accurate 3D parametric models of buildings. Pointclouds are the data source of choice currently with static terrestrial laser scanning the predominant tool for large, dense volume measurement. The current importance of pointclouds as the primary source of real world representation is endorsed by CAD software vendor acquisitions of pointcloud engines in 2011. Both the capture and modelling of indoor environments require great effort in time by the operator (and therefore cost). Automation is seen as a way to aid this by reducing the workload of the user and some commercial packages have appeared that provide automation to some degree. In the data capture phase, advances in indoor mobile mapping systems are speeding up the process, albeit currently with a reduction in accuracy. As a result this paper presents freely accessible pointcloud datasets of two typical areas of a building each captured with two different capture methods and each with an accurate wholly manually created model. These datasets are provided as a benchmark for the research community to gauge the performance and improvements of various techniques for indoor geometry extraction. With this in mind, non-proprietary, interoperable formats are provided such as E57 for the scans and IFC for the reference model. The datasets can be found at: http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench.

  3. Characterizing student mathematics teachers' levels of understanding in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Bulent; Baki, Adnan

    2010-12-01

    This article presents an exploratory study aimed at the identification of students' levels of understanding in spherical geometry as van Hiele did for Euclidean geometry. To do this, we developed and implemented a spherical geometry course for student mathematics teachers. Six structured, task-based interviews were held with eight student mathematics teachers at particular times through the course to determine the spherical geometry learning levels. After identifying the properties of spherical geometry levels, we developed Understandings in Spherical Geometry Test to test whether or not the levels form hierarchy, and 58 student mathematics teachers took the test. The outcomes seemed to support our theoretical perspective that there are some understanding levels in spherical geometry that progress through a hierarchical order as van Hiele levels in Euclidean geometry.

  4. High Rayleigh Number 3-D Spherical Mantle Convection with Radial Basis Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flyer, N.; Yuen (3), G. Wright, D.

    2009-04-01

    In the last quarter of a century many numerical methods, such as finite-differences, finite-volume, their yin-yang variants, finite-elements and pseudo-spectral methods have been used to study the problem of 3-D spherical convection. All have their respective strengths but also serious weaknesses, such as low-order and can involve high algorithmic complexity, as in triangular elements. Spectrally accurate methods do not practically allow for local mesh refinement and often involve cumbersome algebra. We have recently introduced a new grid/mesh-free approach, using radial basis functions ( RBFs) . It has the advantage of being spectrally accurate for arbitrary node layouts in multi-dimensions with extreme algorithmic simplicity, and allows naturally node-refinement. One virtue of the RBF scheme is the ability to use a simple Cartesian geometry while implementing the required boundary conditions for the temperature, velocity and stresses on a spherical surface of both the outer( planetary surface ) and inner shell ( core-mantle boundary ). The velocity and stress components are expressed in terms of the scalar potential approach and the other remaining variable is the perturbed temperature field. We have studied the problem from the weakly nonlinear to a moderately nonlinear regime involving a Rayleigh number, about 1000 times super-critical. Both purely basal and partially internal -heating cases have been considered

  5. High Rayleigh Number 3-D Spherical Mantle Convection with Radial Basis Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flyer, N.; Wright, G.; Yuen, D. A.

    2009-04-01

    In the last quarter of a century many numerical methods, such as finite-differences, finite-volume, their yin-yang variants, finite-elements and pseudo-spectral methods have been used to study the problem of 3-D spherical convection. All have their respective strengths but also serious weaknesses, such as low-order and can involve high algorithmic complexity, as in triangular elements. Spectrally accurate methods do not practically allow for local mesh refinement and often involve cumbersome algebra. We have recently introduced a new grid/mesh-free approach, using radial basis functions (RBFs). It has the advantage of being spectrally accurate for arbitrary node layouts in multi-dimensions with extreme algorithmic simplicity, and allows naturally node-refinement. One virtue of the RBF scheme is the ability to use a simple Cartesian geometry while implementing the required boundary conditions for the temperature, velocity and stresses on a spherical surface of both the outer(planetary surface) and inner shell (core-mantle boundary). The velocity and stress components are expressed in terms of the scalar potential approach and the other remaining variable is the perturbed temperature field. We have studied the problem from the weakly onlinear to a moderately nonlinear regime involving a Rayleigh number, about 1000 times super-critical. Both purely basal and partially internal-heating cases have been considered.

  6. Characterizing Student Mathematics Teachers' Levels of Understanding in Spherical Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Bulent; Baki, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an exploratory study aimed at the identification of students' levels of understanding in spherical geometry as van Hiele did for Euclidean geometry. To do this, we developed and implemented a spherical geometry course for student mathematics teachers. Six structured, "task-based interviews" were held with eight student…

  7. 3-D Spherical modelling of the thermo-chemical evolution of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armann, M.; Tackley, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    Several first-order aspects of the dynamics of Venus' mantle remain poorly understood. These include (i) how Venus' mantle loses its radiogenic heat (presumably about the same as Earth's) despite the presence of stagnant lid convection. Hypotheses that have been advanced (summarised in [1]) are conduction through a thin lithosphere, episodic overturn of the lithosphere, magmatic heat transport, and concentration of almost all heat-producing elements into the crust, but there are problems with all of these taken individually. A thick lithosphere may not be consistent with admittance ratios, magmatic heat transport would require a too-large resurfacing rate, and a large concentration of heat-producing elements in the crust would cause weakness and possibly melting in the deep crust. (ii) The relatively long-wavelength distribution of surface features, which is surprising because numerical models and analogue laboratory experiments of stagnant-lid convection produce relatively short-wavelength convective cells. (iii) The inferred (from crater distributions [2]) relatively uniform surface age of 500-700 Ma. (iv) Whether the highlands are above mantle downwellings as on Earth or above mantle upwellings [3]. (v) How the mantle can have outgassing only 25% of 40Ar [4] but supposedly most of its water [5]. (vi) The cause of coronae and relationship to mantle processes [6]. To study some of these questions, we are performing integrated thermo-chemical convection modelling of Venus' evolution over 4.5 billion years, in 3-D spherical geometry as well as 2-D spherical annulus geometry [7]. These models include realistic ("laboratory") rheological parameters for diffusion creep and dislocation creep based on [8][9], which are also composition-dependent, and plastic yielding based on Byerlee's law, which might cause changes in tectonic regime (e.g., episodic plate tectonics). Crustal formation and the resulting differentiation of the crust and mantle are modelled using a self

  8. 3-D Spherical modelling of the thermo-chemical evolution of Venus' mantle and crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armann, M.; Tackley, P. J.

    2008-09-01

    Background Several first-order aspects of the dynamics of Venus' mantle remain poorly understood. These include (i) how Venus' mantle loses its radiogenic heat, which is expected to be about the same as Earth's, despite the presence of stagnant lid convection. Hypotheses that have been advanced (summarised in [1]) are conduction through a thin lithosphere, episodic overturn of the lithosphere, magmatic heat transport, and concentration of almost all heat-producing elements into the crust, but there are problems with all of these taken individually. A thick lithosphere may not be consistent with admittance ratios, magmatic heat transport would require a too-large resurfacing rate, and a large concentration of heat-producing elements in the crust would cause weakness and possibly melting in the deep crust. (ii) The relatively long-wavelength distribution of surface features, which is surprising because numerical models and analogue laboratory experiments of stagnant-lid convection produce relatively short-wavelength convective cells. (iii) The inferred (from crater distributions [2]) relatively uniform surface age of 500-700 Ma. (iv) Whether the highlands are above mantle downwellings as on Earth or above mantle upwellings [3]. (v) How the mantle can have outgassing only 25% of 40Ar [4] but supposedly most of its water [5]. (vi) The cause of coronae and relationship to mantle processes [6]. Model To study some of these questions, we take advantage of advances in computational capabilities to perform integrated thermo-chemical convection models of Venus' evolution over 4.5 billion years, in 3-D spherical geometry as well as 2-D spherical annulus geometry [7]. These models include realistic ("laboratory") rheological parameters for diffusion creep and dislocation creep based on [8][9], which are also composition-dependent, and plastic yielding based on Byerlee's law, which might cause changes in tectonic regime (e.g., episodic plate tectonics). Crustal formation and

  9. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  10. Online Stereo 3D Simulation in Studying the Spherical Pendulum in Conservative Force Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav S.

    2013-01-01

    The current paper aims at presenting a modern e-learning method and tool that is utilized in teaching physics in the universities. An online stereo 3D simulation is used for e-learning mechanics and specifically the teaching of spherical pendulum as part of the General Physics course for students in the universities. This approach was realized on…

  11. Flow above and within granular media composed of spherical and non-spherical particles - using a 3D numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    The entrainment of single grains and, hence, their erosion characteristics are dependent on fluid forcing, grain size and density, but also shape variations. To quantitatively describe and capture the hydrodynamic conditions around individual grains, researchers commonly use empirical approaches such as laboratory flume tanks. Nonetheless, it is difficult with such physical experiments to measure the flow velocities in the direct vicinity or within the pore spaces of sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-invasive way. As a result, the hydrodynamic conditions in the water column, at the fluid-porous interface and within pore spaces of a granular medium of various grain shapes is not yet fully understood. For that reason, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid speeds within a granular medium. A 3D-SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical wave tank model was set up to provide quantitative evidence on the flow velocities in the direct vicinity and in the interior of granular beds composed of two shapes as a complementary method to the difficult task of in situ measurement. On the basis of previous successful numerical wave tank models with SPH, the model geometry was chosen in dimensions of X=2.68 [m], Y=0.48 [m], and Z=0.8 [m]. Three suites of experiments were designed with a range of particle shape models: (1) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the across-stream direction, (2) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the along-stream direction, and (3) spheres. Particle diameters ranged from 0.04 [m] to 0.08 [m]. A wave was introduced by a vertical paddle that accelerated to 0.8 [m/s] perpendicular to the granular bed. Flow measurements showed that the flow velocity values into the beds were highest when the grains were oriented across the stream direction and lowest in case when the grains were oriented parallel to the stream, indicating that the model was capable to simulate simultaneously

  12. Software-based geometry operations for 3D computer graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Mihai; Iancu, Daniel; Glossner, John; Schulte, Michael; Mamidi, Suman

    2006-02-01

    In order to support a broad dynamic range and a high degree of precision, many of 3D renderings fundamental algorithms have been traditionally performed in floating-point. However, fixed-point data representation is preferable over floating-point representation in graphics applications on embedded devices where performance is of paramount importance, while the dynamic range and precision requirements are limited due to the small display sizes (current PDA's are 640 × 480 (VGA), while cell-phones are even smaller). In this paper we analyze the efficiency of a CORDIC-augmented Sandbridge processor when implementing a vertex processor in software using fixed-point arithmetic. A CORDIC-based solution for vertex processing exhibits a number of advantages over classical Multiply-and-Acumulate solutions. First, since a single primitive is used to describe the computation, the code can easily be vectorized and multithreaded, and thus fits the major Sandbridge architectural features. Second, since a CORDIC iteration consists of only a shift operation followed by an addition, the computation may be deeply pipelined. Initially, we outline the Sandbridge architecture extension which encompasses a CORDIC functional unit and the associated instructions. Then, we consider rigid-body rotation, lighting, exponentiation, vector normalization, and perspective division (which are some of the most important data-intensive 3D graphics kernels) and propose a scheme to implement them on the CORDIC-augmented Sandbridge processor. Preliminary results indicate that the performance improvement within the extended instruction set ranges from 3× to 10× (with the exception of rigid body rotation).

  13. Students Discovering Spherical Geometry Using Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as Cabri and Geometers' Sketchpad has been regularly used worldwide for teaching and learning Euclidean geometry for a long time. The DGS with its inductive nature allows students to learn Euclidean geometry via explorations. However, with respect to non-Euclidean geometries, do we need to introduce them to…

  14. Error Analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data by Means of Spherical Statistics and 3D Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Cuartero, Aurora; Armesto, Julia; Rodríguez, Pablo G.; Arias, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete analysis of the positional errors of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data based on spherical statistics and 3D graphs. Spherical statistics are preferred because of the 3D vectorial nature of the spatial error. Error vectors have three metric elements (one module and two angles) that were analyzed by spherical statistics. A study case has been presented and discussed in detail. Errors were calculating using 53 check points (CP) and CP coordinates were measured by a digitizer with submillimetre accuracy. The positional accuracy was analyzed by both the conventional method (modular errors analysis) and the proposed method (angular errors analysis) by 3D graphics and numerical spherical statistics. Two packages in R programming language were performed to obtain graphics automatically. The results indicated that the proposed method is advantageous as it offers a more complete analysis of the positional accuracy, such as angular error component, uniformity of the vector distribution, error isotropy, and error, in addition the modular error component by linear statistics. PMID:22163461

  15. Using 3D Computer Graphics Multimedia to Motivate Preservice Teachers' Learning of Geometry and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson-Espy, Tracy; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Schram, Pamela; Quickenton, Art

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the genesis and purpose of our geometry methods course, focusing on a geometry-teaching technology we created using NVIDIA[R] Chameleon demonstration. This article presents examples from a sequence of lessons centered about a 3D computer graphics demonstration of the chameleon and its geometry. In addition, we present data…

  16. Verification of internal flow analyses in complex 3-D geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. K.; Buggeln, R. C.

    1992-11-01

    Analysis of internal flow in advanced rocket propulsion systems is complicated by hardware geometry, high Reynolds numbers, rotation, high frequency phenomena, and near incompressibility. Typical of such a problem is the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot gas manifold (HGM). Previous analyses of flow in the SSME HGM have been compared to air flow data and found to be inaccurate with respect to system losses, outer wall static pressures, and transfer duct environments. Such discrepancies could arise from flow measurement methodology, low order algorithms, turbulence modeling, and/or inadequate grid resolution. The objective of this work is to compare internal flow computational analyses to LDV flow measurements for the MSFC HGM pilot model configuration using two grids of different node density in the near wall region. Grids were generated with the EAGLE grid generator and calculations were made with the SRA MINT code. The calculated results were compared with HGM experimental data obtained in the MSFC water flow facility.

  17. A hybrid radial basis function-pseudospectral method for thermal convection in a 3-D spherical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, G. B.; Flyer, N.; Yuen, D. A.

    2010-07-01

    A novel hybrid spectral method that combines radial basis function (RBF) and Chebyshev pseudospectral methods in a "2 + 1" approach is presented for numerically simulating thermal convection in a 3-D spherical shell. This is the first study to apply RBFs to a full 3-D physical model in spherical geometry. In addition to being spectrally accurate, RBFs are not defined in terms of any surface-based coordinate system such as spherical coordinates. As a result, when used in the lateral directions, as in this study, they completely circumvent the pole issue with the further advantage that nodes can be "scattered" over the surface of a sphere. In the radial direction, Chebyshev polynomials are used, which are also spectrally accurate and provide the necessary clustering near the boundaries to resolve boundary layers. Applications of this new hybrid methodology are given to the problem of convection in the Earth's mantle, which is modeled by a Boussinesq fluid at infinite Prandtl number. To see whether this numerical technique warrants further investigation, the study limits itself to an isoviscous mantle. Benchmark comparisons are presented with other currently used mantle convection codes for Rayleigh number (Ra) 7 × 103 and 105. Results from a Ra = 106 simulation are also given. The algorithmic simplicity of the code (mostly due to RBFs) allows it to be written in less than 400 lines of MATLAB and run on a single workstation. We find that our method is very competitive with those currently used in the literature.

  18. Super Cooled Large Droplet Analysis of Several Geometries Using LEWICE3D Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2011-01-01

    Super Cooled Large Droplet (SLD) collection efficiency calculations were performed for several geometries using the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The computations were performed using the NASA Glenn Research Center SLD splashing model which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. Comparisons to experiment were made where available. The geometries included two straight wings, a swept 64A008 wing tip, two high lift geometries, and the generic commercial transport DLR-F4 wing body configuration. In general the LEWICE3D Version 3 computations compared well with the 2D LEWICE 3.2.2 results and with experimental data where available.

  19. 3-D Spherical modelling of the thermo-chemical evolution of Venus' mantle and crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armann, M.; Tackley, P. J.

    2008-09-01

    Background Several first-order aspects of the dynamics of Venus' mantle remain poorly understood. These include (i) how Venus' mantle loses its radiogenic heat, which is expected to be about the same as Earth's, despite the presence of stagnant lid convection. Hypotheses that have been advanced (summarised in [1]) are conduction through a thin lithosphere, episodic overturn of the lithosphere, magmatic heat transport, and concentration of almost all heat-producing elements into the crust, but there are problems with all of these taken individually. A thick lithosphere may not be consistent with admittance ratios, magmatic heat transport would require a too-large resurfacing rate, and a large concentration of heat-producing elements in the crust would cause weakness and possibly melting in the deep crust. (ii) The relatively long-wavelength distribution of surface features, which is surprising because numerical models and analogue laboratory experiments of stagnant-lid convection produce relatively short-wavelength convective cells. (iii) The inferred (from crater distributions [2]) relatively uniform surface age of 500-700 Ma. (iv) Whether the highlands are above mantle downwellings as on Earth or above mantle upwellings [3]. (v) How the mantle can have outgassing only 25% of 40Ar [4] but supposedly most of its water [5]. (vi) The cause of coronae and relationship to mantle processes [6]. Model To study some of these questions, we take advantage of advances in computational capabilities to perform integrated thermo-chemical convection models of Venus' evolution over 4.5 billion years, in 3-D spherical geometry as well as 2-D spherical annulus geometry [7]. These models include realistic ("laboratory") rheological parameters for diffusion creep and dislocation creep based on [8][9], which are also composition-dependent, and plastic yielding based on Byerlee's law, which might cause changes in tectonic regime (e.g., episodic plate tectonics). Crustal formation and

  20. 3-D Spherical modelling of the thermo-chemical evolution of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armann, M.; Tackley, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    Several first-order aspects of the dynamics of Venus' mantle remain poorly understood. These include (i) how Venus' mantle loses its radiogenic heat (presumably about the same as Earth's) despite the presence of stagnant lid convection. Hypotheses that have been advanced (summarised in [1]) are conduction through a thin lithosphere, episodic overturn of the lithosphere, magmatic heat transport, and concentration of almost all heat-producing elements into the crust, but there are problems with all of these taken individually. A thick lithosphere may not be consistent with admittance ratios, magmatic heat transport would require a too-large resurfacing rate, and a large concentration of heat-producing elements in the crust would cause weakness and possibly melting in the deep crust. (ii) The relatively long-wavelength distribution of surface features, which is surprising because numerical models and analogue laboratory experiments of stagnant-lid convection produce relatively short-wavelength convective cells. (iii) The inferred (from crater distributions [2]) relatively uniform surface age of 500-700 Ma. (iv) Whether the highlands are above mantle downwellings as on Earth or above mantle upwellings [3]. (v) How the mantle can have outgassing only 25% of 40Ar [4] but supposedly most of its water [5]. (vi) The cause of coronae and relationship to mantle processes [6]. To study some of these questions, we are performing integrated thermo-chemical convection modelling of Venus' evolution over 4.5 billion years, in 3-D spherical geometry as well as 2-D spherical annulus geometry [7]. These models include realistic ("laboratory") rheological parameters for diffusion creep and dislocation creep based on [8][9], which are also composition-dependent, and plastic yielding based on Byerlee's law, which might cause changes in tectonic regime (e.g., episodic plate tectonics). Crustal formation and the resulting differentiation of the crust and mantle are modelled using a self

  1. 3D galaxy clustering with future wide-field surveys: Advantages of a spherical Fourier-Bessel analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys are extremely promising to help in addressing the major challenges of cosmology, in particular in understanding the nature of the dark universe. The strength of these surveys, naturally described in spherical geometry, comes from their unprecedented depth and width, but an optimal extraction of their three-dimensional information is of utmost importance to best constrain the properties of the dark universe. Aims: Although there is theoretical motivation and novel tools to explore these surveys using the 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) power spectrum of galaxy number counts Cℓ(k,k'), most survey optimisations and forecasts are based on the tomographic spherical harmonics power spectrum C(ij)_ℓ. The goal of this paper is to perform a new investigation of the information that can be extracted from these two analyses in the context of planned stage IV wide-field galaxy surveys. Methods: We compared tomographic and 3D SFB techniques by comparing the forecast cosmological parameter constraints obtained from a Fisher analysis. The comparison was made possible by careful and coherent treatment of non-linear scales in the two analyses, which makes this study the first to compare 3D SFB and tomographic constraints on an equal footing. Nuisance parameters related to a scale- and redshift-dependent galaxy bias were also included in the computation of the 3D SFB and tomographic power spectra for the first time. Results: Tomographic and 3D SFB methods can recover similar constraints in the absence of systematics. This requires choosing an optimal number of redshift bins for the tomographic analysis, which we computed to be N = 26 for zmed ≃ 0.4, N = 30 for zmed ≃ 1.0, and N = 42 for zmed ≃ 1.7. When marginalising over nuisance parameters related to the galaxy bias, the forecast 3D SFB constraints are less affected by this source of systematics than the tomographic constraints. In addition, the rate of increase of the

  2. An inverse hyper-spherical harmonics-based formulation for reconstructing 3D volumetric lung deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanam, Anand P.; Min, Yugang; Mudur, Sudhir P.; Rastogi, Abhinav; Ruddy, Bari H.; Shah, Amish; Divo, Eduardo; Kassab, Alain; Rolland, Jannick P.; Kupelian, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    A method to estimate the deformation operator for the 3D volumetric lung dynamics of human subjects is described in this paper. For known values of air flow and volumetric displacement, the deformation operator and subsequently the elastic properties of the lung are estimated in terms of a Green's function. A Hyper-Spherical Harmonic (HSH) transformation is employed to compute the deformation operator. The hyper-spherical coordinate transformation method discussed in this paper facilitates accounting for the heterogeneity of the deformation operator using a finite number of frequency coefficients. Spirometry measurements are used to provide values for the airflow inside the lung. Using a 3D optical flow-based method, the 3D volumetric displacement of the left and right lungs, which represents the local anatomy and deformation of a human subject, was estimated from 4D-CT dataset. Results from an implementation of the method show the estimation of the deformation operator for the left and right lungs of a human subject with non-small cell lung cancer. Validation of the proposed method shows that we can estimate the Young's modulus of each voxel within a 2% error level.

  3. Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.

  4. Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.

  5. What spherically symmetric viscosity structure produces the same PGR as a realistic 3D Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulson, A.; Zhong, S.; Wahr, J.

    2003-04-01

    Observations of isostatic adjustment of the earth's surface due to transient loading provide important constraints on the mantle viscosity structure. However, most studies of this response have assumed a spherically symmetric (1D) earth. This study is motivated by the following question: when a one-dimensional viscosity model is derived from post-glacial rebound (PGR) observations, how does this 1D structure correspond to the three-dimensional structure of the earth? Using the 3D spherical finite element software CitcomSVE [Zhong et al., 2002], we are able to compute the earth's response to realistic glacial loading when the earth has a truly 3D viscosity structure. The loading is provided by the ICE-3G deglaciation history [Tushingham &Peltier, 1991]. The 3D viscosity structure is constructed by first selecting a priori a radial average viscosity (for example, ( 1021 \\: {Pa \\cdot s}) in the upper mantle and (2 × 1021 \\: {Pa \\cdot s}) in the lower mantle). The lateral variations about this radial structure are derived from seismic shear-velocity tomography models by converting velocities to temperature, then temperature to viscosity. The seismic tomography models used are S20RTS [Ritsema et al., 1999] and NA00 [Van der Lee, 2002]. From the computed isostatic response, we measure typical PGR observables: relative sea level change (RSLC) and (dot{J2}). These measurements are then treated as synthetic data, and we search for 1D (radially stratified) viscosity models, forced with the same glaciation history, that will best fit these synthetic PGR observations. We find that for sites near the center of a large glacial load (e.g., southern Hudson Bay), a local average of the 3D viscosity structure provides a reasonable 1D proxy. For sites along the periphery of the glacial load (e.g., Boston), it is much more difficult to find a 1D model that can reproduce the 3D observations. We also approach the problem by running an ensemble of 1D viscosity models, and finding

  6. Spherical cavity-expansion forcing function in PRONTO 3D for application to penetration problems

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, T.L.; Tabbara, M.R.

    1997-05-01

    In certain penetration events the primary mode of deformation of the target can be approximated by known analytical expressions. In the context of an analysis code, this approximation eliminates the need for modeling the target as well as the need for a contact algorithm. This technique substantially reduces execution time. In this spirit, a forcing function which is derived from a spherical-cavity expansion analysis has been implemented in PRONTO 3D. This implementation is capable of computing the structural and component responses of a projectile due to three dimensional penetration events. Sample problems demonstrate good agreement with experimental and analytical results.

  7. Explosive fragmentation of liquids in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A.; Longbottom, A.; Frost, D. L.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Petel, O.

    2016-07-01

    Rapid acceleration of a spherical shell of liquid following central detonation of a high explosive causes the liquid to form fine jets that are similar in appearance to the particle jets that are formed during explosive dispersal of a packed layer of solid particles. Of particular interest is determining the dependence of the scale of the jet-like structures on the physical parameters of the system, including the fluid properties (e.g., density, viscosity, and surface tension) and the ratio of the mass of the liquid to that of the explosive. The present paper presents computational results from a multi-material hydrocode describing the dynamics of the explosive dispersal process. The computations are used to track the overall features of the early stages of dispersal of the liquid layer, including the wave dynamics, and motion of the spall and accretion layers. The results are compared with new experimental results of spherical charges surrounded by a variety of different fluids, including water, glycerol, ethanol, and vegetable oil, which together encompass a significant range of fluid properties. The results show that the number of jet structures is not sensitive to the fluid properties, but primarily dependent on the mass ratio. Above a certain mass ratio of liquid fill-to-explosive burster (F / B), the number of jets is approximately constant and consistent with an empirical model based on the maximum thickness of the accretion layer. For small values of F / B, the number of liquid jets is reduced, in contrast with explosive powder dispersal, where small F / B yields a larger number of particle jets. A hypothetical explanation of these features based on the nucleation of cavitation is explored numerically.

  8. High-resolution, real-time simultaneous 3D surface geometry and temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    An, Yatong; Zhang, Song

    2016-06-27

    This paper presents a method to simultaneously measure three-dimensional (3D) surface geometry and temperature in real time. Specifically, we developed 1) a holistic approach to calibrate both a structured light system and a thermal camera under exactly the same world coordinate system even though these two sensors do not share the same wavelength; and 2) a computational framework to determine the sub-pixel corresponding temperature for each 3D point as well as discard those occluded points. Since the thermal 2D imaging and 3D visible imaging systems do not share the same spectrum of light, they can perform sensing simultaneously in real time: we developed a hardware system that can achieve real-time 3D geometry and temperature measurement at 26 Hz with 768 × 960 points per frame. PMID:27410608

  9. KENO3D Visualization Tool for KENO V.a and KENO-VI Geometry Models

    SciTech Connect

    Horwedel, J.E.; Bowman, S.M.

    2000-06-01

    Criticality safety analyses often require detailed modeling of complex geometries. Effective visualization tools can enhance checking the accuracy of these models. This report describes the KENO3D visualization tool developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide visualization of KENO V.a and KENO-VI criticality safety models. The development of KENO3D is part of the current efforts to enhance the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluations) computer software system.

  10. Novel Discrete Element Method for 3D non-spherical granular particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelen, Luuk; Padding, Johan; Kuipers, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Granular materials are common in many industries and nature. The different properties from solid behavior to fluid like behavior are well known but less well understood. The main aim of our work is to develop a discrete element method (DEM) to simulate non-spherical granular particles. The non-spherical shape of particles is important, as it controls the behavior of the granular materials in many situations, such as static systems of packed particles. In such systems the packing fraction is determined by the particle shape. We developed a novel 3D discrete element method that simulates the particle-particle interactions for a wide variety of shapes. The model can simulate quadratic shapes such as spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders. More importantly, any convex polyhedron can be used as a granular particle shape. These polyhedrons are very well suited to represent non-rounded sand particles. The main difficulty of any non-spherical DEM is the determination of particle-particle overlap. Our model uses two iterative geometric algorithms to determine the overlap. The algorithms are robust and can also determine multiple contact points which can occur for these shapes. With this method we are able to study different applications such as the discharging of a hopper or silo. Another application the creation of a random close packing, to determine the solid volume fraction as a function of the particle shape.

  11. Thermal convection in a 3D spherical shell with strongly temperature and pressure dependent viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmer, K.; Harder, H.; Hansen, U.

    2004-12-01

    The style of convection in planetary mantles is presumably dominated by the strong dependence of the viscosity of the mantle material on temperature and pressure. While several efforts have been undertaken in cartesian geometry to investigate convection in media with strong temperature dependent viscosity, spherical models are still in their infancy and still limited to modest parameters. Spectral approaches are usually employed for spherical convection models which do not allow to take into account lateral variations, like temperature dependent viscosity. We have developed a scheme, based on a finite volume discretization, to treat convection in a spherical shell with strong temperature dependent viscosity. Our approach has been particularly tailored to run efficiently on parallel computers. The spherical shell is topologically divided into six cubes. The equations are formulated in primitive variables, and are treated in the cartesian cubes. In order to ensure mass conservation a SIMPLER pressure correction procedure is applied and to handle strong viscosity variations up to Δ η =106 and high Rayleigh-numbers up to Ra=108 the pressure correction algorithm is combined with a pressure weighted interpolation method to satisfy the incompressibility condition and to avoid oscillations. We study thermal convection in a basal and mixed-mode heated shell with stress free and isothermal boundary conditions, as a function of the Rayleigh-number and viscosity contrast. Besides the temperature dependence we have further explored the effects of pressure on the viscosity. As a general result we observe the existence of three regimes (mobile, sluggish and stagnant lid), characterized by the type of surface motion. Laterally averaged depth-profiles of velocity, temperature and viscosity exhibit significant deviations from the isoviscous case. As compared to cartesian geometries, convection in a spherical shell possesses strong memory for the initial state. At strong

  12. Conformal geometry and its applications on 3D shape matching, recognition, and stitching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Wang, Yang; Jin, Miao; Gu, Xianfeng David; Samaras, Dimitris

    2007-07-01

    Three-dimensional shape matching is a fundamental issue in computer vision with many applications such as shape registration, 3D object recognition, and classification. However, shape matching with noise, occlusion, and clutter is a challenging problem. In this paper, we analyze a family of quasi-conformal maps including harmonic maps, conformal maps, and least-squares conformal maps with regards to 3D shape matching. As a result, we propose a novel and computationally efficient shape matching framework by using least-squares conformal maps. According to conformal geometry theory, each 3D surface with disk topology can be mapped to a 2D domain through a global optimization and the resulting map is a diffeomorphism, i.e., one-to-one and onto. This allows us to simplify the 3D shape-matching problem to a 2D image-matching problem, by comparing the resulting 2D parametric maps, which are stable, insensitive to resolution changes and robust to occlusion, and noise. Therefore, highly accurate and efficient 3D shape matching algorithms can be achieved by using the above three parametric maps. Finally, the robustness of least-squares conformal maps is evaluated and analyzed comprehensively in 3D shape matching with occlusion, noise, and resolution variation. In order to further demonstrate the performance of our proposed method, we also conduct a series of experiments on two computer vision applications, i.e., 3D face recognition and 3D nonrigid surface alignment and stitching. PMID:17496378

  13. Directional decomposition of the acoustic wave equation for fluids and metafluids in spherical geometries, with application to transformational acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Peter

    2016-03-01

    A new directional decomposition of the acoustic 3D wave equation is derived for spherically symmetric geometries, where the wave fields do not need to possess such a symmetry. This provides an alternative basis for various applications of techniques like invariant embedding and time domain Green functions in spherically symmetric geometries. Contrary to previous results on spherical wave splittings, the new decomposition is given in a very explicit form. The wave equation considered incorporates effects from radially varying compressibility and density, but also from anisotropic density, a property of certain so called metafluids. By applying the new spherical wave splitting, we show that all spherically symmetric acoustic metafluid cloaks are diffeomorphic images of a homogeneous and isotropic spherical ball of perfect fluid.

  14. Extreme low thermal conductivity in nanoscale 3D Si phononic crystal with spherical pores.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose a nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) Si phononic crystal (PnC) with spherical pores, which can reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si by a factor up to 10,000 times at room temperature. Thermal conductivity of Si PnCs depends on the porosity, for example, the thermal conductivity of Si PnCs with porosity 50% is 300 times smaller than that of bulk Si. The phonon participation ratio spectra demonstrate that more phonons are localized as the porosity increases. The thermal conductivity is insensitive to the temperature changes from room temperature to 1100 K. The extreme-low thermal conductivity could lead to a larger value of ZT than unity as the periodic structure affects very little the electric conductivity. PMID:24559126

  15. A linear operator method to compute the rotational modes of asymmetric 3D Earth by vector spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mian; Huang, Cheng-li

    2012-08-01

    Generalized spherical harmonics (GSH) are usually applied on the problems where the Earth model is elliptical and elastic stress tensor is involved in, as stress tensor can’t be represented in vector spherical harmonics. However, the divergence of the te ns or and a vector dot - product with the tensor are only needed on computation rotation modes of the Earth which can be written in the vector spherical harmonics. We extend the equations on the spherical Earth to asymmetric 3D model by means of linear operator method. This method doesn’t use the complicated generalized spherical harmonics nor Wigner 3 - j symbol. As a validation of this method, the practical calculation of rotational modes of 3D Earth will be made and discussed.

  16. Spray Coating of Photoresist for 3D Microstructures with Different Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liming; Yeow Lee, Yong; Tay, Francis E. H.; Iliescu, Ciprian

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the advantages of spray coating technique as compared to the conventional spin coating method for photoresist coating of 3D microstructures. An optimized mix of photoresist AZ4620: MEK: PGMEA (1:1.5:0.5) was used to achieve good coverage and uniformity of photoresist not only on planar surface, but also along the trenches' sidewall. In order to achieve the ideal coverage of photoresist layer, the effects of the geometries of the microstructures were also considered. Then, we implement this technique for our application in a MEMS device to prove the viability and potentiality of spray coating of photoresist for fabrication of 3D microstructures.

  17. Direct Detection of the Helical Magnetic Field Geometry from 3D Reconstruction of Prominence Knot Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapiór, Maciej; Martínez-Gómez, David

    2016-02-01

    Based on the data collected by the Vacuum Tower Telescope located in the Teide Observatory in the Canary Islands, we analyzed the three-dimensional (3D) motion of so-called knots in a solar prominence of 2014 June 9. Trajectories of seven knots were reconstructed, giving information of the 3D geometry of the magnetic field. Helical motion was detected. From the equipartition principle, we estimated the lower limit of the magnetic field in the prominence to ≈1-3 G and from the Ampère’s law the lower limit of the electric current to ≈1.2 × 109 A.

  18. Experiments with Uas Imagery for Automatic Modeling of Power Line 3d Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźków, G.; Vander Jagt, B.; Toth, C.

    2015-08-01

    The ideal mapping technology for transmission line inspection is the airborne LiDAR executed from helicopter platforms. It allows for full 3D geometry extraction in highly automated manner. Large scale aerial images can be also used for this purpose, however, automation is possible only for finding transmission line positions (2D geometry), and the sag needs to be estimated manually. For longer lines, these techniques are less expensive than ground surveys, yet they are still expensive. UAS technology has the potential to reduce these costs, especially if using inexpensive platforms with consumer grade cameras. This study investigates the potential of using high resolution UAS imagery for automatic modeling of transmission line 3D geometry. The key point of this experiment was to employ dense matching algorithms to appropriately acquired UAS images to have points created also on wires. This allowed to model the 3D geometry of transmission lines similarly to LiDAR acquired point clouds. Results showed that the transmission line modeling is possible with a high internal accuracy for both, horizontal and vertical directions, even when wires were represented by a partial (sparse) point cloud.

  19. Developments for 3D gravity and magnetic modeling in spherical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, R. J.; Liang, Q.; Chen, C.; Li, Y.

    2012-12-01

    for improved management of rock property data and to develop methods to better understand how these data can be used to provide constraints for geophysical modeling. GA are also using the opportunities afforded through the DET CRC to improve documentation and standardization of data and model storage and transfer formats so that the tasks of management, discovery and delivery of modeling inputs and results to various users can be simplified and made more efficient. To provide the foundations of integration and analysis of information in a 3D spatial context, GA are utilizing and customizing 3D visualization software using a Virtual Globe application, NASA World Wind. This will permit us to view the spherical coordinate models and other information at global to local scales in a realistic coordinate framework. The various development activities will together play an important role in the on-going effort by GA to add value to large stores of potential field, rock property, and geological information. This will lead to a better understanding of the geology of the Australian region which will be used in a range of applications, including mineral and energy exploration, natural hazard mitigation, and groundwater management.

  20. 3D FEM Geometry and Material Flow Optimization of Porthole-Die Extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Mazzoni, Luca; Giardini, Claudio

    2007-05-17

    The aim of this work is to design and to improve the geometry of a porthole-die for the production of aluminum components by means of 3D FEM simulations. In fact, the use of finite element models will allow to investigate the effects of the die geometry (webs, extrusion cavity) on the material flow and on the stresses acting on the die so to reduce the die wear and to improve the tool life. The software used to perform the simulations was a commercial FEM code, Deform 3D. The technological data introduced in the FE model have been furnished by METRA S.p.A. Company, partner in this research. The results obtained have been considered valid and helpful by the Company for building a new optimized extrusion porthole-die.

  1. Effect of geometry on drug release from 3D printed tablets.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Robles Martinez, Pamela; Buanz, Asma; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2015-10-30

    The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility of combining hot melt extrusion (HME) with 3D printing (3DP) technology, with a view to producing different shaped tablets which would be otherwise difficult to produce using traditional methods. A filament extruder was used to obtain approx. 4% paracetamol loaded filaments of polyvinyl alcohol with characteristics suitable for use in fused-deposition modelling 3DP. Five different tablet geometries were successfully 3D-printed-cube, pyramid, cylinder, sphere and torus. The printing process did not affect the stability of the drug. Drug release from the tablets was not dependent on the surface area but instead on surface area to volume ratio, indicating the influence that geometrical shape has on drug release. An erosion-mediated process controlled drug release. This work has demonstrated the potential of 3DP to manufacture tablet shapes of different geometries, many of which would be challenging to manufacture by powder compaction. PMID:25934428

  2. Simulations of Coulomb systems with slab geometry using an efficient 3D Ewald summation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Alexandre P.; Girotto, Matheus; Levin, Yan

    2016-04-01

    We present a new approach to efficiently simulate electrolytes confined between infinite charged walls using a 3d Ewald summation method. The optimal performance is achieved by separating the electrostatic potential produced by the charged walls from the electrostatic potential of electrolyte. The electric field produced by the 3d periodic images of the walls is constant inside the simulation cell, with the field produced by the transverse images of the charged plates canceling out. The non-neutral confined electrolyte in an external potential can be simulated using 3d Ewald summation with a suitable renormalization of the electrostatic energy, to remove a divergence, and a correction that accounts for the conditional convergence of the resulting lattice sum. The new algorithm is at least an order of magnitude more rapid than the usual simulation methods for the slab geometry and can be further sped up by adopting a particle-particle particle-mesh approach.

  3. Laboratory Study of Magnetic Reconnection in 3D Geometry Relevant to Magnetopause and Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Lu, Q.; Ji, H.; Mao, A.; Wang, X.; E, P.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, Q.; Ding, W.; Zheng, J.

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory Study of Magnetic Reconnection in 3D Geometry Relevant to Magnetopause and Magnetotail Y. Ren1,2, Quaming Lu3, Hantao Ji1,2, Aohua Mao1, Xiaogang Wang1, Peng E1, Zhibin Wang1, Qingmei Xiao1, Weixing Ding4, Jinxing Zheng51 Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China2 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 3University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China 4University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095 5ASIPP, Hefei, China A new magnetic reconnection experiment, Harbin reconnection eXperiment (HRX), is currently being designed as a key part of Space Plasma Environment Research Facility (SPERF) at Harbin Institute of Technology in Harbin, China. HRX aims to provide a unique experimental platform for studying reconnections in 3D geometry relevant to magnetopause and magnetotail to address: the role of electron and ion-scale dynamics in the current sheet; particle and energy transfer from magnetosheath to magnetosphere; particle energization/heating mechanisms during magnetic reconnection; 3D effects in fast reconnection, e.g. the role of 3D magnetic null point. HRX employs a unique set of coils to generate the required 3D magnetic geometry and provides a wide range of plasma parameters. Here, important motivating scientific problems are reviewed and the physics design of HRX is presented, including plasma parameters determined from Vlasov scaling law, reconnection scenarios explored using vacuum magnetic field calculations and numerical simulations of HRX using hybrid and MHD codes. Plasma diagnostics plan and engineering design of important coils will also be briefly presented.

  4. Hexatic order and surface ripples in spherical geometries.

    PubMed

    Lenz, P; Nelson, D R

    2001-09-17

    In flat geometries, two-dimensional hexatic order has only a minor effect on capillary waves on a liquid substrate and on undulation modes in lipid bilayers. However, extended bond-orientational order alters the long-wavelength spectrum of these ripples in spherical geometries. We calculate this frequency shift and suggest that it might be detectable in lipid bilayer vesicles, at the surface of liquid metals, and in multielectron bubbles in liquid helium at low temperatures. Hexatic order also leads to a shift in the threshold for the fission instability induced in the later two systems by an excess of electric charge. PMID:11580526

  5. Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.

    2016-02-08

    We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955)] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer one that is to some extent improved.

  6. Objective and subjective quality assessment of geometry compression of reconstructed 3D humans in a 3D virtual room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekuria, Rufael; Cesar, Pablo; Doumanis, Ioannis; Frisiello, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Compression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced by such codecs in a state of art 3D immersive virtual room. In the 3D immersive virtual room, users are captured with multiple cameras, and their surfaces are reconstructed as photorealistic colored/textured 3D meshes or point clouds. To test the perceptual effect of compression and transmission, we render degraded versions with different frame rates in different contexts (near/far) in the scene. A quantitative subjective study with 16 users shows that negligible distortion of decoded surfaces compared to the original reconstructions can be achieved in the 3D virtual room. In addition, a qualitative task based analysis in a full prototype field trial shows increased presence, emotion, user and state recognition of the reconstructed 3D Human representation compared to animated computer avatars.

  7. 3D spherical microtissues and microfluidic technology for multi-tissue experiments and analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Fluri, David A; Marchan, Rosemarie; Boonen, Kurt; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Singh, Prateek; Hammad, Seddik; Landuyt, Bart; Hengstler, Jan G; Kelm, Jens M; Hierlemann, Andreas; Frey, Olivier

    2015-07-10

    Rational development of more physiologic in vitro models includes the design of robust and flexible 3D-microtissue-based multi-tissue devices, which allow for tissue-tissue interactions. The developed device consists of multiple microchambers interconnected by microchannels. Pre-formed spherical microtissues are loaded into the microchambers and cultured under continuous perfusion. Gravity-driven flow is generated from on-chip reservoirs through automated chip-tilting without any need for additional tubing and external pumps. This tilting concept allows for operating up to 48 devices in parallel in order to test various drug concentrations with a sufficient number of replicates. For a proof of concept, rat liver and colorectal tumor microtissues were interconnected on the chip and cultured during 8 days in the presence of the pro-drug cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide has a significant impact on tumor growth but only after bio-activation by the liver. This effect was only observed in the perfused and interconnected co-cultures of different microtissue types on-chip, whereas the discontinuous transfer of supernatant via pipetting from static liver microtissues that have been treated with cyclophosphamide did not significantly affect tumor growth. The results indicate the utility and multi-tissue functionality of this platform. The importance of continuous medium circulation and tissue interaction is highlighted. PMID:25592049

  8. 3D Geometry and Motion Estimations of Maneuvering Targets for Interferometric ISAR With Sparse Aperture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Xing, Mengdao; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Qianqian; Bao, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    In the current scenario of high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging, the non-cooperative targets may have strong maneuverability, which tends to cause time-variant Doppler modulation and imaging plane in the echoed data. Furthermore, it is still a challenge to realize ISAR imaging of maneuvering targets from sparse aperture (SA) data. In this paper, we focus on the problem of 3D geometry and motion estimations of maneuvering targets for interferometric ISAR (InISAR) with SA. For a target of uniformly accelerated rotation, the rotational modulation in echo is formulated as chirp sensing code under a chirp-Fourier dictionary to represent the maneuverability. In particular, a joint multi-channel imaging approach is developed to incorporate the multi-channel data and treat the multi-channel ISAR image formation as a joint-sparsity constraint optimization. Then, a modified orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem to produce high-resolution range-Doppler (RD) images and chirp parameter estimation. The 3D target geometry and the motion estimations are followed by using the acquired RD images and chirp parameters. Herein, a joint estimation approach of 3D geometry and rotation motion is presented to realize outlier removing and error reduction. In comparison with independent single-channel processing, the proposed joint multi-channel imaging approach performs better in 2D imaging, 3D imaging, and motion estimation. Finally, experiments using both simulated and measured data are performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26930684

  9. Mapping 3-D functional capillary geometry in rat skeletal muscle in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Milkovich, Stephanie; Goldman, Daniel; Ellis, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel mapping software package to reconstruct microvascular networks in three dimensions (3-D) from in vivo video images for use in blood flow and O2 transport modeling. An intravital optical imaging system was used to collect video sequences of blood flow in microvessels at different depths in the tissue. Functional images of vessels were produced from the video sequences and were processed using automated edge tracking software to yield location and geometry data for construction of the 3-D network. The same video sequences were analyzed for hemodynamic and O2 saturation data from individual capillaries in the network. Simple user-driven commands allowed the connection of vessel segments at bifurcations, and semiautomated registration enabled the tracking of vessels across multiple focal planes and fields of view. The reconstructed networks can be rotated and manipulated in 3-D to verify vessel connections and continuity. Hemodynamic and O2 saturation measurements made in vivo can be indexed to corresponding vessels and visualized using colorized maps of the vascular geometry. Vessels in each reconstruction are saved as text-based files that can be easily imported into flow or O2 transport models with complete geometry, hemodynamic, and O2 transport conditions. The results of digital morphometric analysis of seven microvascular networks showed mean capillary diameters and overall capillary density consistent with previous findings using histology and corrosion cast techniques. The described mapping software is a valuable tool for the quantification of in vivo microvascular geometry, hemodynamics, and oxygenation, thus providing rich data sets for experiment-based computational models. PMID:22140042

  10. 3-D geometry and physical property of the Mega-Splay Fault in Nankai trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, R.; Tsuji, T.; Yamada, Y.; Environmental Resource; System Engineering laboratory

    2011-12-01

    The Nankai trough is a subduction zone, where the Philippine Sea plate is being subducted beneath southwest Japan at a rate of ~4-6.5 cm/y at an azimuth of ~300°-315°. A lot of operations have been done in Nankai, such as three-dimensional seismic reflection surveys and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). They revealed that there is a large splay fault, referred to as 'Mega-Splay'. The Mega-Splay Fault has caused a series of catastrophic earthquakes and submarine landslides, which may have led to TSUNAMI. Since fault development history may have affected the geometry of the Mega-Splay Fault and physical property within the fault zone, they need to be examined in detail. In this research, we used 3-D pre-stack depth migration (PSDM), 3-D pre-stack time migration (PSTM) and P-wave velocity in C0004B well (Logging data), in order to interpret 3-D structure of Mega-Splay Fault. The analysis in this research is basically divided into two parts. One is structural interpretation of Splay Fault, based on the high amplitude reflection surface on seismic profiles. The other part is acoustic impedance inversion (AI inversion), in which we inverted seismic waveform into physical property (in this study, acoustic impedance), with the P-wave velocity data at C0004B near Mega-Splay Fault. The 3-D PSDM (or PSTM) clearly images details of Splay Fault, with good continuity of reflections along the fault. It is possible on each seismic profile to trace the high amplitude lines, where rock-properties significantly change. Since Mega-Splay Fault has 45-59m width along the wells, we interpreted the upper limit and the lower limit of the Mega-Splay Fault, based on the high amplitude surfaces along 3-D PSDM. Our interpretation shows that the width of Mega-Splay Fault has variation along the fault, and the plan geometry of the fault toe has a salient at the middle of the 3D box area, suggesting the fault could be

  11. IM3D: A parallel Monte Carlo code for efficient simulations of primary radiation displacements and damage in 3D geometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju

    2015-01-01

    SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed. PMID:26658477

  12. IM3D: A parallel Monte Carlo code for efficient simulations of primary radiation displacements and damage in 3D geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju

    2015-12-01

    SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed.

  13. RV functional imaging: 3-D echo-derived dynamic geometry and flow field simulations.

    PubMed

    Pasipoularides, Ares D; Shu, Ming; Womack, Michael S; Shah, Ashish; Von Ramm, Olaf; Glower, Donald D

    2003-01-01

    We describe a novel functional imaging approach for quantitative analysis of right ventricular (RV) blood flow patterns in specific experimental animals (or humans) using real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography (RT3D). The method is independent of the digital imaging modality used. It comprises three parts. First, a semiautomated segmentation aided by intraluminal contrast medium locates the RV endocardial surface. Second, a geometric scheme for dynamic RV chamber reconstruction applies a time interpolation procedure to the RT3D data to quantify wall geometry and motion at 400 Hz. A volumetric prism method validated the dynamic geometric reconstruction against simultaneous sonomicrometric canine measurements. Finally, the RV endocardial border motion information is used for mesh generation on a computational fluid dynamics solver to simulate development of the early RV diastolic inflow field. Boundary conditions (tessellated endocardial surface nodal velocities) for the solver are directly derived from the endocardial geometry and motion information. The new functional imaging approach may yield important kinematic information on the distribution of instantaneous velocities in the RV diastolic flow field of specific normal or diseased hearts. PMID:12388220

  14. Fractal geometry of sedimentary rocks: simulation in 3-D using a Relaxed Bidisperse Ballistic Deposition Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Abhra; Tarafdar, Sujata; Gouze, Philippe; Dutta, Tapati

    2013-03-01

    Several studies, both theoretical and experimental, show that sedimentary rocks have a fractal pore-grain interface. In this paper a computer simulated 3-D sedimentary rock structure generated by the Relaxed Ballistic Bidisperse Deposition Model (RBBDM), is investigated to characterize the micro structure of its pores. The pore volume and the rock-pore interface show the same fractal dimension indicating that the pore volume is a fractal. The two point density correlation is computed for the pore space and the results compare favourably with the range reported from experiments. An array of 2-D X-ray tomography micrograph sections of a real sedimentary rock, an oolitic limestone (pure calcite) from the Mondeville formation of Middle Jurassic age (Paris Basin, France), was used to generate a 3-D bitmap. The 3-D real rock sample generated in this manner, was analysed for similar studies as the simulated structure. The results were compared with those obtained from simulation. The simulation results agree qualitatively with the real rock sample. Diffusion through the connected pore space of the simulated structure was studied using a random walk algorithm and the results compared with the similar simulation study done on the 3-D oolitic limestone specimen. In both cases diffusion was found to be anomalous indicating that the sedimentary rock has a fractal geometry. The favourable comparability of results between the simulated and real rock supports the usefulness of the model of sedimentary rock generation which can be applicable to transport phenomena.

  15. Color constancy using 3D scene geometry derived from a single image.

    PubMed

    Elfiky, Noha; Gevers, Theo; Gijsenij, Arjan; Gonzalez, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of color constancy is to remove the effect of the color of the light source. As color constancy is inherently an ill-posed problem, most of the existing color constancy algorithms are based on specific imaging assumptions (e.g., gray-world and white patch assumption). In this paper, 3D geometry models are used to determine which color constancy method to use for the different geometrical regions (depth/layer) found in images. The aim is to classify images into stages (rough 3D geometry models). According to stage models, images are divided into stage regions using hard and soft segmentation. After that, the best color constancy methods are selected for each geometry depth. To this end, we propose a method to combine color constancy algorithms by investigating the relation between depth, local image statistics, and color constancy. Image statistics are then exploited per depth to select the proper color constancy method. Our approach opens the possibility to estimate multiple illuminations by distinguishing nearby light source from distant illuminations. Experiments on state-of-the-art data sets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art single color constancy algorithms with an improvement of almost 50% of median angular error. When using a perfect classifier (i.e, all of the test images are correctly classified into stages); the performance of the proposed method achieves an improvement of 52% of the median angular error compared with the best-performing single color constancy algorithm. PMID:25051548

  16. Disentangling Fault Scarp Geometry and Slip-Distribution in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Walker, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new and inherently 3D approach to the analysis of fault scarp geometry using high resolution topography. Recent advance in topographic measurement techniques (LiDAR and Structure from Motion) has allowed the extensive measurement of single earthquake scarps and multiple event cumulative scarps to draw conclusions about along-strike slip variation and characteristic slip. Present analysis of the resulting point clouds and digital elevation models is generally achieved by taking vertical or map view profiles of geomorphic markers across the scarp. Profiles are done at numerous locations along strike carefully chosen to avoid regions degraded by erosion/deposition. The resulting slip distributions are almost always extremely variable and "noisy", both for strike-slip and dip-slip faulting scarps and it is often unclear whether this reflects slip variation, noise/erosion, site effects or geometric variation. When observing palaeo-earthquake and even modern event scarps, the full geometry, such as the degree of oblique slip or the fault dip, is often poorly constrained. We first present the results of synthetic tests to demonstrate the introduction of significant apparent noise by simply varying terrain, fault and measurement geometry (slope angle, slope azimuth, fault dip and slip obliquity). Considering fully 3-dimensional marker surfaces (e.g. Planar or conical) we use the variation in apparent offset with terrain and measurement geometry, to constrain the slip geometry in 3D. Combining measurements windowed along strike, we show that determining the slip vector is reduced to a simple linear problem. We conclude that for scarps in regions of significant topography or with oblique slip, our method will give enhanced slip resolution while standard methods will give poor slip resolution. We test our method using a Structure from Motion pointcloud and digital elevation model covering a ~25 km stretch of a thrust fault scarp in the Kazakh Tien Shan.

  17. 3D Digital Surveying and Modelling of Cave Geometry: Application to Paleolithic Rock Art

    PubMed Central

    González-Aguilera, Diego; Muñoz-Nieto, Angel; Gómez-Lahoz, Javier; Herrero-Pascual, Jesus; Gutierrez-Alonso, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    3D digital surveying and modelling of cave geometry represents a relevant approach for research, management and preservation of our cultural and geological legacy. In this paper, a multi-sensor approach based on a terrestrial laser scanner, a high-resolution digital camera and a total station is presented. Two emblematic caves of Paleolithic human occupation and situated in northern Spain, “Las Caldas” and “Peña de Candamo”, have been chosen to put in practise this approach. As a result, an integral and multi-scalable 3D model is generated which may allow other scientists, pre-historians, geologists…, to work on two different levels, integrating different Paleolithic Art datasets: (1) a basic level based on the accurate and metric support provided by the laser scanner; and (2) a advanced level using the range and image-based modelling. PMID:22399958

  18. Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.

    2016-02-01

    We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955), 10.1093/qjmam/8.1.1] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer a somewhat improved one. A third DR, based on transforming a planar DR into a spherical one, suffers no unphysical predictions and compares reasonably well with the exact work of Chandrasekhar and a more recent numerical analysis of the problem [Terrones and Carrara, Phys. Fluids 27, 054105 (2015), 10.1063/1.4921648].

  19. Accurate 3D reconstruction of complex blood vessel geometries from intravascular ultrasound images: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K R; Thubrikar, M J; Fowler, B; Mostafavi, M T; Funk, M W

    2000-01-01

    We present a technique that accurately reconstructs complex three dimensional blood vessel geometry from 2D intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images. Biplane x-ray fluoroscopy is used to image the ultrasound catheter tip at a few key points along its path as the catheter is pulled through the blood vessel. An interpolating spline describes the continuous catheter path. The IVUS images are located orthogonal to the path, resulting in a non-uniform structured scalar volume of echo densities. Isocontour surfaces are used to view the vessel geometry, while transparency and clipping enable interactive exploration of interior structures. The two geometries studied are a bovine artery vascular graft having U-shape and a constriction, and a canine carotid artery having multiple branches and a constriction. Accuracy of the reconstructions is established by comparing the reconstructions to (1) silicone moulds of the vessel interior, (2) biplane x-ray images, and (3) the original echo images. Excellent shape and geometry correspondence was observed in both geometries. Quantitative measurements made at key locations of the 3D reconstructions also were in good agreement with those made in silicone moulds. The proposed technique is easily adoptable in clinical practice, since it uses x-rays with minimal exposure and existing IVUS technology. PMID:11105284

  20. The AGCE related studies of baroclinic flows in spherical geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyun, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Steady state, axisymmetric motions of a Boussineaq fluid continued in rotating spherical anmulus are considered. The motions are driven by latitudinally varying temperature gradient at the shells. Linearized formulations for a narrow gap are derived and the flow field is divided into the Ekman layers and the geostrophic interior. The Ekman layer flows are consistent with the known results for cylindrical geometries. Within the framework of rather restrictive assumptions, the interior flows are solved by a series of associated Legendre polynomials. The solutions show qualitative features valid at midlatitudes.

  1. CasimirSim - A Tool to Compute Casimir Polder Forces for Nontrivial 3D Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Sedmik, Rene; Tajmar, Martin

    2007-01-30

    The so-called Casimir effect is one of the most interesting macro-quantum effects. Being negligible on the macro-scale it becomes a governing factor below structure sizes of 1 {mu}m where it accounts for typically 100 kN m-2. The force does not depend on gravity, or electric charge but solely on the materials properties, and geometrical shape. This makes the effect a strong candidate for micro(nano)-mechanical devices M(N)EMS. Despite a long history of research the theory lacks a uniform description valid for arbitrary geometries which retards technical application. We present an advanced state-of-the-art numerical tool overcoming all the usual geometrical restrictions, capable of calculating arbitrary 3D geometries by utilizing the Casimir Polder approximation for the Casimir force.

  2. Waveform tomography in 2.5-D to appropriately handle 3-D geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithyman, B.; Clowes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    In order to improve the tractability of waveform tomography when applied to field data acquired along a crooked-line, we implement 2.5-D forward modeling and inversion. Waveform tomography combines conventional velocity-model building (i.e. tomography) with full-waveform inversion to reconstruct an image of subsurface acoustic velocity. For reasons of computational efficiency, it is desirable to use 2-D full-waveform inversion when processing data acquired with 2-D seismic survey geometry. However, crooked-line acquisition results in a cross-line component of the source-receiver offset that cannot be accounted for by 2-D forward modeling. If the cross-line geometry components are significant, full-waveform inversion may be intractable. To address the latter difficulty, we first apply 3-D traveltime tomography to generate a 2-D cross-sectional initial velocity model by taking a representative average slice through the 3-D model. Then this initial model from traveltime inversion is iteratively updated by 2.5-D full-waveform inversion using a frequency-domain viscoacoustic implementation. The 2.5-D method generates waveform data by combining the solutions of multiple 2-D wave equation components. Each wavefield represents the solution of a modified wave equation in which the cross-line wavenumber takes a value between zero and ~ω/c. The results are combined by inverse Fourier transform in the cross-line coordinate. This produces a synthetic wavefield that is a solution to the 3-D viscoacoustic wave equation in a 2-D velocity model. Consequently, the 2.5-D synthetic wavefield better approximates seismic field data (including crooked-line geometry), when compared to a 2-D synthetic result. Cross-line source-receiver offsets can be accounted for by reconstructing the wavefield out-of-plane with respect to the source. The amplitude and phase of the wavefield are consistent with a 3-D solution in a model that is homogeneous in one direction. The 2-D model is ideally

  3. 3-D Spherical Mantle Convection Simulations with Billions of Unknowns on the Yin-Yang Grid Using StagYY: Parallelization and Scaling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    StagYY is a well-established code for modelling mantle convection in 3D spherical geometry (Tackley, PEPI 2008), incorporating several physical complexities such as compressibility, phase transitions, compositional variations, strongly temperature-dependent, non-linear rheology, tracers to track composition, continents, partial melting and melt migration. It uses a finite volume discretization (primitive variables on a staggered grid) on the yin-yang spherical grid (minimum overlap version). Geometric multigrid is used for simultaneous solution of the Stokes and mass conservation equations. Here, parallelization using MPI is discussed, and performance and scaling of the current StagYY version on up to 4096 cores on grids of up to 768x2304x512x2 cells (1.8 billion, corresponding to 7.2 billion unknowns) is demonstrated. Complexities related to scaling further to 100,000s to millions of cores are discussed together with possible solutions and performance projections.

  4. Development of an algorithm to measure defect geometry using a 3D laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilambi, S.; Tipton, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    Current fatigue life prediction models for coiled tubing (CT) require accurate measurements of the defect geometry. Three-dimensional (3D) laser imaging has shown promise toward becoming a nondestructive, non-contacting method of surface defect characterization. Laser imaging provides a detailed photographic image of a flaw, in addition to a detailed 3D surface map from which its critical dimensions can be measured. This paper describes algorithms to determine defect characteristics, specifically depth, width, length and projected cross-sectional area. Curve-fitting methods were compared and implicit algebraic fits have higher probability of convergence compared to explicit geometric fits. Among the algebraic fits, the Taubin circle fit has the least error. The algorithm was able to extract the dimensions of the flaw geometry from the scanned data of CT to within a tolerance of about 0.127 mm, close to the tolerance specified for the laser scanner itself, compared to measurements made using traveling microscopes. The algorithm computes the projected surface area of the flaw, which could previously only be estimated from the dimension measurements and the assumptions made about cutter shape. Although shadows compromised the accuracy of the shape characterization, especially for deep and narrow flaws, the results indicate that the algorithm with laser scanner can be used for non-destructive evaluation of CT in the oil field industry. Further work is needed to improve accuracy, to eliminate shadow effects and to reduce radial deviation.

  5. Image-based reconstruction of 3D myocardial infarct geometry for patient specific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukwatta, Eranga; Rajchl, Martin; White, James; Pashakhanloo, Farhad; Herzka, Daniel A.; McVeigh, Elliot; Lardo, Albert C.; Trayanova, Natalia; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy

    2015-03-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of a myocardial infarct from two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice image sequences has important applications in the clinical evaluation and treatment of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, this reconstruction is challenging because the resolution of common clinical scans used to acquire infarct structure, such as short-axis, late-gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) images, is low, especially in the out-of-plane direction. In this study, we propose a novel technique to reconstruct the 3D infarct geometry from low resolution clinical images. Our methodology is based on a function called logarithm of odds (LogOdds), which allows the broader class of linear combinations in the LogOdds vector space as opposed to being limited to only a convex combination in the binary label space. To assess the efficacy of the method, we used high-resolution LGE-CMR images of 36 human hearts in vivo, and 3 canine hearts ex vivo. The infarct was manually segmented in each slice of the acquired images, and the manually segmented data were downsampled to clinical resolution. The developed method was then applied to the downsampled image slices, and the resulting reconstructions were compared with the manually segmented data. Several existing reconstruction techniques were also implemented, and compared with the proposed method. The results show that the LogOdds method significantly outperforms all the other tested methods in terms of region overlap.

  6. 3D Simulation of Velocity Profile of Turbulent Flow in Open Channel with Complex Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Benoumessad; Ilhem, Kriba; Ali, Fourar; Abdelbaki, Djebaili

    Simulation of open channel flow or river flow presents unique challenge to numerical simulators, which is widely used in the applications of computational fluid dynamics. The prediction is extremely difficult because the flow in open channel is usually transient and turbulent, the geometry is irregular and curved, and the free-surface elevation is varying with time. The results from a 3D non-linear k- ɛ turbulence model are presented to investigate the flow structure, the velocity distribution and mass transport process in a meandering compound open channel and a straight open channel. The 3D numerical model for calculating flow is set up in cylinder coordinates in order to calculate the complex boundary channel. The finite volume method is used to disperse the governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is applied to acquire the coupling of velocity and pressure. The non-linear k- ɛ turbulent model has good useful value because of taking into account the anisotropy and not increasing the computational time. The main contributions of this study are developing a numerical method that can be applied to predict the flow in river bends with various bend curvatures and different width-depth ratios. This study demonstrates that the 3D non-linear k- ɛ turbulence model can be used for analyzing flow structures, the velocity distribution and pollutant transport in the complex boundary open channel, this model is applicable for real river and wetland problem.

  7. SU-E-J-128: 3D Surface Reconstruction of a Patient Using Epipolar Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kotoku, J; Nakabayashi, S; Kumagai, S; Ishibashi, T; Kobayashi, T; Haga, A; Saotome, N; Arai, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To obtain a 3D surface data of a patient in a non-invasive way can substantially reduce the effort for the registration of patient in radiation therapy. To achieve this goal, we introduced the multiple view stereo technique, which is known to be used in a 'photo tourism' on the internet. Methods: 70 Images were taken with a digital single-lens reflex camera from different angles and positions. The camera positions and angles were inferred later in the reconstruction step. A sparse 3D reconstruction model was locating by SIFT features, which is robust for rotation and shift variance, in each image. We then found a set of correspondences between pairs of images by computing the fundamental matrix using the eight-point algorithm with RANSAC. After the pair matching, we optimized the parameter including camera positions to minimize the reprojection error by use of bundle adjustment technique (non-linear optimization). As a final step, we performed dense reconstruction and associate a color with each point using the library of PMVS. Results: Surface data were reconstructed well by visual inspection. The human skin is reconstructed well, althogh the reconstruction was time-consuming for direct use in daily clinical practice. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction using multi view stereo geometry is a promising tool for reducing the effort of patient setup. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI(25861128)

  8. Acoustic perturbations on steady spherical accretion in Schwarzschild geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Naskar, Tapan; Chakravarty, Nabajit; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.; Ray, Arnab K.

    2007-12-15

    The stationary background flow in the spherically symmetric infall of a compressible fluid, coupled to the space-time defined by the static Schwarzschild metric, has been subjected to linearized acoustic perturbations. The perturbative procedure is based on the continuity condition and it shows that the coupling of the flow with the geometry of space-time brings about greater stability for the flow, to the extent that the amplitude of the perturbation, treated as a standing wave, decays in time, as opposed to the amplitude remaining constant in the Newtonian limit. In qualitative terms this situation simulates the effect of a dissipative mechanism in the classical Bondi accretion flow, defined in the Newtonian construct of space and time. As a result of this approach it becomes impossible to define an acoustic metric for a conserved spherically symmetric flow, described within the framework of Schwarzschild geometry. In keeping with this view, the perturbation, considered separately as a high-frequency traveling wave, also has its amplitude reduced.

  9. MHD Modeling in Complex 3D Geometries: Towards Predictive Simulation of SIHI Current Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Christopher James

    The HIT-SI experiment studies Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) for the purpose of forming and sustaining a spheromak plasma. A spheromak is formed in a nearly axisymmetric flux conserver, with a bow tie cross section, by means of two semi-toroidal injectors. The plasma-facing surfaces of the device, which are made of copper for its low resistivity, are covered in an insulating coating in order to operate in a purely inductive manner. Following formation, the spheromak flux and current are increased during a quiescent period marked by a decrease in the global mode activity. A proposed mechanism, Imposed Dynamo Current Drive (IDCD), is expected to be responsible for this phase of quiescent current drive. Due to the geometric complexity of the experiment, previous numerical modeling efforts have used a simplified geometry that excludes the injector volumes from the simulated domain. The effect of helicity injection is then modeled by boundary conditions on this reduced plasma volume. The work presented here has explored and developed more complete computational models of the HIT-SI device. This work is separated into 3 distinct but complementary areas: 1) Development of a 3D MHD equilibrium code that can incorporate the non-axisymmetric injector fields present in HIT-SI and investigation of equilibria of interest during spheromak sustainment. 2) A 2D axisymmetric MHD equilibrium code that was used to explore reduced order models for mean-field evolution using equations derived from IDCD theory including coupling to 3D equilibria. 3) A 3D time-dependent non-linear MHD code that is capable of modeling the entire plasma volume including dynamics within the injectors. Although HIT-SI was the motivation for, and experiment studied in this research, the tools and methods developed are general --- allowing their application to a broad range of magnetic confinement experiments. These tools constitute a significant advance for modeling plasma dynamics in devices with

  10. Amoeboid migration mode adaption in quasi-3D spatial density gradients of varying lattice geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelashvili, Mari; Emmert, Martin; Hodeck, Kai F.; Heinrich, Doris

    2014-07-01

    Cell migration processes are controlled by sensitive interaction with external cues such as topographic structures of the cell’s environment. Here, we present systematically controlled assays to investigate the specific effects of spatial density and local geometry of topographic structure on amoeboid migration of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. This is realized by well-controlled fabrication of quasi-3D pillar fields exhibiting a systematic variation of inter-pillar distance and pillar lattice geometry. By time-resolved local mean-squared displacement analysis of amoeboid migration, we can extract motility parameters in order to elucidate the details of amoeboid migration mechanisms and consolidate them in a two-state contact-controlled motility model, distinguishing directed and random phases. Specifically, we find that directed pillar-to-pillar runs are found preferably in high pillar density regions, and cells in directed motion states sense pillars as attractive topographic stimuli. In contrast, cell motion in random probing states is inhibited by high pillar density, where pillars act as obstacles for cell motion. In a gradient spatial density, these mechanisms lead to topographic guidance of cells, with a general trend towards a regime of inter-pillar spacing close to the cell diameter. In locally anisotropic pillar environments, cell migration is often found to be damped due to competing attraction by different pillars in close proximity and due to lack of other potential stimuli in the vicinity of the cell. Further, we demonstrate topographic cell guidance reflecting the lattice geometry of the quasi-3D environment by distinct preferences in migration direction. Our findings allow to specifically control amoeboid cell migration by purely topographic effects and thus, to induce active cell guidance. These tools hold prospects for medical applications like improved wound treatment, or invasion assays for immune cells.

  11. Modeling the effects of 3-D slab geometry and oblique subduction on subduction zone thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, I.; Wang, K.; He, J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we revisit the effects of along-strike variation in slab geometry and oblique subduction on subduction zone thermal structures. Along-strike variations in slab dip cause changes in the descending rate of the slab and generate trench-parallel pressure gradients that drive trench-parallel mantle flow (e.g., Kneller and van Keken, 2007). Oblique subduction also drives trench-parallel mantle flow. In this study, we use a finite element code PGCtherm3D and examine a range of generic subduction geometries and parameters to investigate the effects of the above two factors. This exercise is part of foundational work towards developing detailed 3-D thermal models for NE Japan, Nankai, and Cascadia to better constrain their 3-D thermal structures and to understand the role of temperature in controlling metamorphic, seismogenic, and volcanic processes. The 3-D geometry of the subducting slabs in the forearc and arc regions are well delineated at these three subduction zones. Further, relatively large compilations of surface heat flow data at these subduction zones make them excellent candidates for this study. At NE Japan, a megathrust earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011; at Nankai and Cascadia, there has been a great effort to constrain the scale of the next subduction thrust earthquake for the purpose of disaster prevention. Temperature influences the slip behavior of subduction faults by (1) affecting the rheology of the interface material and (2) controlling dehydration reactions, which can lead to elevated pore fluid pressure. Beyond the depths of subduction thrust earthquakes, the thermal structure is affected strongly by the pattern of mantle wedge flow. This flow is driven by viscous coupling between the subducting slab and the overriding mantle, and it brings in hot flowing mantle into the wedge. The trench-ward (up-dip) extent of the slab-mantle coupling is thus a key factor that controls the thermal structure. Slab-mantle decoupling at shallow

  12. Relative Scale Estimation and 3D Registration of Multi-Modal Geometry Using Growing Least Squares.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Nicolas; Dellepiane, Matteo; Scopigno, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The advent of low cost scanning devices and the improvement of multi-view stereo techniques have made the acquisition of 3D geometry ubiquitous. Data gathered from different devices, however, result in large variations in detail, scale, and coverage. Registration of such data is essential before visualizing, comparing and archiving them. However, state-of-the-art methods for geometry registration cannot be directly applied due to intrinsic differences between the models, e.g., sampling, scale, noise. In this paper we present a method for the automatic registration of multi-modal geometric data, i.e., acquired by devices with different properties (e.g., resolution, noise, data scaling). The method uses a descriptor based on Growing Least Squares, and is robust to noise, variation in sampling density, details, and enables scale-invariant matching. It allows not only the measurement of the similarity between the geometry surrounding two points, but also the estimation of their relative scale. As it is computed locally, it can be used to analyze large point clouds composed of millions of points. We implemented our approach in two registration procedures (assisted and automatic) and applied them successfully on a number of synthetic and real cases. We show that using our method, multi-modal models can be automatically registered, regardless of their differences in noise, detail, scale, and unknown relative coverage. PMID:26672045

  13. A formal classification of 3D medial axis points and their local geometry.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Peter; Kimia, Benjamin B

    2004-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypergraph skeletal representation for 3D shape based on a formal derivation of the generic structure of its medial axis. By classifying each skeletal point by its order of contact, we show that, generically, the medial axis consists of five types of points, which are then organized into sheets, curves, and points: 1) sheets (manifolds with boundary) which are the locus of bitangent spheres with regular tangency A1(2) (Ak(n) notation means n distinct k-fold tangencies of the sphere of contact, as explained in the text); two types of curves, 2) the intersection curve of three sheets and the locus of centers of tritangent spheres, A1(3), and 3) the boundary of sheets, which are the locus of centers of spheres whose radius equals the larger principal curvature, i.e., higher order contact A3 points; and two types of points, 4) centers of quad-tangent spheres, A1(4), and 5) centers of spheres with one regular tangency and one higher order tangency, A1A3. The geometry of the 3D medial axis thus consists of sheets (A1(2)) bounded by one type of curve (A3) on their free end, which corresponds to ridges on the surface, and attached to two other sheets at another type of curve (A1(3)), which support a generalized cylinder description. The A3 curves can only end in A1A3 points where they must meet an A1(3) curve. The A1(3) curves meet together in fours at an A1(4) point. This formal result leads to a compact representation for 3D shape, referred to as the medial axis hypergraph representation consisting of nodes (A1(4) and A1A3 points), links between pairs of nodes (A1(3) and A3 curves) and hyperlinks between groups of links (A1(2) sheets). The description of the local geometry at nodes by itself is sufficient to capture qualitative aspects of shapes, in analogy to 2D. We derive a pointwise reconstruction formula to reconstruct a surface from this medial axis hypergraph together with the radius function. Thus, this information completely

  14. Room geometry inference based on spherical microphone array eigenbeam processing.

    PubMed

    Mabande, Edwin; Kowalczyk, Konrad; Sun, Haohai; Kellermann, Walter

    2013-10-01

    The knowledge of parameters characterizing an acoustic environment, such as the geometric information about a room, can be used to enhance the performance of several audio applications. In this paper, a novel method for three-dimensional room geometry inference based on robust and high-resolution beamforming techniques for spherical microphone arrays is presented. Unlike other approaches that are based on the measurement and processing of multiple room impulse responses, here, microphone array signal processing techniques for uncontrolled broadband acoustic signals are applied. First, the directions of arrival (DOAs) and time differences of arrival (TDOAs) of the direct signal and room reflections are estimated using high-resolution robust broadband beamforming techniques and cross-correlation analysis. In this context, the main challenges include the low reflected-signal to background-noise power ratio, the low energy of reflected signals relative to the direct signal, and their strong correlation with the direct signal and among each other. Second, the DOA and TDOA information is combined to infer the room geometry using geometric relations. The high accuracy of the proposed room geometry inference technique is confirmed by experimental evaluations based on both simulated and measured data for moderately reverberant rooms. PMID:24116416

  15. PDE constrained optimization of electrical defibrillation in a 3D ventricular slice geometry.

    PubMed

    Chamakuri, Nagaiah; Kunisch, Karl; Plank, Gernot

    2016-04-01

    A computational study of an optimal control approach for cardiac defibrillation in a 3D geometry is presented. The cardiac bioelectric activity at the tissue and bath volumes is modeled by the bidomain model equations. The model includes intramural fiber rotation, axially symmetric around the fiber direction, and anisotropic conductivity coefficients, which are extracted from a histological image. The dynamics of the ionic currents are based on the regularized Mitchell-Schaeffer model. The controls enter in the form of electrodes, which are placed at the boundary of the bath volume with the goal of dampening undesired arrhythmias. The numerical optimization is based on Newton techniques. We demonstrated the parallel architecture environment for the computation of potentials on multidomains and for the higher order optimization techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26249168

  16. An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors for permanent magnet spherical actuators with 3D magnet array.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators. PMID:25342000

  17. An Orientation Measurement Method Based on Hall-effect Sensors for Permanent Magnet Spherical Actuators with 3D Magnet Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming

    2014-10-01

    An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators.

  18. Born Sensitivity Kernels in Spherical Geometry for Meridional Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiewicz, Jason; Boening, Vincent; Roth, Markus; Kholikov, Shukur

    2016-05-01

    Measuring meridional flows deep in the solar convection zone is challenging because of their small amplitudes compared to other background signals. Typically such inferences are made using a ray theory that is best suited for slowly-varying flows. The implementation of finite-frequency Born theory has been shown to be more accurate for modeling flows of complex spatial structure in the near-surface region. Only until recently were such functions available in spherical geometry, which is necessary for applications to meridional flows. Here we compare these sensitivity kernels with corresponding ray kernels in a forward and inverse problem using numerical simulations. We show that they are suitable for inverting travel-time measurements and are more sensitive to small-scale variations of deep circulations.

  19. Effects of 3D geometries on cellular gradient sensing and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spill, Fabian; Andasari, Vivi; Mak, Michael; Kamm, Roger D.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2016-06-01

    During cell migration, cells become polarized, change their shape, and move in response to various internal and external cues. Cell polarization is defined through the spatio-temporal organization of molecules such as PI3K or small GTPases, and is determined by intracellular signaling networks. It results in directional forces through actin polymerization and myosin contractions. Many existing mathematical models of cell polarization are formulated in terms of reaction–diffusion systems of interacting molecules, and are often defined in one or two spatial dimensions. In this paper, we introduce a 3D reaction–diffusion model of interacting molecules in a single cell, and find that cell geometry has an important role affecting the capability of a cell to polarize, or change polarization when an external signal changes direction. Our results suggest a geometrical argument why more roundish cells can repolarize more effectively than cells which are elongated along the direction of the original stimulus, and thus enable roundish cells to turn faster, as has been observed in experiments. On the other hand, elongated cells preferentially polarize along their main axis even when a gradient stimulus appears from another direction. Furthermore, our 3D model can accurately capture the effect of binding and unbinding of important regulators of cell polarization to and from the cell membrane. This spatial separation of membrane and cytosol, not possible to capture in 1D or 2D models, leads to marked differences of our model from comparable lower-dimensional models.

  20. 3D RBI-EM reconstruction with spherically-symmetric basis function for SPECT rotating slat collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenli; Hawkins, William; Gagnon, Daniel

    2004-06-01

    A single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) rotating slat collimator with strip detector acquires distance-weighted plane integral data, along with the attenuation factor and distance-dependent detector response. In order to image a 3D object, the slat collimator device has first to spin around its axis and then rotate around the object to produce 3D projection measurements. Compared to the slice-by-slice 2D reconstruction for the parallel-hole collimator and line integral data, a more complex 3D reconstruction is needed for the slat collimator and plane integral data. In this paper, we propose a 3D RBI-EM reconstruction algorithm with spherically-symmetric basis function, also called 'blobs', for the slat collimator. It has a closed and spherically symmetric analytical expression for the 3D Radon transform, which makes it easier to compute the plane integral than the voxel. It is completely localized in the spatial domain and nearly band-limited in the frequency domain. Its size and shape can be controlled by several parameters to have desired reconstructed image quality. A mathematical lesion phantom study has demonstrated that the blob reconstruction can achieve better contrast-noise trade-offs than the voxel reconstruction without greatly degrading the image resolution. A real lesion phantom study further confirmed this and showed that a slat collimator with CZT detector has better image quality than the conventional parallel-hole collimator with NaI detector. The improvement might be due to both the slat collimation and the better energy resolution of the CZT detector.

  1. Increase in the energy density of the pinch plasma in 3D implosion of quasi-spherical wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gasilov, V. A.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N. Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Ol’khovskaya, O. G.; Sasorov, P. V.; Smirnov, V. P.; Frolov, I. N.; Shevel’ko, A. P.

    2014-12-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the characteristics of the soft X-ray (SXR) source formed in the implosion of quasi-spherical arrays made of tungsten wires and metalized kapron fibers. The experiments were carried out at the Angara-5-1 facility at currents of up to 3 MA. Analysis of the spatial distribution of hard X-ray emission with photon energies above 20 keV in the pinch images taken during the implosion of quasi-spherical tungsten wire arrays (QTWAs) showed that a compact quasi-spherical plasma object symmetric with respect to the array axis formed in the central region of the array. Using a diffraction grazing incidence spectrograph, spectra of SXR emission with wavelengths of 20–400 Å from the central, axial, and peripheral regions of the emission source were measured with spatial resolutions along the array radius and height in the implosion of QTWAs. It is shown that the emission spectra of the SXR sources formed under the implosion of quasi-spherical and cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at currents of up to 3 MA have a maximum in the wavelength range of 50–150 Å. It is found that, during the implosion of a QTWA with a profiled linear mass, a redistribution of energy in the emission spectrum takes place, which indicates that, during 3D implosion, the energy of longitudinal motion of the array material additionally contributes to the radiation energy. It is also found that, at close masses of the arrays and close values of the current in the range of 2.4{sup −3} MA, the average energy density in the emission source formed during the implosion of a quasi-spherical wire array is larger by a factor of 7 than in the source formed during the implosion of a cylindrical wire array. The experimental data were compared with results of 3D simulations of plasma dynamics and radiation generation during the implosion of quasi-spherical wire arrays with a profiled mass by using the MARPLE-3D radiative magnetohydrodynamic code, developed at the

  2. Joint Cross-Range Scaling and 3D Geometry Reconstruction of ISAR Targets Based on Factorization Method.

    PubMed

    Lei Liu; Feng Zhou; Xue-Ru Bai; Ming-Liang Tao; Zi-Jing Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, the factorization method is applied to reconstruct the 3D geometry of a target from its sequential inverse synthetic aperture radar images. However, this method requires performing cross-range scaling to all the sub-images and thus has a large computational burden. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes a novel method for joint cross-range scaling and 3D geometry reconstruction of steadily moving targets. In this method, we model the equivalent rotational angular velocity (RAV) by a linear polynomial with time, and set its coefficients randomly to perform sub-image cross-range scaling. Then, we generate the initial trajectory matrix of the scattering centers, and solve the 3D geometry and projection vectors by the factorization method with relaxed constraints. After that, the coefficients of the polynomial are estimated from the projection vectors to obtain the RAV. Finally, the trajectory matrix is re-scaled using the estimated rotational angle, and accurate 3D geometry is reconstructed. The two major steps, i.e., the cross-range scaling and the factorization, are performed repeatedly to achieve precise 3D geometry reconstruction. Simulation results have proved the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26886991

  3. High Performance 3D PET Reconstruction Using Spherical Basis Functions on a Polar Grid

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, J.; Gillam, J. E.; Rafecas, M.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical iterative methods are a widely used method of image reconstruction in emission tomography. Traditionally, the image space is modelled as a combination of cubic voxels as a matter of simplicity. After reconstruction, images are routinely filtered to reduce statistical noise at the cost of spatial resolution degradation. An alternative to produce lower noise during reconstruction is to model the image space with spherical basis functions. These basis functions overlap in space producing a significantly large number of non-zero elements in the system response matrix (SRM) to store, which additionally leads to long reconstruction times. These two problems are partly overcome by exploiting spherical symmetries, although computation time is still slower compared to non-overlapping basis functions. In this work, we have implemented the reconstruction algorithm using Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) technology for speed and a precomputed Monte-Carlo-calculated SRM for accuracy. The reconstruction time achieved using spherical basis functions on a GPU was 4.3 times faster than the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and 2.5 times faster than a CPU-multi-core parallel implementation using eight cores. Overwriting hazards are minimized by combining a random line of response ordering and constrained atomic writing. Small differences in image quality were observed between implementations. PMID:22548047

  4. General solution of 2D and 3D superconducting quasiclassical systems: coalescing vortices and nanoisland geometries.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Morten; Linder, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    An extension of quasiclassical Keldysh-Usadel theory to higher spatial dimensions than one is crucial in order to describe physical phenomena like charge/spin Hall effects and topological excitations like vortices and skyrmions, none of which are captured in one-dimensional models. We here present a numerical finite element method which solves the non-linearized 2D and 3D quasiclassical Usadel equation relevant for the diffusive regime. We show the application of this on three model systems with non-trivial geometries: (i) a bottlenecked Josephson junction with external flux, (ii) a nanodisk ferromagnet deposited on top of a superconductor and (iii) superconducting islands in contact with a ferromagnet. In case (i), we demonstrate that one may control externally not only the geometrical array in which superconducting vortices arrange themselves, but also to cause coalescence and tune the number of vortices. In case (iii), we show that the supercurrent path can be tailored by incorporating magnetic elements in planar Josephson junctions which also lead to a strong modulation of the density of states. The finite element method presented herein paves the way for gaining insight in physical phenomena which have remained largely unexplored due to the complexity of solving the full quasiclassical equations in higher dimensions. PMID:26961921

  5. General solution of 2D and 3D superconducting quasiclassical systems: coalescing vortices and nanoisland geometries

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Morten; Linder, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    An extension of quasiclassical Keldysh-Usadel theory to higher spatial dimensions than one is crucial in order to describe physical phenomena like charge/spin Hall effects and topological excitations like vortices and skyrmions, none of which are captured in one-dimensional models. We here present a numerical finite element method which solves the non-linearized 2D and 3D quasiclassical Usadel equation relevant for the diffusive regime. We show the application of this on three model systems with non-trivial geometries: (i) a bottlenecked Josephson junction with external flux, (ii) a nanodisk ferromagnet deposited on top of a superconductor and (iii) superconducting islands in contact with a ferromagnet. In case (i), we demonstrate that one may control externally not only the geometrical array in which superconducting vortices arrange themselves, but also to cause coalescence and tune the number of vortices. In case (iii), we show that the supercurrent path can be tailored by incorporating magnetic elements in planar Josephson junctions which also lead to a strong modulation of the density of states. The finite element method presented herein paves the way for gaining insight in physical phenomena which have remained largely unexplored due to the complexity of solving the full quasiclassical equations in higher dimensions. PMID:26961921

  6. The DANTE Boltzmann transport solver: An unstructured mesh, 3-D, spherical harmonics algorithm compatible with parallel computer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    McGhee, J.M.; Roberts, R.M.; Morel, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    A spherical harmonics research code (DANTE) has been developed which is compatible with parallel computer architectures. DANTE provides 3-D, multi-material, deterministic, transport capabilities using an arbitrary finite element mesh. The linearized Boltzmann transport equation is solved in a second order self-adjoint form utilizing a Galerkin finite element spatial differencing scheme. The core solver utilizes a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Other distinguishing features of the code include options for discrete-ordinates and simplified spherical harmonics angular differencing, an exact Marshak boundary treatment for arbitrarily oriented boundary faces, in-line matrix construction techniques to minimize memory consumption, and an effective diffusion based preconditioner for scattering dominated problems. Algorithm efficiency is demonstrated for a massively parallel SIMD architecture (CM-5), and compatibility with MPP multiprocessor platforms or workstation clusters is anticipated.

  7. 3D CFD modeling of subsonic and transonic flowing-gas DPALs with different pumping geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacoby, Eyal; Sadot, Oren; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling of subsonic (Mach number M ~ 0.2) and transonic (M ~ 0.9) diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), taking into account fluid dynamics and kinetic processes in the lasing medium is reported. The performance of these lasers is compared with that of supersonic (M ~ 2.7 for Cs and M ~ 2.4 for K) DPALs. The motivation for this study stems from the fact that subsonic and transonic DPALs require much simpler hardware than supersonic ones where supersonic nozzle, diffuser and high power mechanical pump (due to a drop in the gas total pressure in the nozzle) are required for continuous closed cycle operation. For Cs DPALs with 5 x 5 cm2 flow cross section pumped by large cross section (5 x 2 cm2) beam the maximum achievable power of supersonic devices is higher than that of the transonic and subsonic devices by only ~ 3% and ~ 10%, respectively. Thus in this case the supersonic operation mode has no substantial advantage over the transonic one. The main processes limiting the power of Cs supersonic DPALs are saturation of the D2 transition and large ~ 60% losses of alkali atoms due to ionization, whereas the influence of gas heating is negligible. For K transonic DPALs both the gas heating and ionization effects are shown to be unimportant. The maximum values of the power are higher than those in Cs transonic laser by ~ 11%. The power achieved in the supersonic and transonic K DPAL is higher than for the subsonic version, with the same resonator and K density at the inlet, by ~ 84% and ~ 27%, respectively, showing a considerable advantaged of the supersonic device over the transonic one. For pumping by rectangular beams of the same (5 x 2 cm2) cross section, comparison between end-pumping - where the laser beam and pump beam both propagate at along the same axis, and transverse-pumping - where they propagate perpendicularly to each other, shows that the output power and optical-to-optical efficiency are not

  8. High-Performance and Omnidirectional Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Modules Achieved by 3D Geometry Design.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongliang; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Zhang, Hanzhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xufei; Che, Jianfei; Li, Dongdong

    2015-11-01

    High-performance thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells are achieved by combining macroscale 3D tubular substrates and nanoscaled 3D cone-like antireflective films. The tubular geometry delivers a series of advantages for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics, such as omnidirectional performance, easier encapsulation, decreased wind resistance, and easy integration with a second device inside the glass tube. PMID:26418573

  9. Enabling Lorentz boosted frame particle-in-cell simulations of laser wakefield acceleration in quasi-3D geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peicheng; Xu, Xinlu; Davidson, Asher; Tableman, Adam; Dalichaouch, Thamine; Li, Fei; Meyers, Michael D.; An, Weiming; Tsung, Frank S.; Decyk, Viktor K.; Fiuza, Frederico; Vieira, Jorge; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Lu, Wei; Silva, Luis O.; Mori, Warren B.

    2016-07-01

    When modeling laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) using the particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in a Lorentz boosted frame, the plasma is drifting relativistically at βb c towards the laser, which can lead to a computational speedup of ∼ γb2 = (1 - βb2)-1. Meanwhile, when LWFA is modeled in the quasi-3D geometry in which the electromagnetic fields and current are decomposed into a limited number of azimuthal harmonics, speedups are achieved by modeling three dimensional (3D) problems with the computational loads on the order of two dimensional r - z simulations. Here, we describe a method to combine the speedups from the Lorentz boosted frame and quasi-3D algorithms. The key to the combination is the use of a hybrid Yee-FFT solver in the quasi-3D geometry that significantly mitigates the Numerical Cerenkov Instability (NCI) which inevitably arises in a Lorentz boosted frame due to the unphysical coupling of Langmuir modes and EM modes of the relativistically drifting plasma in these simulations. In addition, based on the space-time distribution of the LWFA data in the lab and boosted frame, we propose to use a moving window to follow the drifting plasma, instead of following the laser driver as is done in the LWFA lab frame simulations, in order to further reduce the computational loads. We describe the details of how the NCI is mitigated for the quasi-3D geometry, the setups for simulations which combine the Lorentz boosted frame, quasi-3D geometry, and the use of a moving window, and compare the results from these simulations against their corresponding lab frame cases. Good agreement is obtained among these sample simulations, particularly when there is no self-trapping, which demonstrates it is possible to combine the Lorentz boosted frame and the quasi-3D algorithms when modeling LWFA. We also discuss the preliminary speedups achieved in these sample simulations.

  10. Compensation of spherical aberration influences for two-photon polymerization patterning of large 3D scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichel, T.; Hecht, B.; Houbertz, R.; Sextl, G.

    2015-10-01

    Two-photon polymerization using femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 515 nm is used for three-dimensional patterning of photosensitive, biocompatible inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER®s). In order to fabricate millimeter-sized biomedical scaffold structures with interconnected pores, medium numerical aperture air objectives with long working distances are applied which allow voxel lengths of several micrometers and thus the solidification of large scaffolds in an adequate time. It is demonstrated that during processing the refraction of the focused laser beam at the air/material interface leads to strong spherical aberration which decreases the peak intensity of the focal point spread function along with shifting and severely extending the focal region in the direction of the beam propagation. These effects clearly decrease the structure integrity, homogeneity and the structure details and therefore are minimized by applying a positioning and laser power adaptation throughout the fabrication process. The results will be discussed with respect to the resulting structural homogeneity and its application as biomedical scaffold.

  11. Technology in Spherical Geometry Investigations: Reflections on Spontaneous Use and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Students in a graduate geometry class used items such as paper, ribbon, plastic spheres, cardboard tubes, and markers to carry out investigations in spherical geometry. The hands-on activities helped students develop a new appreciation of geometry as a study of shape and space; however, the difficulty of subduing wayward elastics and drawing lines…

  12. Representation of protein 3D structures in spherical (ρ, ϕ, θ) coordinates and two of its potential applications.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Vicente M

    2011-09-01

    Three-dimensional objects can be represented using cartesian, spherical or cylindrical coordinate systems, among many others. Currently all protein 3D structures in the PDB are in cartesian coordinates. We wanted to explore the possibility that protein 3D structures, especially the globular type (spheroproteins), when represented in spherical coordinates might find useful novel applications. A Fortran program was written to transform protein 3D structure files in cartesian coordinates (x,y,z) to spherical coordinates (ρ, ϕ, θ), with the centroid of the protein molecule as origin. We present here two applications, namely, (1) separation of the protein outer layer (OL) from the inner core (IC); and (2) identifying protrusions and invaginations on the protein surface. In the first application, ϕ and θ were partitioned into suitable intervals and the point with maximum ρ in each such 'ϕ-θ bin' was determined. A suitable cutoff value for ρ is adopted, and for each ϕ-θ bin, all points with ρ values less than the cutoff are considered part of the IC, and those with ρ values equal to or greater than the cutoff are considered part of the OL. We show that this separation procedure is successful as it gives rise to an OL that is significantly more enriched in hydrophilic amino acid residues, and an IC that is significantly more enriched in hydrophobic amino acid residues, as expected. In the second application, the point with maximum ρ in each ϕ-θ bin are sequestered and their frequency distribution constructed (i.e., maximum ρ's sorted from lowest to highest, collected into 1.50Å-intervals, and the frequency in each interval plotted). We show in such plots that invaginations on the protein surface give rise to subpeaks or shoulders on the lagging side of the main peak, while protrusions give rise to similar subpeaks or shoulders, but on the leading side of the main peak. We used the dataset of Laskowski et al. (1996) to demonstrate both applications. PMID

  13. Gothic Churches in Paris ST Gervais et ST Protais Image Matching 3d Reconstruction to Understand the Vaults System Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.; Catuogno, R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is part of a research about ribbed vaults systems in French Gothic Cathedrals. Our goal is to compare some different gothic cathedrals to understand the complex geometry of the ribbed vaults. The survey isn't the main objective but it is the way to verify the theoretical hypotheses about geometric configuration of the flamboyant churches in Paris. The survey method's choice generally depends on the goal; in this case we had to study many churches in a short time, so we chose 3D reconstruction method based on image dense stereo matching. This method allowed us to obtain the necessary information to our study without bringing special equipment, such as the laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to test image matching 3D reconstruction method in relation to some particular study cases and to show the benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  14. Coupled Neutron-Photon, 3-D, Combinatorial Geometry, Time Dependent, Monte Carlo Transport Code System.

    2013-06-24

    Version 07 TART2012 is a coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code designed to use three-dimensional (3-D) combinatorial geometry. Neutron and/or photon sources as well as neutron induced photon production can be tracked. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART2012 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared tomore » other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART2012 extends the general utility of the code to even more areas of application than available in previous releases by concentrating on improving the physics, particularly with regard to improved treatment of neutron fission, resonance self-shielding, molecular binding, and extending input options used by the code. Several utilities are included for creating input files and displaying TART results and data. TART2012 uses the latest ENDF/B-VI, Release 8, data. New for TART2012 is the use of continuous energy neutron cross sections, in addition to its traditional multigroup cross sections. For neutron interaction, the data are derived using ENDF-ENDL2005 and include both continuous energy cross sections and 700 group neutron data derived using a combination of ENDF/B-VI, Release 8, and ENDL data. The 700 group structure extends from 10-5 eV up to 1 GeV. Presently nuclear data are only available up to 20 MeV, so that only 616 of the groups are currently used. For photon interaction, 701 point photon data were derived using the Livermore EPDL97 file. The new 701 point structure extends from 100 eV up to 1 GeV, and is currently used over this entire energy range. TART2012 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that one use only the most recent version of TART2012 and its data files. Check author’s homepage for related information: http

  15. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration.

    PubMed

    Ouadah, S; Stayman, J W; Gang, G J; Ehtiati, T; Siewerdsen, J H

    2016-04-01

    Robotic C-arms are capable of complex orbits that can increase field of view, reduce artifacts, improve image quality, and/or reduce dose; however, it can be challenging to obtain accurate, reproducible geometric calibration required for image reconstruction for such complex orbits. This work presents a method for geometric calibration for an arbitrary source-detector orbit by registering 2D projection data to a previously acquired 3D image. It also yields a method by which calibration of simple circular orbits can be improved. The registration uses a normalized gradient information similarity metric and the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy optimizer for robustness against local minima and changes in image content. The resulting transformation provides a 'self-calibration' of system geometry. The algorithm was tested in phantom studies using both a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test-bench and a robotic C-arm (Artis Zeego, Siemens Healthcare) for circular and non-circular orbits. Self-calibration performance was evaluated in terms of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function in CBCT reconstructions, the reprojection error (RPE) of steel ball bearings placed on each phantom, and the overall quality and presence of artifacts in CBCT images. In all cases, self-calibration improved the FWHM-e.g. on the CBCT bench, FWHM  =  0.86 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.65 mm for self-calibration (p  <  0.001). Similar improvements were measured in RPE-e.g. on the robotic C-arm, RPE  =  0.73 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.55 mm for self-calibration (p  <  0.001). Visible improvement was evident in CBCT reconstructions using self-calibration, particularly about high-contrast, high-frequency objects (e.g. temporal bone air cells and a surgical needle). The results indicate that self-calibration can improve even upon systems with presumably accurate geometric calibration and is

  16. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadah, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Gang, G. J.; Ehtiati, T.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Robotic C-arms are capable of complex orbits that can increase field of view, reduce artifacts, improve image quality, and/or reduce dose; however, it can be challenging to obtain accurate, reproducible geometric calibration required for image reconstruction for such complex orbits. This work presents a method for geometric calibration for an arbitrary source-detector orbit by registering 2D projection data to a previously acquired 3D image. It also yields a method by which calibration of simple circular orbits can be improved. The registration uses a normalized gradient information similarity metric and the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy optimizer for robustness against local minima and changes in image content. The resulting transformation provides a ‘self-calibration’ of system geometry. The algorithm was tested in phantom studies using both a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test-bench and a robotic C-arm (Artis Zeego, Siemens Healthcare) for circular and non-circular orbits. Self-calibration performance was evaluated in terms of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function in CBCT reconstructions, the reprojection error (RPE) of steel ball bearings placed on each phantom, and the overall quality and presence of artifacts in CBCT images. In all cases, self-calibration improved the FWHM—e.g. on the CBCT bench, FWHM  =  0.86 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.65 mm for self-calibration (p  <  0.001). Similar improvements were measured in RPE—e.g. on the robotic C-arm, RPE  =  0.73 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.55 mm for self-calibration (p  <  0.001). Visible improvement was evident in CBCT reconstructions using self-calibration, particularly about high-contrast, high-frequency objects (e.g. temporal bone air cells and a surgical needle). The results indicate that self-calibration can improve even upon systems with presumably accurate geometric calibration and is

  17. Mantle wedge flow pattern and thermal structure in Northeast Japan: Effects of oblique subduction and 3-D slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Ikuko; He, Jiangheng; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakajima, Junichi

    2015-09-01

    We develop a 3-D thermal model for the Northeast Japan subduction margin, using a realistic slab geometry for the subducting Pacific plate, and investigate the effects of oblique subduction and 3-D slab geometry on the mantle wedge flow pattern and the thermal structure. In the Tohoku region, the mantle wedge flow pattern is nearly two-dimensional resulting in a thermal structure similar to those obtained by a 2-D model, owing to the simple slab geometry and subduction nearly perpendicular to the margin. However, in Hokkaido, oblique subduction leads to 3-D mantle wedge flow with northerly inflow and west-northwestward outflow and also results in lower temperatures in the shallow part of the mantle wedge than in Tohoku due to lower sinking rate of the slab. Between Hokkaido and Tohoku, the slab has a hinge-like shape due to a relatively sharp change in the dip direction. In this hinge zone, northerly mantle inflow from Hokkaido and westerly mantle inflow from Tohoku converge, discouraging inflow from northwest and resulting in a cooler mantle wedge. The model-predicted mantle wedge flow patterns are consistent with observed seismic anisotropy and may explain the orientations of volcanic cross-chains. The predicted 3-D thermal structure correlates well with the along-arc variations in the location of the frontal arc volcanoes and help to provide new insights into the surface heat flow pattern and the down-dip extent of interplate earthquakes.

  18. Development and application of a 3-D geometry/mass model for LDEF satellite ionizing radiation assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colborn, B. L.; Armstrong, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    A computer model of the three dimensional geometry and material distributions for the LDEF spacecraft, experiment trays, and, for selected trays, the components of experiments within a tray was developed for use in ionizing radiation assessments. The model is being applied to provide 3-D shielding distributions around radiation dosimeters to aid in data interpretation, particularly in assessing the directional properties of the radiation exposure. Also, the model has been interfaced with radiation transport codes for 3-D dosimetry response predictions and for calculations related to determining the accuracy of trapped proton and cosmic ray environment models. The methodology is described used in developing the 3-D LDEF model and the level of detail incorporated. Currently, the trays modeled in detail are F2, F8, and H12 and H3. Applications of the model which are discussed include the 3-D shielding distributions around various dosimeters, the influence of shielding on dosimetry responses, and comparisons of dose predictions based on the present 3-D model vs those from 1-D geometry model approximations used in initial estimates.

  19. Writing Position Vectors in 3-d Space: A Student Difficulty With Spherical Unit Vectors in Intermediate E&M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, Brant E.

    2010-10-01

    An intermediate E&M course (i.e. based on Griffiths [1]) involves the extensive integration of vector calculus concepts and notation with abstract physics concepts like field and potential. We hope that students take what they have learned in their math courses and apply it to help represent and make sense of the physics. To assess how well students are able to do this integration and application I have developed several simple concept tests on position and unit vectors in non-Cartesian coordinate systems as they are used in intermediate E&M. In this paper I describe one of these concept tests and present results that show both undergraduate physics majors and physics graduate students have difficulty using spherical unit vectors to write position vectors in 3-d space.

  20. Coronates, spherical containers, bowl-shaped surfaces, porous 1D-, 2D-, 3D-metallo-coordination polymers, and metallodendrimers.

    PubMed

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular coordination cages and polymers bear exceptional advantages over their organic counterparts. They are available in one-pot reactions and in high yields and display physical properties that are generally inaccessible with organic species. Moreover, their weak, reversible, noncovalent bonding interactions facilitate error checking and self-correction. This review emphasizes the achievements in supramolecular coordination container as well as polymer chemistry initiated by serendipity and their materialization based on rational design. The recognition of similarities in the synthesis of different supramolecular assemblies allows prediction of potential structures in related cases. The combination of detailed symmetry considerations with the basic rules of coordination chemistry has only recently allowed for the design of rational strategies for the construction of a variety of nanosized spherical containers, bowls, 1D-, 2D-, and 3D-coordination polymers with specified size and shape. PMID:22160460

  1. Fast and accurate global multiphase arrival tracking: the irregular shortest-path method in a 3-D spherical earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guo-Jiao; Bai, Chao-Ying; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2013-09-01

    The traditional grid/cell-based wavefront expansion algorithms, such as the shortest path algorithm, can only find the first arrivals or multiply reflected (or mode converted) waves transmitted from subsurface interfaces, but cannot calculate the other later reflections/conversions having a minimax time path. In order to overcome the above limitations, we introduce the concept of a stationary minimax time path of Fermat's Principle into the multistage irregular shortest path method. Here we extend it from Cartesian coordinates for a flat earth model to global ray tracing of multiple phases in a 3-D complex spherical earth model. The ray tracing results for 49 different kinds of crustal, mantle and core phases show that the maximum absolute traveltime error is less than 0.12 s and the average absolute traveltime error is within 0.09 s when compared with the AK135 theoretical traveltime tables for a 1-D reference model. Numerical tests in terms of computational accuracy and CPU time consumption indicate that the new scheme is an accurate, efficient and a practical way to perform 3-D multiphase arrival tracking in regional or global traveltime tomography.

  2. The solid angle (geometry factor) for a spherical surface source and an arbitrary detector aperture

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Favorite, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-13

    It is proven that the solid angle (or geometry factor, also called the geometrical efficiency) for a spherically symmetric outward-directed surface source with an arbitrary radius and polar angle distribution and an arbitrary detector aperture is equal to the solid angle for an isotropic point source located at the center of the spherical surface source and the same detector aperture.

  3. geomIO: A tool for geodynamicists to turn 2D cross-sections into 3D geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Tobias; Bauville, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    In numerical deformation models, material properties are usually defined on elements (e.g., in body-fitted finite elements), or on a set of Lagrangian markers (Eulerian, ALE or mesh-free methods). In any case, geometrical constraints are needed to assign different material properties to the model domain. Whereas simple geometries such as spheres, layers or cuboids can easily be programmed, it quickly gets complex and time-consuming to create more complicated geometries for numerical model setups, especially in three dimensions. geomIO (geometry I/O, http://geomio.bitbucket.org/) is a MATLAB-based library that has two main functionalities. First, it can be used to create 3D volumes based on series of 2D vector drawings similar to a CAD program; and second, it uses these 3D volumes to assign material properties to the numerical model domain. The drawings can conveniently be created using the open-source vector graphics software Inkscape. Adobe Illustrator is also partially supported. The drawings represent a series of cross-sections in the 3D model domain, for example, cross-sectional interpretations of seismic tomography. geomIO is then used to read the drawings and to create 3D volumes by interpolating between the cross-sections. In the second part, the volumes are used to assign material phases to markers inside the volumes. Multiple volumes can be created at the same time and, depending on the order of assignment, unions or intersections can be built to assign additional material phases. geomIO also offers the possibility to create 3D temperature structures for geodynamic models based on depth dependent parameterisations, for example the half space cooling model. In particular, this can be applied to geometries of subducting slabs of arbitrary shape. Yet, geomIO is held very general, and can be used for a variety of applications. We present examples of setup generation from pictures of micro-scale tectonics and lithospheric scale setups of 3D present-day model

  4. Shape analysis of hypertrophic and hypertensive heart disease using MRI-based 3D surface models of left ventricular geometry.

    PubMed

    Ardekani, Siamak; Jain, Saurabh; Sanzi, Alianna; Corona-Villalobos, Celia P; Abraham, Theodore P; Abraham, M Roselle; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Wu, Katherine C; Winslow, Raimond L; Miller, Michael I; Younes, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The focus of this study was to develop advanced mathematical tools to construct high-resolution 3D models of left-ventricular (LV) geometry to evaluate focal geometric differences between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and hypertensive heart disease (HHD) using cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) cross-sectional images. A limiting factor in 3D analysis of cardiac MR cross-sections is the low out-of-plane resolution of the acquired images. To overcome this problem, we have developed a mathematical framework to construct a population-based high-resolution 3D LV triangulated surface (template) in which an iterative matching algorithm maps a surface mesh of a normal heart to a set of cross-sectional contours that were extracted from short-axis cine cardiac MR images of patients who were diagnosed with either HCM or HHD. A statistical analysis was conducted on deformations that were estimated at each surface node to identify shape differences at end-diastole (ED), end-systole (ES), and motion-related shape variation from ED to ES. Some significant shape difference in radial thickness was detected at ES. Differences of LV 3D surface geometry were identified focally on the basal anterior septum wall. Further research is needed to relate these findings to the HCM morphological substrate and to design a classifier to discriminate among different etiologies of LV hypertrophy. PMID:26766206

  5. Effects of Training Method and Gender on Learning 2D/3D Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairulanuar, Samsudin; Nazre, Abd Rashid; Jamilah, H.; Sairabanu, Omar Khan; Norasikin, Fabil

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an experimental study involving 36 primary school students (16 girls, 20 boys, Mean age = 9.5 years, age range: 8-10 years) in geometrical understanding of 2D and 3D objects. Students were assigned into two experimental groups and one control group based on a stratified random sampling procedure. The first…

  6. Glacial isostatic adjustment and relative sea-level changes: the role of lithospheric and upper mantle heterogeneities in a 3-D spherical Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, G.; Antonioli, A.; Cianetti, S.; Giunchi, C.

    2006-05-01

    The response of the Earth to the melting of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets is commonly studied by spherically layered models, based on well-established analytical methods. In parallel, a few models have been recently proposed to circumvent the limitations imposed by spherical symmetry, and to reproduce the actual structure of the lithosphere and of the upper mantle. Their main outcome is that laterally varying rheological structures may significantly affect various geophysical quantities related to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and particularly post-glacial relative sea-level (RSL) variations and 3-D crustal velocities in formerly ice-covered regions. In this paper, we contribute to the ongoing debate about the role of lithospheric and mantle heterogeneities by new 3-D spherical Newtonian finite elements models and we directly compare their outcomes with publicly available global RSL data. This differs from previous investigations, in that have mainly focused on extensive sensitivity analyses or have considered a limited number of RSL observations from formerly glaciated regions and their periphery. In our study the lithospheric thickness mimics the global structure of the cratons based on geological evidence, and the upper mantle includes a low-viscosity zone beneath the oceanic lithosphere. We use two distinct global surface loads, based upon the ICE1 and ICE3G deglaciation chronologies, respectively. Our main finding is that using all of the available RSL observations in the last 6000 years it is not possible to discern between homogeneous and heterogeneous GIA models. This result, which holds for both ICE1 and ICE3G, suggests that the cumulative effects of laterally varying structures on the synthetic RSL curves cancel out globally, yielding signals that do not significantly differ from those based on the 1-D models. We have also considered specific subsets of the global RSL database, sharing similar geographical settings and distances from the main

  7. Geometry-based vs. intensity-based medical image registration: A comparative study on 3D CT data.

    PubMed

    Savva, Antonis D; Economopoulos, Theodore L; Matsopoulos, George K

    2016-02-01

    Spatial alignment of Computed Tomography (CT) data sets is often required in numerous medical applications and it is usually achieved by applying conventional exhaustive registration techniques, which are mainly based on the intensity of the subject data sets. Those techniques consider the full range of data points composing the data, thus negatively affecting the required processing time. Alternatively, alignment can be performed using the correspondence of extracted data points from both sets. Moreover, various geometrical characteristics of those data points can be used, instead of their chromatic properties, for uniquely characterizing each point, by forming a specific geometrical descriptor. This paper presents a comparative study reviewing variations of geometry-based, descriptor-oriented registration techniques, as well as conventional, exhaustive, intensity-based methods for aligning three-dimensional (3D) CT data pairs. In this context, three general image registration frameworks were examined: a geometry-based methodology featuring three distinct geometrical descriptors, an intensity-based methodology using three different similarity metrics, as well as the commonly used Iterative Closest Point algorithm. All techniques were applied on a total of thirty 3D CT data pairs with both known and unknown initial spatial differences. After an extensive qualitative and quantitative assessment, it was concluded that the proposed geometry-based registration framework performed similarly to the examined exhaustive registration techniques. In addition, geometry-based methods dramatically improved processing time over conventional exhaustive registration. PMID:26771247

  8. Mesoscopic hydrogel molding to control the 3D geometry of bioartificial muscle tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Weining; Liau, Brian; Badie, Nima

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a cell/hydrogel molding method for precise and reproducible biomimetic fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) muscle tissue architectures in vitro. Using a high aspect ratio soft lithography technique, we fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds containing arrays of mesoscopic posts with defined size, elongation and spacing. On cell/hydrogel molding, these posts serve to enhance the diffusion of nutrients to cells by introducing elliptical pores in the cell-laden hydrogels and to guide local 3D cell alignment by governing the spatial pattern of mechanical tension. Instead of ultraviolet or chemical cross-linking, this method utilizes natural hydrogel polymerization and topographically constrained cell-mediated gel compaction to create the desired 3D tissue structures. We apply this method to fabricate several square centimeter large, few hundred micron-thick bioartificial muscle tissues composed of viable, dense, uniformly aligned and highly differentiated cardiac or skeletal muscle fibers. The protocol takes 4–5 d to fabricate PDMS molds followed by 2 weeks of cell culture. PMID:19798085

  9. 2D divertor heat flux distribution using a 3D heat conduction solver in National Spherical Torus Experiment.

    PubMed

    Gan, K F; Ahn, J-W; Park, J-W; Maingi, R; McLean, A G; Gray, T K; Gong, X; Zhang, X D

    2013-02-01

    The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as α and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of α led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated. PMID:23464209

  10. 2D divertor heat flux distribution using a 3D heat conduction solver in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, K. F.; Ahn, J.-W.; Park, J.-W.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Gray, T. K.; Gong, X.; Zhang, X. D.

    2013-02-01

    The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as α and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of α led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated.

  11. The Need (?) for Descriptive Geometry in a World of 3D Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Frank M. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates the use of modern CAD methods to solve geometric problems. Solves descriptive geometry problems using the layout and position of the successive auxiliary views from the projection of three-dimensional figures onto a two-dimensional plane of paper. (CCM)

  12. Math in Action. 3-D Geometry Comes in All Shapes and Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresser, Rusty; Sheffield, Stephanie

    1996-01-01

    Two mathematics activities introduce elementary students to geometry, using depth, width, and height. A primary level activity involves students with sorting and classifying geometric solids and with comparing numerical quantities. The activity requires building blocks or geometric solids. An intermediate level activity teaches students about…

  13. The Emergence of 3D Geometry from Children's (Teacher-Guided) Classification Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Thom, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Geometry, classification, and the classification of geometrical objects are integral aspects of recent curriculum documents in mathematics education. Such curriculum documents, however, leave open how the "work" of classifying objects according to geometrical properties can be accomplished given that the knowledge of these properties is the…

  14. Responsive culture platform to examine the influence of microenvironmental geometry on cell function in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Kloxin, April M.; Lewis, Katherine J. R.; DeForest, Cole A.; Seedorf, Gregory; Tibbitt, Mark W.; Balasubramaniam, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of a well-based cell culture platform that enables experimenters to control the geometry and connectivity of cellular microenvironments spatiotemporally. The base material is a hydrogel comprised of photolabile and enzyme-labile crosslinks and pendant cell adhesion sequences, enabling spatially-specific, in situ patterning with light and cell-dictated microenvironment remodeling through enzyme secretion. Arrays of culture wells of varying shape and size were patterned into the hydrogel surface using photolithography, where well depth was correlated with irradiation dose. The geometry of these devices can be subsequently modified through sequential patterning, while simultaneously monitoring changes in cell geometry and connectivity. Towards establishing the utility of these devices for dynamic evaluation of the influence of physical cues on tissue morphogenesis, the effect of well shape on lung epithelial cell differentiation (i.e., primary mouse alveolar type II cells, ATII cells) was assessed. Shapes inspired by alveoli were degraded into hydrogel surfaces. ATII cells were seeded within the well-based arrays and encapsulated by the addition of a top hydrogel layer. Cell differentiation in response to these geometries was characterized over 7 days of culture with immunocytochemistry (surfactant protein C, ATII; T1α protein, alveolar type I (ATI) differentiated epithelial cells) and confocal image analysis. Individual cell clusters were further connected by eroding channels between wells during culture via controlled two-photon irradiation. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the development and utility of responsive hydrogel culture devices to study how a range of microenvironment geometries of evolving shape and connectivity might influence or direct cell function. PMID:23138879

  15. Modeling 3-D flow in the mantle wedge with complex slab geometries: Comparisons with seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincaid, C. R.; MacDougall, J. G.; Druken, K. A.; Fischer, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding patterns in plate scale mantle flow in subduction zones is key to models of thermal structure, dehydration reactions, volatile distributions and magma generation and transport in convergent margins. Different patterns of flow in the mantle wedge can generate distinct signatures in seismological observables. Observed shear wave fast polarization directions in several subduction zones are inconsistent with predictions of simple 2-D wedge corner flow. Geochemical signatures in a number of subduction zones also indicate 3-D flow and entrainment patterns in the wedge. We report on a series of laboratory experiments on subduction driven flow to characterize spatial and temporal variability in 3-D patterns in flow and shear-induced finite strain. Cases focus on how rollback subduction, along-strike dip changes in subducting plates and evolving gaps or tears in subduction zones control temporal-spatial patterns in 3-D wedge flow. Models utilize a glucose working fluid with a temperature dependent viscosity to represent the upper 2000 km of the mantle. Subducting lithosphere is modeled with two rubber-reinforced continuous belts. Belts pass around trench and upper/lower mantle rollers. The deeper rollers can move laterally to allow for time varying dip angle. Each belt has independent speed control and dip adjustment, allowing for along-strike changes in convergence rate and the evolution of slab gaps. Rollback is modeled using a translation system to produce either uniform and asymmetric lateral trench motion. Neutral density finite strain markers are distributed throughout the fluid and used as proxies for tracking the evolution of anisotropy through space and time in the evolving flow fields. Particle image velocimetry methods are also used to track time varying 3-D velocity fields for directly calculating anisotropy patterns. Results show that complex plate motions (rollback, steepening) and morphologies (gaps) in convergent margins produce flows with

  16. 3-D in vivo brain tumor geometry study by scaling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Hoyos, F.; Martín-Landrove, M.

    2012-02-01

    A new method, based on scaling analysis, is used to calculate fractal dimension and local roughness exponents to characterize in vivo 3-D tumor growth in the brain. Image acquisition was made according to the standard protocol used for brain radiotherapy and radiosurgery, i.e., axial, coronal and sagittal magnetic resonance T1-weighted images, and comprising the brain volume for image registration. Image segmentation was performed by the application of the k-means procedure upon contrasted images. We analyzed glioblastomas, astrocytomas, metastases and benign brain tumors. The results show significant variations of the parameters depending on the tumor stage and histological origin.

  17. Geometry of structures within crystalline bedrock constrained in 3D and their relevance for present day water infiltration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeberger, Raphael; de la Varga, Miguel; Florian Wellmann, J.; Kober, Florian; Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Fluid circulation in crystalline rocks is of key importance when exploring crystalline basement in light of, for example, deep-seated geothermal energy projects or selection of sites for nuclear waste repositories. Due to their enhanced permeability, fluid circulation within crystalline bedrock is mainly controlled by fault zones, which may originate from ductile mylonites but show a strong brittle overprint. In order to better constrain 3D flow paths, a well-founded knowledge on the 3D nature of the fault zone pattern is indispensable. We attempt to constrain the geometry of a complex 3D fault zone pattern in a case study of the Grimsel Test Site (GTS, central Switzerland). The constraints are based on mapping of both the surface as well as the GTS underground tunnel system, offering a unique opportunity to test the 3D model and associated uncertainties. We investigate the effect of increasing geoinformation on the quality and accuracy of the 3D model by using: (i) remote sensing surface data only, (ii) field surface mapping in combination with (i), and (iii) underground data combined with (i) and (ii). This approach allows for defining different steps in 3D geological modelling of a specific area, including a measure of the remaining uncertainty after each step. We obtain a best-estimate model by fitting results between surface and underground data by using a combination of field data and orientation obtained by Delaunay triangulation. We incorporate novel approaches to uncertainty analysis of fault orientations and investigate different fault planes showing the possible variation range of the structures investigated.

  18. The Double Hierarchy Method. A parallel 3D contact method for the interaction of spherical particles with rigid FE boundaries using the DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santasusana, Miquel; Irazábal, Joaquín; Oñate, Eugenio; Carbonell, Josep Maria

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we present a new methodology for the treatment of the contact interaction between rigid boundaries and spherical discrete elements (DE). Rigid body parts are present in most of large-scale simulations. The surfaces of the rigid parts are commonly meshed with a finite element-like (FE) discretization. The contact detection and calculation between those DE and the discretized boundaries is not straightforward and has been addressed by different approaches. The algorithm presented in this paper considers the contact of the DEs with the geometric primitives of a FE mesh, i.e. facet, edge or vertex. To do so, the original hierarchical method presented by Horner et al. (J Eng Mech 127(10):1027-1032, 2001) is extended with a new insight leading to a robust, fast and accurate 3D contact algorithm which is fully parallelizable. The implementation of the method has been developed in order to deal ideally with triangles and quadrilaterals. If the boundaries are discretized with another type of geometries, the method can be easily extended to higher order planar convex polyhedra. A detailed description of the procedure followed to treat a wide range of cases is presented. The description of the developed algorithm and its validation is verified with several practical examples. The parallelization capabilities and the obtained performance are presented with the study of an industrial application example.

  19. The Double Hierarchy Method. A parallel 3D contact method for the interaction of spherical particles with rigid FE boundaries using the DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santasusana, Miquel; Irazábal, Joaquín; Oñate, Eugenio; Carbonell, Josep Maria

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a new methodology for the treatment of the contact interaction between rigid boundaries and spherical discrete elements (DE). Rigid body parts are present in most of large-scale simulations. The surfaces of the rigid parts are commonly meshed with a finite element-like (FE) discretization. The contact detection and calculation between those DE and the discretized boundaries is not straightforward and has been addressed by different approaches. The algorithm presented in this paper considers the contact of the DEs with the geometric primitives of a FE mesh, i.e. facet, edge or vertex. To do so, the original hierarchical method presented by Horner et al. (J Eng Mech 127(10):1027-1032, 2001) is extended with a new insight leading to a robust, fast and accurate 3D contact algorithm which is fully parallelizable. The implementation of the method has been developed in order to deal ideally with triangles and quadrilaterals. If the boundaries are discretized with another type of geometries, the method can be easily extended to higher order planar convex polyhedra. A detailed description of the procedure followed to treat a wide range of cases is presented. The description of the developed algorithm and its validation is verified with several practical examples. The parallelization capabilities and the obtained performance are presented with the study of an industrial application example.

  20. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: eigenfunction solutions in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberrath, J.; Brinkmann, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    The term active plasma resonance spectroscopy denotes a class of related techniques which utilize, for diagnostic purposes, the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency ωpe: a radio frequent signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or probe, the spectral response is recorded, and a mathematical model is used to determine plasma parameters like the electron density. The mathematical model of an arbitrarily shaped probe-plasma system can be written in an abstract but very compact equation. It contains an appropriate operator, which describes the dynamical behavior and can be split into a conservative and a dissipative part. Based on the cold plasma model, this manuscript provides a solution strategy to determine the electrical admittance of a specific probe-plasma system derived from the abstract dynamical equation. Focusing on probes with a spherical-shaped probe tip the general admittance can be derived analytically. Therefore, the matrix representation of the resolvent of the dynamical operator is determined. This matrix representation is derived by means of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the conservative operator. It can be shown that these eigenvalues represent the resonance frequencies of the probe-plasma system which are simply connected to the electron density. As an example, the result is applied to established probe designs: the spherical impedance probe and the multipole resonance probe.

  1. The Monte Carlo SRNA-VOX code for 3D proton dose distribution in voxelized geometry using CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, Radovan D.; Spasic-Jokic, Vesna; Belicev, Petar; Dragovic, Milos

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the application of the SRNA Monte Carlo package for proton transport simulations in complex geometry and different material compositions. The SRNA package was developed for 3D dose distribution calculation in proton therapy and dosimetry and it was based on the theory of multiple scattering. The decay of proton induced compound nuclei was simulated by the Russian MSDM model and our own using ICRU 63 data. The developed package consists of two codes: the SRNA-2KG, which simulates proton transport in combinatorial geometry and the SRNA-VOX, which uses the voxelized geometry using the CT data and conversion of the Hounsfield's data to tissue elemental composition. Transition probabilities for both codes are prepared by the SRNADAT code. The simulation of the proton beam characterization by multi-layer Faraday cup, spatial distribution of positron emitters obtained by the SRNA-2KG code and intercomparison of computational codes in radiation dosimetry, indicate immediate application of the Monte Carlo techniques in clinical practice. In this paper, we briefly present the physical model implemented in the SRNA package, the ISTAR proton dose planning software, as well as the results of the numerical experiments with proton beams to obtain 3D dose distribution in the eye and breast tumour.

  2. The Monte Carlo SRNA-VOX code for 3D proton dose distribution in voxelized geometry using CT data.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Radovan D; Spasić-Jokić, Vesna; Belicev, Petar; Dragović, Milos

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the application of the SRNA Monte Carlo package for proton transport simulations in complex geometry and different material compositions. The SRNA package was developed for 3D dose distribution calculation in proton therapy and dosimetry and it was based on the theory of multiple scattering. The decay of proton induced compound nuclei was simulated by the Russian MSDM model and our own using ICRU 63 data. The developed package consists of two codes: the SRNA-2KG, which simulates proton transport in combinatorial geometry and the SRNA-VOX, which uses the voxelized geometry using the CT data and conversion of the Hounsfield's data to tissue elemental composition. Transition probabilities for both codes are prepared by the SRNADAT code. The simulation of the proton beam characterization by multi-layer Faraday cup, spatial distribution of positron emitters obtained by the SRNA-2KG code and intercomparison of computational codes in radiation dosimetry, indicate immediate application of the Monte Carlo techniques in clinical practice. In this paper, we briefly present the physical model implemented in the SRNA package, the ISTAR proton dose planning software, as well as the results of the numerical experiments with proton beams to obtain 3D dose distribution in the eye and breast tumour. PMID:15798273

  3. Applying and validating the RANS-3D flow-solver for evaluating a subsonic serpentine diffuser geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Michael J.; Won, Mark J.; Cosentino, Gary B.; Te, Alexander

    1993-01-01

    Subsonic inlet ducts for advanced, high-performance aircraft are evolving towards complex three-dimensional shapes for reasons of overall integration and weight. These factors lead to diffuser geometries that may sacrifice inlet performance, unless careful attention to design details and boundary layer management techniques are employed. The ability of viscous computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of such geometries to aid the aircraft configurator in this complex design problem is herein examined. The RANS-3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver is applied to model the complex flowfield occurring in a representative diffuser geometry and the solutions are compared to experimental results from a static test of the inlet duct. The computational results are shown to compare very favorably with experimental results over a range of mass flow rates, including those involving large amounts of separation in the diffuser. In addition, a novel grid topology is presented, and two turbulence models are evaluated in this study as part of the RANS-3D code.

  4. Study of the 3D geometry of tangential discontinuities based on simultaneous STEREO and Ulysses measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facsko, Gabor; Reshetnyk, Volodymyr; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Opitz, Andrea; Szabo, Adam; McComas, David

    Tangential discontinuties (TDs) are usually considered as thin planar current sheets frozen in the solar wind flow. Previous studies based on the magnetic field measurements onboard of ACE, Wind, and STEREO A, and B proved that this hypotesis is not valid. The curvature of the TDs were determined in several cases. After applying minimum variance and the cross product methods for Ulysses, ACE and STEREO A and B magnetometer measurements, numerous TDs are identified in 2008 and 2009. The time shift of the TD observations is determinated by correlation analysis of the solar wind speed and the magnetic field variations. The 3D topology of the TD is then determinated in some special cases when the four spacecraft are on the same side of the Sun. After fitting a simple model, the location of the TD formation region can be outlined.

  5. The Geometry of the Subducting Slabs Beneath the PRVI Microplate Based on 3D Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Keller, G. R.; Holland, A. A.; Keranen, K. M.; Li, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (PRVI) microplate is located between two subduction zones, with the Puerto Rico trench to the north and the Muertos trough to the south. The Puerto Rico trench is caused by southward-directed subduction of the North American Plate, and the Muertos trough is the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate. There is no active volcanism on Puerto Rico; however, earthquake depths and seismic tomography imply that the slab of Caribbean plate continues northward beneath Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico overlies these two slabs with extension to both the west (Mona Passage) and southeast (Anacapa Passage). The cause of the extension is unknown, but GPS measurements show that Puerto Rico is experiencing anti-clockwise rotation, and the extension associated with the Anacapa Passage may be produced by this rotation. To the west, it is debated whether the Mona Passage is a boundary between two micro-plates or simple a local rift basin. To address the sources of the extension and the cause of the rotation, we are investigating if the deep structures can be the dynamic source for the observed kinematic movements. We collected data on earthquakes occurring between 2009-2011 in the PRVI region and relocated them using the SEISAN code provided by the Institute of Solid Earth Physics, University of Bergen. The FMTOMO code from Australian National University was used for 3D tomography from P and S wave arrival times. By comparing the relocated epicenters and the 3D tomography results, the subducting slabs were identified. When integrated with the results of previous studies, the geometric model of the slabs is a critical key to understanding the evolution of the PRVI microplate in the past and the future.

  6. Irregular geometries in normal unmyelinated axons: a 3D serial EM analysis.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M M; Leitao, C; Trogadis, J; Stevens, J K

    1990-12-01

    Axons have generally been represented as straight cylinders. It is not at all uncommon for anatomists to take single cross-sections of an axonal bundle, and from the axonal diameter compute expected conduction velocities. This assumes that each cross-section represents a slice through a perfect cylinder. We have examined the three-dimensional geometry of 98 central and peripheral unmyelinated axons, using computer-assisted serial electron microscopy. These reconstructions reveal that virtually all unmyelinated axons have highly irregular axial shapes consisting of periodic varicosities. The varicosities were, without exception, filled with membranous organelles frequently including mitochondria, and have obligatory volumes similar to that described in other neurites. The mitochondria make contact with microtubules, while the other membraneous organelles were frequently found free floating in the cytoplasm. We conclude that unmyelinated axons are fundamentally varicose structures created by the presence of organelles, and that an axon's calibre is dynamic in both space and time. These irregular axonal geometries raise serious doubts about standard two dimensional morphometric analysis and suggest that electrical properties may be more heterogeneous than expected from single section data. These results also suggest that the total number of microtubules contained in an axon, rather than its single section diameter, may prove to be a more accurate predictor of properties such as conduction velocity. Finally, these results offer an explanation for a number of pathological changes that have been described in unmyelinated axons. PMID:2292722

  7. 3D Geometry of Fault Intersections in Central California: The Importance of Ultramafic Ophiolitic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, J. T.; Ponce, D. A.; Johnson, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated geological and geophysical studies of three fault intersections in central California reveal an abundance of serpentinite and related ultramafic ophiolitic rocks in the subsurface; this is a significant discovery that not only constrains the geometry of structures, but also helps to explain fault development and fault behavior. We present and compare fault framework models from the Hayward-Calaveras, Calaveras-San Andreas, and Hosgri-Shoreline fault intersections and discuss the importance of ultramafic ophiolitic rocks and the implications for seismic hazard. Fault framework models were created based on integrated analysis of geology, potential-field, seismic-reflection, multibeam bathymetry, and seismicity data. In each case, ultramafic ophiolitic rocks have very limited surface expression, but are prevalent in the subsurface from ~1 to ~8 km depth. High-resolution aero- and marine-magnetic data are particularly important for determining the geometry of these strongly magnetic rock bodies and the faults along which they occur. At each fault intersection, the ultramafic ophiolitic rocks characterize a pre-existing structure that either promotes or represents a barrier to faulting, and significantly influences local deformation patterns. Although the faults at each intersection do not connect directly at the surface, combined geologic and geophysical data suggest that these faults connect in the subsurface either along a single through-going fault plane or along multiple splay faults. The continuity of these fault intersections at seismogenic depths suggests the possibility of a combined rupture that should be evaluated in future seismic hazard studies.

  8. Full-field drift Hamiltonian particle orbits in 3D geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Graves, J. P.; Brunner, S.; Isaev, M. Yu

    2011-02-01

    A Hamiltonian/Lagrangian theory to describe guiding centre orbit drift motion which is canonical in the Boozer coordinate frame has been extended to include full electromagnetic perturbed fields in anisotropic pressure 3D equilibria with nested magnetic flux surfaces. A redefinition of the guiding centre velocity to eliminate the motion due to finite equilibrium radial magnetic fields and the choice of a gauge condition that sets the radial component of the electromagnetic vector potential to zero are invoked to guarantee that the Boozer angular coordinates retain the canonical structure. The canonical momenta are identified and the guiding centre particle radial drift motion and parallel gyroradius evolution are derived. The particle coordinate position is linearly modified by wave-particle interactions. All the nonlinear wave-wave interactions appear explicitly only in the evolution of the parallel gyroradius. The radial variation of the electrostatic potential is related to the binormal component of the displacement vector for MHD-type perturbations. The electromagnetic vector potential projections can then be determined from the electrostatic potential and the radial component of the MHD displacement vector.

  9. Non-invasive 3D geometry extraction of a Sea lion foreflipper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Chen; Watson, Martha; Zhang, Pamela; Leftwich, Megan

    2015-11-01

    We are interested in underwater propulsion that leaves little traceable wake structure while producing high levels of thrust. A potential biological model is the California sea lion, a highly maneuverable aquatic mammal that produces thrust primarily with its foreflippers without a characteristic flapping frequency. The foreflippers are used for thrust, stability, and control during swimming motions. Recently, the flipper's kinematics during the thrust phase was extracted using 2D video tracking. This work extends the tracking ability to 3D using a non-invasive Direct Linear Transformation technique employed on non-research sea lions. marker-less flipper tracking is carried out manually for complete dorsal-ventral flipper motions. Two cameras are used (3840 × 2160 pixels resolution), calibrated in space using a calibration target inserted into the sea lion habitat, and synchronized in time using a simple light flash. The repeatability and objectivity of the tracked data is assessed by having two people tracking the same clap and comparing the results. The number of points required to track a flipper with sufficient detail is also discussed. Changes in the flipper pitch angle during the clap, an important feature for fluid dynamics modeling, will also be presented.

  10. Flow properties along field lines in a 3-D tilted-dipole geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, V. J.

    1995-01-01

    A 3-D MHD simulation of a global, tilted-dipole solar wind flow pattern is analyzed to determine flow properties along individual magnetic field lines. In the model, flow conditions near the Sun are chosen to provide a reasonable match to the interplanetary configuration prevailing during the recent south polar passage by Ulysses, i.e., a streamer belt inclined approximately 30 deg to the solar equator and speeds ranging from 325-800 km/s. Field lines all across the stream pattern are traced from 1 to 10 AU by following the motion of marker particles embedded in the flow. It is found that those field lines threading the core of the interaction region are subject to significant latitudinal and relative longitudinal displacement over this range of heliocentric distance. Thus, observations taken at a fixed latitude in the inner solar system sample, over the course of a solar rotation, field lines which connect to a range of latitudes in the outer heliosphere. Maps of the field line displacements are presented to help visualize these connections. In addition, it is found that depending upon the location relative to the CIR structure, the radial evolution of fluid elements frozen to different field lines can deviate considerably from that of the canonical solar wind. That is, for selected subsets of field lines, large speed changes (not just at shocks) can be experienced; the density variation can be far from 1/r(exp 2), and the magnetic field intensity need not decay monotonically with distance.

  11. High order spatial expansion for the method of characteristics applied to 3-D geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Naymeh, L.; Masiello, E.; Sanchez, R.

    2013-07-01

    The method of characteristics is an efficient and flexible technique to solve the neutron transport equation and has been extensively used in two-dimensional calculations because it permits to deal with complex geometries. However, because of a very fast increase in storage requirements and number of floating operations, its direct application to three-dimensional routine transport calculations it is not still possible. In this work we introduce and analyze several modifications aimed to reduce memory requirements and to diminish the computing burden. We explore high-order spatial approximation, the use of intermediary trajectory-dependent flux expansions and the possibility of dynamic trajectory reconstruction from local tracking for typed subdomains. (authors)

  12. Characterization of 3D filament dynamics in a MAST SOL flux tube geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkden, N. R.; Dudson, B. D.; Fishpool, G.

    2013-10-01

    Non-linear simulations of filament propagation in a realistic MAST SOL flux tube geometry using the BOUT++ fluid modelling framework show an isolation of the dynamics of the filament in the divertor region from the midplane region due to three features of the magnetic geometry; the variation of magnetic curvature along the field line, the expansion of the flux tube and strong magnetic shear. Of the three effects, the latter two lead to a midplane ballooning feature of the filament, whilst the former leads to a ballooning around the X-points. In simulations containing all three effects the filament is observed to balloon at the midplane, suggesting that the role of curvature variation is sub-dominant to the flux expansion and magnetic shear. The magnitudes of these effects are all strongest near the X-point which leads to the formation of parallel density gradients. The filaments simulated, which represent filaments in MAST, are identified as resistive ballooning, meaning that their motion is inertially limited, not sheath limited. Parallel density gradients can drive the filament towards a Boltzmann response when the collisionalityof the plasma is low. The results here show that the formation of parallel density gradients is a natural and inevitable consequence of a realistic magnetic geometry and therefore the transition to the Boltzmann response is a consequence of the use of realistic magnetic geometry and does not require initializing specifically varying background profiles as in slab simulations. The filaments studied here are stable to the linear resistive drift-wave instability but are subject to the non-linear effects associated with the Boltzmann response, particularly Boltzmann spinning. The Boltzmann response causes the filament to spin on an axis. In later stages of its evolution a non-linear turbulent state develops where the vorticity evolves into a turbulent eddy field on the same length scale as the parallel current. The transition from interchange

  13. TART97 a coupled neutron-photon 3-D, combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E.

    1997-11-22

    TART97 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo transport code. This code can on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART97 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART97 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on- line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART97 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART97 and its data riles.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF APONEUROSIS GEOMETRY ON STRAIN INJURY SUSCEPTIBILITY EXPLORED WITH A 3D MUSCLE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Rehorn, Michael R.; Blemker, Silvia S.

    2010-01-01

    In the musculoskeletal system, some muscles are injured more frequently than others. For example, the biceps femoris longhead (BFLH) is the most commonly injured hamstring muscle. It is thought that acute injuries result from large strains within the muscle tissue, but the mechanism behind this type of strain injury is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to build computational models to analyze the stretch distributions within the BFLH muscle and to explore the effects of aponeurosis geometry on the magnitude and location of peak stretches within the model. We created a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the BFLH based on magnetic resonance (MR) images. We also created a series of simplified models with a similar geometry to the MR-based model. We analyzed the stretches predicted by the MR-based model during lengthening contractions to determine the region of peak local fiber stretch. The peak along-fiber stretch was 1.64 and was located adjacent to the proximal myotendinous junction (MTJ). In contrast, the average along-fiber stretch across all the muscle tissue was 0.95. By analyzing the simple models, we found that varying the dimensions of the aponeuroses (width, length, and thickness) had a substantial impact on the location and magnitude of peak stretches within the muscle. Specifically, the difference in widths between the proximal and distal aponeurosis in the BFLH contributed most to the location and magnitude of peak stretch, as decreasing the proximal aponeurosis width by 80% increased peak average stretches along the proximal MTJ by greater than 60% while slightly decreasing stretches along the distal MTJ. These results suggest that the aponeurosis morphology of the BFLH plays a significant role in determining stretch distributions throughout the muscle. Furthermore, this study introduces the new hypothesis that aponeurosis widths may be important in determining muscle injury susceptibility. PMID:20541207

  15. Stationary premixed flames in spherical and cylindrical geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, P. D.; Whaling, K. N.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Gatto, J. L.; Pisowiscz, V. L.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary source-free spherical flames ('flame balls') in premixed combustible gases were studied by employing low-gravity (micro-g) environments in a drop tower and an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories to diminish the impact of buoyancy-induced convective flow. Flame balls were found in all mixture families tested when: (1) the Lewis number Le of the deficient reactant was sufficiently low; and (2) the compositions were sufficiently close to the flammability limits. Probably as a consequence of the reduction in buoyant convection, the flammability limits at micro-g were significantly more dilute than those at Earth gravity; for example, 3.35% H2 vs 4.0% H2 in lean H2-air mixtures. By comparison with analytical and computational models, it is inferred that the phenomenon is probably related to diffusive-thermal effects in low-Le mixtures in conjunction with flame-front curvature and radiative heat losses from the combustion products. The chemical reaction mechanism appears to play no qualitative role. In the aircraft experiments, the gravity levels (approximately equal 10(exp -2)g(sub 0)) were found to cause noticeable motion of flame balls due to buoyancy, which in turn influenced the behavior of flame balls. At these g levels, a new type of transient, nearly cylindrical flame structure, termed 'flame strings,' was observed.

  16. Relation Between the 3D-Geometry of the Coronal Wave and Associated CME During the 26 April 2008 Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

    2011-01-01

    We study the kinematical characteristics and 3D geometry of a large-scale coronal wave that occurred in association with the 26 April 2008 flare-CME event. The wave was observed with the EUVI instruments aboard both STEREO spacecraft (STEREO-A and STEREO-B) with a mean speed of approx 240 km/s. The wave is more pronounced in the eastern propagation direction, and is thus, better observable in STEREO-B images. From STEREO-B observations we derive two separate initiation centers for the wave, and their locations fit with the coronal dimming regions. Assuming a simple geometry of the wave we reconstruct its 3D nature from combined STEREO-A and STEREO-B observations. We find that the wave structure is asymmetric with an inclination toward East. The associated CME has a deprojected speed of approx 750 +/- 50 km/s, and it shows a non-radial outward motion toward the East with respect to the underlying source region location. Applying the forward fitting model developed by Thernisien, Howard, and Vourlidas we derive the CME flux rope position on the solar surface to be close to the dimming regions. We conclude that the expanding flanks of the CME most likely drive and shape the coronal wave.

  17. On the application of focused ion beam nanotomography in characterizing the 3D pore space geometry of Opalinus clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Lukas M.; Holzer, Lorenz; Wepf, Roger; Gasser, Philippe; Münch, Beat; Marschall, Paul

    The evaluation and optimization of radioactive disposal systems requires a comprehensive understanding of mass transport processes. Among others, mass transport in porous geomaterials depends crucially on the topology and geometry of the pore space. Thus, understanding the mechanism of mass transport processes ultimately requires a 3D characterization of the pore structure. Here, we demonstrate the potential of focused ion beam nanotomography (FIB-nT) in characterizing the 3D geometry of pore space in clay rocks, i.e. Opalinus clay. In order to preserve the microstructure and to reduce sample preparation artefacts we used high pressure freezing and subsequent freeze drying to prepare the samples. Resolution limitations placed the lower limit in pore radii that can be analyzed by FIB-nT to about 10-15 nm. Image analysis and the calculation of pore size distribution revealed that pores with radii larger than 15 nm are related to a porosity of about 3 vol.%. To validate the method, we compared the pores size distribution obtained by FIB-nT with the one obtained by N 2 adsorption analysis. The latter yielded a porosity of about 13 vol.%. This means that FIB-nT can describe around 20-30% of the total pore space. For pore radii larger than 15 nm the pore size distribution obtained by FIB-nT and N 2 adsorption analysis were in good agreement. This suggests that FIB-nT can provide representative data on the spatial distribution of pores for pore sizes in the range of about 10-100 nm. Based on the spatial analysis of 3D data we extracted information on the spatial distribution of pore space geometrical properties.

  18. A Coupled Neutron-Photon 3-D Combinatorial Geometry Monte Carlo Transport Code

    1998-06-12

    TART97 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo transport code. This code can run on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART97 is also incredibly fast: if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system canmore » save you a great deal of time and energy. TART 97 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on-line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART97 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART97 and ist data files.« less

  19. A 3D Computational fluid dynamics model validation for candidate molybdenum-99 target geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lin; Dale, Greg; Vorobieff, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Molybdenum-99 (99Mo) is the parent product of technetium-99m (99mTc), a radioisotope used in approximately 50,000 medical diagnostic tests per day in the U.S. The primary uses of this product include detection of heart disease, cancer, study of organ structure and function, and other applications. The US Department of Energy seeks new methods for generating 99Mo without the use of highly enriched uranium, to eliminate proliferation issues and provide a domestic supply of 99mTc for medical imaging. For this project, electron accelerating technology is used by sending an electron beam through a series of 100Mo targets. During this process a large amount of heat is created, which directly affects the operating temperature dictated by the tensile stress limit of the wall material. To maintain the required temperature range, helium gas is used as a cooling agent that flows through narrow channels between the target disks. In our numerical study, we investigate the cooling performance on a series of new geometry designs of the cooling channel. This research is supported by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. Validation and Analysis of Forward Osmosis CFD Model in Complex 3D Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Mathias F.; Johnson, Carl J.; Tang, Chuyang; Jensen, Mogens H.; Yde, Lars; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    In forward osmosis (FO), an osmotic pressure gradient generated across a semi-permeable membrane is used to generate water transport from a dilute feed solution into a concentrated draw solution. This principle has shown great promise in the areas of water purification, wastewater treatment, seawater desalination and power generation. To ease optimization and increase understanding of membrane systems, it is desirable to have a comprehensive model that allows for easy investigation of all the major parameters in the separation process. Here we present experimental validation of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model developed to simulate FO experiments with asymmetric membranes. Simulations are compared with experimental results obtained from using two distinctly different complex three-dimensional membrane chambers. It is found that the CFD model accurately describes the solute separation process and water permeation through membranes under various flow conditions. It is furthermore demonstrated how the CFD model can be used to optimize membrane geometry in such as way as to promote the mass transfer. PMID:24958428

  1. Validation and Analysis of Forward Osmosis CFD Model in Complex 3D Geometries.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Mathias F; Johnson, Carl J; Tang, Chuyang; Jensen, Mogens H; Yde, Lars; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    In forward osmosis (FO), an osmotic pressure gradient generated across a semi-permeable membrane is used to generate water transport from a dilute feed solution into a concentrated draw solution. This principle has shown great promise in the areas of water purification, wastewater treatment, seawater desalination and power generation. To ease optimization and increase understanding of membrane systems, it is desirable to have a comprehensive model that allows for easy investigation of all the major parameters in the separation process. Here we present experimental validation of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model developed to simulate FO experiments with asymmetric membranes. Simulations are compared with experimental results obtained from using two distinctly different complex three-dimensional membrane chambers. It is found that the CFD model accurately describes the solute separation process and water permeation through membranes under various flow conditions. It is furthermore demonstrated how the CFD model can be used to optimize membrane geometry in such as way as to promote the mass transfer. PMID:24958428

  2. Simulations of plasma dynamo in cylindrical and spherical geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalzov, Ivan; Forest, Cary; Schnack, Dalton; Ebrahimi, Fatima

    2010-11-01

    We have performed the numerical investigation of plasma flow and possibility of dynamo effect in Madison Plasma Couette Experiment (MPCX) and Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX), which are being installed at the University of Wisconsin- Madison. Using the extended MHD code, NIMROD, we have studied several types of plasma flows appropriate for dynamo excitation. Calculations are done for isothermal compressible plasma model including two-fluid effects (Hall term), which is beyond the standard incompressible MHD picture. It is found that for magnetic Reynolds numbers exceeding the critical one the counter-rotating Von Karman flow (in cylinder) and Dudley- James flow (in sphere) result in self-generation of magnetic field. Depending on geometry and plasma parameters this field can either saturate at certain amplitude corresponding to a new stable equilibrium (laminar dynamo) or lead to turbulent dynamo. It is shown that plasma compressibility results in increase of the critical magnetic Reynolds number while two- fluid effects change the level of saturated dynamo field. The work is supported by NSF.

  3. 3D geometry and evolutionary sequence of fold-thrust systems in NW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hao-Yun; Yang, Kenn-Ming; Hsieh, Ching-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Chuang, Hui-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ju

    2015-04-01

    During the arc-continental collision from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene, two sets of fold-and-thrust system developed in NW Taiwan, a series of NNE-SSW striking low-angle thrust faults and their related folds (set A) and the other series of NEE-SWW striking high-angle thrust faults and their related folds (set B). The latter one cuts the former one and extends forelandward. The geometry of intersection and development sequence of both sets of structures are still in debate. In this study, we utilized a grid of seismic profiles to constrain our interpretation on the subsurface structural geometry of the two structural sets, which then was tested by structural restoration. We also made some simulations on the formation of fault-related folds by trishear modeling. The influence of normal fault reactivation on and the transitional relationships among the structures were investigated to establish an evolutionary sequence for the fold-and thrust systems of NW Taiwan. The strike of set A is NNE-SSW in the northern part of the study area but becomes N-S to the south. The location of the strike change is cut by a NEE-SWW high-angle fault of set B. According to the seismic interpretation, shallower anticline is asymmetric whereas deeper anticline is symmetric. The low-angle thrust of set A extends to the south and transfers into high-angle where it is cut by the high-angle fault of set B. The trishear model suggests that the shallower anticline resulted from low-angle fault thrusting in early period, whereas the deeper one was caused by basal detachment faulting in the late stage. Seismic interpretation also reveals an asymmetric and gentle fold cut by a high-angle thrust fault of set B. The result of trishear modeling indicates that the anticline was formed by slip along a high angle thrust, which is a low-angle fault in the deep but turns into high angle along a pre-existing normal fault up to the surface. In summary, the development of the shallower anticline of set A

  4. 3D Geometry and Kinematics of the Taiwan Arc-continent Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carena, S.; Suppe, J.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    In Taiwan two subduction zones (Manila trench and Ryukyu trench) come together in a quasi-orthogonal, kinematically stable configuration. Subduction is ongoing in both trenches, even though the tectonic setting in the Manila trench is that of an arc-continent collision. The upper crust of Eurasia (EU) is decoupled from the rest of the lithosphere by a detachment horizon, which is the main subduction interface between EU and Philippine Sea plate (PSP). The interface is visible in both seismicity and crustal tomography at shallow depths, and it can be followed into the mantle to 450-500 km depth with global tomography. Shortening across the plate boundary is accomplished by a combination of subduction of EU lithosphere, folding and thrusting in the Eurasian upper crust, and a secondary subduction zone within the PSP. We hypothesize that: (1) once arc-continent collision occurs, subduction of Eurasian continental lower crust and upper mantle can continue by lithospheric delamination and by continuity with the much larger Eurasian slab to the south; (2) the upper crust of EU deforms by faulting and folding; (3) the present convergence rate of about 90 mm/yr is limited at most to the last 2 Ma, whereas the long-term rate is about 30 mm/yr and in Taiwan the difference is being taken up by secondary subduction within the PSP margin; (4) a margin-parallel STEP (Subduction-Transform-Edge-Propagator) fault forms the northern limit of Eurasian subduction, which allows the whole system to propagate self-similarly southwestward. No slab breakoff is required for the kinematics of the margin, and none is observed in geophysical or geological data either. This kinematics is consistent with geologic observations: from timing of opening of the southern Okinawa trough, to geometry of geologic boundaries within the Taiwan mountain belt, to geographic distribution, geochemical character, and timing of Quaternary volcanism in the northern Taiwan volcanic zone. We constrained the long

  5. Mechanism for generating stagnant slabs in 3-D spherical mantle convection models at Earth-like conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Takatoshi; Yamagishi, Yasuko; Hamano, Yozo; Stegman, Dave R.; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Bina, Craig; Inoue, Toru; Wiens, Douglas; Jellinek, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Seismic tomography reveals the natural mode of convection in the Earth is whole mantle with subducted slabs clearly seen as continuous features into the lower mantle. However, simultaneously existing alongside these deep slabs are stagnant slabs which are, if only temporarily, trapped in the upper mantle. Previous numerical models of mantle convection have observed a range of behavior for slabs in the transition zone depending on viscosity stratification and mineral phase transitions, but typically only exhibit flat-lying slabs when mantle convection is layered or trench migration is imposed. We use 3-D spherical models of mantle convection which range up to Earth-like conditions in Rayleigh number to systematically investigate three effects on mantle dynamics: (1) the mineral phase transitions, (2) a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity with plastic yielding at shallow depth, and (3) a viscosity increase in the lower mantle. First a regime diagram is constructed for isoviscous models over a wide range of Rayleigh number and Clapeyron slope for which the convective mode is determined. It agrees very well with previous results from 2-D simulations by Christensen and Yuen (1985), suggesting present-day Earth is in the intermittent convection mode rather than layered or strictly whole mantle. Two calculations at Earth-like conditions (Ra and RaH = 2 í 107 and 5 í 108, respectively) which include effects (2) and (3) are produced with and without the effect of the mineral phase transitions. The first calculation (without the phase transition) successfully produces plate-like behavior with a long wavelength structure and surface heat flow similar to Earth's value. While the observed convective flow pattern in the lower mantle is broader compared to isoviscous models, it basically shows the behavior of whole mantle convection, and does not exhibit any slab flattening at the viscosity increase at 660 km depth. The second calculation which includes the phase

  6. Multigroup Time-Independent Neutron Transport Code System for Plane or Spherical Geometry.

    1986-12-01

    Version 00 PALLAS-PL/SP solves multigroup time-independent one-dimensional neutron transport problems in plane or spherical geometry. The problems solved are subject to a variety of boundary conditions or a distributed source. General anisotropic scattering problems are treated for solving deep-penetration problems in which angle-dependent neutron spectra are calculated in detail.

  7. The 3D geometry of regional-scale dolerite saucer complexes and their feeders in the Secunda Complex, Karoo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, André; Kisters, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Dolerites in the Karoo Basin of South Africa commonly represent kilometre-scale, interconnected saucer-shaped structures that consist of inner sills, bounded by inclined sheets connected to stratigraphically higher outer sills. Based on information from over 3000 boreholes and mining operations extending over an area of ca. 500 km2 and covering a > 3 km vertical section from Karoo strata into underlying basement rocks, this paper presents the results of a 3D modelling exercise that describes the geometry and spatial relationships of a regional-scale saucer complex, locally referred to as the number 8 sill, from the Secunda (coal mine) Complex in the northern parts of the Karoo Basin. The composite number 8 sill complex consists of three main dolerite saucers (dolerites A to C). These dolerite saucers are hosted by the Karoo Supergroup and the connectivity and geometry of the saucers support a lateral, sill-feeding-sill relationship between dolerite saucers A, B and C. The saucers are underlain and fed by a shallowly-dipping sheet (dolerite D) in the basement rocks below the Karoo sequence. The 3D geometric strata model agrees well with experimental results of saucer formation from underlying feeders in sedimentary basins, but demonstrates a more intricate relationship where a single feeder can give rise to several split level saucers in one regionally extensive saucer complex. More localised dome- or ridge-shape protrusions are common in the flat lying sill parts of the regional-scale saucers. We suggest a mode of emplacement for these kilometre-scale dome- and ridge structures having formed as a result of lobate magma flow processes. Magma lobes, propagating in different directions ahead of the main magma sheet, undergo successive episodes of lobe arrest and inflation. The inflation of lobes initiates failure of the overlying strata and the formation of curved faults. Magma exploiting these faults transgresses the stratigraphy and coalesces to form a ring

  8. The internal geometry of salt structures - A first look using 3D seismic data from the Zechstein of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gent, Heijn; Urai, Janos L.; de Keijzer, Martin

    2011-03-01

    We present a first look at the large-scale, complexly folded and faulted internal structure of Zechstein salt bodies in NW Europe using 3D reflection seismic reflection data from two surveys on the Groningen High and the Cleaver Bank High. We focus on a relatively brittle, folded and boudinaged, claystone-carbonate-anhydrite layer (the Z3 stringer) enclosed in ductile salt. A first classification of the structures is presented and compared with observations from salt mines and analogue and numerical models. Z3 stringers not only are reservoirs for hydrocarbons but can also present a serious drilling problem in some areas. Results of this study could provide the basis for better prediction of zones of drilling problems. More generally, the techniques presented here can be used to predict the internal structure of salt bodies, to estimate the geometry of economic deposits of all kinds and locate zones suitable for storage caverns. Structures observed include an extensive network of zones with increased thickness of the stringer. These we infer to have formed by early diagenesis, karstification, gravitational sliding and associated local sedimentation. Later, this template was deformed into large-scale folds and boudins during salt tectonics. Salt flow was rarely plane strain, producing complex fold and boudin geometries. Deformation was further complicated by the stronger zones of increased thickness, which led to strongly non-cylindrical structures. We present some indications that the thicker zones also influence the locations of later suprasalt structures, suggesting a feedback between the early internal evolution of this salt giant and later salt tectonics. This study opens the possibility to study the internal structure of the Zechstein and other salt giants in 3D using this technique, exposing a previously poorly known structure which is comparable in size and complexity to the internal parts of some orogens.

  9. Multiphysics Simulations of the Complex 3D Geometry of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Fuel Elements Using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D; Jain, Prashant K

    2011-01-01

    A research and development project is ongoing to convert the currently operating High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from highly-enriched Uranium (HEU U3O8) fuel to low-enriched Uranium (LEU U-10Mo) fuel. Because LEU HFIR-specific testing and experiments will be limited, COMSOL is chosen to provide the needed multiphysics simulation capability to validate against the HEU design data and calculations, and predict the performance of the LEU fuel for design and safety analyses. The focus of this paper is on the unique issues associated with COMSOL modeling of the 3D geometry, meshing, and solution of the HFIR fuel plate and assembled fuel elements. Two parallel paths of 3D model development are underway. The first path follows the traditional route through examination of all flow and heat transfer details using the Low-Reynolds number k-e turbulence model provided by COMSOL v4.2. The second path simplifies the fluid channel modeling by taking advantage of the wealth of knowledge provided by decades of design and safety analyses, data from experiments and tests, and HFIR operation. By simplifying the fluid channel, a significant level of complexity and computer resource requirements are reduced, while also expanding the level and type of analysis that can be performed with COMSOL. Comparison and confirmation of validity of the first (detailed) and second (simplified) 3D modeling paths with each other, and with available data, will enable an expanded level of analysis. The detailed model will be used to analyze hot-spots and other micro fuel behavior events. The simplified model will be used to analyze events such as routine heat-up and expansion of the entire fuel element, and flow blockage. Preliminary, coarse-mesh model results of the detailed individual fuel plate are presented. Examples of the solution for an entire fuel element consisting of multiple individual fuel plates produced by the simplified model are also presented.

  10. DIF3D nodal neutronics option for two- and three-dimensional diffusion theory calculations in hexagonal geometry. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.D.

    1983-03-01

    A nodal method is developed for the solution of the neutron-diffusion equation in two- and three-dimensional hexagonal geometries. The nodal scheme has been incorporated as an option in the finite-difference diffusion-theory code DIF3D, and is intended for use in the analysis of current LMFBR designs. The nodal equations are derived using higher-order polynomial approximations to the spatial dependence of the flux within the hexagonal-z node. The final equations, which are cast in the form of inhomogeneous response-matrix equations for each energy group, involved spatial moments of the node-interior flux distribution plus surface-averaged partial currents across the faces of the node. These equations are solved using a conventional fission-source iteration accelerated by coarse-mesh rebalance and asymptotic source extrapolation. This report describes the mathematical development and numerical solution of the nodal equations, as well as the use of the nodal option and details concerning its programming structure. This latter information is intended to supplement the information provided in the separate documentation of the DIF3D code.

  11. Spontaneous wrinkling in azlactone-based functional polymer thin films in 2D and 3D geometries for guided nanopatterning

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Messman, Jamie M.; Stafford, Christopher M.; Kilbey II, S. Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple, one step process for developing wrinkling patterns in azlactone-based polymer thin films and brushes in 2D and 3D surfaces. The polymer used in this work wrinkles spontaneously upon deposition and solidification on a substrate without applying any external strain to the substrate, with the mode of deposition defining the direction of the wrinkles. Wrinkle formation is shown to occur on a variety of substrates over large areas. We also find that a very thin brush-like layer of an azlactone-containing block copolymer also exhibits wrinkled topology. Given the spontaneity and versatility of wrinkle formation, we further demonstrate two proofs-of-concept, i) that these periodic wrinkled structures are not limited to planar surfaces, but are also developed in complex geometries including tubes, cones and other 3D structures; and ii) that this one-step wrinkling process can be used to guide the deposition of metal nanoparticles and quantum dots, creating a periodic, nanopatterned film.

  12. 3-D Magnetic Field Geometry of the October 28, 2003 ICME: Comparison with SMEI White-Light Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, E. A.; Mulligan, T.; Jackson, B. V.; Tokumaru, M.

    2006-12-01

    Multiple reconstructions of the October 28-29, 2003 CME/ICME using white-light observations, ground-based cosmic-ray and in situ magnetic field flux rope modeling show two possible flux-rope configurations that pass Earth on opposite sides of the central symmetry axis of the disturbance. An analysis of flux rope model geometries initiated over a wide range in parameter space to test the uniqueness of the single spacecraft inversion reveals the fit is degenerate over a range of impact parameters such that two solutions are obtained. In one case (fit A) the disturbance passes Earth to the west of the rope center with the rope axis at a low inclination of 20 deg to the ecliptic, similar to the ground-based flux rope analysis by Kuwabara et al.~(2004). In the second case (fit B) the disturbance passes Earth to the east of the flux rope axis, with the rope axis more highly inclined at 42 deg from the ecliptic, consistent with the SMEI white-light analysis of Jackson et al.~(2006). The current densities in both solutions indicate a nearly force-free structure. Multipoint studies of ICMEs show the radius of curvature in the plane of the rope is between that of a dipole field line connected to the Sun and that of a circular field line connected to the Sun. Assuming a dipole field geometry for the large- scale axial field curvature of the rope results in a 3-D reconstruction for case B that is consistent with the loop structure and observed speed in the white-light LASCO images and SMEI density reconstruction, but not for case A. Multipoint measurements of large-scale solar wind transients is one of the key objectives of the Stereo mission, allowing more accurate 3-D reconstructions of in situ data for comparison with white-light observations. Until they become available, the large-scale axial field orientation and loop geometry of these rope reconstructions provides another tool to constrain magnetic flux rope fits of ICMEs using single spacecraft measurements.

  13. Ablation Front Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Experiments in Spherically Convergent Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Glendinning, S.G.; Cherfils, C.; Colvin, J.; Divol, L.; Galmiche, D.; Haan, S.; Marinak, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Richard, A.L.; Wallace, R.

    1999-11-03

    Experiments were performed on the Nova laser, using indirectly driven capsules mounted in cylindrical gold hohlraums, to measure the Rayleigh-Taylor growth at the ablation front by time-resolved radiography. Modulations were preformed on the surface of Ge-doped plastic capsules. With initial modulations of 4 {micro}m, growth factors of about 6 in optical depth were seen, in agreement with simulations using the radiation hydrocode FCI2. With initial modulations of 1 {micro}m, growth factors of about 100-150 in optical depth were seen. The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability at the ablation front in an inertial confinement fusion capsule has been the subject of considerable investigation. Much of this research has been concentrated on planar experiments, in which RT growth is inferred from radiography. The evolution is somewhat different in a converging geometry; the spatial wavelength decreases (affecting the onset of nonlinear saturation), and the shell thickens and compresses rather than decompressing as in a planar geometry. In a cylindrically convergent geometry, the latter effect is proportional to the radius, while in spherically convergent geometry, the latter effect is proportional to the radius squared. Experiments were performed on the Nova and Omega lasers in cylindrical geometry (using both direct and indirect drive) and have been performed in spherical geometry using direct drive.

  14. Density structure and geometry of the Costa Rican subduction zone from 3-D gravity modeling and local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Arroyo, I. G.

    2015-10-01

    The eastern part of the oceanic Cocos Plate presents a heterogeneous crustal structure due to diverse origins and ages as well as plate-hot spot interactions which originated the Cocos Ridge, a structure that converges with the Caribbean Plate in southeastern Costa Rica. The complex structure of the oceanic plate directly influences the dynamics and geometry of the subduction zone along the Middle American Trench. In this paper an integrated interpretation of the slab geometry in Costa Rica is presented based on 3-D density modeling of combined satellite and surface gravity data, constrained by available geophysical and geological data and seismological information obtained from local networks. The results show the continuation of steep subduction geometry from the Nicaraguan margin into northwestern Costa Rica, followed by a moderate dipping slab under the Central Cordillera toward the end of the Central American Volcanic Arc. Contrary to commonly assumed, to the southeast end of the volcanic arc, our preferred model shows a steep, coherent slab that extends up to the landward projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. Overall, a gradual change in the depth of the intraplate seismicity is observed, reaching 220 km in the northwestern part, and becoming progressively shallower toward the southeast, where it reaches a maximum depth of 75 km. The changes in the terminal depth of the observed seismicity correlate with the increased density in the modeled slab. The absence of intermediate depth (> 75 km) intraplate seismicity in the southeastern section and the higher densities for the subducted slab in this area, support a model in which dehydration reactions in the subducted slab cease at a shallower depth, originating an anhydrous and thus aseismic slab.

  15. Onset of Time-Dependent 3-D spherical Mantle Convection using a Radial Basis Function-Pseudospectral Method ; Spectral-Finite Volume ; Spectral Higher-Order Finite- Difference Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, G.; Flyer, N.; Yuen, D. A.; Monnereau, M.; Zhang, S.; Wang, S. M.

    2009-05-01

    Many numerical methods, such as finite-differences, finite-volume, their yin-yang variants, finite-elements and spectral methods have been employed to study 3-D mantle convection. All have their own strengths, but also serious weaknesses. Spectrally accurate methods do not practically allow for node refinement and often involve cumbersome algebra while finite difference, volume, or element methods are generally low-order, adding excessive numerical diffusion to the model. For the 3-D mantle convection problem, we have introduced a new mesh-free approach, using radial basis functions (RBF). This method has the advantage of being algorithmic simple, spectrally accurate for arbitrary node layouts in multi-dimensions and naturally allows for node-refinement. One virtue of the RBF scheme allows the user to use a simple Cartesian geometry, while implementing the required boundary conditions for the temperature, velocities and stress components on a spherical surface at both the planetary surface and the core-mantle boundary. We have studied time- dependent mantle convection, using both a RBF-pseudospectral code and a code which uses spherical- harmonics in the angular direction and second-order finite volume in the radial direction. We have employed a third code , which uses spherical harmonics and higher-order finite-difference method a la Fornberg in the radial coordinate.We first focus on the onset of time-dependence at Rayleigh number Ra of 70,000. We follow the development of stronger time-dependence to a Ra of one million, using high enough resolution with 120 to 200 points in the radial direction and 128 to 256 spherical harmonics.

  16. 3D geometrical inspection of complex geometry parts using a novel laser triangulation sensor and a robot.

    PubMed

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly "coupled" as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a "zero" or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy. PMID:22346569

  17. 3D Geometrical Inspection of Complex Geometry Parts Using a Novel Laser Triangulation Sensor and a Robot

    PubMed Central

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly “coupled” as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a “zero” or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy. PMID:22346569

  18. TOA Lightning Location Retrieval on Spherical and Oblate Spheroidal Earth Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R. J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A simple linear algebraic solution is introduced for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning ground strikes on a spherical Earth from a network of four or more time-of-arrival (TOA) sensors. Since the solution accounts for Earth curvature, it represents an extension to earlier planar model results described by Koshak et al. A test of the retrieval method is provided using computer-simulated data sets. The method is easy to comprehend and completely avoids reference to the mathematics of spherical hyperbolas such as discussed by Lewis. A quasi-analytic extension to the spherical Earth solution is provided for an oblate spheroidal Earth geometry, and the importance/relevance of oblate effects are discussed. Future application of these methods in support of the North American National Lightning Detection Network (NALDN) described by Cummins et al. is desirable, but additional theoretical investigations are required to incorporate magnetic bearing information into the present solution process.

  19. Characterization and 3-D modeling of Ni60Ti SMA for actuation of a variable geometry jet engine chevron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Darren J.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2007-04-01

    This work describes the thermomechanical characterization and FEA modeling of commercial jet engine chevrons incorporating active Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) beam components. The reduction of community noise at airports generated during aircraft take-off has become a major research goal. Serrated aerodynamic devices along the trailing edge of a jet engine primary and secondary exhaust nozzle, known as chevrons, have been shown to greatly reduce jet noise by encouraging advantageous mixing of the streams. To achieve the noise reduction, the secondary exhaust nozzle chevrons are typically immersed into the fan flow which results in drag, or thrust losses during cruise. SMA materials have been applied to this problem of jet engine noise. Active chevrons, utilizing SMA components, have been developed and tested to create maximum deflection during takeoff and landing while minimizing deflection into the flow during the remainder of flight, increasing efficiency. Boeing has flight tested one Variable Geometry Chevron (VGC) system which includes active SMA beams encased in a composite structure with a complex 3-D configuration. The SMA beams, when activated, induce the necessary bending forces on the chevron structure to deflect it into the fan flow and reduce noise. The SMA composition chosen for the fabrication of these beams is a Ni60Ti40 (wt%) alloy. In order to calibrate the material parameters of the constitutive SMA model, various thermomechanical experiments are performed on trained (stabilized) standard SMA tensile specimens. Primary among these tests are thermal cycles at various constant stress levels. Material properties for the shape memory alloy components are derived from this tensile experimentation. Using this data, a 3-D FEA implementation of a phenomenological SMA model is calibrated and used to analyze the response of the chevron. The primary focus of this work is the full 3-D modeling of the active chevron system behavior by considering the SMA beams as

  20. The foundation of 3D geometry model in omni-directional laser warning system based on diffuse reflection detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weian; Wang, Long; Dong, Qixin

    2011-06-01

    The omni-directional laser warning equipment based on infrared fish-eye lens and short-wave infrared FPA has been used to protect large-scale targets, which can detect the threat laser scattered by the attacked targets or the objects surrounding them, and image the laser spot on FPA, then fix the position of spot. The application offsets the disadvantage of direct interception warner which need disposed largely. Before study of imaging mechanism about the scattered laser spot, the definition of geometry relationship is needed firstly. In this paper we developed a 3D geometry model by analyzing the position relationships in typical battlefield environment among the enemy's threat laser source, the laser spot radiated on one flat surface and our omni-directional laser warning fish-eye lens. The model including R, α, β, d, θ, φ, ψ, δ etc. 8 parameters and 4 coordinate systems was suitable for any general situations. After achievement of the model foundation, we obtained analytic expression of the laser spot contour on flat surface, then attained analytic expression of spot contour on image surface by calculating the object space half-field angle and the azimuth angle relative to fish-eye lens of an arbitrary point at the spot edge on flat surface. The attainment of the expression makes possible that we can analyze the spot energy distributions on image surface and the imaging characteristic of the scattered laser spot via fish-eye lens, then can compute the transmission direction of the threat laser. The foundation of the model in this paper has an importantly basic and guiding meaning to the latter research on this aspect.

  1. 3D Geometry of Active Shortening, Uplift and Subsidence West of the Alpine Fault (South Island, New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisetti, F.; Sibson, R. H.; Hamling, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is the principal component of the transform boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates across the South Island of New Zealand, linking the opposite dipping Hikurangi and Puysegur subduction zones. In the northern South Island, the transition from the subducted W-dipping Pacific slab of the Hikurangi margin to the intra-continental transform margin is defined by earthquake foci from 350 to 100 km deep. West of the Alpine Fault the Australian crust above the slab has been incorporated into the collisional plate boundary and uplifted in a compressional belt up to 100 km wide. Retro-deformation and back-stripping of 10 regional transects utilising surface geology, seismic reflection lines and exploration wells define the progressive deformation of the Australian crust since 35 Ma along the collisional margin. The reconstructed geometry of faulted basement blocks is tied to localisation and evolution of overlying sedimentary basins, coeval with displacement on the Alpine Fault. Amounts of shortening, uplift and subsidence and fault activity are heterogeneous in space and time across the margin, and are controlled by compressional reactivation of inherited high-angle, N-S Paleogene normal faults oblique to the margin. However, significant differences also occur along the strike of the collisional margin, with major contrasts in uplift and subsidence north and south of lat. 41°.7, i.e. the region overlying the southern termination of the Hikurangi slab. These differences are highlighted by present day hydrographic anomalies in the Buller region, and by the pattern of filtered topography at > 75 km wavelength. Our data show that the 3D geometry of the Australian plate cannot be entirely attributed to inherited crustal heterogeneity of a flexured "retro-foreland" domain in the footwall of the Alpine Fault, and suggest the need of deeper dynamic interaction between the Pacific and Australian lithosphere along the subduction-collision margin.

  2. Modelling of 3D fields due to ferritic inserts and test blanket modules in toroidal geometry at ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yueqiang; Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Cavinato, Mario; Koechl, Florian; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Li, Li; Parail, Vassili; Saibene, Gabriella; Särkimäki, Konsta; Sipilä, Seppo; Varje, Jari

    2016-06-01

    Computations in toroidal geometry are systematically performed for the plasma response to 3D magnetic perturbations produced by ferritic inserts (FIs) and test blanket modules (TBMs) for four ITER plasma scenarios: the 15 MA baseline, the 12.5 MA hybrid, the 9 MA steady state, and the 7.5 MA half-field helium plasma. Due to the broad toroidal spectrum of the FI and TBM fields, the plasma response for all the n  =  1–6 field components are computed and compared. The plasma response is found to be weak for the high-n (n  >  4) components. The response is not globally sensitive to the toroidal plasma flow speed, as long as the latter is not reduced by an order of magnitude. This is essentially due to the strong screening effect occurring at a finite flow, as predicted for ITER plasmas. The ITER error field correction coils (EFCC) are used to compensate the n  =  1 field errors produced by FIs and TBMs for the baseline scenario for the purpose of avoiding mode locking. It is found that the middle row of the EFCC, with a suitable toroidal phase for the coil current, can provide the best correction of these field errors, according to various optimisation criteria. On the other hand, even without correction, it is predicted that these n  =  1 field errors will not cause substantial flow damping for the 15 MA baseline scenario.

  3. Vectorization of a 2D-1D Iterative Algorithm for the 3D Neutron Transport Problem in Prismatic Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Salli; Févotte, François; Lathuilière, Bruno; Plagne, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    The past few years have been marked by a noticeable increase in the interest in 3D whole-core heterogeneous deterministic neutron transport solvers for reference calculations. Due to the extremely large problem sizes tackled by such solvers, they need to use adapted numerical methods and need to be efficiently implemented to take advantage of the full computing power of modern systems. As for numerical methods, one possible approach consists in iterating over resolutions of 2D and 1D MOC problems by taking advantage of prismatic geometries. The MICADO solver, developed at EDF R&D, is a parallel implementation of such a method in distributed and shared memory systems. However it is currently unable to use SIMD vectorization to leverage the full computing power of modern CPUs. In this paper, we describe our first effort to support vectorization in MICADO, typically targeting Intel© SSE CPUs. Both the 2D and 1D algorithms are vectorized, allowing for high expected speedups for the whole spatial solver. We present benchmark computations, which show nearly optimal speedups for our vectorized implementation on the TAKEDA case.

  4. The Development of WARP - A Framework for Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Neutron Transport in General 3D Geometries on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Ryan

    general 3D geometries on GPUs, but compared to production codes like Serpent and MCNP, WARP ha

  5. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-01

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal - a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance. PMID:25296798

  6. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: Aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-07

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal – a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance.

  7. 3-D velocity structure around tehri region of the garhwal lesser himalaya: constraints on geometry of the underthrusting indian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaujia, Jyotima; Kumar, Ashwani; Gupta, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the upper crustal velocity structure beneath the Tehri region of the Garhwal Himalaya. The investigated region is situated within the 700-km-long central seismic gap of the Himalaya that has experienced three gap-filling earthquakes since 1991 including the recent 2015 Nepal earthquake (Mw 7.8). The local tomographic inversion is based on a dataset of 1365 events collected from January 2008 to December 2012 by a 12-station local network that covers an area of about 100 × 80 km around Tehri Dam. We perform a simultaneous inversion for P- and S-wave velocity anomalies. Tomograms are interpreted in the backdrop of the regional geological and tectonic framework of the region. The spatial distribution of relocated events from the 3- D velocity model has shed new light on the pattern of seismicity in the vicinity of the Main Central thrust (MCT), and has elucidated the structure of the underthrusting Indian plate. Our model exhibits a significant negative velocity anomaly up to ˜5 per cent beneath the central part of the Garhwal Inner Lesser Himalaya, and a P-wave low velocity anomaly near the Chamoli region. The seismicity zone around the Chamoli region may be attributed to the presence of fluid filled rocks. Furthermore, an area with˜3-4 per cent positive velocity anomaly is delineated to the northwest of the Uttarkashi thrust in the vicinity of the MCT. Significant findings of the study include: a flat-ramp-flat type sub-surface geometry of the underthrusting Indian plate below the Garhwal Himalaya, high velocity images representing the trend and configuration of Delhi-Haridwar-ridge below the Sub Himalaya and Lesser Himalaya, and a seismically active zone representing geometrical asperity on the basement thrust in the vicinity of the MCT.

  8. Theoretical description of spin-selective reactions of radical pairs diffusing in spherical 2D and 3D microreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Sadovsky, Vladimir M.; Lukzen, Nikita N.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we treat spin-selective recombination of a geminate radical pair (RP) in a spherical "microreactor," i.e., of a RP confined in a micelle, vesicle, or liposome. We consider the microreactor model proposed earlier, in which one of the radicals is located at the center of the micelle and the other one undergoes three-dimensional diffusion inside the micelle. In addition, we suggest a two-dimensional model, in which one of the radicals is located at the "pole" of the sphere, while the other one diffuses on the spherical surface. For this model, we have obtained a general analytical expression for the RP recombination yield in terms of the free Green function of two-dimensional diffusion motion. In turn, this Green function is expressed via the Legendre functions and thus takes account of diffusion over a restricted spherical surface and its curvature. The obtained expression allows one to calculate the RP recombination efficiency at an arbitrary magnetic field strength. We performed a comparison of the two models taking the same geometric parameters (i.e., the microreactor radius and the closest approach distance of the radicals), chemical reactivity, magnetic interactions in the RP and diffusion coefficient. Significant difference between the predictions of the two models is found, which is thus originating solely from the dimensionality effect: for different dimensionality of space, the statistics of diffusional contacts of radicals becomes different altering the reaction yield. We have calculated the magnetic field dependence of the RP reaction yield and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization of the reaction products at different sizes of the microreactor, exchange interaction, and spin relaxation rates. Interestingly, due to the intricate interplay of diffusional contacts of reactants and spin dynamics, the dependence of the reaction yield on the microreactor radius is non-monotonous. Our results are of importance for (i) interpreting

  9. Theoretical description of spin-selective reactions of radical pairs diffusing in spherical 2D and 3D microreactors.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Konstantin L; Sadovsky, Vladimir M; Lukzen, Nikita N

    2015-08-28

    In this work, we treat spin-selective recombination of a geminate radical pair (RP) in a spherical "microreactor," i.e., of a RP confined in a micelle, vesicle, or liposome. We consider the microreactor model proposed earlier, in which one of the radicals is located at the center of the micelle and the other one undergoes three-dimensional diffusion inside the micelle. In addition, we suggest a two-dimensional model, in which one of the radicals is located at the "pole" of the sphere, while the other one diffuses on the spherical surface. For this model, we have obtained a general analytical expression for the RP recombination yield in terms of the free Green function of two-dimensional diffusion motion. In turn, this Green function is expressed via the Legendre functions and thus takes account of diffusion over a restricted spherical surface and its curvature. The obtained expression allows one to calculate the RP recombination efficiency at an arbitrary magnetic field strength. We performed a comparison of the two models taking the same geometric parameters (i.e., the microreactor radius and the closest approach distance of the radicals), chemical reactivity, magnetic interactions in the RP and diffusion coefficient. Significant difference between the predictions of the two models is found, which is thus originating solely from the dimensionality effect: for different dimensionality of space, the statistics of diffusional contacts of radicals becomes different altering the reaction yield. We have calculated the magnetic field dependence of the RP reaction yield and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization of the reaction products at different sizes of the microreactor, exchange interaction, and spin relaxation rates. Interestingly, due to the intricate interplay of diffusional contacts of reactants and spin dynamics, the dependence of the reaction yield on the microreactor radius is non-monotonous. Our results are of importance for (i) interpreting

  10. Theoretical description of spin-selective reactions of radical pairs diffusing in spherical 2D and 3D microreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Konstantin L. Lukzen, Nikita N.; Sadovsky, Vladimir M.

    2015-08-28

    In this work, we treat spin-selective recombination of a geminate radical pair (RP) in a spherical “microreactor,” i.e., of a RP confined in a micelle, vesicle, or liposome. We consider the microreactor model proposed earlier, in which one of the radicals is located at the center of the micelle and the other one undergoes three-dimensional diffusion inside the micelle. In addition, we suggest a two-dimensional model, in which one of the radicals is located at the “pole” of the sphere, while the other one diffuses on the spherical surface. For this model, we have obtained a general analytical expression for the RP recombination yield in terms of the free Green function of two-dimensional diffusion motion. In turn, this Green function is expressed via the Legendre functions and thus takes account of diffusion over a restricted spherical surface and its curvature. The obtained expression allows one to calculate the RP recombination efficiency at an arbitrary magnetic field strength. We performed a comparison of the two models taking the same geometric parameters (i.e., the microreactor radius and the closest approach distance of the radicals), chemical reactivity, magnetic interactions in the RP and diffusion coefficient. Significant difference between the predictions of the two models is found, which is thus originating solely from the dimensionality effect: for different dimensionality of space, the statistics of diffusional contacts of radicals becomes different altering the reaction yield. We have calculated the magnetic field dependence of the RP reaction yield and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization of the reaction products at different sizes of the microreactor, exchange interaction, and spin relaxation rates. Interestingly, due to the intricate interplay of diffusional contacts of reactants and spin dynamics, the dependence of the reaction yield on the microreactor radius is non-monotonous. Our results are of importance for (i) interpreting

  11. Influence of Chemical Piles on Convective Structure and the Geoid from 3D Spherical Mantle Convection Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zhong, S.

    2013-12-01

    Classic mantle dynamic models for the Earth's geoid are mostly based on whole mantle convection and constrain that the upper mantle is significantly weaker than the lower mantle. Whole mantle convection models with such mantle viscosity structure have successfully explained the long-wavelength structure in the mantle. However, with increasing consensus on the existence of chemically distinct piles above the core mantle boundary (CMB) (also known as large low shear velocity provinces or LLSVPs), questions arise as to what extent the chemical piles influence the Earth's geoid and long-wavelength mantle convection. Some recent studies suggested that the chemical piles have a controlling effect on the Earth's degree two mantle structure, geoid, and true polar wander, although the chemical piles are estimated to be of small volume (~2% of the whole mantle) by seismic studies. We have formulated dynamically consistent 3D mantle convection models using CitcomS and studied how the chemical piles above CMB influence the long-wavelength convective structure and geoid. The models have free slip boundary conditions and temperature dependent viscosity. By comparing with purely thermal convection models, we found that the long wavelength convective structure is not sensitive to the presence of the chemical piles. By determining the geoid from the buoyance of a certain layer of the mantle, we found that for both purely thermal and thermochemical convection, the geoid is mostly contributed by the upper part of the mantle, with ~80% geoid explained by the buoyancy in the upper half of the mantle. In purely thermal convection, the contribution to the geoid from the bottom layer of the mantle always has the same sign with the total geoid (a bottom ~ 600 km thick layer gives ~3.5% of the total geoid). However, in the thermochemical convection, the bottom layer with overall negatively buoyant chemical piles gives rise to the geoid that has opposite sign with the total geoid and has a

  12. The Development of WARP - A Framework for Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Neutron Transport in General 3D Geometries on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Ryan

    general 3D geometries on GPUs, but compared to production codes like Serpent and MCNP, WARP has limited capabilities. Despite WARP's lack of features, its novel algorithm implementations show that high performance can be achieved on a GPU despite the inherently divergent program flow and sparse data access patterns. WARP is not ready for everyday nuclear reactor calculations, but is a good platform for further development of GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo neutron transport. In it's current state, it may be a useful tool for multiplication factor searches, i.e. determining reactivity coefficients by perturbing material densities or temperatures, since these types of calculations typically do not require many flux tallies. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. 3D high resolution mineral phase distribution and seismic velocity structure of the transition zone: predicted by a full spherical-shell compressible mantle convection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geenen, T.; Heister, T.; Van Den Berg, A. P.; Jacobs, M.; Bangerth, W.

    2011-12-01

    We present high resolution 3D results of the complex mineral phase distribution in the transition zone obtained by numerical modelling of mantle convection. We extend the work by [Jacobs and van den Berg, 2011] to 3D and illustrate the efficiency of adaptive mesh refinement for capturing the complex spatial distribution and sharp phase transitions as predicted by their model. The underlying thermodynamical model is based on lattice dynamics which allows to predict thermophysical properties and seismic wave speeds for the applied magnesium-endmember olivine-pyroxene mineralogical model. The use of 3D geometry allows more realistic prediction of phase distribution and seismic wave speeds resulting from 3D flow processes involving the Earth's transition zone and more significant comparisons with interpretations from seismic tomography and seismic reflectivity studies aimed at the transition zone. Model results are generated with a recently developed geodynamics modeling application based on dealII (www.dealii.org). We extended this model to incorporate both a general thermodynamic model, represented by P,T space tabulated thermophysical properties, and a solution strategy that allows for compressible flow. When modeling compressible flow in the so called truncated anelastic approximation framework we have to adapt the solver strategy that has been proven by several authors to be highly efficient for incompressible flow to incorporate an extra term in the continuity equation. We present several possible solution strategies and discuss their implication in terms of robustness and computational efficiency.

  14. Restoring complex folded geometries in 3D using paleomagnetic vectors; a new tool to validate underground reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Ramón, Mª; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Briz, José Luis; Caumon, Guillaume; Fernández, Óscar; Ciria, José Carlos; Pocovi, Andrés; Ros, Luis H.

    2013-04-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the underground involve the integration of discrete and heterogeneous datasets and have significant socio- economic implications. The problem arises when there are limited data to build 3D models or when deformation processes are complex; these reasons inspired the development of restoration methods to validate subsurface reconstructions. The restoration is based on the application of simple geometric (or mechanic) laws that help reduce the uncertainty and increase geomodel accuracy. Apart from mechanical approaches, geometric methods are based on the initial assumption of global conservation of volume during deformation in addition to the paleo-horizontality of the stratigraphic horizons in the undeformed stage. The problem is that the bedding plane cannot be used as a three-dimensional reference system, because a single vector defines it and additional constraints are required. This is particularly important when dealing with complex structures, such as non-cylindrical structures and the superposition of non-coaxial geometries. In this context, paleomagnetism (known in both the deformed and undeformed stages) can contribute to building a more complete reference system and to reducing the uncertainty in restoration processes. The use of paleomagnetism in restoration tools was suggested in the early 1990's and only a few quantitative map-view applications have been developed since then. In this contribution, we introduce the two first surface restoration methods that use paleomagnetic vectors as a primary reference. The first one is a simple geometric approach based on the piecewise restoration of a triangulated surface into which paleomagnetic variables can be easily incorporated. It is valid for complexly folded structures. The surface is modelled by a mesh and the method starts from a pin-element. Triangles are laid flat and then fitted together to minimize distances between common vertices and paleomagnetic error. However

  15. The value of inclined coreholes for characterizing the geometry of 3-D fracture networks in bedrock aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Jonathan; Parker, Beth

    2013-04-01

    In bedrock aquifers where matrix permeability is low, the nature and distribution of the fracture network has a strong impact on the transport and fate of contaminants. Accurate fracture characterization is therefore essential to fully understand the flow system and to predict contaminant migration. Powerful DFN models exist, yet the limitation is often on obtaining field data of sufficient quality to use as input parameters. One major contributing factor is the common practice of using only vertical coreholes to characterize bedrock aquifers. This can lead to datasets that are significantly biased toward fractures perpendicular to the corehole and are therefore not well suited for three-dimensional (3-D) fracture geometry characterization. This bias is particularly pronounced in flat-lying sedimentary strata where fracture networks are typically comprised of flat-lying bedding parallel fractures and vertical, or near vertical joints. An examination of such bias was conducted at a contaminated site in Guelph, Ontario, Canada, in a Silurian dolostone aquifer. Three inclined coreholes plunging 60 degrees with varying azimuths were drilled between 2010 and 2012 to supplement existing data from eleven vertical coreholes from previous investigations. Depth discrete datasets were collected in the coreholes including lithological and fracture logs from rock core, downhole geophysical surveys (e.g, acoustic televiewer, formation conductivity, temperature, natural gamma), and hydraulic testing including the first use of flexible liner profiling in inclined coreholes. These datasets were integrated to provide estimates of fracture frequency, orientation and aperture distributions and to estimate values of bulk effective fracture porosity. Orientation analysis revealed three dominant fracture sets on site that vary in intensity through mechanical layers. These sets consist of a horizontal, bedding-plane set with an average spacing of 0.3m, and two high-angle sets, NE-SW and

  16. Reducing depth induced spherical aberration in 3D widefield fluorescence microscopy by wavefront coding using the SQUBIC phase mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwary, Nurmohammed; Doblas, Ana; King, Sharon V.; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2014-03-01

    Imaging thick biological samples introduces spherical aberration (SA) due to refractive index (RI) mismatch between specimen and imaging lens immersion medium. SA increases with the increase of either depth or RI mismatch. Therefore, it is difficult to find a static compensator for SA1. Different wavefront coding methods2,3 have been studied to find an optimal way of static wavefront correction to reduce depth-induced SA. Inspired by a recent design of a radially symmetric squared cubic (SQUBIC) phase mask that was tested for scanning confocal microscopy1 we have modified the pupil using the SQUBIC mask to engineer the point spread function (PSF) of a wide field fluorescence microscope. In this study, simulated images of a thick test object were generated using a wavefront encoded engineered PSF (WFEPSF) and were restored using space-invariant (SI) and depth-variant (DV) expectation maximization (EM) algorithms implemented in the COSMOS software4. Quantitative comparisons between restorations obtained with both the conventional and WFE PSFs are presented. Simulations show that, in the presence of SA, the use of the SIEM algorithm and a single SQUBIC encoded WFE-PSF can yield adequate image restoration. In addition, in the presence of a large amount of SA, it is possible to get adequate results using the DVEM with fewer DV-PSFs than would typically be required for processing images acquired with a clear circular aperture (CCA) PSF. This result implies that modification of a widefield system with the SQUBIC mask renders the system less sensitive to depth-induced SA and suitable for imaging samples at larger optical depths.

  17. How Students Solve Problems in Spatial Geometry while Using a Software Application for Visualizing 3D Geometric Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widder, Mirela; Gorsky, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In schools, learning spatial geometry is usually dependent upon a student's ability to visualize three dimensional geometric configurations from two dimensional drawings. Such a process, however, often creates visual obstacles which are unique to spatial geometry. Useful software programs which realistically depict three dimensional geometric…

  18. Accurate registration of random radiographic projections based on three spherical references for the purpose of few-view 3D reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, Ralf; Heil, Ulrich; Weinheimer, Oliver; Gross, Daniel; Bruellmann, Dan; Thomas, Eric; Schwanecke, Ulrich; Schoemer, Elmar

    2008-02-15

    Precise registration of radiographic projection images acquired in almost arbitrary geometries for the purpose of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is beset with difficulties. We modify and enhance a registration method [R. Schulze, D. D. Bruellmann, F. Roeder, and B. d'Hoedt, Med. Phys. 31, 2849-2854 (2004)] based on coupling a minimum amount of three reference spheres in arbitrary positions to a rigid object under study for precise a posteriori pose estimation. Two consecutive optimization procedures (a, initial guess; b, iterative coordinate refinement) are applied to completely exploit the reference's shadow information for precise registration of the projections. The modification has been extensive, i.e., only the idea of using the sphere shadows to locate each sphere in three dimensions from each projection was retained whereas the approach to extract the shadow information has been changed completely and extended. The registration information is used for subsequent algebraic reconstruction of the 3D information inherent in the projections. We present a detailed mathematical theory of the registration process as well as simulated data investigating its performance in the presence of error. Simulation of the initial guess revealed a mean relative error in the critical depth coordinate ranging between 2.1% and 4.4%, and an evident error reduction by the subsequent iterative coordinate refinement. To prove the applicability of the method for real-world data, algebraic 3D reconstructions from few ({<=}9) projection radiographs of a human skull, a human mandible and a teeth-containing mandible segment are presented. The method facilitates extraction of 3D information from only few projections obtained from off-the-shelf radiographic projection units without the need for costly hardware. Technical requirements as well as radiation dose are low.

  19. Modulating mechanical behaviour of 3D-printed cartilage-mimetic PCL scaffolds: influence of molecular weight and pore geometry.

    PubMed

    Olubamiji, Adeola D; Izadifar, Zohreh; Si, Jennifer L; Cooper, David M L; Eames, B Frank; Chen, Daniel X B

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D)-printed poly(ε)-caprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds are increasingly being explored for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) applications. However, ensuring that the mechanical properties of these PCL-based constructs are comparable to that of articular cartilage that they are meant to regenerate is an area that has been under-explored. This paper presents the effects of PCL's molecular weight (MW) and scaffold's pore geometric configurations; strand size (SZ), strand spacing (SS), and strand orientation (SO), on mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds. The results illustrate that MW has significant effect on compressive moduli and yield strength of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds. Specifically, PCL with MW of 45 K was a more feasible choice for fabrication of visco-elastic, flexible and load-bearing PCL scaffolds. Furthermore, pore geometric configurations; SZ, SS, and SO, all significantly affect on tensile moduli of scaffolds. However, only SZ and SS have statistically significant effects on compressive moduli and porosity of these scaffolds. That said, inverse linear relationship was observed between porosity and mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds in Pearson's correlation test. Altogether, this study illustrates that modulating MW of PCL and pore geometrical configurations of the scaffolds enabled design and fabrication of PCL scaffolds with mechanical and biomimetic properties that better mimic mechanical behaviour of human articular cartilage. Thus, the modulated PCL scaffold proposed in this study is a framework that offers great potentials for CTE applications. PMID:27328736

  20. CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY DUE TO TURBULENT CONVECTION IN SPHERICAL WEDGE GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kaepylae, Petri J.; Mantere, Maarit J.; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-08-10

    We report on simulations of turbulent, rotating, stratified, magnetohydrodynamic convection in spherical wedge geometry. An initially small-scale, random, weak-amplitude magnetic field is amplified by several orders of magnitude in the course of the simulation to form oscillatory large-scale fields in the saturated state of the dynamo. The differential rotation is solar-like (fast equator), but neither coherent meridional poleward circulation nor near-surface shear layer develop in these runs. In addition to a poleward branch of magnetic activity beyond 50 Degree-Sign latitude, we find for the first time a pronounced equatorward branch at around 20 Degree-Sign latitude, reminiscent of the solar cycle.

  1. A standard test set for numerical approximations to the shallow water equations in spherical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, D.L.; Hack, J.J.; Jakob, R.; Swarztrauber, P.N. ); Drake, J.B. )

    1991-08-01

    A suite of seven test cases is proposed for the evaluation of numerical methods intended for the solution of the shallow water equations in spherical geometry. The shallow water equations exhibit the major difficulties associated with the horizontal dynamical aspects of atmospheric modeling on the spherical earth. These cases are designed for use in the evaluation of numerical methods proposed for climate modeling and to identify the potential trade-offs which must always be made in numerical modeling. Before a proposed scheme is applied to a full baroclinic atmospheric model it must perform well on these problems in comparison with other currently accepted numerical methods. The cases are presented in order of complexity. They consist of advection across the poles, steady state geostrophically balanced flow of both global and local scales, forced nonlinear advection of an isolated low, zonal flow impinging on an isolated mountain, Rossby-Haurwitz waves and observed atmospheric states. One of the cases is also identified as a computer performance/algorithm efficiency benchmark for assessing the performance of algorithms adapted to massively parallel computers. 31 refs.

  2. Sensitivity Kernels for Flows in Time–Distance Helioseismology: Extension to Spherical Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böning, Vincent G. A.; Roth, Markus; Zima, Wolfgang; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    We extend an existing Born approximation method for calculating the linear sensitivity of helioseismic travel times to flows from Cartesian to spherical geometry. This development is necessary for using the Born approximation for inferring large-scale flows in the deep solar interior. As first sanity check, we compare two f-mode kernels from our spherical method and from an existing Cartesian method. The horizontal and total integrals agree to within 0.3%. As a second consistency test, we consider a uniformly rotating Sun and a travel distance of 42°. The analytical travel-time difference agrees with the forward-modeled travel-time difference to within 2%. In addition, we evaluate the impact of different choices of filter functions on the kernels for a meridional travel distance of 42°. For all filters, the sensitivity is found to be distributed over a large fraction of the convection zone. We show that the kernels depend on the filter function employed in the data analysis process. If modes of higher harmonic degree (90 ≲ l ≲ 170) are permitted, a noisy pattern of a spatial scale corresponding to l ≈ 260 appears near the surface. When mainly low-degree modes are used (l ≲ 70), the sensitivity is concentrated in the deepest regions and it visually resembles a ray-path-like structure. Among the different low-degree filters used, we find the kernel for phase-speed-filtered measurements to be best localized in depth.

  3. Development and application of a 3-D geometry/mass model for LDEF satellite ionizing radiation assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colborn, B. L.; Armstong, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional geometry and mass model of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft and experiment trays was developed for use in predictions and data interpretation related to ionizing radiation measurements. The modeling approach, level of detail incorporated, example models for specific experiments and radiation dosimeters, and example applications of the model are described.

  4. Reorienting in Virtual 3D Environments: Do Adult Humans Use Principal Axes, Medial Axes or Local Geometry?

    PubMed Central

    Ambosta, Althea H.; Reichert, James F.; Kelly, Debbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that animals, including humans, use the geometric properties of environments to orient. It has been proposed that orientation is accomplished primarily by encoding the principal axes (i.e., global geometry) of an environment. However, recent research has shown that animals use local information such as wall length and corner angles as well as local shape parameters (i.e., medial axes) to orient. The goal of the current study was to determine whether adult humans reorient according to global geometry based on principal axes or whether reliance is on local geometry such as wall length and sense information or medial axes. Using a virtual environment task, participants were trained to select a response box located at one of two geometrically identical corners within a featureless rectangular-shaped environment. Participants were subsequently tested in a transformed L-shaped environment that allowed for a dissociation of strategies based on principal axes, medial axes and local geometry. Results showed that participants relied primarily on a medial axes strategy to reorient in the L-shaped test environment. Importantly, the search behaviour of participants could not be explained by a principal axes-based strategy. PMID:24223869

  5. Dual anode contact geometries for x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy and 3D localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. W.; Garson, A. B., III; Li, Q.; Lee, K.; Groza, M.; Buliga, V.; Burger, A.; Krawczynski, H.

    2009-08-01

    We report on the continued development and testing of unique types of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. Using large volume (10×20×20 mm3) CZT crystals, we contact various "dual anode" detector designs. We incorporate a segmented cathode with five regions so that the charge on all seven contacts can be used to determine the energy and the 3-D interaction location of detected X-ray and gamma-ray photons. We describe the status of the detector development program, emphasize strengths and weaknesses of the different contact configurations, and discuss possible applications of Dual Anode Detectors in radiation detection applications.

  6. R2OBBIE-3D, a Fast Robotic High-Resolution System for Quantitative Phenotyping of Surface Geometry and Colour-Texture

    PubMed Central

    Manukyan, Liana; Milinkovitch, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    While recent imaging techniques provide insights into biological processes from the molecular to the cellular scale, phenotypes at larger scales remain poorly amenable to quantitative analyses. For example, investigations of the biophysical mechanisms generating skin morphological complexity and diversity would greatly benefit from 3D geometry and colour-texture reconstructions. Here, we report on R2OBBIE-3D, an integrated system that combines a robotic arm, a high-resolution digital colour camera, an illumination basket of high-intensity light-emitting diodes and state-of-the-art 3D-reconstruction approaches. We demonstrate that R2OBBIE generates accurate 3D models of biological objects between 1 and 100 cm, makes multiview photometric stereo scanning possible in practical processing times, and enables the capture of colour-texture and geometric resolutions better than 15 μm without the use of magnifying lenses. R2OBBIE has the potential to greatly improve quantitative analyses of phenotypes in addition to providing multiple new applications in, e.g., biomedical science. PMID:26039509

  7. R(2)OBBIE-3D, a Fast Robotic High-Resolution System for Quantitative Phenotyping of Surface Geometry and Colour-Texture.

    PubMed

    Martins, António F; Bessant, Michel; Manukyan, Liana; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2015-01-01

    While recent imaging techniques provide insights into biological processes from the molecular to the cellular scale, phenotypes at larger scales remain poorly amenable to quantitative analyses. For example, investigations of the biophysical mechanisms generating skin morphological complexity and diversity would greatly benefit from 3D geometry and colour-texture reconstructions. Here, we report on R(2)OBBIE-3D, an integrated system that combines a robotic arm, a high-resolution digital colour camera, an illumination basket of high-intensity light-emitting diodes and state-of-the-art 3D-reconstruction approaches. We demonstrate that R(2)OBBIE generates accurate 3D models of biological objects between 1 and 100 cm, makes multiview photometric stereo scanning possible in practical processing times, and enables the capture of colour-texture and geometric resolutions better than 15 μm without the use of magnifying lenses. R(2)OBBIE has the potential to greatly improve quantitative analyses of phenotypes in addition to providing multiple new applications in, e.g., biomedical science. PMID:26039509

  8. FACET: a radiation view factor computer code for axisymmetric, 2D planar, and 3D geometries with shadowing

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.

    1983-08-01

    The computer code FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors for input to finite-element heat-transfer analysis codes. The first section of this report is a brief review of previous radiation-view-factor computer codes. The second section presents the defining integral equation for the geometric view factor between two surfaces and the assumptions made in its derivation. Also in this section are the numerical algorithms used to integrate this equation for the various geometries. The third section presents the algorithms used to detect self-shadowing and third-surface shadowing between the two surfaces for which a view factor is being calculated. The fourth section provides a user's input guide followed by several example problems.

  9. 3D Simultaneous Traveltime Inversion for Velocity Structure, Hypocenter Locations, and Reflector Geometry Using Multiple Classes of Arrivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chao-ying; Huang, Guo-jiao; Li, Xing-wang; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2015-10-01

    Traditionally, traveltime tomography entails inversion of either the velocity field and the reflector geometry sequentially, or the velocity field and the hypocenter locations simultaneously or in a cascaded fashion, but seldom are all three types (velocities, geometry of reflectors, and source locations) updated simultaneously because of the compromise between the different classes of model variable and the lack of different seismic phases to constrain these variables. By using a state-of-the-art ray-tracing algorithm for the first and later arrivals combined with a popular linearized inversion solver, it is possible to simultaneously recover the three classes of model variables. In the work discussed in this paper we combined the multistage irregular shortest-path ray-tracing algorithm with a subspace inversion solver to achieve simultaneous inversion of multi-class variables, using arrival times for different phases to concurrently obtain the velocity field, the reflector shapes, and the hypocenter locations. Simulation and comparison tests for two sets of source-receiver arrangements (one the ideal case and the other an approximated real case) indicate that the combined triple-class inversion algorithm is capable of obtaining nearly the same results as the double-class affect inversion scheme (velocity and reflector geometry, or velocity and source locations) even if a lower ray density and irregular source-receiver geometry are used to simulate the real situation. In addition, the new simultaneous inversion method is not sensitive to a modest amount of picking error in the traveltime data and reasonable uncertainty in earthquake hypocenter locations, which shows it to be a feasible and promising approach in real applications.

  10. A quantification of the non-spherical geometry and accretion of collapsing cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Bonnell, Ian A.; Clark, Paul C.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first detailed classification of the structures of Class 0 cores in a high-resolution simulation of a giant molecular cloud. The simulated cloud contains 104 M⊙ and produces over 350 cores which allows for meaningful statistics. Cores are classified into three types according to how much they depart from spherical symmetry. We find that three-quarters of the cores are better described as irregular filaments than as spheres. Recent Herschel results have shown that cores are formed within a network of filaments, which we find has had a significant impact on the resulting core geometries. We show that the column densities and ram pressure seen by the protostar are not uniform and generally peak along the axes of the filament. The angular momentum vector of the material in the cores varies both in magnitude and direction, which will cause the rotation vector of the central source to fluctuate during the collapse of the core. In the case of the more massive stars, accretion from the environment outside the original core volume is even more important than that from the core itself. This additional gas is primarily accreted on to the cores along the dense filaments in which the cores are embedded, and the sections of the surfaces of the cores which do not coincide with a filament have very little additional material passing through them. The assumption of spherical symmetry cannot be applied to the majority of collapsing cores, and is never a good description of how stars accrete gas from outside the original core radius. This has ramifications for our understanding of collapsing cores, in particular their line profiles, the effect of radiation upon them and their ability to fragment.

  11. An IPOT meshless method using DC PSE approximation for fluid flow equations in 2D and 3D geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourantas, G. C.; Loukopoulos, V. C.; Skouras, E. D.; Burganos, V. N.; Nikiforidis, G. C.

    2016-06-01

    Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations, in their primitive variable (u-v-p) formulation, are numerically solved using the Implicit Potential (IPOT) numerical scheme in the context of strong form Meshless Point Collocation (MPC) method. The unknown field functions are computed using the Discretization Correction Particle Strength Exchange (DC PSE) approximation method. The latter makes use of discrete moment conditions to derive the operator kernels, which leads to low condition number for the moment matrix compared to other meshless interpolation methods and increased stability for the numerical solution. The proposed meshless scheme is applied on 2D and 3D spatial domains, using uniform or irregular set of nodes to represent the domain. The numerical results obtained are compared against those obtained using well-established methods.

  12. Magma Emplacement and the 3D Geometry of Igneous Bodies in Rift Basins: Insights from the Bornu Basin, Onshore NE Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, Adamu; Jackson, Christopher; Magee, Craig; Fraser, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies of regional unconformities in the circum-South Atlantic tectonic plates have linked unconformity age to the timing of changes in the azimuth of oceanic fracture zones, caused by plate interactions during opening of the South Atlantic. This observation is significant, proposing that a plate boundary geodynamic processes are transmitted into and expressed in plate interiors. However, it is not yet clear if and how other geologic events, such as intra-plate magmatism, may be linked to changes in the oceanic fracture azimuthal geometry. Here we use 2D and 3D seismic reflection, geochemical, borehole datasets and outcrop observations from the Bornu Basin, one of several intra-continental rift basins located in NE Nigeria to constrain the 3D geometry of igneous bodies and magmatic emplacement processes. This allows us to link South Atlantic plate boundary geodynamics and magmatism in the surrounding continental rift basins. Seismic attributes, reflection intensity, relative acoustic impedance, were used to identify and map igneous intrusions. Saucer-shaped sills are the most common type of intrusion, although en-echelon sills, up to 1.4 km in length, were also identified. The 3D geometry of the sills reveals the detailed structural components like inner sill, inclined sheets and outer sill. A mapped bifurcating network of the sills suggests magma emplacement process through upward and outward propagation. Seismic-stratigraphic observations indicate that igneous activity occurred in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous and Paleogene corresponding to the timing of major azimuth changes observed in the Kane Oceanic fracture zone in the South Atlantic Ocean. Overall, our study, suggests a possible influence of plate boundary geodynamics on intra-plate magmatism as reflected in the link between the time of changes in the azimuth of oceanic fracture zones and magmatic emplacement observed in the tectono-stratigraphy of the intra-continental rift basins.

  13. Magma Emplacement and the 3D Geometry of Igneous Bodies in Rift Basins: Insights from the Bornu Basin, Onshore NE Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, A. A.; Jackson, C. A. L.; Magee, C.; Fraser, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies of regional unconformities in the circum-South Atlantic tectonic plates have linked unconformity age to the timing of changes in the azimuth of oceanic fracture zones, caused by plate interactions during opening of the South Atlantic. This observation is significant, proposing that a plate boundary geodynamic processes are transmitted into and expressed in plate interiors. However, it is not yet clear if and how other geologic events, such as intra-plate magmatism, may be linked to changes in the oceanic fracture azimuthal geometry. Here we use 2D and 3D seismic reflection, geochemical, borehole datasets and outcrop observations from the Bornu Basin, one of several intra-continental rift basins located in NE Nigeria to constrain the 3D geometry of igneous bodies and magmatic emplacement processes. This allows us to link South Atlantic plate boundary geodynamics and magmatism in the surrounding continental rift basins. Seismic attributes, reflection intensity, relative acoustic impedance, were used to identify and map igneous intrusions. Saucer-shaped sills are the most common type of intrusion, although en-echelon sills, up to 1.4 km in length, were also identified. The 3D geometry of the sills reveals the detailed structural components like inner sill, inclined sheets and outer sill (Fig.1). A mapped bifurcating network of the sills suggests magma emplacement process through upward and outward propagation. Seismic-stratigraphic observations indicate that igneous activity occurred in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous and Paleogene corresponding to the timing of major azimuth changes observed in the Kane Oceanic fracture zone in the South Atlantic Ocean. Overall, our study, suggests a possible influence of plate boundary geodynamics on intra-plate magmatism as reflected in the link between the time of changes in the azimuth of oceanic fracture zones and magmatic emplacement observed in the tectono-stratigraphy of the intra-continental rift basins.

  14. Density structure and geometry of the Costa Rican subduction zone from 3-D gravity modeling and local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Arroyo, I. G.

    2015-07-01

    The eastern part of the oceanic Cocos Plate presents a heterogeneous crustal structure due to diverse origins and ages as well as plate-hot spot interactions which originated the Cocos Ridge, a structure that converges with the Caribbean Plate in southeastern Costa Rica. The complex structure of the oceanic plate directly influences the dynamics and geometry of the subduction zone along the Middle American Trench. In this paper an integrated interpretation of the slab geometry is presented based on three-dimensional density modeling of combined satellite and surface gravity data, constrained by available geophysical and geological data and seismological information obtained from local networks. The results show the continuation of steep subduction geometry from the Nicaraguan margin into Northwestern Costa Rica, followed by a moderate dipping slab under the Central Cordillera toward the end of the Central American Volcanic Arc. To the southeast end of the volcanic arc, our preferred model shows a steep, coherent slab that extends up to the landward projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. Overall, a gradual change in the depth of the intraplate seismicity is observed, reaching 220 km in the northwestern part, and becoming progressively shallower toward the southeast, where it reaches a terminal depth of 75 km. The changes in the terminal depth of the observed seismicity correlate with the increased density in the modeled slab. The absence of intermediate depth intraplate seismicity in the southeastern section and the higher densities for the subducted slab in this area, support a model in which dehydration reactions in the subducted slab cease at a shallower depth, originating an anhydrous and thus aseismic slab.

  15. DG-AMMOS: A New tool to generate 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization for in silico Screening

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Discovery of new bioactive molecules that could enter drug discovery programs or that could serve as chemical probes is a very complex and costly endeavor. Structure-based and ligand-based in silico screening approaches are nowadays extensively used to complement experimental screening approaches in order to increase the effectiveness of the process and facilitating the screening of thousands or millions of small molecules against a biomolecular target. Both in silico screening methods require as input a suitable chemical compound collection and most often the 3D structure of the small molecules has to be generated since compounds are usually delivered in 1D SMILES, CANSMILES or in 2D SDF formats. Results Here, we describe the new open source program DG-AMMOS which allows the generation of the 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and their energy minimization via Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization. The program is validated on the Astex dataset, the ChemBridge Diversity database and on a number of small molecules with known crystal structures extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database. A comparison with the free program Balloon and the well-known commercial program Omega generating the 3D of small molecules is carried out. The results show that the new free program DG-AMMOS is a very efficient 3D structure generator engine. Conclusion DG-AMMOS provides fast, automated and reliable access to the generation of 3D conformation of small molecules and facilitates the preparation of a compound collection prior to high-throughput virtual screening computations. The validation of DG-AMMOS on several different datasets proves that generated structures are generally of equal quality or sometimes better than structures obtained by other tested methods. PMID:19912625

  16. Optimizing an SEM-based 3D surface imaging technique for recording bond coat surface geometry in thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazmohamadi, Sina; Jordan, Eric H.

    2012-12-01

    Creation of three-dimensional representations of surfaces from images taken at two or more view angles is a well-established technique applied to optical images and is frequently used in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The present work describes specific steps taken to optimize and enhance the repeatability of three-dimensional surfaces reconstructed from SEM images. The presented steps result in an approximately tenfold improvement in the repeatability of the surface reconstruction compared to more standard techniques. The enhanced techniques presented can be used with any SEM friendly samples. In this work the modified technique was developed in order to accurately quantify surface geometry changes in metallic bond coats used with thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to provide improved turbine hot part durability. Bond coat surfaces are quite rough, and accurate determination of surface geometry change (rumpling) requires excellent repeatability. Rumpling is an important contributor to TBC failure, and accurate quantification of rumpling is important to better understanding of the failure behavior of TBCs.

  17. Drawing the geometry of 3d transition metal-boron pairs in silicon from electron emission channeling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, D. J.; Wahl, U.; Correia, J. G.; Augustyns, V.; Lima, T. A. L.; Costa, A.; Bosne, E.; da Silva, M. R.; Araújo, J. P.; Pereira, L. M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Although the formation of transition metal-boron pairs is currently well established in silicon processing, the geometry of these complexes is still not completely understood. We investigated the lattice location of the transition metals manganese, iron, cobalt and nickel in n- and p+ -type silicon by means of electron emission channeling. For manganese, iron and cobalt, we observed an increase of sites near the ideal tetrahedral interstitial position by changing the doping from n- to p+ -type Si. Such increase was not observed for Ni. We ascribe this increase to the formation of pairs with boron, driven by Coulomb interactions, since the majority of iron, manganese and cobalt is positively charged in p+ -type silicon while Ni is neutral. We propose that breathing mode relaxation around the boron ion within the pair causes the observed displacement from the ideal tetrahedral interstitial site. We discuss the application of the emission channeling technique in this system and, in particular, how it provides insight on the geometry of such pairs.

  18. Efficient projection and backprojection scheme for spherically symmetric basis functions in divergent beam geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, Andy; Koehler, Thomas; Nielsen, Tim; Proksa, Roland

    2006-12-15

    In cone-beam transmission tomography the measurements are performed with a divergent beam of x-rays. The reconstruction with iterative methods is an approach that offers the possibility to reconstruct the corresponding images directly from these measurements. Another approach based on spherically symmetric basis functions (blobs) has been reported with results demonstrating a better image quality for iterative reconstruction algorithms. When combining the two approaches (i.e., using blobs in iterative cone-beam reconstruction of divergent rays) the problem of blob sampling without introducing aliasing must be addressed. One solution to this problem is to select a blob size large enough to ensure a sufficient sampling, but this prevents a high resolution reconstruction, which is not desired. Another solution is a heuristic low-pass filtering, which removes this aliasing, but neglects the different contributions of blobs to the absorption depending on the spatial position in the volume and, therefore, cannot achieve the best image quality. This article presents a model of sampling the blobs which is motivated by the beam geometry. It can be used for high resolution reconstruction and can be implemented efficiently.

  19. The contribution of 3D restoration for the reconstruction of pre-thrusting basin geometries in fold-and-thrust belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquè, R.; Tavarnelli, E.

    2012-04-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of complex geological settings and of original, pre-thrusting basin geometry is one of the challenges for modern structural geology. It has indeed a critical role in many industrial applications, such as in the hydrocarbon exploration. By using commercial specific softwares to produce balanced cross-sections and inferred 3D reconstructions (2DMove™, Gocad™), we modelled a portion of the Umbria-Marche fold-and-thrust belt, in the outer zones of the Northern Apennines of Italy, in order to infer the pre-thrusting geometry of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic extensional basins and to test the applicability of existing computer tools in areas that have experienced the effects of positive tectonic inversion. In the study area, the accurate reconstruction of the structural setting, cross-cut relationships and timing of the deformation, was inferred by using field data, map analysis and cross-section balancing techniques. The structural overprinting relationships among the investigated thrusts made it possible to infer a general piggy-back thrusting sequence, with new thrust faults to the East, developed in the footwall of formerly emplaced thrust sheets, in the West. This allowed to sequentially remove the effects of the deformation for progressively older structures, and to back-strip the thrust sheets in sequential evolutionary steps, in order to reconstruct a viable pre-thrusting template. Four balanced cross-sections have been drawn, providing the initial skeleton for 3D modelling, together with the map trace of the major tectonic features. The cross-sections and the geological map have been digitized and geo-referred in 2D-Move™. Starting from the inferred geometries, a coherent 3D model was built in Gocad™. The surfaces represent post-thrust normal faults, thrust planes, and pre-thrust normal faults, and five key stratigraphic surfaces, from bottom; the base and top of the Calcare Massiccio fm. (Lower Liassic), the base of the

  20. TU-F-BRF-04: Registration of 3D Transesophageal Echocardiography and X-Ray Fluoroscopy Using An Inverse Geometry X-Ray System

    SciTech Connect

    Speidel, M; Hatt, C; Tomkowiak, M; Raval, A; Funk, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for the fusion of 3D echocardiography and Scanning-Beam Digital X-ray (SBDX) fluoroscopy to assist with catheter device and soft tissue visualization during interventional procedures. Methods: SBDX is a technology for low-dose inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy that performs digital tomosynthesis at multiple planes in real time. In this study, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) images were fused with SBDX images by estimating the 3D position and orientation (the “pose”) of the TEE probe within the x-ray coordinate system and then spatially transforming the TEE image data to match this pose. An initial pose estimate was obtained through tomosynthesis-based 3D localization of points along the probe perimeter. Position and angle estimates were then iteratively refined by comparing simulated projections of a 3D probe model against SBDX x-ray images. Algorithm performance was quantified by imaging a TEE probe in different known orientations and locations within the x-ray field (0-30 degree tilt angle, up to 50 mm translation). Fused 3D TEE/SBDX imaging was demonstrated by imaging a tissue-mimicking polyvinyl alcohol cylindrical cavity as a catheter was navigated along the cavity axis. Results: Detected changes in probe tilt angle agreed with the known changes to within 1.2 degrees. For a 50 mm translation along the source-detector axis, the detected translation was 50.3 mm. Errors for in-plane translations ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 mm. In a fused 3D TEE/SBDX display, the catheter device was well visualized and coincident with the device shadow in the TEE images. The TEE images portrayed phantom boundaries that were not evident under x-ray. Conclusion: Registration of soft tissue anatomy derived from TEE imaging and device imaging from SBDX x-ray fluoroscopy is feasible. The simultaneous 3D visualization of these two modalities may be useful in interventional procedures involving the navigation of devices to soft tissue anatomy.

  1. FARGO3D: Hydrodynamics/magnetohydrodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez Llambay, Pablo; Masset, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    A successor of FARGO (ascl:1102.017), FARGO3D is a versatile HD/MHD code that runs on clusters of CPUs or GPUs, with special emphasis on protoplanetary disks. FARGO3D offers Cartesian, cylindrical or spherical geometry; 1-, 2- or 3-dimensional calculations; and orbital advection (aka FARGO) for HD and MHD calculations. As in FARGO, a simple Runge-Kutta N-body solver may be used to describe the orbital evolution of embedded point-like objects. There is no need to know CUDA; users can develop new functions in C and have them translated to CUDA automatically to run on GPUs.

  2. TART98 a coupled neutron-photon 3-D, combinatorial geometry time dependent Monte Carlo Transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E

    1998-11-22

    TART98 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo radiation transport code. This code can run on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART98 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART98 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on-line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART98 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART98 and its data files.

  3. Bayesian Estimation of 3D Non-planar Fault Geometry and Slip: An application to the 2011 Megathrust (Mw 9.1) Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Rishabh; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake faults are generally considered planar (or of other simple geometry) in earthquake source parameter estimations. However, simplistic fault geometries likely result in biases in estimated slip distributions and increased fault slip uncertainties. In case of large subduction zone earthquakes, these biases and uncertainties propagate into tsunami waveform modeling and other calculations related to postseismic studies, Coulomb failure stresses, etc. In this research, we parameterize 3D non-planar fault geometry for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.1) and estimate these geometrical parameters along with fault slip parameters from onland and offshore GPS using Bayesian inference. This non-planar fault is formed using several 3rd degree polynomials in along-strike (X-Y plane) and along-dip (X-Z plane) directions that are tied together using a triangular mesh. The coefficients of these polynomials constitute the fault geometrical parameters. We use the trench and locations of past seismicity as a priori information to constrain these fault geometrical parameters and the Laplacian to characterize the fault slip smoothness. Hyper-parameters associated to these a priori constraints are estimated empirically and the posterior probability distribution of the model (fault geometry and slip) parameters is sampled using an adaptive Metropolis Hastings algorithm. The across-strike uncertainties in the fault geometry (effectively the local fault location) around high-slip patches increases from 6 km at 10km depth to about 35 km at 50km depth, whereas around low-slip patches the uncertainties are larger (from 7 km to 70 km). Uncertainties in reverse slip are found to be higher at high slip patches than at low slip patches. In addition, there appears to be high correlation between adjacent patches of high slip. Our results demonstrate that we can constrain complex non-planar fault geometry together with fault slip from GPS data using past seismicity as a priori

  4. Ag3PO4 nanoparticles loaded on 3D flower-like spherical MoS2: a highly efficient hierarchical heterojunction photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chai, Yuanyuan; Ren, Jia; Ding, Jing; Liu, Qianqian; Dai, Wei-Lin

    2015-09-01

    Novel 3D hierarchical Ag3PO4/MoS2 composites were successfully prepared through a facile and reproducible hydrothermal-in situ precipitation method. The 3D flower-like spherical MoS2 nanoarchitectures acted as an excellent supporting matrix for the in situ growth of Ag3PO4 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic performance of the composites and the effect of the amount of MoS2 were investigated. The obtained hierarchical Ag3PO4/MoS2 composites exhibited significantly enhanced performance for photocatalytic oxidation of Rhodamine B (RhB) compared with pure Ag3PO4 under visible light irradiation. Ag3PO4/MoS2 composites with 15 wt% of MoS2 showed the optimal photoactivity for the degradation of RhB, which was approximately 4.8 times as high as that of pure Ag3PO4. What's more, the optimal Ag3PO4/MoS2 composite also showed better photodegradation efficiency for methyl orange (MO) and p-chlorophenol (4-CP) than pure Ag3PO4. More attractively, the stability of Ag3PO4 was improved after the in situ deposition of Ag3PO4 particles on the surface of MoS2 nanoflakes due to the conductivity of MoS2 itself as electron acceptors. The enhanced performance of the hierarchical Ag3PO4/MoS2 composites under visible light was caused by a synergistic effect including the improved separation of photogenerated charge carriers, boosted light harvesting, a relatively high surface area and matching energy band structures between the two components. Interestingly, the heterostructured Ag3PO4/MoS2 composite reduced the use of the noble metal silver, thereby effectively reducing the cost of the Ag3PO4 based photocatalyst. Ultimately, a MoS2 involved photocatalytic mechanism for the hierarchical Ag3PO4/MoS2 composites was also proposed. PMID:26212501

  5. Multi-wavelength simulations of atmospheric radiation from Io with a 3-D spherical-shell backward Monte Carlo radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratiy, Sergey L.; Walker, Andrew C.; Levin, Deborah A.; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.; Trafton, Laurence M.; Moore, Chris H.

    2010-05-01

    Conflicting observations regarding the dominance of either sublimation or volcanism as the source of the atmosphere on Io and disparate reports on the extent of its spatial distribution and the absolute column abundance invite the development of detailed computational models capable of improving our understanding of Io's unique atmospheric structure and origin. Improving upon previous models, Walker et al. (Walker, A.C., Gratiy, S.L., Levin, D.A., Goldstein, D.B., Varghese, P.L., Trafton, L.M., Moore, C.H., Stewart, B. [2009]. Icarus) developed a fully 3-D global rarefied gas dynamics model of Io's atmosphere including both sublimation and volcanic sources of SO 2 gas. The fidelity of the model is tested by simulating remote observations at selected wavelength bands and comparing them to the corresponding astronomical observations of Io's atmosphere. The simulations are performed with a new 3-D spherical-shell radiative transfer code utilizing a backward Monte Carlo method. We present: (1) simulations of the mid-infrared disk-integrated spectra of Io's sunlit hemisphere at 19 μm, obtained with TEXES during 2001-2004; (2) simulations of disk-resolved images at Lyman- α obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) during 1997-2001; and (3) disk-integrated simulations of emission line profiles in the millimeter wavelength range obtained with the IRAM-30 m telescope in October-November 1999. We found that the atmospheric model generally reproduces the longitudinal variation in band depth from the mid-infrared data; however, the best match is obtained when our simulation results are shifted ˜30° toward lower orbital longitudes. The simulations of Lyman- α images do not reproduce the mid-to-high latitude bright patches seen in the observations, suggesting that the model atmosphere sustains columns that are too high at those latitudes. The simulations of emission line profiles in the millimeter spectral region support

  6. A method to characterize the 3D geometry of complex landslides in clayey soils: the Valoria, Super-Sauze and La Valette case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daehne, A.; Travelletti, J.; Malet, J.-P.; Corsini, A.; Ronchetti, F.

    2009-04-01

    Bedrock geometry drastically influences the kinematic deformation pattern of slow-moving landslides exhibiting some flow characteristics. The development of extension and compression zones within the landslide body is largely controlled by the geometry (crests, bumps, hollows) and roughness of the topography covered by the moving mass. A challenge to progress in the forecast of such type of landslides is to precisely define 3D geometrical and geomechanical models. The objective of this work is to present a methodology for 3D geometrical modelling of the landslide structure, and to discuss the main possible errors in integrating multi-source and multi-resolution data in the modelling. The methodology is presented through the analysis of three landslides with similar geomorphological features (e.g. flow-like geomorphology) and development patterns (retrogression of the crown, roto-translational failures of the upper part, and translational movements in the lower part), and for which an extensive dataset of geophysical, geotechnical and geomorphological information is available. The three cases studies are the complex Valoria earth-slide-flow located in the Northern Apennines, the Super-Sauze and La Valette mudslides in the French South Alps. All three landslides are predominantly developed in a clay-shale soil formation. First, interpretation of the multi-data information, their resolution and accuracy is presented for the landslides. Second, a procedure to construct 3D geometrical models of the landslides is proposed (by using the Rockware's Rockworks geological modeller) and the influence of the interpolation algorithms is discussed. It is demonstrated that the model uncertainty is strongly depending on the density and distribution of the input data which vary for the three landslides. The quality of several geometrical models is then compared; a best-fit is achieved by using available geological and geomorphological site interpretation.

  7. Improving and validating 3D models for the leaf energy balance in canopy-scale problems with complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B.; Stoll, R., II; Miller, N. E.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahaffee, W.

    2014-12-01

    Plants cover the majority of Earth's land surface, and thus play a critical role in the surface energy balance. Within individual plant communities, the leaf energy balance is a fundamental component of most biophysical processes. Absorbed radiation drives the energy balance and provides the means by which plants produce food. Available energy is partitioned into sensible and latent heat fluxes to determine surface temperature, which strongly influences rates of metabolic activity and growth. The energy balance of an individual leaf is coupled with other leaves in the community through longwave radiation emission and advection through the air. This complex coupling can make scaling models from leaves to whole-canopies difficult, specifically in canopies with complex, heterogeneous geometries. We present a new three-dimensional canopy model that simultaneously resolves sub-tree to whole-canopy scales. The model provides spatially explicit predictions of net radiation exchange, boundary-layer and stomatal conductances, evapotranspiration rates, and ultimately leaf surface temperature. The radiation model includes complex physics such as anisotropic emission and scattering. Radiation calculations are accelerated by leveraging graphics processing unit (GPU) technology, which allows canopy-scale problems to be performed on a standard desktop workstation. Since validating the three-dimensional distribution of leaf temperature can be extremely challenging, we used several independent measurement techniques to quantify errors in measured and modeled values. When compared with measured leaf temperatures, the model gave a mean error of about 2°C, which was close to the estimated measurement uncertainty.

  8. Using stress MRI to analyze the 3D changes in apical ligament geometry from rest to maximal Valsalva: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiajia; Betschart, Cornelia; Chen, Luyun; Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis A method was developed using 3D stress magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was piloted to test hypotheses concerning changes in apical ligament lengths and lines of action from rest to maximal Valsalva. Methods Ten women with (cases) and ten without (controls) pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were selected from an ongoing case-control study. Supine, multiplanar stress MRI was performed at rest and at maximal Valsalva and was imported into 3D Slicer v. 3.4.1 and aligned. The 3D reconstructions of the uterus and vagina, cardinal ligament (CL), deep uterosacral ligament (USLd), and pelvic bones were created. Ligament length and orientation were then measured. Results Adequate ligament representations were possible in all 20 study participants. When cases were compared with controls, the curve length of the CL at rest was 71 ±16 mm vs. 59±9 mm (p =0.051), and the USLd was 38±16 mm vs. 36±11 mm (p =0.797). Similarly, the increase in CL length from rest to strain was 30±16 mm vs. 15±9 mm (p =0.033), and USLd was 15±12 mm vs. 7±4 mm (p =0.094). Likewise, the change in USLd angle was significantly different from CL (p <0.001). Conclusions This technique allows quantification of 3D geometry at rest and at strain. In our pilot sample, at maximal Valsalva, CL elongation was greater in cases than controls, whereas USLd was not; CL also exhibited greater changes in ligament length, and USLd exhibited greater changes in ligament inclination angle. PMID:24008367

  9. Modelling and 3D optimisation of CdTe pixels detector array geometry - Extension to small pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumbiehl, A.; Hage-Ali, M.; Fougeres, P.; Koebel, J. M.; Regal, R.; Rit, C.; Ayoub, M.; Siffert, P.

    2001-08-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe pixel detectors offer great interest for many applications, especially for medical and industrial imaging. Up to now, the material, generally, used and investigated for pixel arrays was CZT (Hamel et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43 (3) (1996) 1422; Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1) (1995) 156; Bennett et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 392 (1997) 260; Eskin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85 (2) (1999) 647; Brunett et al., J. Appl. Phys. 86 (7) (1999) 3926; Luke, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380 (1996) 232), but cadmium telluride can also be an appropriate choice, as shown here. However, we clearly demonstrate here that the optimal pixel configuration is highly dependent on the electrical transport properties of the material. Depending on the field of primary interest, either energy resolution or counting rate efficiency in the photopeak, the geometry for each case has to be optimised. For that purpose, we have developed a calculation of the signal induced onto the pixel. Two distinct parts are used: after showing our approach for the weighting potential calculation, we present our results performed by a "pseudo-Monte Carlo" simulation. Results are supported by a few experimental comparisons. We argue about the optimum sizes with clarifying the problems caused by too small and too large pixel sizes. The study field is chosen to be vast, i.e. pixel size to detector thickness ratios ( W/ L) of 1/8-1, and detector thickness of 1.0-8.0 mm. In addition, several electrical transport properties are used. Since efficiency is often of primary interest, thick detectors could be very attractive, which are shown to be really feasible even on CdTe.

  10. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

  11. Rapid Optimal SPH Particle Distributions in Spherical Geometries for Creating Astrophysical Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael

    2016-04-01

    Creating spherical initial conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that are spherically conformal is a difficult task. Here, we describe two algorithmic methods for evenly distributing points on surfaces that when paired can be used to build three-dimensional spherical objects with optimal equipartition of volume between particles, commensurate with an arbitrary radial density function. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method against stretched lattice arrangements on the metrics of hydrodynamic stability, spherical conformity, and the harmonic power distribution of gravitational settling oscillations. We further demonstrate how our method is highly optimized for simulating multi-material spheres, such as planets with core-mantle boundaries.

  12. Experimental study on the 3D image reconstruction in a truncated Archimedean-like spiral geometry with a long-rectangular detector and its image characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Daeki; Cho, Heemoon; Cho, Hyosung; Choi, Sungil; Je, Uikyu; Park, Yeonok; Park, Chulkyu; Lim, Hyunwoo; Park, Soyoung; Woo, Taeho

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we performed a feasibility study on the three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction in a truncated Archimedean-like spiral geometry with a long-rectangular detector for application to high-accurate, cost-effective dental x-ray imaging. Here an x-ray tube and a detector rotate together around the rotational axis several times and, concurrently, the detector moves horizontally in the detector coordinate at a constant speed to cover the whole imaging volume during the projection data acquisition. We established a table-top setup which mainly consists of an x-ray tube (60 kVp, 5 mA), a narrow CMOS-type detector (198-μm pixel resolution, 184 (W)×1176 (H) pixel dimension), and a rotational stage for sample mounting and performed a systematic experiment to demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach to volumetric dental imaging. For the image reconstruction, we employed a compressed-sensing (CS)-based algorithm, rather than a common filtered-backprojection (FBP) one, for more accurate reconstruction. We successfully reconstructed 3D images of considerably high quality and investigated the image characteristics in terms of the image value profile, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and the spatial resolution.

  13. Low-complexity digital filter geometry for spherical coded imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guotong; Shoaib, Mohammed; Robinson, M. D.

    2009-08-01

    Recent research in the area of electro-optical system design identified the benefits of spherical aberration for extending the depth-of-field of electro-optical imaging systems. In such imaging systems, spherical aberration is deliberately introduced by the optical system lowering system modulation transfer function (MTF) and then subsequently corrected using digital processing. Previous research, however, requires complex digital postprocessing algorithms severely limiting its applicability to only expensive systems. In this paper, we examine the ability of low-cost spatially invariant finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters to restore system MTF degraded by spherical aberration. We introduce an analytical model for choosing the minimum, and hence cheapest, FIR filter size capable of providing the critical level sharpening to render artifact-free images. We identify a robust quality criterion based on the post-processed MTF for developing this model. We demonstrate the reliability of the estimated model by showing simulated spherical coded imaging results. We also evaluate the hardware complexity of the FIR filters implemented for various spherical aberrations on a low-end Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform.

  14. Analysis of the Geometry of the Distal Femur and Proximal Tibia in the Osteoarthritic Knee: A 3D Reconstruction CT Scan Based Study of 449 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lyras, Dimitrios N.; Loucks, Craig; Greenhow, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the geometry of the distal femur and the proximal tibia in the osteoarthritic knee using 3D reconstructive CT scan imaging. Methods: 449 patients with knee osteoarthritis were treated surgically in our center with patient-specific technology total knee arthroplasty. Preoperatively, all the patients underwent a CT scan according to a standard protocol. Using this database, the Hip-Knee-Angle (HKA), the Femur Valgus Angle (FVA), the Tibia Varus Angle (TVA), the Posterior Tibia Slope (PTS), and the angle between the posterior condylar axis and the anatomical transepicondylar axis (PCA) for each patient were recorded and statistically evaluated. Results: In overall, the mean HKA angle was 177.3±5.55, the mean FVA angle was 3.19±2.08, the mean TVA was 3.28±2.35, the PTS angle was 9.02±3.46, and the PCA angle was 2.86±0.78. Evaluation of the correlations between HKA and PCA (r=0.035), HKA and PTS (r=-0.047), and PCA and PTS (r=0.05) showed non-significant relationships (P=0.46, P=0.32, and P=0.29 respectively). No significant differences were revealed from the comparison of male patients with female patients, regarding the mean HKA, FVA, TVA, PTS, and PCA. Conclusion: The posterior condylar axis is a well-defined but not a reliable axis, while the transepicondylar and the anteroposterior are reliable, but not easily defined axes. Given the large ranges and standard deviations of the location of posterior condylar axis, and the important inter- and intraobserver variability in the intraoperative location of the transepicondylar and the anteroposterior axes, the use of a preoperative 3D CT scan is recommended. PMID:27200387

  15. Basement Structure Controls on the Evolution and Geometry of Rift Systems - Insights from Offshore S. Norway using 3D Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Thomas; Jackson, Christopher; Bell, Rebecca; Duffy, Oliver; Fossen, Haakon

    2015-04-01

    Rift basins form within lithosphere containing a range of heterogeneities, such as thin-skinned thrust belts and larger scale structures such as thick-skinned shear zones or crustal sutures. How the presence and reactivation of these structures during later rift events affect the geometry and evolution of rifts remains poorly understood as they are not typically well imaged on seismic data. The main reasons for this are that crystalline basement is often buried beneath thick sedimentary successions and contains small impedance contrasts. Furthermore, larger, crustal-scale, lineaments and sutures may not be imaged at all on seismic data due to their large scale and depth. In this study, we use borehole-constrained 2D and 3D seismic reflection data located around the Egersund and Farsund Basins, offshore south Norway. In both areas, crystalline basement is exceptionally well-imaged on typical 2D and 3D reflection data due to large impedance contrasts within a highly heterogeneous, shallow basement. This allows us to map a series of intrabasement reflections and overlying rift systems. Within the Egersund area, two main types of intrabasement structure are identified and mapped: i) thin (100 m), shallowly dipping (0-10°W) reflections showing a ramp-flat geometry; and ii) thick (1-1.5 km), low angle (c. 30°W) structures comprising of packages of reflections. These structures correlate along-strike northwards to Caledonian orogeny related structures mapped onshore Norway. The thin structures are interpreted as thin-skinned Caledonian thrusts, whereas the thicker structures represent thick-skinned Devonian shear zones formed through orogenic collapse of the Caledonides. Through seismic-stratigraphic analysis of the cover, we document multiple stages of extensional reactivation along these structures during Devonian, Permian-Triassic and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous extension followed by reverse reactivation during Late Cretaceous compression. The Farsund Basin is

  16. A free software for pore-scale modelling: solving Stokes equation for velocity fields and permeability values in 3D pore geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Kirill; Vasilyev, Roman; Khirevich, Siarhei; Karsanina, Marina; Collins, Daniel; Korost, Dmitry; Mallants, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we introduce a novel free software which solves the Stokes equation to obtain velocity fields for low Reynolds-number flows within externally generated 3D pore geometries. Provided with velocity fields, one can calculate permeability for known pressure gradient boundary conditions via Darcy's equation. Finite-difference schemes of 2nd and 4th order of accuracy are used together with an artificial compressibility method to iteratively converge to a steady-state solution of Stokes' equation. This numerical approach is much faster and less computationally demanding than the majority of open-source or commercial softwares employing other algorithms (finite elements/volumes, lattice Boltzmann, etc.) The software consists of two parts: 1) a pre and post-processing graphical interface, and 2) a solver. The latter is efficiently parallelized to use any number of available cores (the speedup on 16 threads was up to 10-12 depending on hardware). Due to parallelization and memory optimization our software can be used to obtain solutions for 300x300x300 voxels geometries on modern desktop PCs. The software was successfully verified by testing it against lattice Boltzmann simulations and analytical solutions. To illustrate the software's applicability for numerous problems in Earth Sciences, a number of case studies have been developed: 1) identifying the representative elementary volume for permeability determination within a sandstone sample, 2) derivation of permeability/hydraulic conductivity values for rock and soil samples and comparing those with experimentally obtained values, 3) revealing the influence of the amount of fine-textured material such as clay on filtration properties of sandy soil. This work was partially supported by RSF grant 14-17-00658 (pore-scale modelling) and RFBR grants 13-04-00409-a and 13-05-01176-a.

  17. CSDUST3 - A radiation transport code for a dusty medium with 1-D planar, spherical or cylindrical geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, Michael P.; Leung, Chun Ming; Spagna, George F., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The program solves the radiation transport problem in a dusty medium with one-dimensional planar, spherical or cylindrical geometry. It determines self-consistently the effects of multiple scattering, absorption, and re-emission of photons on the temperature of dust grains and the characteristics of the internal radiation field. The program can treat radiation field anisotropy, linear anisotropic scattering, and multi-grain components. The program output consists of the dust-temperature distribution, flux spectrum, surface brightness at each frequency and the observed intensities (involving a convolution with a telescope beam pattern).

  18. Landau level quantization for massless Dirac fermions in the spherical geometry: Graphene fractional quantum Hall effect on the Haldane sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniaga, Michael; Peterson, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    We derive the single-particle eigenenergies and eigenfunctions for massless Dirac fermions confined to the surface of a sphere in the presence of a magnetic monopole, i.e., we solve the Landau level problem for electrons in graphene on the Haldane sphere. With the single-particle eigenfunctions and eigenenergies we calculate the Haldane pseudopotentials for the Coulomb interaction in the second Landau level and calculate the effective pseudopotentials characterizing an effective Landau level mixing Hamiltonian entirely in the spherical geometry to be used in theoretical studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene. Our treatment is analogous to the formalism in the planar geometry and reduces to the planar results in the thermodynamic limit.

  19. MICADO: Parallel implementation of a 2D-1D iterative algorithm for the 3D neutron transport problem in prismatic geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Fevotte, F.; Lathuiliere, B.

    2013-07-01

    The large increase in computing power over the past few years now makes it possible to consider developing 3D full-core heterogeneous deterministic neutron transport solvers for reference calculations. Among all approaches presented in the literature, the method first introduced in [1] seems very promising. It consists in iterating over resolutions of 2D and ID MOC problems by taking advantage of prismatic geometries without introducing approximations of a low order operator such as diffusion. However, before developing a solver with all industrial options at EDF, several points needed to be clarified. In this work, we first prove the convergence of this iterative process, under some assumptions. We then present our high-performance, parallel implementation of this algorithm in the MICADO solver. Benchmarking the solver against the Takeda case shows that the 2D-1D coupling algorithm does not seem to affect the spatial convergence order of the MOC solver. As for performance issues, our study shows that even though the data distribution is suited to the 2D solver part, the efficiency of the ID part is sufficient to ensure a good parallel efficiency of the global algorithm. After this study, the main remaining difficulty implementation-wise is about the memory requirement of a vector used for initialization. An efficient acceleration operator will also need to be developed. (authors)

  20. MODELING MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION CORONA USING NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELDS IN SPHERICAL GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Liu, Y.; Sun, X. D.; DeRosa, M. L.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2012-11-20

    We test a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) optimization code in spherical geometry using an analytical solution from Low and Lou. Several tests are run, ranging from idealized cases where exact vector field data are provided on all boundaries, to cases where noisy vector data are provided on only the lower boundary (approximating the solar problem). Analytical tests also show that the NLFFF code in the spherical geometry performs better than that in the Cartesian one when the field of view of the bottom boundary is large, say, 20 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 20 Degree-Sign . Additionally, we apply the NLFFF model to an active region observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) both before and after an M8.7 flare. For each observation time, we initialize the models using potential field source surface (PFSS) extrapolations based on either a synoptic chart or a flux-dispersal model, and compare the resulting NLFFF models. The results show that NLFFF extrapolations using the flux-dispersal model as the boundary condition have slightly lower, therefore better, force-free, and divergence-free metrics, and contain larger free magnetic energy. By comparing the extrapolated magnetic field lines with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we find that the NLFFF performs better than the PFSS not only for the core field of the flare productive region, but also for large EUV loops higher than 50 Mm.

  1. The synchrotron-self-Compton process in spherical geometries. II - Application to active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D. L.; Grindlay, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Observational implications and constraints on spherical nonthermal synchrotron self-Compton models with applications to AGNs are discussed. The Compton optical depth of the source and the synchrotron optical depth are considered, and plausible electron distributions are discussed. The alpha(0x), alpha(rx), and alpha(0r) system of comparing the fluxes in different energy bands is related to the nonthermal models, and sample spectra are presented that show the spectral features the models can produce. The models are applied to radio-quiet AGNs. It is shown that the infrared and X-ray continua of the AGNs can be produced by nonthermal processes.

  2. 3D Modeling By Consolidation Of Independent Geometries Extracted From Point Clouds - The Case Of The Modeling Of The Turckheim's Chapel (Alsace, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.; Fabre, Ph.; Schlussel, B.

    2014-06-01

    Turckheim is a small town located in Alsace, north-east of France. In the heart of the Alsatian vineyard, this city has many historical monuments including its old church. To understand the effectiveness of the project described in this paper, it is important to have a look at the history of this church. Indeed there are many historical events that explain its renovation and even its partial reconstruction. The first mention of a christian sanctuary in Turckheim dates back to 898. It will be replaced in the 12th century by a roman church (chapel), which subsists today as the bell tower. Touched by a lightning in 1661, the tower then was enhanced. In 1736, it was repaired following damage sustained in a tornado. In 1791, the town installs an organ to the church. Last milestone, the church is destroyed by fire in 1978. The organ, like the heart of the church will then have to be again restored (1983) with a simplified architecture. From this heavy and rich past, it unfortunately and as it is often the case, remains only very few documents and information available apart from facts stated in some sporadic writings. And with regard to the geometry, the positioning, the physical characteristics of the initial building, there are very little indication. Some assumptions of positions and right-of-way were well issued by different historians or archaeologists. The acquisition and 3D modeling project must therefore provide the current state of the edifice to serve as the basis of new investigations and for the generation of new hypotheses on the locations and historical shapes of this church and its original chapel (Fig. 1)

  3. GEN3D Ver. 1.37

    2012-01-04

    GEN3D is a three-dimensional mesh generation program. The three-dimensional mesh is generated by mapping a two-dimensional mesh into threedimensions according to one of four types of transformations: translating, rotating, mapping onto a spherical surface, and mapping onto a cylindrical surface. The generated three-dimensional mesh can then be reoriented by offsetting, reflecting about an axis, and revolving about an axis. GEN3D can be used to mesh geometries that are axisymmetric or planar, but, due to three-dimensionalmore » loading or boundary conditions, require a three-dimensional finite element mesh and analysis. More importantly, it can be used to mesh complex three-dimensional geometries composed of several sections when the sections can be defined in terms of transformations of two dimensional geometries. The code GJOIN is then used to join the separate sections into a single body. GEN3D reads and writes twodimensional and threedimensional mesh databases in the GENESIS database format; therefore, it is compatible with the preprocessing, postprocessing, and analysis codes used by the Engineering Analysis Department at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.« less

  4. Forward Modeling Method of Gravity and Magnetic Fields and Their Gradient Tensors Based on 3-D Delaunay Discretization in Cartesian and Spherical Coordinate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, C.; Du, J.; Sun, S.; Liang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    In the study of the inversion of gravity and magnetic data, the discretization of underground space is usually achieved by the use of structured grids. For instance, using the regular block as the module unit to divide model space in Cartesian coordinate system and the tesseroid in spherical coordinate system. Structured grids show clear spatial structures and mathematical properties. However, the block can only provide a rough approximation to the given terrain and using the tesseroid to approximate the terrain even seems impracticable. These shape determining errors cause the reduction of forward modeling precision. Moreover, the precision decreases again while using the tesseroid as no analytical algorithm has been acquired. On the other hand, since most terrain data has a limited resolution, unstructured grids, based on the polyhedron or tetrahedron, could fill the space completely, which allows us to reduce errors in shape determination to the minima. In addition, the analytical algorithms for polyhedron have been proposed. In our study, we use the tetrahedron as the module unit to divide the underground space. Moreover, based on the former researches, we supplement new analytical algorithms for tetrahedron to forward modeling gravity and magnetic fields and their gradient tensors in both Cartesian and spherical coordinate systems. The algorithm is testified by comparing the forward gravity and magnetic data of a block with the data obtained using the existed algorithms. The absolute difference between these two data is under 10e-9 mGal. Our approach is suitable for the inversion of gravity and magnetic data in both Cartesian and spherical coordinate systems.This study is supported by Natural Science Fund of Hubei Province (Grant No.: 2015CFB361) and International Cooperation Project in Science and Technology of China (Grant No.: 2010DFA24580).

  5. Numerical study of laminar plasma dynamo in cylindrical and spherical geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalzov, Ivan; Bayliss, Adam; Ebrahimi, Fatima; Forest, Cary; Schnack, Dalton

    2009-05-01

    We have performed the numerical investigation of possibility of laminar dynamo in two new experiments, Plasma Couette and Plasma Dynamo, which have been designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The plasma is confined by a strong multipole magnetic field localized at the boundary of cylindrical (Plasma Couette) or spherical (Plasma Dynamo) chamber. Electrodes positioned between the magnet rings can be biased with arbitrary potentials so that Lorenz force ExB drives any given toroidal velocity profile at the surface. Using the extended MHD code, NIMROD, we have modeled several types of plasma flows appropriate for dynamo excitation. It is found that for high magnetic Reynolds numbers the counter-rotating von Karman flow (in cylinder) and Dudley-James flow (in sphere) can lead to self-generation of non-axisymmetric magnetic field. This field saturates at certain amplitude corresponding to a new stable equilibrium. The structure of this equilibrium is considered.

  6. Spherical Harmonic-based Random Fields Based on Real Particle 3D Data: Improved Numerical Algorithm and Quantitative Comparison to Real Particles

    SciTech Connect

    X Liu; E Garboczi; m Grigoriu; Y Lu; S Erdogan

    2011-12-31

    Many parameters affect the cyclone efficiency, and these parameters can have different effects in different flow regimes. Therefore the maximum-efficiency cyclone length is a function of the specific geometry and operating conditions in use. In this study, we obtained a relationship describing the minimum particle diameter or maximum cyclone efficiency by using a theoretical approach based on cyclone geometry and fluid properties. We have compared the empirical predictions with corresponding literature data and observed good agreement. The results address the importance of fluid properties. Inlet and vortex finder cross-sections, cone-apex diameter, inlet Reynolds number and surface roughness are found to be the other important parameters affecting cyclone height. The surface friction coefficient, on the other hand, is difficult to employ in the calculations.We developed a theoretical approach to find the maximum-efficiency heights for cyclones with tangential inlet and we suggested a relation for this height as a function of cyclone geometry and operating parameters. In order to generalize use of the relation, two dimensionless parameters, namely for geometric and operational variables, we defined and results were presented in graphical form such that one can calculate and enter the values of these dimensionless parameters and then can find the maximum efficiency height of his own specific cyclone.

  7. Gravity, Topography, Magnetics: Geoscience Data Analysis in Spherical and Planar Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, F. J.; Harig, C.; Lewis, K. W.; Plattner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Data in the Earth and planetary sciences (as well as in astronomy and cosmology, medical imaging, auditory signal processing, and computer vision) often inherently have a sphere (or an ellipsoid) as their domain. However, frequently our goal is to study phenomena in a specific region of the globe. We might either have data that only cover parts of the sphere (e.g. ocean altimetry, Shuttle radar topography), or we may seek to extract a local signal from a global data set (e.g. the continental fraction of the lithospheric magnetic field, or the portion of the time-varying geopotential that is due to ice mass changes). Spectral content is always finite: all sampled data are band-limited. When the region under study is not the whole sphere, but not small enough to justify two-dimensional projection either, the question arises how to best represent the data to perform our analysis, whatever our field of interest. We present SLEPIAN, a software suite with a multitude of numerical and computational tools, and several plotting routines, to accomplish ``spatiospectral'' spherical analysis in the geosciences and beyond.

  8. Topological constraints on spiral wave dynamics in spherical geometries with inhomogeneous excitability.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Glass, Leon; Kapral, Raymond

    2004-11-01

    We analyze the way topological constraints and inhomogeneity in the excitability influence the dynamics of spiral waves on spheres and punctured spheres of excitable media. We generalize the definition of an index such that it characterizes not only each spiral but also each hole in punctured, oriented, compact, two-dimensional differentiable manifolds and show that the sum of the indices is conserved and zero. We also show that heterogeneity and geometry are responsible for the formation of various spiral-wave attractors, in particular pairs of spirals in which one spiral acts as a source and a second as a sink--the latter similar to an antispiral. The results provide a basis for the analysis of the propagation of waves in heterogeneous excitable media in physical and biological systems. PMID:15600724

  9. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration: development and application to tasked-based imaging with a robotic C-arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadah, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Gang, G.; Uneri, A.; Ehtiati, T.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Robotic C-arm systems are capable of general noncircular orbits whose trajectories can be driven by the particular imaging task. However obtaining accurate calibrations for reconstruction in such geometries can be a challenging problem. This work proposes a method to perform a unique geometric calibration of an arbitrary C-arm orbit by registering 2D projections to a previously acquired 3D image to determine the transformation parameters representing the system geometry. Methods: Experiments involved a cone-beam CT (CBCT) bench system, a robotic C-arm, and three phantoms. A robust 3D-2D registration process was used to compute the 9 degree of freedom (DOF) transformation between each projection and an existing 3D image by maximizing normalized gradient information with a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the 3D volume. The quality of the resulting "self-calibration" was evaluated in terms of the agreement with an established calibration method using a BB phantom as well as image quality in the resulting CBCT reconstruction. Results: The self-calibration yielded CBCT images without significant difference in spatial resolution from the standard ("true") calibration methods (p-value >0.05 for all three phantoms), and the differences between CBCT images reconstructed using the "self" and "true" calibration methods were on the order of 10-3 mm-1. Maximum error in magnification was 3.2%, and back-projection ray placement was within 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The proposed geometric "self" calibration provides a means for 3D imaging on general noncircular orbits in CBCT systems for which a geometric calibration is either not available or not reproducible. The method forms the basis of advanced "task-based" 3D imaging methods now in development for robotic C-arms.

  10. Na8[Cr4B12P8O44(OH)4][P2O7].nH2O: a 3D borophosphate framework with spherical cages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Sun, Junliang; Li, Guobao; Eriksson, Lars; Zou, Xiaodong; Liao, Fuhui; Lin, Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    A chromium borophosphate-phosphate (Na(8)[Cr(4)B(12)P(8)O(44)(OH)(4)][P(2)O(7)]nH(2)O, 1), which has an unusual 3D framework structure, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The framework consists of spherical cages composed of CrO(6), PO(4), BO(4), and BO(3) polyhedra. The cages are located at the vertices and the body center of the cubic cell and are interconnected through 12-membered-ring windows along the {111} direction. The actual framework structure is very complex, but the description can be simplified by using the 5-connected fundamental building cluster [CrP(5)B(3)O(24)](11-). In addition, 1 represents the first borate-rich borophosphate that contains a 3D borophosphate partial framework (3(over)infinity[B(3)P(2)O(11)(OH)]) in which the fundamental building unit is an oB dreier single ring (Delta4 square:square square). The cavities of the framework are filled with disengaged water molecules and Na(+) counterions. The former can be reversibly desorbed and reabsorbed and the latter can be exchanged by Li(+) ions, which results in significant shrinkages of the cell volume. PMID:18624289

  11. 3D geological modeling of the Kasserine Aquifer System, Central Tunisia: New insights into aquifer-geometry and interconnections for a better assessment of groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassen, Imen; Gibson, Helen; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Negro, François; Rachid, Khanfir; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2016-08-01

    The challenge of this study was to create a 3D geological and structural model of the Kasserine Aquifer System (KAS) in central Tunisia and its natural extension into north-east Algeria. This was achieved using an implicit 3D method, which honors prior geological data for both formation boundaries and faults. A current model is presented which provides defendable predictions for the spatial distribution of geology and water resources in aquifers throughout the model-domain. This work has allowed validation of regional scale geology and fault networks in the KAS, and has facilitated the first-ever estimations of groundwater resources in this region by a 3D method. The model enables a preliminary assessment of the hydraulic significance of the major faults by evaluating their influence and role on groundwater flow within and between four compartments of the multi-layered, KAS hydrogeological system. Thus a representative hydrogeological model of the study area is constructed. The possible dual nature of faults in the KAS is discussed in the context that some faults appear to be acting both as barriers to horizontal groundwater flow, and simultaneously as conduits for vertical flow. Also discussed is the possibility that two flow directions occur within the KAS, at a small syncline area of near Feriana. In summary, this work evaluates the influence of aquifer connectivity and the role of faults and geology in groundwater flow within the KAS aquifer system. The current KAS geological model can now be used to guide groundwater managers on the best placement for drilling to test and further refine the understanding of the groundwater system, including the faults connectivity. As more geological data become available, the current model can be easily edited and re-computed to provide an updated model ready for the next stage of investigation by numerical flow modeling.

  12. 3-D Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Complex Fiber Geometry RaFC Materials with High Volume Fraction and High Aspect Ratio based on ABAQUS PYTHON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, BoCheng

    2011-12-01

    Organic and inorganic fiber reinforced composites with innumerable fiber orientation distributions and fiber geometries are abundantly available in several natural and synthetic structures. Inorganic glass fiber composites have been introduced to numerous applications due to their economical fabrication and tailored structural properties. Numerical characterization of such composite material systems is necessitated due to their intrinsic statistical nature, which renders extensive experimentation prohibitively time consuming and costly. To predict various mechanical behavior and characterizations of Uni-Directional Fiber Composites (UDFC) and Random Fiber Composites (RaFC), we numerically developed Representative Volume Elements (RVE) with high accuracy and efficiency and with complex fiber geometric representations encountered in uni-directional and random fiber networks. In this thesis, the numerical simulations of unidirectional RaFC fiber strand RVE models (VF>70%) are first presented by programming in ABAQUS PYTHON. Secondly, when the cross sectional aspect ratios (AR) of the second phase fiber inclusions are not necessarily one, various types of RVE models with different cross sectional shape fibers are simulated and discussed. A modified random sequential absorption algorithm is applied to enhance the volume fraction number (VF) of the RVE, which the mechanical properties represents the composite material. Thirdly, based on a Spatial Segment Shortest Distance (SSSD) algorithm, a 3-Dimentional RaFC material RVE model is simulated in ABAQUS PYTHON with randomly oriented and distributed straight fibers of high fiber aspect ratio (AR=100:1) and volume fraction (VF=31.8%). Fourthly, the piecewise multi-segments fiber geometry is obtained in MATLAB environment by a modified SSSD algorithm. Finally, numerical methods including the polynomial curve fitting and piecewise quadratic and cubic B-spline interpolation are applied to optimize the RaFC fiber geometries

  13. Inversion of the 3D exponential x-ray transform for a half equatorial band and other semi-circular geometries.

    PubMed

    Noo, Frédéric; Clackdoyle, Rolf; Wagner, Jean-Marc

    2002-08-01

    This work presents new mathematical results on the inversion of the exponential x-ray transform. It is shown that a reconstruction formula can be obtained for any dataset whose projection directions consist of a union of half great circles on the unit sphere. A basic example of such a dataset is the semi-equatorial band. The discussion in the paper is mostly focused on this example. The reconstruction formula takes the form of a Neumann (geometric) series and is both exact and stable. The exponential x-ray transform has been mainly studied in SPECT imaging. In this context, our results demonstrate mathematically that fully 3D image reconstruction in SPECT with non-zero attenuation does not always require symmetric datasets (opposing views). PMID:12200935

  14. Mapping 3D fault geometry in earthquakes using high-resolution topography: Examples from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) and 2013 Balochistan (Pakistan) earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Walker, Richard T.; Elliott, John R.; Parsons, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Fault dips are usually measured from outcrops in the field or inferred through geodetic or seismological modeling. Here we apply the classic structural geology approach of calculating dip from a fault's 3-D surface trace using recent, high-resolution topography. A test study applied to the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows very good agreement between our results and those previously determined from field measurements. To obtain a reliable estimate, a fault segment ≥120 m long with a topographic variation ≥15 m is suggested. We then applied this method to the 2013 Balochistan earthquake, getting dips similar to previous estimates. Our dip estimates show a switch from north to south dipping at the southern end of the main trace, which appears to be a response to local extension within a stepover. We suggest that this previously unidentified geometrical complexity may act as the endpoint of earthquake ruptures for the southern end of the Hoshab fault.

  15. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  16. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  17. Assessment of tissue optical parameters in a spherical geometry using three different optical spectroscopy methods: comparison based on a theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudelle, F.; Askoura, M.; L'Huillier, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    The non-invasive research of information inside biological tissues can be made by means of setups using continuous, time-dependent or frequency modulated light sources, which emit in the visible or near-infrared range. Moreover, the biological structures such as brain, breast or fruits, can be regarded as closer to a spherical shape than a slab. This paper focus on the retrieval of tissue optical parameters in a spherical geometry using fittings with analytical solutions adapted for semi-infinite geometry. The data were generated using three different optical spectroscopy methods: frequency-resolved, spatially-resolved, and time-resolved modes. Simulations based on a Monte Carlo code were performed on homogeneous spheres, with 18 spaced detectors located on their boundary. First, data are examined in the frequency domain. Second, they are treated with optimization algorithms to assess the optical coefficients. The computations show that the spatially-resolved measurements are often more robust than those related to the frequency-resolved mode. In the temporal domain, errors on the estimates are also exhibited with the fitting by the Fourier transform of a solution based on the semi-infinite geometry. Furthermore, when the analytical solution is modified by taking into account the spherical shape, the retrieval of the coefficients is improved.

  18. Simultaneous measurement of the geometry and the internal 3D velocity field of a micron sized droplet confined in a channel using Astigmatism-PTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Tobias; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian J.

    2012-11-01

    Astigmatism-PTV is a method that allows to measure with a single camera the fully three-dimensional, three-component velocity field. The technique is ideally suited for microfluidic velocity measurements without errors due to in-plane and out-of-plane averaging (Cierpka et al. Meas Scie Tech 21, 2010). Recently it was shown, that the interface between two fluids or the surrounding fluid and droplets or bubbles can be estimated as well with the technique (Rossi et al., Meas Scie Tech 22, 2010). In this contribution the advantages of both techniques are combined to measure the shape of a droplet inside a micro channel along with the internal 3D flow field of the droplet induced by the surrounding fluid. For the current investigation, particles were only distributed within oil-droplets. Therefore the shape of the droplet could be later reconstructed by the volumetric particle positions and the velocity can be estimated tracking the same particles in consecutive frames of the same dataset. The procedure allows the simultaneous determination of the shape and the droplet velocity as well as the inner flow field and offers a great potential for current research.

  19. Exact geometry solid-shell element based on a sampling surfaces technique for 3D stress analysis of doubly-curved composite shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, G. M.; Mamontov, A. A.; Plotnikova, S. V.; Mamontov, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    A hybrid-mixed ANS four-node shell element by using the sampling surfaces (SaS) technique is developed. The SaS formulation is based on choosing inside the nth layer In not equally spaced SaS parallel to the middle surface of the shell in order to introduce the displacements of these surfaces as basic shell variables. Such choice of unknowns with the consequent use of Lagrange polynomials of degree In - 1 in the thickness direction for each layer permits the presentation of the layered shell formulation in a very compact form. The SaS are located inside each layer at Chebyshev polynomial nodes that allows one to minimize uniformly the error due to the Lagrange interpolation. To implement the efficient analytical integration throughout the element, the enhanced ANS method is employed. The proposed hybrid-mixed four-node shell element is based on the Hu-Washizu variational equation and exhibits a superior performance in the case of coarse meshes. It could be useful for the 3D stress analysis of thick and thin doubly-curved shells since the SaS formulation gives the possibility to obtain numerical solutions with a prescribed accuracy, which asymptotically approach the exact solutions of elasticity as the number of SaS tends to infinity.

  20. A comparison of angular difference schemes for one-dimensional spherical geometry S{sub N} equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, K.D.

    2000-03-01

    To investigate errors caused by angular differencing in approximating the streaming terms of the transport equation, five different approximations are evaluated for three test problems in one-dimensional spherical geometry. The following schemes are compared: diamond, special truncation error minimizing weighted diamond, linear continuous (the original S{sub N} scheme), linear discontinuous, and new quadratic continuous. To isolate errors caused by angular differencing, the approximations are derived from the transport equation without spatial differencing, and the resulting coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are solved with an ODE solver. Results from the approximations are compared with analytic solutions derived for two-region purely absorbing spheres. Most of the approximations are derived by taking moments of the conservation form of the transport equation. The quadratic continuous approximation is derived taking the zeroth moment of both the transport equation and the first angular derivative of the transport equation. The advantages of this approach are described, In all of the approximations, the desirability is shown of using an initializing computation of the {mu} = {minus}1 angular flux to correctly compute the central flux and of having a difference approximation that ensures this central flux is the same for all directions. The behavior of the standard discrete ordinates equations in the diffusion limit is reviewed, and the linear and quadratic continuous approximations are shown to have the correct diffusion limit if an equal interval discrete quadrature is used. In all three test problems, the weighted diamond difference approximation has smaller maximum and average relative flux errors than the diamond or the linear continuous difference approximations. The quadratic continuous approximation and the linear discontinuous approximation are both more accurate than the other approximations, and the quadratic continuous approximation has a

  1. An application of enhanced 3D-CAD methods with integrated geometry creation algorithms for PVC-seams in automotive body in white design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frener, Gernot; Thum, Katharina; Hirz, Mario; Harrich, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    State of the art automotive development processes are based on virtual product models, which include a digital representation of complete vehicle geometry and structures. Increasing computation performance and continuously growing demands on virtual development processes lead to the application of precise product representation within common CAD software packages. A specific challenge represents the creation of PVC-seams, which are used for corrosion protection of sheet metal components in automotive body in white design. Besides the high requirements of accurate geometric modeling in digital representation, modern development processes call for an increasing level of design automation. To fit both, the present approach introduces a method for an automatic generation of PVC-seams using the functionalities of commercial CAD software. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. SU-E-T-342: Use of Patient Geometry Measurements to Predict Dosimetric Gain with VMAT Over 3D for Chestwall and Regional Nodal Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dumane, V; Knoll, M; Green, S; Bakst, R; Hunt, M; Steinberger, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To predict the dosimetric gain of VMAT over 3D for the treatment ofchestwall/IMN/supraclavicular nodes using geometric parameters acquired during simulation Methods: CT scans for 20 left and 20 right sided patients were retrospectively analyzed toobtain percent ipsilateral lung volume included in the PWT and supraclavicular fields, central lung depth (CLD), maximum lung depth (MLD), separation, chestwall concavity (defined here as the product of CLD and separation) and the maximum heart depth (MHD). VMAT, PWT and P/E plans were done for each case. The ipsilateral lung V20 Gy and mean, total lung V20 Gy and mean, heart V25 Gy and mean were noted for each plan. Correlation coefficients were obtained and linear regression models were built using data from the above training set of patients and then tested on 4 new patients. Results: The decrease in ipsilateral lung V20 Gy, total lung V20 Gy, ipsilateral lung mean and total lung mean with VMAT over PWT significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the percent volume of ipsilateral lung included in the PWT and supraclavicular fields with correlation coefficient values of r = 0.83, r = 0.77, r = 0.78 and r = 0.75 respectively. Significant correlations were also found between MHD and the decrease in heart V25 Gy and mean of r = 0.77 and r = 0.67 respectively. Dosimetric improvement with VMAT over P/E plans showed no correlation to any of the geometric parameters investigated in this study. The dosimetric gain predicted for the 4 test cases by the linear regression models given their respective percent ipsilateral lung volumes fell within the 95% confidence intervals around the best regression fit. Conclusion: The percent ipsilateral lung volume appears to be a strong predictor of the dosimetric gain on using VMAT over PWT apriori.

  3. Direct measurements of dust attenuation in z ∼ 1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Wuyts, Stijn; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2014-06-10

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}) and the integrated dust content (A {sub V,} {sub star}). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 with Hα signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}. First, we stack spectra in bins of A {sub V,} {sub star}, and find that A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} = 1.86 A {sub V,} {sub star}, with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M {sub *}). We find that on average A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.

  4. Direct Measurement of Dust Attenuation in z approx. 1.5 Star-Forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; Tease, Katherine Whitaker; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36< or = z< or = 1.5 with H(alpha) SNR > or = 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions (AV,HII is 1.81 times the integrated AV, star), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galaxies. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log sSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (logM*). We find that on average AV,HII increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing sSFR. The amount of extra extinction also decreases with increasing sSFR and decreasing stellar mass. Our results are consistent with the two-phase dust model - in which galaxies contain both a diffuse and a stellar birth cloud dust component - as the extra extinction will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant. Finally, using our Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected H(alpha) SFRs, and find evidence that SED fitting produces incorrect SFRs if very rapidly declining SFHs are included in the explored parameter space. Subject headings: dust, extinction- galaxies: evolution- galaxies: high-redshift

  5. Mapping the 3D Geometry of the San Leandro Block of the Hayward Fault Zone Using Geologic, Geophysical and Remote Sensing Data, California State University, East Bay Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvilly, A.; Abimbola, A.; Chan, J. H.; Strayer, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    California State University, East Bay (CSUEB), located in Hayward, California, lies atop the San Leandro block (SLB) in the Hayward fault zone. The SLB is a J-K aged lithotectonic assemblage dominated by gabbro and intercalated with minor volcanics and sediments. It is bound by the subparallel northwest-trending western Hayward and eastern Chabot (CF) faults and pervasively cut by anastomosing secondary faults. The block itself is ~30 km along strike and 2-3 km wide. Previous studies suggest the block dips steeply to the northeast and extends to a depth of at least 7 km. In May of 2015, as part of an ongoing collaborative effort led by the USGS to create a 3D velocity model of the San Francisco Bay Area, researchers from CSUEB and the USGS conducted a seismic survey on the CSUEB campus. The primary goal of this pilot study was to locate the trace of the CF on the CSUEB campus and to determine bedrock depth. We deployed a 60-channel, 300m profile using 4.5Hz sensors spaced at 5m intervals. Active seismic sources were used at each geophone location. A 226kg accelerated weight-drop was used to generate P and Rayleigh waves for P-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), and a 3.5kg sledgehammer and block were used to generate S and Love waves for S-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of Love waves (MALW). Preliminary P-wave tomography, MASW, and MALW results from this pilot study suggest the location of an eastward-dipping CF as well as the presence of a high-velocity unit at about 20m depth, presumably an unmapped sliver of bedrock from the San Leandro block. Further studies planned for the fall of 2015 include additional seismic lines and surface mapping along the Chabot fault on and near the CSUEB campus. These new geophysical, GPS, and field geological data will be integrated with LiDAR imagery and existing geological, gravity and magnetic maps to create a 3-dimensional model of the portion of the SLB that contains the CSUEB campus.

  6. 3D Reconstruction of the 22 May 2007 Magnetic Cloud: How Much Can We Trust the Flux- Rope Geometry of CMEs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Luhmann, J.; Wang, L.; Lynch, B.; Huttunen, E.; Lin, R.; Bale, S.; Russell, C.; Galvin, T.

    2008-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often assumed to be magnetic flux ropes, but direct proof has been lacking. A key feature, resulting from the translational symmetry of a flux rope, is that the total transverse pressure as well as the axial magnetic field has the same functional form over the vector potential along any crossing of the flux rope. We test this feature (and hence the flux-rope structure) by reconstructing the 22 May 2007 magnetic cloud (MC) observed at STEREO B, Wind/ACE and possibly STEREO A with the Grad-Shafranov (GS) method. The model output from reconstruction at STEREO B agrees fairly well with the magnetic field and thermal pressure observed at ACE/Wind; the separation between STEREO B and ACE/Wind is about 0.06 AU, almost half of the MC radial width. For the first time, we reproduce observations at one spacecraft with data from another well- separated spacecraft, which provides compelling evidence for the flux-rope geometry and is of importance for understanding CME initiation and propagation. The magnetic field line length, calculated from the velocity dispersion of energetic electrons within the MC, is substantially longer than the nominal Parker spiral field, which is consistent with a flux-rope structure. The reconstruction gives a global configuration of the MC at different spacecraft with a flattened cross section owing to the solar wind radial expansion. A similar approach is also performed with a force-free flux-rope fitting model in an effort to compare with the GS reconstruction results.

  7. New Efficient Dynamic 3-D Boundary Integral Equation Method and Application to Non-Planar Fault Geometry Dipping in Elastic Half Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, R.

    2014-12-01

    The boundary integral equation method formulated in the real space and time domain (BIEM-ST) has been used as a powerful tool to analyze the earthquake rupture dynamics on non-planar faults. Generally, BIEM is more accurate than volumetric methods such as the finite difference method and the finite difference method. With the recent development of the high performance computing environment, the earthquake rupture simulation studies have been conducted considering three dimensional realistic fault geometry models. However, the utility of BIEM-ST has been limited due to its heavy computational demanding increased depending on square of time steps (N2), which was needed to evaluate the historic integration. While BIEM can be efficient with the spectral domain formulation, the applications of such a method are limited to planar fault cases. In this study, we propose a new method to reduce the calculation time of BIEM-ST to linear of time step (N) without degrading the accuracy in the 3 dimensional modeling space. We extends the method proposed earlier for the case of the 2 dimensional framework, applying the asymptotic expressions of the elasto-dynamic Green's functions. This method uses the physical nature of the stress Green's function as dividing the causality cone according to the distances from the wave-fronts. The scalability of this method is shown on the parallel computing environment of the distributed memory. We demonstrate the applicability to analyses of subduction earthquake cases, suffering long time from the numerical limitations of previously available BIEMs. We analyze the dynamic rupture processes on dipping reverse faults embed in a three dimensional elastic half space.

  8. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  9. Stereoscopic Investigations of 3D Coulomb Balls

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander

    2005-10-31

    In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate 3D spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full 3D particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.

  10. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  11. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  12. Hyperband Bi-Conical Antenna Design Using 3D Printing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambeloson, J. A.; Wiid, P. G.

    2016-03-01

    We combined a 3D printing technique with conductive paint for an antenna manufacturing methodology. The performance of the approach is evaluated through a 3D- printed and coated bi-cone antenna. The antenna far-field pattern and efficiency are measured using near-field spherical scan and reverberation chamber techniques. Good agreement is seen between measurements and simulations and an impedance bandwidth of at least 34:1 is achieved. An extruded bi-conical antenna geometry is also studied for bandwidth extension to lower frequency and an impedance bandwidth of 58:1 is realised.

  13. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  14. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  15. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  16. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  17. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  18. 3D sensitivity of 6-electrode Focused Impedance Method (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masum Iquebal, A. H.; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    The present work was taken up to have an understanding of the depth sensitivity of the 6 electrode FIM developed by our laboratory earlier, so that it may be applied judiciously for the measurement of organs in 3D, with electrodes on the skin surface. For a fixed electrode geometry sensitivity is expected to depend on the depth, size and conductivity of the target object. With current electrodes 18 cm apart and potential electrodes 5 cm apart, depth sensitivity of spherical conductors, insulators and of pieces of potato of different diameters were measured. The sensitivity dropped sharply with depth gradually leveling off to background, and objects could be sensed down to a depth of about twice their diameters. The sensitivity at a certain depth increases almost linearly with volume for objects with the same conductivity. Thus these results increase confidence in the use of FIM for studying organs at depths of the body.

  19. FEM-based linear inverse modeling using a 3D source array to image magma chambers with free geometry. Application to InSAR data from Rabaul Caldera (PNG).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchin, Erika; Masterlark, Timothy; Dawson, John; Saunders, Steve; Martí Molist, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we present a method to fully integrate a family of finite element models (FEMs) into the regularized linear inversion of InSAR data collected at Rabaul caldera (PNG) between February 2007 and December 2010. During this period the caldera experienced a long-term steady subsidence that characterized surface movement both inside the caldera and outside, on its western side. The inversion is based on an array of FEM sources in the sense that the Green's function matrix is a library of forward numerical displacement solutions generated by the sources of an array common to all FEMs. Each entry of the library is the LOS surface displacement generated by injecting a unity mass of fluid, of known density and bulk modulus, into a different source cavity of the array for each FEM. By using FEMs, we are taking advantage of their capability of including topography and heterogeneous distribution of elastic material properties. All FEMs of the family share the same mesh in which only one source is activated at the time by removing the corresponding elements and applying the unity fluid flux. The domain therefore only needs to be discretized once. This precludes remeshing for each activated source, thus reducing computational requirements, often a downside of FEM-based inversions. Without imposing an a-priori source, the method allows us to identify, from a least-squares standpoint, a complex distribution of fluid flux (or change in pressure) with a 3D free geometry within the source array, as dictated by the data. The results of applying the proposed inversion to Rabaul InSAR data show a shallow magmatic system under the caldera made of two interconnected lobes located at the two opposite sides of the caldera. These lobes could be consistent with feeding reservoirs of the ongoing Tavuvur volcano eruption of andesitic products, on the eastern side, and of the past Vulcan volcano eruptions of more evolved materials, on the western side. The interconnection and

  20. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  1. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs.

    PubMed

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-07-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson-Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  2. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  3. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  4. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  5. Simulation studies of defect textures and dynamics in 3-d cholesteric droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Lu, Shin-Ying; Selinger, Jonathan; Selinger, Robin

    2010-03-01

    We model defect texture evolution in droplets of cholesteric liquid crystals by solving for the dynamics of the nematic director field. In order to accommodate defects in the simulated texture, we use a finite difference formulation that is explicitly independent of sign reversal of the director at any position in the sample. Textures are visualized using either the Berreman 4x4 matrix method or by mapping free energy density. We study both planar and focal conic cholesteric textures in 3-d spherical and cylindrical droplets, with the goal to optimize device geometries for bistable display applications.

  6. Simulation studies of dynamics and defect textures in 3-d cholesteric droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Lu, Shin-Ying; Selinger, Jonathan; Selinger, Robin

    2010-04-01

    We model defect texture evolution in droplets of cholesteric liquid crystals by solving for the dynamics of the nematic director field. In order to accommodate defects in the simulated texture, we use a finite difference formulation that is explicitly independent of sign reversal of the director at any position in the sample. Textures are visualized using either the Berreman 4x4 matrix method or by mapping free energy density. We study both planar and focal conic cholesteric textures in 3-d spherical and cylindrical droplets, with the goal to optimize device geometries for bistable display applications.

  7. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  8. 3D Magnetron simulation with CST STUDIO SUITE

    SciTech Connect

    Balk, Monika C.

    2011-07-01

    The modeling of magnetrons compared to other tubes is more difficult since it requires 3D modeling rather than a 2D investigation. This is not only due to the geometry which can include complicated details to be modeled in 3D but also due to the interaction process itself. The electric field, magnetic field and particle movement span a 3D space. In this paper 3D simulations of a strapped magnetron with CSTSTUDIO SUITE{sup TM} are presented. (author)

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  10. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  11. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  12. Radiosity diffusion model in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin

    2001-11-01

    We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

  13. Adjoint Monte Carlo method for prostate external photon beam treatment planning: an application to 3D patient anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Brian; Goldstein, Moshe; Xu, X. George; Sahoo, Narayan

    2005-03-01

    Recently, the theoretical framework of the adjoint Monte Carlo (AMC) method has been developed using a simplified patient geometry. In this study, we extended our previous work by applying the AMC framework to a 3D anatomical model called VIP-Man constructed from the Visible Human images. First, the adjoint fluxes for the prostate (PTV) and rectum and bladder (organs at risk (OARs)) were calculated on a spherical surface of 1 m radius, centred at the centre of gravity of PTV. An importance ratio, defined as the PTV dose divided by the weighted OAR doses, was calculated for each of the available beamlets to select the beam angles. Finally, the detailed doses in PTV and OAR were calculated using a forward Monte Carlo simulation to include the electron transport. The dose information was then used to generate dose volume histograms (DVHs). The Pinnacle treatment planning system was also used to generate DVHs for the 3D plans with beam angles obtained from the AMC (3D-AMC) and a standard six-field conformal radiation therapy plan (3D-CRT). Results show that the DVHs for prostate from 3D-AMC and the standard 3D-CRT are very similar, showing that both methods can deliver prescribed dose to the PTV. A substantial improvement in the DVHs for bladder and rectum was found for the 3D-AMC method in comparison to those obtained from 3D-CRT. However, the 3D-AMC plan is less conformal than the 3D-CRT plan because only bladder, rectum and PTV are considered for calculating the importance ratios. Nevertheless, this study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of the AMC in selecting the beam directions as a part of a treatment planning based on the anatomical information in a 3D and realistic patient anatomy.

  14. 3D Space Radiation Transport in a Shielded ICRU Tissue Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2014-01-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code capable of simulating High Charge (Z) and Energy (HZE) and light ions (including neutrons) under space-like boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light ion propagation was recently developed for a simple homogeneous shield object. Monte Carlo benchmarks were used to verify the methodology in slab and spherical geometry, and the 3D corrections were shown to provide significant improvement over the straight-ahead approximation in some cases. In the present report, the new algorithms with well-defined convergence criteria are extended to inhomogeneous media within a shielded tissue slab and a shielded tissue sphere and tested against Monte Carlo simulation to verify the solution methods. The 3D corrections are again found to more accurately describe the neutron and light ion fluence spectra as compared to the straight-ahead approximation. These computationally efficient methods provide a basis for software capable of space shield analysis and optimization.

  15. 3-D Color Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  16. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  17. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  18. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  19. The Rossiter-McLaughlin effect reloaded: Probing the 3D spin-orbit geometry, differential stellar rotation, and the spatially-resolved stellar spectrum of star-planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegla, H. M.; Lovis, C.; Bourrier, V.; Beeck, B.; Watson, C. A.; Pepe, F.

    2016-04-01

    When a planet transits its host star, it blocks regions of the stellar surface from view; this causes a distortion of the spectral lines and a change in the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities, known as the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect. Since the LOS velocities depend, in part, on the stellar rotation, the RM waveform is sensitive to the star-planet alignment (which provides information on the system's dynamical history). We present a new RM modelling technique that directly measures the spatially-resolved stellar spectrum behind the planet. This is done by scaling the continuum flux of the (HARPS) spectra by the transit light curve, and then subtracting the in- from the out-of-transit spectra to isolate the starlight behind the planet. This technique does not assume any shape for the intrinsic local profiles. In it, we also allow for differential stellar rotation and centre-to-limb variations in the convective blueshift. We apply this technique to HD 189733 and compare to 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. We reject rigid body rotation with high confidence (>99% probability), which allows us to determine the occulted stellar latitudes and measure the stellar inclination. In turn, we determine both the sky-projected (λ ≈ -0.4 ± 0.2°) and true 3D obliquity (ψ ≈ 7+12-4°). We also find good agreement with the MHD simulations, with no significant centre-to-limb variations detectable in the local profiles. Hence, this technique provides a new powerful tool that can probe stellar photospheres, differential rotation, determine 3D obliquities, and remove sky-projection biases in planet migration theories. This technique can be implemented with existing instrumentation, but will become even more powerful with the next generation of high-precision radial velocity spectrographs.

  20. Rockfall assessment of natural hazards by 3D-simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobler, D.; Graf, K.; Krummenacher, B.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: 3D rockfall modelling, protection measures, case study, ROFMOD 4.1 model In mountain areas many residential areas as well as important lifelines are exposed to potential rockfall events. The assessment of the hazard potential in a complex morphology with changing surface parameters and inhomogeneous forestation, call for an in-depth analysis of the physical processes involved. Therefore the different problems concerning the assessment of rockfall hazards have to be solved adequately. Moreover, due to the actual discussion about cost efficiency the planning of protective measures calls for (more) detailed information about the intensity and probability of expected rockfall incidents along a typical trajectory or for a given area. Today simulation models like GEOTEST's - ROFMOD 4.1 (2D and 3D) are important tools for hazard assessment. This simulation model produces profiles and maps with intensity and range and allows to calculate decisive parameters for the dimensioning optimized positioning of protection measures. Within the impact analysis the relevant scenarios according to their intensities are determined using a 3D rockfall model. It calculates the trajectories of rock-bodies with realistic forms based on physical laws from defined starting points within the mapped rock area as well as steep slopes with loose blocks. The movement is of any chosen particle with defined axis length ratio, rounding and specific weight is strongly influenced by the spatial resolution of the digital terrain model (DTM as well as the interaction with the underground and possible tree-impacts). Therefore, the following parameters are implemented in the rockfall model: geometry of blocks, underground plasticity (value of attenuation), surface roughness as well as forest quality (amount of trees per area (ha) and trunk diameter). A very important aspect is the geometry of the blocks. For realistic results only a simulation with real block shapes will be sucessful. For these

  1. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  2. Design of 3D-Printed Titanium Compliant Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Howell, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes 3D-printed titanium compliant mechanisms for aerospace applications. It is meant as a primer to help engineers design compliant, multi-axis, printed parts that exhibit high performance. Topics covered include brief introductions to both compliant mechanism design and 3D printing in titanium, material and geometry considerations for 3D printing, modeling techniques, and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful part geometries. Key findings include recommended flexure geometries, minimum thicknesses, and general design guidelines for compliant printed parts that may not be obvious to the first time designer.

  3. Vector quantization of 3-D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2005-10-01

    A geometry compression algorithm for 3-D QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in 3-D space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a constrained encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.

  4. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  5. Design, analysis, and characterization of stress-engineered 3D microstructures comprised of PECVD silicon oxide and nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Chia-Hsing; Turner, Kevin T.

    2016-06-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are typically 2D or quasi-3D structures fabricated using surface and bulk micromachining processes. In this work, an approach for 3D structure fabrication based on stress engineering is demonstrated. Specifically, sub-mm 3D spherical cage-like structures are realized through the deformation of bilayers of residually-stressed silicon oxide and silicon nitride with micrometer-scale thicknesses. Analytical and finite models to predict the shape of stress-engineered structures based on geometry and residual stress are described and used for structure design. A systematic experimental study was performed to quantify residual stresses in silicon nitride films made by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The measurements show that the residual stress of PECVD silicon nitride can be tuned over a wide range of tensile stresses through the control of deposition parameters, such as flow rate and power. Stress engineered 3D cage-like structures comprised of PECVD silicon nitride and oxide films were fabricated. 3D structures with a range of curvatures were demonstrated. The measured geometry of the fabricated structures are in good agreement with predictions from analytical and finite element models.

  6. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  7. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  8. Assessing the RELAPS-3D Heat Conduction Enclosure Model

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, Larry D.

    2008-09-30

    Three heat conduction problems that have exact solutions are modeled with RELAP5-3D using the conduction enclosure model. These comparisons are designed to be used in the RELAP5-3D development assessment scheduled to be completed in 2009. It is shown that with proper input choices and adequate model detail the exact solutions can be matched. In addition, this analysis identified an error and the required correction in the cylindrical and spherical heat conductor models in RELAP5-3D which will be corrected in a future version of RELAP5-3D.

  9. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  10. CASPT2 study of inverse sandwich-type dinuclear 3d transition metal complexes of ethylene and dinitrogen molecules: similarities and differences in geometry, electronic structure, and spin multiplicity.

    PubMed

    Nakagaki, Masayuki; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2015-07-01

    The spin multiplicities and coordination structures of inverse sandwich-type complexes (ISTCs) of ethylene and dinitrogen molecules with 3d transition metal elements (Sc to Ni), (μ-C2H4)[M(AIP)]2 and (μ-N2)[M(AIP)]2 (AIPH = (Z)-1-amino-3-iminoprop-1-ene; M = Sc to Ni) were investigated by the CASPT2 method. In both ethylene and dinitrogen ISTCs of the early 3d transition metals (Sc to Cr), sandwiched ethylene and dinitrogen ligands coordinate with two metal atoms in an η(2)-side-on form and their ground states have an open-shell singlet spin multiplicity. The η(1)-end-on coordination structure of dinitrogen ISTCs is considerably less stable than the η(2)-side-on form in these metals. For the late 3d transition metals (Mn to Ni), ethylene and dinitrogen ISTCs exhibit interesting similarities and differences in spin multiplicity and structure as follows: in ethylene ISTCs of Mn to Ni, the ground state has an open-shell singlet spin multiplicity like those of the ISTCs of early transition metals. However, the ethylene ligand is considerably distorted, in which the ethylene carbon atoms have a tetrahedral-like structure similar to sp(3) carbon and each of them coordinates with one metal in a μ-η(1):η(1) structure. These geometrical features are completely different from those of ISTCs of the early transition metals. In dinitrogen ISTCs of Mn to Ni, on the other hand, the ground state has a high spin multiplicity from nonet (Mn) to triplet (Ni). The η(2)-side-on coordination structure of the dinitrogen ligand is as stable as the η(1)-end-on form in the Mn complex but the η(1)-end-on structure is more stable than the η(2)-side-on form in the Fe to Ni complexes. All these interesting similarities and differences between ethylene and dinitrogen ISTCs and between the early and late transition metal elements arise from the occupation of several important molecular orbitals. PMID:26041561

  11. Coupling 2-D cylindrical and 3-D x-y-z transport computations

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Yehnert, C.E.; Pitcairn, T.N.

    1998-06-30

    This paper describes a new two-dimensional (2-D) cylindrical geometry to three-dimensional (3-D) rectangular x-y-z splice option for multi-dimensional discrete ordinates solutions to the neutron (photon) transport equation. Of particular interest are the simple transformations developed and applied in order to carry out the required spatial and angular interpolations. The spatial interpolations are linear and equivalent to those applied elsewhere. The angular interpolations are based on a high order spherical harmonics representation of the angular flux. Advantages of the current angular interpolations over previous work are discussed. An application to an intricate streaming problem is provided to demonstrate the advantages of the new method for efficient and accurate prediction of particle behavior in complex geometries.

  12. A Generalized Approach to the Modeling and Analysis of 3D Surface Morphology in Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Janice L.; Miller, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The surface geometry of an organism represents the boundary of its three-dimensional (3D) form and can be used as a proxy for the phenotype. A mathematical approach is presented that describes surface morphology using parametric 3D equations with variables expressed as x, y, z in terms of parameters u, v. Partial differentiation of variables with respect to parameters yields elements of the Jacobian representing tangent lines and planes of every point on the surface. Jacobian elements provide a compact size-free summary of the entire surface, and can be used as variables in principal components analysis to produce a morphospace. Mollusk and echinoid models are generated to demonstrate that whole organisms can be represented in a common morphospace, regardless of differences in size, geometry, and taxonomic affinity. Models can be used to simulate theoretical forms, novel morphologies, and patterns of phenotypic variation, and can also be empirically-based by designing them with reference to actual forms using reverse engineering principles. Although this study uses the Jacobian to summarize models, they can also be analyzed with 3D methods such as eigensurface, spherical harmonics, wavelet analysis, and geometric morphometrics. This general approach should prove useful for exploring broad questions regarding morphological evolution and variation. PMID:24204866

  13. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  14. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  15. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  16. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  17. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  18. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  19. 3D printed PLA-based scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Tiziano; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP), also known as additive manufacturing (AM), has been well received and adopted in the biomedical field. The capacity of this family of techniques to fabricate customized 3D structures with complex geometries and excellent reproducibility has revolutionized implantology and regenerative medicine. In particular, nozzle-based systems allow the fabrication of high-resolution polylactic acid (PLA) structures that are of interest in regenerative medicine. These 3D structures find interesting applications in the regenerative medicine field where promising applications including biodegradable templates for tissue regeneration purposes, 3D in vitro platforms for studying cell response to different scaffolds conditions and for drug screening are considered among others. Scaffolds functionality depends not only on the fabrication technique, but also on the material used to build the 3D structure, the geometry and inner architecture of the structure, and the final surface properties. All being crucial parameters affecting scaffolds success. This Commentary emphasizes the importance of these parameters in scaffolds’ fabrication and also draws the attention toward the versatility of these PLA scaffolds as a potential tool in regenerative medicine and other medical fields. PMID:23959206

  20. Multi-view and 3D deformable part models.

    PubMed

    Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt

    2015-11-01

    As objects are inherently 3D, they have been modeled in 3D in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to 3D models, 3D object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based models are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such models have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about 3D shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of 3D and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of 3D object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part model [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information, resulting in several different models with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a 3D object model, consisting of multiple object parts represented in 3D and a continuous appearance model. We experimentally verify that our models, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object models, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , 3D object classes [3] , Pascal3D+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ). PMID:26440264

  1. Characterizing the propagation of gravity waves in 3D nonlinear simulations of solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvan, L.; Strugarek, A.; Brun, A. S.; Mathis, S.; Garcia, R. A.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The revolution of helio- and asteroseismology provides access to the detailed properties of stellar interiors by studying the star's oscillation modes. Among them, gravity (g) modes are formed by constructive interferences between progressive internal gravity waves (IGWs), propagating in stellar radiative zones. Our new 3D nonlinear simulations of the interior of a solar-like star allows us to study the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of these waves. Aims: The aim of this article is to clarify our understanding of the behavior of IGWs in a 3D radiative zone and to provide a clear overview of their properties. Methods: We use a method of frequency filtering that reveals the path of individual gravity waves of different frequencies in the radiative zone. Results: We are able to identify the region of propagation of different waves in 2D and 3D, to compare them to the linear raytracing theory and to distinguish between propagative and standing waves (g-modes). We also show that the energy carried by waves is distributed in different planes in the sphere, depending on their azimuthal wave number. Conclusions: We are able to isolate individual IGWs from a complex spectrum and to study their propagation in space and time. In particular, we highlight in this paper the necessity of studying the propagation of waves in 3D spherical geometry, since the distribution of their energy is not equipartitioned in the sphere.

  2. Compilation of 3D global conductivity model of the Earth for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Dmitry; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Palshin, Nikolay

    2015-07-01

    We have compiled a global three-dimensional (3D) conductivity model of the Earth with an ultimate goal to be used for realistic simulation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), posing a potential threat to man-made electric systems. Bearing in mind the intrinsic frequency range of the most intense disturbances (magnetospheric substorms) with typical periods ranging from a few minutes to a few hours, the compiled 3D model represents the structure in depth range of 0-100 km, including seawater, sediments, earth crust, and partly the lithosphere/asthenosphere. More explicitly, the model consists of a series of spherical layers, whose vertical and lateral boundaries are established based on available data. To compile a model, global maps of bathymetry, sediment thickness, and upper and lower crust thicknesses as well as lithosphere thickness are utilized. All maps are re-interpolated on a common grid of 0.25×0.25 degree lateral spacing. Once the geometry of different structures is specified, each element of the structure is assigned either a certain conductivity value or conductivity versus depth distribution, according to available laboratory data and conversion laws. A numerical formalism developed for compilation of the model, allows for its further refinement by incorporation of regional 3D conductivity distributions inferred from the real electromagnetic data. So far we included into our model four regional conductivity models, available from recent publications, namely, surface conductance model of Russia, and 3D conductivity models of Fennoscandia, Australia, and northwest of the United States.

  3. Euclidean, Spherical, and Hyperbolic Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Many classical problems in elementary calculus use Euclidean geometry. This article takes such a problem and solves it in hyperbolic and in spherical geometry instead. The solution requires only the ability to compute distances and intersections of points in these geometries. The dramatically different results we obtain illustrate the effect…

  4. Migrating from 2D to 3D in "Autograph"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    With both "Cabri" and "Autograph" now venturing into 3D, the dimension that previously was only demonstrated in the classroom with a lot of arm waving and crude wire cages can now be explored dynamically on screen. "Cabri 3D" concentrates on constructions, using the principles of Euclidian geometry, whereas "Autograph" creates objects using a…

  5. Logarithmic finite-size corrections in the three-dimensional mean spherical model

    SciTech Connect

    Brankov, J.G.; Danchev, D.M. )

    1993-05-01

    The finite-size scaling prediction about logarithmic corrections in the free energy arising from corners in the geometry of the system is tested on the three-dimensional mean spherical model. The general case of boundary conditions which are periodic in d[prime] [ge] 0 dimensions and free or fixed in the remaining 3 - d[prime] dimensions is considered. Logarithmic and double-logarithmic size corrections stemming from corners, edges, and surfaces are obtained. 15 refs.

  6. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  7. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  8. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  9. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  10. Local Diagnosis of Reconnection in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate (I,II) an approach to find reconnection sites in 3D where there is no flux function for guidance, and where local observational signatures for the ``violation of frozen flux'' are under developed, if not non-existent. We use 2D and 3D PIC simulations of asymmetric guide field reconnection to test our observational hierarchy of single spacecraft kinetic diagnostics - all possible with present state of the art instrumentation. The proliferation of turbulent, electron inertial scale layers in the realistic 3D case demonstrates that electron demagnetization, while necessary, is not sufficient to identify reconnection sites. An excellent local, observable, single spacecraft proxy is demonstrated for the size of the theoretical frozen flux violation. Since even frozen flux violations need not imply reconnection is at hand, a new calibrated dimensionless method is used to determine the importance of such violations. This measure is available in 2D and 3D to help differentiate reconnection layers from weaker frozen flux violating layers. We discuss the possibility that this technique can be implemented on MMS. A technique to highlight flow geometries conducive to reconnection in 3D simulations is also suggested, that may also be implementable with the MMS flotilla. We use local analysis with multiple necessary, but theoretically independent electron kinetic conditions to help reduce the probability of misidentification of any given layer as a reconnection site. Since these local conditions are all necessary for the site, but none is known to be sufficient, the multiple tests help to greatly reduce false positive identifications. The selectivity of the results of this approach using PIC simulations of 3D asymmetric guide field reconnection will be shown using varying numbers of simultaneous conditions. Scudder, J.D., H. Karimabadi, W. Daughton and V. Roytershteyn I, II, submitted Phys. Plasma., 2014

  11. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  12. Shaped 3D Singular Spectrum Analysis for Quantifying Gene Expression, with Application to the Early Zebrafish Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Shlemov, Alex; Golyandina, Nina; Holloway, David; Spirov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in microscopy technologies, biological markers, and automated processing methods is making possible the development of gene expression atlases at cellular-level resolution over whole embryos. Raw data on gene expression is usually very noisy. This noise comes from both experimental (technical/methodological) and true biological sources (from stochastic biochemical processes). In addition, the cells or nuclei being imaged are irregularly arranged in 3D space. This makes the processing, extraction, and study of expression signals and intrinsic biological noise a serious challenge for 3D data, requiring new computational approaches. Here, we present a new approach for studying gene expression in nuclei located in a thick layer around a spherical surface. The method includes depth equalization on the sphere, flattening, interpolation to a regular grid, pattern extraction by Shaped 3D singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and interpolation back to original nuclear positions. The approach is demonstrated on several examples of gene expression in the zebrafish egg (a model system in vertebrate development). The method is tested on several different data geometries (e.g., nuclear positions) and different forms of gene expression patterns. Fully 3D datasets for developmental gene expression are becoming increasingly available; we discuss the prospects of applying 3D-SSA to data processing and analysis in this growing field. PMID:26495320

  13. 3D scanning modeling method application in ancient city reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Pu; Zhou, Mingquan; Du, Guoguang; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo

    2015-07-01

    With the development of optical engineering technology, the precision of 3D scanning equipment becomes higher, and its role in 3D modeling is getting more distinctive. This paper proposed a 3D scanning modeling method that has been successfully applied in Chinese ancient city reconstruction. On one hand, for the existing architectures, an improved algorithm based on multiple scanning is adopted. Firstly, two pieces of scanning data were rough rigid registered using spherical displacers and vertex clustering method. Secondly, a global weighted ICP (iterative closest points) method is used to achieve a fine rigid registration. On the other hand, for the buildings which have already disappeared, an exemplar-driven algorithm for rapid modeling was proposed. Based on the 3D scanning technology and the historical data, a system approach was proposed for 3D modeling and virtual display of ancient city.

  14. 3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J.; Dehghani, Hamid; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon R.; Ripoll, Jorge; Nieto-Vesperinas, Manuel

    2000-12-01

    We present an investigation of the effect of a 3D non-scattering gap region on image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography. The void gap is modelled by the Radiosity-Diffusion method and the inverse problem is solved using the adjoint field method. The case of a sphere with concentric spherical gap is used as an example.

  15. 3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions.

    PubMed

    Riley, J; Dehghani, H; Schweiger, M; Arridge, S; Ripoll, J; Nieto-Vesperinas, M

    2000-12-18

    We present an investigation of the effect of a 3D non-scattering gap region on image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography. The void gap is modelled by the Radiosity-Diffusion method and the inverse problem is solved using the adjoint field method. The case of a sphere with concentric spherical gap is used as an example. PMID:19407898

  16. 3D measurement using circular gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    3D measurement using methods of structured light are well known in the industry. Most such systems use some variation of straight lines, either as simple lines or with some form of encoding. This geometry assumes the lines will be projected from one side and viewed from another to generate the profile information. But what about applications where a wide triangulation angle may not be practical, particularly at longer standoff distances. This paper explores the use of circular grating patterns projected from a center point to achieve 3D information. Originally suggested by John Caulfield around 1990, the method had some interesting potential, particularly if combined with alternate means of measurement from traditional triangulation including depth from focus methods. The possible advantages of a central reference point in the projected pattern may offer some different capabilities not as easily attained with a linear grating pattern. This paper will explore the pros and cons of the method and present some examples of possible applications.

  17. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  18. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  19. LLNL-Earth3D

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  20. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  1. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  2. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  3. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  4. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  5. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  6. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, M; Redel, T; Struffert, T; Hornegger, J; Doerfler, A

    2011-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling. PMID:21908904

  7. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, M.; Redel, T.; Struffert, T.; Hornegger, J.; Doerfler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling.

  8. Anisotropy effects on 3D waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stekl, I.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the recent years 3D waveform inversion has become achievable procedure for seismic data processing. A number of datasets has been inverted and presented (Warner el al 2008, Ben Hadj at all, Sirgue et all 2010) using isotropic 3D waveform inversion. However the question arises will the results be affected by isotropic assumption. Full-wavefield inversion techniques seek to match field data, wiggle-for-wiggle, to synthetic data generated by a high-resolution model of the sub-surface. In this endeavour, correctly matching the travel times of the principal arrivals is a necessary minimal requirement. In many, perhaps most, long-offset and wide-azimuth datasets, it is necessary to introduce some form of p-wave velocity anisotropy to match the travel times successfully. If this anisotropy is not also incorporated into the wavefield inversion, then results from the inversion will necessarily be compromised. We have incorporated anisotropy into our 3D wavefield tomography codes, characterised as spatially varying transverse isotropy with a tilted axis of symmetry - TTI anisotropy. This enhancement approximately doubles both the run time and the memory requirements of the code. We show that neglect of anisotropy can lead to significant artefacts in the recovered velocity models. We will present inversion results of inverting anisotropic 3D dataset by assuming isotropic earth and compare them with anisotropic inversion result. As a test case Marmousi model extended to 3D with no velocity variation in third direction and with added spatially varying anisotropy is used. Acquisition geometry is assumed as OBC with sources and receivers everywhere at the surface. We attempted inversion using both 2D and full 3D acquisition for this dataset. Results show that if no anisotropy is taken into account although image looks plausible most features are miss positioned in depth and space, even for relatively low anisotropy, which leads to incorrect result. This may lead to

  9. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  10. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  12. Minimizing camera-eye optical aberrations during the 3D reconstruction of retinal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana-Iuit, Javier; Martinez-Perez, M. Elena; Espinosa-Romero, Arturo; Diaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2010-05-01

    3D reconstruction of blood vessels is a powerful visualization tool for physicians, since it allows them to refer to qualitative representation of their subject of study. In this paper we propose a 3D reconstruction method of retinal vessels from fundus images. The reconstruction method propose herein uses images of the same retinal structure in epipolar geometry. Images are preprocessed by RISA system for segmenting blood vessels and obtaining feature points for correspondences. The correspondence points process is solved using correlation. The LMedS analysis and Graph Transformation Matching algorithm are used for outliers suppression. Camera projection matrices are computed with the normalized eight point algorithm. Finally, we retrieve 3D position of the retinal tree points by linear triangulation. In order to increase the power of visualization, 3D tree skeletons are represented by surfaces via generalized cylinders whose radius correspond to morphological measurements obtained by RISA. In this paper the complete calibration process including the fundus camera and the optical properties of the eye, the so called camera-eye system is proposed. On one hand, the internal parameters of the fundus camera are obtained by classical algorithms using a reference pattern. On the other hand, we minimize the undesirable efects of the aberrations induced by the eyeball optical system assuming that contact enlarging lens corrects astigmatism, spherical and coma aberrations are reduced changing the aperture size and eye refractive errors are suppressed adjusting camera focus during image acquisition. Evaluation of two self-calibration proposals and results of 3D blood vessel surface reconstruction are presented.

  13. Spacecraft charging analysis with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D

    SciTech Connect

    Deca, J.; Lapenta, G.; Marchand, R.; Markidis, S.

    2013-10-15

    We present the first results on the analysis of spacecraft charging with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D, designed for running on massively parallel supercomputers. The numerical algorithm is presented, highlighting the implementation of the electrostatic solver and the immersed boundary algorithm; the latter which creates the possibility to handle complex spacecraft geometries. As a first step in the verification process, a comparison is made between the floating potential obtained with iPic3D and with Orbital Motion Limited theory for a spherical particle in a uniform stationary plasma. Second, the numerical model is verified for a CubeSat benchmark by comparing simulation results with those of PTetra for space environment conditions with increasing levels of complexity. In particular, we consider spacecraft charging from plasma particle collection, photoelectron and secondary electron emission. The influence of a background magnetic field on the floating potential profile near the spacecraft is also considered. Although the numerical approaches in iPic3D and PTetra are rather different, good agreement is found between the two models, raising the level of confidence in both codes to predict and evaluate the complex plasma environment around spacecraft.

  14. Volumetric rendering and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index lens imaged by angular scan optical coherence tomography system.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianing; Thompson, Kevin P; Ma, Bin; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-08-22

    In this paper, we develop the methodology, including the refraction correction, geometrical thickness correction, coordinate transformation, and layer segmentation algorithms, for 3D rendering and metrology of a layered spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) lens based on the imaging data collected by an angular scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The 3D mapping and rendering enables direct 3D visualization and internal defect inspection of the lens. The metrology provides assessment of the surface geometry, the lens thickness, the radii of curvature of the internal layer interfaces, and the misalignment of the internal S-GRIN distribution with respect to the lens surface. The OCT metrology results identify the manufacturing defects, and enable targeted process development for optimizing the manufacturing parameters. The newly fabricated S-GRIN lenses show up to a 7x spherical aberration reduction that allows a significantly increased utilizable effective aperture. PMID:27557217

  15. A 3-D chimera grid embedding technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benek, J. A.; Buning, P. G.; Steger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) chimera grid-embedding technique is described. The technique simplifies the construction of computational grids about complex geometries. The method subdivides the physical domain into regions which can accommodate easily generated grids. Communication among the grids is accomplished by interpolation of the dependent variables at grid boundaries. The procedures for constructing the composite mesh and the associated data structures are described. The method is demonstrated by solution of the Euler equations for the transonic flow about a wing/body, wing/body/tail, and a configuration of three ellipsoidal bodies.

  16. Spontaneous development of arcuate single-sided subduction in global 3-D mantle convection models with a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crameri, Fabio; Tackley, Paul J.

    2014-07-01

    We present temporally evolving 3-D global mantle convection models with single-sided subduction and a free surface in both 3-D Cartesian and fully spherical geometry. Special focus is given to the spontaneous development of three-dimensional structures at the surface and in the upper mantle. We find that an arcuate shape is the natural form for trenches and slabs. Cartesian models are used first to study the dynamic evolution of subduction zones, spreading ridges, and interconnected transform features. These experiments highlight the strong variation of spontaneously developing, arcuate slab curvature and subduction polarity along the trench strike. The spontaneous development of spreading ridges leads to lateral offsets between separated segments that are characterized by normal transform motion. Spherical models then allow insights into the evolution of plate tectonics on a sphere. Investigated are the spontaneous evolution of slab geometry, trench motion, and subduction-induced mantle flow. Two new dynamical features are discovered: "back-slab spiral flow" and "slab tunneling." 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Modeling the influence of particle morphology on the fracture behavior of silica sand using a 3D discrete element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cil, Mehmet B.; Alshibli, Khalid A.

    2015-02-01

    The constitutive behavior and deformation characteristics of uncemented granular materials are to a large extent derived from the fabric or geometry of the particle structure and the interparticle friction resulting from normal forces acting on particles or groups of particles. Granular materials consist of discrete particles with a fabric (microstructure) that changes under loading. Synchrotron micro-computed tomography (SMT) has emerged as a powerful non-destructive 3D scanning technique to study geomaterials. In this paper, SMT was used to acquire in situ scans of the oedometry test of a column of three silica sand particles. The sand is known as ASTM 20-30 Ottawa sand, and has a grain size between US sieves #20 (0.841 mm) and #30 (0.595 mm). The characteristics and evolution of particle fracture in sand were examined using SMT images, and a 3D discrete element method (DEM) was used to model the fracture behavior of sand particles. It adopts the bonded particle model to generate a crushable agglomerate that consists of a large number of small spherical sub-particles. The agglomerate shape matches the 3D physical shape of the tested sand particles by mapping the particle morphology from the SMT images. The paper investigates and discusses the influence of agglomerate packing (i.e., the number and size distribution of spherical sub-particles that constitute the agglomerate) and agglomerate shape on the fracture behavior of crushable particles.

  18. Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kugland, Nathan; Doeppner, Tilo; Glenzer, Siegfried; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Chris; Neumayer, Paul

    2015-04-07

    A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K.alpha. emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K.alpha. x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-.alpha. emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.

  19. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  20. 3D ladar ATR based on recognition by parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, Erik; Douglas, Joel; Ettinger, Gil

    2003-09-01

    LADAR imaging is unique in its potential to accurately measure the 3D surface geometry of targets. We exploit this 3D geometry to perform automatic target recognition on targets in the domain of military and civilian ground vehicles. Here we present a robust model based 3D LADAR ATR system which efficiently searches through target hypothesis space by reasoning hierarchically from vehicle parts up to identification of a whole vehicle with specific pose and articulation state. The LADAR data consists of one or more 3D point clouds generated by laser returns from ground vehicles viewed from multiple sensor locations. The key to this approach is an automated 3D registration process to precisely align and match multiple data views to model based predictions of observed LADAR data. We accomplish this registration using robust 3D surface alignment techniques which we have also used successfully in 3D medical image analysis applications. The registration routine seeks to minimize a robust 3D surface distance metric to recover the best six-degree-of-freedom pose and fit. We process the observed LADAR data by first extracting salient parts, matching these parts to model based predictions and hierarchically constructing and testing increasingly detailed hypotheses about the identity of the observed target. This cycle of prediction, extraction, and matching efficiently partitions the target hypothesis space based on the distinctive anatomy of the target models and achieves effective recognition by progressing logically from a target's constituent parts up to its complete pose and articulation state.

  1. NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

    2014-04-01

    To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

  2. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  3. Teaching 3-D Geometry--The Multi Representational Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbitzer, Sonja; Loong, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Many students have difficulties in geometric and spatial thinking (see Pittalis & Christou, 2010). Students who are asked to construct models of geometric thought not previously learnt may be forced into rote learning and only gain temporary or superficial success (Van de Walle & Folk, 2008, p. 431). Therefore it is imperative for…

  4. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  5. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  6. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  7. 3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code

    2001-02-14

    ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forwardmore » and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.« less

  8. 3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, John; Wareing, Todd; Pautz, Shawn

    2001-02-14

    ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forward and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.

  9. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemore » equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.« less

  10. DRACO development for 3D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory

    2006-10-01

    The DRACO (r-z) lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics laser fusion simulation code is being extended to model 3D hydrodynamics in (x-y-z) coordinates with hexahedral cells on a structured grid. The equation of motion is solved with a lagrangian update with optional rezoning. The fluid equations are solved using an explicit scheme based on (Schulz, 1964) while the SALE-3D algorithm (Amsden, 1981) is used as a template for computing cell volumes and other quantities. A second order rezoner has been added which uses linear interpolation of the underlying continuous functions to preserve accuracy (Van Leer, 1976). Artificial restoring force terms and smoothing algorithms are used to avoid grid distortion in high aspect ratio cells. These include alternate node couplers along with a rotational restoring force based on the Tensor Code (Maenchen, 1964). Electron and ion thermal conduction is modeled using an extension of Kershaw's method (Kershaw, 1981) to 3D geometry. Test problem simulations will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of this new version of DRACO to the study of fluid instabilities in three dimensions.

  11. Bukliball and Beyond: 3-D Soft Auxetic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jongmin; Babaee, Sahab; Weaver, James C.; Patel, Nikita; Chen, Elizabeth R.; Bertoldi, Katia

    2013-03-01

    We present a new class of 3-D soft metamaterials whose microstructure can be dramatically changed in response to mechanical loading. Patterned spherical shells, the Buckliballs (PNAS 109(16):5978) which undergo undergoing a buckling-induced structural transformation under pressure, are employed as building blocks, and are assembled to construct 3-D super-structures. We present procedures to guide the selection of both the building blocks and their arrangement, and design materials with tunable 3-D auxetic behavior that exploit buckling as the actuation mechanism. The validity of the proposed material design is demonstrated through both experiments and finite element simulations. This pattern transformation induced by a mechanical instability opens the possibility for fabrication of 3-D auxetic materials/structures over a wide range of length scales.

  12. Optical characterization and measurements of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmimaa, Marja; Järvenpää, Toni

    2008-04-01

    3D or autostereoscopic display technologies offer attractive solutions for enriching the multimedia experience. However, both characterization and comparison of 3D displays have been challenging when the definitions for the consistent measurement methods have been lacking and displays with similar specifications may appear quite different. Earlier we have investigated how the optical properties of autostereoscopic (3D) displays can be objectively measured and what are the main characteristics defining the perceived image quality. In this paper the discussion is extended to cover the viewing freedom (VF) and the definition for the optimum viewing distance (OVD) is elaborated. VF is the volume inside which the eyes have to be to see an acceptable 3D image. Characteristics limiting the VF space are proposed to be 3D crosstalk, luminance difference and color difference. Since the 3D crosstalk can be presumed to be dominating the quality of the end user experience and in our approach is forming the basis for the calculations of the other optical parameters, the reliability of the 3D crosstalk measurements is investigated. Furthermore the effect on the derived VF definition is evaluated. We have performed comparison 3D crosstalk measurements with different measurement device apertures and the effect of different measurement geometry on the results on actual 3D displays is reported.

  13. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  14. Highway 3D model from image and lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan

    2014-05-01

    We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.

  15. A 3-D SAR approach to IFSAR processing

    SciTech Connect

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.; BICKEL,DOUGLAS L.

    2000-03-01

    Interferometric SAR (IFSAR) can be shown to be a special case of 3-D SAR image formation. In fact, traditional IFSAR processing results in the equivalent of merely a super-resolved, under-sampled, 3-D SAR image. However, when approached as a 3-D SAR problem, a number of IFSAR properties and anomalies are easily explained. For example, IFSAR decorrelation with height is merely ordinary migration in 3-D SAR. Consequently, treating IFSAR as a 3-D SAR problem allows insight and development of proper motion compensation techniques and image formation operations to facilitate optimal height estimation. Furthermore, multiple antenna phase centers and baselines are easily incorporated into this formulation, providing essentially a sparse array in the elevation dimension. This paper shows the Polar Format image formation algorithm extended to 3 dimensions, and then proceeds to apply it to the IFSAR collection geometry. This suggests a more optimal reordering of the traditional IFSAR processing steps.

  16. M3D project for simulation studies of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1998-12-31

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project carries out simulation studies of plasmas of various regimes using multi-levels of physics, geometry, and mesh schemes in one code package. This paper and papers by Strauss, Sugiyama, and Belova in this workshop describe the project, and present examples of current applications. The currently available physics models of the M3D project are MHD, two-fluids, gyrokinetic hot particle/MHD hybrid, and gyrokinetic particle ion/two-fluid hybrid models. The code can be run with both structured and unstructured meshes.

  17. S3D: An interactive surface grid generation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Pierce, Lawrence E.; Yip, David

    1992-01-01

    S3D, an interactive software tool for surface grid generation, is described. S3D provides the means with which a geometry definition based either on a discretized curve set or a rectangular set can be quickly processed towards the generation of a surface grid for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. This is made possible as a result of implementing commonly encountered surface gridding tasks in an environment with a highly efficient and user friendly graphical interface. Some of the more advanced features of S3D include surface-surface intersections, optimized surface domain decomposition and recomposition, and automated propagation of edge distributions to surrounding grids.

  18. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  19. 3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of Relativistic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, P. A.; Miller, M. A.; Duncan, G. C.; Swift, C. M.

    1998-12-01

    We present the results of validation runs and the first extragalactic jet simulations performed with a 3D relativistic numerical hydrodynamic code employing a solver of the RHLLE type and using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR; Duncan & Hughes, 1994, Ap. J., 436, L119). Test problems include the shock tube, blast wave and spherical shock reflection (implosion). Trials with the code show that as a consequence of AMR it is viable to perform exploratory runs on workstation class machines (with no more than 128Mb of memory) prior to production runs. In the former case we achieve a resolution not much less than that normally regarded as the minimum needed to capture the essential physics of a problem, which means that such runs can provide valuable guidance allowing the optimum use of supercomputer resources. We present initial results from a program to explore the 3D stability properties of flows previously studied using a 2D axisymmetric code, and our first attempt to explore the structure and morphology of a relativistic jet encountering an ambient density gradient that mimics an ambient inhomogeneity or cloud.

  20. Autofocused 3D classification of cryoelectron subtomograms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Pfeffer, Stefan; Fernández, José Jesús; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Förster, Friedrich

    2014-10-01

    Classification of subtomograms obtained by cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) is a powerful approach to study the conformational landscapes of macromolecular complexes in situ. Major challenges in subtomogram classification are the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cryo-tomograms, their incomplete angular sampling, the unknown number of classes and the typically unbalanced abundances of structurally distinct complexes. Here, we propose a clustering algorithm named AC3D that is based on a similarity measure, which automatically focuses on the areas of major structural discrepancy between respective subtomogram class averages. Furthermore, we incorporate a spherical-harmonics-based fast subtomogram alignment algorithm, which provides a significant speedup. Assessment of our approach on simulated data sets indicates substantially increased classification accuracy of the presented method compared to two state-of-the-art approaches. Application to experimental subtomograms depicting endoplasmic-reticulum-associated ribosomal particles shows that AC3D is well suited to deconvolute the compositional heterogeneity of macromolecular complexes in situ. PMID:25242455

  1. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  2. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  3. Complex Structures in Sediments Overlying Sinkholes: 3D-GPR and Azimuthal Resistivity Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, S.; Kiflu, H. G.; Ammar, A. I., Sr.; Karashay, P., III; Marshall, A. M.; McNiff, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    3D GPR surveys in the covered karst terrain of west-central Florida, USA, reveal surprising geometries of surficial sediments. Several meters of surficial sands overlie progressively more clay-rich sediments, which in turn overlie weathered limestone. The top of a clay-rich horizon produces an exceptionally clear GPR reflector visible from depths between 0.5 and ~8 meters. On length scales of 10-20 meters, the geometry of this horizon as it drapes over underlying weathered limestone suggests that depressions are not conical, but instead more complex troughs that surround domed stratigraphic highs. Azimuthal semi-variograms of the clay horizon depth show greatest correlation in directions that are aligned with the direction of elevated resistivities at depths to 10-14 meters. One possible interpretation is that dissolution in underlying limestone is concentrated in elongated zones rather than in columnar or spherical voids. Elongated sand-filled depressions in the clay layer produce azimuthal resistivity highs in the direction of the elongation. This direction in turn corresponds to the major axis of depressions in the clay-rich GPR reflecting horizon. Groundwater recharge in this area is concentrated into conduits that breach the clay-rich units that overlie the limestone aquifer. This study suggests that the conduits themselves may be elongated features rather than cylindrical in form. Recharge flow paths may be more complex than previously recognized. The high-resolution GPR images require 3D surveys with 250 MHz and 500 MHz antennas, with 10-cm line spacings, careful corrections for antenna positions and 3D migrations of the data.

  4. 3D Imaging with Holographic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Kou, Shan Shan

    2010-04-01

    There are two main types of tomography that enable the 3D internal structures of objects to be reconstructed from scattered data. The commonly known computerized tomography (CT) give good results in the x-ray wavelength range where the filtered back-projection theorem and Radon transform can be used. These techniques rely on the Fourier projection-slice theorem where rays are considered to propagate straight through the object. Another type of tomography called `diffraction tomography' applies in applications in optics and acoustics where diffraction and scattering effects must be taken into account. The latter proves to be a more difficult problem, as light no longer travels straight through the sample. Holographic tomography is a popular way of performing diffraction tomography and there has been active experimental research on reconstructing complex refractive index data using this approach recently. However, there are two distinct ways of doing tomography: either by rotation of the object or by rotation of the illumination while fixing the detector. The difference between these two setups is intuitive but needs to be quantified. From Fourier optics and information transformation point of view, we use 3D transfer function analysis to quantitatively describe how spatial frequencies of the object are mapped to the Fourier domain. We first employ a paraxial treatment by calculating the Fourier transform of the defocused OTF. The shape of the calculated 3D CTF for tomography, by scanning the illumination in one direction only, takes on a form that we might call a 'peanut,' compared to the case of object rotation, where a diablo is formed, the peanut exhibiting significant differences and non-isotropy. In particular, there is a line singularity along one transverse direction. Under high numerical aperture conditions, the paraxial treatment is not accurate, and so we make use of 3D analytical geometry to calculate the behaviour in the non-paraxial case. This time, we

  5. Comparison of quasi-3D and full-3D laser wakefield PIC simulations using azimuthal mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalichaouch, Thamine; Yu, Peicheng; Davidson, Asher; Mori, Warren; Vieira, Jorge; Fonseca, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) has attracted a lot of interest as a possible compact particle accelerator. However, 3D simulations of plasma-based accelerators are computationally intensive, sometimes taking millions of core hours on today's computers. A quasi-3D particle-In-cell (PIC) approach has been developed to take advantage of azimuthal symmetry in LWFA (and PWFA) simulations by using a particle-in-cell description in r-z and a Fourier description in φ. Quasi-3D simulations of LWFA are computationally more efficient and faster than Full-3D simulations because only first few azimuthal harmonics are needed to capture the physics of the problem. We have developed a cylindrical mode decomposition diagnostic for 3D Cartesian geometry simulations to analyze the agreement between full-3D and quasi-3D PIC simulations of laser and beam-plasma interactions. The diagnostic interpolates field data from Full-3D PIC simulations onto an irregular cylindrical grid (r , φ , z). A Fourier decomposition is then performed on the interpolated 3D simulation data along the azimuthal direction. This diagnostic has the added advantage of separating out the wakefields from the laser field. Preliminary results for this diagnostic of LWFA and PWFA simulations with symmetric and nearly symmetric spot sizes as well as of laser-plasma interactions using lasers with orbital angular momentum (higher order Laguerre-Gaussian modes) will be presented.

  6. The capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyun

    The main goal of this research is to develop the theory and implement practical tools (in both software and hardware) for the capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes. Our research is expected to have applications in virtual reality, telepresence, film, music, video games, auditory user interfaces, and sound-based surveillance. The first part of our research is concerned with sound capture via a spherical microphone array. The advantage of this array is that it can be steered into any 3D directions digitally with the same beampattern. We develop design methodologies to achieve flexible microphone layouts, optimal beampattern approximation and robustness constraint. We also design novel hemispherical and circular microphone array layouts for more spatially constrained auditory scenes. Using the captured audio, we then propose a unified and simple approach for recreating them by exploring the reciprocity principle that is satisfied between the two processes. Our approach makes the system easy to build, and practical. Using this approach, we can capture the 3D sound field by a spherical microphone array and recreate it using a spherical loudspeaker array, and ensure that the recreated sound field matches the recorded field up to a high order of spherical harmonics. For some regular or semi-regular microphone layouts, we design an efficient parallel implementation of the multi-directional spherical beamformer by using the rotational symmetries of the beampattern and of the spherical microphone array. This can be implemented in either software or hardware and easily adapted for other regular or semi-regular layouts of microphones. In addition, we extend this approach for headphone-based system. Design examples and simulation results are presented to verify our algorithms. Prototypes are built and tested in real-world auditory scenes.

  7. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  8. Spherical electrostatic electron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.-S.; Kolk, B.; Kachnowski, T.; Trooster, J.; Benczer-Koller, N.

    1982-06-01

    A high transmission, low energy spherical electrostatic electron spectrometer particularly suited to the geometry required for Mössbauer-conversion electron spectroscopy was built. A transmission of 13% at an energy resolution of 2% was obtained with an 0.5 cm diameter source of 13.6 keV electrons. Applications to the study of hyperfine interactions of surfaces and interfaces are discussed.

  9. Glacial isostatic adjustment on 3-D Earth models: a finite-volume formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latychev, Konstantin; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Tromp, Jeroen; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Christara, Christina C.

    2005-05-01

    We describe and present results from a finite-volume (FV) parallel computer code for forward modelling the Maxwell viscoelastic response of a 3-D, self-gravitating, elastically compressible Earth to an arbitrary surface load. We implement a conservative, control volume discretization of the governing equations using a tetrahedral grid in Cartesian geometry and a low-order, linear interpolation. The basic starting grid honours all major radial discontinuities in the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM), and the models are permitted arbitrary spatial variations in viscosity and elastic parameters. These variations may be either continuous or discontinuous at a set of grid nodes forming a 3-D surface within the (regional or global) modelling domain. In the second part of the paper, we adopt the FV methodology and a spherically symmetric Earth model to generate a suite of predictions sampling a broad class of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) data types (3-D crustal motions, long-wavelength gravity anomalies). These calculations, based on either a simple disc load history or a global Late Pleistocene ice load reconstruction (ICE-3G), are benchmarked against predictions generated using the traditional normal-mode approach to GIA. The detailed comparison provides a guide for future analyses (e.g. what grid resolution is required to obtain a specific accuracy?) and it indicates that discrepancies in predictions of 3-D crustal velocities less than 0.1 mm yr-1 are generally obtainable for global grids with ~3 × 106 nodes; however, grids of higher resolution are required to predict large-amplitude (>1 cm yr-1) radial velocities in zones of peak post-glacial uplift (e.g. James bay) to the same level of absolute accuracy. We conclude the paper with a first application of the new formulation to a 3-D problem. Specifically, we consider the impact of mantle viscosity heterogeneity on predictions of present-day 3-D crustal motions in North America. In these tests, the

  10. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  11. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  12. Constructing 3-D Models Of A Scene From Planned Multiple Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shun-en; Calvert, Thomas W.

    1987-03-01

    Whether in an office, a warehouse or a home, the mobile robot must often work in a cluttered environment; although the basic layout of the environment may be known in advance, the nature and placement of objects within the environment will generally be unknown. Thus the intelligent mobile robot must be able to sense its environment with a vision system and it must be able to analyse multiple views to construct 3-d models of the objects it encounters. Since this analysis results in a heavy computational load, it is important to minimize the number of views and to use a planner to dynamically select a minimal set of vantage viewpoints. This paper discusses an approach to this general problem and describes a prototype system for a mobile intelligent robot which can construct 3-d models from planned sequential views. The principal components of this system are: (1) decomposition of a framed view into its components and the construction of partial 3-d descriptions of the view, (2) matching of the known environment to the partial 3-d descriptions of the view, (3) matching of partial descriptions of bodies derived from the current view with partial models constructed from previous views, (4) identification of new information in the current view and use of the information to update the models, (5) identification of unknown parts of partially constructed body models so that further viewpoints can be planned, (6) construction of a partial map of the scene and updating with each successive view, (7) selection of new viewpoints to maximize the information returned by a planner, (8) use of an expert system to convert the original boundary representations of the bodies to a new Constructive Solid Geometry-Extended Enhanced Spherical Image (CSG-EESI) representation to facilitate the recovery of structural information. Although the complete prototype system has not been implemented, its key components have been implemented and tested.

  13. Comparison of 3D orientation distribution functions measured with confocal microscopy and diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Kurt; Janve, Vaibhav; Gao, Yurui; Stepniewska, Iwona; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W

    2016-04-01

    The ability of diffusion MRI (dMRI) fiber tractography to non-invasively map three-dimensional (3D) anatomical networks in the human brain has made it a valuable tool in both clinical and research settings. However, there are many assumptions inherent to any tractography algorithm that can limit the accuracy of the reconstructed fiber tracts. Among them is the assumption that the diffusion-weighted images accurately reflect the underlying fiber orientation distribution (FOD) in the MRI voxel. Consequently, validating dMRI's ability to assess the underlying fiber orientation in each voxel is critical for its use as a biomedical tool. Here, using post-mortem histology and confocal microscopy, we present a method to perform histological validation of orientation functions in 3D, which has previously been limited to two-dimensional analysis of tissue sections. We demonstrate the ability to extract the 3D FOD from confocal z-stacks, and quantify the agreement between the MRI estimates of orientation information obtained using constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) and the true geometry of the fibers. We find an orientation error of approximately 6° in voxels containing nearly parallel fibers, and 10-11° in crossing fiber regions, and note that CSD was unable to resolve fibers crossing at angles below 60° in our dataset. This is the first time that the 3D white matter orientation distribution is calculated from histology and compared to dMRI. Thus, this technique serves as a gold standard for dMRI validation studies - providing the ability to determine the extent to which the dMRI signal is consistent with the histological FOD, and to establish how well different dMRI models can predict the ground truth FOD. PMID:26804781

  14. MR image denoising method for brain surface 3D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, De-xin; Liu, Peng-jie; Zhang, De-gan

    2014-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modeling of medical images is a critical part of surgical simulation. In this paper, we focus on the magnetic resonance (MR) images denoising for brain modeling reconstruction, and exploit a practical solution. We attempt to remove the noise existing in the MR imaging signal and preserve the image characteristics. A wavelet-based adaptive curve shrinkage function is presented in spherical coordinates system. The comparative experiments show that the denoising method can preserve better image details and enhance the coefficients of contours. Using these denoised images, the brain 3D visualization is given through surface triangle mesh model, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  16. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  17. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  18. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  19. Lattice Boltzmann Method for 3-D Flows with Curved Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Renwei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Dazhi; Luo, Li-Shi

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we investigate two issues that are important to computational efficiency and reliability in fluid dynamics applications of the lattice, Boltzmann equation (LBE): (1) Computational stability and accuracy of different lattice Boltzmann models and (2) the treatment of the boundary conditions on curved solid boundaries and their 3-D implementations. Three athermal 3-D LBE models (D3QI5, D3Ql9, and D3Q27) are studied and compared in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. The boundary treatment recently developed by Filippova and Hanel and Met et al. in 2-D is extended to and implemented for 3-D. The convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the 3-D LBE models with the boundary treatment for curved boundaries were tested in simulations of four 3-D flows: (1) Fully developed flows in a square duct, (2) flow in a 3-D lid-driven cavity, (3) fully developed flows in a circular pipe, and (4) a uniform flow over a sphere. We found that while the fifteen-velocity 3-D (D3Ql5) model is more prone to numerical instability and the D3Q27 is more computationally intensive, the 63Q19 model provides a balance between computational reliability and efficiency. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the boundary treatment for 3-D arbitrary curved geometry has second-order accuracy and possesses satisfactory stability characteristics.

  20. 3-D target-based distributed smart camera network localization.

    PubMed

    Kassebaum, John; Bulusu, Nirupama; Feng, Wu-Chi

    2010-10-01

    For distributed smart camera networks to perform vision-based tasks such as subject recognition and tracking, every camera's position and orientation relative to a single 3-D coordinate frame must be accurately determined. In this paper, we present a new camera network localization solution that requires successively showing a 3-D feature point-rich target to all cameras, then using the known geometry of a 3-D target, cameras estimate and decompose projection matrices to compute their position and orientation relative to the coordinatization of the 3-D target's feature points. As each 3-D target position establishes a distinct coordinate frame, cameras that view more than one 3-D target position compute translations and rotations relating different positions' coordinate frames and share the transform data with neighbors to facilitate realignment of all cameras to a single coordinate frame. Compared to other localization solutions that use opportunistically found visual data, our solution is more suitable to battery-powered, processing-constrained camera networks because it requires communication only to determine simultaneous target viewings and for passing transform data. Additionally, our solution requires only pairwise view overlaps of sufficient size to see the 3-D target and detect its feature points, while also giving camera positions in meaningful units. We evaluate our algorithm in both real and simulated smart camera networks. In the real network, position error is less than 1 ('') when the 3-D target's feature points fill only 2.9% of the frame area. PMID:20679031

  1. An Automated 3d Indoor Topological Navigation Network Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), 3D indoor modelling and 3D indoor navigation models. In this paper, an automated 3D topological indoor network generated from inaccurate 3D building models is proposed. In a normal scenario, 3D indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate 3D models with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The modelling results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.

  2. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  3. Influence of the Geometry on Mantle Convection Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, L.; Tosi, N.

    2012-04-01

    Modelling of geodynamic processes like mantle or core convection has strongly improved over the last two decades thanks to the steady development of numerical codes that tend to incorporate a more and more realistic physics. High-performance parallel computations allow the simulation of complex problems, such as the self-consistent generation of tectonic plates or the formation of planetary magnetic fields. However, the need to perform broad explorations of the parameter space and the large computational demands imposed by the non-linear, multi-scale nature of convection require several simplifications, in the domain geometry as well as in the physical complexity of the problem. A straightforward approach to limit the computational complexity of the simulations is to decrease the total number of degrees of freedom of the problem by reducing either the number of dimensions or the size of the model domain. On the one hand, for a given resolution, a 3D spherical shell clearly needs a much larger number of grid points than a 2D cylindrical shell or a 2D Cartesian box. At the resolutions typically employed to solve mantle convection problems, this difference amounts to at least a factor of a few hundreds. On the other hand, for certain problems, only a relatively small part of the mantle may be of interest, as in the case of the modelling of subduction [1], mid-ocean ridges or transform faults [2]. We adapted the code GAIA [3] to solve the Stokes problem in several different geometries (Cartesian box, cylindrical, spherical and regional-spherical) and dimensions (2D and 3D) and started a benchmark along the lines of [4] to assess the loss of accuracy when using reduced domains instead of a 3D spherical shell [5]. In general, upwellings in Cartesian geometry are rather flat, whereas the spherical geometry changes their shape to more mushroom-like structures. Furthermore, the number of plumes, which is representative of the characteristic wavelength of convection, varies

  4. Electric field in 3D gravity with torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.

    2008-08-15

    It is shown that in static and spherically symmetric configurations of the system of Maxwell field coupled to 3D gravity with torsion, at least one of the Maxwell field components has to vanish. Restricting our attention to the electric sector of the theory, we find an interesting exact solution, corresponding to the azimuthal electric field. Its geometric structure is to a large extent influenced by the values of two different central charges, associated to the asymptotic AdS structure of spacetime.

  5. FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures.

    PubMed

    Sarver, Michael; Zirbel, Craig L; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mokdad, Ali; Leontis, Neocles B

    2008-01-01

    New methods are described for finding recurrent three-dimensional (3D) motifs in RNA atomic-resolution structures. Recurrent RNA 3D motifs are sets of RNA nucleotides with similar spatial arrangements. They can be local or composite. Local motifs comprise nucleotides that occur in the same hairpin or internal loop. Composite motifs comprise nucleotides belonging to three or more different RNA strand segments or molecules. We use a base-centered approach to construct efficient, yet exhaustive search procedures using geometric, symbolic, or mixed representations of RNA structure that we implement in a suite of MATLAB programs, "Find RNA 3D" (FR3D). The first modules of FR3D preprocess structure files to classify base-pair and -stacking interactions. Each base is represented geometrically by the position of its glycosidic nitrogen in 3D space and by the rotation matrix that describes its orientation with respect to a common frame. Base-pairing and base-stacking interactions are calculated from the base geometries and are represented symbolically according to the Leontis/Westhof basepairing classification, extended to include base-stacking. These data are stored and used to organize motif searches. For geometric searches, the user supplies the 3D structure of a query motif which FR3D uses to find and score geometrically similar candidate motifs, without regard to the sequential position of their nucleotides in the RNA chain or the identity of their bases. To score and rank candidate motifs, FR3D calculates a geometric discrepancy by rigidly rotating candidates to align optimally with the query motif and then comparing the relative orientations of the corresponding bases in the query and candidate motifs. Given the growing size of the RNA structure database, it is impossible to explicitly compute the discrepancy for all conceivable candidate motifs, even for motifs with less than ten nucleotides. The screening algorithm that we describe finds all candidate motifs whose

  6. The 3D distribution of cordierite and biotite in hornfels from the Bugaboo contact aureole (British Columbia, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidies, Fred; Petley-Ragan, Arianne; Pattison, David

    2016-04-01

    The size, abundance, shape and spatial distribution of metamorphic minerals bears important information on the rates and mechanisms of fundamental processes that take place during metamorphic crystallization. X-ray computed tomography (XR-CT) has become the method of choice to study the three-dimensional (3D) disposition of minerals in rocks as it allows investigation of relatively large sample volumes at sufficiently high resolution required for statistically meaningful analyses, and as its non-destructive fashion permits further studies such as mineral chemical, isotopic or crystallographic analyses of select grains identified through XR-CT. We present results obtained through the quantification of the 3D disposition of cordierite and biotite crystals in a hornfels from the contact aureole of the Bugaboo Batholith (British Columbia, Canada) using XR-CT and global as well as scale-dependent pattern statistics (Petley-Ragan et al., 2016). The results demonstrate a random distribution of cordierite and biotite crystal sizes for all scales across the entire rock volume studied indicative of interface-controlled prograde metamorphic reaction kinetics. We show that the common approach to approximate the shape of crystals as spherical underestimates the influence of the Strauss hard-core process on rock texture which may be misinterpreted to reflect ordering of crystal sizes by inhibition of nucleation and growth commonly associated with diffusion-controlled reaction kinetics. According to our findings, Strauss hard-core ordering develops at length scales equal to and less than the average major axis of the crystal population. This is significantly larger than what is obtained if a spherical crystal geometry would be assumed, and increases with deviation from sphericity. For the cordierite and biotite populations investigated in this research, Strauss hard-core ordering developed at length scales of up to ˜2.2 and 1.25 mm, respectively, which is almost 1 mm longer than

  7. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  8. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  9. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  10. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  11. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  12. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  13. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  14. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  15. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  16. Local characterization of hindered Brownian motion by using digital video microscopy and 3D particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Simon L; Keyser, Ulrich F; Pagliara, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g., electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces. PMID:24593372

  17. Local characterization of hindered Brownian motion by using digital video microscopy and 3D particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmer, Simon L.; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Pagliara, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g., electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces.

  18. Local characterization of hindered Brownian motion by using digital video microscopy and 3D particle tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Dettmer, Simon L.; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Pagliara, Stefano

    2014-02-15

    In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g., electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces.

  19. Laser 3D micro-manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, Alberto; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Kim, Heungsoo; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Mathews, Scott A.

    2016-06-01

    Laser-based materials processing techniques are gaining widespread use in micro-manufacturing applications. The use of laser microfabrication techniques enables the processing of micro- and nanostructures from a wide range of materials and geometries without the need for masking and etching steps commonly associated with photolithography. This review aims to describe the broad applications space covered by laser-based micro- and nanoprocessing techniques and the benefits offered by the use of lasers in micro-manufacturing processes. Given their non-lithographic nature, these processes are also referred to as laser direct-write and constitute some of the earliest demonstrations of 3D printing or additive manufacturing at the microscale. As this review will show, the use of lasers enables precise control of the various types of processing steps—from subtractive to additive—over a wide range of scales with an extensive materials palette. Overall, laser-based direct-write techniques offer multiple modes of operation including the removal (via ablative processes) and addition (via photopolymerization or printing) of most classes of materials using the same equipment in many cases. The versatility provided by these multi-function, multi-material and multi-scale laser micro-manufacturing processes cannot be matched by photolithography nor with other direct-write microfabrication techniques and offer unique opportunities for current and future 3D micro-manufacturing applications.

  20. 3D printing of microscopic bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Jodi L.; Ritschdorff, Eric T.; Whiteley, Marvin; Shear, Jason B.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria communicate via short-range physical and chemical signals, interactions known to mediate quorum sensing, sporulation, and other adaptive phenotypes. Although most in vitro studies examine bacterial properties averaged over large populations, the levels of key molecular determinants of bacterial fitness and pathogenicity (e.g., oxygen, quorum-sensing signals) may vary over micrometer scales within small, dense cellular aggregates believed to play key roles in disease transmission. A detailed understanding of how cell–cell interactions contribute to pathogenicity in natural, complex environments will require a new level of control in constructing more relevant cellular models for assessing bacterial phenotypes. Here, we describe a microscopic three-dimensional (3D) printing strategy that enables multiple populations of bacteria to be organized within essentially any 3D geometry, including adjacent, nested, and free-floating colonies. In this laser-based lithographic technique, microscopic containers are formed around selected bacteria suspended in gelatin via focal cross-linking of polypeptide molecules. After excess reagent is removed, trapped bacteria are localized within sealed cavities formed by the cross-linked gelatin, a highly porous material that supports rapid growth of fully enclosed cellular populations and readily transmits numerous biologically active species, including polypeptides, antibiotics, and quorum-sensing signals. Using this approach, we show that a picoliter-volume aggregate of Staphylococcus aureus can display substantial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by enclosure within a shell composed of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:24101503

  1. Delft3D-FLOW on PRACE infrastructures for real life hydrodynamic applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donners, John; Genseberger, Menno; Jagers, Bert; de Goede, Erik; Mourits, Adri

    2013-04-01

    PRACE, the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, offers access to the largest high-performance computing systems in Europe. PRACE invites and helps industry to increase their innovative potential through the use of the PRACE infrastructure. This poster describes different efforts to assist Deltares with porting the open-source simulation software Delft3D-FLOW to PRACE infrastructures. Analysis of the performance on these infrastructures has been done for real life flow applications. Delft3D-FLOW is a 2D and 3D shallow water solver which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena resulting from tidal and meteorological forcing on a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. It also includes a module which sediment transport (both suspended and bed total load) and morphological changes for an arbitrary number of cohesive and non-cohesive fractions. As Delft3D-FLOW has been developed over several decades, with a variety of functionality and over 350k lines of source code, porting to PRACE infrastructures needs some effort. At the moment Delft3D-FLOW uses MPI with domain decomposition in one direction as its parallellisation approach. Because it is hard to identify scaling issues if one immediately starts with a complex case with many features enabled, different cases with increasing complexity have been used to investigate scaling of this parallellisation approach on several PRACE platforms. As a base reference case we started with a schematic high-resolution 2D hydrodynamic model of the river Waal that turned out to be surprisingly well-suited to the highly-parallel PRACE machines. Although Delft3D-FLOW employs a sophisticated build system, several modifications were required to port it to most PRACE systems due to the use of specific, highly-tuned compilers and MPI-libraries. After this we moved to a 3D hydrodynamic model of Rotterdam harbour that includes sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and a part of the North

  2. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  3. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  4. 3D stereolithography printing of graphene oxide reinforced complex architectures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong; Jin, Shengyu; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Zhou, Chi; Cheng, Gary J

    2015-10-30

    Properties of polymer based nanocomposites reply on distribution, concentration, geometry and property of nanofillers in polymer matrix. Increasing the concentration of carbon based nanomaterials, such as CNTs, in polymer matrix often results in stronger but more brittle material. Here, we demonstrated the first three-dimensional (3D) printed graphene oxide complex structures by stereolithography with good combination of strength and ductility. With only 0.2% GOs, the tensile strength is increased by 62.2% and elongation increased by 12.8%. Transmission electron microscope results show that the GOs were randomly aligned in the cross section of polymer. We investigated the strengthening mechanism of the 3D printed structure in terms of tensile strength and Young's modulus. It is found that an increase in ductility of the 3D printed nanocomposites is related to increase in crystallinity of GOs reinforced polymer. Compression test of 3D GOs structure reveals the metal-like failure model of GOs nanocomposites. PMID:26443263

  5. 3D Printing technologies for drug delivery: a review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; Smyth, Hugh

    2016-07-01

    With the FDA approval of the first 3D printed tablet, Spritam®, there is now precedence set for the utilization of 3D printing for the preparation of drug delivery systems. The capabilities for dispensing low volumes with accuracy, precise spatial control and layer-by-layer assembly allow for the preparation of complex compositions and geometries. The high degree of flexibility and control with 3D printing enables the preparation of dosage forms with multiple active pharmaceutical ingredients with complex and tailored release profiles. A unique opportunity for this technology for the preparation of personalized doses to address individual patient needs. This review will highlight the 3D printing technologies being utilized for the fabrication of drug delivery systems, as well as the formulation and processing parameters for consideration. This article will also summarize the range of dosage forms that have been prepared using these technologies, specifically over the last 10 years. PMID:26625986

  6. 3D Ultrasonic Wave Simulations for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Leckey Cara A/; Miler, Corey A.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) for the detection of damage in aerospace materials is an important area of research at NASA. Ultrasonic guided Lamb waves are a promising SHM damage detection technique since the waves can propagate long distances. For complicated flaw geometries experimental signals can be difficult to interpret. High performance computing can now handle full 3-dimensional (3D) simulations of elastic wave propagation in materials. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate ultrasound scattering from flaws in materials. EFIT results have been compared to experimental data and the simulations provide unique insight into details of the wave behavior. This type of insight is useful for developing optimized experimental SHM techniques. 3D EFIT can also be expanded to model wave propagation and scattering in anisotropic composite materials.

  7. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  8. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  9. Three dimensional hydrodynamic calculations with adaptive mesh refinement of the evolution of Rayleigh Taylor and Richtmyer Meshkov instabilities in converging geometry: Multi-mode perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.I. |; Bell, J.; Pember, R.; Kelleher, T.

    1993-04-01

    The authors present results for high resolution hydrodynamic calculations of the growth and development of instabilities in shock driven imploding spherical geometries in both 2D and 3D. They solve the Eulerian equations of hydrodynamics with a high order Godunov approach using local adaptive mesh refinement to study the temporal and spatial development of the turbulent mixing layer resulting from both Richtmyer Meshkov and Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. The use of a high resolution Eulerian discretization with adaptive mesh refinement permits them to study the detailed three-dimensional growth of multi-mode perturbations far into the non-linear regime for converging geometries. They discuss convergence properties of the simulations by calculating global properties of the flow. They discuss the time evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and compare its development to a simple theory for a turbulent mix model in spherical geometry based on Plesset`s equation. Their 3D calculations show that the constant found in the planar incompressible experiments of Read and Young`s may not be universal for converging compressible flow. They show the 3D time trace of transitional onset to a mixing state using the temporal evolution of volume rendered imaging. Their preliminary results suggest that the turbulent mixing layer loses memory of its initial perturbations for classical Richtmyer Meshkov and Rayleigh Taylor instabilities in spherically imploding shells. They discuss the time evolution of mixed volume fraction and the role of vorticity in converging 3D flows in enhancing the growth of a turbulent mixing layer.

  10. Self-similar flows in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerin-Roze, Jean

    2007-06-01

    If we are looking at the implosion of a sphere starting with a strong shock, the study of self-similar flows is a classical problem. We will assume that: - The sphere contains a perfect gas with a polytropic coefficient γ=5/3. - The shock follows the equation: rc=A(-t)^α with t0

  11. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  12. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  13. Real time 3D and heterogeneous data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.Q.; Small, D.E.

    1998-03-01

    This project visualizes characterization data in a 3D setting, in real time. Real time in this sense means collecting the data and presenting it before it delays the user, and processing faster than the acquisition systems so no bottlenecks occur. The goals have been to build a volumetric viewer to display 3D data, demonstrate projecting other data, such as images, onto the 3D data, and display both the 3D and projected images as fast as the data became available. The authors have examined several ways to display 3D surface data. The most effective was generating polygonal surface meshes. They have created surface maps form a continuous stream of 3D range data, fused image data onto the geometry, and displayed the data with a standard 3D rendering package. In parallel with this, they have developed a method to project real-time images onto the surface created. A key component is mapping the data on the correct surfaces, which requires a-priori positional information along with accurate calibration of the camera and lens system.

  14. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27194002

  15. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    PubMed

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©. PMID:26921815

  16. Automatic Reconstruction of Spacecraft 3D Shape from Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelman, C.; Radtke, R.; Voorhees, H.

    We describe a system that computes the three-dimensional (3D) shape of a spacecraft from a sequence of uncalibrated, two-dimensional images. While the mathematics of multi-view geometry is well understood, building a system that accurately recovers 3D shape from real imagery remains an art. A novel aspect of our approach is the combination of algorithms from computer vision, photogrammetry, and computer graphics. We demonstrate our system by computing spacecraft models from imagery taken by the Air Force Research Laboratory's XSS-10 satellite and DARPA's Orbital Express satellite. Using feature tie points (each identified in two or more images), we compute the relative motion of each frame and the 3D location of each feature using iterative linear factorization followed by non-linear bundle adjustment. The "point cloud" that results from this traditional shape-from-motion approach is typically too sparse to generate a detailed 3D model. Therefore, we use the computed motion solution as input to a volumetric silhouette-carving algorithm, which constructs a solid 3D model based on viewpoint consistency with the image frames. The resulting voxel model is then converted to a facet-based surface representation and is texture-mapped, yielding realistic images from arbitrary viewpoints. We also illustrate other applications of the algorithm, including 3D mensuration and stereoscopic 3D movie generation.

  17. Construction of programmable interconnected 3D microfluidic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Patrick R.; Wolf, Marc P.; Wang, Xueya; Zhang, Bei; Marsch, Stephan; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B.

    2015-02-01

    Microfluidic systems represent a key-enabling platform for novel diagnostic tools for use at the point-of-care in clinical contexts as well as for evolving single cell diagnostics. The design of 3D microfluidic systems is an active field of development, but construction of true interconnected 3D microfluidic networks is still a challenge, in particular when the goal is rapid prototyping, accurate design and flexibility. We report a novel approach for the construction of programmable 3D microfluidic systems consisting of modular 3D template casting of interconnected threads to allow user-programmable flow paths and examine its structural characteristics and its modular function. To overcome problems with thread template casting reported in the literature, low-surface-energy polymer threads were used, that allow solvent-free production. Connected circular channels with excellent roundness and low diameter variability were created. Variable channel termination allowed programming a flow path on-the-fly, thus rendering the resulting 3D microfluidic systems highly customizable even after production. Thus, construction of programmable/reprogrammable fully 3D microfluidic systems by template casting of a network of interconnecting threads is feasible, leads to high-quality and highly reproducible, complex 3D geometries.

  18. FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures

    PubMed Central

    Sarver, Michael; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mokdad, Ali; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2010-01-01

    New methods are described for finding recurrent three-dimensional (3D) motifs in RNA atomic-resolution structures. Recurrent RNA 3D motifs are sets of RNA nucleotides with similar spatial arrangements. They can be local or composite. Local motifs comprise nucleotides that occur in the same hairpin or internal loop. Composite motifs comprise nucleotides belonging to three or more different RNA strand segments or molecules. We use a base-centered approach to construct efficient, yet exhaustive search procedures using geometric, symbolic, or mixed representations of RNA structure that we implement in a suite of MATLAB programs, “Find RNA 3D” (FR3D). The first modules of FR3D preprocess structure files to classify base-pair and -stacking interactions. Each base is represented geometrically by the position of its glycosidic nitrogen in 3D space and by the rotation matrix that describes its orientation with respect to a common frame. Base-pairing and base-stacking interactions are calculated from the base geometries and are represented symbolically according to the Leontis/Westhof basepairing classification, extended to include base-stacking. These data are stored and used to organize motif searches. For geometric searches, the user supplies the 3D structure of a query motif which FR3D uses to find and score geometrically similar candidate motifs, without regard to the sequential position of their nucleotides in the RNA chain or the identity of their bases. To score and rank candidate motifs, FR3D calculates a geometric discrepancy by rigidly rotating candidates to align optimally with the query motif and then comparing the relative orientations of the corresponding bases in the query and candidate motifs. Given the growing size of the RNA structure database, it is impossible to explicitly compute the discrepancy for all conceivable candidate motifs, even for motifs with less than ten nucleotides. The screening algorithm that we describe finds all candidate motifs

  19. Three-dimensional spherical spatial boundary conditions differentially regulate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yin-Ping; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Rimando, Marilyn G.; Ho, Jennifer Hui-Chun; Lin, Keng-hui; Lee, Oscar K.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial boundary condition (SBC) arising from the surrounding microenvironment imposes specific geometry and spatial constraints that affect organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) sensitively respond to alterations of mechanical cues generated from the SBC. However, mechanical cues provided by a three-dimensional (3D) environment are deprived in a reductionist 2D culture system. This study investigates how SBC affects osteogenic differentiation of MSCs using 3D scaffolds with monodispersed pores and homogenous spherical geometries. MSCs cultured under SBCs with diameters of 100 and 150 μm possessed the greatest capability of osteogenic differentiation. This phenomenon was strongly correlated with MSC morphology, organization of actin cytoskeleton, and distribution of focal adhesion involving α2 and α5 integrins. Further silencing either α2 or α5 integrin significantly reduced the above mentioned mechanosensitivity, indicating that the α2 and α5 integrins as mechano-sensitive molecules mediate MSCs’ ability to provide enhanced osteogenic differentiation in response to different spherical SBCs. Taken together, the findings provide new insights regarding how MSCs respond to mechanical cues from the surrounding microenvironment in a spherical SBC, and such biophysical stimuli should be taken into consideration in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in conjunction with biochemical cues. PMID:26884253

  20. Spherical Rayleigh-Taylor growth of three-dimensional broadband perturbations on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Hu, S. X.; Hager, J. D.; Delettrez, J. A.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shvarts, D.

    2009-11-15

    Spherical Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth experiments of three-dimensional (3D) broadband nonuniformities were conducted in the acceleration phase of spherical implosions on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The targets consisted of 20- and 24-{mu}m-thick plastic spherical shells having diagnostic openings for backlighter x rays to image shell modulations. Experiments were conducted with square laser pulses at a low drive intensity of {approx}2x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, high drive intensity of {approx}1x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, and a shaped pulse consisting of a low-intensity foot and high-intensity drive part (peak intensity of {approx}1x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}). In low-intensity experiments, large RT growth was measured, resulting in shells being broken up by 3D modulations at the end of the drive. In the high-intensity experiments, no RT growth of the 3D modulations was detected. In the shaped-pulse experiments, perturbations grew during the low-intensity part of the drive and were stabilized later during the high-intensity part of the drive. The measured RT growth stabilization with the high-intensity drive was similar to previous observations in planar geometry [V. A. Smalyuk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 025002 (2008)].

  1. Spherical Rayleigh-Taylor Growth of Three-Dimensional Broadband Perturbations on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Hu, S.X.; Hager, J.D.; Delettrez, J.A.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Sangster, T.C.; Shvarts, D.

    2009-11-10

    Spherical Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) growth experiments of three-dimensional (3D) broadband nonuniformities were conducted in the acceleration phase of spherical implosions on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The targets consisted of 20- and 24-um-thick plastic spherical shells having diagnostic openings for backlighter x rays to image shell modulations. Experiments were conducted with square laser pulses at a low drive intensity of ~2 x 10^14 W/cm^2, high drive intensity of ~1 x 10^15 W/cm^2, and a shaped pulse consisting of a low-intensity foot and high-intensity drive part (peak intensity of ~1 x 10^15 W/cm^2). In low-intensity experiments, large RT growth was measured, resulting in shells being broken up by 3D modulations at the end of the drive. In the high-intensity experiments, no RT growth of the 3D modulations was detected. In the shaped-pulse experiments, perturbations grew during the low-intensity part of the drive and were stabilized later during the high-intensity part of the drive. The measured RT growth stabilization with the high-intensity drive was similar to previous observations in planar geometry [V. A. Smalyuk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 025002 (2008)].

  2. FROMS3D: New Software for 3-D Visualization of Fracture Network System in Fractured Rock Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Y. H.; Um, J. G.; Choi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A new software (FROMS3D) is presented to visualize fracture network system in 3-D. The software consists of several modules that play roles in management of borehole and field fracture data, fracture network modelling, visualization of fracture geometry in 3-D and calculation and visualization of intersections and equivalent pipes between fractures. Intel Parallel Studio XE 2013, Visual Studio.NET 2010 and the open source VTK library were utilized as development tools to efficiently implement the modules and the graphical user interface of the software. The results have suggested that the developed software is effective in visualizing 3-D fracture network system, and can provide useful information to tackle the engineering geological problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses.

  3. Multigroup Complex Geometry Neutron Diffusion Code System.

    2002-12-18

    Version 01 SNAP-3D is based on SNAP2 and is a one- two- or three-dimensional multigroup diffusion code system. It is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations, but it can also carry out gamma-ray calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP-3D can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods in (x,y,z), (r,theta,z), (TRI,z), (HEX,z) or (spherical) coordinates.more » The one-dimensional slab and cylindrical geometries and the two-dimensional (x,y), (r,z), (r,theta), (HEX) and (TRI) are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. The problem classes are: 1) eigenvalue search for critical k-effective, 2) eigenvalue search for critical buckling, 3) eigenvalue search for critical time-constant, 4) fixed source problems in which the sources are functions of regions, 5) fixed source problems in which the sources are provided, on disc, for every mesh point and group.« less

  4. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  5. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  6. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  7. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  8. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  9. 3D printing of liquid metals as fugitive inks for fabrication of 3D microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Dishit P; Ladd, Collin; Panich, Lazar; Moussa, Khalil; Dickey, Michael D

    2016-05-21

    This paper demonstrates a simple method to fabricate 3D microchannels and microvasculature at room temperature by direct-writing liquid metal as a sacrificial template. The formation of a surface oxide skin on the low-viscosity liquid metal stabilizes the shape of the printed metal for planar and out-of-plane structures. The printed structures can be embedded in a variety of soft (e.g. elastomeric) and rigid (e.g. thermoset) polymers. Both acid and electrochemical reduction are capable of removing the oxide skin that forms on the metal, which destabilizes the ink so that it withdraws from the encapsulating material due to capillary forces, resulting in nearly full recovery of the fugitive ink at room temperature. Whereas conventional fabrication procedures typically confine microchannels to 2D planes, the geometry of the printed microchannels can be varied from a simple 2D network to complex 3D architectures without using lithography. The method produces robust monolithic structures without the need for any bonding or assembling techniques that often limit the materials of construction of conventional microchannels. Removing select portions of the metal leaves behind 3D metal features that can be used as antennas, interconnects, or electrodes for interfacing with lab-on-a-chip devices. This paper describes the capabilities and limitations of this simple process. PMID:27025537

  10. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  11. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  12. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  13. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  14. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  15. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  16. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  17. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  18. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  19. A 3-D RBF-FD elliptic solver for irregular boundaries: modeling the atmospheric global electric circuit with topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayona, V.; Flyer, N.; Lucas, G. M.; Baumgaertner, A. J. G.

    2015-04-01

    A numerical model based on Radial Basis Function-generated Finite Differences (RBF-FD) is developed for simulating the Global Electric Circuit (GEC) within the Earth's atmosphere, represented by a 3-D variable coefficient linear elliptic PDE in a spherically-shaped volume with the lower boundary being the Earth's topography and the upper boundary a sphere at 60 km. To our knowledge, this is (1) the first numerical model of the GEC to combine the Earth's topography with directly approximating the differential operators in 3-D space, and related to this (2) the first RBF-FD method to use irregular 3-D stencils for discretization to handle the topography. It benefits from the mesh-free nature of RBF-FD, which is especially suitable for modeling high-dimensional problems with irregular boundaries. The RBF-FD elliptic solver proposed here makes no limiting assumptions on the spatial variability of the coefficients in the PDE (i.e. the conductivity profile), the right hand side forcing term of the PDE (i.e. distribution of current sources) or the geometry of the lower boundary.

  20. Slope instability in complex 3D topography promoted by convergent 3D groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. E.; Brien, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    headlands and re-entrants to minimize slope effects on stability. Despite these equal slopes, our analyses, given dry conditions, illustrated that the headlands can be 5-7% less stable than the re-entrants, owing to the geometry of the 3D failure mass with the lowest stability. We then simulated groundwater flow in these landscapes; flow was caused by recharge perching on a horizontal low permeability layer with discharge at the bluff faces. By systematically varying recharge, hydraulic conductivity of the material, and conductance at the bluffs, we created different 3D pore-pressure fields. Recharge rates and hydraulic conductivities controlled the height of the water table, whereas bluff conductance influenced the gradient of the water table near the bluff face. Given elevated water tables with steep gradients, bluffs in the re-entrants became unstable where flow converged. Thus, with progressively stronger effects from water flow, overall instability evolved from relatively unstable headlands to more uniform stability to relatively unstable re-entrants. Larger re-entrants led to more 3D flow convergence and greater localized instability. One- or two-dimensional models cannot fully characterize slope instability in complex topography.

  1. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  2. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  3. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  4. 3D Effects in the Formation of Zonal Jets Through Inverse Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Showman, A. P.

    2006-09-01

    The atmospheric zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn are characterized by the broad, prograde, equatorial jet and the narrower, higher-latitude jets that alternate between prograde and retrograde. The question of what controls the widths and directions of those jets remains a major unsolved problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. Past studies have shown that, in shallow flows on a rotating sphere, small random vortices can undergo inverse cascade to form zonal jets with a characteristic width called the Rhines scale. Most of the studies to date use 2D non-divergent or shallow-water models in studying this zonal jet formation mechanism. However, in the parameter ranges representative of the Jovian conditions, the flows produced by 2D non-divergent models are typically dominated by strong circumpolar jets, and the shallow-water models produce a robust retrograde equatorial jet. These models' apparent inabilities in reproducing some key Jovian jet features may suggest the importance of 3D effects in controlling the jets' large-scale horizontal structures. To date, Kitamura and Matsuda (Fluid Dynamics Research, 34, 33-57, 2004) is the only published study that analyzes the 3D effects in the zonalization of fine-scale random turbulence through the inverse cascade. Their two-layer primitive equation simulations of free-evolving flows resulted in circumpolar jet dominated flows, although slower mid-latitude jets are also present. Our study is a significant extension over that by Kitamura and Matsuda and includes substantially more layers to study the zonalization process to more fully resolve relevant 3D effects in the inverse cascade. We test the flow behavior's dependence on the deformation radius and the resulting vertical structures in both spherical and beta-plane geometries. Our study uses the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) model (Dowling et al, Icarus, 32, 221-238., 1998). The research is supported by a NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant to APS.

  5. 3D Effects in the Formation of Zonal Jets Through Inverse Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, K. M.; Showman, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    The atmospheric zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn are characterized by the broad, prograde, equatorial jet and the narrower, higher-latitude jets that alternate between prograde and retrograde. The question of what controls the widths and directions of those jets remains a major unsolved problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. Past studies have shown that, in shallow flows on a rotating sphere, small random vortices can undergo inverse cascade to form zonal jets with a characteristic width called the Rhines scale. Most of the studies to date use 2D non-divergent or shallow-water models in studying this zonal jet formation mechanism. However, in the parameter ranges representative of the Jovian conditions, the flows produced by 2D non- divergent models are typically dominated by strong circumpolar jets, and the shallow-water models produce a robust retrograde equatorial jet. These models' apparent inabilities in reproducing some key Jovian jet features may suggest the importance of 3D effects in controlling the jets' large-scale horizontal structures. To date, Kitamura and Matsuda (Fluid Dynamics Research, 34, 33-57, 2004) is the only published study that analyzes the 3D effects in the zonalization of fine-scale random turbulence through the inverse cascade. Their two-layer primitive equation simulations of free-evolving flows resulted in circumpolar jet dominated flows, although slower mid-latitude jets are also present. Our study is a significant extension over that by Kitamura and Matsuda and includes substantially more layers to study the zonalization process to more fully resolve relevant 3D effects in the inverse cascade. We test the flow behavior's dependence on the deformation radius and the resulting vertical structures in both spherical and beta-plane geometries. Our study uses the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) model (Dowling et al, Icarus, 32, 221-238., 1998). The research is supported by a NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant to APS.

  6. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-07-15

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  7. 3D Viewing: Odd Perception - Illusion? reality? or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisimoto, K.; Iizasa, K.

    2008-12-01

    We live in the three dimensional space, don't we? It could be at least four dimensions, but that is another story. In either way our perceptual capability of 3D-Viewing is constrained by our 2D-perception (our intrinsic tools of perception). I carried out a few visual experiments using topographic data to show our intrinsic (or biological) disability (or shortcoming) in 3D-recognition of our world. Results of the experiments suggest: (1) 3D-surface model displayed on a 2D-computer screen (or paper) always has two interpretations of the 3D- surface geometry, if we choose one of the interpretation (in other word, if we are hooked by one perception of the two), we maintain its perception even if the 3D-model changes its viewing perspective in time shown on the screen, (2) more interesting is that 3D-real solid object (e.g.,made of clay) also gives above mentioned two interpretations of the geometry of the object, if we observe the object with one-eye. Most famous example of this viewing illusion is exemplified by a magician, who died in 2007, Jerry Andrus who made a super-cool paper crafted dragon which causes visual illusion to one-eyed viewer. I, by the experiments, confirmed this phenomenon in another perceptually persuasive (deceptive?) way. My conclusion is that this illusion is intrinsic, i.e. reality for human, because, even if we live in 3D-space, our perceptional tool (eyes) is composed of 2D sensors whose information is reconstructed or processed to 3D by our experience-based brain. So, (3) when we observe the 3D-surface-model on the computer screen, we are always one eye short even if we use both eyes. One last suggestion from my experiments is that recent highly sophisticated 3D- models might include too many information that human perceptions cannot handle properly, i.e. we might not be understanding the 3D world (geospace) at all, just illusioned.

  8. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of 3D city models have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the 3D data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual 3D representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of 3D city models has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the 3D city models. Today, 3D city models are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, modelling 3D objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for 3D modelling available in the market. Generating 3D buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using 3D data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage 3D city models data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of 3D city models in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0

  9. Filling gaps in cultural heritage documentation by 3D photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    geometry" and to multistage concepts of 3D photographs in Cultural Heritage just started. Furthermore a revised list of the 3D visualization principles, claiming completeness, has been carried out. Beside others in an outlook *It is highly recommended, to list every historical and current stereo view with relevance to Cultural Heritage in a global Monument Information System (MIS), like in google earth. *3D photographs seem to be very suited, to complete and/or at least partly to replace manual archaeological sketches. In this concern the still underestimated 3D effect will be demonstrated, which even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches etc... *A consequent dealing with 3D Technology even seems to indicate, currently we experience the beginning of a new age of "real 3DPC- screens", which at least could add or even partly replace the conventional 2D screens. Here the spatial visualization is verified without glasses in an all-around vitreous body. In this respect nowadays widespread lasered crystals showing monuments are identified as "Early Bird" 3D products, which, due to low resolution and contrast and due to lack of color, currently might even remember to the status of the invention of photography by Niepce (1827), but seem to promise a great future also in 3D Cultural Heritage documentation. *Last not least 3D printers more and more seem to conquer the IT-market, obviously showing an international competition.

  10. Status of 3D Ice Shape Measurement Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam

    2011-01-01

    (1) Main goal of the Airframe Icing Technical Challenge is to achieve acceptance of experimental and computational icing simulation tools -SupercooledLarge Droplet Icing (SLD) conditions -3D airframe components including swept wings; (2) It is necessary to develop suitable means of recording and archiving fully 3D descriptions of experimental ice accretion geometry; (3) Past research has shown that commercial laser scanners have the potential to be adapted to this task; and (4) A research plan has been developed to implement and validate the use of this technology for experimental ice accretions.

  11. 3D hybrid wound devices for spatiotemporally controlled release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Koc, Bahattin

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents localized and temporal control of release kinetics over 3-dimensional (3D) hybrid wound devices to improve wound-healing process. Imaging study is performed to extract wound bed geometry in 3D. Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) based surface lofting is applied to generate functionally graded regions. Diffusion-based release kinetics model is developed to predict time-based release of loaded modifiers for functionally graded regions. Multi-chamber single nozzle solid freeform dispensing system is used to fabricate wound devices with controlled dispensing concentration. Spatiotemporal control of biological modifiers thus enables a way to achieve target delivery to improve wound healing. PMID:22672934

  12. 3D plasmonic crystal metamaterials for ultra-sensitive biosensing.

    PubMed

    Aristov, Andrey I; Manousidaki, Maria; Danilov, Artem; Terzaki, Konstantina; Fotakis, Costas; Farsari, Maria; Kabashin, Andrei V

    2016-01-01

    We explore the excitation of plasmons in 3D plasmon crystal metamaterials and report the observation of a delocalized plasmon mode, which provides extremely high spectral sensitivity (>2600 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) change), outperforming all plasmonic counterparts excited in 2D nanoscale geometries, as well as a prominent phase-sensitive response (>3*10(4) deg. of phase per RIU). Combined with a large surface for bioimmobilization provided by the 3D matrix, the proposed sensor architecture promises a new important landmark in the advancement of plasmonic biosensing technology. PMID:27151104

  13. 3D plasmonic crystal metamaterials for ultra-sensitive biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, Andrey I.; Manousidaki, Maria; Danilov, Artem; Terzaki, Konstantina; Fotakis, Costas; Farsari, Maria; Kabashin, Andrei V.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the excitation of plasmons in 3D plasmon crystal metamaterials and report the observation of a delocalized plasmon mode, which provides extremely high spectral sensitivity (>2600 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) change), outperforming all plasmonic counterparts excited in 2D nanoscale geometries, as well as a prominent phase-sensitive response (>3*104 deg. of phase per RIU). Combined with a large surface for bioimmobilization provided by the 3D matrix, the proposed sensor architecture promises a new important landmark in the advancement of plasmonic biosensing technology.

  14. 3D plasmonic crystal metamaterials for ultra-sensitive biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Aristov, Andrey I.; Manousidaki, Maria; Danilov, Artem; Terzaki, Konstantina; Fotakis, Costas; Farsari, Maria; Kabashin, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the excitation of plasmons in 3D plasmon crystal metamaterials and report the observation of a delocalized plasmon mode, which provides extremely high spectral sensitivity (>2600 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) change), outperforming all plasmonic counterparts excited in 2D nanoscale geometries, as well as a prominent phase-sensitive response (>3*104 deg. of phase per RIU). Combined with a large surface for bioimmobilization provided by the 3D matrix, the proposed sensor architecture promises a new important landmark in the advancement of plasmonic biosensing technology. PMID:27151104

  15. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  16. MAGNUS-3D: Accelerator magnet calculations in 3-dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissanetzky, S.

    1988-12-01

    point in space, when iron is not present. HARMON performs the spherical harmonic analysis of magnetic fields in 3D, and is used for the design of passive and active shims and correction coils for high-precision magnets. This paper deals with the latest extensions of MAGNUS-3D. Descriptions of the features and internal libraries of MAGNUS-3D are included. Emphasis is placed on the new features recently developed, which will become available to users in the next update.

  17. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  18. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  19. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  20. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  1. Depth discrimination from occlusions in 3D clutter.

    PubMed

    Langer, Michael S; Zheng, Haomin; Rezvankhah, Shayan

    2016-09-01

    Objects such as trees, shrubs, and tall grass consist of thousands of small surfaces that are distributed over a three-dimensional (3D) volume. To perceive the depth of surfaces within 3D clutter, a visual system can use binocular stereo and motion parallax. However, such parallax cues are less reliable in 3D clutter because surfaces tend to be partly occluded. Occlusions provide depth information, but it is unknown whether visual systems use occlusion cues to aid depth perception in 3D clutter, as previous studies have addressed occlusions for simple scene geometries only. Here, we present a set of depth discrimination experiments that examine depth from occlusion cues in 3D clutter, and how these cues interact with stereo and motion parallax. We identify two probabilistic occlusion cues. The first is based on the fraction of an object that is visible. The second is based on the depth range of the occluders. We show that human observers use both of these occlusion cues. We also define ideal observers that are based on these occlusion cues. Human observer performance is close to ideal using the visibility cue but far from ideal using the range cue. A key reason for the latter is that the range cue depends on depth estimation of the clutter itself which is unreliable. Our results provide new fundamental constraints on the depth information that is available from occlusions in 3D clutter, and how the occlusion cues are combined with binocular stereo and motion parallax cues. PMID:27618514

  2. Inspection of 3D parts using high accuracy range data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Flavio; Lepage, Richard; Boulanger, Pierre; Redarce, Tanneguy

    2000-03-01

    The use of a laser range sensor in the 3D part digitalization process for inspection tasks allows very significant improvement in acquisition speed and in 3D measurement points density but does not equal the accuracy obtained with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Inspection consists in verifying the accuracy of a part related to a given set of tolerances. It is thus necessary that the 3D measurements be accurate. In the 3D capture of a part, several sources of error can alter the measured values. So, we have to find and model the most influent parameters affecting the accuracy of the range sensor in the digitalization process. This model is used to produce a sensing plan to acquire completely and accurately the geometry of a part. The sensing plan is composed of the set of viewpoints which defines the exact position and orientation of the camera relative to the part. The 3D cloud obtained from the sensing plan is registered with the CAD model of the part and then segmented according to the different surfaces. Segmentation results are used to check tolerances of the part. By using the noise model, we introduce a dispersion value for each 3D point acquired according to the sensing plan. This value of dispersion is shown as a weight factor in the inspection results.

  3. Optofluidic fabrication for 3D-shaped particles.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Kevin S; Di Carlo, Dino; Chung, Aram J

    2015-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D)-shaped particles could play unique roles in biotechnology, structural mechanics and self-assembly. Current methods of fabricating 3D-shaped particles such as 3D printing, injection moulding or photolithography are limited because of low-resolution, low-throughput or complicated/expensive procedures. Here, we present a novel method called optofluidic fabrication for the generation of complex 3D-shaped polymer particles based on two coupled processes: inertial flow shaping and ultraviolet (UV) light polymerization. Pillars within fluidic platforms are used to deterministically deform photosensitive precursor fluid streams. The channels are then illuminated with patterned UV light to polymerize the photosensitive fluid, creating particles with multi-scale 3D geometries. The fundamental advantages of optofluidic fabrication include high-resolution, multi-scalability, dynamic tunability, simple operation and great potential for bulk fabrication with full automation. Through different combinations of pillar configurations, flow rates and UV light patterns, an infinite set of 3D-shaped particles is available, and a variety are demonstrated. PMID:25904062

  4. Optofluidic fabrication for 3D-shaped particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Kevin S.; di Carlo, Dino; Chung, Aram J.

    2015-04-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D)-shaped particles could play unique roles in biotechnology, structural mechanics and self-assembly. Current methods of fabricating 3D-shaped particles such as 3D printing, injection moulding or photolithography are limited because of low-resolution, low-throughput or complicated/expensive procedures. Here, we present a novel method called optofluidic fabrication for the generation of complex 3D-shaped polymer particles based on two coupled processes: inertial flow shaping and ultraviolet (UV) light polymerization. Pillars within fluidic platforms are used to deterministically deform photosensitive precursor fluid streams. The channels are then illuminated with patterned UV light to polymerize the photosensitive fluid, creating particles with multi-scale 3D geometries. The fundamental advantages of optofluidic fabrication include high-resolution, multi-scalability, dynamic tunability, simple operation and great potential for bulk fabrication with full automation. Through different combinations of pillar configurations, flow rates and UV light patterns, an infinite set of 3D-shaped particles is available, and a variety are demonstrated.

  5. Mechanical properties of 3D ceramic nanolattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Lucas

    Developments in advanced nanoscale fabrication techniques have allowed for the creation of 3-dimensional hierarchical structural meta-materials that can be designed with arbitrary geometry. These structures can be made on length scales spanning multiple orders of magnitude, from tens of nanometers to hundreds of microns. The smallest features are controllable on length scales where materials have been shown to exhibit size effects in their mechanical properties. Combining novel nanoscale mechanical properties with a 3-dimensional architecture enables the creation of new classes of materials with tunable and unprecedented mechanical properties. We present the fabrication and mechanical deformation of hollow tube alumina nanolattices that were fabricated using two-photon lithography direct laser writing (DLW), atomic layer deposition (ALD), and oxygen plasma etching. Nanolattices were designed in a number of different geometries including octet-truss, octahedron, and 3D Kagome. Additionally, a number of structural parameters were varied including tube wall thickness (t) , tube major axis (a) , and unit cell size (L) . The resulting nanolattices had a range of densities from ρ = 4 to 250 mg/cm3. Uniaxial compression and cyclic loading tests were performed on the nanolattices to obtain the yield strength and modulus. In these tests, a marked change in the deformation response was observed when the wall thickness was reduced below 20nm; thick-walled nanolattices (t>20nm) underwent catastrophic, brittle failure, which transitioned to a gradual, ductile-like deformation as wall thickness was reduced. Thick-walled nanolattices also exhibited no recovery after compression, while thin-walled structures demonstrated notable recovery, with some recovering by 98% after compression to 50% strain and by 80% when compressed to 90% strain. Across all geometries, unit cell sizes, and wall thicknesses, we found a consistent power law relation between strength and modulus with