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Sample records for 3d storm reveals

  1. Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-06-01

    3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30-50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms.

  2. NASA's 3-D Animation of Tropical Storm Ulika from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animated 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ulika using GPM's Radar data showed some strong convective storms inside the tropical storm were dropping precipitation at a rate of over 187 mm (7.4 inches)...

  3. NASA Sees Tropical Storm Malakas in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Malakas was created by radar data from the GPM core satellite. On Sept. 13 at 0111 UTC GPM's instruments showed that Malakas contained exceptionally heavy ...

  4. Resolution doubling in 3D-STORM imaging through improved buffers.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-01-01

    Super-resolution imaging methods have revolutionized fluorescence microscopy by revealing the nanoscale organization of labeled proteins. In particular, single-molecule methods such as Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) provide resolutions down to a few tens of nanometers by exploiting the cycling of dyes between fluorescent and non-fluorescent states to obtain a sparse population of emitters and precisely localizing them individually. This cycling of dyes is commonly induced by adding different chemicals, which are combined to create a STORM buffer. Despite their importance, the composition of these buffers has scarcely evolved since they were first introduced, fundamentally limiting what can be resolved with STORM. By identifying a new chemical suitable for STORM and optimizing the buffer composition for Alexa-647, we significantly increased the number of photons emitted per cycle by each dye, providing a simple means to enhance the resolution of STORM independently of the optical setup used. Using this buffer to perform 3D-STORM on biological samples, we obtained images with better than 10 nanometer lateral and 30 nanometer axial resolution.

  5. NASA's 3-D GPM Flyby of Tropical Storm Fred

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite passed over Fred when it was developing in the Eastern Atlantic early August 30 and saw "hot towers" in the storm, which hinted th...

  6. A 3-D Rainfall Flyby of Tropical Storm Danielle Over Mexico

    NASA Video Gallery

    This flyby animation of 3-D data from NASA/JAXA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM satellite looks at the rainfall occurring in fading Tropical Storm Danielle over Mexico. On June 21...

  7. NASA's 3-D TRMM Satellite Animation of Tropical Storm Andrea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D view from the west was derived from TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data captured when Andrea was examined by the TRMM satellite with the June 5, 2234 UTC (6:34 p.m. EDT) orbit. It clearly s...

  8. Tracking and quantifying polymer therapeutic distribution on a cellular level using 3D dSTORM

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Jonathan M.; Zhang, Rui; Gudheti, Manasa; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2016-01-01

    We used a single-molecule localization technique called direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to quantify both colocalization and spatial distribution on a cellular level for two conceptually different N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates. Microscopy images were acquired of entire cells with resolutions as high as 25 nm revealing the nanoscale distribution of the fluorescently labeled therapeutic components. Drug-free macromolecular therapeutics consisting of two self-assembling nanoconjugates showed slight increase in nanoclusters on the cell surface with time. Additionally, dSTORM provided high resolution images of the nanoscale organization of the self-assembling conjugates at the interface between two cells. A conjugate designed for treating ovarian cancer showed that the model drug (Cy3) and polymer bound to Cy5 were colocalized at an early time point before the model drug was enzymatically cleaved from the polymer. Using spatial descriptive statistics it was found that the drug was randomly distributed after 24 h while the polymer bound dye remained in clusters. Four different fluorescent dyes were used and two different therapeutic systems were tested to demonstrate the versatility and possible general applicability of dSTORM for use in studying drug delivery systems. PMID:26855050

  9. Development of Inundation Map for Bantayan Island, Cebu Using Delft3D-Flow Storm Surge Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadra, Camille; Suarez, John Kenneth; Biton, Nophi Ian; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Lapidez, John Phillip; Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    On average, 20 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually, making it vulnerable to different storm hazards. Apart from the frequency of tropical cyclones, the archipelagic nature of the country makes it particularly prone to storm surges. On 08 November 2013, Haiyan, a Category 5 Typhoon with maximum one-minute sustained wind speed of 315 kph, hit the central region of the Philippines. In its path, the howler devastated Bantayan Island, a popular tourist destination. The island is located north of Cebu City, the second largest metropolis of the Philippines in terms of populace. Having been directly hit by Typhoon Haiyan, Bantayan Island was severely damaged by strong winds and storm surges, with more than 11,000 houses totally destroyed while 5,000 more suffered minor damage. The adverse impacts of possible future storm surge events in the island can only be mitigated if hazard maps that depict inundation of the coastal areas of Bantayan are generated. To create such maps, Delft3D-Flow, a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate storm surges. These simulations were made over a 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) bathymetry. The results of the coastal inundation model for Typhoon Haiyan's storm surges were validated using data collected from field work and local government reports. The hydrodynamic model of Bantayan was then calibrated using the field data and further simulations were made with varying typhoon tracks. This was done to generate scenarios on the farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. The output of the study is a detailed storm surge inundation map that depicts safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas and for construction of coastal protection structures. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.

  10. Reproducing electric field observations during magnetic storms by means of rigorous 3-D modelling and distortion matrix co-estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2014-12-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth by geomagnetic disturbances drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines, which can cause service disruptions. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we revisit a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a magnetospheric source model described by low-degree spherical harmonics from observatory magnetic data. The actual electric field, however, is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and modelled electric fields. Using data of six magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimate distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Reliable estimates are obtained, and the modellings are found to explain up to 90% of the measurements. We further find that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of the shape of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the method relies on precomputed responses of a 3-D Earth to geomagnetic disturbances, which can be recycled for each storm, the required computational resources are negligible. Our approach is thus suitable for real-time prediction of geomagnetically induced currents by combining it with reliable forecasts of the source field.

  11. Reproducing Electric Field Observations during Magnetic Storms by means of Rigorous 3-D Modelling and Distortion Matrix Co-estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth during magnetic storms drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines. These geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) can cause severe service disruptions. The prediction of GIC is thus of great importance for public and industry. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we developed a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a model of the magnetospheric source. The latter is described by low-degree spherical harmonics; its temporal evolution is derived from observatory magnetic data. Time series of the electric field can be computed for every location on Earth's surface. The actual electric field however is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the conductivity model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and computed electric fields. Using data of various magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimated distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Strong correlations between modellings and measurements validate our method. The distortion matrix estimates prove to be reliable, as they are accurately reproduced for different magnetic storms. We further show that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the required computational resources are negligible, our approach is suitable for a real-time prediction of GIC. For this purpose, a reliable forecast of the source field, e.g. based on data from satellites

  12. Atmospheric Motion Vectors from INSAT-3D: Initial quality assessment and its impact on track forecast of cyclonic storm NANAUK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Kumar, Prashant; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Pal, P. K.; Kaushik, Nitesh; Sangar, Ghansham

    2016-03-01

    The advanced Indian meteorological geostationary satellite INSAT-3D was launched on 26 July 2013 with an improved imager and an infrared sounder and is placed at 82°E over the Indian Ocean region. With the advancement in retrieval techniques of different atmospheric parameters and with improved imager data have enhanced the scope for better understanding of the different tropical atmospheric processes over this region. The retrieval techniques and accuracy of one such parameter, Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV) has improved significantly with the availability of improved spatial resolution data along with more options of spectral channels in the INSAT-3D imager. The present work is mainly focused on providing brief descriptions of INSAT-3D data and AMV derivation processes using these data. It also discussed the initial quality assessment of INSAT-3D AMVs for a period of six months starting from 01 February 2014 to 31 July 2014 with other independent observations: i) Meteosat-7 AMVs available over this region, ii) in-situ radiosonde wind measurements, iii) cloud tracked winds from Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and iv) numerical model analysis. It is observed from this study that the qualities of newly derived INSAT-3D AMVs are comparable with existing two versions of Meteosat-7 AMVs over this region. To demonstrate its initial application, INSAT-3D AMVs are assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and it is found that the assimilation of newly derived AMVs has helped in reduction of track forecast errors of the recent cyclonic storm NANAUK over the Arabian Sea. Though, the present study is limited to its application to one case study, however, it will provide some guidance to the operational agencies for implementation of this new AMV dataset for future applications in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) over the south Asia region.

  13. Breast cancers detected in only one of two arms of a tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) population screening trial (STORM-2).

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Daniela; Houssami, Nehmat

    2017-04-01

    The prospective 'screening with tomosynthesis or standard mammography-2 (STORM-2)' trial compared mammography screen-reading strategies and showed that each of integrated 2D/3D-mammography or 2Dsynthetic/3D-mammography detected significantly more breast cancers than 2D-mammography alone. This short report describes 13 (from 90) cancers detected in only one of two parallel double-reading arms implemented in STORM-2. Amongst this subset of cases, the majority was invasive cancer ≤16 mm, mostly depicted as irregular masses or distortions. Furthermore, most were detected at 3D-mammography only and predominantly by one reader from double-reading pairs, highlighting that 3D-mammography may enable detection of cancers that are challenging to perceive at routine screening.

  14. Stereomicroscopic 3D-pattern profiling of murine and human intestinal inflammation reveals unique structural phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; Kodani, Tomohiro; Kaydo, Lindsey; Pietropaoli, Davide; Corridoni, Daniele; Howell, Scott; Katz, Jeffry; Xin, Wei; Pizarro, Theresa T.; Cominelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Histology is fundamental to assess two-dimensional intestinal inflammation; however, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are often indistinguishable microscopically on the basis of mucosal biopsies. Here, we use stereomicroscopy (SM) to rapidly profile the entire intestinal topography and assess inflammation. We examine the mucosal surface of >700 mice (encompassing >16 strains and various IBD-models), create a profiling catalogue of 3D-stereomicroscopic abnormalities and demonstrate that mice with comparable histological scores display unique sub-clusters of 3D-structure-patterns of IBD pathology, which we call 3D-stereoenterotypes, and which are otherwise indiscernible histologically. We show that two ileal IBD-stereoenterotypes (‘cobblestones' versus ‘villous mini-aggregation') cluster separately within two distinct mouse lines of spontaneous ileitis, suggesting that host genetics drive unique and divergent inflammatory 3D-structural patterns in the gut. In humans, stereomicroscopy reveals ‘liquefaction' lesions and hierarchical fistulous complexes, enriched with clostridia/segmented filamentous bacteria, running under healthy mucosa in Crohn's disease. We suggest that stereomicroscopic (3D-SMAPgut) profiling can be easily implemented and enable the comprehensive study of inflammatory 3D structures, genetics and flora in IBD. PMID:26154811

  15. 3-D ion distribution and evolution in storm-time RC Retrieved from TWINS ENA by differential voxel CT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.; Yan, W.; Xu, L.

    2013-12-01

    The quantitative retrieval of the 3-D spatial distribution of the parent energetic ions of ENA from a 2-D ENA image is a quite challenge task. The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission of NASA is the first constellation to perform stereoscopic magnetospheric imaging of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) from a pair of spacecraft flying on two widely-separated Molniya orbits. TWINS provides a unique opportunity to retrieve the 3-D distribution of ions in the ring current (RC) by using a volumetric pixel (voxel) CT inversion method. In this study the voxel CT method is implemented for a series of differential ENA fluxes averaged over about 6 to 7 sweeps (corresponding to a time period of about 9 min.) at different energy levels ranging from 5 to 100 keV, obtained simultaneously by the two satellites during the main phase of a great magnetic storm with minimum Sym-H of -156 nT on 24-25 October 2011. The data were selected to span a period about 50 minutes during which a large substorm was undergoing its expansion phase first and then recovery. The ENA species of O and H are distinguished for some time-segments by analyzing the signals of pulse heights of second electrons emitted from the carbon foil and impacted on the MCP detector in the TWINS sensors. In order to eliminate the possible influence on retrieval induced by instrument bias error, a differential voxel CT technique is applied. The flux intensity of the ENAs' parent ions in the RC has been obtained as a function of energy, L value, MLT sector and latitude, along with their time evolution during the storm-time substorm expansion phase. Forward calculations proved the reliability of the retrieved results. It shows that the RC is highly asymmetric, with a major concentration in the midnight to dawn sector for equatorial latitudes. Halfway through the substorm expansion there occurred a large enhancement of equatorial ion flux at lower energy (5 keV) in the dusk sector, with narrow extent

  16. Factors Essential for Prostate Cancer Metastasis Revealed Through a Novel 3D Microtissue Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0058 TITLE: Factors Essential for Prostate Cancer Metastasis Revealed Through a Novel 3D Microtissue Assay PRINCIPAL...6 1 Introduction In the United States, prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and the second leading...cause of cancer -related death. Skeletal metastasis is a highly common route of prostate cancer dissemination that greatly diminishes the chance of cure

  17. 3-D crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath NE China revealed by ambient noise adjoint tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaning; Niu, Fenglin; Chen, Min; Yang, Wencai

    2017-03-01

    We construct a new 3-D shear wave speed model of the crust and the uppermost mantle beneath Northeast China using the ambient noise adjoint tomography method. Without intermediate steps of measuring phase dispersion, the adjoint tomography inverts for shear wave speeds of the crust and uppermost mantle directly from 6-40 s waveforms of Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) of Rayleigh waves, which are derived from interferometry of two years of ambient noise data recorded by the 127 Northeast China Extended Seismic Array stations. With an initial 3-D model derived from traditional asymptotic surface wave tomography method, adjoint tomography refines the 3-D model by iteratively minimizing the frequency-dependent traveltime misfits between EGFs and synthetic Green's functions measured in four period bands: 6-15 s, 10-20 s, 15-30 s, and 20-40 s. Our new model shows shear wave speed anomalies that are spatially correlated with known tectonic units such as the Great Xing'an range and the Changbaishan mountain range. The new model also reveals low wave speed conduits in the mid-lower crust and the uppermost mantle with a wave speed reduction indicative of partial melting beneath the Halaha, Xilinhot-Abaga, and Jingpohu volcanic complexes, suggesting that the Cenozoic volcanism in the area has a deep origin. Overall, the adjoint tomographic images show more vertically continuous velocity anomalies with larger amplitudes due to the consideration of the finite frequency and 3-D effects.

  18. The crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus cyclophilin reveals 3D domain swapping of a central element.

    PubMed

    Limacher, Andreas; Kloer, Daniel P; Flückiger, Sabine; Folkers, Gerd; Crameri, Reto; Scapozza, Leonardo

    2006-02-01

    The crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus cyclophilin (Asp f 11) was solved by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method and was refined to a resolution of 1.85 A with R and R(free) values of 18.9% and 21.4%, respectively. Many cyclophilin structures have been solved to date, all showing the same monomeric conformation. In contrast, the structure of A. fumigatus cyclophilin reveals dimerization by 3D domain swapping and represents one of the first proteins with a swapped central domain. The domain-swapped element consists of two beta strands and a subsequent loop carrying a conserved tryptophan. The tryptophan binds into the active site, inactivating cis-trans isomerization. This might be a means of biological regulation. The two hinge loops leave the protein prone to misfolding. In this context, alternative forms of 3D domain swapping that can lead to N- or C-terminally swapped dimers, oligomers, and aggregates are discussed.

  19. Accurate 3d Scanning of Damaged Ancient Greek Inscriptions for Revealing Weathered Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadaki, A. I.; Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.; Prignitz, S.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper two non-invasive non-destructive alternative techniques to the traditional and invasive technique of squeezes are presented alongside with specialized developed processing methods, aiming to help the epigraphists to reveal and analyse weathered letters in ancient Greek inscriptions carved in masonry or marble. The resulting 3D model would serve as a detailed basis for the epigraphists to try to decipher the inscription. The data were collected by using a Structured Light scanner. The creation of the final accurate three dimensional model is a complicated procedure requiring large computation cost and human effort. It includes the collection of geometric data in limited space and time, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering and the merging of individual surfaces. The use of structured light scanners is time consuming and requires costly hardware and software. Therefore an alternative methodology for collecting 3D data of the inscriptions was also implemented for reasons of comparison. Hence, image sequences from varying distances were collected using a calibrated DSLR camera aiming to reconstruct the 3D scene through SfM techniques in order to evaluate the efficiency and the level of precision and detail of the obtained reconstructed inscriptions. Problems in the acquisition processes as well as difficulties in the alignment step and mesh optimization are also encountered. A meta-processing framework is proposed and analysed. Finally, the results of processing and analysis and the different 3D models are critically inspected and then evaluated by a specialist in terms of accuracy, quality and detail of the model and the capability of revealing damaged and "hidden" letters.

  20. 3-D Radar Imaging Reveals Deep Structures and Buried Craters Within the Martian Polar Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, N. E.; Foss, F. J., II; Campbell, B. A.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, I. B.

    2015-12-01

    We use Shallow Radar (SHARAD) observations on thousands of orbital passes by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to produce fully imaged 3-D data volumes encompassing both polar ice caps of Mars. Greatly clarifying the view of subsurface features, a completed volume for Planum Boreum provides new constraints on the nature and timing of emplacement of the northern polar deposits and their relationship to climate. The standard method of mapping subsurface features with single-pass 2-D radargrams has been very fruitful (see Brothers et al. 2015, JGR 120 in press, and references therein), but a full assessment of internal structures has been hindered by interfering off-nadir echoes from spiral troughs and other variable topography prevalent on both caps. By assembling the SHARAD radargrams into a volume and applying a 3-D imaging process (migration) borrowed from seismic processing techniques, we enhance the signal-to-noise ratio while repositioning the echoes to their proper locations, thereby unraveling the interference. As part of the process, we correct ionospheric distortions and delays of the radar echoes (Campbell et al. 2014, IEEE GRSL 11 #3). Interfaces painstakingly mapped in radargrams (e.g., the basal-unit surface, a buried chasma) are clearly visible in the 3-D volume, and new features are revealed. Structures may now be mapped through trough-rich regions, including a widespread sequence that provides corroborative evidence of recent ice ages (Smith et al. 2015, LPSC XLVI #2574). Distinctive radar signatures associated with known, partially buried craters also occur elsewhere in the volume but without surface expression. Presumably, these are fully buried craters that may provide a new means to estimate the age of the deposits. Preliminary work for Planum Australe demonstrates that the 3-D processing currently underway will illuminate deep structures that are broadly obfuscated in 2-D radargrams by a shallow scatterer (Campbell et al. 2015, LPSC XLVI #2366).

  1. Complex Crustal Structure Beneath Western Turkey Revealed by 3D Seismic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest Turkey due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ < 10°) distances. Three component earthquake data is obtained from broadband seismic stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Center (KOERI, Turkey), Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN, Greece) and Earthquake Research Center of Turkey (AFAD-DAD). The spectral-element solver of the wave equation, SES3D algorithm, is used to simulate seismic wave propagation in 3D spherical coordinates (Fichtner, 2009). The Large Scale Seismic Inversion Framework (LASIF) workflow tool is also used to perform full seismic waveform inversion (Krischer et al., 2015). The initial 3D Earth model is implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). Discrepancies between the observed and simulated synthetic waveforms are determined using the time-frequency misfits which allows a separation between phase and amplitude information (Fichtner et al., 2008). The conjugate gradient optimization method is used to iteratively update the initial Earth model when minimizing the misfit. The inversion is terminated after 19 iterations since no further advances are observed in updated models. Our analysis revealed shear wave velocity variations of the shallow and deeper crustal structure beneath western Turkey down to depths of ~35-40 km. Low shear wave velocity anomalies are observed in the upper and mid crustal depths beneath major fault zones located in the study region. Low velocity zones also tend to mark the outline of young volcanic

  2. Complex patterns of faulting revealed by 3D seismic data at the West Galicia rifted margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Cresswell, Derren; Sawyer, Dale; Ranero, Cesar; Shillington, Donna; Morgan, Julia; Lymer, Gael

    2015-04-01

    The west Galicia margin is characterised by crust thinning to less than 3 km, well-defined fault blocks, which overlie a bright reflection (the S reflector) generally interpreted as a tectonic Moho. The margin exhibits neither voluminous magmatism nor thick sediment piles to obscure the structures and the amount of extension. As such is represents an ideal location to study the process of continental breakup both through seismic imaging and potentially through drilling. Prestack depth migration of existing 2D profiles has strongly supported the interpretation of the S reflector as both a detachment and as the crust-mantle boundary; wide-angle seismic has also shown that the mantle beneath S is serpentinised. Despite the quality of the existing 2D seismic images, a number of competing models have been advanced to explain the formation of this margin, including sequential faulting, polyphase faulting, multiple detachments and the gravitational collapse of the margin over exhumed mantle. As these models, all developed for the Galicia margin, have been subsequently applied to other margins, distinguishing between them has implications not only for the structure of the Galicia margin but for the process of rifting through to breakup more generally. To address these issues in summer of 2013 we collected a 3D combined seismic reflection and wide-angle dataset over this margin. Here we present some of the results of ongoing processing of the 3D volume, focussing on the internal structure of some of the fault blocks that overlies the S detachment. 2D processing of the data shows a relatively simple series of tilted fault block, bound by west-dipping faults that detach downwards onto the bright S reflector. However, inspection of the 3D volume produced by 3D pre-stack time migration reveals that the fault blocks contain a complex set of sedimentary packages, with strata tilted to the east, west, north and south, each package bound by faults. Furthermore, the top of crustal

  3. Molecular Determinants of Juvenile Hormone Action as Revealed by 3D QSAR Analysis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Beňo, Milan; Farkaš, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Postembryonic development, including metamorphosis, of many animals is under control of hormones. In Drosophila and other insects these developmental transitions are regulated by the coordinate action of two principal hormones, the steroid ecdysone and the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH). While the mode of ecdysone action is relatively well understood, the molecular mode of JH action remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of JH action, we have tested the biological activity of 86 structurally diverse JH agonists in Drosophila melanogaster. The results were evaluated using 3D QSAR analyses involving CoMFA and CoMSIA procedures. Using this approach we have generated both computer-aided and species-specific pharmacophore fingerprints of JH and its agonists, which revealed that the most active compounds must possess an electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen) at both ends of the molecule. When either of these electronegative atoms are replaced by carbon or the distance between them is shorter than 11.5 Å or longer than 13.5 Å, their biological activity is dramatically decreased. The presence of an electron-deficient moiety in the middle of the JH agonist is also essential for high activity. Conclusions/Significance The information from 3D QSAR provides guidelines and mechanistic scope for identification of steric and electrostatic properties as well as donor and acceptor hydrogen-bonding that are important features of the ligand-binding cavity of a JH target protein. In order to refine the pharmacophore analysis and evaluate the outcomes of the CoMFA and CoMSIA study we used pseudoreceptor modeling software PrGen to generate a putative binding site surrogate that is composed of eight amino acid residues corresponding to the defined molecular interactions. PMID:19547707

  4. Autonomic nervous system responses can reveal visual fatigue induced by 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi Jung; Park, Sangin; Won, Myeung Ju; Whang, Mincheol; Lee, Eui Chul

    2013-09-26

    Previous research has indicated that viewing 3D displays may induce greater visual fatigue than viewing 2D displays. Whether viewing 3D displays can evoke measureable emotional responses, however, is uncertain. In the present study, we examined autonomic nervous system responses in subjects viewing 2D or 3D displays. Autonomic responses were quantified in each subject by heart rate, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature. Viewers of both 2D and 3D displays showed strong positive correlations with heart rate, which indicated little differences between groups. In contrast, galvanic skin response and skin temperature showed weak positive correlations with average difference between viewing 2D and 3D. We suggest that galvanic skin response and skin temperature can be used to measure and compare autonomic nervous responses in subjects viewing 2D and 3D displays.

  5. Population-based 3D genome structure analysis reveals driving forces in spatial genome organization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenyuan; Kalhor, Reza; Dai, Chao; Hao, Shengli; Gong, Ke; Zhou, Yonggang; Li, Haochen; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Le Gros, Mark A.; Larabell, Carolyn A.; Chen, Lin; Alber, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Conformation capture technologies (e.g., Hi-C) chart physical interactions between chromatin regions on a genome-wide scale. However, the structural variability of the genome between cells poses a great challenge to interpreting ensemble-averaged Hi-C data, particularly for long-range and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we present a probabilistic approach for deconvoluting Hi-C data into a model population of distinct diploid 3D genome structures, which facilitates the detection of chromatin interactions likely to co-occur in individual cells. Our approach incorporates the stochastic nature of chromosome conformations and allows a detailed analysis of alternative chromatin structure states. For example, we predict and experimentally confirm the presence of large centromere clusters with distinct chromosome compositions varying between individual cells. The stability of these clusters varies greatly with their chromosome identities. We show that these chromosome-specific clusters can play a key role in the overall chromosome positioning in the nucleus and stabilizing specific chromatin interactions. By explicitly considering genome structural variability, our population-based method provides an important tool for revealing novel insights into the key factors shaping the spatial genome organization. PMID:26951677

  6. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Ryan J; Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2012-04-30

    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix.

  7. Decoupling diffusional from dimensional control of signaling in 3D culture reveals a role for myosin in tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Srivatsan; Shen, Colette J.; Desai, Ravi A.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel microfabricated platform to culture cells within arrays of micrometer-scale three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix scaffolds (microgels). These microscale cultures eliminate diffusion barriers that are intrinsic to traditional 3D culture systems (macrogels) and enable uniform cytokine stimulation of the entire culture population, as well as allow immunolabeling, imaging and population-based biochemical assays across the relatively coplanar microgels. Examining early signaling associated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated scattering and tubulogenesis of MDCK cells revealed that 3D culture modulates cellular responses both through dimensionality and altered stimulation rates. Comparing responses in 2D culture, microgels and macrogels demonstrated that HGF-induced ERK signaling was driven by the dynamics of stimulation and not by whether cells were in a 2D or 3D environment, and that this ERK signaling was equally important for HGF-induced cell scattering on 2D substrates and tubulogenesis in 3D. By contrast, we discovered a specific HGF-induced increase in myosin expression leading to sustained downregulation of myosin activity that occurred only within 3D contexts and was required for 3D tubulogenesis but not 2D scattering. Interestingly, although absent in cells on collagen-coated plates, downregulation of myosin activity also occurred for cells on collagen gels, but was transient and mediated by a combination of myosin dephosphorylation and enhanced myosin expression. Furthermore, upregulating myosin activity via siRNA targeted to a myosin phosphatase did not attenuate scattering in 2D but did inhibit tubulogenesis in 3D. Together, these results demonstrate that cellular responses to soluble cues in 3D culture are regulated by both rates of stimulation and by matrix dimensionality, and highlight the importance of decoupling these effects to identify early signals relevant to cellular function in 3D environments. PMID:20682635

  8. Endoscopic 3D-OCT reveals buried glands following radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Becker, Lauren; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Huang, Qin; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia is generally treated by endoscopic mucosal resection or esophagectomy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a recent treatment that allows broad and superficial ablation for BE. Endoscopic three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) is a volumetric imaging technique that is uniquely suited for follow-up surveillance of RFA treatment. 3D-OCT uses a thin fiberoptic imaging catheter placed down the working channel of a conventional endoscope. 3D-OCT enables en face and cross-sectional evaluation of the esophagus for detection of residual BE, neo-squamous mucosa, or buried BE glands. Patients who had undergone RFA treatment with the BARRX HALO90 system were recruited and imaged with endoscopic 3D-OCT before and after (3-25 months) RFA treatment. 3D-OCT findings were compared to pinch biopsy to confirm the presence or absence of squamous epithelium or buried BE glands following RFA. Gastric, BE, and squamous epithelium were readily distinguished from 3D-OCT over a large volumetric field of view (8mmx20mmx1.6 mm) with ~5μm axial resolution. In all patients, neosquamous epithelium (NSE) was observed in regions previously treated with RFA. A small number of isolated glands were found buried beneath the regenerated NSE and lamina propria. NSE is a marker of successful ablative therapy, while buried glands may have malignant potential and are difficult to detect using conventional video endoscopy and random biopsy. Buried glands were not observed with pinch biopsy due to their extremely sparse distribution. These results indicate a potential benefit of endoscopic 3D-OCT for follow-up assessment of ablative treatments for BE.

  9. 3D Magnetic Induction Maps of Nanoscale Materials Revealed by Electron Holographic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of three-dimensional (3D) ferromagnetic nanoscale materials constitutes one of the key research areas of the current magnetism roadmap and carries great potential to impact areas such as data storage, sensing, and biomagnetism. The properties of such nanostructures are closely connected with their 3D magnetic nanostructure, making their determination highly valuable. Up to now, quantitative 3D maps providing both the internal magnetic and electric configuration of the same specimen with high spatial resolution are missing. Here, we demonstrate the quantitative 3D reconstruction of the dominant axial component of the magnetic induction and electrostatic potential within a cobalt nanowire (NW) of 100 nm in diameter with spatial resolution below 10 nm by applying electron holographic tomography. The tomogram was obtained using a dedicated TEM sample holder for acquisition, in combination with advanced alignment and tomographic reconstruction routines. The powerful approach presented here is widely applicable to a broad range of 3D magnetic nanostructures and may trigger the progress of novel spintronic nonplanar nanodevices. PMID:27182110

  10. Multivoxel pattern analysis reveals 3D place information in the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Misun; Jeffery, Kate J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2017-03-20

    The spatial world is three-dimensional (3D), and humans and other animals move both horizontally and vertically within it. Extant neuroscientific studies have typically investigated spatial navigation on a horizontal two-dimensional plane, leaving much unknown about how 3D spatial information is represented in the brain. Specifically, horizontal and vertical information may be encoded in the same or different neural structures with equal or unequal sensitivity. Here, we investigated these possibilities using functional MRI (fMRI) while participants were passively moved within a 3D lattice structure as if riding a rollercoaster. Multivoxel pattern analysis was used to test for the existence of information relating to where and in which direction participants were heading in this virtual environment. Behaviorally, participants had similarly accurate memory for vertical and horizontal locations, and the right anterior hippocampus expressed place information that was sensitive to changes along both horizontal and vertical axes. This is suggestive of isotropic 3D place encoding. By contrast, participants indicated their heading direction faster and more accurately when they were heading in a tilted-up or tilted-down direction. This direction information was expressed in the right retrosplenial cortex and posterior hippocampus, and was only sensitive to vertical pitch, which could reflect the importance of the vertical (gravity) axis as a reference frame. Overall, our findings extend previous knowledge of how we represent the spatial world and navigate within it, by taking into account the important third dimension.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe spatial world is three-dimensional (3D) -- we can move horizontally across surfaces, but also vertically, going up slopes or stairs. Little is known about how the brain supports representations of 3D space. A key question is whether or not horizontal and vertical information is equally well represented. Here we measured functional MRI

  11. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; ...

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, wemore » derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.« less

  12. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; Peng, Bo; Rames, Matthew J.; Zhang, Shengli; Ren, Gang

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, we derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.

  13. 3D Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals a Very Heterogeneous Drug Distribution in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S.; Morosi, L.; Veglianese, P.; Licandro, S. A.; Frapolli, R.; Zucchetti, M.; Cappelletti, G.; Falciola, L.; Pifferi, V.; Visentin, S.; D’Incalci, M.; Davoli, E.

    2016-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) is a widespread technique used to qualitatively describe in two dimensions the distribution of endogenous or exogenous compounds within tissue sections. Absolute quantification of drugs using MSI is a recent challenge that just in the last years has started to be addressed. Starting from a two dimensional MSI protocol, we developed a three-dimensional pipeline to study drug penetration in tumors and to develop a new drug quantification method by MALDI MSI. Paclitaxel distribution and concentration in different tumors were measured in a 3D model of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM), which is known to be a very heterogeneous neoplasm, highly resistant to different drugs. The 3D computational reconstruction allows an accurate description of tumor PTX penetration, adding information about the heterogeneity of tumor drug distribution due to the complex microenvironment. The use of an internal standard, homogenously sprayed on tissue slices, ensures quantitative results that are similar to those obtained using HPLC. The 3D model gives important information about the drug concentration in different tumor sub-volumes and shows that the great part of each tumor is not reached by the drug, suggesting the concept of pseudo-resistance as a further explanation for ineffective therapies and tumors relapse. PMID:27841316

  14. CTCF-Mediated Human 3D Genome Architecture Reveals Chromatin Topology for Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhonghui; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Li, Xingwang; Zheng, Meizhen; Zhu, Jacqueline Jufen; Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Trzaskoma, Pawel; Magalska, Adriana; Wlodarczyk, Jakub; Ruszczycki, Blazej; Michalski, Paul; Piecuch, Emaly; Wang, Ping; Wang, Danjuan; Tian, Simon Zhongyuan; Penrad-Mobayed, May; Sachs, Laurent M.; Ruan, Xiaoan; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T.; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Plewczynski, Dariusz; Li, Guoliang; Ruan, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spatial genome organization and its effect on transcription remains a fundamental question. We applied an advanced ChIA-PET strategy to comprehensively map higher-order chromosome folding and specific chromatin interactions mediated by CTCF and RNAPII with haplotype specificity and nucleotide resolution in different human cell lineages. We find that CTCF/cohesin-mediated interaction anchors serve as structural foci for spatial organization of constitutive genes concordant with CTCF-motif orientation, whereas RNAPII interacts within these structures by selectively drawing cell-type-specific genes towards CTCF-foci for coordinated transcription. Furthermore, we show that haplotype-variants and allelic-interactions have differential effects on chromosome configuration influencing gene expression and may provide mechanistic insights into functions associated with disease susceptibility. 3D-genome simulation suggests a model of chromatin folding around chromosomal axes, where CTCF is involved in defining the interface between condensed and open compartments for structural regulation. Our 3D-genome strategy thus provides unique insights in the topological mechanism of human variations and diseases. PMID:26686651

  15. Fluorescence fluctuation microscopy to reveal 3D architecture and function in the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lenser, Thorsten; Weisshart, Klaus; Ulbricht, Tobias; Klement, Karolin; Hemmerich, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the cell nucleus is determined not only by the presence of subnuclear domains, such as the nuclear envelope, chromosome territories, and nuclear bodies, but also by smaller domains which form in response to specific functions, such as RNA transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Since both stable and dynamic structures contribute to nuclear morphology, it is important to study the biophysical principles of the formation of macromolecular assemblies within the nucleus. For this purpose, a variety of fluorescence fluctuation microscopy techniques can be applied. Here, we summarize our current knowledge on the 3D architecture of the mammalian cell nucleus and describe in detail how the assembly of functional nuclear protein complexes can be analyzed in living cells using fluorescence bleaching techniques, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, raster image correlation spectroscopy, and mathematical modeling. In conclusion, the application of all these techniques in combination is a powerful tool to assess the full spectrum of nuclear protein dynamics and to understand the biophysical principles underlying nuclear structure and function.

  16. 3D structure of eukaryotic flagella in a quiescent state revealed by cryo-electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Daniela; McIntosh, J. Richard; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    We have used cryo-electron tomography to investigate the 3D structure and macromolecular organization of intact, frozen-hydrated sea urchin sperm flagella in a quiescent state. The tomographic reconstructions provide information at a resolution better than 6 nm about the in situ arrangements of macromolecules that are key for flagellar motility. We have visualized the heptameric rings of the motor domains in the outer dynein arm complex and determined that they lie parallel to the plane that contains the axes of neighboring flagellar microtubules. Both the material associated with the central pair of microtubules and the radial spokes display a plane of symmetry that helps to explain the planar beat pattern of these flagella. Cryo-electron tomography has proven to be a powerful technique for helping us understand the relationships between flagellar structure and function and the design of macromolecular machines in situ. PMID:16246999

  17. 3D Lifetime Tomography Reveals How CdCl2 Improves Recombination Throughout CdTe Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Edward S; Ursprung, Benedikt; Colegrove, Eric; Moutinho, Helio R; Borys, Nicholas J; Hardin, Brian E; Peters, Craig H; Metzger, Wyatt K; Schuck, P James

    2017-01-01

    Using two-photon tomography, carrier lifetimes are mapped in polycrystalline CdTe photovoltaic devices. These 3D maps probe subsurface carrier dynamics that are inaccessible with traditional optical techniques. They reveal that CdCl2 treatment of CdTe solar cells suppresses nonradiative recombination and enhances carrier lifetimes throughout the film with substantial improvements particularly near subsurface grain boundaries and the critical buried p-n junction.

  18. 3D Lifetime Tomography Reveals How CdCl 2 Improves Recombination Throughout CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Edward S.; Ursprung, Benedikt; Colegrove, Eric; Moutinho, Helio R.; Borys, Nicholas J.; Hardin, Brian E.; Peters, Craig H.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Schuck, P. James

    2016-11-15

    Using two-photon tomography, carrier lifetimes are mapped in polycrystalline CdTe photovoltaic devices. These 3D maps probe subsurface carrier dynamics that are inaccessible with traditional optical techniques. They reveal that CdCl2 treatment of CdTe solar cells suppresses nonradiative recombination and enhances carrier lifetimes throughout the film with substantial improvements particularly near subsurface grain boundaries and the critical buried p-n junction.

  19. Mutational analysis of the complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21)-C3d interaction reveals a putative charged SCR1 binding site for C3d.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Jonathan P; Young, Kendra A; Guthridge, Joel M; Asokan, Rengasamy; Szakonyi, Gerda; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Holers, V Michael

    2005-02-25

    We have characterized the interaction between the first two short consensus repeats (SCR1-2) of complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) and C3d in solution, by utilising the available crystal structures of free and C3d-bound forms of CR2 to create a series of informative mutations targeting specific areas of the CR2-C3d complex. Wild-type and mutant forms of CR2 were expressed on the surface of K562 erythroleukemia cells and their binding ability assessed using C3dg-biotin tetramers complexed to fluorochrome conjugated streptavidin and measured by flow cytometry. Mutations directed at the SCR2-C3d interface (R83A, R83E, G84Y) were found to strongly disrupt C3dg binding, supporting the conclusion that the SCR2 interface reflected in the crystal structure is correct. Previous epitope and peptide mapping studies have also indicated that the PILN11GR13IS sequence of the first inter-cysteine region of SCR1 is essential for the binding of iC3b. Mutations targeting residues within or in close spatial proximity to this area (N11A, N11E, R13A, R13E, Y16A, S32A, S32E), and a number of other positively charged residues located primarily on a contiguous face of SCR1 (R28A, R28E, R36A, R36E, K41A, K41E, K50A, K50E, K57A, K57E, K67A, K67E), have allowed us to reassess those regions on SCR1 that are essential for CR2-C3d binding. The nature of this interaction and the possibility of a direct SCR1-C3d association are discussed extensively. Finally, a D52N mutant was constructed introducing an N-glycosylation sequence at an area central to the CR2 dimer interface. This mutation was designed to disrupt the CR2-C3d interaction, either directly through steric inhibition, or indirectly through disruption of a physiological dimer. However, no difference in C3dg binding relative to wild-type CR2 could be observed for this mutant, suggesting that the dimer may only be found in the crystal form of CR2.

  20. Heterogeneity of macrophage infiltration and therapeutic response in lung carcinoma revealed by 3D organ imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cuccarese, Michael F.; Dubach, J. Matthew; Pfirschke, Christina; Engblom, Camilla; Garris, Christopher; Miller, Miles A.; Pittet, Mikael J.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Involvement of the immune system in tumour progression is at the forefront of cancer research. Analysis of the tumour immune microenvironment has yielded a wealth of information on tumour biology, and alterations in some immune subtypes, such as tumour-associated macrophages (TAM), can be strong prognostic indicators. Here, we use optical tissue clearing and a TAM-targeting injectable fluorescent nanoparticle (NP) to examine three-dimensional TAM composition, tumour-to-tumour heterogeneity, response to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) blockade and nanoparticle-based drug delivery in murine pulmonary carcinoma. The method allows for rapid tumour volume assessment and spatial information on TAM infiltration at the cellular level in entire lungs. This method reveals that TAM density was heterogeneous across tumours in the same animal, overall TAM density is different among separate pulmonary tumour models, nanotherapeutic drug delivery correlated with TAM heterogeneity, and successful response to CSF-1R blockade is characterized by enhanced TAM penetration throughout and within tumours. PMID:28176769

  1. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  2. 3-D crustal structure along the North Anatolian Fault Zone in north-central Anatolia revealed by local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolsal-Ćevikbilen, Seda; Biryol, C. Berk; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Taymaz, Tuncay; Adıyaman, Hande E.; Özacar, A. Arda

    2012-03-01

    3-D P-wave velocity structure and Vp/Vs variations in the crust along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in north-central Anatolia were investigated by the inversion of local P- and S-wave traveltimes, to gain a better understanding of the seismological characteristics of the region. The 3-D local earthquake tomography inversions included 5444 P- and 3200 S-wave readings obtained from 168 well-located earthquakes between 2006 January and 2008 May. Dense ray coverage yields good resolution, particularly in the central part of the study area. The 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs tomographic images reveal clear correlations with both the surface geology and significant tectonic units in the region. We observed the lower limit of the seismogenic zone for north-central Anatolia at 15 km depth. Final earthquake locations display a distributed pattern throughout the study area, with most of the earthquakes occurring on the major splays of the NAFZ, rather than its master strand. We identify three major high-velocity blocks in the mid-crust separated by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture and interpret these blocks to be continental basement fragments that were accreted onto the margin following the closure of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. These basement blocks may have in part influenced the rupture propagations of the historical 1939, 1942 and 1943 earthquakes. In addition, large variations in the Vp/Vs ratio in the mid-crust were observed and have been correlated with the varying fluid contents of the existing lithologies and related tectonic structures.

  3. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X

    2016-10-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young's elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending. Kinematic analysis revealed a multiphase bio-mechanical response of elongation rate and curvature in 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils.

  4. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces

    PubMed Central

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X.

    2016-01-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young’s elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending. Kinematic analysis revealed a multiphase bio-mechanical response of elongation rate and curvature in 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils. PMID:27664958

  5. 3D reconstruction of the Shigella T3SS transmembrane regions reveals 12-fold symmetry and novel features throughout

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, Julie L.; Horsley, Ashley; Stabat, David; Simon, Martha; Johnson, Steven; da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Morris, Edward P.; Wall, Joseph S.; Lea, Susan M.; Blocker, Ariel J.

    2009-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) mediate bacterial protein translocation into eukaryotic cells, a process essential for virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens. They are composed of a cytoplasmic secretion machinery and a base bridging both bacterial membranes into which a hollow, external needle is embedded. When isolated, the latter two parts are termed ‘needle complex’ (NC). Incomplete understanding of NC structure hampers studies of T3SS function. To estimate the stoichiometry of its components, the mass f its sub-domains was measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Subunit symmetries were determined by analysis of top and side views within negatively stained samples in low dose transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Application of 12-fold symmetry allowed generation of a 21-25Å resolution three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the NC base, revealing many new features and permitting tentative docking of the crystal structure of EscJ, an inner membrane component. PMID:19396171

  6. Oblique section 3-D reconstruction of relaxed insect flight muscle reveals the cross-bridge lattice in helical registration.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, H; Lucaveche, C; Reedy, M K; Taylor, K A

    1994-01-01

    In this work we examined the arrangement of cross-bridges on the surface of myosin filaments in the A-band of Lethocerus flight muscle. Muscle fibers were fixed using the tannic-acid-uranyl-acetate, ("TAURAC") procedure. This new procedure provides remarkably good preservation of native features in relaxed insect flight muscle. We computed 3-D reconstructions from single images of oblique transverse sections. The reconstructions reveal a square profile of the averaged myosin filaments in cross section view, resulting from the symmetrical arrangement of four pairs of myosin heads in each 14.5-nm repeat along the filament. The square profiles form a very regular right-handed helical arrangement along the surface of the myosin filament. Furthermore, TAURAC fixation traps a near complete 38.7 nm labeling of the thin filaments in relaxed muscle marking the left-handed helix of actin targets surrounding the thick filaments. These features observed in an averaged reconstruction encompassing nearly an entire myofibril indicate that the myosin heads, even in relaxed muscle, are in excellent helical register in the A-band. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:7819494

  7. Revealing the Functions of Tenascin-C in 3-D Breast Cancer Models Using Cell Biological and in Silico Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    renditions of mammary acini, which were then used to assess and quantify acinar topography and volume. Although TN-C increased acinar surface roughness...epithelial 3-D tissue structure and function. In essence, we devised an algorithm to quantify acinar surface topography and volume in 3-D cultures of...deficient mice, Nature 1995, 377:539-544 39 34. Matsuda A, Yoshiki A, Tagawa Y, Matsuda H, Kusakabe M: Corneal wound healing in tenascin knockout mouse

  8. The birth of a dinosaur footprint: Subsurface 3D motion reconstruction and discrete element simulation reveal track ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion over deformable substrates is a common occurrence in nature. Footprints represent sedimentary distortions that provide anatomical, functional, and behavioral insights into trackmaker biology. The interpretation of such evidence can be challenging, however, particularly for fossil tracks recovered at bedding planes below the originally exposed surface. Even in living animals, the complex dynamics that give rise to footprint morphology are obscured by both foot and sediment opacity, which conceals animal–substrate and substrate–substrate interactions. We used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) to image and animate the hind limb skeleton of a chicken-like bird traversing a dry, granular material. Foot movement differed significantly from walking on solid ground; the longest toe penetrated to a depth of ∼5 cm, reaching an angle of 30° below horizontal before slipping backward on withdrawal. The 3D kinematic data were integrated into a validated substrate simulation using the discrete element method (DEM) to create a quantitative model of limb-induced substrate deformation. Simulation revealed that despite sediment collapse yielding poor quality tracks at the air–substrate interface, subsurface displacements maintain a high level of organization owing to grain–grain support. Splitting the substrate volume along “virtual bedding planes” exposed prints that more closely resembled the foot and could easily be mistaken for shallow tracks. DEM data elucidate how highly localized deformations associated with foot entry and exit generate specific features in the final tracks, a temporal sequence that we term “track ontogeny.” This combination of methodologies fosters a synthesis between the surface/layer-based perspective prevalent in paleontology and the particle/volume-based perspective essential for a mechanistic understanding of sediment redistribution during track formation. PMID:25489092

  9. Strain in a silicon-on-insulator nanostructure revealed by 3D x-ray Bragg ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Chamard, V.; Allain, M.; Godard, P.; Talneau, A.; Patriarche, G.; Burghammer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Progresses in the design of well-defined electronic band structure and dedicated functionalities rely on the high control of complex architectural device nano-scaled structures. This includes the challenging accurate description of strain fields in crystalline structures, which requires non invasive and three-dimensional (3D) imaging methods. Here, we demonstrate in details how x-ray Bragg ptychography can be used to quantify in 3D a displacement field in a lithographically patterned silicon-on-insulator structure. The image of the crystalline properties, which results from the phase retrieval of a coherent intensity data set, is obtained from a well-controlled optimized process, for which all steps are detailed. These results confirm the promising perspectives of 3D Bragg ptychography for the investigation of complex nano-structured crystals in material science. PMID:25984829

  10. The Effects of Lightning NO(x) Production during the July 21 EULINOX Storm studied with a 3-D Cloud-scale Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Lesley E.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Huntrieser, Heidi; Schumann, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    The July 21,1998 thunderstonn observed during the European Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Project (EULINOX) project was simulated using the three-dimensional Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. The simulation successfully reproduced a number of observed storm features including the splitting of the original cell into a southern cell which developed supercell characteristics, and a northern cell which became multicellular. Output from the GCE simulation was used to drive an offline cloud-scale chemical transport model which calculates tracer transport and includes a parameterization of lightning NO(x) production which uses observed flash rates as input. Estimates of lightning NO(x) production were deduced by assuming various values of production per intracloud and production per cloud-to-ground flash and comparing the results with in-cloud aircraft observations. The assumption that both types of flashes produce 360 moles of NO per flash on average compared most favorably with column mass and probability distribution functions calculated from observations. This assumed production per flash corresponds to a global annual lightning NOx source of 7 Tg N per yr. Chemical reactions were included in the model to evaluate the impact of lightning NO(x), on ozone. During the storm, the inclusion of lightning NOx in the model results in a small loss of ozone (on average less than 4 ppbv) at all model levels. Simulations of the chemical environment in the 24 hours following the storm show on average a small increase in the net production of ozone at most levels resulting from lightning NO(x), maximizing at approximately 5 ppbv per day at 5.5 km. Between 8 and 10.5 km, lightning NO(x) causes decreased net ozone production.

  11. Migration of bone marrow stromal cells in 3D: 4 color methodology reveals spatially and temporally coordinated events.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Marc M; Buschmann, Michael D

    2006-12-01

    The cytoskeleton plays a central role in many cell processes including directed cell migration. Since most previous work has investigated cell migration in two dimensions (2D), new methods are required to study movement in three dimensions (3D) while preserving 3D structure of the cytoskeleton. Most previous studies have labeled two cytoskeletal networks simultaneously, impeding an appreciation of their complex and dynamic interconnections. Here we report the development of a 4 color method to simultaneously image vimentin, actin, tubulin and the nucleus for high-resolution confocal microscopy of bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) migrating through a porous membrane. Several methods were tested for structural preservation and labeling intensity resulting in identification of an optimized simultaneous fixation and permeabilization method using glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde and Triton X-100 followed by a quadruple fluorescent labeling method. This procedure was then applied at a sequence of time points to migrating cells, allowing temporal progression of migration to be assessed by visualizing all three networks plus the nucleus, providing new insights into 3D directed cell migration including processes such as leading edge structure, cytoskeletal distribution and nucleokinesis. Colocalization of actin and microtubules with distinct spatial arrangements at the cellular leading edge during migration, together with microtubule axial polarization supports recent reports indicating the pivotal role of microtubules in directed cell migration. This study also provides a foundation for 3D migration studies versus 2D studies, providing precise and robust methods to attain new insights into the cellular mechanisms of motility.

  12. Airborne & SAR Synergy Reveals the 3D Structure of Air Bubble Entrainment in Internal Waves and Frontal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, J. C. B.; Magalhaes, J. M.; Batista, M.; Gostiaux, L.; Gerkema, T.; New, A. L.

    2013-03-01

    spectral range 8-12 μm. With a nominal ground resolution of approximately 1.5 meters (at an altitude of 500 meters) it is capable to detect fine structure associated to turbulence. The LiDAR system that has been used is the Leica ALS50-II (1064nm) with a hit rate greater than 1 hit per square meter and a vertical resolution of approximately 15 cm. Both systems were available simultaneously, together with the hyperspectral system and the RCD105 39Mpx digital camera, integrated with the LiDAR navigation system. We analyse the airborne data together with a comprehensive dataset of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that includes ENVISAT and TerraSAR-X images. In addition, in situ observations in the near-shore zone were obtained in a previous experiment (Project SPOTIWAVE-II POCI/MAR/57836/2004 funded by the Portuguese FCT) during the summer period in 2006. These included thermistor chain measurements along the water column that captured the vertical structure of shoaling internal (tidal) waves and ISWs close to the breaking point. The SAR and airborne images were obtained in light wind conditions, in the near-shore zone, and in the presence of ISWs. The LiDAR images revealed sub-surface structures (some 1-2 m below the sea surface) that were co-located with surface films. These film slicks were induced by the convergent fields of internal waves and upwelling fronts. Some of the sub-surface features were located over the front slopes of the internal waves, which coincides with the internal wave slick band visible in the aerial photos and hyperspectral systems. Our flight measurements revealed thermal features similar to “boils” of cold water within the wake of (admittedly breaking) internal waves. These features are consistent with the previous in situ measurements of breaking ISWs. In this paper we will show coincident multi-sensor airborne and satellite SAR observations that reveal the 3D structure of air bubble entrainment in the internal wave field and frontal

  13. Mechanics of the ankle and subtalar joints revealed through a 3D quasi-static stress MRI technique.

    PubMed

    Siegler, S; Udupa, J K; Ringleb, S I; Imhauser, C W; Hirsch, B E; Odhner, D; Saha, P K; Okereke, E; Roach, N

    2005-03-01

    A technique to study the three-dimensional (3D) mechanical characteristics of the ankle and of the subtalar joints in vivo and in vitro is described. The technique uses an MR scanner compatible 3D positioning and loading linkage to load the hindfoot with precise loads while the foot is being scanned. 3D image processing algorithms are used to derive from the acquired MR images bone morphology, hindfoot architecture, and joint kinematics. The technique was employed to study these properties both in vitro and in vivo. The ankle and subtler joint motion and the changes in architecture produced in response to an inversion load and an anterior drawer load were evaluated. The technique was shown to provide reliable measures of bone morphology. The left-to-right variations in bone morphology were less than 5%. The left-to-right variations in unloaded hindfoot architecture parameters were less than 10%, and these properties were only slightly affected by inversion and anterior drawer loads. Inversion and anterior drawer loads produced motion both at the ankle and at the subtalar joint. In addition, high degree of coupling, primarily of internal rotation with inversion, was observed both at the ankle and at the subtalar joint. The in vitro motion produced in response to inversion and anterior drawer load was greater than the in vivo motion. Finally, external motion, measured directly across the ankle complex, produced in response to load was much greater than the bone movements measured through the 3D stress MRI technique indicating the significant effect of soft tissue and skin interference.

  14. Alpine fold-and-thrust structures revealed: A 3D model from the Helvetic Zone (Säntis area, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Paola; Pfiffner, Adrian; Frehner, Marcel

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the geometrical relationships between folding and thrust faulting, a 3D model of the Helvetic fold-and-thrust belt in Eastern Switzerland is built from several cross-sections in the Säntis area, between Hoher Kasten and Wildhaus. Existing cross-sections from Schlatter (1941), Kempf (1966), and Pfiffner (2000; 2011) were partly redrawn and cross-checked for line length balancing. Additional cross-sections based on surface geology were newly constructed to fill areas with a low cross-section density and to solve geological problems. The interpolation of the formation interfaces and the thrusts between the cross-sections allowed generating six main surfaces corresponding to the base of the Öhrli and Betlis Limestones, the Helvetic Kieselkalk, the Schrattenkalk and Garschella Formations, and the Seewen Limestone. The main structural elements in the Säntis area, such as the Säntis Thrust or the Sax-Schwende Fault, are also implemented in the model. The 3D model highlights the shape of the main anticline-syncline pairs (e.g., Altmann-Wildseeli, Schafberg-Moor, Roslenfirst-Mutschen, etc...) and how these fold trains vary in amplitude and wavelength along strike. The model also clearly shows the lateral extension, the trend, and the variation in displacement of the principal faults. The reconstruction of 3D horizons allows the geologists investigating cross-sections along any given direction. The 3D model is useful to understand how the changes of the internal nappe structures, namely folds and thrust faults, change along strike. Such changes occur either across transverse faults or in a more gradual manner. The model can and will also be used as a base to perform retrodeformation and strain estimation. Shortening will be calculated using the base Schrattenkalk as the reference horizon. REFERENCES Pfiffner, O.A., 2000: Cross-sections in Funk, H., Habich, J.K., Hantke, R. & Pfiffner, O.A., 2000: Blatt 1115 Säntis - Geologischer Atlas der Schweiz 1

  15. Clustering of 3D-Structure Similarity Based Network of Secondary Metabolites Reveals Their Relationships with Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ohtana, Yuki; Abdullah, Azian Azamimi; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Huang, Ming; Ono, Naoaki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Horai, Hisayuki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Morita Hirai, Aki; Lange, Klaus W; Kibinge, Nelson K; Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-12-01

    Developing database systems connecting diverse species based on omics is the most important theme in big data biology. To attain this purpose, we have developed KNApSAcK Family Databases, which are utilized in a number of researches in metabolomics. In the present study, we have developed a network-based approach to analyze relationships between 3D structure and biological activity of metabolites consisting of four steps as follows: construction of a network of metabolites based on structural similarity (Step 1), classification of metabolites into structure groups (Step 2), assessment of statistically significant relations between structure groups and biological activities (Step 3), and 2-dimensional clustering of the constructed data matrix based on statistically significant relations between structure groups and biological activities (Step 4). Applying this method to a data set consisting of 2072 secondary metabolites and 140 biological activities reported in KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB, we obtained 983 statistically significant structure group-biological activity pairs. As a whole, we systematically analyzed the relationship between 3D-chemical structures of metabolites and biological activities.

  16. High throughput 3D super-resolution microscopy reveals Caulobacter crescentus in vivo Z-ring organization

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Seamus J.; Pengo, Thomas; Meibom, Karin L.; Fernandez Fernandez, Carmen; Collier, Justine; Manley, Suliana

    2014-01-01

    We created a high-throughput modality of photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) that enables automated 3D PALM imaging of hundreds of synchronized bacteria during all stages of the cell cycle. We used high-throughput PALM to investigate the nanoscale organization of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ in live Caulobacter crescentus. We observed that FtsZ predominantly localizes as a patchy midcell band, and only rarely as a continuous ring, supporting a model of “Z-ring” organization whereby FtsZ protofilaments are randomly distributed within the band and interact only weakly. We found evidence for a previously unidentified period of rapid ring contraction in the final stages of the cell cycle. We also found that DNA damage resulted in production of high-density continuous Z-rings, which may obstruct cytokinesis. Our results provide a detailed quantitative picture of in vivo Z-ring organization. PMID:24616530

  17. Revealing plot scale heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics under contrasting vegetation assemblages using 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a fundamental component of the water cycle that influences many hydrological processes, such as flooding, solute transport, biogeochemical processes, and land-atmosphere interactions. The relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal. Soil moisture may affect vegetation distribution due to its function as the primary source of water, in turn the structure of vegetation canopies regulate water partitioning into interception, throughfall and steam flow. Such spatial differences in inputs, together with complex patterns of water uptake from distributed root networks can create marked heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics at small scales. Traditional methods of monitoring soil moisture have revolved around limited point measurements, but improved geophysical techniques have facilitated a trend towards more spatially distributed measurements to help understand this heterogeneity. Here, we present a study using 3D ERT surveys in a 3.2km upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands where increasing afforestation (for climate change adaptation, biofuels and conservation) has the potential to increase interception losses and reduce soil moisture storage. The study combined 3D surveys, traditional point measurements and laboratory analysis of soil cores to assess the plot scale soil moisture dynamics in podzolic soils under forest stands of 15m high Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and adjacent non-forest plots dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris) shrubs (<0.5m high). These dominant species are typical of forest and non-forest vegetation communities the Scottish Highlands. Results showed differences in the soil moisture dynamics under the different vegetation types, with heterogeneous patterns in the forested site mainly correlated with canopy cover and mirroring interception losses. Temporal variability in the forested site was greater, probably due to the interception, and increased evapotranspiration losses relative to the

  18. Crustal and Uppermost Mantle Structure of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco Revealed from 3-D Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyan, D.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Ledo, J.; Siniscalchi, A.; Romano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The overarching objectives of the second phase of the PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) project and the concomitant TopoMed (Plate re-organization in the western Mediterranean: Lithospheric causes and topographic consequences - an ESF EUROSCORES TOPO-EUROPE project) project are (i) to provide new electrical conductivity constraints on the crustal and lithospheric structures of the Atlas Mountains, and (ii) to test the hypotheses for explaining the observation of a 'missing' mantle root inferred from surface heat flow, gravity and geoid anomalies, elevation and seismic data modeling (i.e. Zeyen et al., 2005; Teixell et al., 2005; Fullea et al., 2010). We present the results from three-dimensional (3-D) MT inversion of data from two MT profiles employing the parallel version of Modular system for Electromagnetic inversion (ModEM; Egbert & Kelbert, 2012) code. For the profile in eastern Morocco, passing through Midelt, a distinct conductivity difference between the Middle-High Atlas (conductive) and Anti Atlas (resistive) correlates with the South Atlas Front fault, the depth extent of which appears to be limited to the uppermost mantle (approximately 55 km). In all inverse solutions, the crust and the upper mantle show a resistive signature (750 Ωm - 1,000 Ωm) beneath the Anti Atlas to a depth of 100 km, which is the part of stable West African Craton. Our results are at variance with the proposed thin lithosphere beneath the Middle-High Atlas as we see no evidence for a shallow asthenosphere. Our second profile lies in western Morocco traversing through Marrakech. For the first time, the electrical resistivity distribution in the crust and in the upper mantle of Western High Atlas has been studied. Our 3-D resistivity model shows that conductive (1-20 Ωm) western High Atlas is confined by two resistive basins (>1,000 Ωm), Souss basin to the south and Houz basin to the north. At the southern boundary of the western High Atlas

  19. Microfluidic Gradients Reveal Enhanced Neurite Outgrowth but Impaired Guidance within 3D Matrices with High Integrin Ligand Densities

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Nicole H.; Lampe, Kyle J.; Xu, Hui; Ferreira, Meghaan M.

    2015-01-01

    The density of integrin-binding ligands in an extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to regulate cell migration speed by imposing a balance of traction forces between the leading and trailing edges of the cell, but the effect of cell-adhesive ligands on neurite chemoattraction is not well understood. We present a platform that combines gradient-generating microfluidic devices with three-dimensional (3D) protein-engineered hydrogels to study the effect of RGD ligand density on neurite pathfinding from chick dorsal root ganglia-derived spheroids. Spheroids are encapsulated in elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) hydrogels presenting either 3.2 or 1.6 mM RGD ligands and exposed to a microfluidic gradient of nerve growth factor (NGF). While the higher ligand density matrix enhanced neurite initiation and persistence of neurite outgrowth, the lower ligand density matrix significantly improved neurite pathfinding and increased the frequency of growth cone turning up the NGF gradient. The apparent trade-off between neurite extension and neurite guidance is reminiscent of the well-known parabolic relationship between cell adhesion and migration speed, implying that a similar matrix-mediated balance of forces regulate neurite elongation and growth cone turning. These results have implications in the design of engineered materials for in vitro models of neural tissue and in vivo nerve guidance channels. PMID:25315156

  20. Integration of comprehensive 3D microCT and signaling analysis reveals differential regulatory mechanisms of craniofacial bone development

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Thach-Vu; Iwata, Junichi; Ho, Hoang Anh; Grimes, Weston C.; Park, Shery; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Growth factor signaling regulates tissue-tissue interactions to control organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Specifically, transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling plays a crucial role in the development of cranial neural crest (CNC) cell–derived bone, and loss of Tgfbr2 in CNC cells results in craniofacial skeletal malformations. Our recent studies indicate that non-canonical TGFβ signaling is activated whereas canonical TGFβ signaling is compromised in the absence of Tgfbr2 (in Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre mice). A haploinsufficiency of Tgfbr1 (aka Alk5) (Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre;Alk5fl/+) largely rescues craniofacial deformities in Tgfbr2 mutant mice by reducing ectopic non-canonical TGFβ signaling. However, the relative involvement of canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signaling in regulating specific craniofacial bone formation remains unclear. We compared the size and volume of CNC–derived craniofacial bones (frontal bone, premaxilla, maxilla, palatine bone, and mandible) from E18.5 control, Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre, and Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre;Alk5fl/+ mice. By analyzing three dimensional (3D) micro-computed tomography (microCT) images, we found that different craniofacial bones were restored to different degrees in Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre;Alk5fl/+ mice. Our study provides comprehensive information on anatomical landmarks and the size and volume of each craniofacial bone, as well as insights into the extent that canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signaling cascades contribute to the formation of each CNC–derived bone. Our data will serve as an important resource for developmental biologists who are interested in craniofacial morphogenesis. PMID:25722190

  1. Revealing the z ~ 2.5 Cosmic Web with 3D Lyα Forest Tomography: a Deformation Tensor Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; White, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Studies of cosmological objects should take into account their positions within the cosmic web of large-scale structure. Unfortunately, the cosmic web has only been extensively mapped at low redshifts (z\\lt 1), using galaxy redshifts as tracers of the underlying density field. At z\\gt 1, the required galaxy densities are inaccessible for the foreseeable future, but 3D reconstructions of Lyα forest absorption in closely separated background QSOs and star-forming galaxies already offer a detailed window into z˜ 2-3 large-scale structure. We quantify the utility of such maps for studying the cosmic web by using realistic z = 2.5 Lyα forest simulations matched to observational properties of upcoming surveys. A deformation tensor-based analysis is used to classify voids, sheets, filaments, and nodes in the flux, which are compared to those determined from the underlying dark matter (DM) field. We find an extremely good correspondence, with 70% of the volume in the flux maps correctly classified relative to the DM web, and 99% classified to within one eigenvalue. This compares favorably to the performance of galaxy-based classifiers with even the highest galaxy densities from low-redshift surveys. We find that narrow survey geometries can degrade the recovery of the cosmic web unless the survey is ≳ 60 {h}-1 {Mpc} or ≳ 1 deg on the sky. We also examine halo abundances as a function of the cosmic web, and find a clear dependence as a function of flux overdensity, but little explicit dependence on the cosmic web. These methods will provide a new window on cosmological environments of galaxies at this very special time in galaxy formation, “high noon,” and on overall properties of cosmological structures at this epoch.

  2. Solar Wind Heating as Revealed from the Variation of 3D Ion Velocity Distributions across the Magnetic Reconnection Exhaust Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection within current sheet has been regarded as one of the crucial dissipation and heating processes of coherent structures in the solar wind turbulence. Counter-streaming of ions is an important phenomenon in the reconnection exhaust region ranged from the ion diffusion region to the extended outflow region. It has been suggested by theoretical and numerical models that the ions are going to be picked up by the ejecting magnetic field and show larger T_perpendicular than T_parallel, if the guide field is strong enough (in other word, the shear angle is relatively low). The pick-up behavior seems to favor the heating of heavy ions with high mass-to-charge ratio, since the high M/Q ions have larger gyro-period/transit-time and tend to be non-adiabatic more easily. The above statements from theoretical models have not been thoroughly testified in the solar wind observations, though the changes in total temperature and 1D reduced velocity distribution function had been studied. Until now, it remains unclear about the difference of full 3D velocity distribution for the proton and helium ions between the upstream and the exhaust regions. Here, we will analyze the plasma measurement data from WIND/3DP to explore and compare the parallel and perpendicular heating effect of different species of ions. As a preliminary result, the proton is found to show bi-directional streams in its velocity distribution in some reconnection exhaust regions. The thermalization of the counter-streaming protons will be presented. The relation between proton T_parallel/T_perpendicular and guide field strength (or shear angle) will be studied. The velocity distributions of helium ions will be illustrated, which shows the difference of heating effect between different M/Q ratios.

  3. Multifunctional bioscaffolds for 3D culture of melanoma cells reveal increased MMP activity and migration with BRAF kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Leight, Jennifer L; Tokuda, Emi Y; Jones, Caitlin E; Lin, Austin J; Anseth, Kristi S

    2015-04-28

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important for many different types of cancer-related processes, including metastasis. Understanding the functional impact of changes in MMP activity during cancer treatment is an important facet not typically evaluated as part of preclinical research. With MMP activity being a critical component of the metastatic cascade, we designed a 3D hydrogel system to probe whether pharmacological inhibition affected human melanoma cell proteolytic activity; metastatic melanoma is a highly aggressive and drug-resistant form of skin cancer. The relationship between MMP activity and drug treatment is unknown, and therefore we used an in situ fluorogenic MMP sensor peptide to determine how drug treatment affects melanoma cell MMP activity in three dimensions. We encapsulated melanoma cells from varying stages of progression within PEG-based hydrogels to examine the relationship between drug treatment and MMP activity. From these results, a metastatic melanoma cell line (A375) and two inhibitors that inhibit RAF (PLX4032 and sorafenib) were studied further to determine whether changes in MMP activity led to a functional change in cell behavior. A375 cells exhibited increased MMP activity despite an overall decrease in metabolic activity with PLX4032 treatment. The changes in proteolytic activity correlated with increased cell elongation and increased single-cell migration. In contrast, sorafenib did not alter MMP activity or cell motility, showing that the changes induced by PLX4032 were not a universal response to small-molecule inhibition. Therefore, we argue the importance of studying MMP activity with drug treatment and its possible implications for unwanted side effects.

  4. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolic stability of primary human hepatocytes in long-term 3D spheroid cultures revealed by a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Vorrink, Sabine U; Ullah, Shahid; Schmidt, Staffan; Nandania, Jatin; Velagapudi, Vidya; Beck, Olof; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Lauschke, Volker M

    2017-03-06

    Adverse reactions or lack of response to medications are important concerns for drug development programs. However, faithful predictions of drug metabolism and toxicity are difficult because animal models show only limited translatability to humans. Furthermore, current in vitro systems, such as hepatic cell lines or primary human hepatocyte (PHH) 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures, can be used only for acute toxicity tests because of their immature phenotypes and inherent instability. Therefore, the migration to novel phenotypically stable models is of prime importance for the pharmaceutical industry. Novel 3-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been shown to accurately mimic in vivo hepatic phenotypes on transcriptomic and proteomic level, but information about their metabolic stability is lacking. Using a combination of targeted and untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry, we found that PHHs in 3D spheroid cultures remained metabolically stable for multiple weeks, whereas metabolic patterns of PHHs from the same donors cultured as conventional 2D monolayers rapidly deteriorated. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic differences between donors were maintained in 3D spheroid cultures, enabling studies of interindividual variability in drug metabolism and toxicity. We conclude that the 3D spheroid system is metabolically stable and constitutes a suitable model for in vitro studies of long-term drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics.-Vorrink, S. U., Ullah, S., Schmid, S., Nandania, J., Velagapudi, V., Beck, O., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., Lauschke, V. M. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolic stability of primary human hepatocytes in long-term 3D spheroid cultures revealed by a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics.

  5. 3D gravity inversion and thermodynamic modelling reveal properties of shallow silicic magma reservoir beneath Laguna del Maule, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Fournier, Dominique; Witter, Jeff

    2017-02-01

    Active, large volume, silicic magma systems are potentially the most hazardous form of volcanism on Earth. Knowledge of the location, size, and physical properties of silicic magma reservoirs, is therefore important for providing context in which to accurately interpret monitoring data and make informed hazard assessments. Accordingly, we present the first geophysical image of the Laguna del Maule volcanic field magmatic system, using a novel 3D inversion of gravity data constrained by thermodynamic modelling. The joint analysis of gravity and thermodynamic data allows for a rich interpretation of the magma system, and highlights the importance of considering the full thermodynamic effects on melt density, when interpreting gravity models of active magmatic systems. We image a 30 km3, low density, volatile rich magma reservoir, at around 2 km depth, containing at least 85% melt, hosted within a broader 115 km3 body interpreted as wholly or partially crystallised (>70% crystal) cumulate mush. Our model suggests a magmatic system with shallow, crystal poor magma, overlying deeper, crystal rich magma. Even though a large density contrast (-600 kg/m3) with the surrounding crust exists, the lithostatic load is 50% greater than the magma buoyancy force, suggesting buoyancy alone is insufficient to trigger an eruption. The reservoir is adjacent to the inferred extension of the Troncoso fault and overlies the location of an intruding sill, driving present day deformation. The reservoir is in close proximity to the 2.0 km3 Nieblas (rln) eruption at 2-3 ka, which we calculate tapped approximately 7% of the magma reservoir. However, we suggest that the present day magma system is not large enough to have fed all post-glacial eruptions, and that the location, or size of the system may have migrated or varied over time, with each eruption tapping only a small aliquot of the available magma. The presence of a shallow reservoir of volatile rich, near liquidus magma, in close

  6. Protomylonite evolution potentially revealed by the 3D depiction and fractal analysis of chemical data from a feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słaby, Ewa; Domonik, Andrzej; Śmigielski, Michał; Majzner, Katarzyna; Motuza, Gediminas; Götze, Jens; Simon, Klaus; Moszumańska, Izabela; Kruszewski, Łukasz; Rydelek, Paweł

    2014-04-01

    An alkali feldspar megacryst from a protomylonite has been studied using laser ablation-ICP-mass spectrometry combined with cathodoluminescence imaging, Raman spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. The aim was to determine the original (magmatic) geochemical pattern of the crystal and the changes introduced by protomylonitization. Digital concentration-distribution models, derivative gradient models, and fractal statistics, e.g., Hurst-exponent values are used in a novel way to reveal subtle changes in the trace-element composition of the feldspar. Formation of the crystal is reflected in a slightly chaotic trace-element (Ba, Sr, and Rb) distribution pattern that is more or less characterized by continuous development from a fairly homogeneous environment. Derivative gradient models demonstrate a microdomain pattern. Fractal statistics show that element behavior was changeable, with Ba and Sr always more persistent (continuing) and Rb always less persistent, with the latter showing a tendency to migrate. The variations in the Hurst exponent are, however, too large to be explained by magmatic differentiation alone. The observed element behavior may be explained by structural changes revealed by Raman spectroscopy and CL. In high-strain domains, T-O-T modes become stronger for Si-O-Al than Al-O-Al linkages. Increasing amounts of Al-O--Al defects are demonstrated by cathodoluminescence. Both may result from small-distance diffusion creep, making the crystal geochemical pattern slightly patchy. In turn, the marginal part of the megacryst has a mosaic of randomly orientated, newly crystallized K-feldspars. The re-growth is confirmed by trace-element distribution patterns and fractal statistics which identify an abrupt change in the transformation environment. The novel set of tools used in this study reveals a complicated history of megacryst formation and transformation that otherwise would be difficult to unravel and decipher.

  7. Unexpected Regularity in Swimming Behavior of Clausocalanus furcatus Revealed by a Telecentric 3D Computer Vision System

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Giuseppe; Botte, Vincenzo; Dubroca, Laurent; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio; Mazzocchi, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Planktonic copepods display a large repertoire of motion behaviors in a three-dimensional environment. Two-dimensional video observations demonstrated that the small copepod Clausocalanus furcatus, one the most widely distributed calanoids at low to medium latitudes, presented a unique swimming behavior that was continuous and fast and followed notably convoluted trajectories. Furthermore, previous observations indicated that the motion of C. furcatus resembled a random process. We characterized the swimming behavior of this species in three-dimensional space using a video system equipped with telecentric lenses, which allow tracking of zooplankton without the distortion errors inherent in common lenses. Our observations revealed unexpected regularities in the behavior of C. furcatus that appear primarily in the horizontal plane and could not have been identified in previous observations based on lateral views. Our results indicate that the swimming behavior of C. furcatus is based on a limited repertoire of basic kinematic modules but exhibits greater plasticity than previously thought. PMID:23826331

  8. 3-D Imaging Reveals Participation of Donor Islet Schwann Cells and Pericytes in Islet Transplantation and Graft Neurovascular Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Peng, Shih-Jung; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    The primary cells that participate in islet transplantation are the endocrine cells. However, in the islet microenvironment, the endocrine cells are closely associated with the neurovascular tissues consisting of the Schwann cells and pericytes, which form sheaths/barriers at the islet exterior and interior borders. The two cell types have shown their plasticity in islet injury, but their roles in transplantation remain unclear. In this research, we applied 3-dimensional neurovascular histology with cell tracing to reveal the participation of Schwann cells and pericytes in mouse islet transplantation. Longitudinal studies of the grafts under the kidney capsule identify that the donor Schwann cells and pericytes re-associate with the engrafted islets at the peri-graft and perivascular domains, respectively, indicating their adaptability in transplantation. Based on the morphological proximity and cellular reactivity, we propose that the new islet microenvironment should include the peri-graft Schwann cell sheath and perivascular pericytes as an integral part of the new tissue.

  9. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  10. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D’Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate ‘space-frame’ skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics. PMID:18510503

  11. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D'Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-06-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics.

  12. A Computer-Assisted 3D Model for Analyzing the Aggregation of Tumorigenic Cells Reveals Specialized Behaviors and Unique Cell Types that Facilitate Aggregate Coalescence

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Amanda; Kuhl, Spencer; Wessels, Deborah; Lusche, Daniel F.; Hanson, Brett; Ambrose, Joseph; Voss, Edward; Fletcher, Emily; Goldman, Charles; Soll, David R.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a 4D computer-assisted reconstruction and motion analysis system, J3D-DIAS 4.1, and applied it to the reconstruction and motion analysis of tumorigenic cells in a 3D matrix. The system is unique in that it is fast, high-resolution, acquires optical sections using DIC microscopy (hence there is no associated photoxicity), and is capable of long-term 4D reconstruction. Specifically, a z-series at 5 μm increments can be acquired in less than a minute on tissue samples embedded in a 1.5 mm thick 3D Matrigel matrix. Reconstruction can be repeated at intervals as short as every minute and continued for 30 days or longer. Images are converted to mathematical representations from which quantitative parameters can be derived. Application of this system to cancer cells from established lines and fresh tumor tissue has revealed unique behaviors and cell types not present in non-tumorigenic lines. We report here that cells from tumorigenic lines and tumors undergo rapid coalescence in 3D, mediated by specific cell types that we have named “facilitators” and “probes.” A third cell type, the “dervish”, is capable of rapid movement through the gel and does not adhere to it. These cell types have never before been described. Our data suggest that tumorigenesis in vitro is a developmental process involving coalescence facilitated by specialized cells that culminates in large hollow spheres with complex architecture. The unique effects of select monoclonal antibodies on these processes demonstrate the usefulness of the model for analyzing the mechanisms of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:25790299

  13. Topographic signatures of spatially-limited storm morphologies revealed from numerical landscape evolution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valters, Declan; Brocklehurst, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Landscape evolution models typically forsake realistic spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall, assuming spatially uniform rainfall input and steady-state runoff conditions. The implications of this assumption are explored, using extensions made to the CHILD numerical landscape evolution model. A variety of rainfall distribution patterns are tested - from isolated intense storm cells associated with convective precipitation, to more extensive rainfall patterns associated with frontal or stratiform types of precipitation. Several topographic metrics are used to quantify the imprint left by variations in dominant storm shape and size, including the channel steepness (ksn) and chi (χ) gradient indices. All else being equal, resultant landscape topography is shown to be sensitive to the dominant storm morphology and storm cell positioning at the range and catchment scales.

  14. 3D gravity modelling reveals off-axis crustal thickness variations along the western Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita C.; Jokat, Wilfried

    2016-11-01

    Near-orthogonal ultra-slow (13.3 mm yr- 1 to 6.5 mm yr- 1) sea floor spreading in the absence of large transform faults make the Arctic Gakkel Ridge ideally suited for the study of magmatic processes. To enable this, we generated a three-dimensional gravity model of crustal thickness over the ridge and parts of the adjacent Nansen and Amundsen basins west of 65° E. The model shows that oceanic crust accreted prior to chrons C5/C6 is generally very thin (1-3 km). Magnetic anomalies over this thin crust are highly variable both parallel and perpendicular to the ridge axis. This is the result of amagmatic or weakly volcanic spreading that started with the opening of the basins 56 Ma ago. The separation of Greenland from Svalbard at chron C5/C6 led to the inflow of North Atlantic mantle into the western Eurasia Basin leading to a change in the mantle convection system and the establishment of a magmatic dichotomy along the Gakkel Ridge. Robust magmatism was established in the Western Volcanic Zone (6° 30‧ W-3° 30‧ E), leading to creation of a 6.6 km thick igneous crust, characterized by a strong positive axial magnetic anomaly, numerous volcanic cones, and widespread thick mid-ocean ridge basalts. The transition to the neighbouring Sparsely Magmatic (3° 30‧ E-29° E) and Eastern Volcanic (29° E-85° E) zones is sharp. Peridotites cover the central valley and the inner rift flanks, the central magnetic anomaly vanishes and crustal thickness decreases to 1-4 km. Transverse basement ridges, extending for as much as 100 km into the adjacent basins, intersect the central valley. Although partly of tectonic origin, the transverse ridges are also an expression of long-living magmatic centres, as revealed by increased magnetic anomaly intensities and local thickening of the crust to values as great as 5.9 km.

  15. Stratigraphic architecture and fault offsets of alluvial terraces at Te Marua, Wellington fault, New Zealand, revealed by pseudo-3D GPR investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauprêtre, S.; Manighetti, I.; Garambois, S.; Malavieille, J.; Dominguez, S.

    2013-08-01

    earthquake slips on faults are commonly determined by measuring morphological offsets at current ground surface. Because those offsets might not always be well preserved, we examine whether the first 10 m below ground surface contains relevant information to complement them. We focus on the Te Marua site, New Zealand, where 11 alluvial terraces have been dextrally offset by the Wellington fault. We investigated the site using pseudo-3D Ground Penetrating Radar and also produced a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the zone to constrain the surface slip record. The GPR data reveal additional information: (1) they image the 3D stratigraphic architecture of the seven youngest terraces and show that they are strath terraces carved into graywacke bedrock. Each strath surface is overlain by 3-5 m of horizontally bedded gravel sheets, including two pronounced and traceable reflectors; (2) thanks to the multilayer architecture, terrace risers and channels are imaged at three depths and their lateral offsets can be measured three to four times, constraining respective offsets and their uncertainties more reliably; and (3) the offsets are better preserved in the subsurface than at the ground surface, likely due to subsequent erosion-deposition on the latter. From surface and subsurface data, we infer that Te Marua has recorded six cumulative offsets of 2.9, 7.6, 18, 23.2, 26, and 31 m (± 1-2 m). Large earthquakes on southern Wellington fault might produce 3-5 m of slip, slightly less than previously proposed. Pseudo-3D GPR thus provides a novel paleoseismological tool to complement and refine surface investigations.

  16. New constraints on the 3D shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle underneath Southern Scandinavia revealed from non-linear tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawerzinek, B.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Roy, C.

    2013-08-01

    We analyse travel times of shear waves, which were recorded at the MAGNUS network, to determine the 3D shear wave velocity (vS) structure underneath Southern Scandinavia. The travel time residuals are corrected for the known crustal structure of Southern Norway and weighted to account for data quality and pick uncertainties. The resulting residual pattern of subvertically incident waves is very uniform and simple. It shows delayed arrivals underneath Southern Norway compared to fast arrivals underneath the Oslo Graben and the Baltic Shield. The 3D upper mantle vS structure underneath the station network is determined by performing non-linear travel time tomography. As expected from the residual pattern the resulting tomographic model shows a simple and continuous vS perturbation pattern: a negative vS anomaly is visible underneath Southern Norway relative to the Baltic Shield in the east with a contrast of up to 4% vS and a sharp W-E dipping transition zone. Reconstruction tests reveal besides vertical smearing a good lateral reconstruction of the dipping vS transition zone and suggest that a deep-seated anomaly at 330-410 km depth is real and not an inversion artefact. The upper part of the reduced vS anomaly underneath Southern Norway (down to 250 km depth) might be due to an increase in lithospheric thickness from the Caledonian Southern Scandes in the west towards the Proterozoic Baltic Shield in Sweden in the east. The deeper-seated negative vS anomaly (330-410 km depth) could be caused by a temperature anomaly possibly combined with effects due to fluids or hydrous minerals. The determined simple 3D vS structure underneath Southern Scandinavia indicates that mantle processes might influence and contribute to a Neogene uplift of Southern Norway.

  17. Meta-Analysis that Conceals More than It Reveals: Comment on Storm Et Al. (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010) rely on meta-analyses to justify their claim that the evidence for psi is consistent and reliable. They manufacture apparent homogeneity and consistency by eliminating many outliers and combining databases whose combined effect sizes are not significantly different--even though these combined effect sizes…

  18. Site-Specific Internal Motions in GB1 Protein Microcrystals Revealed by 3D 2H–13C–13C Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    2H quadrupolar line shapes deliver rich information about protein dynamics. A newly designed 3D 2H–13C–13C solid-state NMR magic angle spinning (MAS) experiment is presented and demonstrated on the microcrystalline β1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1). The implementation of 2H–13C adiabatic rotor-echo-short-pulse-irradiation cross-polarization (RESPIRATION CP) ensures the accuracy of the extracted line shapes and provides enhanced sensitivity relative to conventional CP methods. The 3D 2H–13C–13C spectrum reveals 2H line shapes for 140 resolved aliphatic deuterium sites. Motional-averaged 2H quadrupolar parameters obtained from the line-shape fitting identify side-chain motions. Restricted side-chain dynamics are observed for a number of polar residues including K13, D22, E27, K31, D36, N37, D46, D47, K50, and E56, which we attribute to the effects of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds. In contrast, we observe significantly enhanced side-chain flexibility for Q2, K4, K10, E15, E19, N35, N40, and E42, due to solvent exposure and low packing density. T11, T16, and T17 side chains exhibit motions with larger amplitudes than other Thr residues due to solvent interactions. The side chains of L5, V54, and V29 are highly rigid because they are packed in the core of the protein. High correlations were demonstrated between GB1 side-chain dynamics and its biological function. Large-amplitude side-chain motions are observed for regions contacting and interacting with immunoglobulin G (IgG). In contrast, rigid side chains are primarily found for residues in the structural core of the protein that are absent from protein binding and interactions. PMID:26849428

  19. Quantitative 3D Fluorescence Imaging of Single Catalytic Turnovers Reveals Spatiotemporal Gradients in Reactivity of Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals upon Steaming.

    PubMed

    Ristanović, Zoran; Hofmann, Jan P; De Cremer, Gert; Kubarev, Alexey V; Rohnke, Marcus; Meirer, Florian; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-05-27

    Optimizing the number, distribution, and accessibility of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite-based catalysts is of a paramount importance to further improve their catalytic performance. However, it remains challenging to measure real-time changes in reactivity of single zeolite catalyst particles by ensemble-averaging characterization methods. In this work, a detailed 3D single molecule, single turnover sensitive fluorescence microscopy study is presented to quantify the reactivity of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals upon steaming. This approach, in combination with the oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol as a probe reaction, allowed the stochastic behavior of single catalytic turnovers and temporally resolved turnover frequencies of zeolite domains smaller than the diffraction limited resolution to be investigated with great precision. It was found that the single turnover kinetics of the parent zeolite crystal proceeds with significant spatial differences in turnover frequencies on the nanoscale and noncorrelated temporal fluctuations. Mild steaming of zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals at 500 °C led to an enhanced surface reactivity, with up to 4 times higher local turnover rates than those of the parent H-ZSM-5 crystals, and revealed remarkable heterogeneities in surface reactivity. In strong contrast, severe steaming at 700 °C significantly dealuminated the zeolite H-ZSM-5 material, leading to a 460 times lower turnover rate. The differences in measured turnover activities are explained by changes in the 3D aluminum distribution due to migration of extraframework Al-species and their subsequent effect on pore accessibility, as corroborated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) sputter depth profiling data.

  20. Quantitative 3D Fluorescence Imaging of Single Catalytic Turnovers Reveals Spatiotemporal Gradients in Reactivity of Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals upon Steaming

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the number, distribution, and accessibility of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite-based catalysts is of a paramount importance to further improve their catalytic performance. However, it remains challenging to measure real-time changes in reactivity of single zeolite catalyst particles by ensemble-averaging characterization methods. In this work, a detailed 3D single molecule, single turnover sensitive fluorescence microscopy study is presented to quantify the reactivity of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals upon steaming. This approach, in combination with the oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol as a probe reaction, allowed the stochastic behavior of single catalytic turnovers and temporally resolved turnover frequencies of zeolite domains smaller than the diffraction limited resolution to be investigated with great precision. It was found that the single turnover kinetics of the parent zeolite crystal proceeds with significant spatial differences in turnover frequencies on the nanoscale and noncorrelated temporal fluctuations. Mild steaming of zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals at 500 °C led to an enhanced surface reactivity, with up to 4 times higher local turnover rates than those of the parent H-ZSM-5 crystals, and revealed remarkable heterogeneities in surface reactivity. In strong contrast, severe steaming at 700 °C significantly dealuminated the zeolite H-ZSM-5 material, leading to a 460 times lower turnover rate. The differences in measured turnover activities are explained by changes in the 3D aluminum distribution due to migration of extraframework Al-species and their subsequent effect on pore accessibility, as corroborated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) sputter depth profiling data. PMID:25867455

  1. NMR spectroscopy reveals that RNase A is chiefly denatured in 40% acetic acid: implications for oligomer formation by 3D domain swapping.

    PubMed

    López-Alonso, Jorge Pedro; Bruix, Marta; Font, Josep; Ribó, Marc; Vilanova, Maria; Jiménez, María Angeles; Santoro, Jorge; González, Carlos; Laurents, Douglas V

    2010-02-10

    Protein self-recognition is essential in many biochemical processes and its study is of fundamental interest to understand the molecular mechanism of amyloid formation. Ribonuclease A (RNase A) is a monomeric protein that may form several oligomers by 3D domain swapping of its N-terminal alpha-helix, C-terminal beta-strand, or both. RNase A oligomerization is induced by 40% acetic acid, which has been assumed to mildly unfold the protein by detaching the terminal segments and consequently facilitating intersubunit swapping, once the acetic acid is removed by lyophilization and the protein is redissolved in a benign buffer. Using UV difference, near UV circular dichroism, folding kinetics, and multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy, the conformation of RNase A in 40% acetic acid and in 8 M urea has been characterized. These studies demonstrate that RNase A is chiefly unfolded in 40% acetic acid; it partially retains the native helices, whereas the beta-sheet is fully denatured and all X-Pro peptide bonds are predominantly in the trans conformation. Refolding occurs via an intermediate, I(N), with non-native X-Pro peptide bonds. I(N) is known to be populated during RNase A refolding following denaturation in concentrated solutions of urea or guanidinium chloride, and we find that urea- or GdmCl-denatured RNase A can oligomerize during refolding. By revealing the importance of a chiefly denaturated state and a refolding intermediate with non-native X-Pro peptide bonds, these findings revise the model for RNase A oligomerization via 3D domain swapping and have general implications for amyloid formation.

  2. Trends in reactivity of electrodeposited 3d transition metals on gold revealed by operando soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy during water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Vélez, J. J.; Jones, Travis E.; Pfeifer, Verena; Dong, Chung-Li; Chen, Yu-Xun; Chen, Chieh-Ming; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Lu, Ying-Rui; Chen, Jin-Ming; Schlögl, R.; Knop-Gericke, A.; Chuang, C.-H.

    2017-01-01

    We activated gold electrodes for their use as electrocatalyst for water splitting by electrodepositing Cu, Ni and Co. A combination of operando x-ray absorption spectroscopy and potentiometric control under aqueous conditions revealed the trends in reactivity yielded by these electrodes, which are directly associated with the cross- and overpotentials as well as the occupancy of the 3d orbitals. It was found that under anodic polarization the materials electrodeposited on gold suffer from a lack of stability, while under cathodic polarization they exhibit stable behavior. The observed activity is strongly related to the lack of stability shown by these composites under anodic polarization revealing a dynamic process ruled by corrosion. By operando x-ray absorption, we established that the overall enhancement of the activity for the oxygen evolution reaction is directly attributable to the cross-potential and corrosion process of the electrodeposited materials. It is associated with the high potential deposition, which is the origin of the incipient oxidation-corrosion resistance of the lattice. We conclude that the observed trends in the total current are directly associated with the loss of oxygen in the metal-oxide lattice and the subsequent dissolution of metallic ions in the electrolyte under anodic polarization.

  3. Tropical Storm Faxai

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA/JAXA's TRMM Satellite provided data of developing Tropical Storm Faxai to make this 3-D image that showed some towering thunderstorms in the area were reaching altitudes of up to 15.5km/~9.6 m...

  4. Low velocity crustal flow and crust-mantle coupling mechanism in Yunnan, SE Tibet, revealed by 3D S-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haopeng; Zhu, Liangbao; Su, Youjin

    2016-08-01

    We used teleseismic data recorded by a permanent seismic network in Yunnan, SE Tibet, and measured the interstation Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 10 and 60 s. A two-step inversion scheme was used to invert for the 3D S-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy structure of 10-110 km. The results show that there are two low velocity channels between depths of 20-30 km in Yunnan and that the fast axes are sub-parallel to the strikes of the low velocity channels, which supports the crustal flow model. The azimuthal anisotropy pattern is quite complicated and reveals a complex crust-mantle coupling mechanism in Yunnan. The N-S trending Lüzhijiang Fault separates the Dianzhong Block into two parts. In the western Dianzhong Block, the fast axis of the S-wave changes with depth, which indicates that the crust and the lithospheric mantle are decoupled. In the eastern Dianzhong Block and the western Yangtze Craton, the crust and the lithospheric mantle may be decoupled because of crustal flow, despite a coherent S-wave fast axis at depths of 10-110 km. In addition, the difference between the S-wave fast axis in the lithosphere and the SKS splitting measurement suggests that the lithosphere and the upper mantle are decoupled there. In the Baoshan Block, the stratified anisotropic pattern suggests that the crust and the upper mantle are decoupled.

  5. 3D cone-sheet and crystal-settling models reveal magma-reservoir structure of the Carlingford central complex, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauroth, Jenny; Burchardt, Steffi; Meade, Fiona; Troll, Valentin R.

    2014-05-01

    The Palaeogene Carlingford central complex, northeast Ireland, hosts a swarm of mostly basaltic cone-sheets with several lithological subsets (Halsall, 1974). The two most abundant sets are aphyric and highly porphyritic cone-sheets with up to 80% of cm-sized plagioclase phenocrysts. The abundance of highly porphyritic cone-sheets seems to systematically increase with altitude compared to the aphyric type (Meade, 2008). We hypothesised that this observation might be explained by the zonation of the source magma reservoir. In order to test this hypothesis, we modelled the 3D cone-sheet structure at depth and the settling of plagioclase phenocrysts. The 3D model of the Carlingford cone-sheet swarm reveals that lithological types of Carlingford cone-sheets are not systematically distributed in space. Using the method proposed by Burchardt et al. (2013), we constructed the likely source reservoir of the cone-sheets, which is saucer-shaped, elongated in NW direction, 7 km long and 3 km wide, and located at a depth of 1 km below the present-day land surface. Our calculation of the terminal velocity of the plagioclase phenocrysts shows that the large phenocrysts in the porphyritic cone-sheets were too big to float at the conditions present in the Carlingford magma reservoir. We can therefore exclude vertical magma-chamber stratification as an explanation for the formation and distribution of porphyritic and aphyric cone-sheets. Instead, we envisage the formation of a crystal mush at the base and sides of the Carlingford magma reservoir. Cone-sheet injection and magma-cha,ber replenishments have remobilised plagioclase cumulates, which may explain the occurrence and distribution of aphyric and highly porphyritic cone-sheets. REFERENCES Burchardt, S., Troll, V. R., Mathieu, L., Emeleus, H. C., Donaldson, C., 2013, Scientific Reports 3, 2891. Halsall, T.J., 1974, The minor intrusions and structure of the Carlingford complex, Eire (PhD thesis): University of Leicester. Meade

  6. A 3D in situ cell counter reveals that breast tumor cell (MDA-MB-231) proliferation rate is reduced by the collagen matrix density

    PubMed Central

    Bunaciu, Rodica P.; Yen, Andrew; Wu, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Many cell types require the biophysical and biochemical cues within the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) to exhibit their true physiologically relevant behavior. As a result, cell culture platforms have been evolving from traditional 2D petri-dish plates into 3D biomatrices, and there is a need for developing analytic tools to characterize 3D cell culture. The existing cell counting method, using a hemocytometer or coulter counter, requires that cells are suspended in fluids prior to counting. This poses a challenge for 3D cell culture as cells are embedded in a 3D biomatrix. We use a facile 3D cell counting method that overcomes this limitation and allows for in situ cell counting in a 3D cell culture using equipment that is commonly available in a biology lab. Using a breast tumor cell line, MDA-MB-231, as a model system, we demonstrated that MDA-MB-231 cells (1) grow slower within a 3D collagen matrix than on a 2D substrate for an extended growth time (a week) with a comparable, initial cell-to-cell distance, (2) their cell growth rate decreases with the increase of collagen concentration, showing a linear growth rate rather than an exponential growth rate. Further work using flow cytometry showed that the observed growth rate reduction was consistent with the retardation of the transition to S (synthesis) phase in the cell cycle. This work demonstrates the validity of the 3D cell counting method and the importance of cell-ECM interactions in cell proliferation. PMID:25683564

  7. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  8. 3-D Flyby of Enawo by GPM

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this 3-D Flyby animation of GPM rainfall data, rain was falling at a rate of over 220 mm (8.7 inches) per hour in intense downpours. Many of these storms were reaching altitudes above 16 km (9.9...

  9. 3D Texture Analysis Reveals Imperceptible MRI Textural Alterations in the Thalamus and Putamen in Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy Type 1, EPM1

    PubMed Central

    Suoranta, Sanna; Holli-Helenius, Kirsi; Koskenkorva, Päivi; Niskanen, Eini; Könönen, Mervi; Äikiä, Marja; Eskola, Hannu; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva

    2013-01-01

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1 (EPM1) is an autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young onset age, myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. At the time of diagnosis, the visual assessment of the brain MRI is usually normal, with no major changes found later. Therefore, we utilized texture analysis (TA) to characterize and classify the underlying properties of the affected brain tissue by means of 3D texture features. Sixteen genetically verified patients with EPM1 and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. TA was performed upon 3D volumes of interest that were placed bilaterally in the thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Compared to the healthy controls, EPM1 patients had significant textural differences especially in the thalamus and right putamen. The most significantly differing texture features included parameters that measure the complexity and heterogeneity of the tissue, such as the co-occurrence matrix-based entropy and angular second moment, and also the run-length matrix-based parameters of gray-level non-uniformity, short run emphasis and long run emphasis. This study demonstrates the usability of 3D TA for extracting additional information from MR images. Textural alterations which suggest complex, coarse and heterogeneous appearance were found bilaterally in the thalamus, supporting the previous literature on thalamic pathology in EPM1. The observed putamenal involvement is a novel finding. Our results encourage further studies on the clinical applications, feasibility, reproducibility and reliability of 3D TA. PMID:23922849

  10. Cardiac muscle organization revealed in 3-D by imaging whole-mount mouse hearts using two-photon fluorescence and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sivaguru, Mayandi; Fried, Glenn; Sivaguru, Barghav S; Sivaguru, Vignesh A; Lu, Xiaochen; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Saif, M Taher A; Lin, Brian; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

    2015-11-01

    The ability to image the entire adult mouse heart at high resolution in 3-D would provide enormous advantages in the study of heart disease. However, a technique for imaging nuclear/cellular detail as well as the overall structure of the entire heart in 3-D with minimal effort is lacking. To solve this problem, we modified the benzyl alcohol:benzyl benzoate (BABB) clearing technique by labeling mouse hearts with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain. We then imaged the hearts with a combination of two-photon fluorescence microscopy and automated tile-scan imaging/stitching. Utilizing the differential spectral properties of PAS, we could identify muscle and nuclear compartments in the heart. We were also able to visualize the differences between a 3-month-old normal mouse heart and a mouse heart that had undergone heart failure due to the expression of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) gene mutation (t/t). Using 2-D and 3-D morphometric analysis, we found that the t/t heart had anomalous ventricular shape, volume, and wall thickness, as well as a disrupted sarcomere pattern. We further validated our approach using decellularized hearts that had been cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts, which were tracked using a nuclear label. We were able to detect the 3T3 cells inside the decellularized intact heart tissue, achieving nuclear/cellular resolution in 3-D. The combination of labeling, clearing, and two-photon microscopy together with tiling eliminates laborious and time-consuming physical sectioning, alignment, and 3-D reconstruction.

  11. Quantification of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains using a water balance approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zuxin; Yin, Hailong; Li, Huaizheng

    2014-07-15

    To make decisions about correcting illicit or inappropriate connections to storm drains, quantification of non-stormwater entries into storm drains was performed using a water flow balance approach, based on data analysis from 2008 to 2011 in a separate storm drainage system in a Shanghai downtown area of 374 ha. The study revealed severe sewage connections to storm drains; meanwhile, misconnections between surface water and storm drains were found to drive frequent non-stormwater pumping discharges at the outfall, producing a much larger volume of outfall flows in a short period. This paper presented a methodology to estimate quantities of inappropriate sewage flow, groundwater infiltration and river water backflow into the storm drains. It was concluded that inappropriate sewage discharge and groundwater seepage into storm drains were approximately 17,860 m(3)/d (i.e., up to 51% of the total sewage flow in the catchment) and 3,624 m(3)/d, respectively, and surface water backflow was up to an average 28,593 m(3)/d. On the basis of this work, end-of-storm pipe interceptor sewers of 0.25 m(3)/s (i.e., 21,600 m(3)/d) would be effective to tackle the problem of sewage connections and groundwater seepage to storm drains. Under this circumstance, the follow-up non-stormwater outfall pumping events indicate misconnections between surface water and storm drains, featuring pumping discharge equivalent to surface water backflow; hence the misconnections should be repaired. The information provided here is helpful in estimating the magnitude of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains and designing the necessary pollution control activities, as well as combating city floods in storm events.

  12. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  13. A 3-D Look at Post-Tropical Cyclone Hermine

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby animation of GPM imagery shows Post-Tropical Storm Hermine on Sept. 6. Rain was falling at a rate of over 1.1 inches (27 mm) per hour between the Atlantic coast and Hermine's center ...

  14. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  15. Cooperative roles of SDF-1α and EGF gradients on tumor cell migration revealed by a robust 3D microfluidic model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beum Jun; Hannanta-anan, Pimkhuan; Chau, Michelle; Kim, Yoon Soo; Swartz, Melody A; Wu, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine-mediated directed tumor cell migration within a three dimensional (3D) matrix, or chemoinvasion, is an important early step in cancer metastasis. Despite its clinical importance, it is largely unknown how cytokine and growth factor gradients within the tumor microenvironment regulate chemoinvasion. We studied tumor cell chemoinvasion in well-defined and stable chemical gradients using a robust 3D microfluidic model. We used CXCL12 (also known as SDF-1α) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), two well-known extracellular signaling molecules that co-exist in the tumor microenvironment (e.g. lymph nodes or intravasation sites), and a malignant breast tumor cell line, MDA-MB-231, embedded in type I collagen. When subjected to SDF-1α gradients alone, MDA-MB-231 cells migrated up the gradient, and the measured chemosensitivity (defined as the average cell velocity along the direction of the gradient) followed the ligand - receptor (SDF-1α - CXCR4) binding kinetics. On the other hand, when subjected to EGF gradients alone, tumor cells increased their overall motility, but without statistically significant chemotactic (directed) migration, in contrast to previous reports using 2D chemotaxis assays. Interestingly, we found that the chemoinvasive behavior to SDF-1α gradients was abrogated or even reversed in the presence of uniform concentrations of EGF; however, the presence of SDF-1α and EGF together modulated tumor cell motility cooperatively. These findings demonstrate the capabilities of our microfluidic model in re-creating complex microenvironments for cells, and the importance of cooperative roles of multiple cytokine and growth factor gradients in regulating cell migration in 3D environments.

  16. Cooperative Roles of SDF-1α and EGF Gradients on Tumor Cell Migration Revealed by a Robust 3D Microfluidic Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beum Jun; Hannanta-anan, Pimkhuan; Chau, Michelle; Kim, Yoon Soo; Swartz, Melody A.; Wu, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine-mediated directed tumor cell migration within a three dimensional (3D) matrix, or chemoinvasion, is an important early step in cancer metastasis. Despite its clinical importance, it is largely unknown how cytokine and growth factor gradients within the tumor microenvironment regulate chemoinvasion. We studied tumor cell chemoinvasion in well-defined and stable chemical gradients using a robust 3D microfluidic model. We used CXCL12 (also known as SDF-1α) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), two well-known extracellular signaling molecules that co-exist in the tumor microenvironment (e.g. lymph nodes or intravasation sites), and a malignant breast tumor cell line, MDA-MB-231, embedded in type I collagen. When subjected to SDF-1α gradients alone, MDA-MB-231 cells migrated up the gradient, and the measured chemosensitivity (defined as the average cell velocity along the direction of the gradient) followed the ligand – receptor (SDF-1α – CXCR4) binding kinetics. On the other hand, when subjected to EGF gradients alone, tumor cells increased their overall motility, but without statistically significant chemotactic (directed) migration, in contrast to previous reports using 2D chemotaxis assays. Interestingly, we found that the chemoinvasive behavior to SDF-1α gradients was abrogated or even reversed in the presence of uniform concentrations of EGF; however, the presence of SDF-1α and EGF together modulated tumor cell motility cooperatively. These findings demonstrate the capabilities of our microfluidic model in re-creating complex microenvironments for cells, and the importance of cooperative roles of multiple cytokine and growth factor gradients in regulating cell migration in 3D environments. PMID:23869217

  17. Mechanistic insights into the distribution of carbohydrate clusters on cell membranes revealed by dSTORM imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junling; Gao, Jing; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Jiang, Junguang; Tian, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hongda

    2016-07-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in many physiological processes and act as primary markers to indicate various cellular physiological states. The functions of carbohydrates are always associated with their expression and distribution on cell membranes. Based on our previous work, we found that carbohydrates tend to form clusters; however, the underlying mechanism of these clusters remains unknown. Through the direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) strategy, we found that with the contributions of lipid raft as a stable factor and actin cytoskeleton as a restrictive factor, carbohydrate clusters can stably exist with restricted size. Additionally, we revealed that the formation of most carbohydrate clusters (Gal and GlcANc clusters) depended on the carbohydrate-binding proteins (i.e., galectins) cross-linking their specific carbohydrate ligands. Our results clarify the organizational mechanism of carbohydrates on cell surfaces from their formation, stable existence and size-restriction, which promotes a better understanding of the relationship between the function and distribution of carbohydrates, as well as the structure of cell membranes.Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in many physiological processes and act as primary markers to indicate various cellular physiological states. The functions of carbohydrates are always associated with their expression and distribution on cell membranes. Based on our previous work, we found that carbohydrates tend to form clusters; however, the underlying mechanism of these clusters remains unknown. Through the direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) strategy, we found that with the contributions of lipid raft as a stable factor and actin cytoskeleton as a restrictive factor, carbohydrate clusters can stably exist with restricted size. Additionally, we revealed that the formation of most carbohydrate clusters (Gal and GlcANc clusters) depended on the

  18. Analysis of the Interstate 10 Twin Bridge’s collapse during Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Genda; Witt, Emitt C.; Hoffman, David; Luna, Ronaldo; Sevi, Adam

    2007-01-01

    The Interstate 10 Twin Span Bridge over Lake Pontchartrain north of New Orleans, La., was rendered completely unusable by Hurricane Katrina. The cause of the collapse of the bridges generated great interest among hydrologists and structural engineers as well as among the general public. What made this case study even more important was the fact that two nearby bridges sustained the effects of the same storm surge and suffered only light damage. Lessons learned from this investigation are invaluable to maintaining the safety of many of the Nation's coastal and river-crossing bridges.

  19. Investigation of geological structures with a view to HLRW disposal, as revealed through 3D inversion of aeromagnetic and gravity data and the results of CSAMT exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhiguo; Di, Qingyun

    2016-12-01

    The Alxa area in Inner Mongolia has been selected as a possible site for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Based on results of a previous study on crustal stability, the Tamusu rock mass has been chosen as the target. To determine the geological structure of this rock mass, aeromagnetic and gravity data are collected and inverted. Three-dimensional (3D) inversion horizontal slices show that the internal density of the rock mass and the distribution of magnetic properties are not uniform, with fractures and fragmentation being present. To confirm this result, the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric method (CSAMT) was applied to explore the geological structures, the typical CSAMT sounding curve was analyzed, and the response characteristics of the geological structure and surrounding rock are distinguished. The original data were processed and interpreted in combination with data from surface geology and drilling and logging data. It is found that the CSAMT results were consistent with those from 3D inversion of the gravity and magnetic data, confirming the existence of fractures and fragmentation in the exploration area.

  20. Cell-based approach for 3D reconstruction of lymphatic capillaries in vitro reveals distinct functions of HGF and VEGF-C in lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gibot, Laure; Galbraith, Todd; Kloos, Bryan; Das, Suvendu; Lacroix, Dan A; Auger, François A; Skobe, Mihaela

    2016-02-01

    Regeneration of lymphatic vessels is important for treatment of various disorders of lymphatic system and for restoration of lymphatic function after surgery. We have developed a method for generating a human 3D lymphatic vascular construct. In this system, human lymphatic endothelial cells, co-cultured with fibroblasts, spontaneously organized into a stable 3D lymphatic capillary network without the use of any exogenous factors. In vitro-generated lymphatic capillaries exhibited the major molecular and ultra-structural features of native, human lymphatic microvasculature: branches in the three dimensions, wide lumen, blind ends, overlapping borders, adherens and tight junctions, anchoring filaments, lack of mural cells, and poorly developed basement membrane. Furthermore, we show that fibroblast-derived VEGF-C and HGF cooperate in the formation of lymphatic vasculature by activating ERK1/2 signaling, and demonstrate distinct functions of HGF/c-Met and VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 in lymphangiogenesis. This lymphatic vascular construct is expected to facilitate studies of lymphangiogenesis in vitro and it holds promise as a strategy for regeneration of lymphatic vessels and treatment of lymphatic disorders in various conditions.

  1. Inverse-power-law behavior of cellular motility reveals stromal–epithelial cell interactions in 3D co-culture by OCT fluctuation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Yu, Xiao; Gilliss, Thomas; Alabi, Oluwafemi; Taylor, Russell M.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The progression of breast cancer is known to be affected by stromal cells within the local microenvironment. Here we study the effect of stromal fibroblasts on the in-place motions (motility) of mammary epithelial cells within organoids in 3D co-culture, inferred from the speckle fluctuation spectrum using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In contrast to Brownian motion, mammary cell motions exhibit an inverse power-law fluctuation spectrum. We introduce two complementary metrics for quantifying fluctuation spectra: the power-law exponent and a novel definition of the motility amplitude, both of which are signal- and position-independent. We find that the power-law exponent and motility amplitude are positively (p<0.001) and negatively (p<0.01) correlated with the density of stromal cells in 3D co-culture, respectively. We also show how the hyperspectral data can be visualized using these metrics to observe heterogeneity within organoids. This constitutes a simple and powerful tool for detecting and imaging cellular functional changes with OCT. PMID:26973862

  2. Clustering and Functional Coupling of Diverse Ion Channels and Signaling Proteins Revealed by Super-resolution STORM Microscopy in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Carver, Chase M; Choveau, Frank S; Shapiro, Mark S

    2016-10-19

    The fidelity of neuronal signaling requires organization of signaling molecules into macromolecular complexes, whose components are in intimate proximity. The intrinsic diffraction limit of light makes visualization of individual signaling complexes using visible light extremely difficult. However, using super-resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), we observed intimate association of individual molecules within signaling complexes containing ion channels (M-type K(+), L-type Ca(2+), or TRPV1 channels) and G protein-coupled receptors coupled by the scaffolding protein A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP)79/150. Some channels assembled as multi-channel supercomplexes. Surprisingly, we identified novel layers of interplay within macromolecular complexes containing diverse channel types at the single-complex level in sensory neurons, dependent on AKAP79/150. Electrophysiological studies revealed that such ion channels are functionally coupled as well. Our findings illustrate the novel role of AKAP79/150 as a molecular coupler of different channels that conveys crosstalk between channel activities within single microdomains in tuning the physiological response of neurons.

  3. Not that long time ago in the nearest galaxy: 3D slice of molecular gas revealed by a 110 yr old flare of Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churazov, E.; Khabibullin, I.; Sunyaev, R.; Ponti, G.

    2017-02-01

    A powerful outburst of X-ray radiation from the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the centre of the Milky Way is believed to be responsible for the illumination of molecular clouds in the central ˜100 pc of the Galaxy (Sunyaev, Markevitch & Pavlinsky; Koyama et al.). The reflected/reprocessed radiation comes to us with a delay corresponding to the light propagation time that depends on the 3D position of molecular clouds with respect to Sgr A*. We suggest a novel way of determining the age of the outburst and positions of the clouds by studying characteristic imprints left by the outburst in the spatial and time variations of the reflected emission. We estimated the age of the outburst that illuminates the Sgr A molecular complex to be ˜110 yr. This estimate implies that we see the gas located ˜10 pc further away from us than Sgr A*. If the Sgr B2 complex is also illuminated by the same outburst, then it is located ˜130 pc closer than our Galactic Center. The outburst was short (less than a few years) and the total amount of emitted energy in X-rays is ˜10^{48}ρ _3^{-1} erg, where ρ3 is the mean hydrogen density of the cloud complex in units of 103 cm-3. Energetically, such fluence can be provided by a partial tidal disruption event or even by a capture of a planet. Further progress in more accurate positioning and timing of the outburst should be possible with future X-ray polarimetric observations and long-term systematic observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. A few hundred years long X-ray observations would provide a detailed 3D map of the gas density distribution in the central ˜100 pc region.

  4. 3-D illustration of network orientations of interstitial cells of Cajal subgroups in human colon as revealed by deep-tissue imaging with optical clearing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-An; Chung, Yuan-Chiang; Pan, Shien-Tung; Hou, Yung-Chi; Peng, Shih-Jung; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2012-05-15

    Morphological changes of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have been proposed to characterize motility disorders. However, a global view of the network orientations of ICC subgroups has not been established to illustrate their three-dimensional (3-D) architectures in the human colon. In this research, we integrate c-kit immunostaining, 3-D microscopy with optical clearing, and image rendering to present the location-dependent network orientations with high definition. Full-depth colonic tissues were obtained from colectomies performed for nonobstructing carcinoma. Specimens of colon wall were prepared away from the tumor site. C-kit and nuclear fluorescent staining were used to identify the ICC processes and cell body. Optical clearing was used to generate transparent colon specimens, which led to panoramic visualization of the fluorescence-labeled ICC networks at the myenteric plexus (ICC-MY), longitudinal (ICC-LM) and circular (ICC-CM) muscles, and submucosal boundary (ICC-SM) up to 300 μm in depth via confocal microscopy with subcellular level resolution. We observed four distinct network patterns: 1) periganglionic ICC-MY that connect with ICC-LM and ICC-CM, 2) plexuses of ICC-LM within the longitudinal muscle and extending toward the serosa, 3) repetitive and organized ICC-CM layers running parallel to the circular muscle axis and extending toward the submucosa, and 4) a condensed ICC-SM layer lining the submucosal border. Among the four patterns, the orderly aligned ICC-CM layers provide an appropriate target for quantitation. Our results demonstrate the location-dependent network orientations of ICC subgroups and suggest a practical approach for in-depth imaging and quantitative analysis of ICC in the human colon specimen.

  5. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  6. Intra-islet lesions and lobular variations in β-cell mass expansion in ob/ob mice revealed by 3D imaging of intact pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Parween, Saba; Kostromina, Elena; Nord, Christoffer; Eriksson, Maria; Lindström, Per; Ahlgren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The leptin deficient ob/ob mouse is a widely used model for studies on initial aspects of metabolic disturbances leading to type 2 diabetes, including insulin resistance and obesity. Although it is generally accepted that ob/ob mice display a dramatic increase in β-cell mass to compensate for increased insulin demand, the spatial and quantitative dynamics of β-cell mass distribution in this model has not been assessed by modern optical 3D imaging techniques. We applied optical projection tomography and ultramicroscopy imaging to extract information about individual islet β-cell volumes throughout the volume of ob/ob pancreas between 4 and 52 weeks of age. Our data show that cystic lesions constitute a significant volume of the hyperplastic ob/ob islets. We propose that these lesions are formed by a mechanism involving extravasation of red blood cells/plasma due to increased islet vessel blood flow and vessel instability. Further, our data indicate that the primary lobular compartments of the ob/ob pancreas have different potentials for expanding their β-cell population. Unawareness of the characteristics of β-cell expansion in ob/ob mice presented in this report may significantly influence ex vivo and in vivo assessments of this model in studies of β-cell adaptation and function. PMID:27713548

  7. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  8. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  9. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  10. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  11. Geomagnetic storm effects on the thermosphere and the ionosphere revealed by in situ measurements from OGO 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marubashi, K.; Reber, C. A.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The temporal response of the densities of upper-atmospheric ion and neutral constituents to a particular geomagnetic storm is studied using simultaneous ion and neutral-composition data obtained by the OGO 6 satellite during consecutive orbits at altitudes greater than 400 km. The investigated constituents include H(+), O(+), N2, O, He, and H. Derivation of the H density is reviewed, and the main effects of the storm are discussed, particularly temporal and global variations in the densities. It is found that: (1) the H and He densities began to decrease near the time of sudden commencement, with the decrease amounting to more than 40% of the quiet-time densities during the maximum stage at high latitudes; (2) the O and N2 densities exhibited an overall increase which began later than the change in H and He densities; (3) the H(+) density decreased differently in two distinct regions separated near the low-latitude boundary of the light-ion trough; and (4) the O(+) density showed an increase during earlier stages of the storm and decreased only in the Northern Hemisphere during the recovery phase. Certain physical and chemical processes are suggested which play principal roles in the ionospheric response to the storm

  12. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  13. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  14. Identification of nucleolus-associated chromatin domains reveals the role of the nucleolus in the 3D organisation of the A. thaliana genome

    PubMed Central

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Durut, Nathalie; Pavlištová, Veronika; Jaške, Karin; Schořová, Šárka; Parrinello, Hugues; Rohmer, Marine; Pikaard, Craig S; Fojtová, Miloslava; Fajkus, Jiří; Saez-Vasquez, Julio

    2017-01-01

    The nucleolus is the site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene transcription, rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. However, the nucleolus also plays additional roles in the cell. We isolated nucleoli by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) and identified Nucleolus-Associated Chromatin Domains (NADs) by deep sequencing, comparing wild-type plants and null mutants for the nucleolar protein, NUCLEOLIN 1 (NUC1). NADs are primarily genomic regions with heterochromatic signatures and include transposable elements (TEs), sub-telomeric regions and mostly inactive protein-coding genes. However, NADs also include active ribosomal RNA genes, and the entire short arm of chromosome 4 adjacent to them. In nuc1 null mutants, which alter rRNA gene expression and overall nucleolar structure, NADs are altered, telomere association with the nucleolus is decreased and telomeres become shorter. Collectively, our studies reveal roles for NUC1 and the nucleolus in the spatial organization of chromosomes as well as telomere maintenance. PMID:27477271

  15. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  16. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  17. 3D structure/function analysis of PilX reveals how minor pilins can modulate the virulence properties of type IV pili

    PubMed Central

    Helaine, Sophie; Dyer, David H.; Nassif, Xavier; Pelicic, Vladimir; Forest, Katrina T.

    2007-01-01

    Type IV pili (Tfp) are widespread filamentous bacterial organelles that mediate multiple virulence-related phenotypes. They are composed mainly of pilin subunits, which are processed before filament assembly by dedicated prepilin peptidases. Other proteins processed by these peptidases, whose molecular nature and mode of action remain enigmatic, play critical roles in Tfp biology. We have performed a detailed structure/function analysis of one such protein, PilX from Neisseria meningitidis, which is crucial for formation of bacterial aggregates and adhesion to human cells. The x-ray crystal structure of PilX reveals the α/β roll fold shared by all pilins, and we show that this protein colocalizes with Tfp. These observations suggest that PilX is a minor, or low abundance, pilin that assembles within the filaments in a similar way to pilin. Deletion of a PilX distinctive structural element, which is predicted to be exposed on the filament surface, abolishes aggregation and adhesion. Our results support a model in which surface-exposed motifs in PilX subunits stabilize bacterial aggregates against the disruptive force of pilus retraction and illustrate how a minor pilus component can enhance the functional properties of pili of rather simple composition and structure. PMID:17893339

  18. A GPM Satellite Flyover of Tropical Storm Darby

    NASA Video Gallery

    The animated flyby from NASA's GPM satellite shows Tropical Storm Darby in 3-D on July 23. GPM saw a line of intense storms in Darby, located southeast of the big island of Hawaii was dropping rain...

  19. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  1. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  2. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  3. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  4. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  5. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  6. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  7. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    , even if one data object lies behind another. Stereoscopic viewing is another powerful tool to investigate 3-D relationships between objects. This form of immersion is constructed through viewing two separate images that are interleaved--typically 48 frames per second, per eye--and synced through an emitter and a set of specialized polarizing eyeglasses. The polarizing lenses flicker at an equivalent rate, blanking the eye for which a particular image was not drawn, producing the desired stereo effect. Volumetric visualization of the ARAD 3-D seismic dataset will be presented. The effective use of transparency reveals detailed structure of the melt-lens beneath the 9°03'N overlapping spreading center (OSC) along the East Pacific Rise, including melt-filled fractures within the propagating rift-tip. In addition, range-gated images of seismic reflectivity will be co-registered to investigate the physical properties (melt versus mush) of the magma chamber at this locale. Surface visualization of a dense, 2-D grid of MCS seismic data beneath Axial seamount (Juan de Fuca Ridge) will also be highlighted, including relationships between the summit caldera and rift zones, and the underlying (and humongous) magma chamber. A selection of Quicktime movies will be shown. Popcorn will be served, really!

  8. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  9. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  10. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. Intercomparison of Vertical Structure of Storms Revealed by Ground-Based (NMQ) and Spaceborne Radars (CloudSat-CPR and TRMM-PR)

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Veronica M.; Hong, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Spaceborne radars provide great opportunities to investigate the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. Two typical spaceborne radars for such a study are the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) and Ku-band Precipitation Radar (PR), which are onboard NASA's CloudSat and TRMM satellites, respectively. Compared to S-band ground-based radars, they have distinct scattering characteristics for different hydrometeors in clouds and precipitation. The combination of spaceborne and ground-based radar observations can help in the identification of hydrometeors and improve the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). This study analyzes the vertical structure of the 18 January, 2009 storm using data from the CloudSat CPR, TRMM PR, and a NEXRAD-based National Mosaic and Multisensor QPE (NMQ) system. Microphysics above, within, and below the melting layer are studied through an intercomparison of multifrequency measurements. Hydrometeors' type and their radar scattering characteristics are analyzed. Additionally, the study of the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) reveals the brightband properties in the cold-season precipitation and its effect on the radar-based QPE. In all, the joint analysis of spaceborne and ground-based radar data increases the understanding of the vertical structure of storm systems and provides a good insight into the microphysical modeling for weather forecasts. PMID:24459424

  12. Intercomparison of vertical structure of storms revealed by ground-based (NMQ) and spaceborne radars (CloudSat-CPR and TRMM-PR).

    PubMed

    Fall, Veronica M; Cao, Qing; Hong, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Spaceborne radars provide great opportunities to investigate the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. Two typical spaceborne radars for such a study are the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) and Ku-band Precipitation Radar (PR), which are onboard NASA's CloudSat and TRMM satellites, respectively. Compared to S-band ground-based radars, they have distinct scattering characteristics for different hydrometeors in clouds and precipitation. The combination of spaceborne and ground-based radar observations can help in the identification of hydrometeors and improve the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). This study analyzes the vertical structure of the 18 January, 2009 storm using data from the CloudSat CPR, TRMM PR, and a NEXRAD-based National Mosaic and Multisensor QPE (NMQ) system. Microphysics above, within, and below the melting layer are studied through an intercomparison of multifrequency measurements. Hydrometeors' type and their radar scattering characteristics are analyzed. Additionally, the study of the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) reveals the brightband properties in the cold-season precipitation and its effect on the radar-based QPE. In all, the joint analysis of spaceborne and ground-based radar data increases the understanding of the vertical structure of storm systems and provides a good insight into the microphysical modeling for weather forecasts.

  13. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  14. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  15. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  16. GPM Sees Powerful Storms in Tropical Storm Hermine

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a 3-D animated flyby of Tropical Storm Hermine created using radar data from the GPM core satellite. On Aug. 31 at 4 p.m. EDT GPM found rainfall occurring at a rate of over 9.9 inches (251 ...

  17. Structure of the ophiolite-hosted Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide ore district revealed by combined 3D modelling and 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalmann, Kerstin; Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu district within the North Karelia Schist Belt in eastern Finland hosts Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide deposits which are associated with Palaeoproterozoic ophiolitic metaperidotites that were tectonically interleaved with allochthonous metaturbidites. Extensive metasomatism of the peridotites produced a rim of quartz-carbonate-calc-silicate rocks, grouped as the Outokumpu assemblage (OKA). A tectonic history comprising various phases of folding and shearing followed by several faulting events dismembered the metaperidotites so that ore bodies cannot be easily followed along strike. Future exploration has to expand the search into deeper areas and consequently requires better knowledge of the subsurface geology. In order to unravel the complex structure 3D geologic models of different scales have been built using a variety of information: geological maps, aeromagnetic and gravity maps, digital terrain models, mine cross sections, drill core logs combined with observations from underground mine galleries, structural measurements, and data from seismic survey lines. The latter have been used to detect upper crustal-scale structures and have been reprocessed for our purpose. The models reveal that the ore body has formed during remobilisation of a proto-ore and is closely related to thrust zones that truncate the OKA. Later faults dismembered the ore explaining the variable depth of the different ore bodies along the Outokumpu ore zone. On a larger scale, at least four km-scale thrust sheets separated by major listric shear zones (curved dislocations in the seismic lines) can be recognized, each internally further imbricated by subordinate shear zones containing a number of lens-shape bodies of probably OKA rocks. Thrust stacking was followed by at least 3 stages of faulting that divided the ore belt into fault-bounded blocks with heterogeneous displacements: (i) NW-dipping faults with unresolved kinematics, (ii) reverse faulting along c.50°-60° SE

  18. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  19. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  20. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  1. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  2. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  3. Genetic and comparative genomics mapping reveals that a powdery mildew resistance gene Ml3D232 originating from wild emmer co-segregates with an NBS-LRR analog in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Guan, Haiying; Li, Jingting; Zhu, Jie; Xie, Chaojie; Zhou, Yilin; Duan, Xiayu; Yang, Tsomin; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2010-11-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide and breeding for resistance using diversified disease resistance genes is the most promising approach to prevent outbreaks of powdery mildew. A powdery mildew resistance gene, originating from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) accessions collected from Israel, has been transferred into the hexaploid wheat line 3D232 through crossing and backcrossing. Inoculation results with 21 B. graminis f. sp. tritici races indicated that 3D232 is resistant to all of the powdery mildew isolates tested. Genetic analyses of 3D232 using an F(2) segregating population and F(3) families indicated that a single dominant gene, Ml3D232, confers resistance in the host seedling stage. By applying molecular markers and bulked segregant analysis (BSA), we have identified polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tags (EST) and derived sequence tagged site (STS) markers to determine that the Ml3D232 is located on chromosome 5BL bin 0.59-0.76. Comparative genetic analyses using mapped EST markers and genome sequences of rice and Brachypodium established co-linearity of the Ml3D232 genomic region with a 1.4 Mb genomic region on Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 4, and a 1.2 Mb contig located on the Oryza sativa chromosome 9. Our comparative approach enabled us to develop new EST-STS markers and to delimit the genomic region carrying Ml3D232 to a 0.8 cM segment that is collinear with a 558 kb region on B. distachyon. Eight EST markers, including an NBS-LRR analog, co-segregated with Ml3D232 to provide a target site for fine genetic mapping, chromosome landing and map-based cloning of the powdery mildew resistance gene. This newly developed common wheat germplasm provides broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew and a valuable resource for wheat breeding programs.

  4. 3D multifocus astigmatism and compressed sensing (3D MACS) based superresolution reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiaqing; Sun, Mingzhai; Gumpper, Kristyn; Chi, Yuejie; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule based superresolution techniques (STORM/PALM) achieve nanometer spatial resolution by integrating the temporal information of the switching dynamics of fluorophores (emitters). When emitter density is low for each frame, they are located to the nanometer resolution. However, when the emitter density rises, causing significant overlapping, it becomes increasingly difficult to accurately locate individual emitters. This is particularly apparent in three dimensional (3D) localization because of the large effective volume of the 3D point spread function (PSF). The inability to precisely locate the emitters at a high density causes poor temporal resolution of localization-based superresolution technique and significantly limits its application in 3D live cell imaging. To address this problem, we developed a 3D high-density superresolution imaging platform that allows us to precisely locate the positions of emitters, even when they are significantly overlapped in three dimensional space. Our platform involves a multi-focus system in combination with astigmatic optics and an ℓ1-Homotopy optimization procedure. To reduce the intrinsic bias introduced by the discrete formulation of compressed sensing, we introduced a debiasing step followed by a 3D weighted centroid procedure, which not only increases the localization accuracy, but also increases the computation speed of image reconstruction. We implemented our algorithms on a graphic processing unit (GPU), which speeds up processing 10 times compared with central processing unit (CPU) implementation. We tested our method with both simulated data and experimental data of fluorescently labeled microtubules and were able to reconstruct a 3D microtubule image with 1000 frames (512×512) acquired within 20 seconds. PMID:25798314

  5. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first large statistical study of extreme geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence

  6. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  7. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  8. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  9. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  10. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  11. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  12. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  13. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  14. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  15. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  16. Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.

    1998-01-01

    One of the oldest mysteries in geomagnetism is the linkage between solar and geomagnetic activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth geomagnetic storms were first noted by Sabine. A few years later, speculation on a causal relationship between flares and storms arose when Carrington reported that a large magnetic storm followed the great September 1859 solar flare. However, it was not until this century that a well-accepted statistical survey on large solar flares and geomagnetic storms was performed, and a significant correlation between flares and geomagnetic storms was noted. Although the two phenomena, one on the Sun and the other on the Earth, were statistically correlated, the exact physical linkage was still an unknown at this time. Various hypotheses were proposed, but it was not until interplanetary spacecraft measurements were available that a high-speed plasma stream rich in helium was associated with an intense solar flare. The velocity of the solar wind increased just prior to and during the helium passage, identifying the solar ejecta for the first time. Space plasma measurements and Skylab's coronagraph images of coronal mass elections (CMES) from the Sun firmly established the plasma link between the Sun and the Earth. One phenomenon associated with magnetic storms is brilliant "blood" red auroras, as shown.

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  19. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  20. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  1. Slow Narrow Spectral Width E Region Echoes Observed During the March 17-2015 Storm and What They Reveal About the Disturbed Ionosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Maurice, J. P.; Chau, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    As auroral-type disturbances moved equatorward during the March 17-2015 storm, coherent E region echoes were observed simultaneously with three radar links separated by 40 km each in the east-west direction in northern Germany. One radar operated at 36.2, and the other two at 32.55 MHz. One of the latter operated in a bistatic configuration. On each radar site five separate antennas were used to locate the echoes using interferometry. The unique configuration provided an unsurpassed opportunity to study the origin and evolution of ionospheric structures in a wide field of view during a strong storm. A most noticeable feature was that over a few time intervals, several minutes in duration each, very narrow spectra were observed, with Doppler shifts roughly 1/2 the ion-acoustic speed (often called "type III" echoes in the past). The inferred location indicated that the echoes came from below 100 km altitude. Echoes moving at the nominal ion-acoustic speed came from higher up and/or different flow angles. In one particularly clear instance the "Type III" echo region came from a region 50 to 75 km in extent drifting at roughly 1.5 km/s, while moving at some small (but non-zero) flow angle with respect to the line-of-sight. In view of the observations, a reevaluation of existing theories indicates that the echoes cannot be related to ion cyclotron waves. Instead, their low altitude and flow angle dependence reveal that they are the by-product of the ion Pedersen instability, which has been investigated by a few groups in relation to a non-isothermal treatment of the Farley-Buneman instability. In our present treatment of the problem, nonlinear effects are invoked to compute the final Doppler shift of the resulting structures. We find that the stronger the electric field is, the closer the region of slow echoes has to be to the ExB direction. In our most dramatic example of Type III structures, the size of the echo region pointed to a region of high energy precipitation

  2. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  3. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  4. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  5. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  6. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  7. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  8. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  9. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  10. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  11. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  13. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  14. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  15. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  16. Magnetosphere-associated storms and the autonomous storms in the ionosphere-plasmasphere environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Stanislawska, I.

    2010-01-01

    Global GPS-derived ionosphere maps (GIM) of total electron content (TEC) were transformed into magnetic latitude (MLAT) versus magnetic local time (MLT) frame. TEC enhancement or depletion marked by W index show dominant electron content depressions and the ionosphere-plasmasphere storms increasing by nighttime, at high magnetic latitudes and over the crests of equatorial anomaly. Based on W maps, the planetary Wp index was produced and used for derivation of a catalogue of more than 140 TEC storms during 1999-2009. In total 33 space weather intense storms and 35 moderate storms are revealed with four series of indices (AE, Ap, Dst and Wp) but more than half Wp storms were either partially overlapping in time with magnetic storm or observed autonomously under non-storm magnetosphere conditions. Relation between an annual number of intense Dst storms and Wp storms has been used for their prediction towards the peak of the forthcoming 24th solar cycle.

  17. Finite element micro-modelling of a human ankle bone reveals the importance of the trabecular network to mechanical performance: new methods for the generation and comparison of 3D models.

    PubMed

    Parr, W C H; Chamoli, U; Jones, A; Walsh, W R; Wroe, S

    2013-01-04

    Most modelling of whole bones does not incorporate trabecular geometry and treats bone as a solid non-porous structure. Some studies have modelled trabecular networks in isolation. One study has modelled the performance of whole human bones incorporating trabeculae, although this required considerable computer resources and purpose-written code. The difference between mechanical behaviour in models that incorporate trabecular geometry and non-porous models has not been explored. The ability to easily model trabecular networks may shed light on the mechanical consequences of bone loss in osteoporosis and remodelling after implant insertion. Here we present a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of a human ankle bone that includes trabecular network geometry. We compare results from this model with results from non-porous models and introduce protocols achievable on desktop computers using widely available softwares. Our findings show that models including trabecular geometry are considerably stiffer than non-porous whole bone models wherein the non-cortical component has the same mass as the trabecular network, suggesting inclusion of trabecular geometry is desirable. We further present new methods for the construction and analysis of 3D models permitting: (1) construction of multi-property, non-porous models wherein cortical layer thickness can be manipulated; (2) maintenance of the same triangle network for the outer cortical bone surface in both 3D reconstruction and non-porous models allowing exact replication of load and restraint cases; and (3) creation of an internal landmark point grid allowing direct comparison between 3D FE Models (FEMs).

  18. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  19. Large Geomagnetic Storms: Introduction to Special Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cycle 23 witnessed the accumulation of rich data sets that reveal various aspects of geomagnetic storms in unprecedented detail both at the Sun where the storm causing disturbances originate and in geospace where the effects of the storms are directly felt. During two recent coordinated data analysis workshops (CDAWs) the large geomagnetic storms (Dst < or = -100 nT) of solar cycle 23 were studied in order to understand their solar, interplanetary, and geospace connections. This special section grew out of these CDAWs with additional contributions relevant to these storms. Here I provide a brief summary of the results presented in the special section.

  20. 3D Vortices in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Samy; Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip

    2010-11-01

    Like the atmosphere of Jupiter, protoplanetary disks (thin disks of gas & dust in orbit around newly-formed stars) are characterized by rapid rotation and intense shear, inspiring proposals that disks may also be populated with long-lived, robust storms analogous to the Great Red Spot. Such vortices may play key roles in the formation of stars and planets by transporting angular momentum, as well as trapping and concentrating dust grains, seeding the formation of planetesimals, the "building blocks" of planets. In our previous work (Barranco & Marcus 2005), we showed via numerical simulation (with an anelastic spectral code) that vortices near the midplane of the disk suffer an antisymmetric instability and are destroyed. However, internal gravity waves propagate away from the midplane, amplify and break, creating bands of vorticity that roll-up into new long-lived, stable vortices above and below the midplane. We will present new results on 3D vortex dynamics in protoplanetary disks, exploring the role of factors unique to this context: the Coriolis parameter f, the shear rate σ, and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N are all of the same order of magnitude. In the region around the midplane Nf. This leads to strong refraction of internal gravity waves, causing the waves to amplify and break, generating vorticity.

  1. 3D View of Mars Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a 3D representation of the pits seen in the first Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM, images sent back from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Red represents the highest point and purple represents the lowest point.

    The particle in the upper left corner shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a rounded particle about one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across. It is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The particle was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress' delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The AFM is part of Phoenix's microscopic station called MECA, or the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  3. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  4. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  5. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  6. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  7. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anton I; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles B

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson-Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access.

  8. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton I.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson–Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access. PMID:23970545

  9. GPM Core Observatory Views Feb. 17, 2015, Storm

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory captured a 3-D image of a winter storm on Feb. 17, 2015, that left 6 to 12 inches of snow over much of Kentucky, southwestern West Virgin...

  10. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  11. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  12. Operational Aspects of Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-12

    Battalion (MIB), 3d Armored Division leading up to and during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. This paper represents the personal assessment of the author...DESERT SHIELD A$DDESERT STORM ...J BY Lieutenant Colonel Henry C. Shirah United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...Classification) OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF DESERT SHIELD AND DESERT STORM 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year

  13. Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang

    2015-04-30

    For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen.

  14. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  15. 3D Nanostructuring of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, Robert

    2000-03-01

    Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply 3D nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.

  16. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  17. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  18. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  19. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  20. Structural Hypervariability of the Two Human Protein Kinase CK2 Catalytic Subunit Paralogs Revealed by Complex Structures with a Flavonol- and a Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-Based Inhibitor †

    PubMed Central

    Niefind, Karsten; Bischoff, Nils; Golub, Andriy G.; Bdzhola, Volodymyr G.; Balanda, Anatoliy O.; Prykhod’ko, Andriy O.; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M.

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is associated with a number of human diseases, among them cancer, and is therefore a target for inhibitor development in industry and academia. Six crystal structures of either CK2α, the catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2, or its paralog CK2α′ in complex with two ATP-competitive inhibitors—based on either a flavonol or a thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine framework—are presented. The structures show examples for extreme structural deformations of the ATP-binding loop and its neighbourhood and of the hinge/helix αD region, i.e., of two zones of the broader ATP site environment. Thus, they supplement our picture of the conformational space available for CK2α and CK2α′. Further, they document the potential of synthetic ligands to trap unusual conformations of the enzymes and allow to envision a new generation of inhibitors that stabilize such conformations. PMID:28085026

  1. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  2. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  3. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  4. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  5. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  6. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  7. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  8. TRMM Satellite Flyby of Tropical Storm Halong

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM Satellite 3-D Flyby of Tropical Storm Halong On July 31, NASA's TRMM Satellite showed rain was falling at a rate of over 85.6 mm (about 3.4 inches) per hour in bands wrapping around Hal...

  9. AIRS Storm Front Approaching California (animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the AIRS Storm Front Approaching California Animation

    NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument is able to peel back cloud cover to reveal 3-D structure of a storm's water vapor content, information that can be used to improve weather forecast models.

    In this animation the initial visible cloud image series shows a front moving toward the West Coast of the United States as a low pressure area moves into the Pacific Northwest. The 'Pineapple Express,' a stream of moisture that originates in the tropics South of Hawaii and usually crosses Mexico to enter New Mexico and Texas, has shifted Westward and is also visible moving into Baja California. The area preceding the front appears to be relatively clear in the visible images.

    As the view shifts from the visible to the infrared wavelengths which highlight water vapor, we see both cloud areas contain heavy burdens of moisture. The area which appears clear in the visible images is seen to contain water vapor near the coastline as well. The viewpoint then rotates so that we can see the vertical cross section of the fronts. The variability of the vertical extent of water vapor and the amount is now clearly visible. The storm moving in from the Gulf of Alaska is more heavily laden with water vapor than that moving in from the Southwest. The moisture is concentrated in the lower atmosphere. The colors indicate the amount of water vapor present. Blue areas denote low water vapor content; green areas are medium water vapor content; red areas signify high water vapor content. The vertical grid for the final frame ranges from 250 millibar pressure at the top to 1000 millibar pressure at the bottom. The top is about 10 km (6.2 miles) above the surface of the Earth.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in

  10. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  11. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  12. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  13. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  14. Direct-Write 3D Nanoprinting of Plasmonic Structures

    DOE PAGES

    Winkler, Robert; Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Karl-Franzens Univ.; ...

    2016-11-23

    During the past decade, significant progress has been made in the field of resonant optics ranging from fundamental aspects to concrete applications. And while several techniques have been introduced for the fabrication of highly defined metallic nanostructures, the synthesis of complex, free-standing three-dimensional (3D) structures is still an intriguing, but so far intractable, challenge. Here, we demonstrate a 3D direct-write synthesis approach that addresses this challenge. Specifically, we succeeded in the direct-write fabrication of 3D nanoarchitectures via electron-stimulated reactions, which are applicable on virtually any material and surface morphology. Furthermore, by that, complex 3D nanostructures composed of highly compact, puremore » gold can be fabricated, which reveal strong plasmonic activity and pave the way for a new generation of 3D nanoplasmonic architectures that can be printed on-demand.« less

  15. Direct-Write 3D Nanoprinting of Plasmonic Structures.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Robert; Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Haselmann, Ulrich; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lewis, Brett B; Kothleitner, Gerald; Rack, Philip D; Plank, Harald

    2017-03-08

    During the past decade, significant progress has been made in the field of resonant optics ranging from fundamental aspects to concrete applications. While several techniques have been introduced for the fabrication of highly defined metallic nanostructures, the synthesis of complex, free-standing three-dimensional (3D) structures is still an intriguing, but so far intractable, challenge. In this study, we demonstrate a 3D direct-write synthesis approach that addresses this challenge. Specifically, we succeeded in the direct-write fabrication of 3D nanoarchitectures via electron-stimulated reactions, which are applicable on virtually any material and surface morphology. By that, complex 3D nanostructures composed of highly compact, pure gold can be fabricated, which reveal strong plasmonic activity and pave the way for a new generation of 3D nanoplasmonic architectures that can be printed on-demand.

  16. Direct-Write 3D Nanoprinting of Plasmonic Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Robert; Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Haselmann, Ulrich; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lewis, Brett B.; Kothleitner, Gerald; Rack, Philip D.; Plank, Harald

    2016-11-23

    During the past decade, significant progress has been made in the field of resonant optics ranging from fundamental aspects to concrete applications. And while several techniques have been introduced for the fabrication of highly defined metallic nanostructures, the synthesis of complex, free-standing three-dimensional (3D) structures is still an intriguing, but so far intractable, challenge. Here, we demonstrate a 3D direct-write synthesis approach that addresses this challenge. Specifically, we succeeded in the direct-write fabrication of 3D nanoarchitectures via electron-stimulated reactions, which are applicable on virtually any material and surface morphology. Furthermore, by that, complex 3D nanostructures composed of highly compact, pure gold can be fabricated, which reveal strong plasmonic activity and pave the way for a new generation of 3D nanoplasmonic architectures that can be printed on-demand.

  17. 3D Band Diagram and Photoexcitation of 2D–3D Semiconductor Heterojunctions

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Bo; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; ...

    2015-08-17

    The emergence of a rich variety of two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductor materials has enabled the creation of atomically thin heterojunction devices. Junctions between atomically thin 2D layers and 3D bulk semiconductors can lead to junctions that are fundamentally electronically different from the covalently bonded conventional semiconductor junctions. In this paper, we propose a new 3D band diagram for the heterojunction formed between n-type monolayer MoS2 and p-type Si, in which the conduction and valence band-edges of the MoS2 monolayer are drawn for both stacked and in-plane directions. This new band diagram helps visualize the flow of charge carriers inside themore » device in a 3D manner. Our detailed wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements fully support the diagrams and unambiguously show that the band alignment is type I for this 2D-3D heterojunction. Photogenerated electron–hole pairs in the atomically thin monolayer are separated and driven by an external bias and control the “on/off” states of the junction photodetector device. Finally, two photoresponse regimes with fast and slow relaxation are also revealed in time-resolved photocurrent measurements, suggesting the important role played by charge trap states.« less

  18. 3D Band Diagram and Photoexcitation of 2D–3D Semiconductor Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bo; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; He, Yongmin; Gao, Weilu; Gong, Yongji; Ye, Gonglan; Zhou, Wu; Keyshar, Kunttal; Hao, Ji; Dong, Pei; Ge, Liehui; Lou, Jun; Kono, Junichiro; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2015-08-17

    The emergence of a rich variety of two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductor materials has enabled the creation of atomically thin heterojunction devices. Junctions between atomically thin 2D layers and 3D bulk semiconductors can lead to junctions that are fundamentally electronically different from the covalently bonded conventional semiconductor junctions. In this paper, we propose a new 3D band diagram for the heterojunction formed between n-type monolayer MoS2 and p-type Si, in which the conduction and valence band-edges of the MoS2 monolayer are drawn for both stacked and in-plane directions. This new band diagram helps visualize the flow of charge carriers inside the device in a 3D manner. Our detailed wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements fully support the diagrams and unambiguously show that the band alignment is type I for this 2D-3D heterojunction. Photogenerated electron–hole pairs in the atomically thin monolayer are separated and driven by an external bias and control the “on/off” states of the junction photodetector device. Finally, two photoresponse regimes with fast and slow relaxation are also revealed in time-resolved photocurrent measurements, suggesting the important role played by charge trap states.

  19. From Surface Data to 3D Geologic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, D.; Luxey, P.; Longuesserre, V.; Monod, B.; Guillaume, B.

    2008-12-01

    New trends in earth sciences are mostly related to technologies allowing graphical representations of the geology in 3D. However, the concept of 3D geologic map is commonly misused. For instance, displays of geologic maps draped onto DEM in rotating perspective views have been misleadingly called 3D geologic maps, but this still cannot provide any volumetric underground information as a true 3D geologic map should. Here, we present a way to produce mathematically and geometrically correct 3D geologic maps constituted by the volume and shape of all geologic features of a given area. The originality of the method is that it is based on the integration of surface data only consisting of (1) geologic maps, (2) satellite images, (3) DEM and (4) bedding dips and strikes. To generate 3D geologic maps, we used a 3D geologic modeler that combines and extrapolates the surface information into a coherent 3D data set. The significance of geometrically correct 3D geologic maps is demonstrated for various geologic settings and applications. 3D models are of primarily importance for educational purposes because they reveal features that standard 2D geologic maps by themselves could not show. The 3D visualization helps in the understanding of the geometrical relationship between the different geologic features and, in turn, for the quantification of the geology at the regional scale. Furthermore, given the logistical challenges associated with modern oil and mineral exploration in remote and rugged terrain, these volume-based models can provide geological and commercial insight prior to seismic evaluation.

  20. Tropical Storm Erin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    . Therefore deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. Land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity.

    Visible/Near-Infrared Images The AIRS instrument suite contains a sensor that captures radiation in four bands of the visible/near-infrared portion of the electromagetic spectrum. Data from three of these bands are combined to create 'visible' images similar to a snapshot taken with your camera.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Future earthquake source faults on deep sea-floor around the Boso triple plate junction revealed by tectonic geomorphology using 3D images produced from 150 meter grid DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, H.; Nakata, T.; Watanabe, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Izumi, N.; Nishizawa, A.; Horiuchi, D.; Kido, Y. N.

    2013-12-01

    that is tilted to the west, indicating up-growing of Taito spur. Northeastern part of Izu bar on Philippine Sea plate is characterized by rather smooth extensive convex slope between 1500m-7500m for over 200km long along the trench. On the lower part of the slope below 6000m, several gullies such as Mikura canyon and Kita-Hachijo canyon dissecting the slope forms rapids, probably due to continuous up-warping by subsurface thrusting dipping to the west under the slope. It is noteworthy that we can identify prominent active tectonic features on even very deep sea-floor along the plate boundaries, by using 3D images produced from 150 meter grid DEM.

  2. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  3. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  4. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  5. 3D Geomodeling of the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monod, B.; Dhont, D.; Hervouet, Y.; Backé, G.; Klarica, S.; Choy, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The crustal structure of the Venezuelan Andes is investigated thanks to a geomodel. The method integrates surface structural data, remote sensing imagery, crustal scale balanced cross-sections, earthquake locations and focal mechanism solutions to reconstruct fault surfaces at the scale of the mountain belt into a 3D environment. The model proves to be essential for understanding the basic processes of both the orogenic float and the tectonic escape involved in the Plio-Quaternary evolution of the orogen. The reconstruction of the Bocono and Valera faults reveals the 3D shape of the Trujillo block whose geometry can be compared to a boat bow floating over a mid-crustal detachment horizon emerging at the Bocono-Valera triple junction. Motion of the Trujillo block is accompanied by a generalized extension in the upper crust accommodated by normal faults with listric geometries such as for the Motatan, Momboy and Tuñame faults. Extension may be related to the lateral spreading of the upper crust, suggesting that gravity forces play an important role in the escape process.

  6. 3D morphological measurement of whole slide histological vasculature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. G.; Nong, Zengxuan; Ward, Aaron D.

    2016-03-01

    Properties of the microvasculature that contribute to tissue perfusion can be assessed using immunohistochemistry on 2D histology sections. However, the vasculature is inherently 3D and the ability to measure and visualize the vessel wall components in 3D will aid in detecting focal pathologies. Our objectives were (1) to develop a method for 3D measurement and visualization of microvasculature in 3D, (2) to compare the normal and regenerated post-ischemia mouse hind limb microvasculature, and (3) to compare the 2D and 3D vessel morphology measures. Vessels were stained for smooth muscle using 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunostain for both normal (n = 6 mice) and regenerated vasculature (n = 5 mice). 2D vessel segmentations were reconstructed into 3D using landmark based registration. No substantial bias was found in the 2D measurements relative to 3D, but larger differences were observed for individual vessels oriented non-orthogonally to the plane of sectioning. A larger value of area, perimeter, and vessel wall thickness was found in the normal vasculature as compared to the regenerated vasculature, for both the 2D and 3D measurements (p < 0.01). Aggregated 2D measurements are sufficient for identifying morphological differences between groups of mice; however, one must interpret individual 2D measurements with caution if the vessel centerline direction is unknown. Visualization of 3D measurements permits the detection of localized vessel morphology aberrations that are not revealed by 2D measurements. With vascular measure visualization methodologies in 3D, we are now capable of locating focal pathologies on a whole slide level.

  7. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  8. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  9. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  10. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  11. A generalized operational formula based on total electronic densities to obtain 3D pictures of the dual descriptor to reveal nucleophilic and electrophilic sites accurately on closed-shell molecules.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge I

    2016-09-30

    By means of the conceptual density functional theory, the so-called dual descriptor (DD) has been adapted to be used in any closed-shell molecule that presents degeneracy in its frontier molecular orbitals. The latter is of paramount importance because a correct description of local reactivity will allow to predict the most favorable sites on a molecule to undergo nucleophilic or electrophilic attacks; on the contrary, an incomplete description of local reactivity might have serio us consequences, particularly for those experimental chemists that have the need of getting an insight about reactivity of chemical reagents before using them in synthesis to obtain a new compound. In the present work, the old approach based only on electronic densities of frontier molecular orbitals is replaced by the most accurate procedure that implies the use of total electronic densities thus keeping consistency with the essential principle of the DFT in which the electronic density is the fundamental variable and not the molecular orbitals. As a result of the present work, the DD will be able to properly describe local reactivities only in terms of total electronic densities. To test the proposed operational formula, 12 very common molecules were selected as the original definition of the DD was not able to describe their local reactivities properly. The ethylene molecule was additionally used to test the capability of the proposed operational formula to reveal a correct local reactivity even in absence of degeneracy in frontier molecular orbitals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Interactive modeling of storm impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooijen, A.; Baart, F.; Roelvink, J. A.; Donchyts, G.; Scheel, F.; de Boer, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades the impact of storms on the coastal zone has increasingly drawn the attention of policy makers and coastal planners, engineers and researchers. The mean reason for this interest is the high density of the world's population living near the ocean, in combination with climate change. Due to sea level rise and extremer weather conditions, many of the world's coastlines are becoming more vulnerable to the potential of flooding. Currently it is common practice to predict storm impact using physics-based numerical models. The numerical model utilizes several inputs (e.g. bathymetry, waves, surge) to calculate the impact on the coastline. Traditionally, the numerical modeller takes the following three steps: schematization/model setup, running and post-processing. This process generally has a total feedback time in the order of hours to days, and is suitable for so-called confirmatory modelling.However, often models are applied as an exploratory tool, in which the effect of e.g. different hydraulic conditions, or measures is investigated. The above described traditional work flow is not the most efficient method for exploratory modelling. Interactive modelling lets users adjust a simulation while running. For models typically used for storm impact studies (e.g. XBeach, Delft3D, D-Flow FM), the user can for instance change the storm surge level, wave conditions, or add a measure such as a nourishment or a seawall. The model will take the adjustments into account immediately, and will directly compute the effect. Using this method, tools can be developed in which stakeholders (e.g. coastal planners, policy makers) are in control and together evaluate ideas by interacting with the model. Here we will show initial results for interactive modelling with a storm impact model.

  13. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  14. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  15. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  16. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  17. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  18. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    PubMed

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©.

  19. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  20. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  1. Gap Opening in 3D: Single-planet Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Giant planets can clear deep gaps when embedded in 2D (razor-thin) viscous circumstellar disks. We show by direct simulation that giant planets are just as capable of carving out gaps in 3D. Surface density maps are similar between 2D and 3D, even in detail. In particular, the scaling {{{Σ }}}{gap}\\propto {q}-2 of gap surface density with planet mass, derived from a global “zero-dimensional” balance of Lindblad and viscous torques, applies equally well to results obtained at higher dimensions. Our 3D simulations reveal extensive, near-sonic, meridional flows both inside and outside the gaps; these large-scale circulations might bear on disk compositional gradients, in dust or other chemical species. At high planet mass, gap edges are mildly Rayleigh unstable and intermittently shed streams of material into the gap—less so in 3D than in 2D.

  2. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  3. Tomographic 3D-PIV and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsinga, Gerrit E.; Wieneke, Bernhard; Scarano, Fulvio; Schröder, Andreas

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry is a 3D PIV technique based on the illumination, recording, reconstruction and analysis of tracer-particle motion within a three-dimensional measurement volume. The recently developed technique makes use of several simultaneous views of the illuminated particles, typically 4, and their three-dimensional reconstruction as a light-intensity distribution by means of optical tomography. The reconstruction is performed with the MART algorithm (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique), yielding a 3D distribution of light intensity discretized over an array of voxels. The reconstructed tomogram pair is then analyzed by means of 3D crosscorrelation with an iterative multigrid volume-deformation technique, returning the three-component velocity vector distribution over the measurement volume. The implementation of the tomographic technique in time-resolved mode by means of high repetition rate PIV hardware has the capability to yield 4D velocity information. The first part of the chapter describes the operation principles and gives a detailed assessment of the tomographic reconstruction algorithm performance based upon a computer-simulated experiment. The second part of the chapter proposes four applications on two flow cases: 1. the transitional wake behind a circular cylinder; 2. the turbulent boundary layer developing over a flat plate. For the first case, experiments in air at ReD = 2700 are described together with the experimental assessment of the tomographic reconstruction accuracy. In this experiment a direct comparison is made between the results obtained by tomographic PIV and stereo-PIV. Experiments conducted in a water facility on the cylinder wake shows the extension of the technique to time-resolved measurements in water at ReD = 540 by means of a low repetition rate PIV system. A high data yield is obtained using high-resolution cameras (2k × 2k pixels) returning 650k vectors per volume. Measurements of the

  4. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  5. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  6. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  7. Looking Back at 'Eagle Crater'(3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Looking Back at 'Eagle Crater'(3-D) (QTVR)

    This is a 3-D version of the first 360-degree view from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's new position outside 'Eagle Crater,' the small crater where the rover landed about two months ago. Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. The rover's tracks can be seen leading away from Eagle Crater. At the far left are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across---that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants, which are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, at the left of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  8. Terahertz Lasers Reveal Information for 3D Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    After taking off her shoes and jacket, she places them in a bin. She then takes her laptop out of its case and places it in a separate bin. As the items move through the x-ray machine, the woman waits for a sign from security personnel to pass through the metal detector. Today, she was lucky; she did not encounter any delays. The man behind her, however, was asked to step inside a large circular tube, raise his hands above his head, and have his whole body scanned. If you have ever witnessed a full-body scan at the airport, you may have witnessed terahertz imaging. Terahertz wavelengths are located between microwave and infrared on the electromagnetic spectrum. When exposed to these wavelengths, certain materials such as clothing, thin metal, sheet rock, and insulation become transparent. At airports, terahertz radiation can illuminate guns, knives, or explosives hidden underneath a passenger s clothing. At NASA s Kennedy Space Center, terahertz wavelengths have assisted in the inspection of materials like insulating foam on the external tanks of the now-retired space shuttle. "The foam we used on the external tank was a little denser than Styrofoam, but not much," says Robert Youngquist, a physicist at Kennedy. The problem, he explains, was that "we lost a space shuttle by having a chunk of foam fall off from the external fuel tank and hit the orbiter." To uncover any potential defects in the foam covering, such as voids or air pockets, that could keep the material from staying in place, NASA employed terahertz imaging to see through the foam. For many years, the technique ensured the integrity of the material on the external tanks.

  9. TRMM 3-D Flyby of 91S

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM satellite flew above a tropical low (91S) in the Mozambique Channel on January 28, 2014 at 1011 UTC and saw some towering storms (red) near the center of the low were reaching heights of above...

  10. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  11. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  12. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Stratasys 3D printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D

  13. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  14. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    3- D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems (Invited Paper) Ted Huffmire∗, Timothy Levin∗, Cynthia Irvine∗, Ryan Kastner† and Timothy Sherwood...address these problems, we propose an approach to trustworthy system development based on 3- D integration, an emerging chip fabrication technique in...which two or more integrated circuit dies are fabricated individually and then combined into a single stack using vertical conductive posts. With 3- D

  15. Hardware Trust Implications of 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a 3-D control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores 3- D applications and their

  16. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  17. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  18. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients.

  19. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  20. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  1. 3D super-resolution microscopy of bacterial division machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Morozova, N. E.; Polinovskaya, V. S.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a promising tool for the field of microbiology, as bacteria sizes are comparable to the resolution limit of light microscopy. Bacterial division machinery and FtsZ protein in particular attract much attention of scientists who use different super-resolution microscopy techniques, but most of the available data on FtsZ structures was obtained using two-dimensional (2D) super-resolution microscopy. Using 3D single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM, namely dSTORM) to visualize FtsZ, we demonstrate that this approach allows more accurate interpretation of super-resolution images and provides new opportunities for the study of complex structures like bacterial divisome.

  2. Photogrammetric 3D skull/photo superimposition: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Valeria; Lubelli, Sergio; De Donno, Antonio; Inchingolo, Alessio; Lavecchia, Fulvio; Introna, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The identification of bodies through the examination of skeletal remains holds a prominent place in the field of forensic investigations. Technological advancements in 3D facial acquisition techniques have led to the proposal of a new body identification technique that involves a combination of craniofacial superimposition and photogrammetry. The aim of this study was to test the method by superimposing various computerized 3D images of skulls onto various photographs of missing people taken while they were still alive in cases when there was a suspicion that the skulls in question belonged to them. The technique is divided into four phases: preparatory phase, 3d acquisition phase, superimposition phase, and metric image analysis 3d. The actual superimposition of the images was carried out in the fourth step. and was done so by comparing the skull images with the selected photos. Using a specific software, the two images (i.e. the 3D avatar and the photo of the missing person) were superimposed. Cross-comparisons of 5 skulls discovered in a mass grave, and of 2 skulls retrieved in the crawlspace of a house were performed. The morphologyc phase reveals a full overlap between skulls and photos of disappeared persons. Metric phase reveals that correlation coefficients of this values, higher than 0.998-0,997 allow to confirm identification hypothesis.

  3. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  4. Developing 3D SEM in a broad biological context

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, A; Lippens, S; Bartunkova, S; Asselbergh, B; Blanpain, C; Fendrych, M; Goossens, A; Holt, M; Janssens, S; Krols, M; Larsimont, J-C; Mc Guire, C; Nowack, MK; Saelens, X; Schertel, A; Schepens, B; Slezak, M; Timmerman, V; Theunis, C; Van Brempt, R; Visser, Y; GuÉRin, CJ

    2015-01-01

    results of high resolution 3D imaging in a number of diverse cells and tissues from multiple species. 3D reconstructions of cell structures often revealed them to be significantly more complex when compared to extrapolations made from 2D studies. Correlating functional 3D LM studies with 3D EM results opens up the possibility of making new strides in our understanding of how cell structure is connected to cell function. PMID:25623622

  5. Comparison of Probabilistic Coastal Inundation Maps Based on Historical Storms and Statistically Modeled Storm Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Sheng, Y.; Condon, A. J.; Paramygin, V. A.; Hall, T.

    2012-12-01

    A cost effective method, JPM-OS (Joint Probability Method with Optimal Sampling), for determining storm response and inundation return frequencies was developed and applied to quantify the hazard of hurricane storm surges and inundation along the Southwest FL,US coast (Condon and Sheng 2012). The JPM-OS uses piecewise multivariate regression splines coupled with dimension adaptive sparse grids to enable the generation of a base flood elevation (BFE) map. Storms are characterized by their landfall characteristics (pressure deficit, radius to maximum winds, forward speed, heading, and landfall location) and a sparse grid algorithm determines the optimal set of storm parameter combinations so that the inundation from any other storm parameter combination can be determined. The end result is a sample of a few hundred (197 for SW FL) optimal storms which are simulated using a dynamically coupled storm surge / wave modeling system CH3D-SSMS (Sheng et al. 2010). The limited historical climatology (1940 - 2009) is explored to develop probabilistic characterizations of the five storm parameters. The probability distributions are discretized and the inundation response of all parameter combinations is determined by the interpolation in five-dimensional space of the optimal storms. The surge response and the associated joint probability of the parameter combination is used to determine the flood elevation with a 1% annual probability of occurrence. The limited historical data constrains the accuracy of the PDFs of the hurricane characteristics, which in turn affect the accuracy of the BFE maps calculated. To offset the deficiency of limited historical dataset, this study presents a different method for producing coastal inundation maps. Instead of using the historical storm data, here we adopt 33,731 tracks that can represent the storm climatology in North Atlantic basin and SW Florida coasts. This large quantity of hurricane tracks is generated from a new statistical model

  6. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  7. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  8. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  9. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  10. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  11. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  12. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  13. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  14. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  15. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  16. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  17. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  18. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  19. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  20. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  1. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  2. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  3. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  4. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  6. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  7. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  8. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  9. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  10. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  11. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  12. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  13. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  14. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  15. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  16. Antenatal 3-D sonographic features of uterine synechia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miki; Kanenishi, Kenji; Ito, Megumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Takemoto, Mikihiko; Hata, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of uterine synechia diagnosed by conventional 2-D color Doppler, 3-D sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging at 26 weeks' gestation. 3-D sonography clearly revealed umbilical cord prolapse through an oblique transverse uterine synechia. Loops of the umbilical cord were below and the fetus was superior to the uterine synechia. The edge of the umbilical cord loops was attached to the amniotic membrane, and a small echo-free space was noted beneath the attachment. 2-D color Doppler showed arterial blood flow consistent with the maternal heart rate. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the oblique horizontal membrane dividing the uterus with umbilical cord prolapse, its attachment to the amniotic membrane, and a small echo-free space in the low, liquor-filled amniotic cavity. We demonstrate how 3-D sonography provided a novel visual depiction of uterine synechia, which greatly helped in prenatal diagnosis and counseling.

  17. Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Modeling Codes Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Hwai-Ping Cheng, Stephen M. England, and Clarissa M. Murray June 2016...Flood & Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-6 June 2016 Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes Using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes ...TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes

  18. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  2. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  3. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  6. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  7. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  8. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  11. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  12. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  13. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  14. Biochemistry-Enabled 3D Foams for Ultrafast Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanping; Rui, Xianhong; Sun, Wenping; Xu, Zhichuan; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern; Yan, Qingyu; Fong, Eileen

    2015-04-28

    Metal vanadium phosphates (MVP), particularly Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) and Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP), are regarded as the next-generation cathode materials in lithium/sodium ion batteries. These materials possess desirable properties such as high stability, theoretical capacity, and operating voltages. Yet, low electrical/ionic conductivities of LVP and NVP have limited their applications in demanding devices such as electric vehicles. In this work, a novel synthesis route for the preparation of LVP/NVP micro/mesoporous 3D foams via assembly of elastin-like polypeptides is demonstrated. The as-synthesized MVP 3D foams consist of microporous networks of mesoporous nanofibers, where the surfaces of individual fibers are covered with MVP nanocrystallites. TEM images further reveal that LVP/NVP nanoparticles are about 100-200 nm in diameter, with each particle enveloped by a 5 nm thick carbon shell. The MVP 3D foams prepared in this work exhibit ultrafast rate capabilities (79 mA h g(-1) at 100C and 66 mA h g(-1) at 200C for LVP 3D foams; 73 mA h g(-1) at 100C and 51 mA h g(-1) at 200C for NVP 3D foams) and excellent cycle performance (almost 100% performance retention after 1000 cycles at 100C); their properties are far superior compared to current state-of-the-art active materials.

  15. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-01-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity. PMID:27667638

  16. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  17. [Pathophysiological diagnosis of facial paralysis using 3-D MRI].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, T; Hirata, K; Yuki, N; Sato, T

    2001-04-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis(facial diplesia) is often observed in Guillain-Barré syndrome(GBS) and Fisher's syndrome (FS). We tried to observe injured facial nerves using three-dimensional(3-D) MRI in facial diplesia due to GBS and its variants and examined function of blood nerve barrier and clinical use of 3-D MRI for detecting injured facial nerves. In the four patients with GBS and its variants(GBS three cases, FS one case), while routine brain MRI did not show any abnormal findings, contrast-enhanced 3-D MRI revealed Gd-enhancement of the facial nerves. On the other hand, only one case showed visualization using contrast-enhanced 3-D MRI in twelve cases of Bell's palsy. Therefore, it may be presumed that the reason why the significantly higher rate of visualization in facial paralysis in GBS and its variants than in Bell's palsy is attributable to a difference in the mechanism of injury or the extreme seriousness of the disease. In conclusion, the observation of facial nerve using 3-D MRI was very useful to know the condition of the facial diplesia in GBS and its variants.

  18. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-26

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  19. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  20. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  1. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  2. Characterizing Extreme Ionospheric Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric storms consist of disturbances of the upper atmosphere that generate regions of enhanced electron density typically lasting several hours. Depending upon the storm magnitude, gradients in electron density can sometimes become large and highly localized. The existence of such localized, dense irregularities is a major source of positioning error for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Consequently, satellite-based augmentation systems have been implemented to improve the accuracy and to ensure the integrity of user position estimates derived from GPS measurements. Large-scale irregularities generally do not pose a serious threat to estimate integrity as they can be readily detected by such systems. Of greater concern, however, are highly localized irregularities that interfere with the propagation of a signal detected by a user measurement but are poorly sampled by the receivers in the system network. The most challenging conditions have been found to arise following disturbances of large magnitude that occur only rarely over the course of a solar cycle. These extremely disturbed conditions exhibit behavior distinct from moderately disturbed conditions and, hence, have been designated "extreme storms". In this paper we examine and compare the behavior of the extreme ionospheric storms of solar cycle 23 (or, more precisely, extreme storms occurring between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008), as represented in maps of vertical total electron content. To identify these storms, we present a robust means of quantifying the regional magnitude of an ionospheric storm. Ionospheric storms are observed frequently to occur in conjunction with magnetic storms, i.e., periods of geophysical activity as measured by magnetometers. While various geomagnetic indices, such as the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the planetary Kp index, have long been used to rank the magnitudes of distinct magnetic storms, no comparable, generally recognized index exists for

  3. A review of major storm impacts on coastal wetland elevations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Storms have long been recognized as agents of geomorphic change to coastal wetlands. A review of recent data on soil elevation dynamics before and after storms revealed that storms affected wetland elevations by storm surge, high winds, and freshwater flushing of the estuary (inferred). The data also indicate that measures of sediment deposition and erosion can often misrepresent the amount and even direction of elevation change because of storm influences on subsurface processes. Simultaneous influence on both surface and subsurface processes by storms means that soil elevation cannot always be accurately estimated from surface process data alone. Eight processes are identified as potentiatly influencing soil elevation: sediment deposition, sediment erosion, sediment compaction, soil shrinkage, root decomposition (following tree mortality from high winds), root growth (following flushing with freshwater, inferred), soil swelling, and lateral folding of the marsh root mat. Local wetland conditions (e.g., marsh health, tide height, groundwater level) and the physical characteristics of the storm (e.g., angle of approach, proximity, amount of rain, wind speed, and storm surge height) were apparently important factors determining the storm's effect on soil elevation. Storm effects on elevation were both permanent (on an ecological time scale) and short-lived, but even short-term changes have potentially important ecological consequences. Shallow soil subsidence or expansion caused by a storm must be considered when calculating local rates of relative sea level rise and evaluating storm effects on wetland stability.

  4. Surface topography study of prepared 3D printed moulds via 3D printer for silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Rahim, Tuan Noraihan Azila Tuan; Akil, Hazizan Md; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Conventional prosthesis fabrication is highly depends on the hand creativity of laboratory technologist. The development in 3D printing technology offers a great help in fabricating affordable and fast yet esthetically acceptable prostheses. This study was conducted to discover the potential of 3D printed moulds for indirect silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis fabrication. Moulds were designed using computer aided design (CAD) software (Solidworks, USA) and converted into the standard tessellation language (STL) file. Three moulds with layer thickness of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3mm were printed utilizing polymer filament based 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X, Makerbot, USA). Another one mould was printed utilizing liquid resin based 3D printer (Objet 30 Scholar, Stratasys, USA) as control. The printed moulds were then used to fabricate maxillofacial silicone specimens (n=10)/mould. Surface profilometer (Surfcom Flex, Accretech, Japan), digital microscope (KH77000, Hirox, USA) and scanning electron microscope (Quanta FEG 450, Fei, USA) were used to measure the surface roughness as well as the topological properties of fabricated silicone. Statistical analysis of One-Way ANOVA was employed to compare the surface roughness of the fabricated silicone elastomer. Result obtained demonstrated significant differences in surface roughness of the fabricated silicone (p<0.01). Further post hoc analysis also revealed significant differences in silicone fabricated using different 3D printed moulds (p<0.01). A 3D printed mould was successfully prepared and characterized. With surface topography that could be enhanced, inexpensive and rapid mould fabrication techniques, polymer filament based 3D printer is potential for indirect silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis fabrication.

  5. Quantifying modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  6. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

  7. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  8. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  9. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  10. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  11. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  12. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  13. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  14. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  15. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  16. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  17. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  18. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  19. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  20. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  1. 3D liver surgery simulation: computer-assisted surgical planning with 3D simulation software and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-03-27

    To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for 3D visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining 3D computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, that enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow 3D-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.

  2. Coastal Storm Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-30

    MILL IBARS I ~ 1022.8. 0 SEA I LND 0’ 100 A-STORM TRACK 200 :km. NORTH; B-STORM TRACK 0_____. T% WO - X00 SHORE SITEI C-STORM TRACK 300 SOU 00 .) -400 0...SCOTIA CANADA PRUF. C. . A. M._KING D PARTMENT IF GFOGRAPHY JR. H. J. SCHOEMAKER _1,NIVELSITY UF NOTT INGHAM . ... W ATFRLOUPKUNDIG LARIORATORIUM TE

  3. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    technique generates 3D microstructures by controlled out-of- plane folding of 2D patterns through a variety of laser-based digital fabrication...processes. Digital microfabrication techniques such as laser direct-write (LDW) offer a viable alternative for generating 3D self-folding designs. These...folding at the microscale where manual or mechanized actuation of the smaller struc- tures is not practical. LDW techniques allow micromachining and

  4. Spatioangular Prefiltering for Multiview 3D Displays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Hirakawa, Keigo; Zwicker, Matthias; Nguyen, Truong

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the reproduction of light fields on multiview 3D displays. A three-way interaction between the input light field signal (which is often aliased), the joint spatioangular sampling grids of multiview 3D displays, and the interview light leakage in modern multiview 3D displays is characterized in the joint spatioangular frequency domain. Reconstruction of light fields by all physical 3D displays is prone to light leakage, which means that the reconstruction low-pass filter implemented by the display is too broad in the angular domain. As a result, 3D displays excessively attenuate angular frequencies. Our analysis shows that this reduces sharpness of the images shown in the 3D displays. In this paper, stereoscopic image recovery is recast as a problem of joint spatioangular signal reconstruction. The combination of the 3D display point spread function and human visual system provides the narrow-band low-pass filter which removes spectral replicas in the reconstructed light field on the multiview display. The nonideality of this filter is corrected with the proposed prefiltering. The proposed light field reconstruction method performs light field antialiasing as well as angular sharpening to compensate for the nonideal response of the 3D display. The union of cosets approach which has been used earlier by others is employed here to model the nonrectangular spatioangular sampling grids on a multiview display in a generic fashion. We confirm the effectiveness of our approach in simulation and in physical hardware, and demonstrate improvement over existing techniques.

  5. GPM 3D Flyby of Kilo

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's GPM Sees Heavy Rainfall in Tropical Depression Kilo On Aug. 23 at 01:31 UTC, NASA/JAXA's GPM satellite saw rain was falling at a rate of over 121 mm (4.8 inches) in powerful storms on the no...

  6. Vinculin Regulates Directionality and Cell Polarity in 2D, 3D Matrix and 3D Microtrack Migration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Aniqua; Carey, Shawn P; Kraning-Rush, Casey M; Goldblatt, Zachary E; Bordeleau, Francois; Lampi, Marsha C; Lin, Deanna Y; García, Andrés J; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2016-03-09

    During metastasis, cells can use proteolytic activity to form tube-like "microtracks" within the extracellular matrix (ECM). Using these microtracks, cells can migrate unimpeded through the stroma. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of microtrack migration, we developed an in vitro 3D micromolded collagen platform. When in microtracks, cells tend to migrate unidirectionally. Since focal adhesions are the primary mechanism by which cells interact with the ECM, we examined the roles of several focal adhesion molecules in driving unidirectional motion. Vinculin knockdown results in the repeated reversal of migration direction compared with control cells. Tracking the position of the Golgi centroid relative to the position of the nucleus centroid reveals that vinculin knockdown disrupts cell polarity in microtracks. Vinculin also directs migration on 2D substrates and in 3D uniform collagen matrices, indicated by reduced speed, shorter net displacement and decreased directionality in vinculin-deficient cells. In addition, vinculin is necessary for Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) activation in 3D as vinculin knockdown results in reduced FAK activation in both 3D uniform collagen matrices and microtracks, but not on 2D substrates, and accordingly, FAK inhibition halts cell migration in 3D microtracks. Together, these data indicate that vinculin plays a key role in polarization during migration.

  7. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  8. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  9. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  10. 3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

    2014-10-28

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.

  11. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  12. 3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

  13. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education. PMID:28367477

  14. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  15. long duration dust storm sequences on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) Mars daily global maps have revealed new characteristics for long duration dust storm sequences. These dust storm sequences have long histories of more than a week, travel long distances out of their origination region, and influence large areas in different regions of the planet. During the Ls = 180 - 360 season, except for global dust storms which involve multiple remote dust lifting centers and generally expand explosively from the southern hemisphere northward, other long-lived dust storm sequences usually travel southward through the Acidalia-Chryse, Utopia-Isidis or Arcadia-Amazonis channels with subsequent dust lifting along the way. Sometimes, they penetrate remarkably deep to the southern high latitudes, producing fantastic display of dust band. During the rest of the year, long duration dust storm sequences usually originate from the Argyre/Solis, Hellas/Noachis, or Cimmeria/Sirenum area and travel northward toward the southern low latitudes. Each route exhibits its own peculiar characteristics. We will present our results about these long duration dust storm sequences summarized from the complete archive of MGS MOC daily global maps and two years of MRO MARCI daily global maps. The systematic daily nearly global coverage of these maps makes it feasible to reconstruct the history of long duration dust storm sequences with detail.

  16. Aircraft measurements and analysis of severe storms: 1976 field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    Severe storm aircraft measurements are documented, as well as the instrumentation and operational features of aircraft mobility capabilities. The measurements and data analyses indicate that the concept of a highly mobile research aircraft capability for obtaining detailed measurements of wind, temperature, moisture, spherics, etc., near and within severe storm systems, forecast 48 hours in advance in a 1000 nm operating radius, is feasible, and was successfully demonstrated. The measurements and analyses reveal several severe storm features and insights with respect to storm air flow circulations and inflow-outflow orientation. Precipitation downdraft air is recirculated back into the updraft core below the scud cloud in both back and front feeder type storms. In a back feeder type storm, the downdraft outflow air ahead of the storm is also recirculated back into the updraft region near cloud base.

  17. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  18. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  19. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  20. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  1. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  2. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  3. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  4. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  5. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  6. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  7. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  8. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  9. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  10. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  11. High-Density 3D-Boron Nitride and 3D-Graphene for High-Performance Nano-Thermal Interface Material.

    PubMed

    Loeblein, Manuela; Tsang, Siu Hon; Pawlik, Matthieu; Phua, Eric Jian Rong; Yong, Han; Zhang, Xiao Wu; Gan, Chee Lip; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2017-02-28

    Compression studies on three-dimensional foam-like graphene and h-BN (3D-C and 3D-BN) revealed their high cross-plane thermal conductivity (62-86 W m(-1) K(-1)) and excellent surface conformity, characteristics essential for thermal management needs. Comparative studies to state-of-the-art materials and other materials currently under research for heat dissipation revealed 3D-foam's improved performance (20-30% improved cooling, temperature decrease by ΔT of 44-24 °C).

  12. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  13. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  14. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced.

  15. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  16. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  17. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.

  18. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  19. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  20. Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

  1. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  2. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  3. Recent EFIT Developments and 3D Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Chu, M. S.; St. John, H. E.; Strait, E. J.; Montgomery, A. L.; Perkins, F. W.

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments of the equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT and its 3D extension to model toroidally asymmetric effects due to error and externally applied perturbation magnetic fields are presented. These include a new more complete uncertainty matrix for magnetic diagnostics based on detailed knowledge about their fabrication, installation, calibration, and operation. A new algorithm to efficiently compute high bootstrap-fraction equilibria that explicitly separates out the Pfirsch-Schluter and bootstrap contributions to the poloidal current stream function is also being developed. Other on-going and planned developments include a new computational structure based on Fortran 90/95 with a unified interface that can conveniently accommodate different tokamak devices and grid sizes, as well as a computational link that allows easy integration with transport and stability physics modules for integrated modeling. EFIT reconstruction capability is also being extended to 3D based on perturbation solutions to the 3D Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation.

  4. 3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L

    2012-11-05

    We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors.

  5. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  6. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  7. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  8. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  9. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  10. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  11. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  12. Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Mark R.; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts—spatially close chromosomal loci—which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically—the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a

  13. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  14. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  15. [Delirium, depression, dementia: solving the 3D's].

    PubMed

    Schuerch, M; Farag, L; Deom, S

    2012-01-01

    As there is no consensus in the specialized literature, it is often difficult to recognize the ties existing between dementia, delirium and depression. Depression preceding dementia is well-documented. Depressive symptoms during the process of dementia are less well-known. So are the close relationships between dementia and delirium as well as between delirium and depression. The commonality of symptoms between the three often causes diagnostic dilemmas. Unfortunately, elderly patients can often present two, or even three, of the "3 D's" simultaneously. Untangling the 3 D's has been the subject of several articles. We propose a synthesis as well as our thoughts on the subject from a clinical psychogeriatric standpoint.

  16. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  17. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology.

  18. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  19. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  20. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  1. Numerical study on 3D composite morphing actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Kazuma; Saito, Makoto; Anandan, Nishita; Kadooka, Kevin; Taya, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    There are a number of actuators using the deformation of electroactive polymer (EAP), where fewer papers seem to have focused on the performance of 3D morphing actuators based on the analytical approach, due mainly to their complexity. The present paper introduces a numerical analysis approach on the large scale deformation and motion of a 3D half dome shaped actuator composed of thin soft membrane (passive material) and EAP strip actuators (EAP active coupon with electrodes on both surfaces), where the locations of the active EAP strips is a key parameter. Simulia/Abaqus Static and Implicit analysis code, whose main feature is the high precision contact analysis capability among structures, are used focusing on the whole process of the membrane to touch and wrap around the object. The unidirectional properties of the EAP coupon actuator are used as input data set for the material properties for the simulation and the verification of our numerical model, where the verification is made as compared to the existing 2D solution. The numerical results can demonstrate the whole deformation process of the membrane to wrap around not only smooth shaped objects like a sphere or an egg, but also irregularly shaped objects. A parametric study reveals the proper placement of the EAP coupon actuators, with the modification of the dome shape to induce the relevant large scale deformation. The numerical simulation for the 3D soft actuators shown in this paper could be applied to a wider range of soft 3D morphing actuators.

  2. Use scenarios: mobile 3D television and video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, Dominik; Weitzel, Mandy; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu

    2009-02-01

    The focus of 3D television and video has been in technical development while hardly any attention has been paid on user expectations and needs of related applications. The object of the study is to examine user requirements for mobile 3D television and video in depth. We conducted two qualitative studies, focus groups and probe studies, to improve the understanding of user approach. Eight focus groups were carried out with altogether 46 participants focusing on use scenario development. The data-collection of the probe study was done over the period of 4 weeks in the field with nine participants to reveal intrinsic user needs and expectations. Both studies were conducted and analyzed independently so that they did not influence each other. The results of both studies provide novel aspects of users, system and content, and context of use. In the paper, we present personas as first archetype users of mobile 3D television and video. Putting these personas into contexts, we summarize the results of our studies and previous related work in the form of use scenarios to guide the user-centered development of 3D television and video.

  3. On the 3-D reconstruction of Coronal Mass Ejections using coronagraph data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierla, M.; Inhester, B.; Antunes, A.; Boursier, Y.; Byrne, J. P.; Colaninno, R.; Davila, J.; de Koning, C. A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Gissot, S.; Howard, R. A.; Howard, T. A.; Kramar, M.; Lamy, P.; Liewer, P. C.; Maloney, S.; Marqué, C.; McAteer, R. T. J.; Moran, T.; Rodriguez, L.; Srivastava, N.; St. Cyr, O. C.; Stenborg, G.; Temmer, M.; Thernisien, A.; Vourlidas, A.; West, M. J.; Wood, B. E.; Zhukov, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    Coronal Mass ejections (CMEs) are enormous eruptions of magnetized plasma expelled from the Sun into the interplanetary space, over the course of hours to days. They can create major disturbances in the interplanetary medium and trigger severe magnetic storms when they collide with the Earth's magnetosphere. It is important to know their real speed, propagation direction and 3-D configuration in order to accurately predict their arrival time at the Earth. Using data from the SECCHI coronagraphs onboard the STEREO mission, which was launched in October 2006, we can infer the propagation direction and the 3-D structure of such events. In this review, we first describe different techniques that were used to model the 3-D configuration of CMEs in the coronagraph field of view (up to 15 R⊙). Then, we apply these techniques to different CMEs observed by various coronagraphs. A comparison of results obtained from the application of different reconstruction algorithms is presented and discussed.

  4. Scalable 3D GIS environment managed by 3D-XML-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Beiqi; Rui, Jianxun; Chen, Neng

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, the namely 3D GIS technologies become a key factor in establishing and maintaining large-scale 3D geoinformation services. However, with the rapidly increasing size and complexity of the 3D models being acquired, a pressing needed for suitable data management solutions has become apparent. This paper outlines that storage and exchange of geospatial data between databases and different front ends like 3D models, GIS or internet browsers require a standardized format which is capable to represent instances of 3D GIS models, to minimize loss of information during data transfer and to reduce interface development efforts. After a review of previous methods for spatial 3D data management, a universal lightweight XML-based format for quick and easy sharing of 3D GIS data is presented. 3D data management based on XML is a solution meeting the requirements as stated, which can provide an efficient means for opening a new standard way to create an arbitrary data structure and share it over the Internet. To manage reality-based 3D models, this paper uses 3DXML produced by Dassault Systemes. 3DXML uses opening XML schemas to communicate product geometry, structure and graphical display properties. It can be read, written and enriched by standard tools; and allows users to add extensions based on their own specific requirements. The paper concludes with the presentation of projects from application areas which will benefit from the functionality presented above.

  5. MRS3D: 3D Spherical Wavelet Transform on the Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2011-12-01

    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. We present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We tested the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, applied a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and found we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. The new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, called MRS3D, is ideally suited to analysing and denoising future 3D spherical cosmological surveys; it uses a novel discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform. MRS3D is based on two packages, IDL and Healpix and can be used only if these two packages have been installed.

  6. Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

  7. Massively parallel implementation of 3D-RISM calculation with volumetric 3D-FFT.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Norio; Tadano, Hiroto; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Hirata, Fumio

    2014-07-05

    A new three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) program for massively parallel machines combined with the volumetric 3D fast Fourier transform (3D-FFT) was developed, and tested on the RIKEN K supercomputer. The ordinary parallel 3D-RISM program has a limitation on the number of parallelizations because of the limitations of the slab-type 3D-FFT. The volumetric 3D-FFT relieves this limitation drastically. We tested the 3D-RISM calculation on the large and fine calculation cell (2048(3) grid points) on 16,384 nodes, each having eight CPU cores. The new 3D-RISM program achieved excellent scalability to the parallelization, running on the RIKEN K supercomputer. As a benchmark application, we employed the program, combined with molecular dynamics simulation, to analyze the oligomerization process of chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 mutant. The results demonstrate that the massive parallel 3D-RISM program is effective to analyze the hydration properties of the large biomolecular systems.

  8. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  9. PB3D: A new code for edge 3-D ideal linear peeling-ballooning stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyens, T.; Sánchez, R.; Huijsmans, G.; Loarte, A.; García, L.

    2017-02-01

    A new numerical code PB3D (Peeling-Ballooning in 3-D) is presented. It implements and solves the intermediate-to-high-n ideal linear magnetohydrodynamic stability theory extended to full edge 3-D magnetic toroidal configurations in previous work [1]. The features that make PB3D unique are the assumptions on the perturbation structure through intermediate-to-high mode numbers n in general 3-D configurations, while allowing for displacement of the plasma edge. This makes PB3D capable of very efficient calculations of the full 3-D stability for the output of multiple equilibrium codes. As first verification, it is checked that results from the stability code MISHKA [2], which considers axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, are accurately reproduced, and these are then successfully extended to 3-D configurations, through comparison with COBRA [3], as well as using checks on physical consistency. The non-intuitive 3-D results presented serve as a tentative first proof of the capabilities of the code.

  10. First 3D view of solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    arrival times and impact angles at the Earth," says Dr Thomas Moran of the Catholic University, Washington, USA. In collaboration with Dr Joseph Davila, of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA, Moran has analysed two-dimensional images from the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) in a new way to yield 3D images. Their technique is able to reveal the complex and distorted magnetic fields that travel with the CME cloud and sometimes interact with Earth's own magnetic field, pouring tremendous amounts of energy into the space near Earth. "These magnetic fields are invisible," Moran explains, "but since the CME gas is electrified, it spirals around the magnetic fields, tracing out their shapes." Therefore, a 3D view of the CME electrified gas (called a plasma) gives scientists valuable information on the structure and behaviour of the magnetic fields powering the CME. The new analysis technique for SOHO data determines the three-dimensional structure of a CME by taking a sequence of three SOHO Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) images through various polarisers, at different angles. Whilst the light emitted by the Sun is not polarised, once it is scattered off electrons in the CME plasma it takes up some polarisation. This means that the electric fields of some of the scattered light are forced to oscillate in certain directions, whereas the electric field in the light emitted by the Sun is free to oscillate in all directions. Moran and Davila knew that light from CME structures closer to the plane of the Sun (as seen on the LASCO images) had to be more polarised than light from structures farther from that plane. Thus, by computing the ratio of polarised to unpolarised light for each CME structure, they could measure its distance from the plane. This provided the missing third dimension to the LASCO images. With this technique, the team has confirmed that the structure of CMEs directed towards Earth is an expanding arcade of

  11. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  12. A 3-D Look at the Rain in Developing Tropical Storm Matthew

    NASA Video Gallery

    GPM captured an image of the wave on Sept. 27 at 4:41 p.m. EDT as it was approaching the Windward Isles. The data showed rain rates derived from GPM's GMI microwave imager (outer swath) and dual-fr...

  13. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  14. 3D printed microfluidics for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chee Meng Benjamin; Ng, Sum Huan; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The term "Lab-on-a-Chip," is synonymous with describing microfluidic devices with biomedical applications. Even though microfluidics have been developing rapidly over the past decade, the uptake rate in biological research has been slow. This could be due to the tedious process of fabricating a chip and the absence of a "killer application" that would outperform existing traditional methods. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) printing has been drawing much interest from the research community. It has the ability to make complex structures with high resolution. Moreover, the fast building time and ease of learning has simplified the fabrication process of microfluidic devices to a single step. This could possibly aid the field of microfluidics in finding its "killer application" that will lead to its acceptance by researchers, especially in the biomedical field. In this paper, a review is carried out of how 3D printing helps to improve the fabrication of microfluidic devices, the 3D printing technologies currently used for fabrication and the future of 3D printing in the field of microfluidics.

  15. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  16. 3D Printed Terahertz Focusing Grating Couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, David; Weidenbach, Marcel; Lehr, Jannik; Becker, Leonard; Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Busch, Stefan F.; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We have designed, constructed and characterized a grating that focuses electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies out of a dielectric waveguide. A simple theoretical model predicts the focusing behaviour of these chirped gratings, along with numerical results that support our assumptions and improved the grating geometry. The leaky waveguide was 3D printed and characterized at 120 GHz demonstrating its potential for manipulating terahertz waves.

  17. A Cray T3D performance study

    SciTech Connect

    Nallana, A.; Kincaid, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    We carry out a performance study using the Cray T3D parallel supercomputer to illustrate some important features of this machine. Timing experiments show the speed of various basic operations while more complicated operations give some measure of its parallel performance.

  18. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  19. NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a ra...

  20. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  1. Accuracy of 3-D reconstruction with occlusions.

    PubMed

    Begon, Mickaël; Lacouture, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    A marker has to be seen by at least two cameras for its three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction, and the accuracy can be improved with more cameras. However, a change in the set of cameras used in the reconstruction can alter the kinematics. The purpose of this study was to quantify the harmful effect of occlusions on two-dimensional (2-D) images and to make recommendations about the signal processing. A reference kinematics data set was collected for a three degree-of-freedom linkage with three cameras of a commercial motion analysis system without any occlusion on the 2-D images. In the 2-D images, some occlusions were artificially created based on trials of real cyclic motions. An interpolation of 2-D trajectories before the 3-D reconstruction and two filters (Savitsky-Golay and Butterworth filters) after reconstruction were successively applied to minimize the effect of the 2-D occlusions. The filter parameters were optimized by minimizing the root mean square error between the reference and the filtered data. The optimal parameters of the filters were marker dependent, whereas no filter was necessary after a 2-D interpolation. As the occlusions cause systematic error in the 3-D reconstruction, the interpolation of the 2-D trajectories is more appropriate than filtering the 3-D trajectories.

  2. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  3. 3-D Teaching Models for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…

  4. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  5. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Lega, Elena; Velasco, David

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential (r s), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk (γ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ, up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  6. 3D imaging system for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun

    2010-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a triangulation angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the triangulation angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution 3D data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing 3D data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.

  7. GPM 3D Flyby of Hurricane Lester

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...

  8. Counter-sniper 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.

  9. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  10. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  11. Constructing Arguments with 3-D Printed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, William; Dickerson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a fourth-grade lesson where 3-D printing technologies were not only a stimulus for engagement but also served as a modeling tool providing meaningful learning opportunities. Specifically, fourth-grade students construct an argument that animals' external structures function to support survival in a particular…

  12. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    algorithms. The 3D environment causes beam splitting, which affects both the perceived bearing and the received level on a towed array. 2 To date... sound level as dozens of ships crisscross an area. The variations in intensity should allow us to infer the range-integrated transmission loss

  13. Model-based 3D SAR reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chad; Gunther, Jake; Moon, Todd

    2014-06-01

    Three dimensional scene reconstruction with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is desirable for target recognition and improved scene interpretability. The vertical aperture, which is critical to reconstruct 3D SAR scenes, is almost always sparsely sampled due to practical limitations, which creates an underdetermined problem. This papers explores 3D scene reconstruction using a convex model-based approach. The approach developed is demonstrated on 3D scenes, but can be extended to SAR reconstruction of sparsely sampled signals in the spatial and, or, frequency domains. The model-based approach enables knowledge-aided image formation (KAIF) by incorporating spatial, aspect, and sparsity magnitude terms into the image reconstruction. The incorporation of these terms, which are based on prior scene knowledge, will demonstrate improved results compared to traditional image formation algorithms. The SAR image formation problem is formulated as a second order cone program (SOCP) and the results are demonstrated on 3D scenes using simulated data and data from the GOTCHA data collect.1 The model-based results are contrasted against traditional backprojected images.

  14. 3-D imaging of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Runge, V M; Gelblum, D Y; Wood, M L

    1990-01-01

    3-D gradient echo techniques, and in particular FLASH, represent a significant advance in MR imaging strategy allowing thin section, high resolution imaging through a large region of interest. Anatomical areas of application include the brain, spine, and extremities, although the majority of work to date has been performed in the brain. Superior T1 contrast and thus sensitivity to the presence of GdDTPA is achieved with 3-D FLASH when compared to 2-D spin echo technique. There is marked arterial and venous enhancement following Gd DTPA administration on 3-D FLASH, a less common finding with 2-D spin echo. Enhancement of the falx and tentorium is also more prominent. From a single data acquisition, requiring less than 11 min of scan time, high resolution reformatted sagittal, coronal, and axial images can obtained in addition to sections in any arbitrary plane. Tissue segmentation techniques can be applied and lesions displayed in three dimensions. These results may lead to the replacement of 2-D spin echo with 3-D FLASH for high resolution T1-weighted MR imaging of the CNS, particularly in the study of mass lesions and structural anomalies. The application of similar T2-weighted gradient echo techniques may follow, however the signal-to-noise ratio which can be achieved remains a potential limitation.

  15. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  16. Smoothing 3-D Data for Torpedo Paths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    parametric estimation , consider data collected at 200 sequential observation times (e.g., 800 to 1,000 for the 3-D data used in this section). Samples...sample when the fitted curve is a straight line (refer to Appendix B). (e) Parametric estimation could also be modified to delete some samples (e.g

  17. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  18. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  19. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  20. Development of three-dimensional memory (3D-M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong-Yu; Shen, Chen; Jiang, Lingli; Dong, Bin; Zhang, Guobiao

    2016-10-01

    Since the invention of 3-D ROM in 1996, three-dimensional memory (3D-M) has been under development for nearly two decades. In this presentation, we'll review the 3D-M history and compare different 3D-Ms (including 3D-OTP from Matrix Semiconductor, 3D-NAND from Samsung and 3D-XPoint from Intel/Micron).

  1. Structural analysis of tropical cyclone using INSAT-3D observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Neeru; Kishtawal, C. M.

    2016-05-01

    The continuous observations from visible and thermal infrared (TIR) channels of geostationary satellites are highly useful for obtaining the features associated with the shape and dynamics of cloud structures within the tropical cyclones (TCs). As TC develops from an unstructured cloud cluster and intensifies, the cloud structures become more axisymmetric around the centre of the TC. To better understand the structure of TC during different stages of its evolution i.e. from its cyclogenesis to maturity and dissipation, the continuous satellite observations plays a key role. The high spatial and temporal resolution observations from geostationary satellites are very useful in order to analyze the cloud organization during the cyclogenesis. The gradient of the brightness temperatures measures the level of symmetry of each structure, which characterizes the degree of cloud organization of the TC. In the present work, the structural analysis of TC during its life period using the observations from Indian geostationary satellite INSAT-3D has been discussed. The visible and TIR observations from INSAT-3D satellite were used to fix the center position of the cyclone which is an input for the cyclone track and intensity prediction models. This data is also used to estimate the intensity of cyclone in the advanced Dvorak technique (ADT), and in the estimation of radius of maximum winds (Rmax) of TC which is an essential input parameter for the prediction of storm surge associated to the cyclones. The different patterns of cloud structure during the intensification stage, eye-wall formation and dissipation have been discussed. The early identification of these features helps in predicting the rapid intensification of TC which in turn improves the intensity predictions.

  2. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  3. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  4. Tracking earthquake source evolution in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, B. L. N.; Gorbatov, A.; Spiliopoulos, S.

    2014-08-01

    Starting from the hypocentre, the point of initiation of seismic energy, we seek to estimate the subsequent trajectory of the points of emission of high-frequency energy in 3-D, which we term the `evocentres'. We track these evocentres as a function of time by energy stacking for putative points on a 3-D grid around the hypocentre that is expanded as time progresses, selecting the location of maximum energy release as a function of time. The spatial resolution in the neighbourhood of a target point can be simply estimated by spatial mapping using the properties of isochrons from the stations. The mapping of a seismogram segment to space is by inverse slowness, and thus more distant stations have a broader spatial contribution. As in hypocentral estimation, the inclusion of a wide azimuthal distribution of stations significantly enhances 3-D capability. We illustrate this approach to tracking source evolution in 3-D by considering two major earthquakes, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Solomons islands event that ruptured across a plate boundary and the 2013 Mw 8.3 event 610 km beneath the Sea of Okhotsk. In each case we are able to provide estimates of the evolution of high-frequency energy that tally well with alternative schemes, but also to provide information on the 3-D characteristics that is not available from backprojection from distant networks. We are able to demonstrate that the major characteristics of event rupture can be captured using just a few azimuthally distributed stations, which opens the opportunity for the approach to be used in a rapid mode immediately after a major event to provide guidance for, for example tsunami warning for megathrust events.

  5. 3D fascicle orientations in triceps surae.

    PubMed

    Rana, Manku; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Wakeling, James M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the three-dimensional (3D) muscle fascicle architecture in human triceps surae muscles at different contraction levels and muscle lengths. Six male subjects were tested for three contraction levels (0, 30, and 60% of maximal voluntary contraction) and four ankle angles (-15, 0, 15, and 30° of plantar flexion), and the muscles were imaged with B-mode ultrasound coupled to 3D position sensors. 3D fascicle orientations were represented in terms of pennation angle relative to the major axis of the muscle and azimuthal angle (a new architectural parameter introduced in this study representing the radial angle around the major axis). 3D orientations of the fascicles, and the sheets along which they lie, were regionalized in all the three muscles (medial and lateral gastrocnemius and the soleus) and changed significantly with contraction level and ankle angle. Changes in the azimuthal angle were of similar magnitude to the changes in pennation angle. The 3D information was used for an error analysis to determine the errors in predictions of pennation that would occur in purely two-dimensional studies. A comparison was made for assessing pennation in the same plane for different contraction levels, or for adjusting the scanning plane orientation for different contractions: there was no significant difference between the two simulated scanning conditions for the gastrocnemii; however, a significant difference of 4.5° was obtained for the soleus. Correct probe orientation is thus more critical during estimations of pennation for the soleus than the gastrocnemii due to its more complex fascicle arrangement.

  6. Parallel CARLOS-3D code development

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, J.M.; Kotulski, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

  7. Dust storms: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Dust storms have a number of impacts upon the environment including radiative forcing, and biogeochemical cycling. They transport material over many thousands of kilometres. They also have a range of impacts on humans, not least on human health. In recent years the identification of source areas for dust storms has been an important area or research, with the Sahara (especially Bodélé) and western China being recognised as the strongest sources globally. Another major development has been the recognition of the degree to which dust storm activity has varied at a range of time scales, millennial, century, decadal, annual and seasonal.

  8. Hazards of geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. 

  9. Dust Storm in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Along historic Route 66, just southeast of the little town of Amboy, California, lies a dried-up lake. Dry lakebeds are good sources of two things: salt and dust. In this image, the now-parched Bristol Lake offers up both. On April 12, 2007, dust storms menaced the area around Amboy. To the northwest, near Newberry Springs, California, dust hampered visibility and led to a multi-car collision on Interstate 40, killing two people and injuring several others. The same day, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of a dust storm in the dry remains of Bristol Lake. Many small dust clouds boil up from the ground surface, casting their shadows to the northwest. A bright white cloud floating over the dust also throws its shadow onto the ground below. East of the dust storm are salt works that stand out from the surrounding landscape thanks to their straight lines and sharp angles. Dark ground surfaces alternate with mined white salt in a network of stripes. When lakes evaporate, chemicals that had been dissolved in the water stay behind, making dry lake beds an ideal place to find heavy concentrations of minerals, including salt. Besides the salt works, something else appears in stark contrast to this arid place. Lush green fields of irrigated crops appear in the east. Besides their color, their orderly arrangement reveals their human-made origin.

  10. 3D Regression Heat Map Analysis of Population Study Data.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paul; Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Niemann, Uli; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Preim, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies comprise heterogeneous data about a subject group to define disease-specific risk factors. These data contain information (features) about a subject's lifestyle, medical status as well as medical image data. Statistical regression analysis is used to evaluate these features and to identify feature combinations indicating a disease (the target feature). We propose an analysis approach of epidemiological data sets by incorporating all features in an exhaustive regression-based analysis. This approach combines all independent features w.r.t. a target feature. It provides a visualization that reveals insights into the data by highlighting relationships. The 3D Regression Heat Map, a novel 3D visual encoding, acts as an overview of the whole data set. It shows all combinations of two to three independent features with a specific target disease. Slicing through the 3D Regression Heat Map allows for the detailed analysis of the underlying relationships. Expert knowledge about disease-specific hypotheses can be included into the analysis by adjusting the regression model formulas. Furthermore, the influences of features can be assessed using a difference view comparing different calculation results. We applied our 3D Regression Heat Map method to a hepatic steatosis data set to reproduce results from a data mining-driven analysis. A qualitative analysis was conducted on a breast density data set. We were able to derive new hypotheses about relations between breast density and breast lesions with breast cancer. With the 3D Regression Heat Map, we present a visual overview of epidemiological data that allows for the first time an interactive regression-based analysis of large feature sets with respect to a disease.

  11. Measuring visual discomfort associated with 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambooij, M.; Fortuin, M.; Ijsselsteijn, W. A.; Heynderickx, I.

    2009-02-01

    Some people report visual discomfort when watching 3D displays. For both the objective measurement of visual fatigue and the subjective measurement of visual discomfort, we would like to arrive at general indicators that are easy to apply in perception experiments. Previous research yielded contradictory results concerning such indicators. We hypothesize two potential causes for this: 1) not all clinical tests are equally appropriate to evaluate the effect of stereoscopic viewing on visual fatigue, and 2) there is a natural variation in susceptibility to visual fatigue amongst people with normal vision. To verify these hypotheses, we designed an experiment, consisting of two parts. Firstly, an optometric screening was used to differentiate participants in susceptibility to visual fatigue. Secondly, in a 2×2 within-subjects design (2D vs 3D and two-view vs nine-view display), a questionnaire and eight optometric tests (i.e. binocular acuity, fixation disparity with and without fusion lock, heterophoria, convergent and divergent fusion, vergence facility and accommodation response) were administered before and immediately after a reading task. Results revealed that participants found to be more susceptible to visual fatigue during screening showed a clinically meaningful increase in fusion amplitude after having viewed 3D stimuli. Two questionnaire items (i.e., pain and irritation) were significantly affected by the participants' susceptibility, while two other items (i.e., double vision and sharpness) were scored differently between 2D and 3D for all participants. Our results suggest that a combination of fusion range measurements and self-report is appropriate for evaluating visual fatigue related to 3D displays.

  12. Evaluation of reproducibility and reliability of 3D soft tissue analysis using 3D stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Plooij, J M; Swennen, G R J; Rangel, F A; Maal, T J J; Schutyser, F A C; Bronkhorst, E M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Bergé, S J

    2009-03-01

    In 3D photographs the bony structures are neither available nor palpable, therefore, the bone-related landmarks, such as the soft tissue gonion, need to be redefined. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility and reliability of 49 soft tissue landmarks, including newly defined 3D bone-related soft tissue landmarks with the use of 3D stereophotogrammetric images. Two observers carried out soft-tissue analysis on 3D photographs twice for 20 patients. A reference frame and 49 landmarks were identified on each 3D photograph. Paired Student's t-test was used to test the reproducibility and Pearson's correlation coefficient to determine the reliability of the landmark identification. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of the landmarks were high. The study showed a high reliability coefficient for intraobserver (0.97 (0.90 - 0.99)) and interobserver reliability (0.94 (0.69 - 0.99)). Identification of the landmarks in the midline was more precise than identification of the paired landmarks. In conclusion, the redefinition of bone-related soft tissue 3D landmarks in combination with the 3D photograph reference system resulted in an accurate and reliable 3D photograph based soft tissue analysis. This shows that hard tissue data are not needed to perform accurate soft tissue analysis.

  13. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. Methods To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6–8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 107 hepatocytes with 80%–90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Results Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Conclusion Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers. PMID:28203553

  14. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Jamie J.; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Gutell, Robin R.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-01-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960

  15. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    X. Zhao and co-workers develop on page 4035 a new biocompatible hydrogel system that is extremely tough and stretchable and can be 3D printed into complex structures, such as the multilayer mesh shown. Cells encapsulated in the tough and printable hydrogel maintain high viability. 3D-printed structures of the tough hydrogel can sustain high mechanical loads and deformations.

  16. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server.

    PubMed

    Cannone, Jamie J; Sweeney, Blake A; Petrov, Anton I; Gutell, Robin R; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-07-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa.

  17. Development of a 3D pixel module for an ultralarge screen 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, Toshihiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2004-10-01

    A large screen 2D display used at stadiums and theaters consists of a number of pixel modules. The pixel module usually consists of 8x8 or 16x16 LED pixels. In this study we develop a 3D pixel module in order to construct a large screen 3D display which is glass-free and has the motion parallax. This configuration for a large screen 3D display dramatically reduces the complexity of wiring 3D pixels. The 3D pixel module consists of several LCD panels, several cylindrical lenses, and one small PC. The LCD panels are slanted in order to differentiate the distances from same color pixels to the axis of the cylindrical lens so that the rays from the same color pixels are refracted into the different horizontal directions by the cylindrical lens. We constructed a prototype 3D pixel module, which consists of 8x4 3D pixels. The prototype module is designed to display 300 different patterns into different horizontal directions with the horizontal display angle pitch of 0.099 degree. The LCD panels are controlled by a small PC and the 3D image data is transmitted through the Gigabit Ethernet.

  18. NIKE3D96. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Maker, B.; Hallquist, J.O.; Ferencz, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  19. 3-D imaging and illustration of mouse intestinal neurovascular complex.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ya-Yuan; Peng, Shih-Jung; Lin, Hsin-Yao; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Because of the dispersed nature of nerves and blood vessels, standard histology cannot provide a global and associated observation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and vascular network. We prepared transparent mouse intestine and combined vessel painting and three-dimensional (3-D) neurohistology for joint visualization of the ENS and vasculature. Cardiac perfusion of the fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin (vessel painting) was used to label the ileal blood vessels. The pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5, sympathetic neuronal marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin, and glial markers S100B and GFAP were used as the immunostaining targets of neural tissues. The fluorescently labeled specimens were immersed in the optical clearing solution to improve photon penetration for 3-D confocal microscopy. Notably, we simultaneously revealed the ileal microstructure, vasculature, and innervation with micrometer-level resolution. Four examples are given: 1) the morphology of the TH-labeled sympathetic nerves: sparse in epithelium, perivascular at the submucosa, and intraganglionic at myenteric plexus; 2) distinct patterns of the extrinsic perivascular and intrinsic pericryptic innervation at the submucosal-mucosal interface; 3) different associations of serotonin cells with the mucosal neurovascular elements in the villi and crypts; and 4) the periganglionic capillary network at the myenteric plexus and its contact with glial fibers. Our 3-D imaging approach provides a useful tool to simultaneously reveal the nerves and blood vessels in a space continuum for panoramic illustration and analysis of the neurovascular complex to better understand the intestinal physiology and diseases.

  20. SB3D User Manual, Santa Barbara 3D Radiative Transfer Model

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hirok, William

    1999-01-01

    SB3D is a three-dimensional atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer model for the Solar spectrum. The microphysics employed in the model are the same as used in the model SBDART. It is assumed that the user of SB3D is familiar with SBDART and IDL. SB3D differs from SBDART in that computations are conducted on media in three-dimensions rather than a single column (i.e. plane-parallel), and a stochastic method (Monte Carlo) is employed instead of a numerical approach (Discrete Ordinates) for estimating a solution to the radiative transfer equation. Because of these two differences between SB3D and SBDART, the input and running of SB3D is more unwieldy and requires compromises between model performance and computational expense. Hence, there is no one correct method for running the model and the user must develop a sense to the proper input and configuration of the model.

  1. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  2. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  3. 3D gaze tracking system for NVidia 3D Vision®.

    PubMed

    Wibirama, Sunu; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate parallax setting in stereoscopic content generally causes visual fatigue and visual discomfort. To optimize three dimensional (3D) effects in stereoscopic content by taking into account health issue, understanding how user gazes at 3D direction in virtual space is currently an important research topic. In this paper, we report the study of developing a novel 3D gaze tracking system for Nvidia 3D Vision(®) to be used in desktop stereoscopic display. We suggest an optimized geometric method to accurately measure the position of virtual 3D object. Our experimental result shows that the proposed system achieved better accuracy compared to conventional geometric method by average errors 0.83 cm, 0.87 cm, and 1.06 cm in X, Y, and Z dimensions, respectively.

  4. Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Giricz, Orsi; Lee, Genee; Baehner, Frederick; Gray, Joe; Bissell, Mina; Kenny, Paraic; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Correlative analysis of molecular markers with phenotypic signatures is the simplest model for hypothesis generation. In this paper, a panel of 24 breast cell lines was grown in 3D culture, their morphology was imaged through phase contrast microscopy, and computational methods were developed to segment and represent each colony at multiple dimensions. Subsequently, subpopulations from these morphological responses were identified through consensus clustering to reveal three clusters of round, grape-like, and stellate phenotypes. In some cases, cell lines with particular pathobiological phenotypes clustered together (e.g., ERBB2 amplified cell lines sharing the same morphometric properties as the grape-like phenotype). Next, associations with molecular features were realized through (i) differential analysis within each morphological cluster, and (ii) regression analysis across the entire panel of cell lines. In both cases, the dominant genes that are predictive of the morphological signatures were identified. Specifically, PPAR? has been associated with the invasive stellate morphological phenotype, which corresponds to triple-negative pathobiology. PPAR? has been validated through two supporting biological assays.

  5. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  6. Autostereoscopic 3D flat panel display using an LCD-pixel-associated parallax barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, En-guo; Guo, Tai-liang

    2014-05-01

    This letter reports an autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) flat panel display system employing a newly designed LCD-pixel-associated parallax barrier (LPB). The barrier's parameters can be conveniently determined by the LCD pixels and can help to greatly simplify the conventional design. The optical system of the proposed 3D display is built and simulated to verify the design. For further experimental demonstration, a 508-mm autostereoscopic 3D display prototype is developed and it presents good stereoscopic images. Experimental results agree well with the simulation, which reveals a strong potential for 3D display applications.

  7. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D.

    PubMed

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W; Meehan, Michael J; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2015-04-28

    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5-2 m(2) that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health.

  8. 3-D seismic exploration in the Ames hole

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    The Ames Crater of Major County, Oklahoma has been one of the more controversial drilling projects to emerge in the Mid-Continent province in this decade. Within the crater, dolomitic and granodiorite breccias produce substantial quantities of oil and gas within structurally controlled accumulations. To understand the structural complexities of the crater, Continental Resources, in partnership with other Ames operators, acquired 3-D seismic data in four separate acquisition projects across various exploratory and development projects across the crater. Integrated seismic and subsurface control revealed four separate features within the principal crater floor oil and gas accumulation. Using the 3-D data as a lead tool, these companies identified and developed a significant number of commercial tests within the limits of the seismic surveys. Although the tool generally proved to be successful, reservoir variability, velocity variations, and interpretational errors resulted in some non-commercial and dry tests.

  9. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M.; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Meehan, Michael J.; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L.; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-01-01

    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5–2 m2 that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health. PMID:25825778

  10. Multiple mechanisms of 3D migration: the origins of plasticity.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Ryan J; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2016-10-01

    Cells migrate through 3D environments using a surprisingly wide variety of molecular mechanisms. These distinct modes of migration often rely on the same intracellular components, which are used in different ways to achieve cell motility. Recent work reveals that how a cell moves can be dictated by the relative amounts of cell-matrix adhesion and actomyosin contractility. A current concept is that the level of difficulty in squeezing the nucleus through a confining 3D environment determines the amounts of adhesion and contractility required for cell motility. Ultimately, determining how the nucleus controls the mode of cell migration will be essential for understanding both physiological and pathological processes dependent on cell migration in the body.

  11. Applications of Doppler Tomography in 2D and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, M.; Budaj, J.; Agafonov, M.; Sharova, O.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past few years, the applications of Doppler tomography have been extended beyond the usual calculation of 2D velocity images of circumstellar gas flows. This technique has now been used with the new Shellspec spectrum synthesis code to demonstrate the effective modeling of the accretion disk and gas stream in the TT Hya Algol binary. The 2D tomography procedure projects all sources of emission onto a single central (Vx, Vy) velocity plane even though the gas is expected to flow beyond that plane. So, new 3D velocity images were derived with the Radioastronomical Approach method by assuming a grid of Vz values transverse to the central 2D plane. The 3D approach has been applied to the U CrB and RS Vul Algol-type binaries to reveal substantial flow structures beyond the central velocity plane.

  12. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  13. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  14. Effects of 3D Virtual Reality of Plate Tectonics on Fifth Grade Students' Achievement and Attitude toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of a teaching method using 3D virtual reality simulations on achievement and attitude toward science. An experiment was conducted with fifth-grade students (N = 41) to examine the effects of 3D simulations, designed to support inquiry-based science curriculum. An ANOVA analysis revealed that the 3D group scored…

  15. 2001 Leonid Meteoroid Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and discuss their possible consequences and mitigation strategies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Meteors , Leonids, Meteoroids, Spacecraft, Meteor showers , Impact...release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We present the latest predictions about the November 2001 Leonid Meteor storms

  16. Powerful Midwest Storm System

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of imagery from NOAA’s GOES-13 satellite shows themovement of storm systems in the south central United States on May 20,2013. Warm, moist gulf air flowing across Texas, Oklahoma...

  17. Tropical Storm Don

    NASA Video Gallery

    GOES-13 data was compiled into an animation by the NASA GOES Project at NASA Goddard that shows the development of Tropical Storm Don in the southern Gulf of Mexico, west of Cuba. The animation run...

  18. Tropical Storm Dolly Develops

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation from NOAA's GOES-East satellite from Aug. 31-Sept. 2 shows the movement of a low pressure area from the western Caribbean Sea over the Yucatan Peninsula as it becomes Tropical Storm ...

  19. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  20. 3D Color Digital Elevation Map of AFM Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image is a three dimensional (3D) view of a digital elevation map of a sample collected by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The particle was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress' delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The AFM is part of Phoenix's microscopic station called MECA, or the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. 3-D Eutrophication Modeling for Lake Simcoe, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Duckett, F.; Nairn, R.; Brunton, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) and the Province of Ontario are undertaking a series of studies to facilitate management of the pressures of population growth in the Lake Simcoe watershed. With rapid population growth and urban development comes additional land clearing, storm water runoff and the discharge of treated sewage, all of which are sources of increased phosphorus loading to Lake Simcoe. Depressed oxygen levels were linked to phosphorous enrichment of the lake, with the resultant stimulation of algal growth in the sunlit upper waters of the lake, and its subsequent senescence and settling into the hypolimnion where bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen from the stratified waters. This poster describes a 3-D hydrodynamic, thermal and water quality model of Lake Simcoe developed using the Danish Hydraulics Institute (DHI) MIKE3 model. The hydrodynamic module includes wind-driven circulation, temperature variation, development of the thermocline and thermal stratification, and hydraulic forcing from inflowing tributaries. This is linked to the water quality module which simulates the eutrophication processes in the response of the lake to loadings of phosphorus, such as algal growth, the growth of aquatic plants and subsequent oxygen consumption. The model has been calibrated against Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocity data, plus measured temperature and water quality data at MOE stations in the lake and water intakes. The model is an important assessment tool for the management of the lake and its watersheds, allowing assessment of the impacts of the urban growth and land use change on the water quality in Lake Simcoe.

  2. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  3. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  4. An Update on Design Tools for Optimization of CMC 3D Fiber Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.; DiCarlo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe and up-date progress for NASA's efforts to develop 3D architectural design tools for CMC in general and for SIC/SiC composites in particular. Describe past and current sequential work efforts aimed at: Understanding key fiber and tow physical characteristics in conventional 2D and 3D woven architectures as revealed by microstructures in the literature. Developing an Excel program for down-selecting and predicting key geometric properties and resulting key fiber-controlled properties for various conventional 3D architectures. Developing a software tool for accurately visualizing all the key geometric details of conventional 3D architectures. Validating tools by visualizing and predicting the Internal geometry and key mechanical properties of a NASA SIC/SIC panel with a 3D orthogonal architecture. Applying the predictive and visualization tools toward advanced 3D orthogonal SiC/SIC composites, and combining them into a user-friendly software program.

  5. 3D Geo: An Alternative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulos, A.

    2016-10-01

    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  6. Optical microcavity scanning 3D tomography.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Andrea; Criante, Luigino; LoTurco, Sara; Farina, Marco

    2014-10-01

    A scanning optical microcavity is exploited to achieve lens-free 3D tomography of microfluidic channels. The microcavity, powered by a low-coherence source, is realized by approaching a cleaved fiber to few tens of micrometers over the sample. The interference of scattered waves inside the cavity shapes the transverse field distribution by focusing the beam and overcoming the diffraction limit due to the optical-fiber numerical aperture. The focusing effect is also preserved in the inner layers of the sample, allowing optical 3D tomography. Analysis of microfluidic channels was demonstrated through this noninvasive technique. Although the experimental setup recalls the well-known fiber-optic Fourier-domain common-path optical coherence tomography, the proposed method has intrinsic characteristics that distinguish it from the former one.

  7. Slate characterization using 3D laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M.; Taboada, J.; Martínez, J.; Matías, J. M.; Vilán, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Quality control is a necessary component of the slate slab manufacturing process so as to evaluate defects as defined by the current standard for slate. Quality control has traditionally been performed manually by an expert in the field, with the consequent human subjectivity. We studied the feasibility of using a 3D laser scanner to measure slate slabs and analyze possible defects that would lead to the rejection of slabs for particular industrial processes. The application requires slate characterization to be performed in real time and thereby requires a short computation time. We describe an optimized calibration method based on Tsai's approach that reduces calculation complexity and cost in this key 3D laser scanning stage. Configured and implemented for slate slab characterization, the system produces the required information in real time during the production process.

  8. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  9. 3D plasma camera for planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthomier, Matthieu; Morel, Xavier; Techer, Jean-Denis

    2014-05-01

    A new 3D field-of-view toroidal space plasma analyzer based on an innovative optical concept allows the coverage of 4π str solid angle with only two sensor heads. It fits the need of all-sky thermal plasma measurements on three-axis stabilized spacecraft which are the most commonly used platforms for planetary missions. The 3D plasma analyzer also takes advantage of the new possibilities offered by the development of an ultra low-power multi-channel charge sensitive amplifier used for the imaging detector of the instrument. We present the design and measured performances of a prototype model that will fly on a test rocket in 2014.

  10. Techniques for interactive 3-D scientific visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Glinert, E.P. . Dept. of Computer Science); Blattner, M.M. Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics California Univ., Davis, CA . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Becker, B.G. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National La

    1990-09-24

    Interest in interactive 3-D graphics has exploded of late, fueled by (a) the allure of using scientific visualization to go where no-one has gone before'' and (b) by the development of new input devices which overcome some of the limitations imposed in the past by technology, yet which may be ill-suited to the kinds of interaction required by researchers active in scientific visualization. To resolve this tension, we propose a flat 5-D'' environment in which 2-D graphics are augmented by exploiting multiple human sensory modalities using cheap, conventional hardware readily available with personal computers and workstations. We discuss how interactions basic to 3-D scientific visualization, like searching a solution space and comparing two such spaces, are effectively carried out in our environment. Finally, we describe 3DMOVE, an experimental microworld we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  11. 3D Visualization of Cooperative Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamicists and biologists have long recognized the benefits of formation flight. When birds or aircraft fly in the upwash region of the vortex generated by leaders in a formation, induced drag is reduced for the trail bird or aircraft, and efficiency improves. The major consequence of this is that fuel consumption can be greatly reduced. When two aircraft are separated by a large enough longitudinal distance, the aircraft are said to be flying in a cooperative trajectory. A simulation has been developed to model autonomous cooperative trajectories of aircraft; however it does not provide any 3D representation of the multi-body system dynamics. The topic of this research is the development of an accurate visualization of the multi-body system observable in a 3D environment. This visualization includes two aircraft (lead and trail), a landscape for a static reference, and simplified models of the vortex dynamics and trajectories at several locations between the aircraft.

  12. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  13. Volumetric visualization of 3D data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Gregory; Miles, Richard

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the ability to obtain detailed data on large complex structures in three dimensions. This development occurred first in the medical field, with CAT (computer aided tomography) scans and now magnetic resonance imaging, and in seismological exploration. With the advances in supercomputing and computational fluid dynamics, and in experimental techniques in fluid dynamics, there is now the ability to produce similar large data fields representing 3D structures and phenomena in these disciplines. These developments have produced a situation in which currently there is access to data which is too complex to be understood using the tools available for data reduction and presentation. Researchers in these areas are becoming limited by their ability to visualize and comprehend the 3D systems they are measuring and simulating.

  14. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate 3D phase and absorption recovery from partially coherent intensity images captured with a programmable LED array source. Images are captured through-focus with four different illumination patterns. Using first Born and weak object approximations (WOA), a linear 3D differential phase contrast (DPC) model is derived. The partially coherent transfer functions relate the sample’s complex refractive index distribution to intensity measurements at varying defocus. Volumetric reconstruction is achieved by a global FFT-based method, without an intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Because the illumination is spatially partially coherent, the transverse resolution of the reconstructed field achieves twice the NA of coherent systems and improved axial resolution. PMID:27867705

  15. 3-D seismic data for geohazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gafford, W.T.

    1996-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data, acquired for oil and gas exploration purposes, is now being used to supplement, or in some cases, even replace conventional high resolution geohazard surveys in the Gulf of Mexico. The use of 3-D seismic data has improved the identification and understanding of some types of geohazards and has resulted in a more thorough interpretation of the shallow geologic section. The use of seismic interpretation workstations has allowed the geohazard interpreter to apply new tools in geohazard analysis. Some of the newer geohazard analysis. Some of the newer geophysical technologies used for exploration purposes are now being adapted for use in the identification and assessment of drilling hazards in the near-seafloor sedimentary section.

  16. 3D FFTs on a Single FPGA.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Benjamin; Zhang, Hansen; Sheng, Jiayi; Landaverde, Raphael; Herbordt, Martin C

    2014-05-01

    The 3D FFT is critical in many physical simulations and image processing applications. On FPGAs, however, the 3D FFT was thought to be inefficient relative to other methods such as convolution-based implementations of multi-grid. We find the opposite: a simple design, operating at a conservative frequency, takes 4μs for 16(3), 21μs for 32(3), and 215μs for 64(3) single precision data points. The first two of these compare favorably with the 25μs and 29μs obtained running on a current Nvidia GPU. Some broader significance is that this is a critical piece in implementing a large scale FPGA-based MD engine: even a single FPGA is capable of keeping the FFT off of the critical path for a large fraction of possible MD simulations.

  17. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  18. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  19. Pattern based 3D image Steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Natarajan, V.; Aghila, G.; Prasanna Venkatesan, V.; Anitha, R.

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new high capacity Steganographic scheme using 3D geometric models. The novel algorithm re-triangulates a part of a triangle mesh and embeds the secret information into newly added position of triangle meshes. Up to nine bits of secret data can be embedded into vertices of a triangle without causing any changes in the visual quality and the geometric properties of the cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is secure, with high capacity and low distortion rate. Our algorithm also resists against uniform affine transformations such as cropping, rotation and scaling. Also, the performance of the method is compared with other existing 3D Steganography algorithms. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Recent Development in 3D Food Printing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2015-10-19

    Robots and softwares have been significantly improving our daily lives by rendering us much convenience. And 3D printing is a typical example, for it is going to usher in a new era of localized manufacturing that is actually based on digital fabrication by layer-by-layer deposition in three dimensional space. In terms of food industry, the revolution that three-dimensional printing technologies is bringing to food manufacturing is convenience of low-cost customized fabrication and even precise nutrition control. This paper is aimed to give a brief introduction of recent development of food printing and material property of food ingredients that can be used to design the 3D food matrix and investigate the relationship between process parameters and resulting printed food properties in order to establish a food manufacturing process with this new food production approach.