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Sample records for 3d storm reveals

  1. Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-06-01

    3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30-50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms.

  2. NASA's 3-D Animation of Tropical Storm Ulika from Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animated 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ulika using GPM's Radar data showed some strong convective storms inside the tropical storm were dropping precipitation at a rate of over 187 mm (7.4 inches)...

  3. NASA Sees Tropical Storm Malakas in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animated 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Malakas was created by radar data from the GPM core satellite. On Sept. 13 at 0111 UTC GPM's instruments showed that Malakas contained exceptionally heavy ...

  4. 3D Simulations of methane convective storms on Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2005-08-01

    The arrival of the Cassini/Huygens mission to Titan has opened an unprecedented opportunity to study the atmosphere of this satellite. Under the pressure-temperature conditions on Titan, methane, a large atmospheric component amounting perhaps to a 3-5% of the atmosphere, is close to its triple point, potentially playing a similar role as water on Earth. The Huygens probe has shown a terrain shaped by erosion of probably liquid origin, suggestive of past rain. On the other hand, Voyager IRIS spectroscopic observations of Titan imply a saturated atmosphere of methane (amounting perhaps to 150 covered by methane clouds, if we think on Earth meteorology. However, observations from Earth and Cassini have shown that clouds are localized, transient and fast evolving, in particular in the South Pole (currently in its summer season). This might imply a lack of widespread presence on Titan of nuclei where methane could initiate condensation and particle growth with subsequent precipitation. We investigate different scenarios of moist convective storms on Titan using a complete 3D atmospheric model that incorporates a full microphysics treatment required to study cloud formation processes under a saturated atmosphere with low concentration of condensation nuclei. We study local convective development under a variety of atmospheric conditions: sub-saturation, super-saturation, abundances of condensation nuclei fall, condensation nuclei lifted from the ground or gently falling from the stratosphere. We show that under the appropriate circumstances, precipitation rates comparable to typical tropical storms on Earth can be found. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  5. Resolution doubling in 3D-STORM imaging through improved buffers.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-01-01

    Super-resolution imaging methods have revolutionized fluorescence microscopy by revealing the nanoscale organization of labeled proteins. In particular, single-molecule methods such as Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) provide resolutions down to a few tens of nanometers by exploiting the cycling of dyes between fluorescent and non-fluorescent states to obtain a sparse population of emitters and precisely localizing them individually. This cycling of dyes is commonly induced by adding different chemicals, which are combined to create a STORM buffer. Despite their importance, the composition of these buffers has scarcely evolved since they were first introduced, fundamentally limiting what can be resolved with STORM. By identifying a new chemical suitable for STORM and optimizing the buffer composition for Alexa-647, we significantly increased the number of photons emitted per cycle by each dye, providing a simple means to enhance the resolution of STORM independently of the optical setup used. Using this buffer to perform 3D-STORM on biological samples, we obtained images with better than 10 nanometer lateral and 30 nanometer axial resolution.

  6. NASA's 3-D GPM Flyby of Tropical Storm Fred

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite passed over Fred when it was developing in the Eastern Atlantic early August 30 and saw "hot towers" in the storm, which hinted th...

  7. A 3-D Rainfall Flyby of Tropical Storm Danielle Over Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This flyby animation of 3-D data from NASA/JAXA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM satellite looks at the rainfall occurring in fading Tropical Storm Danielle over Mexico. On June 21...

  8. NASA's 3-D TRMM Satellite Animation of Tropical Storm Andrea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D view from the west was derived from TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data captured when Andrea was examined by the TRMM satellite with the June 5, 2234 UTC (6:34 p.m. EDT) orbit. It clearly s...

  9. Storm Surge Modeling of Typhoon Haiyan at the Naval Oceanographic Office Using Delft3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, M. J.; Lovering, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Naval Oceanographic Office provides estimates of the rise in sea level along the coast due to storm surge associated with tropical cyclones, typhoons, and hurricanes. Storm surge modeling and prediction helps the US Navy by providing a threat assessment tool to help protect Navy assets and provide support for humanitarian assistance/disaster relief efforts. Recent advancements in our modeling capabilities include the use of the Delft3D modeling suite as part of a Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) developed Coastal Surge Inundation Prediction System (CSIPS). Model simulations were performed on Typhoon Haiyan, which made landfall in the Philippines in November 2013. Comparisons of model simulations using forecast and hindcast track data highlight the importance of accurate storm track information for storm surge predictions. Model runs using the forecast track prediction and hindcast track information give maximum storm surge elevations of 4 meters and 6.1 meters, respectively. Model results for the hindcast simulation were compared with data published by the JSCE-PICE Joint survey for locations in San Pedro Bay (SPB) and on the Eastern Samar Peninsula (ESP). In SPB, where wind-induced set-up predominates, the model run using the forecast track predicted surge within 2 meters in 38% of survey locations and within 3 meters in 59% of the locations. When the hindcast track was used, the model predicted within 2 meters in 77% of the locations and within 3 meters in 95% of the locations. The model was unable to predict the high surge reported along the ESP produced by infragravity wave-induced set-up, which is not simulated in the model. Additional modeling capabilities incorporating infragravity waves are required to predict storm surge accurately along open coasts with steep bathymetric slopes, such as those seen in island arcs.

  10. Tracking and quantifying polymer therapeutic distribution on a cellular level using 3D dSTORM

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Jonathan M.; Zhang, Rui; Gudheti, Manasa; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2016-01-01

    We used a single-molecule localization technique called direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to quantify both colocalization and spatial distribution on a cellular level for two conceptually different N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates. Microscopy images were acquired of entire cells with resolutions as high as 25 nm revealing the nanoscale distribution of the fluorescently labeled therapeutic components. Drug-free macromolecular therapeutics consisting of two self-assembling nanoconjugates showed slight increase in nanoclusters on the cell surface with time. Additionally, dSTORM provided high resolution images of the nanoscale organization of the self-assembling conjugates at the interface between two cells. A conjugate designed for treating ovarian cancer showed that the model drug (Cy3) and polymer bound to Cy5 were colocalized at an early time point before the model drug was enzymatically cleaved from the polymer. Using spatial descriptive statistics it was found that the drug was randomly distributed after 24 h while the polymer bound dye remained in clusters. Four different fluorescent dyes were used and two different therapeutic systems were tested to demonstrate the versatility and possible general applicability of dSTORM for use in studying drug delivery systems. PMID:26855050

  11. Methodology for time-domain estimation of storm time geoelectric fields using the 3-D magnetotelluric response tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbert, Anna; Balch, Christopher C.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Egbert, Gary D.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Fujii, Ikuko

    2017-07-01

    Geoelectric fields at the Earth's surface caused by magnetic storms constitute a hazard to the operation of electric power grids and related infrastructure. The ability to estimate these geoelectric fields in close to real time and provide local predictions would better equip the industry to mitigate negative impacts on their operations. Here we report progress toward this goal: development of robust algorithms that convolve a magnetic storm time series with a frequency domain impedance for a realistic three-dimensional (3-D) Earth, to estimate the local, storm time geoelectric field. Both frequency domain and time domain approaches are presented and validated against storm time geoelectric field data measured in Japan. The methods are then compared in the context of a real-time application.

  12. Methodology for time-domain estimation of storm time geoelectric fields using the 3-D magnetotelluric response tensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelbert, Anna; Balch, Christopher; Pulkkinen, Antti; Egbert, Gary D; Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Fujii, Ikuko

    2017-01-01

    Geoelectric fields at the Earth's surface caused by magnetic storms constitute a hazard to the operation of electric power grids and related infrastructure. The ability to estimate these geoelectric fields in close to real time and provide local predictions would better equip the industry to mitigate negative impacts on their operations. Here we report progress toward this goal: development of robust algorithms that convolve a magnetic storm time series with a frequency domain impedance for a realistic three-dimensional (3-D) Earth, to estimate the local, storm time geoelectric field. Both frequency domain and time domain approaches are presented and validated against storm time geoelectric field data measured in Japan. The methods are then compared in the context of a real-time application.

  13. Development of Inundation Map for Bantayan Island, Cebu Using Delft3D-Flow Storm Surge Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadra, Camille; Suarez, John Kenneth; Biton, Nophi Ian; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Lapidez, John Phillip; Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    On average, 20 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually, making it vulnerable to different storm hazards. Apart from the frequency of tropical cyclones, the archipelagic nature of the country makes it particularly prone to storm surges. On 08 November 2013, Haiyan, a Category 5 Typhoon with maximum one-minute sustained wind speed of 315 kph, hit the central region of the Philippines. In its path, the howler devastated Bantayan Island, a popular tourist destination. The island is located north of Cebu City, the second largest metropolis of the Philippines in terms of populace. Having been directly hit by Typhoon Haiyan, Bantayan Island was severely damaged by strong winds and storm surges, with more than 11,000 houses totally destroyed while 5,000 more suffered minor damage. The adverse impacts of possible future storm surge events in the island can only be mitigated if hazard maps that depict inundation of the coastal areas of Bantayan are generated. To create such maps, Delft3D-Flow, a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate storm surges. These simulations were made over a 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) bathymetry. The results of the coastal inundation model for Typhoon Haiyan's storm surges were validated using data collected from field work and local government reports. The hydrodynamic model of Bantayan was then calibrated using the field data and further simulations were made with varying typhoon tracks. This was done to generate scenarios on the farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. The output of the study is a detailed storm surge inundation map that depicts safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas and for construction of coastal protection structures. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.

  14. Reproducing electric field observations during magnetic storms by means of rigorous 3-D modelling and distortion matrix co-estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2014-12-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth by geomagnetic disturbances drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines, which can cause service disruptions. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we revisit a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a magnetospheric source model described by low-degree spherical harmonics from observatory magnetic data. The actual electric field, however, is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and modelled electric fields. Using data of six magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimate distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Reliable estimates are obtained, and the modellings are found to explain up to 90% of the measurements. We further find that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of the shape of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the method relies on precomputed responses of a 3-D Earth to geomagnetic disturbances, which can be recycled for each storm, the required computational resources are negligible. Our approach is thus suitable for real-time prediction of geomagnetically induced currents by combining it with reliable forecasts of the source field.

  15. Delaunay algorithm and principal component analysis for 3D visualization of mitochondrial DNA nucleoids by Biplane FPALM/dSTORM.

    PubMed

    Alán, Lukáš; Špaček, Tomáš; Ježek, Petr

    2016-07-01

    Data segmentation and object rendering is required for localization super-resolution microscopy, fluorescent photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM), and direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). We developed and validated methods for segmenting objects based on Delaunay triangulation in 3D space, followed by facet culling. We applied them to visualize mitochondrial nucleoids, which confine DNA in complexes with mitochondrial (mt) transcription factor A (TFAM) and gene expression machinery proteins, such as mt single-stranded-DNA-binding protein (mtSSB). Eos2-conjugated TFAM visualized nucleoids in HepG2 cells, which was compared with dSTORM 3D-immunocytochemistry of TFAM, mtSSB, or DNA. The localized fluorophores of FPALM/dSTORM data were segmented using Delaunay triangulation into polyhedron models and by principal component analysis (PCA) into general PCA ellipsoids. The PCA ellipsoids were normalized to the smoothed volume of polyhedrons or by the net unsmoothed Delaunay volume and remodeled into rotational ellipsoids to obtain models, termed DVRE. The most frequent size of ellipsoid nucleoid model imaged via TFAM was 35 × 45 × 95 nm; or 35 × 45 × 75 nm for mtDNA cores; and 25 × 45 × 100 nm for nucleoids imaged via mtSSB. Nucleoids encompassed different point density and wide size ranges, speculatively due to different activity stemming from different TFAM/mtDNA stoichiometry/density. Considering twofold lower axial vs. lateral resolution, only bulky DVRE models with an aspect ratio >3 and tilted toward the xy-plane were considered as two proximal nucleoids, suspicious occurring after division following mtDNA replication. The existence of proximal nucleoids in mtDNA-dSTORM 3D images of mtDNA "doubling"-supported possible direct observations of mt nucleoid division after mtDNA replication.

  16. Reproducing Electric Field Observations during Magnetic Storms by means of Rigorous 3-D Modelling and Distortion Matrix Co-estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth during magnetic storms drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines. These geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) can cause severe service disruptions. The prediction of GIC is thus of great importance for public and industry. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we developed a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a model of the magnetospheric source. The latter is described by low-degree spherical harmonics; its temporal evolution is derived from observatory magnetic data. Time series of the electric field can be computed for every location on Earth's surface. The actual electric field however is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the conductivity model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and computed electric fields. Using data of various magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimated distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Strong correlations between modellings and measurements validate our method. The distortion matrix estimates prove to be reliable, as they are accurately reproduced for different magnetic storms. We further show that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the required computational resources are negligible, our approach is suitable for a real-time prediction of GIC. For this purpose, a reliable forecast of the source field, e.g. based on data from satellites

  17. Delft3D Storm Surge Simulation of Typhoon Haiyan for Projection of Coastal Inundation in the Visayas Islands, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, John Kenneth; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Biton, Nophi Ian; Cuadra, Camille; Santiago, Joy; Mendoza, Jerico; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    The Philippines is geographically prone to tropical cyclones with an annual average of 20 typhoons entering the country's area of responsibility. Majority of these typhoons pass through the central part of the archipelago in the Visayas Region. On 08 November 2013, a Category 5 Typhoon Haiyan with maximum ten-minute sustained wind speed of 230 kph hit the Visayas region causing damage amounting to two billion US dollars with 6,300 reported casualties. The adverse impacts of future storm surge events in the Philippine archipelago, specifically in the Visayan region, can be mitigated if a storm surge model that will include the inundation of coastal areas is generated. The hydrodynamic modeling software, Delft3D, was used in creating hydrodynamic models for areas in the Visayas Islands. High resolution hydrodynamic models of the hardly stricken areas with 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model and General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans bathymetry were nested to an overall model of Visayas with a coarse grid cell size. Due to the lack of observed water level data during the onslaught of Typhoon Haiyan, the overall Visayas model was calibrated by creating hydrodynamic models for the same Haiyan-affected areas using previous typhoons with recorded data acquired from tide stations as wind forcing. Several simulations were carried out to generate the farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. This was done by translating the actual typhoon track vertically and horizontally with a specified increment. The output of the study is a storm surge inundation map showing the worst case scenario of inundation for a Category 5 typhoon. This storm surge inundation map can be used to determine safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.

  18. Delft3D Storm Surge Simulation of Typhoon Haiyan for Projection of Coastal Inundation in the Visayas Islands, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, J. K. B.; Cabacaba, K. M.; Biton, N. I.; Cuadra, C.; Santiago, J. T.; Mendoza, J.; Lagmay, A. M. F. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Philippines is geographically prone to tropical cyclones with an annual average of 20 typhoons entering the country's area of responsibility. On 08 November 2013, a Category 5 Typhoon Haiyan with maximum one-minute sustained wind speed of 315 kph, hit the central area of the archipelago. The damage from the typhoon reached two billion US dollars with 6,300 reported casualties. The adverse impacts of possible future storm surge events in the Philippine archipelago specifically in the Visayan region can only be mitigated if a storm surge model that will include the inundation of the coastal areas is generated. The hydrodynamic modeling software, Delft3D, was used in the storm surge simulation of the Visayas Islands. An overall model of the Visayas with a coarse grid cell size was nested to a detailed model on hardly stricken populated areas with a 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model and General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans bathymetry. Due to lack of observed water level data during the onslaught of Typhoon Haiyan, the overall Visayas model was calibrated by simulating previous typhoons with recorded data acquired from tide stations. Several simulations were carried out to generate farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. This was done by translating the actual typhoon track vertically and horizontally with a specified increment. The output of the study is a storm surge inundation map that can be used to determine safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.

  19. NASA's CloudSat Sees Tropical Storm Harvey in 3D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-29

    Click on the image for larger animation NASA's CloudSat satellite flew over then-Tropical Storm Harvey on Aug. 26, 2017, at 2:45 p.m. CDT (19:45 UTC) as the storm was nearly stationary over south Texas. At that time, Harvey contained estimated maximum sustained winds of 69 miles per hour (60 knots). CloudSat flew over Harvey northeast of the storm center through an area of moderate to heavy rainfall in the outer rainbands. As seen in the image and animation, large amounts of liquid and ice water (denoted by the red and pink colors) are visible beneath the cloud tops. The lack of a radar signal (attenuation) beneath the melting layer (located around 3 miles, or 5 kilometers, above ground) can be seen in the heavier areas of precipitation, since CloudSat's cloud profiling radar (CPR) signal dampens when precipitation particles are larger than 0.12 inches (3 millimeters) in size. Smaller cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds are seen north of the area of moderate to heavy precipitation. The cirrus canopy (anvil clouds) extends outward from the storm system (shown in blue and green colors). An animation is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA17392

  20. Atmospheric Motion Vectors from INSAT-3D: Initial quality assessment and its impact on track forecast of cyclonic storm NANAUK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Kumar, Prashant; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Pal, P. K.; Kaushik, Nitesh; Sangar, Ghansham

    2016-03-01

    The advanced Indian meteorological geostationary satellite INSAT-3D was launched on 26 July 2013 with an improved imager and an infrared sounder and is placed at 82°E over the Indian Ocean region. With the advancement in retrieval techniques of different atmospheric parameters and with improved imager data have enhanced the scope for better understanding of the different tropical atmospheric processes over this region. The retrieval techniques and accuracy of one such parameter, Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV) has improved significantly with the availability of improved spatial resolution data along with more options of spectral channels in the INSAT-3D imager. The present work is mainly focused on providing brief descriptions of INSAT-3D data and AMV derivation processes using these data. It also discussed the initial quality assessment of INSAT-3D AMVs for a period of six months starting from 01 February 2014 to 31 July 2014 with other independent observations: i) Meteosat-7 AMVs available over this region, ii) in-situ radiosonde wind measurements, iii) cloud tracked winds from Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and iv) numerical model analysis. It is observed from this study that the qualities of newly derived INSAT-3D AMVs are comparable with existing two versions of Meteosat-7 AMVs over this region. To demonstrate its initial application, INSAT-3D AMVs are assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and it is found that the assimilation of newly derived AMVs has helped in reduction of track forecast errors of the recent cyclonic storm NANAUK over the Arabian Sea. Though, the present study is limited to its application to one case study, however, it will provide some guidance to the operational agencies for implementation of this new AMV dataset for future applications in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) over the south Asia region.

  1. Breast cancers detected in only one of two arms of a tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) population screening trial (STORM-2).

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Daniela; Houssami, Nehmat

    2017-04-01

    The prospective 'screening with tomosynthesis or standard mammography-2 (STORM-2)' trial compared mammography screen-reading strategies and showed that each of integrated 2D/3D-mammography or 2Dsynthetic/3D-mammography detected significantly more breast cancers than 2D-mammography alone. This short report describes 13 (from 90) cancers detected in only one of two parallel double-reading arms implemented in STORM-2. Amongst this subset of cases, the majority was invasive cancer ≤16 mm, mostly depicted as irregular masses or distortions. Furthermore, most were detected at 3D-mammography only and predominantly by one reader from double-reading pairs, highlighting that 3D-mammography may enable detection of cancers that are challenging to perceive at routine screening.

  2. Stereomicroscopic 3D-pattern profiling of murine and human intestinal inflammation reveals unique structural phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; Kodani, Tomohiro; Kaydo, Lindsey; Pietropaoli, Davide; Corridoni, Daniele; Howell, Scott; Katz, Jeffry; Xin, Wei; Pizarro, Theresa T.; Cominelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Histology is fundamental to assess two-dimensional intestinal inflammation; however, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are often indistinguishable microscopically on the basis of mucosal biopsies. Here, we use stereomicroscopy (SM) to rapidly profile the entire intestinal topography and assess inflammation. We examine the mucosal surface of >700 mice (encompassing >16 strains and various IBD-models), create a profiling catalogue of 3D-stereomicroscopic abnormalities and demonstrate that mice with comparable histological scores display unique sub-clusters of 3D-structure-patterns of IBD pathology, which we call 3D-stereoenterotypes, and which are otherwise indiscernible histologically. We show that two ileal IBD-stereoenterotypes (‘cobblestones' versus ‘villous mini-aggregation') cluster separately within two distinct mouse lines of spontaneous ileitis, suggesting that host genetics drive unique and divergent inflammatory 3D-structural patterns in the gut. In humans, stereomicroscopy reveals ‘liquefaction' lesions and hierarchical fistulous complexes, enriched with clostridia/segmented filamentous bacteria, running under healthy mucosa in Crohn's disease. We suggest that stereomicroscopic (3D-SMAPgut) profiling can be easily implemented and enable the comprehensive study of inflammatory 3D structures, genetics and flora in IBD. PMID:26154811

  3. 3-D ion distribution and evolution in storm-time RC Retrieved from TWINS ENA by differential voxel CT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.; Yan, W.; Xu, L.

    2013-12-01

    The quantitative retrieval of the 3-D spatial distribution of the parent energetic ions of ENA from a 2-D ENA image is a quite challenge task. The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission of NASA is the first constellation to perform stereoscopic magnetospheric imaging of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) from a pair of spacecraft flying on two widely-separated Molniya orbits. TWINS provides a unique opportunity to retrieve the 3-D distribution of ions in the ring current (RC) by using a volumetric pixel (voxel) CT inversion method. In this study the voxel CT method is implemented for a series of differential ENA fluxes averaged over about 6 to 7 sweeps (corresponding to a time period of about 9 min.) at different energy levels ranging from 5 to 100 keV, obtained simultaneously by the two satellites during the main phase of a great magnetic storm with minimum Sym-H of -156 nT on 24-25 October 2011. The data were selected to span a period about 50 minutes during which a large substorm was undergoing its expansion phase first and then recovery. The ENA species of O and H are distinguished for some time-segments by analyzing the signals of pulse heights of second electrons emitted from the carbon foil and impacted on the MCP detector in the TWINS sensors. In order to eliminate the possible influence on retrieval induced by instrument bias error, a differential voxel CT technique is applied. The flux intensity of the ENAs' parent ions in the RC has been obtained as a function of energy, L value, MLT sector and latitude, along with their time evolution during the storm-time substorm expansion phase. Forward calculations proved the reliability of the retrieved results. It shows that the RC is highly asymmetric, with a major concentration in the midnight to dawn sector for equatorial latitudes. Halfway through the substorm expansion there occurred a large enhancement of equatorial ion flux at lower energy (5 keV) in the dusk sector, with narrow extent

  4. 3-D crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath NE China revealed by ambient noise adjoint tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaning; Niu, Fenglin; Chen, Min; Yang, Wencai

    2017-03-01

    We construct a new 3-D shear wave speed model of the crust and the uppermost mantle beneath Northeast China using the ambient noise adjoint tomography method. Without intermediate steps of measuring phase dispersion, the adjoint tomography inverts for shear wave speeds of the crust and uppermost mantle directly from 6-40 s waveforms of Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) of Rayleigh waves, which are derived from interferometry of two years of ambient noise data recorded by the 127 Northeast China Extended Seismic Array stations. With an initial 3-D model derived from traditional asymptotic surface wave tomography method, adjoint tomography refines the 3-D model by iteratively minimizing the frequency-dependent traveltime misfits between EGFs and synthetic Green's functions measured in four period bands: 6-15 s, 10-20 s, 15-30 s, and 20-40 s. Our new model shows shear wave speed anomalies that are spatially correlated with known tectonic units such as the Great Xing'an range and the Changbaishan mountain range. The new model also reveals low wave speed conduits in the mid-lower crust and the uppermost mantle with a wave speed reduction indicative of partial melting beneath the Halaha, Xilinhot-Abaga, and Jingpohu volcanic complexes, suggesting that the Cenozoic volcanism in the area has a deep origin. Overall, the adjoint tomographic images show more vertically continuous velocity anomalies with larger amplitudes due to the consideration of the finite frequency and 3-D effects.

  5. The crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus cyclophilin reveals 3D domain swapping of a central element.

    PubMed

    Limacher, Andreas; Kloer, Daniel P; Flückiger, Sabine; Folkers, Gerd; Crameri, Reto; Scapozza, Leonardo

    2006-02-01

    The crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus cyclophilin (Asp f 11) was solved by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method and was refined to a resolution of 1.85 A with R and R(free) values of 18.9% and 21.4%, respectively. Many cyclophilin structures have been solved to date, all showing the same monomeric conformation. In contrast, the structure of A. fumigatus cyclophilin reveals dimerization by 3D domain swapping and represents one of the first proteins with a swapped central domain. The domain-swapped element consists of two beta strands and a subsequent loop carrying a conserved tryptophan. The tryptophan binds into the active site, inactivating cis-trans isomerization. This might be a means of biological regulation. The two hinge loops leave the protein prone to misfolding. In this context, alternative forms of 3D domain swapping that can lead to N- or C-terminally swapped dimers, oligomers, and aggregates are discussed.

  6. Revealing 3D Ultrastructure and Morphology of Stem Cell Spheroids by Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaros, Josef; Petrov, Michal; Tesarova, Marketa; Hampl, Ales

    2017-01-01

    Cell culture methods have been developed in efforts to produce biologically relevant systems for developmental and disease modeling, and appropriate analytical tools are essential. Knowledge of ultrastructural characteristics represents the basis to reveal in situ the cellular morphology, cell-cell interactions, organelle distribution, niches in which cells reside, and many more. The traditional method for 3D visualization of ultrastructural components, serial sectioning using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), is very labor-intensive due to contentious TEM slice preparation and subsequent image processing of the whole collection. In this chapter, we present serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, together with complex methodology for spheroid formation, contrasting of cellular compartments, image processing, and 3D visualization. The described technique is effective for detailed morphological analysis of stem cell spheroids, organoids, as well as organotypic cell cultures.

  7. Accurate 3d Scanning of Damaged Ancient Greek Inscriptions for Revealing Weathered Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadaki, A. I.; Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.; Prignitz, S.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper two non-invasive non-destructive alternative techniques to the traditional and invasive technique of squeezes are presented alongside with specialized developed processing methods, aiming to help the epigraphists to reveal and analyse weathered letters in ancient Greek inscriptions carved in masonry or marble. The resulting 3D model would serve as a detailed basis for the epigraphists to try to decipher the inscription. The data were collected by using a Structured Light scanner. The creation of the final accurate three dimensional model is a complicated procedure requiring large computation cost and human effort. It includes the collection of geometric data in limited space and time, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering and the merging of individual surfaces. The use of structured light scanners is time consuming and requires costly hardware and software. Therefore an alternative methodology for collecting 3D data of the inscriptions was also implemented for reasons of comparison. Hence, image sequences from varying distances were collected using a calibrated DSLR camera aiming to reconstruct the 3D scene through SfM techniques in order to evaluate the efficiency and the level of precision and detail of the obtained reconstructed inscriptions. Problems in the acquisition processes as well as difficulties in the alignment step and mesh optimization are also encountered. A meta-processing framework is proposed and analysed. Finally, the results of processing and analysis and the different 3D models are critically inspected and then evaluated by a specialist in terms of accuracy, quality and detail of the model and the capability of revealing damaged and "hidden" letters.

  8. 3-D Radar Imaging Reveals Deep Structures and Buried Craters Within the Martian Polar Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, N. E.; Foss, F. J., II; Campbell, B. A.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, I. B.

    2015-12-01

    We use Shallow Radar (SHARAD) observations on thousands of orbital passes by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to produce fully imaged 3-D data volumes encompassing both polar ice caps of Mars. Greatly clarifying the view of subsurface features, a completed volume for Planum Boreum provides new constraints on the nature and timing of emplacement of the northern polar deposits and their relationship to climate. The standard method of mapping subsurface features with single-pass 2-D radargrams has been very fruitful (see Brothers et al. 2015, JGR 120 in press, and references therein), but a full assessment of internal structures has been hindered by interfering off-nadir echoes from spiral troughs and other variable topography prevalent on both caps. By assembling the SHARAD radargrams into a volume and applying a 3-D imaging process (migration) borrowed from seismic processing techniques, we enhance the signal-to-noise ratio while repositioning the echoes to their proper locations, thereby unraveling the interference. As part of the process, we correct ionospheric distortions and delays of the radar echoes (Campbell et al. 2014, IEEE GRSL 11 #3). Interfaces painstakingly mapped in radargrams (e.g., the basal-unit surface, a buried chasma) are clearly visible in the 3-D volume, and new features are revealed. Structures may now be mapped through trough-rich regions, including a widespread sequence that provides corroborative evidence of recent ice ages (Smith et al. 2015, LPSC XLVI #2574). Distinctive radar signatures associated with known, partially buried craters also occur elsewhere in the volume but without surface expression. Presumably, these are fully buried craters that may provide a new means to estimate the age of the deposits. Preliminary work for Planum Australe demonstrates that the 3-D processing currently underway will illuminate deep structures that are broadly obfuscated in 2-D radargrams by a shallow scatterer (Campbell et al. 2015, LPSC XLVI #2366).

  9. Multiwavelength Study to Reveal Dust Properties and Cloud 3D Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Laurent; Lefevre, C.

    2017-06-01

    The study of low-mass prestellar cores is a difficult task which needs to gather several tools, dust and gas observations, radiative transfer modelling. No single tracer can reveal the physical characteristics of these cores. We show that based on observations of N2H+, and dust from 1 µm to 1 mm, one can hope today to have a faithful 3D description of a dark cloud and its prestellar core. Dust being ill-defined, only the combination of absorption, scattering and emission measurements and modelling can alleviate the degeneracy between temperature, density and emissivity of the dust.

  10. Complex Crustal Structure Beneath Western Turkey Revealed by 3D Seismic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest Turkey due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ < 10°) distances. Three component earthquake data is obtained from broadband seismic stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Center (KOERI, Turkey), Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN, Greece) and Earthquake Research Center of Turkey (AFAD-DAD). The spectral-element solver of the wave equation, SES3D algorithm, is used to simulate seismic wave propagation in 3D spherical coordinates (Fichtner, 2009). The Large Scale Seismic Inversion Framework (LASIF) workflow tool is also used to perform full seismic waveform inversion (Krischer et al., 2015). The initial 3D Earth model is implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). Discrepancies between the observed and simulated synthetic waveforms are determined using the time-frequency misfits which allows a separation between phase and amplitude information (Fichtner et al., 2008). The conjugate gradient optimization method is used to iteratively update the initial Earth model when minimizing the misfit. The inversion is terminated after 19 iterations since no further advances are observed in updated models. Our analysis revealed shear wave velocity variations of the shallow and deeper crustal structure beneath western Turkey down to depths of ~35-40 km. Low shear wave velocity anomalies are observed in the upper and mid crustal depths beneath major fault zones located in the study region. Low velocity zones also tend to mark the outline of young volcanic

  11. More Dynamical Properties Revealed from a 3D Lorenz-like System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haijun; Li, Xianyi

    After a 3D Lorenz-like system has been revisited, more rich hidden dynamics that was not found previously is clearly revealed. Some more precise mathematical work, such as for the complete distribution and the local stability and bifurcation of its equilibrium points, the existence of singularly degenerate heteroclinic cycles as well as homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits, and the dynamics at infinity, is carried out in this paper. In particular, another possible new mechanism behind the creation of chaotic attractors is presented. Based on this mechanism, some different structure types of chaotic attractors are numerically found in the case of small b > 0. All theoretical results obtained are further illustrated by numerical simulations. What we formulate in this paper is to not only show those dynamical properties hiding in this system, but also (more mainly) present a kind of way and means — both "locally" and "globally" and both "finitely" and "infinitely" — to comprehensively explore a given system.

  12. Molecular Determinants of Juvenile Hormone Action as Revealed by 3D QSAR Analysis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Beňo, Milan; Farkaš, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Postembryonic development, including metamorphosis, of many animals is under control of hormones. In Drosophila and other insects these developmental transitions are regulated by the coordinate action of two principal hormones, the steroid ecdysone and the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH). While the mode of ecdysone action is relatively well understood, the molecular mode of JH action remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of JH action, we have tested the biological activity of 86 structurally diverse JH agonists in Drosophila melanogaster. The results were evaluated using 3D QSAR analyses involving CoMFA and CoMSIA procedures. Using this approach we have generated both computer-aided and species-specific pharmacophore fingerprints of JH and its agonists, which revealed that the most active compounds must possess an electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen) at both ends of the molecule. When either of these electronegative atoms are replaced by carbon or the distance between them is shorter than 11.5 Å or longer than 13.5 Å, their biological activity is dramatically decreased. The presence of an electron-deficient moiety in the middle of the JH agonist is also essential for high activity. Conclusions/Significance The information from 3D QSAR provides guidelines and mechanistic scope for identification of steric and electrostatic properties as well as donor and acceptor hydrogen-bonding that are important features of the ligand-binding cavity of a JH target protein. In order to refine the pharmacophore analysis and evaluate the outcomes of the CoMFA and CoMSIA study we used pseudoreceptor modeling software PrGen to generate a putative binding site surrogate that is composed of eight amino acid residues corresponding to the defined molecular interactions. PMID:19547707

  13. 3D-CLEM Reveals that a Major Portion of Mitotic Chromosomes Is Not Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Booth, Daniel G; Beckett, Alison J; Molina, Oscar; Samejima, Itaru; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Kouprina, Natalay; Larionov, Vladimir; Prior, Ian A; Earnshaw, William C

    2016-11-17

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of Ki-67 and the chromosome periphery in chromosome structure and segregation, but little is known about this elusive chromosome compartment. Here we used correlative light and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, which we term 3D-CLEM, to model the entire mitotic chromosome complement at ultra-structural resolution. Prophase chromosomes exhibit a highly irregular surface appearance with a volume smaller than metaphase chromosomes. This may be because of the absence of the periphery, which associates with chromosomes only after nucleolar disassembly later in prophase. Indeed, the nucleolar volume almost entirely accounts for the extra volume found in metaphase chromosomes. Analysis of wild-type and Ki-67-depleted chromosomes reveals that the periphery comprises 30%-47% of the entire chromosome volume and more than 33% of the protein mass of isolated mitotic chromosomes determined by quantitative proteomics. Thus, chromatin makes up a surprisingly small percentage of the total mass of metaphase chromosomes. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Autonomic nervous system responses can reveal visual fatigue induced by 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi Jung; Park, Sangin; Won, Myeung Ju; Whang, Mincheol; Lee, Eui Chul

    2013-09-26

    Previous research has indicated that viewing 3D displays may induce greater visual fatigue than viewing 2D displays. Whether viewing 3D displays can evoke measureable emotional responses, however, is uncertain. In the present study, we examined autonomic nervous system responses in subjects viewing 2D or 3D displays. Autonomic responses were quantified in each subject by heart rate, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature. Viewers of both 2D and 3D displays showed strong positive correlations with heart rate, which indicated little differences between groups. In contrast, galvanic skin response and skin temperature showed weak positive correlations with average difference between viewing 2D and 3D. We suggest that galvanic skin response and skin temperature can be used to measure and compare autonomic nervous responses in subjects viewing 2D and 3D displays.

  15. Detailed Gas Chimney Structures in Joetsu Area at Southeastern Margin of Japan Sea, Revealed by High-Resolution 3D Seismic Survey (HR3D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, S.; Hiruta, A.; Yanagimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, R.; Asakawa, E.

    2016-12-01

    To delineate the detailed structure of the gas chimneys, a high-resolution three-dimensional seismic survey (HR3D) was carried out in Joetsu area, at the southeastern margin of Japan Sea where hydrate-related mound and pockmark systems with gas chimneys are widely developed. HR3D data have successfully revealed the fine structure of gas chimneys which were not clearly imaged by the existing seismic data, such as sub-bottom profilers and conventional large-scale 3D surveys for petroleum exploration. HR3D data are also useful to interpolate and extrapolate spatially the geological/geophysical information obtained at wells most of which were drilled into the gas hydrate concentrated zones (GHCZs.) In the areas of low hydrate concentration, the reflections show a parallel-stratified pattern and the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) is parallel to the sea floor reflections. On the other hand, GHCZs are seismologically characterized by (1) strong sea floor reflections on the chimney mounds, (2) chaotic reflection patterns in the chimneys, and (3) pull-up of bottom simulating reflector (BSR) as shown in the attached figure. Strong sea floor reflections suggest that solid hydrates deposit in the very shallow part beneath the sea floor and the chaotic reflections indicate the hydrates are not continuously layered but interspersedly distributed. The BSR pull-up phenomena as much as 70 80msec are caused by high-velocity materials existing between the sea floor and the BSR. The sonic logs acquired by LWD at wells drilled into GHCZs show high velocity up to 3,800 m/s in the massive hydrates. The pull-up times estimated from the sonic data are consistent in general with the observed pull-up times on HR3D sections, suggesting the pull-up times could be useful for a preliminary evaluation of hydrate zones before drilling and/or in the areas without well data. This study was conducted under the commission from AIST as a part of the methane hydrate research project funded by METI

  16. Population-based 3D genome structure analysis reveals driving forces in spatial genome organization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenyuan; Kalhor, Reza; Dai, Chao; Hao, Shengli; Gong, Ke; Zhou, Yonggang; Li, Haochen; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Le Gros, Mark A.; Larabell, Carolyn A.; Chen, Lin; Alber, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Conformation capture technologies (e.g., Hi-C) chart physical interactions between chromatin regions on a genome-wide scale. However, the structural variability of the genome between cells poses a great challenge to interpreting ensemble-averaged Hi-C data, particularly for long-range and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we present a probabilistic approach for deconvoluting Hi-C data into a model population of distinct diploid 3D genome structures, which facilitates the detection of chromatin interactions likely to co-occur in individual cells. Our approach incorporates the stochastic nature of chromosome conformations and allows a detailed analysis of alternative chromatin structure states. For example, we predict and experimentally confirm the presence of large centromere clusters with distinct chromosome compositions varying between individual cells. The stability of these clusters varies greatly with their chromosome identities. We show that these chromosome-specific clusters can play a key role in the overall chromosome positioning in the nucleus and stabilizing specific chromatin interactions. By explicitly considering genome structural variability, our population-based method provides an important tool for revealing novel insights into the key factors shaping the spatial genome organization. PMID:26951677

  17. Population-based 3D genome structure analysis reveals driving forces in spatial genome organization

    DOE PAGES

    Tjong, Harianto; Li, Wenyuan; Kalhor, Reza; ...

    2016-03-07

    Conformation capture technologies (e.g., Hi-C) chart physical interactions between chromatin regions on a genome-wide scale. However, the structural variability of the genome between cells poses a great challenge to interpreting ensemble-averaged Hi-C data, particularly for long-range and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we present a probabilistic approach for deconvoluting Hi-C data into a model population of distinct diploid 3D genome structures, which facilitates the detection of chromatin interactions likely to co-occur in individual cells. Here, our approach incorporates the stochastic nature of chromosome conformations and allows a detailed analysis of alternative chromatin structure states. For example, we predict and experimentally confirm themore » presence of large centromere clusters with distinct chromosome compositions varying between individual cells. The stability of these clusters varies greatly with their chromosome identities. We show that these chromosome-specific clusters can play a key role in the overall chromosome positioning in the nucleus and stabilizing specific chromatin interactions. By explicitly considering genome structural variability, our population-based method provides an important tool for revealing novel insights into the key factors shaping the spatial genome organization.« less

  18. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix. PMID:22547408

  19. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Ryan J; Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2012-04-30

    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix.

  20. 3-D reconstructions of the early-November 2004 CDAW geomagnetic storms: analysis of Ooty IPS speed and density data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Jackson, B. V.; Clover, J. M.; Manoharan, P. K.; Tokumaru, M.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.

    2009-12-01

    Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) remote-sensing observations provide a view of the solar wind covering a wide range of heliographic latitudes and heliocentric distances from the Sun between ~0.1 AU and 3.0 AU. Such observations are used to study the development of solar coronal transients and the solar wind while propagating out through interplanetary space. They can also be used to measure the inner-heliospheric response to the passage of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and co-rotating heliospheric structures. IPS observations can, in general, provide a speed estimate of the heliospheric material crossing the observing line of site; some radio antennas/arrays can also provide a radio scintillation level. We use a three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction technique which obtains perspective views from outward-flowing solar wind and co-rotating structure as observed from Earth by iteratively fitting a kinematic solar wind model to these data. Using this 3-D modelling technique, we are able to reconstruct the velocity and density of CMEs as they travel through interplanetary space. For the time-dependent model used here with IPS data taken from the Ootacamund (Ooty) Radio Telescope (ORT) in India, the digital resolution of the tomography is 10° by 10° in both latitude and longitude with a half-day time cadence. Typically however, the resolutions range from 10° to 20° in latitude and longitude, with a half- to one-day time cadence for IPS data dependant upon how much data are used as input to the tomography. We compare reconstructed structures during early-November 2004 with in-situ measurements from the Wind spacecraft orbiting the Sun-Earth L1-Point to validate the 3-D tomographic reconstruction results and comment on how these improve upon prior reconstructions.

  1. Decoupling diffusional from dimensional control of signaling in 3D culture reveals a role for myosin in tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Srivatsan; Shen, Colette J.; Desai, Ravi A.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel microfabricated platform to culture cells within arrays of micrometer-scale three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix scaffolds (microgels). These microscale cultures eliminate diffusion barriers that are intrinsic to traditional 3D culture systems (macrogels) and enable uniform cytokine stimulation of the entire culture population, as well as allow immunolabeling, imaging and population-based biochemical assays across the relatively coplanar microgels. Examining early signaling associated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated scattering and tubulogenesis of MDCK cells revealed that 3D culture modulates cellular responses both through dimensionality and altered stimulation rates. Comparing responses in 2D culture, microgels and macrogels demonstrated that HGF-induced ERK signaling was driven by the dynamics of stimulation and not by whether cells were in a 2D or 3D environment, and that this ERK signaling was equally important for HGF-induced cell scattering on 2D substrates and tubulogenesis in 3D. By contrast, we discovered a specific HGF-induced increase in myosin expression leading to sustained downregulation of myosin activity that occurred only within 3D contexts and was required for 3D tubulogenesis but not 2D scattering. Interestingly, although absent in cells on collagen-coated plates, downregulation of myosin activity also occurred for cells on collagen gels, but was transient and mediated by a combination of myosin dephosphorylation and enhanced myosin expression. Furthermore, upregulating myosin activity via siRNA targeted to a myosin phosphatase did not attenuate scattering in 2D but did inhibit tubulogenesis in 3D. Together, these results demonstrate that cellular responses to soluble cues in 3D culture are regulated by both rates of stimulation and by matrix dimensionality, and highlight the importance of decoupling these effects to identify early signals relevant to cellular function in 3D environments. PMID:20682635

  2. Endoscopic 3D-OCT reveals buried glands following radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Becker, Lauren; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Huang, Qin; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia is generally treated by endoscopic mucosal resection or esophagectomy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a recent treatment that allows broad and superficial ablation for BE. Endoscopic three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) is a volumetric imaging technique that is uniquely suited for follow-up surveillance of RFA treatment. 3D-OCT uses a thin fiberoptic imaging catheter placed down the working channel of a conventional endoscope. 3D-OCT enables en face and cross-sectional evaluation of the esophagus for detection of residual BE, neo-squamous mucosa, or buried BE glands. Patients who had undergone RFA treatment with the BARRX HALO90 system were recruited and imaged with endoscopic 3D-OCT before and after (3-25 months) RFA treatment. 3D-OCT findings were compared to pinch biopsy to confirm the presence or absence of squamous epithelium or buried BE glands following RFA. Gastric, BE, and squamous epithelium were readily distinguished from 3D-OCT over a large volumetric field of view (8mmx20mmx1.6 mm) with ~5μm axial resolution. In all patients, neosquamous epithelium (NSE) was observed in regions previously treated with RFA. A small number of isolated glands were found buried beneath the regenerated NSE and lamina propria. NSE is a marker of successful ablative therapy, while buried glands may have malignant potential and are difficult to detect using conventional video endoscopy and random biopsy. Buried glands were not observed with pinch biopsy due to their extremely sparse distribution. These results indicate a potential benefit of endoscopic 3D-OCT for follow-up assessment of ablative treatments for BE.

  3. 3D Magnetic Induction Maps of Nanoscale Materials Revealed by Electron Holographic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of three-dimensional (3D) ferromagnetic nanoscale materials constitutes one of the key research areas of the current magnetism roadmap and carries great potential to impact areas such as data storage, sensing, and biomagnetism. The properties of such nanostructures are closely connected with their 3D magnetic nanostructure, making their determination highly valuable. Up to now, quantitative 3D maps providing both the internal magnetic and electric configuration of the same specimen with high spatial resolution are missing. Here, we demonstrate the quantitative 3D reconstruction of the dominant axial component of the magnetic induction and electrostatic potential within a cobalt nanowire (NW) of 100 nm in diameter with spatial resolution below 10 nm by applying electron holographic tomography. The tomogram was obtained using a dedicated TEM sample holder for acquisition, in combination with advanced alignment and tomographic reconstruction routines. The powerful approach presented here is widely applicable to a broad range of 3D magnetic nanostructures and may trigger the progress of novel spintronic nonplanar nanodevices. PMID:27182110

  4. 3D Magnetic Induction Maps of Nanoscale Materials Revealed by Electron Holographic Tomography.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Daniel; Rodriguez, Luis A; Béché, Armand; Javon, Elsa; Serrano, Luis; Magen, Cesar; Gatel, Christophe; Lubk, Axel; Lichte, Hannes; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Fernández-Pacheco, Amalio; De Teresa, José M; Snoeck, Etienne

    2015-10-13

    The investigation of three-dimensional (3D) ferromagnetic nanoscale materials constitutes one of the key research areas of the current magnetism roadmap and carries great potential to impact areas such as data storage, sensing, and biomagnetism. The properties of such nanostructures are closely connected with their 3D magnetic nanostructure, making their determination highly valuable. Up to now, quantitative 3D maps providing both the internal magnetic and electric configuration of the same specimen with high spatial resolution are missing. Here, we demonstrate the quantitative 3D reconstruction of the dominant axial component of the magnetic induction and electrostatic potential within a cobalt nanowire (NW) of 100 nm in diameter with spatial resolution below 10 nm by applying electron holographic tomography. The tomogram was obtained using a dedicated TEM sample holder for acquisition, in combination with advanced alignment and tomographic reconstruction routines. The powerful approach presented here is widely applicable to a broad range of 3D magnetic nanostructures and may trigger the progress of novel spintronic nonplanar nanodevices.

  5. Multivoxel pattern analysis reveals 3D place information in the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Misun; Jeffery, Kate J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2017-03-20

    The spatial world is three-dimensional (3D), and humans and other animals move both horizontally and vertically within it. Extant neuroscientific studies have typically investigated spatial navigation on a horizontal two-dimensional plane, leaving much unknown about how 3D spatial information is represented in the brain. Specifically, horizontal and vertical information may be encoded in the same or different neural structures with equal or unequal sensitivity. Here, we investigated these possibilities using functional MRI (fMRI) while participants were passively moved within a 3D lattice structure as if riding a rollercoaster. Multivoxel pattern analysis was used to test for the existence of information relating to where and in which direction participants were heading in this virtual environment. Behaviorally, participants had similarly accurate memory for vertical and horizontal locations, and the right anterior hippocampus expressed place information that was sensitive to changes along both horizontal and vertical axes. This is suggestive of isotropic 3D place encoding. By contrast, participants indicated their heading direction faster and more accurately when they were heading in a tilted-up or tilted-down direction. This direction information was expressed in the right retrosplenial cortex and posterior hippocampus, and was only sensitive to vertical pitch, which could reflect the importance of the vertical (gravity) axis as a reference frame. Overall, our findings extend previous knowledge of how we represent the spatial world and navigate within it, by taking into account the important third dimension.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe spatial world is three-dimensional (3D) -- we can move horizontally across surfaces, but also vertically, going up slopes or stairs. Little is known about how the brain supports representations of 3D space. A key question is whether or not horizontal and vertical information is equally well represented. Here we measured functional MRI

  6. Multivoxel Pattern Analysis Reveals 3D Place Information in the Human Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Kate J.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial world is three dimensional (3D) and humans and other animals move both horizontally and vertically within it. Extant neuroscientific studies have typically investigated spatial navigation on a horizontal 2D plane, leaving much unknown about how 3D spatial information is represented in the brain. Specifically, horizontal and vertical information may be encoded in the same or different neural structures with equal or unequal sensitivity. Here, we investigated these possibilities using fMRI while participants were passively moved within a 3D lattice structure as if riding a rollercoaster. Multivoxel pattern analysis was used to test for the existence of information relating to where and in which direction participants were heading in this virtual environment. Behaviorally, participants had similarly accurate memory for vertical and horizontal locations and the right anterior hippocampus (HC) expressed place information that was sensitive to changes along both horizontal and vertical axes. This is suggestive of isotropic 3D place encoding. In contrast, participants indicated their heading direction faster and more accurately when they were heading in a tilted-up or tilted-down direction. This direction information was expressed in the right retrosplenial cortex and posterior HC and was only sensitive to vertical pitch, which could reflect the importance of the vertical (gravity) axis as a reference frame. Overall, our findings extend previous knowledge of how we represent the spatial world and navigate within it by taking into account the important third dimension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The spatial world is 3D. We can move horizontally across surfaces, but also vertically, going up slopes or stairs. Little is known about how the brain supports representations of 3D space. A key question is whether horizontal and vertical information is equally well represented. Here, we measured fMRI response patterns while participants moved within a virtual 3D

  7. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; ...

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, wemore » derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.« less

  8. 3D Structural Fluctuation of IgG1 Antibody Revealed by Individual Particle Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; Peng, Bo; Rames, Matthew J.; Zhang, Shengli; Ren, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, we derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions. PMID:25940394

  9. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; Peng, Bo; Rames, Matthew J.; Zhang, Shengli; Ren, Gang

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, we derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.

  10. Factors Essential for Prostate Cancer Metastasis Revealed Through a Novel 3D Microtissue Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    and destruction. Growing evidence suggest that the micro-dissemination of bone metastatic prostate cancer (BMPCa) to bone marrow (BM) may be...A Novel 3D osteoblastic niche Assay designed to assess the ability of bone -metastatic Cancer homing to Bone Marrow Niche (Background) Many patients...microenvironment. It is known that cancer-stromal cell interaction in bone marrow is a pivotal step in determining bone metastasis and tumor behavior

  11. 3D Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals a Very Heterogeneous Drug Distribution in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S.; Morosi, L.; Veglianese, P.; Licandro, S. A.; Frapolli, R.; Zucchetti, M.; Cappelletti, G.; Falciola, L.; Pifferi, V.; Visentin, S.; D’Incalci, M.; Davoli, E.

    2016-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) is a widespread technique used to qualitatively describe in two dimensions the distribution of endogenous or exogenous compounds within tissue sections. Absolute quantification of drugs using MSI is a recent challenge that just in the last years has started to be addressed. Starting from a two dimensional MSI protocol, we developed a three-dimensional pipeline to study drug penetration in tumors and to develop a new drug quantification method by MALDI MSI. Paclitaxel distribution and concentration in different tumors were measured in a 3D model of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM), which is known to be a very heterogeneous neoplasm, highly resistant to different drugs. The 3D computational reconstruction allows an accurate description of tumor PTX penetration, adding information about the heterogeneity of tumor drug distribution due to the complex microenvironment. The use of an internal standard, homogenously sprayed on tissue slices, ensures quantitative results that are similar to those obtained using HPLC. The 3D model gives important information about the drug concentration in different tumor sub-volumes and shows that the great part of each tumor is not reached by the drug, suggesting the concept of pseudo-resistance as a further explanation for ineffective therapies and tumors relapse. PMID:27841316

  12. CTCF-Mediated Human 3D Genome Architecture Reveals Chromatin Topology for Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhonghui; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Li, Xingwang; Zheng, Meizhen; Zhu, Jacqueline Jufen; Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Trzaskoma, Pawel; Magalska, Adriana; Wlodarczyk, Jakub; Ruszczycki, Blazej; Michalski, Paul; Piecuch, Emaly; Wang, Ping; Wang, Danjuan; Tian, Simon Zhongyuan; Penrad-Mobayed, May; Sachs, Laurent M.; Ruan, Xiaoan; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T.; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Plewczynski, Dariusz; Li, Guoliang; Ruan, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spatial genome organization and its effect on transcription remains a fundamental question. We applied an advanced ChIA-PET strategy to comprehensively map higher-order chromosome folding and specific chromatin interactions mediated by CTCF and RNAPII with haplotype specificity and nucleotide resolution in different human cell lineages. We find that CTCF/cohesin-mediated interaction anchors serve as structural foci for spatial organization of constitutive genes concordant with CTCF-motif orientation, whereas RNAPII interacts within these structures by selectively drawing cell-type-specific genes towards CTCF-foci for coordinated transcription. Furthermore, we show that haplotype-variants and allelic-interactions have differential effects on chromosome configuration influencing gene expression and may provide mechanistic insights into functions associated with disease susceptibility. 3D-genome simulation suggests a model of chromatin folding around chromosomal axes, where CTCF is involved in defining the interface between condensed and open compartments for structural regulation. Our 3D-genome strategy thus provides unique insights in the topological mechanism of human variations and diseases. PMID:26686651

  13. 3D Microstructural Architecture of Muscle Attachments in Extant and Fossil Vertebrates Revealed by Synchrotron Microtomography

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Sophie; Dupret, Vincent; Tafforeau, Paul; Trinajstic, Katherine M.; Ryll, Bettina; Gouttenoire, Pierre-Jean; Wretman, Lovisa; Zylberberg, Louise; Peyrin, Françoise; Ahlberg, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Firm attachments binding muscles to skeleton are crucial mechanical components of the vertebrate body. These attachments (entheses) are complex three-dimensional structures, containing distinctive arrangements of cells and fibre systems embedded in the bone, which can be modified during ontogeny. Until recently it has only been possible to obtain 2D surface and thin section images of entheses, leaving their 3D histology largely unstudied except by extrapolation from 2D data. Entheses are frequently preserved in fossil bones, but sectioning is inappropriate for rare or unique fossil material. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the first non-destructive 3D investigation, by propagation phase contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRµCT), of enthesis histology in extant and fossil vertebrates. We are able to identify entheses in the humerus of the salamander Desmognathus from the organization of bone-cell lacunae and extrinsic fibres. Statistical analysis of the lacunae differentiates types of attachments, and the orientation of the fibres, reflect the approximate alignment of the muscle. Similar histological structures, including ontogenetically related pattern changes, are perfectly preserved in two 380 million year old fossil vertebrates, the placoderm Compagopiscis croucheri and the sarcopterygian fish Eusthenopteron foordi. Conclusions/Significance We are able to determine the position of entheses in fossil vertebrates, the approximate orientation of the attached muscles, and aspects of their ontogenetic histories, from PPC-SRµCT data. Sub-micron microtomography thus provides a powerful tool for studying the structure, development, evolution and palaeobiology of muscle attachments. PMID:23468901

  14. Fluorescence fluctuation microscopy to reveal 3D architecture and function in the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lenser, Thorsten; Weisshart, Klaus; Ulbricht, Tobias; Klement, Karolin; Hemmerich, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the cell nucleus is determined not only by the presence of subnuclear domains, such as the nuclear envelope, chromosome territories, and nuclear bodies, but also by smaller domains which form in response to specific functions, such as RNA transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Since both stable and dynamic structures contribute to nuclear morphology, it is important to study the biophysical principles of the formation of macromolecular assemblies within the nucleus. For this purpose, a variety of fluorescence fluctuation microscopy techniques can be applied. Here, we summarize our current knowledge on the 3D architecture of the mammalian cell nucleus and describe in detail how the assembly of functional nuclear protein complexes can be analyzed in living cells using fluorescence bleaching techniques, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, raster image correlation spectroscopy, and mathematical modeling. In conclusion, the application of all these techniques in combination is a powerful tool to assess the full spectrum of nuclear protein dynamics and to understand the biophysical principles underlying nuclear structure and function.

  15. 3D structure of eukaryotic flagella in a quiescent state revealed by cryo-electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Daniela; McIntosh, J. Richard; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    We have used cryo-electron tomography to investigate the 3D structure and macromolecular organization of intact, frozen-hydrated sea urchin sperm flagella in a quiescent state. The tomographic reconstructions provide information at a resolution better than 6 nm about the in situ arrangements of macromolecules that are key for flagellar motility. We have visualized the heptameric rings of the motor domains in the outer dynein arm complex and determined that they lie parallel to the plane that contains the axes of neighboring flagellar microtubules. Both the material associated with the central pair of microtubules and the radial spokes display a plane of symmetry that helps to explain the planar beat pattern of these flagella. Cryo-electron tomography has proven to be a powerful technique for helping us understand the relationships between flagellar structure and function and the design of macromolecular machines in situ. PMID:16246999

  16. USA Composite Reveals Massive Winter Storm - January 02, 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    On January 2, 2014, NASA’s Aqua satellite passed over the United States mutiple times showing winter weather, allowing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board to capture this true-color image of a massive winter storm moving up the eastern seaboard. According to the National Weather Service the winter storm that impacted the Midwest and Northeast over the past couple of days is moving into the Atlantic Friday. Very cold temperatures and dangerous wind chills are moving in behind the system. The next storm is forming, and will bring blizzard conditions to the northern Plains Friday Night into Saturday. Extreme wind chills to -55 F are possible in the northern Plains this weekend. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Aqua/MODIS NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Mutational analysis of the complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21)-C3d interaction reveals a putative charged SCR1 binding site for C3d.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Jonathan P; Young, Kendra A; Guthridge, Joel M; Asokan, Rengasamy; Szakonyi, Gerda; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Holers, V Michael

    2005-02-25

    We have characterized the interaction between the first two short consensus repeats (SCR1-2) of complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) and C3d in solution, by utilising the available crystal structures of free and C3d-bound forms of CR2 to create a series of informative mutations targeting specific areas of the CR2-C3d complex. Wild-type and mutant forms of CR2 were expressed on the surface of K562 erythroleukemia cells and their binding ability assessed using C3dg-biotin tetramers complexed to fluorochrome conjugated streptavidin and measured by flow cytometry. Mutations directed at the SCR2-C3d interface (R83A, R83E, G84Y) were found to strongly disrupt C3dg binding, supporting the conclusion that the SCR2 interface reflected in the crystal structure is correct. Previous epitope and peptide mapping studies have also indicated that the PILN11GR13IS sequence of the first inter-cysteine region of SCR1 is essential for the binding of iC3b. Mutations targeting residues within or in close spatial proximity to this area (N11A, N11E, R13A, R13E, Y16A, S32A, S32E), and a number of other positively charged residues located primarily on a contiguous face of SCR1 (R28A, R28E, R36A, R36E, K41A, K41E, K50A, K50E, K57A, K57E, K67A, K67E), have allowed us to reassess those regions on SCR1 that are essential for CR2-C3d binding. The nature of this interaction and the possibility of a direct SCR1-C3d association are discussed extensively. Finally, a D52N mutant was constructed introducing an N-glycosylation sequence at an area central to the CR2 dimer interface. This mutation was designed to disrupt the CR2-C3d interaction, either directly through steric inhibition, or indirectly through disruption of a physiological dimer. However, no difference in C3dg binding relative to wild-type CR2 could be observed for this mutant, suggesting that the dimer may only be found in the crystal form of CR2.

  18. Correlative 3D superresolution fluorescence and electron microscopy reveal the relationship of mitochondrial nucleoids to membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kopek, Benjamin G.; Shtengel, Gleb; Xu, C. Shan; Clayton, David A.; Hess, Harald F.

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic images of specific proteins in their cellular context yield important insights into biological processes and cellular architecture. The advent of superresolution optical microscopy techniques provides the possibility to augment EM with nanometer-resolution fluorescence microscopy to access the precise location of proteins in the context of cellular ultrastructure. Unfortunately, efforts to combine superresolution fluorescence and EM have been stymied by the divergent and incompatible sample preparation protocols of the two methods. Here, we describe a protocol that preserves both the delicate photoactivatable fluorescent protein labels essential for superresolution microscopy and the fine ultrastructural context of EM. This preparation enables direct 3D imaging in 500- to 750-nm sections with interferometric photoactivatable localization microscopy followed by scanning EM images generated by focused ion beam ablation. We use this process to “colorize” detailed EM images of the mitochondrion with the position of labeled proteins. The approach presented here has provided a new level of definition of the in vivo nature of organization of mitochondrial nucleoids, and we expect this straightforward method to be applicable to many other biological questions that can be answered by direct imaging. PMID:22474357

  19. 3D Lifetime Tomography Reveals How CdCl 2 Improves Recombination Throughout CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Edward S.; Ursprung, Benedikt; Colegrove, Eric; Moutinho, Helio R.; Borys, Nicholas J.; Hardin, Brian E.; Peters, Craig H.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Schuck, P. James

    2016-11-15

    When using two-photon tomography, carrier lifetimes are mapped in polycrystalline CdTe photovoltaic devices. These 3D maps probe subsurface carrier dynamics that are inaccessible with traditional optical techniques. They reveal that CdCl2 treatment of CdTe solar cells suppresses nonradiative recombination and enhances carrier lifetimes throughout the film with substantial improvements particularly near subsurface grain boundaries and the critical buried p-n junction.

  20. 3D Lifetime Tomography Reveals How CdCl 2 Improves Recombination Throughout CdTe Solar Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Barnard, Edward S.; Ursprung, Benedikt; Colegrove, Eric; ...

    2016-11-15

    When using two-photon tomography, carrier lifetimes are mapped in polycrystalline CdTe photovoltaic devices. These 3D maps probe subsurface carrier dynamics that are inaccessible with traditional optical techniques. They reveal that CdCl2 treatment of CdTe solar cells suppresses nonradiative recombination and enhances carrier lifetimes throughout the film with substantial improvements particularly near subsurface grain boundaries and the critical buried p-n junction.

  1. 3D Lifetime Tomography Reveals How CdCl2 Improves Recombination Throughout CdTe Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Edward S; Ursprung, Benedikt; Colegrove, Eric; Moutinho, Helio R; Borys, Nicholas J; Hardin, Brian E; Peters, Craig H; Metzger, Wyatt K; Schuck, P James

    2017-01-01

    Using two-photon tomography, carrier lifetimes are mapped in polycrystalline CdTe photovoltaic devices. These 3D maps probe subsurface carrier dynamics that are inaccessible with traditional optical techniques. They reveal that CdCl2 treatment of CdTe solar cells suppresses nonradiative recombination and enhances carrier lifetimes throughout the film with substantial improvements particularly near subsurface grain boundaries and the critical buried p-n junction.

  2. 3D Bayesian cluster analysis of super-resolution data reveals LAT recruitment to the T cell synapse.

    PubMed

    Griffié, Juliette; Shlomovich, Leigh; Williamson, David J; Shannon, Michael; Aaron, Jesse; Khuon, Satya; L Burn, Garth; Boelen, Lies; Peters, Ruby; Cope, Andrew P; Cohen, Edward A K; Rubin-Delanchy, Patrick; Owen, Dylan M

    2017-06-22

    Single-molecule localisation microscopy (SMLM) allows the localisation of fluorophores with a precision of 10-30 nm, revealing the cell's nanoscale architecture at the molecular level. Recently, SMLM has been extended to 3D, providing a unique insight into cellular machinery. Although cluster analysis techniques have been developed for 2D SMLM data sets, few have been applied to 3D. This lack of quantification tools can be explained by the relative novelty of imaging techniques such as interferometric photo-activated localisation microscopy (iPALM). Also, existing methods that could be extended to 3D SMLM are usually subject to user defined analysis parameters, which remains a major drawback. Here, we present a new open source cluster analysis method for 3D SMLM data, free of user definable parameters, relying on a model-based Bayesian approach which takes full account of the individual localisation precisions in all three dimensions. The accuracy and reliability of the method is validated using simulated data sets. This tool is then deployed on novel experimental data as a proof of concept, illustrating the recruitment of LAT to the T-cell immunological synapse in data acquired by iPALM providing ~10 nm isotropic resolution.

  3. Diversity in primary palate ontogeny of amniotes revealed with 3D imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abramyan, John; Thivichon-Prince, Beatrice; Richman, Joy Marion

    2015-01-01

    The amniote primary palate encompasses the upper lip and the nasal cavities. During embryonic development, the primary palate forms from the fusion of the maxillary, medial nasal and lateral nasal prominences. In mammals, as the primary palate fuses, the nasal and oral cavities become completely separated. Subsequently, the tissue demarcating the future internal nares (choanae) thins and becomes the bucconasal membrane, which eventually ruptures and allows for the essential connection of the oral and nasal cavities to form. In reptiles (including birds), the other major amniote group, primary palate ontogeny is poorly studied with respect to prominence fusion, especially the formation of a bucconasal membrane. Using 3D optical projection tomography, we found that the prominences that initiate primary palate formation are similar between mammals and crocodilians but distinct from turtles and lizards, which are in turn similar to each other. Chickens are distinct from all non-avian lineages and instead resemble human embryos in this aspect. The majority of reptiles maintain a communication between the oral and nasal cavities via the choanae during primary palate formation. However, crocodiles appear to have a transient separation between the oral and nasal cavities. Furthermore, the three lizard species examined here, exhibit temporary closure of their external nares via fusion of the lateral nasal prominences with the frontonasal mass, subsequently reopening them just before hatching. The mechanism of the persistent choanal opening was examined in chicken embryos. The mesenchyme posterior/dorsal to the choana had a significant decline in proliferation index, whereas the mesenchyme of the facial processes remained high. This differential proliferation allows the choana to form a channel between the oral and nasal cavities as the facial prominences grow and fuse around it. Our data show that primary palate ontogeny has been modified extensively to support the array of

  4. 3D Shallow crustal structure of Madeira island revealed from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, C.; Silveira, G. M.; Matias, L. M.; Ribeiro, L.; Dias, N. A.; Caldeira, R.; Rosa, C.; Krueger, F.

    2013-12-01

    Madeira is an intraplate volcanic island, located at the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, in front of the Moroccan cost, with an emerged area of 737 km2 and maximum altitude of 1861 m. Madeira shows an E-W-oriented elongation, which reflects the orientation of its rift zone. Rift zones play a fundamental role in the constitution and evolution of volcanic islands and it is important to image their internal structure as a function of depth. Constrains like source-receiver geometry, irregular seismicity distribution or, for some methods, low seismicity occurrence did not allow to obtain high-resolution models of the Madeira crustal structure using traditional passive seismology. Seismic interferometry/ambient noise surface-waves tomography allows imaging regions with a resolution that mainly depends on the seismic network coverage. From May 2011 to September 2012, a temporary pool of 23 seismometers has been continuously recording at Madeira Island. This deployment was complemented with other local permanent stations. The ambient noise data was processed following five main steps: (1) Data quality control; (2) Cross-correlation of 1 hour time windows between each station pair and subsequent stacking for the entire recording period; (3) Time-frequency analysis to measure group-velocity dispersion curves between 0.5 and 6 seconds; (4) 2D inversion to obtain lateral variations of the Rayleigh-wave group-velocities as function of the period; (5) Group velocity inversion as a function of depth to map the 3D structure beneath Madeira. From the surface to 4 km depth, the edge of the rift, along which the island possibly grow, is well correlated with a strong positive anomaly on our maps. This anomaly seems to be perturbed by the presence of low velocities at a depth of 2 km. After 5 km the rift signature is no longer visible. This work is supported by project QUAKELOC Reference: PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3522/2012

  5. 3D-FISH analysis reveals chromatid cohesion defect during interphase in Roberts syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Celine; Bucourt, Martine; Guimiot, Fabien; Kraoua, Lilia; Smiljkovski, Daniel; Le Tessier, Dominique; Lebugle, Camille; Gerard, Benedicte; Spaggiari, Emmanuel; Bourdoncle, Pierre; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Benzacken, Brigitte; Dupont, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Roberts syndrome (RBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder mainly characterized by growth retardation, limb defects and craniofacial anomalies. Characteristic cytogenetic findings are "railroad track" appearance of chromatids and premature centromere separation in metaphase spreads. Mutations in the ESCO2 (establishment of cohesion 1 homolog 2) gene located in 8p21.1 have been found in several families. ESCO2, a member of the cohesion establishing complex, has a role in the effective cohesion between sister chromatids. In order to analyze sister chromatids topography during interphase, we performed 3D-FISH using pericentromeric heterochromatin probes of chromosomes 1, 4, 9 and 16, on preserved nuclei from a fetus with RBS carrying compound heterozygous null mutations in the ESCO2 gene. Along with the first observation of an abnormal separation between sister chromatids in heterochromatic regions, we observed a statistically significant change in the intranuclear localization of pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 1 in cells of the fetus compared to normal cells, demonstrating for the first time a modification in the spatial arrangement of chromosome domains during interphase. We hypothesize that the disorganization of nuclear architecture may result in multiple gene deregulations, either through disruption of DNA cis interaction -such as modification of chromatin loop formation and gene insulation - mediated by cohesin complex, or by relocation of chromosome territories. These changes may modify interactions between the chromatin and the proteins associated with the inner nuclear membrane or the pore complexes. This model offers a link between the molecular defect in cohesion and the complex phenotypic anomalies observed in RBS.

  6. Heterogeneity of macrophage infiltration and therapeutic response in lung carcinoma revealed by 3D organ imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cuccarese, Michael F.; Dubach, J. Matthew; Pfirschke, Christina; Engblom, Camilla; Garris, Christopher; Miller, Miles A.; Pittet, Mikael J.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Involvement of the immune system in tumour progression is at the forefront of cancer research. Analysis of the tumour immune microenvironment has yielded a wealth of information on tumour biology, and alterations in some immune subtypes, such as tumour-associated macrophages (TAM), can be strong prognostic indicators. Here, we use optical tissue clearing and a TAM-targeting injectable fluorescent nanoparticle (NP) to examine three-dimensional TAM composition, tumour-to-tumour heterogeneity, response to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) blockade and nanoparticle-based drug delivery in murine pulmonary carcinoma. The method allows for rapid tumour volume assessment and spatial information on TAM infiltration at the cellular level in entire lungs. This method reveals that TAM density was heterogeneous across tumours in the same animal, overall TAM density is different among separate pulmonary tumour models, nanotherapeutic drug delivery correlated with TAM heterogeneity, and successful response to CSF-1R blockade is characterized by enhanced TAM penetration throughout and within tumours. PMID:28176769

  7. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  8. 3-D crustal structure along the North Anatolian Fault Zone in north-central Anatolia revealed by local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolsal-Ćevikbilen, Seda; Biryol, C. Berk; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Taymaz, Tuncay; Adıyaman, Hande E.; Özacar, A. Arda

    2012-03-01

    3-D P-wave velocity structure and Vp/Vs variations in the crust along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in north-central Anatolia were investigated by the inversion of local P- and S-wave traveltimes, to gain a better understanding of the seismological characteristics of the region. The 3-D local earthquake tomography inversions included 5444 P- and 3200 S-wave readings obtained from 168 well-located earthquakes between 2006 January and 2008 May. Dense ray coverage yields good resolution, particularly in the central part of the study area. The 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs tomographic images reveal clear correlations with both the surface geology and significant tectonic units in the region. We observed the lower limit of the seismogenic zone for north-central Anatolia at 15 km depth. Final earthquake locations display a distributed pattern throughout the study area, with most of the earthquakes occurring on the major splays of the NAFZ, rather than its master strand. We identify three major high-velocity blocks in the mid-crust separated by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture and interpret these blocks to be continental basement fragments that were accreted onto the margin following the closure of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. These basement blocks may have in part influenced the rupture propagations of the historical 1939, 1942 and 1943 earthquakes. In addition, large variations in the Vp/Vs ratio in the mid-crust were observed and have been correlated with the varying fluid contents of the existing lithologies and related tectonic structures.

  9. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces

    PubMed Central

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X.

    2016-01-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young’s elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending. Kinematic analysis revealed a multiphase bio-mechanical response of elongation rate and curvature in 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils. PMID:27664958

  10. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X

    2016-10-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young's elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending. Kinematic analysis revealed a multiphase bio-mechanical response of elongation rate and curvature in 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils.

  11. Direct 3D Analyses Reveal Barrel-Specific Vascular Distribution and Cross-Barrel Branching in the Mouse Barrel Cortex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingpeng; Guo, Congdi; Chen, Shangbin; Jiang, Tao; He, Yong; Ding, Wenxiang; Yang, Zhongqin; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Whether vascular distribution is spatially specific among cortical columns is a fundamental yet controversial question. Here, we have obtained 1-μm resolution 3D datasets that cover the whole mouse barrel cortex by combining Nissl staining with micro-optical sectioning tomography to simultaneously visualize individual cells and blood vessels, including capillaries. Pinpointing layer IV of the posteromedial barrel subfield, direct 3D reconstruction and quantitative analysis showed that (1) penetrating vessels preferentially locate in the interbarrel septa/barrel wall (75.1%) rather than the barrel hollows, (2) the branches of 70% penetrating vessels only reach the neighboring but not always all the neighboring barrels and the other 30% extend beyond the neighboring barrels and may provide cross-barrel blood supply or drainage, (3) the branches of 59.6% penetrating vessels reach all the neighboring barrels, while the rest only reach part of them, and (4) the length density of microvessels in the interbarrel septa/barrel wall is lower than that in the barrel hollows with a ratio of 0.92. These results reveal that the penetrating vessels and microvessels exhibit a barrel-specific organization, whereas the branches of penetrating vessels do not, which suggests a much more complex vascular distribution pattern among cortical columns than previously thought. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. 3D reconstruction of the Shigella T3SS transmembrane regions reveals 12-fold symmetry and novel features throughout

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, Julie L.; Horsley, Ashley; Stabat, David; Simon, Martha; Johnson, Steven; da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Morris, Edward P.; Wall, Joseph S.; Lea, Susan M.; Blocker, Ariel J.

    2009-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) mediate bacterial protein translocation into eukaryotic cells, a process essential for virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens. They are composed of a cytoplasmic secretion machinery and a base bridging both bacterial membranes into which a hollow, external needle is embedded. When isolated, the latter two parts are termed ‘needle complex’ (NC). Incomplete understanding of NC structure hampers studies of T3SS function. To estimate the stoichiometry of its components, the mass f its sub-domains was measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Subunit symmetries were determined by analysis of top and side views within negatively stained samples in low dose transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Application of 12-fold symmetry allowed generation of a 21-25Å resolution three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the NC base, revealing many new features and permitting tentative docking of the crystal structure of EscJ, an inner membrane component. PMID:19396171

  13. RNA structure analysis of human spliceosomes reveals a compact 3D arrangement of snRNAs at the catalytic core

    PubMed Central

    Anokhina, Maria; Bessonov, Sergey; Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric; Hartmuth, Klaus; Lührmann, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Although U snRNAs play essential roles in splicing, little is known about the 3D arrangement of U2, U6, and U5 snRNAs and the pre-mRNA in active spliceosomes. To elucidate their relative spatial organization and dynamic rearrangement, we examined the RNA structure of affinity-purified, human spliceosomes before and after catalytic step 1 by chemical RNA structure probing. We found a stable 3-way junction of the U2/U6 snRNA duplex in active spliceosomes that persists minimally through step 1. Moreover, the formation of alternating, mutually exclusive, U2 snRNA conformations, as observed in yeast, was not detected in different assembly stages of human spliceosomal complexes (that is, B, Bact, or C complexes). Psoralen crosslinking revealed an interaction during/after step 1 between internal loop 1 of the U5 snRNA, and intron nucleotides immediately downstream of the branchpoint. Using the experimentally derived structural constraints, we generated a model of the RNA network of the step 1 spliceosome, based on the crystal structure of a group II intron through homology modelling. The model is topologically consistent with current genetic, biochemical, and structural data. PMID:24002212

  14. Oblique section 3-D reconstruction of relaxed insect flight muscle reveals the cross-bridge lattice in helical registration.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, H; Lucaveche, C; Reedy, M K; Taylor, K A

    1994-01-01

    In this work we examined the arrangement of cross-bridges on the surface of myosin filaments in the A-band of Lethocerus flight muscle. Muscle fibers were fixed using the tannic-acid-uranyl-acetate, ("TAURAC") procedure. This new procedure provides remarkably good preservation of native features in relaxed insect flight muscle. We computed 3-D reconstructions from single images of oblique transverse sections. The reconstructions reveal a square profile of the averaged myosin filaments in cross section view, resulting from the symmetrical arrangement of four pairs of myosin heads in each 14.5-nm repeat along the filament. The square profiles form a very regular right-handed helical arrangement along the surface of the myosin filament. Furthermore, TAURAC fixation traps a near complete 38.7 nm labeling of the thin filaments in relaxed muscle marking the left-handed helix of actin targets surrounding the thick filaments. These features observed in an averaged reconstruction encompassing nearly an entire myofibril indicate that the myosin heads, even in relaxed muscle, are in excellent helical register in the A-band. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:7819494

  15. The 3D microscopic 'signature' of strain within glacial sediments revealed using X-ray computed microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarplee, Mark F. V.; van der Meer, Jaap J. M.; Davis, Graham R.

    2011-11-01

    X-ray computed microtomography (μCT), a non-destructive analytical technique, was used to create volumetric three-dimensional (3D) models representing the internal composition and structure of undisturbed pro- and subglacial soft sediment sample plugs for the purposes of identifying and analysing kinematic indicators. The technique is introduced and a methodology is presented addressing specific issues relating to the investigation of unlithified, polymineralic sediments. Six samples were selected based on their proximity to 'type' brittle and ductile deformation structures, or because of their perceived suitability for successful application of the technique. Analysis of a proglacial 'ideal' specimen permitted the 3D geometry of a suite of micro-faults and folds to be investigated and the strain history of the sample reconstructed. The poor contrast achieved in scanning a diamicton of glaciomarine origin is attributable to overconsolidation under normal loading, the sediment demonstrated to have undergone subsequent subglacial deformation. Another overconsolidated diamicton contains an extensive, small scale (<20 μm) network of fractures delineating a 'marble-bed' structure, hitherto unknown at this scale. A volcanic lithic clast contrasts well with the surrounding matrix in a 'lodgement' till sample containing μCT (void) and thin-section evidence of clast ploughing. Initial ductile deformation was followed by dewatering of the matrix, which led to brittle failure and subsequent emplacement. Compelling evidence of clast rotation is located in the top of another sample, μCT analysis revealing that the grain has a proximal décollement surface orientated parallel to the plane of shear. The lenticular morphology of the rotational structure defined suggests an unequal distribution of forces along two of the principal stress axes. The excellent contrast between erratics contained within a sample and the enclosing till highlight the considerable potential of the

  16. Revealing the Functions of Tenascin-C in 3-D Breast Cancer Models Using Cell Biological and in Silico Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    in 3-D Breast Cancer Models Using Cell Biological and In Silico Approaches PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Agne Tarasevicuite...Functions of Tenascin-C in 3-D Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Models Using Cell Biological and In Silico Approaches 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH... cancer development and progression, yet its role in this disease remains obscure. To investigate the effects of stromal TN-C on normal human mammary

  17. The birth of a dinosaur footprint: Subsurface 3D motion reconstruction and discrete element simulation reveal track ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion over deformable substrates is a common occurrence in nature. Footprints represent sedimentary distortions that provide anatomical, functional, and behavioral insights into trackmaker biology. The interpretation of such evidence can be challenging, however, particularly for fossil tracks recovered at bedding planes below the originally exposed surface. Even in living animals, the complex dynamics that give rise to footprint morphology are obscured by both foot and sediment opacity, which conceals animal–substrate and substrate–substrate interactions. We used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) to image and animate the hind limb skeleton of a chicken-like bird traversing a dry, granular material. Foot movement differed significantly from walking on solid ground; the longest toe penetrated to a depth of ∼5 cm, reaching an angle of 30° below horizontal before slipping backward on withdrawal. The 3D kinematic data were integrated into a validated substrate simulation using the discrete element method (DEM) to create a quantitative model of limb-induced substrate deformation. Simulation revealed that despite sediment collapse yielding poor quality tracks at the air–substrate interface, subsurface displacements maintain a high level of organization owing to grain–grain support. Splitting the substrate volume along “virtual bedding planes” exposed prints that more closely resembled the foot and could easily be mistaken for shallow tracks. DEM data elucidate how highly localized deformations associated with foot entry and exit generate specific features in the final tracks, a temporal sequence that we term “track ontogeny.” This combination of methodologies fosters a synthesis between the surface/layer-based perspective prevalent in paleontology and the particle/volume-based perspective essential for a mechanistic understanding of sediment redistribution during track formation. PMID:25489092

  18. Isotropic 3D Nuclear Morphometry of Normal, Fibrocystic and Malignant Breast Epithelial Cells Reveals New Structural Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Nandakumar, Vivek; Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Hernandez, Kathryn F.; Lintecum, Kelly M.; Senechal, Patti; Bussey, Kimberly J.; Davies, Paul C. W.; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Grading schemes for breast cancer diagnosis are predominantly based on pathologists' qualitative assessment of altered nuclear structure from 2D brightfield microscopy images. However, cells are three-dimensional (3D) objects with features that are inherently 3D and thus poorly characterized in 2D. Our goal is to quantitatively characterize nuclear structure in 3D, assess its variation with malignancy, and investigate whether such variation correlates with standard nuclear grading criteria. Methodology We applied micro-optical computed tomographic imaging and automated 3D nuclear morphometry to quantify and compare morphological variations between human cell lines derived from normal, benign fibrocystic or malignant breast epithelium. To reproduce the appearance and contrast in clinical cytopathology images, we stained cells with hematoxylin and eosin and obtained 3D images of 150 individual stained cells of each cell type at sub-micron, isotropic resolution. Applying volumetric image analyses, we computed 42 3D morphological and textural descriptors of cellular and nuclear structure. Principal Findings We observed four distinct nuclear shape categories, the predominant being a mushroom cap shape. Cell and nuclear volumes increased from normal to fibrocystic to metastatic type, but there was little difference in the volume ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (N/C ratio) between the lines. Abnormal cell nuclei had more nucleoli, markedly higher density and clumpier chromatin organization compared to normal. Nuclei of non-tumorigenic, fibrocystic cells exhibited larger textural variations than metastatic cell nuclei. At p<0.0025 by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests, 90% of our computed descriptors statistically differentiated control from abnormal cell populations, but only 69% of these features statistically differentiated the fibrocystic from the metastatic cell populations. Conclusions Our results provide a new perspective on nuclear structure variations

  19. Segmentation of Hypocenters and 3-D Velocity Structure around the Kii Peninsula Revealed by Onshore and Offshore Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuhara, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakahigashi, K.; Yamada, T.; Shinohara, M.; Sakai, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Uehira, K.; Shimizu, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Philippine Sea Plate subducts beneath the Eurasian Plate at a rate of ~4 cm/year along the Nankai Trough, southwest of Japan. Around the Kii Peninsula, the rupture boundary of the historical Tonankai and Nankai large earthquakes is located, and previous researches have revealed along-strike segmentation of hypocenters [Mochizuki et al., 2010], P-wave anisotropy [Ishise et al., 2009], low frequency earthquake (LFE) distribution [e.g., Obara, 2010] and subduction depth of the Philippine Sea (PHS) Plate, or there may exist a split in the PHS Plate [Ide et al., 2010]. To investigate such segmentation, in our previous work we determined 3-D velocity structure and hypocenters using P- and S-wave arrival times of earthquakes recorded by both ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) that were deployed from 2003 to 2007 and on-land stations [Akuhara et al., 2013]. As a result, it was discovered that Vp/Vs ratio is also segmented within the oceanic crust and at the bottom of the overriding plate, which coincides with the LFE distribution: segment A is located along the Kii Channel, segment B around the western Kii Peninsula, and segment C around the eastern Kii Peninsula. In segment B, Vp/Vs ratio is low within the oceanic crust and LFE cluster characterized by an anomalously small amount of cumulative slip, compared to the other LFE clusters around the Kii Peninsula, is located [Obara, 2010]. The difference of Vp/Vs ratio and LFE activity among segments were interpreted as difference of pore fluid pressure. In fact, similar segmentation can be seen in hypocenters: Segment A with concentrated seismicity in the oceanic mantle, segment B with that in the oceanic crust, and segment C with little seismicity. To derive characteristic patterns of the hypocenters, we conducted a cluster analysis of earthquakes based on waveform similarity represented by cross-correlation coefficients (CCs) [e.g., Cattaneo, 1999], in which we took varying structural site effects among the OBS stations

  20. Strain in a silicon-on-insulator nanostructure revealed by 3D x-ray Bragg ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Chamard, V.; Allain, M.; Godard, P.; Talneau, A.; Patriarche, G.; Burghammer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Progresses in the design of well-defined electronic band structure and dedicated functionalities rely on the high control of complex architectural device nano-scaled structures. This includes the challenging accurate description of strain fields in crystalline structures, which requires non invasive and three-dimensional (3D) imaging methods. Here, we demonstrate in details how x-ray Bragg ptychography can be used to quantify in 3D a displacement field in a lithographically patterned silicon-on-insulator structure. The image of the crystalline properties, which results from the phase retrieval of a coherent intensity data set, is obtained from a well-controlled optimized process, for which all steps are detailed. These results confirm the promising perspectives of 3D Bragg ptychography for the investigation of complex nano-structured crystals in material science. PMID:25984829

  1. Revealing the Functions of Tenascin-C in 3-D Breast Cancer Models Using Cell Biological and In Silico Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Phase 1 trial study of 131I-labeled chimeric 81C6 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of patients with non - Hodgkin lymphoma . Blood 2004;104( 3 ...occurrs in the appropriate 3 -D tissue context. To further investigate loss of b-catenin from the cell membrane, we conducted 2 -D studies using... 3 -D cultures, which will aid us in corroborating the IP studies for E-cadherin/b-catenin interactions. In 2 -D cultures we were already able to show

  2. The Effects of Lightning NO(x) Production during the July 21 EULINOX Storm studied with a 3-D Cloud-scale Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Lesley E.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Huntrieser, Heidi; Schumann, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    The July 21,1998 thunderstonn observed during the European Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Project (EULINOX) project was simulated using the three-dimensional Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. The simulation successfully reproduced a number of observed storm features including the splitting of the original cell into a southern cell which developed supercell characteristics, and a northern cell which became multicellular. Output from the GCE simulation was used to drive an offline cloud-scale chemical transport model which calculates tracer transport and includes a parameterization of lightning NO(x) production which uses observed flash rates as input. Estimates of lightning NO(x) production were deduced by assuming various values of production per intracloud and production per cloud-to-ground flash and comparing the results with in-cloud aircraft observations. The assumption that both types of flashes produce 360 moles of NO per flash on average compared most favorably with column mass and probability distribution functions calculated from observations. This assumed production per flash corresponds to a global annual lightning NOx source of 7 Tg N per yr. Chemical reactions were included in the model to evaluate the impact of lightning NO(x), on ozone. During the storm, the inclusion of lightning NOx in the model results in a small loss of ozone (on average less than 4 ppbv) at all model levels. Simulations of the chemical environment in the 24 hours following the storm show on average a small increase in the net production of ozone at most levels resulting from lightning NO(x), maximizing at approximately 5 ppbv per day at 5.5 km. Between 8 and 10.5 km, lightning NO(x) causes decreased net ozone production.

  3. Migration of bone marrow stromal cells in 3D: 4 color methodology reveals spatially and temporally coordinated events.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Marc M; Buschmann, Michael D

    2006-12-01

    The cytoskeleton plays a central role in many cell processes including directed cell migration. Since most previous work has investigated cell migration in two dimensions (2D), new methods are required to study movement in three dimensions (3D) while preserving 3D structure of the cytoskeleton. Most previous studies have labeled two cytoskeletal networks simultaneously, impeding an appreciation of their complex and dynamic interconnections. Here we report the development of a 4 color method to simultaneously image vimentin, actin, tubulin and the nucleus for high-resolution confocal microscopy of bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) migrating through a porous membrane. Several methods were tested for structural preservation and labeling intensity resulting in identification of an optimized simultaneous fixation and permeabilization method using glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde and Triton X-100 followed by a quadruple fluorescent labeling method. This procedure was then applied at a sequence of time points to migrating cells, allowing temporal progression of migration to be assessed by visualizing all three networks plus the nucleus, providing new insights into 3D directed cell migration including processes such as leading edge structure, cytoskeletal distribution and nucleokinesis. Colocalization of actin and microtubules with distinct spatial arrangements at the cellular leading edge during migration, together with microtubule axial polarization supports recent reports indicating the pivotal role of microtubules in directed cell migration. This study also provides a foundation for 3D migration studies versus 2D studies, providing precise and robust methods to attain new insights into the cellular mechanisms of motility.

  4. Contribution of disparity to the perception of 3D shape as revealed by bistability of stereoscopic Necker cubes.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, C J

    2012-01-01

    The Necker cube is a famous demonstration of ambiguity in visual perception of 3D shape. Its bistability is attributed to indecisiveness because monocular cues do not allow the observer to infer one particular 3D shape from the 2D image. A remarkable but not appreciated observation is that Necker cubes are bistable during binocular viewing. One would expect disparity information to veto bistability. To investigate the effect of zero and non-zero disparity on perceptual bistability in detail, perceptual dominance durations were measured for luminance- and disparity-defined Necker cubes. Luminance-defined Necker cubes were bistable for all tested disparities between the front and back faces of the cubes. Absence of an effect of disparity on dominance durations suggested the suppression of disparity information. Judgments of depth between the front and back sides of the Necker cubes, however, showed that disparity affected perceived depth. Disparity-defined Necker cubes were also bistable but dominance durations showed different distributions. I propose a framework for 3D shape perception in which 3D shape is inferred from pictorial cues acting on luminance- and disparity-defined 2D shapes.

  5. Airborne & SAR Synergy Reveals the 3D Structure of Air Bubble Entrainment in Internal Waves and Frontal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, J. C. B.; Magalhaes, J. M.; Batista, M.; Gostiaux, L.; Gerkema, T.; New, A. L.

    2013-03-01

    spectral range 8-12 μm. With a nominal ground resolution of approximately 1.5 meters (at an altitude of 500 meters) it is capable to detect fine structure associated to turbulence. The LiDAR system that has been used is the Leica ALS50-II (1064nm) with a hit rate greater than 1 hit per square meter and a vertical resolution of approximately 15 cm. Both systems were available simultaneously, together with the hyperspectral system and the RCD105 39Mpx digital camera, integrated with the LiDAR navigation system. We analyse the airborne data together with a comprehensive dataset of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that includes ENVISAT and TerraSAR-X images. In addition, in situ observations in the near-shore zone were obtained in a previous experiment (Project SPOTIWAVE-II POCI/MAR/57836/2004 funded by the Portuguese FCT) during the summer period in 2006. These included thermistor chain measurements along the water column that captured the vertical structure of shoaling internal (tidal) waves and ISWs close to the breaking point. The SAR and airborne images were obtained in light wind conditions, in the near-shore zone, and in the presence of ISWs. The LiDAR images revealed sub-surface structures (some 1-2 m below the sea surface) that were co-located with surface films. These film slicks were induced by the convergent fields of internal waves and upwelling fronts. Some of the sub-surface features were located over the front slopes of the internal waves, which coincides with the internal wave slick band visible in the aerial photos and hyperspectral systems. Our flight measurements revealed thermal features similar to “boils” of cold water within the wake of (admittedly breaking) internal waves. These features are consistent with the previous in situ measurements of breaking ISWs. In this paper we will show coincident multi-sensor airborne and satellite SAR observations that reveal the 3D structure of air bubble entrainment in the internal wave field and frontal

  6. Breast cancer screening with tomosynthesis (3D mammography) with acquired or synthetic 2D mammography compared with 2D mammography alone (STORM-2): a population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Daniela; Macaskill, Petra; Pellegrini, Marco; Valentini, Marvi; Fantò, Carmine; Ostillio, Livio; Tuttobene, Paolina; Luparia, Andrea; Houssami, Nehmat

    2016-08-01

    Breast tomosynthesis (pseudo-3D mammography) improves breast cancer detection when added to 2D mammography. In this study, we examined whether integrating 3D mammography with either standard 2D mammography acquisitions or with synthetic 2D images (reconstructed from 3D mammography) would detect more cases of breast cancer than 2D mammography alone, to potentially reduce the radiation burden from the combination of 2D plus 3D acquisitions. The Screening with Tomosynthesis Or standard Mammography-2 (STORM-2) study was a prospective population-based screening study comparing integrated 3D mammography (dual-acquisition 2D-3D mammography or 2D synthetic-3D mammography) with 2D mammography alone. Asymptomatic women aged 49 years or older who attended population-based screening in Trento, Italy were recruited for the study. All participants underwent digital mammography with 2D and 3D mammography acquisitions, with the use of software that allowed synthetic 2D mammographic images to be reconstructed from 3D acquisitions. Mammography screen-reading was done in two parallel double-readings conducted sequentially for 2D acquisitions followed by integrated acquisitions. Recall based on a positive mammography result was defined as recall at any screen read. Primary outcome measures were a comparison between integrated (2D-3D or 2D synthetic-3D) mammography and 2D mammography alone of the number of cases of screen-detected breast cancer, the cancer detection rate per 1000 screens, the incremental cancer detection rate, and the number and percentage of false-positive recalls. Between May 31, 2013, and May 29, 2015, 10 255 women were invited to participate, of whom 9672 agreed to participate and were screened. In these 9672 participants (median age 58 years [IQR 53-63]), screening detected 90 cases of breast cancer, including 74 invasive breast cancers, in 85 women (five women had bilateral breast cancer). To account for these bilateral cancers in cancer detection rate

  7. Mechanics of the ankle and subtalar joints revealed through a 3D quasi-static stress MRI technique.

    PubMed

    Siegler, S; Udupa, J K; Ringleb, S I; Imhauser, C W; Hirsch, B E; Odhner, D; Saha, P K; Okereke, E; Roach, N

    2005-03-01

    A technique to study the three-dimensional (3D) mechanical characteristics of the ankle and of the subtalar joints in vivo and in vitro is described. The technique uses an MR scanner compatible 3D positioning and loading linkage to load the hindfoot with precise loads while the foot is being scanned. 3D image processing algorithms are used to derive from the acquired MR images bone morphology, hindfoot architecture, and joint kinematics. The technique was employed to study these properties both in vitro and in vivo. The ankle and subtler joint motion and the changes in architecture produced in response to an inversion load and an anterior drawer load were evaluated. The technique was shown to provide reliable measures of bone morphology. The left-to-right variations in bone morphology were less than 5%. The left-to-right variations in unloaded hindfoot architecture parameters were less than 10%, and these properties were only slightly affected by inversion and anterior drawer loads. Inversion and anterior drawer loads produced motion both at the ankle and at the subtalar joint. In addition, high degree of coupling, primarily of internal rotation with inversion, was observed both at the ankle and at the subtalar joint. The in vitro motion produced in response to inversion and anterior drawer load was greater than the in vivo motion. Finally, external motion, measured directly across the ankle complex, produced in response to load was much greater than the bone movements measured through the 3D stress MRI technique indicating the significant effect of soft tissue and skin interference.

  8. 3D analysis is superior to 2D analysis for contrast-enhanced ultrasound in revealing vascularity in focal liver lesions - A retrospective analysis of 83 cases.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fa-Jin; Xu, Jin-Feng; Du, Dong; Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Li, Min; Liu, Hui-Yu; Xiong, Yi; Luo, Hui

    2016-08-01

    To examine whether dynamic 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is superior to 2D imaging in revealing vascularization of focal liver lesions (FLLs). Dynamic 2D and 3D CEUS were used to assess the vascularity of FLLs in 83 patients. The two analyses were carried out sequentially following a bolus intravenous injection of SonoVue contrast agent, one injection of 1.5-2mL was given for each part of the study (one for the 2D and another for the 3D). Due to the large data volume for 3D analysis, only the arterial phase (20-25s) was recorded and analyzed. The data were analyzed by two independent analysts. The current study included a total of 83 patients with FLL. The diagnosis was established based on histopathology, Computed Tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among the 83 cases, 61 were hepatocellular carcinomas (include 10 metastasis, 51 HCCs), and the remaining 22 were benign lesions: hemangiomas (n=15), focal nodular hyperplasias (n=4), and inflammatory lesions (n=3). The overall analysis showed similar patterns of enhancement between the 2D and 3D CEUS in the following features: morphological characteristics, and spatial relationships. In comparison to 2D imaging, 3D CEUS reveal more details of the boundary and feeding arteries of the lesions, as well as distorted features of supply vessels of hepatocellular carcinomas. Dynamic 3D-CEUS is superior to 2D-CEUS in displaying the spatial relationship of FLLs and their vascularity patterns, and simultaneous imaging of FLL perfusion and anatomic features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alpine fold-and-thrust structures revealed: A 3D model from the Helvetic Zone (Säntis area, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Paola; Pfiffner, Adrian; Frehner, Marcel

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the geometrical relationships between folding and thrust faulting, a 3D model of the Helvetic fold-and-thrust belt in Eastern Switzerland is built from several cross-sections in the Säntis area, between Hoher Kasten and Wildhaus. Existing cross-sections from Schlatter (1941), Kempf (1966), and Pfiffner (2000; 2011) were partly redrawn and cross-checked for line length balancing. Additional cross-sections based on surface geology were newly constructed to fill areas with a low cross-section density and to solve geological problems. The interpolation of the formation interfaces and the thrusts between the cross-sections allowed generating six main surfaces corresponding to the base of the Öhrli and Betlis Limestones, the Helvetic Kieselkalk, the Schrattenkalk and Garschella Formations, and the Seewen Limestone. The main structural elements in the Säntis area, such as the Säntis Thrust or the Sax-Schwende Fault, are also implemented in the model. The 3D model highlights the shape of the main anticline-syncline pairs (e.g., Altmann-Wildseeli, Schafberg-Moor, Roslenfirst-Mutschen, etc...) and how these fold trains vary in amplitude and wavelength along strike. The model also clearly shows the lateral extension, the trend, and the variation in displacement of the principal faults. The reconstruction of 3D horizons allows the geologists investigating cross-sections along any given direction. The 3D model is useful to understand how the changes of the internal nappe structures, namely folds and thrust faults, change along strike. Such changes occur either across transverse faults or in a more gradual manner. The model can and will also be used as a base to perform retrodeformation and strain estimation. Shortening will be calculated using the base Schrattenkalk as the reference horizon. REFERENCES Pfiffner, O.A., 2000: Cross-sections in Funk, H., Habich, J.K., Hantke, R. & Pfiffner, O.A., 2000: Blatt 1115 Säntis - Geologischer Atlas der Schweiz 1

  10. Clustering of 3D-Structure Similarity Based Network of Secondary Metabolites Reveals Their Relationships with Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ohtana, Yuki; Abdullah, Azian Azamimi; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Huang, Ming; Ono, Naoaki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Horai, Hisayuki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Morita Hirai, Aki; Lange, Klaus W; Kibinge, Nelson K; Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-12-01

    Developing database systems connecting diverse species based on omics is the most important theme in big data biology. To attain this purpose, we have developed KNApSAcK Family Databases, which are utilized in a number of researches in metabolomics. In the present study, we have developed a network-based approach to analyze relationships between 3D structure and biological activity of metabolites consisting of four steps as follows: construction of a network of metabolites based on structural similarity (Step 1), classification of metabolites into structure groups (Step 2), assessment of statistically significant relations between structure groups and biological activities (Step 3), and 2-dimensional clustering of the constructed data matrix based on statistically significant relations between structure groups and biological activities (Step 4). Applying this method to a data set consisting of 2072 secondary metabolites and 140 biological activities reported in KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB, we obtained 983 statistically significant structure group-biological activity pairs. As a whole, we systematically analyzed the relationship between 3D-chemical structures of metabolites and biological activities.

  11. Combining 3D seismic tomography and ground-penetrating radar to reveal the structure of a megalithic burial tomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Manuela; Caldeira, Bento; Borges, José

    2017-04-01

    This work describes a case study concerning a prehistoric buried tomb (around 3000 years B.C.) located near Évora (Portugal). This monument is a tomb completely buried with only five visible irregular small stones distributed in a circle of 3 meter in diameter. A multi-approach combining 3D seismic tomography and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been applied to identify hidden elements and arrangement of the stones, required prior to any excavation work. The methodology for the 3D seismic data acquisition involves a total of 24 shots recorded by four lines, with twelve fixed receivers each one. For the GPR survey was used a 400 MHz antenna which moves along parallel lines with 50 cm separation, over a 30x30 m2 area that contains the buried tomb; the GPR unit was configured to a horizontal rate of 50 scans per meter (1024 samples/scan) and a time window of 60 ns. This multi-approach procedure allowed defining: (i) the housing of the tomb in the basement structure; (ii) the presence of a hidden corridor; (iii) the description of the internal structure of the walls of the tomb; (iv) the state of preservation of the monument. Acknowledgements: This work is co-financed by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund under COMPETE 2020 (Operational Program for Competitiveness and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID / GEO / 04683/2013) under the reference POCI-01-0145 -FEDER-007690.

  12. Speed and eccentricity tuning reveal a central role for the velocity-based cue to 3D visual motion.

    PubMed

    Czuba, Thaddeus B; Rokers, Bas; Huk, Alexander C; Cormack, Lawrence K

    2010-11-01

    Two binocular cues are thought to underlie the visual perception of three-dimensional (3D) motion: a disparity-based cue, which relies on changes in disparity over time, and a velocity-based cue, which relies on interocular velocity differences. The respective building blocks of these cues, instantaneous disparity and retinal motion, exhibit very distinct spatial and temporal signatures. Although these two cues are synchronous in naturally moving objects, disparity-based and velocity-based mechanisms can be dissociated experimentally. We therefore investigated how the relative contributions of these two cues change across a range of viewing conditions. We measured direction-discrimination sensitivity for motion though depth across a wide range of eccentricities and speeds for disparity-based stimuli, velocity-based stimuli, and "full cue" stimuli containing both changing disparities and interocular velocity differences. Surprisingly, the pattern of sensitivity for velocity-based stimuli was nearly identical to that for full cue stimuli across the entire extent of the measured spatiotemporal surface and both were clearly distinct from those for the disparity-based stimuli. These results suggest that for direction discrimination outside the fovea, 3D motion perception primarily relies on the velocity-based cue with little, if any, contribution from the disparity-based cue.

  13. Relationship between thunderstorm electrification and storm kinetics revealed by phased array weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Adachi, T.; Kusunoki, K.; Hayashi, S.; Wu, T.; Ushio, T.; Yoshikawa, E.

    2017-04-01

    We examine 3-D lightning location data and radar data obtained through multiple radar observation stations, including two X-band phased array weather radars (PAWRs), in order to understand the relationship between thunderstorm electrification and storm kinetics. In an investigated convective cell, both intracloud (IC) and cloud-to-ground (CG) flash rates drastically change within 25 min. First, the IC flash rate shows a steep increase with a peak at 10 min-1, and then, the CG flash rate peaks 7 min afterward. During the increase phase of the IC flash rate, the radar observation indicates that the echo top height and updraft echo volume in the upper level increase. The upper positive charge regions removed by IC flashes are located in or near the updraft region at high altitudes. On the contrary, the IC flash rate decreases when the updraft at high altitudes weakens. The IC flash rate is well correlated with a proxy for updraft volume in 1 min interval comparison. These results indicate that the IC flash rate has a strong connection with updraft at high altitudes. The CG flash rate peaks when precipitation particles, probably involving graupel, from high altitudes arrive at approximately the -10°C isotherm level. We speculate that graupel from high altitudes might contribute to the initiations of CG flashes. We show an abrupt ascent of the upper positive charge region involved in IC flashes. PAWR observation results indicate that the updraft might have contributed to the ascent of the upper positive lightning charge region.

  14. High throughput 3D super-resolution microscopy reveals Caulobacter crescentus in vivo Z-ring organization

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Seamus J.; Pengo, Thomas; Meibom, Karin L.; Fernandez Fernandez, Carmen; Collier, Justine; Manley, Suliana

    2014-01-01

    We created a high-throughput modality of photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) that enables automated 3D PALM imaging of hundreds of synchronized bacteria during all stages of the cell cycle. We used high-throughput PALM to investigate the nanoscale organization of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ in live Caulobacter crescentus. We observed that FtsZ predominantly localizes as a patchy midcell band, and only rarely as a continuous ring, supporting a model of “Z-ring” organization whereby FtsZ protofilaments are randomly distributed within the band and interact only weakly. We found evidence for a previously unidentified period of rapid ring contraction in the final stages of the cell cycle. We also found that DNA damage resulted in production of high-density continuous Z-rings, which may obstruct cytokinesis. Our results provide a detailed quantitative picture of in vivo Z-ring organization. PMID:24616530

  15. The 3D crustal structure of Eastern Alps and Bohemian Massif revealed by ambient noise surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Irene; Obermann, Anne; Kissling, Edi; Hetényi, György; AlpArray-EASI Working Group

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Alps are the place of many unsolved questions regarding the tectonic evolution of the Alpine orogen: the nature of the Moho "gap" between the two plates, the anisotropic nature of the lower crust, the relationship between the Alpine orogen and the adjacent foreland basin to the north and the lithospheric blocks of the Bohemian Massif and to the Adria - northern Dinarides in the south. We exploit one year of continuous data recorded at 55 temporary broadband stations operated between 2014 and 2015 within the EASI AlpArray complementary experiment and 200 permanent broadband stations in the area ranging from 8°E to 19°E and from 45°N to 52°N to obtain a 3-D crustal model of this area. In particular, the EASI data allows us to image with high-resolution the shallower part of the crust (from the surface to ˜ 20 km depth). We first construct a database of ambient noise Rayleigh-wave group-velocity observations from 4s to 40s and we conduct a suite of linear least-squares inversions of the group-velocity data, resulting in 2-D maps of Rayleigh-wave group-velocity with a resolution of 20 km. The Rayleigh group-velocity maps are next jointly inverted via the Neighbourhood Algorithm to determine a set of one-dimensional shear-velocity models (one per group-velocity cell of 20km), resulting in a new 3-D model of shear-wave velocity (vS). We present here our firsts results and we compare them with other studies discussing geological/geodynamical implications that contribute to a better understanding of Eastern Alpine tectonics.

  16. Revealing plot scale heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics under contrasting vegetation assemblages using 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a fundamental component of the water cycle that influences many hydrological processes, such as flooding, solute transport, biogeochemical processes, and land-atmosphere interactions. The relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal. Soil moisture may affect vegetation distribution due to its function as the primary source of water, in turn the structure of vegetation canopies regulate water partitioning into interception, throughfall and steam flow. Such spatial differences in inputs, together with complex patterns of water uptake from distributed root networks can create marked heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics at small scales. Traditional methods of monitoring soil moisture have revolved around limited point measurements, but improved geophysical techniques have facilitated a trend towards more spatially distributed measurements to help understand this heterogeneity. Here, we present a study using 3D ERT surveys in a 3.2km upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands where increasing afforestation (for climate change adaptation, biofuels and conservation) has the potential to increase interception losses and reduce soil moisture storage. The study combined 3D surveys, traditional point measurements and laboratory analysis of soil cores to assess the plot scale soil moisture dynamics in podzolic soils under forest stands of 15m high Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and adjacent non-forest plots dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris) shrubs (<0.5m high). These dominant species are typical of forest and non-forest vegetation communities the Scottish Highlands. Results showed differences in the soil moisture dynamics under the different vegetation types, with heterogeneous patterns in the forested site mainly correlated with canopy cover and mirroring interception losses. Temporal variability in the forested site was greater, probably due to the interception, and increased evapotranspiration losses relative to the

  17. Crustal and Uppermost Mantle Structure of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco Revealed from 3-D Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyan, D.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Ledo, J.; Siniscalchi, A.; Romano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The overarching objectives of the second phase of the PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) project and the concomitant TopoMed (Plate re-organization in the western Mediterranean: Lithospheric causes and topographic consequences - an ESF EUROSCORES TOPO-EUROPE project) project are (i) to provide new electrical conductivity constraints on the crustal and lithospheric structures of the Atlas Mountains, and (ii) to test the hypotheses for explaining the observation of a 'missing' mantle root inferred from surface heat flow, gravity and geoid anomalies, elevation and seismic data modeling (i.e. Zeyen et al., 2005; Teixell et al., 2005; Fullea et al., 2010). We present the results from three-dimensional (3-D) MT inversion of data from two MT profiles employing the parallel version of Modular system for Electromagnetic inversion (ModEM; Egbert & Kelbert, 2012) code. For the profile in eastern Morocco, passing through Midelt, a distinct conductivity difference between the Middle-High Atlas (conductive) and Anti Atlas (resistive) correlates with the South Atlas Front fault, the depth extent of which appears to be limited to the uppermost mantle (approximately 55 km). In all inverse solutions, the crust and the upper mantle show a resistive signature (750 Ωm - 1,000 Ωm) beneath the Anti Atlas to a depth of 100 km, which is the part of stable West African Craton. Our results are at variance with the proposed thin lithosphere beneath the Middle-High Atlas as we see no evidence for a shallow asthenosphere. Our second profile lies in western Morocco traversing through Marrakech. For the first time, the electrical resistivity distribution in the crust and in the upper mantle of Western High Atlas has been studied. Our 3-D resistivity model shows that conductive (1-20 Ωm) western High Atlas is confined by two resistive basins (>1,000 Ωm), Souss basin to the south and Houz basin to the north. At the southern boundary of the western High Atlas

  18. Microfluidic Gradients Reveal Enhanced Neurite Outgrowth but Impaired Guidance within 3D Matrices with High Integrin Ligand Densities

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Nicole H.; Lampe, Kyle J.; Xu, Hui; Ferreira, Meghaan M.

    2015-01-01

    The density of integrin-binding ligands in an extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to regulate cell migration speed by imposing a balance of traction forces between the leading and trailing edges of the cell, but the effect of cell-adhesive ligands on neurite chemoattraction is not well understood. We present a platform that combines gradient-generating microfluidic devices with three-dimensional (3D) protein-engineered hydrogels to study the effect of RGD ligand density on neurite pathfinding from chick dorsal root ganglia-derived spheroids. Spheroids are encapsulated in elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) hydrogels presenting either 3.2 or 1.6 mM RGD ligands and exposed to a microfluidic gradient of nerve growth factor (NGF). While the higher ligand density matrix enhanced neurite initiation and persistence of neurite outgrowth, the lower ligand density matrix significantly improved neurite pathfinding and increased the frequency of growth cone turning up the NGF gradient. The apparent trade-off between neurite extension and neurite guidance is reminiscent of the well-known parabolic relationship between cell adhesion and migration speed, implying that a similar matrix-mediated balance of forces regulate neurite elongation and growth cone turning. These results have implications in the design of engineered materials for in vitro models of neural tissue and in vivo nerve guidance channels. PMID:25315156

  19. Multifunctional bioscaffolds for 3D culture of melanoma cells reveal increased MMP activity and migration with BRAF kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Leight, Jennifer L; Tokuda, Emi Y; Jones, Caitlin E; Lin, Austin J; Anseth, Kristi S

    2015-04-28

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important for many different types of cancer-related processes, including metastasis. Understanding the functional impact of changes in MMP activity during cancer treatment is an important facet not typically evaluated as part of preclinical research. With MMP activity being a critical component of the metastatic cascade, we designed a 3D hydrogel system to probe whether pharmacological inhibition affected human melanoma cell proteolytic activity; metastatic melanoma is a highly aggressive and drug-resistant form of skin cancer. The relationship between MMP activity and drug treatment is unknown, and therefore we used an in situ fluorogenic MMP sensor peptide to determine how drug treatment affects melanoma cell MMP activity in three dimensions. We encapsulated melanoma cells from varying stages of progression within PEG-based hydrogels to examine the relationship between drug treatment and MMP activity. From these results, a metastatic melanoma cell line (A375) and two inhibitors that inhibit RAF (PLX4032 and sorafenib) were studied further to determine whether changes in MMP activity led to a functional change in cell behavior. A375 cells exhibited increased MMP activity despite an overall decrease in metabolic activity with PLX4032 treatment. The changes in proteolytic activity correlated with increased cell elongation and increased single-cell migration. In contrast, sorafenib did not alter MMP activity or cell motility, showing that the changes induced by PLX4032 were not a universal response to small-molecule inhibition. Therefore, we argue the importance of studying MMP activity with drug treatment and its possible implications for unwanted side effects.

  20. Integration of comprehensive 3D microCT and signaling analysis reveals differential regulatory mechanisms of craniofacial bone development

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Thach-Vu; Iwata, Junichi; Ho, Hoang Anh; Grimes, Weston C.; Park, Shery; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Growth factor signaling regulates tissue-tissue interactions to control organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Specifically, transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling plays a crucial role in the development of cranial neural crest (CNC) cell–derived bone, and loss of Tgfbr2 in CNC cells results in craniofacial skeletal malformations. Our recent studies indicate that non-canonical TGFβ signaling is activated whereas canonical TGFβ signaling is compromised in the absence of Tgfbr2 (in Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre mice). A haploinsufficiency of Tgfbr1 (aka Alk5) (Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre;Alk5fl/+) largely rescues craniofacial deformities in Tgfbr2 mutant mice by reducing ectopic non-canonical TGFβ signaling. However, the relative involvement of canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signaling in regulating specific craniofacial bone formation remains unclear. We compared the size and volume of CNC–derived craniofacial bones (frontal bone, premaxilla, maxilla, palatine bone, and mandible) from E18.5 control, Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre, and Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre;Alk5fl/+ mice. By analyzing three dimensional (3D) micro-computed tomography (microCT) images, we found that different craniofacial bones were restored to different degrees in Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre;Alk5fl/+ mice. Our study provides comprehensive information on anatomical landmarks and the size and volume of each craniofacial bone, as well as insights into the extent that canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signaling cascades contribute to the formation of each CNC–derived bone. Our data will serve as an important resource for developmental biologists who are interested in craniofacial morphogenesis. PMID:25722190

  1. Solar Wind Heating as Revealed from the Variation of 3D Ion Velocity Distributions across the Magnetic Reconnection Exhaust Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection within current sheet has been regarded as one of the crucial dissipation and heating processes of coherent structures in the solar wind turbulence. Counter-streaming of ions is an important phenomenon in the reconnection exhaust region ranged from the ion diffusion region to the extended outflow region. It has been suggested by theoretical and numerical models that the ions are going to be picked up by the ejecting magnetic field and show larger T_perpendicular than T_parallel, if the guide field is strong enough (in other word, the shear angle is relatively low). The pick-up behavior seems to favor the heating of heavy ions with high mass-to-charge ratio, since the high M/Q ions have larger gyro-period/transit-time and tend to be non-adiabatic more easily. The above statements from theoretical models have not been thoroughly testified in the solar wind observations, though the changes in total temperature and 1D reduced velocity distribution function had been studied. Until now, it remains unclear about the difference of full 3D velocity distribution for the proton and helium ions between the upstream and the exhaust regions. Here, we will analyze the plasma measurement data from WIND/3DP to explore and compare the parallel and perpendicular heating effect of different species of ions. As a preliminary result, the proton is found to show bi-directional streams in its velocity distribution in some reconnection exhaust regions. The thermalization of the counter-streaming protons will be presented. The relation between proton T_parallel/T_perpendicular and guide field strength (or shear angle) will be studied. The velocity distributions of helium ions will be illustrated, which shows the difference of heating effect between different M/Q ratios.

  2. Revealing the z ~ 2.5 Cosmic Web with 3D Lyα Forest Tomography: a Deformation Tensor Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; White, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Studies of cosmological objects should take into account their positions within the cosmic web of large-scale structure. Unfortunately, the cosmic web has only been extensively mapped at low redshifts (z\\lt 1), using galaxy redshifts as tracers of the underlying density field. At z\\gt 1, the required galaxy densities are inaccessible for the foreseeable future, but 3D reconstructions of Lyα forest absorption in closely separated background QSOs and star-forming galaxies already offer a detailed window into z˜ 2-3 large-scale structure. We quantify the utility of such maps for studying the cosmic web by using realistic z = 2.5 Lyα forest simulations matched to observational properties of upcoming surveys. A deformation tensor-based analysis is used to classify voids, sheets, filaments, and nodes in the flux, which are compared to those determined from the underlying dark matter (DM) field. We find an extremely good correspondence, with 70% of the volume in the flux maps correctly classified relative to the DM web, and 99% classified to within one eigenvalue. This compares favorably to the performance of galaxy-based classifiers with even the highest galaxy densities from low-redshift surveys. We find that narrow survey geometries can degrade the recovery of the cosmic web unless the survey is ≳ 60 {h}-1 {Mpc} or ≳ 1 deg on the sky. We also examine halo abundances as a function of the cosmic web, and find a clear dependence as a function of flux overdensity, but little explicit dependence on the cosmic web. These methods will provide a new window on cosmological environments of galaxies at this very special time in galaxy formation, “high noon,” and on overall properties of cosmological structures at this epoch.

  3. 3D gravity inversion and thermodynamic modelling reveal properties of shallow silicic magma reservoir beneath Laguna del Maule, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Fournier, Dominique; Witter, Jeff

    2017-02-01

    Active, large volume, silicic magma systems are potentially the most hazardous form of volcanism on Earth. Knowledge of the location, size, and physical properties of silicic magma reservoirs, is therefore important for providing context in which to accurately interpret monitoring data and make informed hazard assessments. Accordingly, we present the first geophysical image of the Laguna del Maule volcanic field magmatic system, using a novel 3D inversion of gravity data constrained by thermodynamic modelling. The joint analysis of gravity and thermodynamic data allows for a rich interpretation of the magma system, and highlights the importance of considering the full thermodynamic effects on melt density, when interpreting gravity models of active magmatic systems. We image a 30 km3, low density, volatile rich magma reservoir, at around 2 km depth, containing at least 85% melt, hosted within a broader 115 km3 body interpreted as wholly or partially crystallised (>70% crystal) cumulate mush. Our model suggests a magmatic system with shallow, crystal poor magma, overlying deeper, crystal rich magma. Even though a large density contrast (-600 kg/m3) with the surrounding crust exists, the lithostatic load is 50% greater than the magma buoyancy force, suggesting buoyancy alone is insufficient to trigger an eruption. The reservoir is adjacent to the inferred extension of the Troncoso fault and overlies the location of an intruding sill, driving present day deformation. The reservoir is in close proximity to the 2.0 km3 Nieblas (rln) eruption at 2-3 ka, which we calculate tapped approximately 7% of the magma reservoir. However, we suggest that the present day magma system is not large enough to have fed all post-glacial eruptions, and that the location, or size of the system may have migrated or varied over time, with each eruption tapping only a small aliquot of the available magma. The presence of a shallow reservoir of volatile rich, near liquidus magma, in close

  4. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolic stability of primary human hepatocytes in long-term 3D spheroid cultures revealed by a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Vorrink, Sabine U; Ullah, Shahid; Schmidt, Staffan; Nandania, Jatin; Velagapudi, Vidya; Beck, Olof; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Lauschke, Volker M

    2017-03-06

    Adverse reactions or lack of response to medications are important concerns for drug development programs. However, faithful predictions of drug metabolism and toxicity are difficult because animal models show only limited translatability to humans. Furthermore, current in vitro systems, such as hepatic cell lines or primary human hepatocyte (PHH) 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures, can be used only for acute toxicity tests because of their immature phenotypes and inherent instability. Therefore, the migration to novel phenotypically stable models is of prime importance for the pharmaceutical industry. Novel 3-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been shown to accurately mimic in vivo hepatic phenotypes on transcriptomic and proteomic level, but information about their metabolic stability is lacking. Using a combination of targeted and untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry, we found that PHHs in 3D spheroid cultures remained metabolically stable for multiple weeks, whereas metabolic patterns of PHHs from the same donors cultured as conventional 2D monolayers rapidly deteriorated. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic differences between donors were maintained in 3D spheroid cultures, enabling studies of interindividual variability in drug metabolism and toxicity. We conclude that the 3D spheroid system is metabolically stable and constitutes a suitable model for in vitro studies of long-term drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics.-Vorrink, S. U., Ullah, S., Schmid, S., Nandania, J., Velagapudi, V., Beck, O., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., Lauschke, V. M. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolic stability of primary human hepatocytes in long-term 3D spheroid cultures revealed by a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics.

  5. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolic stability of primary human hepatocytes in long-term 3D spheroid cultures revealed by a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Vorrink, Sabine U.; Ullah, Shahid; Schmidt, Staffan; Nandania, Jatin; Velagapudi, Vidya; Beck, Olof; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Lauschke, Volker M.

    2017-01-01

    Adverse reactions or lack of response to medications are important concerns for drug development programs. However, faithful predictions of drug metabolism and toxicity are difficult because animal models show only limited translatability to humans. Furthermore, current in vitro systems, such as hepatic cell lines or primary human hepatocyte (PHH) 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures, can be used only for acute toxicity tests because of their immature phenotypes and inherent instability. Therefore, the migration to novel phenotypically stable models is of prime importance for the pharmaceutical industry. Novel 3-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been shown to accurately mimic in vivo hepatic phenotypes on transcriptomic and proteomic level, but information about their metabolic stability is lacking. Using a combination of targeted and untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry, we found that PHHs in 3D spheroid cultures remained metabolically stable for multiple weeks, whereas metabolic patterns of PHHs from the same donors cultured as conventional 2D monolayers rapidly deteriorated. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic differences between donors were maintained in 3D spheroid cultures, enabling studies of interindividual variability in drug metabolism and toxicity. We conclude that the 3D spheroid system is metabolically stable and constitutes a suitable model for in vitro studies of long-term drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics.—Vorrink, S. U., Ullah, S., Schmid, S., Nandania, J., Velagapudi, V., Beck, O., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., Lauschke, V. M. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolic stability of primary human hepatocytes in long-term 3D spheroid cultures revealed by a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics. PMID:28264975

  6. Protomylonite evolution potentially revealed by the 3D depiction and fractal analysis of chemical data from a feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słaby, Ewa; Domonik, Andrzej; Śmigielski, Michał; Majzner, Katarzyna; Motuza, Gediminas; Götze, Jens; Simon, Klaus; Moszumańska, Izabela; Kruszewski, Łukasz; Rydelek, Paweł

    2014-04-01

    An alkali feldspar megacryst from a protomylonite has been studied using laser ablation-ICP-mass spectrometry combined with cathodoluminescence imaging, Raman spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. The aim was to determine the original (magmatic) geochemical pattern of the crystal and the changes introduced by protomylonitization. Digital concentration-distribution models, derivative gradient models, and fractal statistics, e.g., Hurst-exponent values are used in a novel way to reveal subtle changes in the trace-element composition of the feldspar. Formation of the crystal is reflected in a slightly chaotic trace-element (Ba, Sr, and Rb) distribution pattern that is more or less characterized by continuous development from a fairly homogeneous environment. Derivative gradient models demonstrate a microdomain pattern. Fractal statistics show that element behavior was changeable, with Ba and Sr always more persistent (continuing) and Rb always less persistent, with the latter showing a tendency to migrate. The variations in the Hurst exponent are, however, too large to be explained by magmatic differentiation alone. The observed element behavior may be explained by structural changes revealed by Raman spectroscopy and CL. In high-strain domains, T-O-T modes become stronger for Si-O-Al than Al-O-Al linkages. Increasing amounts of Al-O--Al defects are demonstrated by cathodoluminescence. Both may result from small-distance diffusion creep, making the crystal geochemical pattern slightly patchy. In turn, the marginal part of the megacryst has a mosaic of randomly orientated, newly crystallized K-feldspars. The re-growth is confirmed by trace-element distribution patterns and fractal statistics which identify an abrupt change in the transformation environment. The novel set of tools used in this study reveals a complicated history of megacryst formation and transformation that otherwise would be difficult to unravel and decipher.

  7. 3-D Imaging Reveals Participation of Donor Islet Schwann Cells and Pericytes in Islet Transplantation and Graft Neurovascular Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Peng, Shih-Jung; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    The primary cells that participate in islet transplantation are the endocrine cells. However, in the islet microenvironment, the endocrine cells are closely associated with the neurovascular tissues consisting of the Schwann cells and pericytes, which form sheaths/barriers at the islet exterior and interior borders. The two cell types have shown their plasticity in islet injury, but their roles in transplantation remain unclear. In this research, we applied 3-dimensional neurovascular histology with cell tracing to reveal the participation of Schwann cells and pericytes in mouse islet transplantation. Longitudinal studies of the grafts under the kidney capsule identify that the donor Schwann cells and pericytes re-associate with the engrafted islets at the peri-graft and perivascular domains, respectively, indicating their adaptability in transplantation. Based on the morphological proximity and cellular reactivity, we propose that the new islet microenvironment should include the peri-graft Schwann cell sheath and perivascular pericytes as an integral part of the new tissue.

  8. Unexpected Regularity in Swimming Behavior of Clausocalanus furcatus Revealed by a Telecentric 3D Computer Vision System

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Giuseppe; Botte, Vincenzo; Dubroca, Laurent; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio; Mazzocchi, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Planktonic copepods display a large repertoire of motion behaviors in a three-dimensional environment. Two-dimensional video observations demonstrated that the small copepod Clausocalanus furcatus, one the most widely distributed calanoids at low to medium latitudes, presented a unique swimming behavior that was continuous and fast and followed notably convoluted trajectories. Furthermore, previous observations indicated that the motion of C. furcatus resembled a random process. We characterized the swimming behavior of this species in three-dimensional space using a video system equipped with telecentric lenses, which allow tracking of zooplankton without the distortion errors inherent in common lenses. Our observations revealed unexpected regularities in the behavior of C. furcatus that appear primarily in the horizontal plane and could not have been identified in previous observations based on lateral views. Our results indicate that the swimming behavior of C. furcatus is based on a limited repertoire of basic kinematic modules but exhibits greater plasticity than previously thought. PMID:23826331

  9. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  10. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D'Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-06-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics.

  11. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D’Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate ‘space-frame’ skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics. PMID:18510503

  12. A Computer-Assisted 3D Model for Analyzing the Aggregation of Tumorigenic Cells Reveals Specialized Behaviors and Unique Cell Types that Facilitate Aggregate Coalescence

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Amanda; Kuhl, Spencer; Wessels, Deborah; Lusche, Daniel F.; Hanson, Brett; Ambrose, Joseph; Voss, Edward; Fletcher, Emily; Goldman, Charles; Soll, David R.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a 4D computer-assisted reconstruction and motion analysis system, J3D-DIAS 4.1, and applied it to the reconstruction and motion analysis of tumorigenic cells in a 3D matrix. The system is unique in that it is fast, high-resolution, acquires optical sections using DIC microscopy (hence there is no associated photoxicity), and is capable of long-term 4D reconstruction. Specifically, a z-series at 5 μm increments can be acquired in less than a minute on tissue samples embedded in a 1.5 mm thick 3D Matrigel matrix. Reconstruction can be repeated at intervals as short as every minute and continued for 30 days or longer. Images are converted to mathematical representations from which quantitative parameters can be derived. Application of this system to cancer cells from established lines and fresh tumor tissue has revealed unique behaviors and cell types not present in non-tumorigenic lines. We report here that cells from tumorigenic lines and tumors undergo rapid coalescence in 3D, mediated by specific cell types that we have named “facilitators” and “probes.” A third cell type, the “dervish”, is capable of rapid movement through the gel and does not adhere to it. These cell types have never before been described. Our data suggest that tumorigenesis in vitro is a developmental process involving coalescence facilitated by specialized cells that culminates in large hollow spheres with complex architecture. The unique effects of select monoclonal antibodies on these processes demonstrate the usefulness of the model for analyzing the mechanisms of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:25790299

  13. A computer-assisted 3D model for analyzing the aggregation of tumorigenic cells reveals specialized behaviors and unique cell types that facilitate aggregate coalescence.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Amanda; Kuhl, Spencer; Wessels, Deborah; Lusche, Daniel F; Hanson, Brett; Ambrose, Joseph; Voss, Edward; Fletcher, Emily; Goldman, Charles; Soll, David R

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a 4D computer-assisted reconstruction and motion analysis system, J3D-DIAS 4.1, and applied it to the reconstruction and motion analysis of tumorigenic cells in a 3D matrix. The system is unique in that it is fast, high-resolution, acquires optical sections using DIC microscopy (hence there is no associated photoxicity), and is capable of long-term 4D reconstruction. Specifically, a z-series at 5 μm increments can be acquired in less than a minute on tissue samples embedded in a 1.5 mm thick 3D Matrigel matrix. Reconstruction can be repeated at intervals as short as every minute and continued for 30 days or longer. Images are converted to mathematical representations from which quantitative parameters can be derived. Application of this system to cancer cells from established lines and fresh tumor tissue has revealed unique behaviors and cell types not present in non-tumorigenic lines. We report here that cells from tumorigenic lines and tumors undergo rapid coalescence in 3D, mediated by specific cell types that we have named "facilitators" and "probes." A third cell type, the "dervish", is capable of rapid movement through the gel and does not adhere to it. These cell types have never before been described. Our data suggest that tumorigenesis in vitro is a developmental process involving coalescence facilitated by specialized cells that culminates in large hollow spheres with complex architecture. The unique effects of select monoclonal antibodies on these processes demonstrate the usefulness of the model for analyzing the mechanisms of anti-cancer drugs.

  14. 3D gravity modelling reveals off-axis crustal thickness variations along the western Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita C.; Jokat, Wilfried

    2016-11-01

    Near-orthogonal ultra-slow (13.3 mm yr- 1 to 6.5 mm yr- 1) sea floor spreading in the absence of large transform faults make the Arctic Gakkel Ridge ideally suited for the study of magmatic processes. To enable this, we generated a three-dimensional gravity model of crustal thickness over the ridge and parts of the adjacent Nansen and Amundsen basins west of 65° E. The model shows that oceanic crust accreted prior to chrons C5/C6 is generally very thin (1-3 km). Magnetic anomalies over this thin crust are highly variable both parallel and perpendicular to the ridge axis. This is the result of amagmatic or weakly volcanic spreading that started with the opening of the basins 56 Ma ago. The separation of Greenland from Svalbard at chron C5/C6 led to the inflow of North Atlantic mantle into the western Eurasia Basin leading to a change in the mantle convection system and the establishment of a magmatic dichotomy along the Gakkel Ridge. Robust magmatism was established in the Western Volcanic Zone (6° 30‧ W-3° 30‧ E), leading to creation of a 6.6 km thick igneous crust, characterized by a strong positive axial magnetic anomaly, numerous volcanic cones, and widespread thick mid-ocean ridge basalts. The transition to the neighbouring Sparsely Magmatic (3° 30‧ E-29° E) and Eastern Volcanic (29° E-85° E) zones is sharp. Peridotites cover the central valley and the inner rift flanks, the central magnetic anomaly vanishes and crustal thickness decreases to 1-4 km. Transverse basement ridges, extending for as much as 100 km into the adjacent basins, intersect the central valley. Although partly of tectonic origin, the transverse ridges are also an expression of long-living magmatic centres, as revealed by increased magnetic anomaly intensities and local thickening of the crust to values as great as 5.9 km.

  15. Mutational analyses reveal that the staphylococcal immune evasion molecule Sbi and complement receptor 2 (CR2) share overlapping contact residues on C3d: implications for the controversy regarding the CR2/C3d cocrystal structure.

    PubMed

    Isenman, David E; Leung, Elisa; Mackay, Julia D; Bagby, Stefan; van den Elsen, Jean M H

    2010-02-15

    We recently characterized an interaction between the Staphylococcus aureus immune evasion molecule Staphylococcus aureus binder of Ig (Sbi) and complement C3, an interaction mediated primarily through the binding of C3d(g) to Sbi domain IV. Events related to these studies prompted us to investigate via mutagenesis the binding interface of C3d for Sbi domain IV (Sbi-IV), as well as to revisit the controversial issue of the complement receptor 2 (CR2) binding site of C3d. Specifically, we had shown that Sbi domains III and IV fragment binding to C3dg inhibited the latter's binding to CR2. Moreover, a published cocrystal structure of C3d bound to complement inhibitory C-terminal domain of extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb-C), a structural and functional homolog of Sbi-IV, showed Efb-C binding to a region on the concave face of C3d previously implicated in CR2 binding by our mutagenesis data but not confirmed in the CR2(short consensus repeat [SCR]1-2):C3d cocrystal structure. We have now analyzed by surface plasmon resonance the binding of a series of variant C3dg molecules to biosensor-bound Sbi-IV or CR2(SCR1-2). We found that mutations to the concave face acidic pocket of C3d significantly affected binding to both Sbi-IV and CR2, although there was divergence in which residues were most important in each case. By contrast, no binding defects were seen for mutations made to the sideface of C3d implicated from the cocrystal structure to be involved in binding CR2(SCR1-2). The results with Sbi-IV suggest a mode of binding highly similar to that visualized in the Efb-C:C3d complex. The results with CR2 confirm our earlier mapping studies and cast even further doubt on the physiologic relevance of the complex visualized in the C3d:CR2 cocrystal.

  16. Reconstructed storm tracks reveal three centuries of changing moisture delivery to North America

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Erika K.; Dannenberg, Matthew P.

    2017-01-01

    Moisture delivery to western North America is closely linked to variability in the westerly storm tracks of midlatitude cyclones, which are, in turn, modified by larger-scale features such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation system. Instrumental and modeling data suggest that extratropical storm tracks may be intensifying and shifting poleward due to anthropogenic climate change, but it is difficult to separate recent trends from natural variability because of the large amount of decadal and longer variation in storm tracks and their limited instrumental record. We reconstruct cool-season, midlatitude Pacific storm-track position and intensity from 1693 to 1995 CE using existing tree-ring chronologies along with a network of newly developed chronologies from the U.S. Pacific Northwest, where small variations in storm-track position can have a major influence on hydroclimate patterns. Our results show high interannual-to-multidecadal variability in storm-track position and intensity over the past 303 years, with spectral signatures characteristic of tropical and northern Pacific influences. Comparison with reconstructions of precipitation and tropical sea surface temperature confirms the relationship between shifting drought patterns in the Pacific Northwest and storm-track variability through time and demonstrates the long-term influence of El Niño. These results allow us to place recent storm-track changes in the context of decadal and multidecadal fluctuations across the long-term record, showing that recent changes in storm-track intensity likely represent a warming-related increase amplified by natural decadal variability. PMID:28630900

  17. Reconstructed storm tracks reveal three centuries of changing moisture delivery to North America.

    PubMed

    Wise, Erika K; Dannenberg, Matthew P

    2017-06-01

    Moisture delivery to western North America is closely linked to variability in the westerly storm tracks of midlatitude cyclones, which are, in turn, modified by larger-scale features such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation system. Instrumental and modeling data suggest that extratropical storm tracks may be intensifying and shifting poleward due to anthropogenic climate change, but it is difficult to separate recent trends from natural variability because of the large amount of decadal and longer variation in storm tracks and their limited instrumental record. We reconstruct cool-season, midlatitude Pacific storm-track position and intensity from 1693 to 1995 CE using existing tree-ring chronologies along with a network of newly developed chronologies from the U.S. Pacific Northwest, where small variations in storm-track position can have a major influence on hydroclimate patterns. Our results show high interannual-to-multidecadal variability in storm-track position and intensity over the past 303 years, with spectral signatures characteristic of tropical and northern Pacific influences. Comparison with reconstructions of precipitation and tropical sea surface temperature confirms the relationship between shifting drought patterns in the Pacific Northwest and storm-track variability through time and demonstrates the long-term influence of El Niño. These results allow us to place recent storm-track changes in the context of decadal and multidecadal fluctuations across the long-term record, showing that recent changes in storm-track intensity likely represent a warming-related increase amplified by natural decadal variability.

  18. Topographic signatures of spatially-limited storm morphologies revealed from numerical landscape evolution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valters, Declan; Brocklehurst, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Landscape evolution models typically forsake realistic spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall, assuming spatially uniform rainfall input and steady-state runoff conditions. The implications of this assumption are explored, using extensions made to the CHILD numerical landscape evolution model. A variety of rainfall distribution patterns are tested - from isolated intense storm cells associated with convective precipitation, to more extensive rainfall patterns associated with frontal or stratiform types of precipitation. Several topographic metrics are used to quantify the imprint left by variations in dominant storm shape and size, including the channel steepness (ksn) and chi (χ) gradient indices. All else being equal, resultant landscape topography is shown to be sensitive to the dominant storm morphology and storm cell positioning at the range and catchment scales.

  19. Stratigraphic architecture and fault offsets of alluvial terraces at Te Marua, Wellington fault, New Zealand, revealed by pseudo-3D GPR investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauprêtre, S.; Manighetti, I.; Garambois, S.; Malavieille, J.; Dominguez, S.

    2013-08-01

    earthquake slips on faults are commonly determined by measuring morphological offsets at current ground surface. Because those offsets might not always be well preserved, we examine whether the first 10 m below ground surface contains relevant information to complement them. We focus on the Te Marua site, New Zealand, where 11 alluvial terraces have been dextrally offset by the Wellington fault. We investigated the site using pseudo-3D Ground Penetrating Radar and also produced a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the zone to constrain the surface slip record. The GPR data reveal additional information: (1) they image the 3D stratigraphic architecture of the seven youngest terraces and show that they are strath terraces carved into graywacke bedrock. Each strath surface is overlain by 3-5 m of horizontally bedded gravel sheets, including two pronounced and traceable reflectors; (2) thanks to the multilayer architecture, terrace risers and channels are imaged at three depths and their lateral offsets can be measured three to four times, constraining respective offsets and their uncertainties more reliably; and (3) the offsets are better preserved in the subsurface than at the ground surface, likely due to subsequent erosion-deposition on the latter. From surface and subsurface data, we infer that Te Marua has recorded six cumulative offsets of 2.9, 7.6, 18, 23.2, 26, and 31 m (± 1-2 m). Large earthquakes on southern Wellington fault might produce 3-5 m of slip, slightly less than previously proposed. Pseudo-3D GPR thus provides a novel paleoseismological tool to complement and refine surface investigations.

  20. A spectrophotometer-based diffusivity assay reveals that diffusion hindrance of small molecules in extracellular matrix gels used in 3D cultures is dominated by viscous effects.

    PubMed

    Galgoczy, Roland; Pastor, Isabel; Colom, Adai; Giménez, Alicia; Mas, Francesc; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    The design of 3D culture studies remains challenging due to the limited understanding of extracellular matrix (ECM)-dependent hindered diffusion and the lack of simple diffusivity assays. To address these limitations, we set up a cost-effective diffusivity assay based on a Transwell plate and the spectrophotometer of a Microplate Reader, which are readily accessible to cell biology groups. The spectrophotometer-based assay was used to assess the apparent diffusivity D of FITC-dextrans with molecular weight (4-70kDa) spanning the physiological range of signaling factors in a panel of acellular ECM gels including Matrigel, fibrin and type I collagen. Despite their technical differences, D data exhibited ∼15% relative difference with respect to FRAP measurements. Our results revealed that diffusion hindrance of small particles is controlled by the enhanced viscosity of the ECM gel in conformance with the Stokes-Einstein equation rather than by geometrical factors. Moreover, we provided a strong rationale that the enhanced ECM viscosity is largely contributed to by unassembled ECM macromolecules. We also reported that gels with the lowest D exhibited diffusion hindrance closest to the large physiologic hindrance of brain tissue, which has a typical pore size much smaller than ECM gels. Conversely, sparse gels (≤1mg/ml), which are extensively used in 3D cultures, failed to reproduce the hindered diffusion of tissues, thereby supporting that dense (but not sparse) ECM gels are suitable tissue surrogates in terms of macromolecular transport. Finally, the consequences of reduced diffusivity in terms of optimizing the design of 3D culture experiments were addressed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New constraints on the 3D shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle underneath Southern Scandinavia revealed from non-linear tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawerzinek, B.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Roy, C.

    2013-08-01

    We analyse travel times of shear waves, which were recorded at the MAGNUS network, to determine the 3D shear wave velocity (vS) structure underneath Southern Scandinavia. The travel time residuals are corrected for the known crustal structure of Southern Norway and weighted to account for data quality and pick uncertainties. The resulting residual pattern of subvertically incident waves is very uniform and simple. It shows delayed arrivals underneath Southern Norway compared to fast arrivals underneath the Oslo Graben and the Baltic Shield. The 3D upper mantle vS structure underneath the station network is determined by performing non-linear travel time tomography. As expected from the residual pattern the resulting tomographic model shows a simple and continuous vS perturbation pattern: a negative vS anomaly is visible underneath Southern Norway relative to the Baltic Shield in the east with a contrast of up to 4% vS and a sharp W-E dipping transition zone. Reconstruction tests reveal besides vertical smearing a good lateral reconstruction of the dipping vS transition zone and suggest that a deep-seated anomaly at 330-410 km depth is real and not an inversion artefact. The upper part of the reduced vS anomaly underneath Southern Norway (down to 250 km depth) might be due to an increase in lithospheric thickness from the Caledonian Southern Scandes in the west towards the Proterozoic Baltic Shield in Sweden in the east. The deeper-seated negative vS anomaly (330-410 km depth) could be caused by a temperature anomaly possibly combined with effects due to fluids or hydrous minerals. The determined simple 3D vS structure underneath Southern Scandinavia indicates that mantle processes might influence and contribute to a Neogene uplift of Southern Norway.

  2. Meta-Analysis that Conceals More than It Reveals: Comment on Storm Et Al. (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010) rely on meta-analyses to justify their claim that the evidence for psi is consistent and reliable. They manufacture apparent homogeneity and consistency by eliminating many outliers and combining databases whose combined effect sizes are not significantly different--even though these combined effect sizes…

  3. Meta-Analysis that Conceals More than It Reveals: Comment on Storm Et Al. (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010) rely on meta-analyses to justify their claim that the evidence for psi is consistent and reliable. They manufacture apparent homogeneity and consistency by eliminating many outliers and combining databases whose combined effect sizes are not significantly different--even though these combined effect sizes…

  4. NMR spectroscopy reveals that RNase A is chiefly denatured in 40% acetic acid: implications for oligomer formation by 3D domain swapping.

    PubMed

    López-Alonso, Jorge Pedro; Bruix, Marta; Font, Josep; Ribó, Marc; Vilanova, Maria; Jiménez, María Angeles; Santoro, Jorge; González, Carlos; Laurents, Douglas V

    2010-02-10

    Protein self-recognition is essential in many biochemical processes and its study is of fundamental interest to understand the molecular mechanism of amyloid formation. Ribonuclease A (RNase A) is a monomeric protein that may form several oligomers by 3D domain swapping of its N-terminal alpha-helix, C-terminal beta-strand, or both. RNase A oligomerization is induced by 40% acetic acid, which has been assumed to mildly unfold the protein by detaching the terminal segments and consequently facilitating intersubunit swapping, once the acetic acid is removed by lyophilization and the protein is redissolved in a benign buffer. Using UV difference, near UV circular dichroism, folding kinetics, and multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy, the conformation of RNase A in 40% acetic acid and in 8 M urea has been characterized. These studies demonstrate that RNase A is chiefly unfolded in 40% acetic acid; it partially retains the native helices, whereas the beta-sheet is fully denatured and all X-Pro peptide bonds are predominantly in the trans conformation. Refolding occurs via an intermediate, I(N), with non-native X-Pro peptide bonds. I(N) is known to be populated during RNase A refolding following denaturation in concentrated solutions of urea or guanidinium chloride, and we find that urea- or GdmCl-denatured RNase A can oligomerize during refolding. By revealing the importance of a chiefly denaturated state and a refolding intermediate with non-native X-Pro peptide bonds, these findings revise the model for RNase A oligomerization via 3D domain swapping and have general implications for amyloid formation.

  5. Quantitative 3D Fluorescence Imaging of Single Catalytic Turnovers Reveals Spatiotemporal Gradients in Reactivity of Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals upon Steaming

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the number, distribution, and accessibility of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite-based catalysts is of a paramount importance to further improve their catalytic performance. However, it remains challenging to measure real-time changes in reactivity of single zeolite catalyst particles by ensemble-averaging characterization methods. In this work, a detailed 3D single molecule, single turnover sensitive fluorescence microscopy study is presented to quantify the reactivity of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals upon steaming. This approach, in combination with the oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol as a probe reaction, allowed the stochastic behavior of single catalytic turnovers and temporally resolved turnover frequencies of zeolite domains smaller than the diffraction limited resolution to be investigated with great precision. It was found that the single turnover kinetics of the parent zeolite crystal proceeds with significant spatial differences in turnover frequencies on the nanoscale and noncorrelated temporal fluctuations. Mild steaming of zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals at 500 °C led to an enhanced surface reactivity, with up to 4 times higher local turnover rates than those of the parent H-ZSM-5 crystals, and revealed remarkable heterogeneities in surface reactivity. In strong contrast, severe steaming at 700 °C significantly dealuminated the zeolite H-ZSM-5 material, leading to a 460 times lower turnover rate. The differences in measured turnover activities are explained by changes in the 3D aluminum distribution due to migration of extraframework Al-species and their subsequent effect on pore accessibility, as corroborated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) sputter depth profiling data. PMID:25867455

  6. Hydrothermal system beneath the crater of Tarumai volcano, Japan: 3-D resistivity structure revealed using audio-magnetotellurics and induction vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaya, Yusuke; Mogi, Toru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Ichihara, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) measurements were recorded in the crater area of Tarumai volcano, northeastern Japan. This survey brought the specific structures beneath the lava dome of Tarumai volcano, enabling us to interpret the relationship between the subsurface structure and fumarolic activity in the vicinity of a lava dome. Three-dimensional resistivity modeling was performed to achieve this purpose. The measured induction vectors pointed toward the center of the dome, implying the topographic effect. However, estimation of the topographic effect showed that the measured vector was not explained only by this effect. This suggested that the distribution of induction vectors still held information of the subsurface structure and could be helpful in determining the geometry of 3-D bodies. The 3-D modeling was based on a quasi-one-dimensional layered structure that included topography. The final model revealed that the andesitic lava dome is characterized by comparatively low resistivity (50 Ωm), and that two conductive bodies (50 and 1-5 Ωm) are present beneath the lava dome. The shallower of these conductors is interpreted as an aquifer, such as a buried crater lake. The deeper, extremely conductive body corresponded to a convecting zone containing rising hydrothermal fluid. The shallower aquifer critically controls the temperature and chemical components of the fumarolic gasses. High-temperature gas supplied from deeper part that encounters the shallow aquifer loses its water-soluble components and heat, resulting in weak and low-temperature fumaroles. In contrast, most of the gas, which ascends outside the area of the shallower aquifer, is released as high-temperature fumaroles. This study provides an insight that the shallow aquifer in the crater area plays a significant role in the property of fumaroles at the volcanic surface.

  7. Site-Specific Internal Motions in GB1 Protein Microcrystals Revealed by 3D 2H–13C–13C Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    2H quadrupolar line shapes deliver rich information about protein dynamics. A newly designed 3D 2H–13C–13C solid-state NMR magic angle spinning (MAS) experiment is presented and demonstrated on the microcrystalline β1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1). The implementation of 2H–13C adiabatic rotor-echo-short-pulse-irradiation cross-polarization (RESPIRATION CP) ensures the accuracy of the extracted line shapes and provides enhanced sensitivity relative to conventional CP methods. The 3D 2H–13C–13C spectrum reveals 2H line shapes for 140 resolved aliphatic deuterium sites. Motional-averaged 2H quadrupolar parameters obtained from the line-shape fitting identify side-chain motions. Restricted side-chain dynamics are observed for a number of polar residues including K13, D22, E27, K31, D36, N37, D46, D47, K50, and E56, which we attribute to the effects of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds. In contrast, we observe significantly enhanced side-chain flexibility for Q2, K4, K10, E15, E19, N35, N40, and E42, due to solvent exposure and low packing density. T11, T16, and T17 side chains exhibit motions with larger amplitudes than other Thr residues due to solvent interactions. The side chains of L5, V54, and V29 are highly rigid because they are packed in the core of the protein. High correlations were demonstrated between GB1 side-chain dynamics and its biological function. Large-amplitude side-chain motions are observed for regions contacting and interacting with immunoglobulin G (IgG). In contrast, rigid side chains are primarily found for residues in the structural core of the protein that are absent from protein binding and interactions. PMID:26849428

  8. Quantitative 3D Fluorescence Imaging of Single Catalytic Turnovers Reveals Spatiotemporal Gradients in Reactivity of Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals upon Steaming.

    PubMed

    Ristanović, Zoran; Hofmann, Jan P; De Cremer, Gert; Kubarev, Alexey V; Rohnke, Marcus; Meirer, Florian; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-05-27

    Optimizing the number, distribution, and accessibility of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite-based catalysts is of a paramount importance to further improve their catalytic performance. However, it remains challenging to measure real-time changes in reactivity of single zeolite catalyst particles by ensemble-averaging characterization methods. In this work, a detailed 3D single molecule, single turnover sensitive fluorescence microscopy study is presented to quantify the reactivity of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals upon steaming. This approach, in combination with the oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol as a probe reaction, allowed the stochastic behavior of single catalytic turnovers and temporally resolved turnover frequencies of zeolite domains smaller than the diffraction limited resolution to be investigated with great precision. It was found that the single turnover kinetics of the parent zeolite crystal proceeds with significant spatial differences in turnover frequencies on the nanoscale and noncorrelated temporal fluctuations. Mild steaming of zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals at 500 °C led to an enhanced surface reactivity, with up to 4 times higher local turnover rates than those of the parent H-ZSM-5 crystals, and revealed remarkable heterogeneities in surface reactivity. In strong contrast, severe steaming at 700 °C significantly dealuminated the zeolite H-ZSM-5 material, leading to a 460 times lower turnover rate. The differences in measured turnover activities are explained by changes in the 3D aluminum distribution due to migration of extraframework Al-species and their subsequent effect on pore accessibility, as corroborated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) sputter depth profiling data.

  9. Trends in reactivity of electrodeposited 3d transition metals on gold revealed by operando soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy during water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Vélez, J. J.; Jones, Travis E.; Pfeifer, Verena; Dong, Chung-Li; Chen, Yu-Xun; Chen, Chieh-Ming; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Lu, Ying-Rui; Chen, Jin-Ming; Schlögl, R.; Knop-Gericke, A.; Chuang, C.-H.

    2017-01-01

    We activated gold electrodes for their use as electrocatalyst for water splitting by electrodepositing Cu, Ni and Co. A combination of operando x-ray absorption spectroscopy and potentiometric control under aqueous conditions revealed the trends in reactivity yielded by these electrodes, which are directly associated with the cross- and overpotentials as well as the occupancy of the 3d orbitals. It was found that under anodic polarization the materials electrodeposited on gold suffer from a lack of stability, while under cathodic polarization they exhibit stable behavior. The observed activity is strongly related to the lack of stability shown by these composites under anodic polarization revealing a dynamic process ruled by corrosion. By operando x-ray absorption, we established that the overall enhancement of the activity for the oxygen evolution reaction is directly attributable to the cross-potential and corrosion process of the electrodeposited materials. It is associated with the high potential deposition, which is the origin of the incipient oxidation-corrosion resistance of the lattice. We conclude that the observed trends in the total current are directly associated with the loss of oxygen in the metal-oxide lattice and the subsequent dissolution of metallic ions in the electrolyte under anodic polarization.

  10. KMOS3D Reveals Low-level Star Formation Activity in Massive Quiescent Galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, Sirio; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Wilman, David J.; Wuyts, Stijn; Mendel, J. Trevor; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Ralf; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Burkert, Andreas; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Rebecca L.; Davies, Ric; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Saglia, Roberto P.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Übler, Hannah; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2017-05-01

    We explore the Hα emission in the massive quiescent galaxies observed by the KMOS3D survey at 0.7 < z < 2.7. The Hα line is robustly detected in 20 out of 120 UVJ-selected quiescent galaxies, and we classify the emission mechanism using the Hα line width and the [N ii]/Hα line ratio. We find that AGNs are likely to be responsible for the line emission in more than half of the cases. We also find robust evidence for star formation activity in nine quiescent galaxies, which we explore in detail. The Hα kinematics reveal rotating disks in five of the nine galaxies. The dust-corrected Hα star formation rates are low (0.2-7 M ⊙ yr-1), and place these systems significantly below the main sequence. The 24 μm-based, infrared luminosities, instead, overestimate the star formation rates. These galaxies present a lower gas-phase metallicity compared to star-forming objects with similar stellar mass, and many of them have close companions. We therefore conclude that the low-level star formation activity in these nine quiescent galaxies is likely to be fueled by inflowing gas or minor mergers, and could be a sign of rejuvenation events. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under programs 092.A-0091, 093.A-0079, 094.A-0217, 095.A-0047, 096.A-0025, and 097.A-0028.

  11. Low velocity crustal flow and crust-mantle coupling mechanism in Yunnan, SE Tibet, revealed by 3D S-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haopeng; Zhu, Liangbao; Su, Youjin

    2016-08-01

    We used teleseismic data recorded by a permanent seismic network in Yunnan, SE Tibet, and measured the interstation Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 10 and 60 s. A two-step inversion scheme was used to invert for the 3D S-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy structure of 10-110 km. The results show that there are two low velocity channels between depths of 20-30 km in Yunnan and that the fast axes are sub-parallel to the strikes of the low velocity channels, which supports the crustal flow model. The azimuthal anisotropy pattern is quite complicated and reveals a complex crust-mantle coupling mechanism in Yunnan. The N-S trending Lüzhijiang Fault separates the Dianzhong Block into two parts. In the western Dianzhong Block, the fast axis of the S-wave changes with depth, which indicates that the crust and the lithospheric mantle are decoupled. In the eastern Dianzhong Block and the western Yangtze Craton, the crust and the lithospheric mantle may be decoupled because of crustal flow, despite a coherent S-wave fast axis at depths of 10-110 km. In addition, the difference between the S-wave fast axis in the lithosphere and the SKS splitting measurement suggests that the lithosphere and the upper mantle are decoupled there. In the Baoshan Block, the stratified anisotropic pattern suggests that the crust and the upper mantle are decoupled.

  12. 3D cone-sheet and crystal-settling models reveal magma-reservoir structure of the Carlingford central complex, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauroth, Jenny; Burchardt, Steffi; Meade, Fiona; Troll, Valentin R.

    2014-05-01

    The Palaeogene Carlingford central complex, northeast Ireland, hosts a swarm of mostly basaltic cone-sheets with several lithological subsets (Halsall, 1974). The two most abundant sets are aphyric and highly porphyritic cone-sheets with up to 80% of cm-sized plagioclase phenocrysts. The abundance of highly porphyritic cone-sheets seems to systematically increase with altitude compared to the aphyric type (Meade, 2008). We hypothesised that this observation might be explained by the zonation of the source magma reservoir. In order to test this hypothesis, we modelled the 3D cone-sheet structure at depth and the settling of plagioclase phenocrysts. The 3D model of the Carlingford cone-sheet swarm reveals that lithological types of Carlingford cone-sheets are not systematically distributed in space. Using the method proposed by Burchardt et al. (2013), we constructed the likely source reservoir of the cone-sheets, which is saucer-shaped, elongated in NW direction, 7 km long and 3 km wide, and located at a depth of 1 km below the present-day land surface. Our calculation of the terminal velocity of the plagioclase phenocrysts shows that the large phenocrysts in the porphyritic cone-sheets were too big to float at the conditions present in the Carlingford magma reservoir. We can therefore exclude vertical magma-chamber stratification as an explanation for the formation and distribution of porphyritic and aphyric cone-sheets. Instead, we envisage the formation of a crystal mush at the base and sides of the Carlingford magma reservoir. Cone-sheet injection and magma-cha,ber replenishments have remobilised plagioclase cumulates, which may explain the occurrence and distribution of aphyric and highly porphyritic cone-sheets. REFERENCES Burchardt, S., Troll, V. R., Mathieu, L., Emeleus, H. C., Donaldson, C., 2013, Scientific Reports 3, 2891. Halsall, T.J., 1974, The minor intrusions and structure of the Carlingford complex, Eire (PhD thesis): University of Leicester. Meade

  13. Tropical Storm Faxai

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA/JAXA's TRMM Satellite provided data of developing Tropical Storm Faxai to make this 3-D image that showed some towering thunderstorms in the area were reaching altitudes of up to 15.5km/~9.6 m...

  14. A 3D in situ cell counter reveals that breast tumor cell (MDA-MB-231) proliferation rate is reduced by the collagen matrix density.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beum Jun; Zhao, Shuting; Bunaciu, Rodica P; Yen, Andrew; Wu, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Many cell types require the biophysical and biochemical cues within the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) to exhibit their true physiologically relevant behavior. As a result, cell culture platforms have been evolving from traditional 2D petridish plates into 3D biomatrices, and there is a need for developing analytic tools to characterize 3D cell culture. The existing cell counting method, using a hemocytometer or coulter counter, requires that cells are suspended in fluids prior to counting. This poses a challenge for 3D cell culture as cells are embedded in a 3D biomatrix. We use a facile 3D cell counting method that overcomes this limitation and allows for in situ cell counting in a 3D cell culture using equipment that is commonly available in a biology lab. Using a breast tumor cell line, MDA-MB-231, as a model system, we demonstrated that MDA-MB-231 cells (1) grow slower within a 3D collagen matrix than on a 2D substrate for an extended growth time (a week) with a comparable, initial cell-to-cell distance, (2) their cell growth rate decreases with the increase of collagen concentration, showing a linear growth rate rather than an exponential growth rate. Further work using flow cytometry showed that the observed growth rate reduction was consistent with the retardation of the transition to S (synthesis) phase in the cell cycle. This work demonstrates the validity of the 3D cell counting method and the importance of cell-ECM interactions in cell proliferation. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. A 3D in situ cell counter reveals that breast tumor cell (MDA-MB-231) proliferation rate is reduced by the collagen matrix density

    PubMed Central

    Bunaciu, Rodica P.; Yen, Andrew; Wu, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Many cell types require the biophysical and biochemical cues within the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) to exhibit their true physiologically relevant behavior. As a result, cell culture platforms have been evolving from traditional 2D petri-dish plates into 3D biomatrices, and there is a need for developing analytic tools to characterize 3D cell culture. The existing cell counting method, using a hemocytometer or coulter counter, requires that cells are suspended in fluids prior to counting. This poses a challenge for 3D cell culture as cells are embedded in a 3D biomatrix. We use a facile 3D cell counting method that overcomes this limitation and allows for in situ cell counting in a 3D cell culture using equipment that is commonly available in a biology lab. Using a breast tumor cell line, MDA-MB-231, as a model system, we demonstrated that MDA-MB-231 cells (1) grow slower within a 3D collagen matrix than on a 2D substrate for an extended growth time (a week) with a comparable, initial cell-to-cell distance, (2) their cell growth rate decreases with the increase of collagen concentration, showing a linear growth rate rather than an exponential growth rate. Further work using flow cytometry showed that the observed growth rate reduction was consistent with the retardation of the transition to S (synthesis) phase in the cell cycle. This work demonstrates the validity of the 3D cell counting method and the importance of cell-ECM interactions in cell proliferation. PMID:25683564

  16. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  17. Meta-analysis that conceals more than it reveals: comment on Storm et al. (2010).

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ray

    2010-07-01

    Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010) rely on meta-analyses to justify their claim that the evidence for psi is consistent and reliable. They manufacture apparent homogeneity and consistency by eliminating many outliers and combining databases whose combined effect sizes are not significantly different-even though these combined effect sizes consist of arbitrary and meaningless composites. At best, their study provides a recipe for conducting a replicable extrasensory perception experiment. This recipe includes following a design that employs the standard ganzfeld psi methodology and uses "selected" subjects. An experiment, having adequate power and that meets these criteria, has already been conducted and failed to produce evidence for psi. Parapsychology will achieve scientific acceptability only when it provides a positive theory with evidence based on independently replicable evidence. This is something it has yet to achieve after more than a century of trying.

  18. The heart of a dragon: 3D anatomical reconstruction of the 'scaly-foot gastropod' (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neomphalina) reveals its extraordinary circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Copley, Jonathan T; Linse, Katrin; Rogers, Alex D; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    The 'scaly-foot gastropod' (Chrysomallon squamiferum Chen et al., 2015) from deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems of the Indian Ocean is an active mobile gastropod occurring in locally high densities, and it is distinctive for the dermal scales covering the exterior surface of its foot. These iron-sulfide coated sclerites, and its nutritional dependence on endosymbiotic bacteria, are both noted as adaptations to the extreme environment in the flow of hydrogen sulfide. We present evidence for other adaptations of the 'scaly-foot gastropod' to life in an extreme environment, investigated through dissection and 3D tomographic reconstruction of the internal anatomy. Our anatomical investigations of juvenile and adult specimens reveal a large unganglionated nervous system, a simple and reduced digestive system, and that the animal is a simultaneous hermaphrodite. We show that Chrysomallon squamiferum relies on endosymbiotic bacteria throughout post-larval life. Of particular interest is the circulatory system: Chrysomallon has a very large ctenidium supported by extensive blood sinuses filled with haemocoel. The ctenidium provides oxygen for the host but the circulatory system is enlarged beyond the scope of other similar vent gastropods. At the posterior of the ctenidium is a remarkably large and well-developed heart. Based on the volume of the auricle and ventricle, the heart complex represents approximately 4 % of the body volume. This proportionally giant heart primarily sucks blood through the ctenidium and supplies the highly vascularised oesophageal gland. Thus we infer the elaborate cardiovascular system most likely evolved to oxygenate the endosymbionts in an oxygen poor environment and/or to supply hydrogen sulfide to the endosymbionts. This study exemplifies how understanding the autecology of an organism can be enhanced by detailed investigation of internal anatomy. This gastropod is a large and active species that is abundant in its hydrothermal vent

  19. 3-D Flyby of Enawo by GPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In this 3-D Flyby animation of GPM rainfall data, rain was falling at a rate of over 220 mm (8.7 inches) per hour in intense downpours. Many of these storms were reaching altitudes above 16 km (9.9...

  20. A 3d-3d appetizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-01

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 "Lens space theory" T [ L( p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L( p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S 3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[ L( p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[ L( p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere S b 3 . This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G ℂ complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  1. 3D Texture Analysis Reveals Imperceptible MRI Textural Alterations in the Thalamus and Putamen in Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy Type 1, EPM1

    PubMed Central

    Suoranta, Sanna; Holli-Helenius, Kirsi; Koskenkorva, Päivi; Niskanen, Eini; Könönen, Mervi; Äikiä, Marja; Eskola, Hannu; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva

    2013-01-01

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1 (EPM1) is an autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young onset age, myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. At the time of diagnosis, the visual assessment of the brain MRI is usually normal, with no major changes found later. Therefore, we utilized texture analysis (TA) to characterize and classify the underlying properties of the affected brain tissue by means of 3D texture features. Sixteen genetically verified patients with EPM1 and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. TA was performed upon 3D volumes of interest that were placed bilaterally in the thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Compared to the healthy controls, EPM1 patients had significant textural differences especially in the thalamus and right putamen. The most significantly differing texture features included parameters that measure the complexity and heterogeneity of the tissue, such as the co-occurrence matrix-based entropy and angular second moment, and also the run-length matrix-based parameters of gray-level non-uniformity, short run emphasis and long run emphasis. This study demonstrates the usability of 3D TA for extracting additional information from MR images. Textural alterations which suggest complex, coarse and heterogeneous appearance were found bilaterally in the thalamus, supporting the previous literature on thalamic pathology in EPM1. The observed putamenal involvement is a novel finding. Our results encourage further studies on the clinical applications, feasibility, reproducibility and reliability of 3D TA. PMID:23922849

  2. 3D texture analysis reveals imperceptible MRI textural alterations in the thalamus and putamen in progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1, EPM1.

    PubMed

    Suoranta, Sanna; Holli-Helenius, Kirsi; Koskenkorva, Päivi; Niskanen, Eini; Könönen, Mervi; Äikiä, Marja; Eskola, Hannu; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva

    2013-01-01

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1 (EPM1) is an autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young onset age, myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. At the time of diagnosis, the visual assessment of the brain MRI is usually normal, with no major changes found later. Therefore, we utilized texture analysis (TA) to characterize and classify the underlying properties of the affected brain tissue by means of 3D texture features. Sixteen genetically verified patients with EPM1 and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. TA was performed upon 3D volumes of interest that were placed bilaterally in the thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Compared to the healthy controls, EPM1 patients had significant textural differences especially in the thalamus and right putamen. The most significantly differing texture features included parameters that measure the complexity and heterogeneity of the tissue, such as the co-occurrence matrix-based entropy and angular second moment, and also the run-length matrix-based parameters of gray-level non-uniformity, short run emphasis and long run emphasis. This study demonstrates the usability of 3D TA for extracting additional information from MR images. Textural alterations which suggest complex, coarse and heterogeneous appearance were found bilaterally in the thalamus, supporting the previous literature on thalamic pathology in EPM1. The observed putamenal involvement is a novel finding. Our results encourage further studies on the clinical applications, feasibility, reproducibility and reliability of 3D TA.

  3. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  4. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  5. Cardiac muscle organization revealed in 3-D by imaging whole-mount mouse hearts using two-photon fluorescence and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sivaguru, Mayandi; Fried, Glenn; Sivaguru, Barghav S; Sivaguru, Vignesh A; Lu, Xiaochen; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Saif, M Taher A; Lin, Brian; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

    2015-11-01

    The ability to image the entire adult mouse heart at high resolution in 3-D would provide enormous advantages in the study of heart disease. However, a technique for imaging nuclear/cellular detail as well as the overall structure of the entire heart in 3-D with minimal effort is lacking. To solve this problem, we modified the benzyl alcohol:benzyl benzoate (BABB) clearing technique by labeling mouse hearts with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain. We then imaged the hearts with a combination of two-photon fluorescence microscopy and automated tile-scan imaging/stitching. Utilizing the differential spectral properties of PAS, we could identify muscle and nuclear compartments in the heart. We were also able to visualize the differences between a 3-month-old normal mouse heart and a mouse heart that had undergone heart failure due to the expression of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) gene mutation (t/t). Using 2-D and 3-D morphometric analysis, we found that the t/t heart had anomalous ventricular shape, volume, and wall thickness, as well as a disrupted sarcomere pattern. We further validated our approach using decellularized hearts that had been cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts, which were tracked using a nuclear label. We were able to detect the 3T3 cells inside the decellularized intact heart tissue, achieving nuclear/cellular resolution in 3-D. The combination of labeling, clearing, and two-photon microscopy together with tiling eliminates laborious and time-consuming physical sectioning, alignment, and 3-D reconstruction.

  6. Comprehensive comparison of ligand-based virtual screening tools against the DUD data set reveals limitations of current 3D methods.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I; Mavridis, Lazaros; Ritchie, David W

    2010-12-27

    In recent years, many virtual screening (VS) tools have been developed that employ different molecular representations and have different speed and accuracy characteristics. In this paper, we compare ten popular ligand-based VS tools using the publicly available Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD) data set comprising over 100 000 compounds distributed across 40 protein targets. The DUD was developed initially to evaluate docking algorithms, but our results from an operational correlation analysis show that it is also well suited for comparing ligand-based VS tools. Although it is conventional wisdom that 3D molecular shape is an important determinant of biological activity, our results based on permutational significance tests of several commonly used VS metrics show that the 2D fingerprint-based methods generally give better VS performance than the 3D shape-based approaches for surprisingly many of the DUD targets. To help understand this finding, we have analyzed the nature of the scoring functions used and the composition of the DUD data set itself. We propose that to improve the VS performance of current 3D methods, it will be necessary to devise screening queries that can represent multiple possible conformations and which can exploit knowledge of known actives that span multiple scaffold families.

  7. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  8. Quantification of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains using a water balance approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zuxin; Yin, Hailong; Li, Huaizheng

    2014-07-15

    To make decisions about correcting illicit or inappropriate connections to storm drains, quantification of non-stormwater entries into storm drains was performed using a water flow balance approach, based on data analysis from 2008 to 2011 in a separate storm drainage system in a Shanghai downtown area of 374 ha. The study revealed severe sewage connections to storm drains; meanwhile, misconnections between surface water and storm drains were found to drive frequent non-stormwater pumping discharges at the outfall, producing a much larger volume of outfall flows in a short period. This paper presented a methodology to estimate quantities of inappropriate sewage flow, groundwater infiltration and river water backflow into the storm drains. It was concluded that inappropriate sewage discharge and groundwater seepage into storm drains were approximately 17,860 m(3)/d (i.e., up to 51% of the total sewage flow in the catchment) and 3,624 m(3)/d, respectively, and surface water backflow was up to an average 28,593 m(3)/d. On the basis of this work, end-of-storm pipe interceptor sewers of 0.25 m(3)/s (i.e., 21,600 m(3)/d) would be effective to tackle the problem of sewage connections and groundwater seepage to storm drains. Under this circumstance, the follow-up non-stormwater outfall pumping events indicate misconnections between surface water and storm drains, featuring pumping discharge equivalent to surface water backflow; hence the misconnections should be repaired. The information provided here is helpful in estimating the magnitude of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains and designing the necessary pollution control activities, as well as combating city floods in storm events. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; van Loon, Mark

    2017-04-01

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N = 2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N = 2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N = 2∗ theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-'t Hooft loops in the 4d N = 2∗ theory. In the presence of a mass parameter cfor the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  10. A 3d-3d appetizer

    DOE PAGES

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-02

    Here, we test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us tomore » see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.« less

  11. A 3d-3d appetizer

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-02

    Here, we test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  12. A 3-D Look at Post-Tropical Cyclone Hermine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D flyby animation of GPM imagery shows Post-Tropical Storm Hermine on Sept. 6. Rain was falling at a rate of over 1.1 inches (27 mm) per hour between the Atlantic coast and Hermine's center ...

  13. Cooperative roles of SDF-1α and EGF gradients on tumor cell migration revealed by a robust 3D microfluidic model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beum Jun; Hannanta-anan, Pimkhuan; Chau, Michelle; Kim, Yoon Soo; Swartz, Melody A; Wu, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine-mediated directed tumor cell migration within a three dimensional (3D) matrix, or chemoinvasion, is an important early step in cancer metastasis. Despite its clinical importance, it is largely unknown how cytokine and growth factor gradients within the tumor microenvironment regulate chemoinvasion. We studied tumor cell chemoinvasion in well-defined and stable chemical gradients using a robust 3D microfluidic model. We used CXCL12 (also known as SDF-1α) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), two well-known extracellular signaling molecules that co-exist in the tumor microenvironment (e.g. lymph nodes or intravasation sites), and a malignant breast tumor cell line, MDA-MB-231, embedded in type I collagen. When subjected to SDF-1α gradients alone, MDA-MB-231 cells migrated up the gradient, and the measured chemosensitivity (defined as the average cell velocity along the direction of the gradient) followed the ligand - receptor (SDF-1α - CXCR4) binding kinetics. On the other hand, when subjected to EGF gradients alone, tumor cells increased their overall motility, but without statistically significant chemotactic (directed) migration, in contrast to previous reports using 2D chemotaxis assays. Interestingly, we found that the chemoinvasive behavior to SDF-1α gradients was abrogated or even reversed in the presence of uniform concentrations of EGF; however, the presence of SDF-1α and EGF together modulated tumor cell motility cooperatively. These findings demonstrate the capabilities of our microfluidic model in re-creating complex microenvironments for cells, and the importance of cooperative roles of multiple cytokine and growth factor gradients in regulating cell migration in 3D environments.

  14. Cooperative Roles of SDF-1α and EGF Gradients on Tumor Cell Migration Revealed by a Robust 3D Microfluidic Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beum Jun; Hannanta-anan, Pimkhuan; Chau, Michelle; Kim, Yoon Soo; Swartz, Melody A.; Wu, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine-mediated directed tumor cell migration within a three dimensional (3D) matrix, or chemoinvasion, is an important early step in cancer metastasis. Despite its clinical importance, it is largely unknown how cytokine and growth factor gradients within the tumor microenvironment regulate chemoinvasion. We studied tumor cell chemoinvasion in well-defined and stable chemical gradients using a robust 3D microfluidic model. We used CXCL12 (also known as SDF-1α) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), two well-known extracellular signaling molecules that co-exist in the tumor microenvironment (e.g. lymph nodes or intravasation sites), and a malignant breast tumor cell line, MDA-MB-231, embedded in type I collagen. When subjected to SDF-1α gradients alone, MDA-MB-231 cells migrated up the gradient, and the measured chemosensitivity (defined as the average cell velocity along the direction of the gradient) followed the ligand – receptor (SDF-1α – CXCR4) binding kinetics. On the other hand, when subjected to EGF gradients alone, tumor cells increased their overall motility, but without statistically significant chemotactic (directed) migration, in contrast to previous reports using 2D chemotaxis assays. Interestingly, we found that the chemoinvasive behavior to SDF-1α gradients was abrogated or even reversed in the presence of uniform concentrations of EGF; however, the presence of SDF-1α and EGF together modulated tumor cell motility cooperatively. These findings demonstrate the capabilities of our microfluidic model in re-creating complex microenvironments for cells, and the importance of cooperative roles of multiple cytokine and growth factor gradients in regulating cell migration in 3D environments. PMID:23869217

  15. 3D-SIM super resolution microscopy reveals a bead-like arrangement for FtsZ and the division machinery: implications for triggering cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Michael P; Liew, Andrew T F; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Monahan, Leigh G; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ is a tubulin-like GTPase that is the major cytoskeletal protein in bacterial cell division. It polymerizes into a ring, called the Z ring, at the division site and acts as a scaffold to recruit other division proteins to this site as well as providing a contractile force for cytokinesis. To understand how FtsZ performs these functions, the in vivo architecture of the Z ring needs to be established, as well as how this structure constricts to enable cytokinesis. Conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy depicts the Z ring as a continuous structure of uniform density. Here we use a form of super resolution microscopy, known as 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM), to examine the architecture of the Z ring in cells of two Gram-positive organisms that have different cell shapes: the rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis and the coccoid Staphylococcus aureus. We show that in both organisms the Z ring is composed of a heterogeneous distribution of FtsZ. In addition, gaps of fluorescence were evident, which suggest that it is a discontinuous structure. Time-lapse studies using an advanced form of fast live 3D-SIM (Blaze) support a model of FtsZ localization within the Z ring that is dynamic and remains distributed in a heterogeneous manner. However, FtsZ dynamics alone do not trigger the constriction of the Z ring to allow cytokinesis. Lastly, we visualize other components of the divisome and show that they also adopt a bead-like localization pattern at the future division site. Our data lead us to propose that FtsZ guides the divisome to adopt a similar localization pattern to ensure Z ring constriction only proceeds following the assembly of a mature divisome.

  16. 3D-SIM Super Resolution Microscopy Reveals a Bead-Like Arrangement for FtsZ and the Division Machinery: Implications for Triggering Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Michael P.; Liew, Andrew T. F.; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Monahan, Leigh G.; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ is a tubulin-like GTPase that is the major cytoskeletal protein in bacterial cell division. It polymerizes into a ring, called the Z ring, at the division site and acts as a scaffold to recruit other division proteins to this site as well as providing a contractile force for cytokinesis. To understand how FtsZ performs these functions, the in vivo architecture of the Z ring needs to be established, as well as how this structure constricts to enable cytokinesis. Conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy depicts the Z ring as a continuous structure of uniform density. Here we use a form of super resolution microscopy, known as 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM), to examine the architecture of the Z ring in cells of two Gram-positive organisms that have different cell shapes: the rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis and the coccoid Staphylococcus aureus. We show that in both organisms the Z ring is composed of a heterogeneous distribution of FtsZ. In addition, gaps of fluorescence were evident, which suggest that it is a discontinuous structure. Time-lapse studies using an advanced form of fast live 3D-SIM (Blaze) support a model of FtsZ localization within the Z ring that is dynamic and remains distributed in a heterogeneous manner. However, FtsZ dynamics alone do not trigger the constriction of the Z ring to allow cytokinesis. Lastly, we visualize other components of the divisome and show that they also adopt a bead-like localization pattern at the future division site. Our data lead us to propose that FtsZ guides the divisome to adopt a similar localization pattern to ensure Z ring constriction only proceeds following the assembly of a mature divisome. PMID:22984350

  17. Revealing correlation effect of Co 3d electrons in La3Co4Sn13 and Ce3Co4Sn13 by infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, W. J.; Luo, J. L.; Wang, N. L.

    2017-10-01

    We report resistivity, specific heat and optical spectroscopy measurements on single crystal samples of La3 Co4 Sn13 and Ce3 Co4 Sn13 . We observed clear temperature-induced spectral weight suppression below 4000 cm-1 for both compounds in the conductivity spectra σ_1(ω) , indicating the progressive formation of gap-like features with decreasing temperature. The suppressed spectral weight transfers mostly to the higher energy region. This observation reflects the presence of the correlation effect in the compounds. We attribute the correlation effect to the Co 3d electrons.

  18. Investigation of geological structures with a view to HLRW disposal, as revealed through 3D inversion of aeromagnetic and gravity data and the results of CSAMT exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhiguo; Di, Qingyun

    2016-12-01

    The Alxa area in Inner Mongolia has been selected as a possible site for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Based on results of a previous study on crustal stability, the Tamusu rock mass has been chosen as the target. To determine the geological structure of this rock mass, aeromagnetic and gravity data are collected and inverted. Three-dimensional (3D) inversion horizontal slices show that the internal density of the rock mass and the distribution of magnetic properties are not uniform, with fractures and fragmentation being present. To confirm this result, the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric method (CSAMT) was applied to explore the geological structures, the typical CSAMT sounding curve was analyzed, and the response characteristics of the geological structure and surrounding rock are distinguished. The original data were processed and interpreted in combination with data from surface geology and drilling and logging data. It is found that the CSAMT results were consistent with those from 3D inversion of the gravity and magnetic data, confirming the existence of fractures and fragmentation in the exploration area.

  19. Inverse-power-law behavior of cellular motility reveals stromal-epithelial cell interactions in 3D co-culture by OCT fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Amy L; Yu, Xiao; Gilliss, Thomas; Alabi, Oluwafemi; Taylor, Russell M; Troester, Melissa A

    2015-10-20

    The progression of breast cancer is known to be affected by stromal cells within the local microenvironment. Here we study the effect of stromal fibroblasts on the in-place motions (motility) of mammary epithelial cells within organoids in 3D co-culture, inferred from the speckle fluctuation spectrum using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In contrast to Brownian motion, mammary cell motions exhibit an inverse power-law fluctuation spectrum. We introduce two complementary metrics for quantifying fluctuation spectra: the power-law exponent and a novel definition of the motility amplitude, both of which are signal- and position-independent. We find that the power-law exponent and motility amplitude are positively (p<0.001) and negatively (p<0.01) correlated with the density of stromal cells in 3D co-culture, respectively. We also show how the hyperspectral data can be visualized using these metrics to observe heterogeneity within organoids. This constitutes a simple and powerful tool for detecting and imaging cellular functional changes with OCT.

  20. Cell-based approach for 3D reconstruction of lymphatic capillaries in vitro reveals distinct functions of HGF and VEGF-C in lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gibot, Laure; Galbraith, Todd; Kloos, Bryan; Das, Suvendu; Lacroix, Dan A; Auger, François A; Skobe, Mihaela

    2016-02-01

    Regeneration of lymphatic vessels is important for treatment of various disorders of lymphatic system and for restoration of lymphatic function after surgery. We have developed a method for generating a human 3D lymphatic vascular construct. In this system, human lymphatic endothelial cells, co-cultured with fibroblasts, spontaneously organized into a stable 3D lymphatic capillary network without the use of any exogenous factors. In vitro-generated lymphatic capillaries exhibited the major molecular and ultra-structural features of native, human lymphatic microvasculature: branches in the three dimensions, wide lumen, blind ends, overlapping borders, adherens and tight junctions, anchoring filaments, lack of mural cells, and poorly developed basement membrane. Furthermore, we show that fibroblast-derived VEGF-C and HGF cooperate in the formation of lymphatic vasculature by activating ERK1/2 signaling, and demonstrate distinct functions of HGF/c-Met and VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 in lymphangiogenesis. This lymphatic vascular construct is expected to facilitate studies of lymphangiogenesis in vitro and it holds promise as a strategy for regeneration of lymphatic vessels and treatment of lymphatic disorders in various conditions.

  1. Inverse-power-law behavior of cellular motility reveals stromal–epithelial cell interactions in 3D co-culture by OCT fluctuation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Yu, Xiao; Gilliss, Thomas; Alabi, Oluwafemi; Taylor, Russell M.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The progression of breast cancer is known to be affected by stromal cells within the local microenvironment. Here we study the effect of stromal fibroblasts on the in-place motions (motility) of mammary epithelial cells within organoids in 3D co-culture, inferred from the speckle fluctuation spectrum using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In contrast to Brownian motion, mammary cell motions exhibit an inverse power-law fluctuation spectrum. We introduce two complementary metrics for quantifying fluctuation spectra: the power-law exponent and a novel definition of the motility amplitude, both of which are signal- and position-independent. We find that the power-law exponent and motility amplitude are positively (p<0.001) and negatively (p<0.01) correlated with the density of stromal cells in 3D co-culture, respectively. We also show how the hyperspectral data can be visualized using these metrics to observe heterogeneity within organoids. This constitutes a simple and powerful tool for detecting and imaging cellular functional changes with OCT. PMID:26973862

  2. Analysis of the Interstate 10 Twin Bridge’s collapse during Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Genda; Witt, Emitt C.; Hoffman, David; Luna, Ronaldo; Sevi, Adam

    2007-01-01

    The Interstate 10 Twin Span Bridge over Lake Pontchartrain north of New Orleans, La., was rendered completely unusable by Hurricane Katrina. The cause of the collapse of the bridges generated great interest among hydrologists and structural engineers as well as among the general public. What made this case study even more important was the fact that two nearby bridges sustained the effects of the same storm surge and suffered only light damage. Lessons learned from this investigation are invaluable to maintaining the safety of many of the Nation's coastal and river-crossing bridges.

  3. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  4. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  5. Diamond in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-20

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called Diamond Jenness was taken after NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. 3D glasses are necessary.

  6. Symmetric faceting of a sapphire vicinal surface revealed by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matringe, C.; Fakih, A.; Thune, E.; Babonneau, D.; Arnaud, S.; Blanc, N.; Boudet, N.; Guinebretière, R.

    2017-07-01

    A one dimensional periodic vicinal surface of sapphire was obtained through a self-ordering process after high-temperature thermal treatment. The morphology of the surface is described as an assembly of prisms exhibiting a rectangular base and a triangular profile orthogonal to the mean surface. Careful measurements of the whole 3D reciprocal map around the origin of the reciprocal space were performed through grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering experiments combined with a strict orientation procedure with respect to specific crystallographic directions of the sapphire crystal. We were thus able to determine accurately the actual shape of the prisms, which exhibit an isosceles triangular profile. Such a profile symmetric with respect to a plane normal to the mean sapphire vicinal surface has never been reported.

  7. Not that long time ago in the nearest galaxy: 3D slice of molecular gas revealed by a 110 yr old flare of Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churazov, E.; Khabibullin, I.; Sunyaev, R.; Ponti, G.

    2017-02-01

    A powerful outburst of X-ray radiation from the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the centre of the Milky Way is believed to be responsible for the illumination of molecular clouds in the central ˜100 pc of the Galaxy (Sunyaev, Markevitch & Pavlinsky; Koyama et al.). The reflected/reprocessed radiation comes to us with a delay corresponding to the light propagation time that depends on the 3D position of molecular clouds with respect to Sgr A*. We suggest a novel way of determining the age of the outburst and positions of the clouds by studying characteristic imprints left by the outburst in the spatial and time variations of the reflected emission. We estimated the age of the outburst that illuminates the Sgr A molecular complex to be ˜110 yr. This estimate implies that we see the gas located ˜10 pc further away from us than Sgr A*. If the Sgr B2 complex is also illuminated by the same outburst, then it is located ˜130 pc closer than our Galactic Center. The outburst was short (less than a few years) and the total amount of emitted energy in X-rays is ˜10^{48}ρ _3^{-1} erg, where ρ3 is the mean hydrogen density of the cloud complex in units of 103 cm-3. Energetically, such fluence can be provided by a partial tidal disruption event or even by a capture of a planet. Further progress in more accurate positioning and timing of the outburst should be possible with future X-ray polarimetric observations and long-term systematic observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. A few hundred years long X-ray observations would provide a detailed 3D map of the gas density distribution in the central ˜100 pc region.

  8. 3-D illustration of network orientations of interstitial cells of Cajal subgroups in human colon as revealed by deep-tissue imaging with optical clearing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-An; Chung, Yuan-Chiang; Pan, Shien-Tung; Hou, Yung-Chi; Peng, Shih-Jung; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2012-05-15

    Morphological changes of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have been proposed to characterize motility disorders. However, a global view of the network orientations of ICC subgroups has not been established to illustrate their three-dimensional (3-D) architectures in the human colon. In this research, we integrate c-kit immunostaining, 3-D microscopy with optical clearing, and image rendering to present the location-dependent network orientations with high definition. Full-depth colonic tissues were obtained from colectomies performed for nonobstructing carcinoma. Specimens of colon wall were prepared away from the tumor site. C-kit and nuclear fluorescent staining were used to identify the ICC processes and cell body. Optical clearing was used to generate transparent colon specimens, which led to panoramic visualization of the fluorescence-labeled ICC networks at the myenteric plexus (ICC-MY), longitudinal (ICC-LM) and circular (ICC-CM) muscles, and submucosal boundary (ICC-SM) up to 300 μm in depth via confocal microscopy with subcellular level resolution. We observed four distinct network patterns: 1) periganglionic ICC-MY that connect with ICC-LM and ICC-CM, 2) plexuses of ICC-LM within the longitudinal muscle and extending toward the serosa, 3) repetitive and organized ICC-CM layers running parallel to the circular muscle axis and extending toward the submucosa, and 4) a condensed ICC-SM layer lining the submucosal border. Among the four patterns, the orderly aligned ICC-CM layers provide an appropriate target for quantitation. Our results demonstrate the location-dependent network orientations of ICC subgroups and suggest a practical approach for in-depth imaging and quantitative analysis of ICC in the human colon specimen.

  9. Mechanistic insights into the distribution of carbohydrate clusters on cell membranes revealed by dSTORM imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junling; Gao, Jing; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Jiang, Junguang; Tian, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hongda

    2016-07-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in many physiological processes and act as primary markers to indicate various cellular physiological states. The functions of carbohydrates are always associated with their expression and distribution on cell membranes. Based on our previous work, we found that carbohydrates tend to form clusters; however, the underlying mechanism of these clusters remains unknown. Through the direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) strategy, we found that with the contributions of lipid raft as a stable factor and actin cytoskeleton as a restrictive factor, carbohydrate clusters can stably exist with restricted size. Additionally, we revealed that the formation of most carbohydrate clusters (Gal and GlcANc clusters) depended on the carbohydrate-binding proteins (i.e., galectins) cross-linking their specific carbohydrate ligands. Our results clarify the organizational mechanism of carbohydrates on cell surfaces from their formation, stable existence and size-restriction, which promotes a better understanding of the relationship between the function and distribution of carbohydrates, as well as the structure of cell membranes.Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in many physiological processes and act as primary markers to indicate various cellular physiological states. The functions of carbohydrates are always associated with their expression and distribution on cell membranes. Based on our previous work, we found that carbohydrates tend to form clusters; however, the underlying mechanism of these clusters remains unknown. Through the direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) strategy, we found that with the contributions of lipid raft as a stable factor and actin cytoskeleton as a restrictive factor, carbohydrate clusters can stably exist with restricted size. Additionally, we revealed that the formation of most carbohydrate clusters (Gal and GlcANc clusters) depended on the

  10. A β-glucosidase hyper-production Trichoderma reesei mutant reveals a potential role of cel3D in cellulase production.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengcheng; Lin, Fengming; Li, Yizhen; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hongyin; Qin, Lei; Zhou, Zhihua; Li, Bingzhi; Wu, Fugen; Chen, Zhan

    2016-09-01

    The conversion of cellulose by cellulase to fermentable sugars for biomass-based products such as cellulosic biofuels, biobased fine chemicals and medicines is an environment-friendly and sustainable process, making wastes profitable and bringing economic benefits. Trichoderma reesei is the well-known major workhorse for cellulase production in industry, but the low β-glucosidase activity in T. reesei cellulase leads to inefficiency in biomass degradation and limits its industrial application. Thus, there are ongoing interests in research to develop methods to overcome this insufficiency. Moreover, although β-glucosidases have been demonstrated to influence cellulase production and participate in the regulation of cellulase production, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The T. reesei recombinant strain TRB1 was constructed from T. reesei RUT-C30 by the T-DNA-based mutagenesis. Compared to RUT-C30, TRB1 displays a significant enhancement of extracellular β-glucosidase (BGL1) activity with 17-fold increase, a moderate increase of both the endoglucanase (EG) activity and the exoglucanase (CBH) activity, a minor improvement of the total filter paper activity, and a faster cellulase induction. This superiority of TRB1 over RUT-C30 is independent on carbon sources and improves the saccharification ability of TRB1 cellulase on pretreated corn stover. Furthermore, TRB1 shows better resistance to carbon catabolite repression than RUT-C30. Secretome characterization of TRB1 shows that the amount of CBH, EG and BGL in the supernatant of T. reesei TRB1 was indeed increased along with the enhanced activities of these three enzymes. Surprisingly, qRT-PCR and gene cloning showed that in TRB1 β-glucosidase cel3D was mutated through the random insertion by AMT and was not expressed. The T. reesei recombinant strain TRB1 constructed in this study is more desirable for industrial application than the parental strain RUT-C30, showing extracellular β-glucosidase hyper

  11. 3D Plasmon Ruler

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    In this animation of a 3D plasmon ruler, the plasmonic assembly acts as a transducer to deliver optical information about the structural dynamics of an attached protein. (courtesy of Paul Alivisatos group)

  12. Prominent Rocks - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  13. 3D Laser System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-16

    NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel 3D Laser System used for digitizing ice shapes created in the wind tunnel. The ice shapes are later utilized for characterization, analysis, and software development.

  14. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  15. Intra-islet lesions and lobular variations in β-cell mass expansion in ob/ob mice revealed by 3D imaging of intact pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Parween, Saba; Kostromina, Elena; Nord, Christoffer; Eriksson, Maria; Lindström, Per; Ahlgren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The leptin deficient ob/ob mouse is a widely used model for studies on initial aspects of metabolic disturbances leading to type 2 diabetes, including insulin resistance and obesity. Although it is generally accepted that ob/ob mice display a dramatic increase in β-cell mass to compensate for increased insulin demand, the spatial and quantitative dynamics of β-cell mass distribution in this model has not been assessed by modern optical 3D imaging techniques. We applied optical projection tomography and ultramicroscopy imaging to extract information about individual islet β-cell volumes throughout the volume of ob/ob pancreas between 4 and 52 weeks of age. Our data show that cystic lesions constitute a significant volume of the hyperplastic ob/ob islets. We propose that these lesions are formed by a mechanism involving extravasation of red blood cells/plasma due to increased islet vessel blood flow and vessel instability. Further, our data indicate that the primary lobular compartments of the ob/ob pancreas have different potentials for expanding their β-cell population. Unawareness of the characteristics of β-cell expansion in ob/ob mice presented in this report may significantly influence ex vivo and in vivo assessments of this model in studies of β-cell adaptation and function. PMID:27713548

  16. Clustering and Functional Coupling of Diverse Ion Channels and Signaling Proteins Revealed by Super-resolution STORM Microscopy in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Carver, Chase M; Choveau, Frank S; Shapiro, Mark S

    2016-10-19

    The fidelity of neuronal signaling requires organization of signaling molecules into macromolecular complexes, whose components are in intimate proximity. The intrinsic diffraction limit of light makes visualization of individual signaling complexes using visible light extremely difficult. However, using super-resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), we observed intimate association of individual molecules within signaling complexes containing ion channels (M-type K(+), L-type Ca(2+), or TRPV1 channels) and G protein-coupled receptors coupled by the scaffolding protein A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP)79/150. Some channels assembled as multi-channel supercomplexes. Surprisingly, we identified novel layers of interplay within macromolecular complexes containing diverse channel types at the single-complex level in sensory neurons, dependent on AKAP79/150. Electrophysiological studies revealed that such ion channels are functionally coupled as well. Our findings illustrate the novel role of AKAP79/150 as a molecular coupler of different channels that conveys crosstalk between channel activities within single microdomains in tuning the physiological response of neurons.

  17. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  18. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  19. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  20. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  1. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  2. Medical 3-D Printing.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional printing is used in the manufacturing industry, medical and pharmaceutical research, drug production, clinical medicine, and dentistry, with implications for precision and personalized medicine. This technology is advancing the development of patient-specific prosthetics, stents, splints, and fixation devices and is changing medical education, treatment decision making, and surgical planning. Diagnostic imaging modalities play a fundamental role in the creation of 3-D printed models. Although most 3-D printed objects are rigid, flexible soft-tissue-like prosthetics also can be produced. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  3. Mesoscale morphology at nanoscale resolution: serial block-face scanning electron microscopy reveals fine 3D detail of a novel silk spinneret system in a tube-building tanaid crustacean.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Tomonari; Kakui, Keiichi; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Palmer, A Richard

    2016-01-01

    The study of morphology is experiencing a renaissance due to rapid improvements in technologies for 3D visualization of complex internal and external structures. But 3D visualization of the internal structure of mesoscale objects - those in the 10-1000 μm range - remains problematic. They are too small for microCT, many lack suitable specific fluorescent markers for confocal microscopy, or they require labor-intensive stacking and smoothing of individual TEM images. Here we illustrate the first comprehensive morphological description of a complete mesoscale biological system at nanoscopic resolution using ultra-modern technology for 3D visualization - serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). The SBF-SEM machine combines an in-chamber ultramicrotome, which creates a serial array of exposed surfaces, with an SEM that images each surface as it is exposed. The serial images are then stacked automatically by 3D reconstruction software. We used SBF-SEM to study the spinneret (thread-producing) system of a small, tube-dwelling crustacean that weaves tubes of silk. Thread-producing ability is critical for the survival of many small-bodied animals but the basic morphology of these systems remains mysterious due to the limits of traditional microscopy. SBF-SEM allowed us to describe - in full 3D - well-resolved components (glands, ducts, pores, and associated nerves and muscles) of the spinneret system in the thoracic legs and body segments of Sinelobus sp. (Crustacea, Peracarida, Tanaidacea), a tube-building tanaid only 2 mm in body length. The 3D reconstruction by SBF-SEM revealed at nanoscale resolution a unique structure to the gland and duct systems: In each of three thread-producing thoracic segments, two separate ducts, derived from two separate glands located in the body, run through the entire leg and merge at the leg tip just before the spinneret pore opening. We also resolved nerves connecting to individual setae, spines and pores on the

  4. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  5. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  6. Sub-nanometer surface chemistry and orbital hybridization in lanthanum-doped ceria nano-catalysts revealed by 3D electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sean M; Fernandez-Garcia, Susana; Calvino, José J; Midgley, Paul A

    2017-07-14

    Surface chemical composition, electronic structure, and bonding characteristics determine catalytic activity but are not resolved for individual catalyst particles by conventional spectroscopy. In particular, the nano-scale three-dimensional distribution of aliovalent lanthanide dopants in ceria catalysts and their effect on the surface electronic structure remains unclear. Here, we reveal the surface segregation of dopant cations and oxygen vacancies and observe bonding changes in lanthanum-doped ceria catalyst particle aggregates with sub-nanometer precision using a new model-based spectroscopic tomography approach. These findings refine our understanding of the spatially varying electronic structure and bonding in ceria-based nanoparticle aggregates with aliovalent cation concentrations and identify new strategies for advancing high efficiency doped ceria nano-catalysts.

  7. Identification of nucleolus-associated chromatin domains reveals the role of the nucleolus in the 3D organisation of the A. thaliana genome

    PubMed Central

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Durut, Nathalie; Pavlištová, Veronika; Jaške, Karin; Schořová, Šárka; Parrinello, Hugues; Rohmer, Marine; Pikaard, Craig S; Fojtová, Miloslava; Fajkus, Jiří; Saez-Vasquez, Julio

    2017-01-01

    The nucleolus is the site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene transcription, rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. However, the nucleolus also plays additional roles in the cell. We isolated nucleoli by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) and identified Nucleolus-Associated Chromatin Domains (NADs) by deep sequencing, comparing wild-type plants and null mutants for the nucleolar protein, NUCLEOLIN 1 (NUC1). NADs are primarily genomic regions with heterochromatic signatures and include transposable elements (TEs), sub-telomeric regions and mostly inactive protein-coding genes. However, NADs also include active ribosomal RNA genes, and the entire short arm of chromosome 4 adjacent to them. In nuc1 null mutants, which alter rRNA gene expression and overall nucleolar structure, NADs are altered, telomere association with the nucleolus is decreased and telomeres become shorter. Collectively, our studies reveal roles for NUC1 and the nucleolus in the spatial organization of chromosomes as well as telomere maintenance. PMID:27477271

  8. 3D structure/function analysis of PilX reveals how minor pilins can modulate the virulence properties of type IV pili

    PubMed Central

    Helaine, Sophie; Dyer, David H.; Nassif, Xavier; Pelicic, Vladimir; Forest, Katrina T.

    2007-01-01

    Type IV pili (Tfp) are widespread filamentous bacterial organelles that mediate multiple virulence-related phenotypes. They are composed mainly of pilin subunits, which are processed before filament assembly by dedicated prepilin peptidases. Other proteins processed by these peptidases, whose molecular nature and mode of action remain enigmatic, play critical roles in Tfp biology. We have performed a detailed structure/function analysis of one such protein, PilX from Neisseria meningitidis, which is crucial for formation of bacterial aggregates and adhesion to human cells. The x-ray crystal structure of PilX reveals the α/β roll fold shared by all pilins, and we show that this protein colocalizes with Tfp. These observations suggest that PilX is a minor, or low abundance, pilin that assembles within the filaments in a similar way to pilin. Deletion of a PilX distinctive structural element, which is predicted to be exposed on the filament surface, abolishes aggregation and adhesion. Our results support a model in which surface-exposed motifs in PilX subunits stabilize bacterial aggregates against the disruptive force of pilus retraction and illustrate how a minor pilus component can enhance the functional properties of pili of rather simple composition and structure. PMID:17893339

  9. 3-D Grab!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Modern technologies in imaging greatly extend the potential to present visual information. With recently developed software tools, the perception of the third dimension can not only dramatically enhance presentation, but also allow spatial data to be better encoded. 3-D images can be taken for many subjects with only one camera, carefully moved to generate a stereo pair. Color anaglyph viewing now can be very effective using computer screens, and active filter technologies can enhance visual effects with ever-decreasing cost. We will present various novel results of 3-D imaging, including those from the auroral observations of the new twinned Athabasca University Geophysical Observatories.; Single camera stereo image for viewing with red/cyan glasses.

  10. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya

    2017-05-01

    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+-TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+-TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+-TFT admits a topological boundary condition, one can combine the above two statements to obtain a Turaev-Viro-like construction of Pin+-TFTs. As an application of these ideas, we construct a large class of Pin+-SPT phases.

  11. Geomagnetic storm effects on the thermosphere and the ionosphere revealed by in situ measurements from OGO 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marubashi, K.; Reber, C. A.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The temporal response of the densities of upper-atmospheric ion and neutral constituents to a particular geomagnetic storm is studied using simultaneous ion and neutral-composition data obtained by the OGO 6 satellite during consecutive orbits at altitudes greater than 400 km. The investigated constituents include H(+), O(+), N2, O, He, and H. Derivation of the H density is reviewed, and the main effects of the storm are discussed, particularly temporal and global variations in the densities. It is found that: (1) the H and He densities began to decrease near the time of sudden commencement, with the decrease amounting to more than 40% of the quiet-time densities during the maximum stage at high latitudes; (2) the O and N2 densities exhibited an overall increase which began later than the change in H and He densities; (3) the H(+) density decreased differently in two distinct regions separated near the low-latitude boundary of the light-ion trough; and (4) the O(+) density showed an increase during earlier stages of the storm and decreased only in the Northern Hemisphere during the recovery phase. Certain physical and chemical processes are suggested which play principal roles in the ionospheric response to the storm

  12. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  13. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  14. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  15. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  16. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  18. DOC sources and DOC transport pathways in a small headwater catchment as revealed by carbon isotope fluctuation during storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, T.; Pierson-Wickmann, A.-C.; Gruau, G.; Jaffrezic, A.; Petitjean, P.; Thibault, J. N.; Jeanneau, L.

    2014-06-01

    Monitoring the isotopic composition (δ13CDOC) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during flood events can be helpful for locating DOC sources in catchments and quantifying their relative contribution to stream DOC flux. High-resolution (< hourly basis) δ13CDOC data were obtained during six successive storm events occurring during the high-flow period in a small headwater catchment in western France. Intra-storm δ13CDOC values exhibit a marked temporal variability, with some storms showing large variations (> 2 ‰), and others yielding a very restricted range of values (< 1 ‰). Comparison of these results with previously published data shows that the range of intra-storm δ13CDOC values closely reflects the temporal and spatial variation in δ13CDOC observed in the riparian soils of this catchment during the same period. Using δ13CDOC data in conjunction with hydrometric monitoring and an end-member mixing approach (EMMA), we show that (i) > 80% of the stream DOC flux flows through the most superficial soil horizons of the riparian domain and (ii) the riparian soil DOC flux is comprised of DOC coming ultimately from both riparian and upland domains. Based on its δ13C fingerprint, we find that the upland DOC contribution decreases from ca.~30% of the stream DOC flux at the beginning of the high-flow period to < 10% later in this period. Overall, upland domains contribute significantly to stream DOC export, but act as a size-limited reservoir, whereas soils in the wetland domains act as a near-infinite reservoir. Through this study, we show that δ13CDOC provides a powerful tool for tracing DOC sources and DOC transport mechanisms in headwater catchments, having a high-resolution assessment of temporal and spatial variability.

  19. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  20. 3-D electrical structure across the Yadong-Gulu rift revealed by magnetotelluric data: New insights on the extension of the upper crust and the geometry of the underthrusting Indian lithospheric slab in southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wei, Wenbo; Ye, Gaofeng; Jin, Sheng; Jing, Jianen; Zhang, Letian; Dong, Hao; Xie, Chengliang; Omisore, Busayo O.; Guo, Zeqiu

    2017-09-01

    The approximately north-south trending Cenozoic Yadong-Gulu rift (YGR) in the eastern Lhasa block is an ideal location to investigate the extensional kinematic mechanism of the upper crust and the deformation characteristics of the Indian lithospheric slab in southern Tibet. The magnetotelluric (MT) method has been widely used in probing subsurface structures at lithospheric scale and is sensitive to high electrically conductive body (conductor). A three-dimensional (3-D) inversion of MT data was conducted to derive the east-west electrical structures across the northern segment of the YGR. The result reveals that the conductors in the middle crust are not continuous in the east-west direction. The deep conductor underneath the YGR is interpreted to result from the tearing of the Indian lithospheric slab. The upper crust to the east of the YGR is significantly intruded by underlying conductors. Based on the features of the 3-D inversion result from this study and other geophysical observations, the formation of the YGR is most likely caused by tearing of the Indian lithospheric slab through the pull of mid-lower crustal conductors that have locally weak strength beneath the YGR.

  1. A GPM Satellite Flyover of Tropical Storm Darby

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The animated flyby from NASA's GPM satellite shows Tropical Storm Darby in 3-D on July 23. GPM saw a line of intense storms in Darby, located southeast of the big island of Hawaii was dropping rain...

  2. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    , even if one data object lies behind another. Stereoscopic viewing is another powerful tool to investigate 3-D relationships between objects. This form of immersion is constructed through viewing two separate images that are interleaved--typically 48 frames per second, per eye--and synced through an emitter and a set of specialized polarizing eyeglasses. The polarizing lenses flicker at an equivalent rate, blanking the eye for which a particular image was not drawn, producing the desired stereo effect. Volumetric visualization of the ARAD 3-D seismic dataset will be presented. The effective use of transparency reveals detailed structure of the melt-lens beneath the 9°03'N overlapping spreading center (OSC) along the East Pacific Rise, including melt-filled fractures within the propagating rift-tip. In addition, range-gated images of seismic reflectivity will be co-registered to investigate the physical properties (melt versus mush) of the magma chamber at this locale. Surface visualization of a dense, 2-D grid of MCS seismic data beneath Axial seamount (Juan de Fuca Ridge) will also be highlighted, including relationships between the summit caldera and rift zones, and the underlying (and humongous) magma chamber. A selection of Quicktime movies will be shown. Popcorn will be served, really!

  3. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  4. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  5. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  6. Pluto in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-23

    Global stereo mapping of Pluto surface is now possible, as images taken from multiple directions are downlinked from NASA New Horizons spacecraft. Stereo images will eventually provide an accurate topographic map of most of the hemisphere of Pluto seen by New Horizons during the July 14 flyby, which will be key to understanding Pluto's geological history. This example, which requires red/blue stereo glasses for viewing, shows a region 180 miles (300 kilometers) across, centered near longitude 130 E, latitude 20 N (the red square in the global context image). North is to the upper left. The image shows an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto, dotted with low hills and cut by deep fractures, which indicate extension of Pluto's crust. Analysis of these stereo images shows that the steep fracture in the upper left of the image is about 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) deep, and the craters in the lower right part of the image are up to 1.3 miles (2.1 km) deep. Smallest visible details are about 0.4 miles (0.6 kilometers) across. You will need 3D glasses to view this image showing an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20032

  7. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  8. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  9. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  10. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics. PMID:28952542

  11. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  12. Storm Front

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-21

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey captures storm clouds that are moving towards the crater in the bottom of this image. Storms like this are common during the spring and early summer near the north pole.

  13. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Massive Dust Storm over Australia     View ... at JPL September 22, 2009 - Massive dust storm over Australia. project:  MISR category:  ... Sep 22, 2009 Images:  Dust Storm location:  Australia and New Zealand ...

  14. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  15. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  16. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  17. Into the Eye of the Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-13

    This stereoimage of Hurricane Alberto on August 19, 2000 was acquired by NASA Terra satellite. At this time, the storm was located in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Azores. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  18. Intercomparison of vertical structure of storms revealed by ground-based (NMQ) and spaceborne radars (CloudSat-CPR and TRMM-PR).

    PubMed

    Fall, Veronica M; Cao, Qing; Hong, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Spaceborne radars provide great opportunities to investigate the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. Two typical spaceborne radars for such a study are the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) and Ku-band Precipitation Radar (PR), which are onboard NASA's CloudSat and TRMM satellites, respectively. Compared to S-band ground-based radars, they have distinct scattering characteristics for different hydrometeors in clouds and precipitation. The combination of spaceborne and ground-based radar observations can help in the identification of hydrometeors and improve the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). This study analyzes the vertical structure of the 18 January, 2009 storm using data from the CloudSat CPR, TRMM PR, and a NEXRAD-based National Mosaic and Multisensor QPE (NMQ) system. Microphysics above, within, and below the melting layer are studied through an intercomparison of multifrequency measurements. Hydrometeors' type and their radar scattering characteristics are analyzed. Additionally, the study of the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) reveals the brightband properties in the cold-season precipitation and its effect on the radar-based QPE. In all, the joint analysis of spaceborne and ground-based radar data increases the understanding of the vertical structure of storm systems and provides a good insight into the microphysical modeling for weather forecasts.

  19. Intercomparison of Vertical Structure of Storms Revealed by Ground-Based (NMQ) and Spaceborne Radars (CloudSat-CPR and TRMM-PR)

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Veronica M.; Hong, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Spaceborne radars provide great opportunities to investigate the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. Two typical spaceborne radars for such a study are the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) and Ku-band Precipitation Radar (PR), which are onboard NASA's CloudSat and TRMM satellites, respectively. Compared to S-band ground-based radars, they have distinct scattering characteristics for different hydrometeors in clouds and precipitation. The combination of spaceborne and ground-based radar observations can help in the identification of hydrometeors and improve the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). This study analyzes the vertical structure of the 18 January, 2009 storm using data from the CloudSat CPR, TRMM PR, and a NEXRAD-based National Mosaic and Multisensor QPE (NMQ) system. Microphysics above, within, and below the melting layer are studied through an intercomparison of multifrequency measurements. Hydrometeors' type and their radar scattering characteristics are analyzed. Additionally, the study of the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) reveals the brightband properties in the cold-season precipitation and its effect on the radar-based QPE. In all, the joint analysis of spaceborne and ground-based radar data increases the understanding of the vertical structure of storm systems and provides a good insight into the microphysical modeling for weather forecasts. PMID:24459424

  20. An annually-resolved stalagmite tropical cyclone reconstruction from Belize reveals a northward shift in North Atlantic storm track position since 1550 C.E.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Lisa; Baldini, James; McElwaine, Jim; Frappier, Amy; Asmerom, Yemane; Liu, Kam-biu; Prufer, Keith; Ridley, Harriet; Polyak, Victor; Kennett, Douglas; Macpherson, Colin; Aquino, Valorie; Awe, Jaime; Breitenbach, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Hurricanes are large-scale atmospheric phenomena that typically produce high volume, high intensity, and isotopically depleted rainfall. Such storms have the ability to alter the isotopic composition of the groundwater reservoir, imparting a uniquely negative isotopic fingerprint to actively growing stalagmites. In regions influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), large volumes of rainfall delivered during the wet season can obscure the tropical cyclone (TC) rainfall proxy signal. Coupled annually resolved carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were used to isolate the low δ18O TC signal from the isotopically more enriched background rainfall associated with seasonal ITCZ migration. The new composite stalagmite proxy record yielded a 99.7% significant correlation with the western Caribbean-filtered HURDAT2 database over the instrumental record based on a non-parametric bootstrap approach. The new annually-resolved TC reconstruction for the western Caribbean spans the last 450 years and reveals a peak in western Caribbean TCs at 1650 C.E. and a gradual decline until a marked decrease is observed at the start of the Industrial Era. Comparison with documentary records of TC occurrence along the US eastern seaboard reveals a clear pattern of north-eastward TC track migration since peak Little Ice Age cooling. This pattern is consistent with natural warming since the Little Ice Age temperature minimum and with anthropogenic influences after industrialisation. Satellite observations reveal Hadley cell expansion has occurred over the last three decades and modelling studies implicate rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations as the driver. Our results suggest that Hadley cell position and width is a major control on hurricane track position and that future emissions scenarios (continued rising greenhouse gases coupled with decreasing Northern Hemisphere aerosol emissions) are likely to increase storm risk to the north-eastern USA.

  1. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  2. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  3. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  4. Structure of the ophiolite-hosted Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide ore district revealed by combined 3D modelling and 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalmann, Kerstin; Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu district within the North Karelia Schist Belt in eastern Finland hosts Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide deposits which are associated with Palaeoproterozoic ophiolitic metaperidotites that were tectonically interleaved with allochthonous metaturbidites. Extensive metasomatism of the peridotites produced a rim of quartz-carbonate-calc-silicate rocks, grouped as the Outokumpu assemblage (OKA). A tectonic history comprising various phases of folding and shearing followed by several faulting events dismembered the metaperidotites so that ore bodies cannot be easily followed along strike. Future exploration has to expand the search into deeper areas and consequently requires better knowledge of the subsurface geology. In order to unravel the complex structure 3D geologic models of different scales have been built using a variety of information: geological maps, aeromagnetic and gravity maps, digital terrain models, mine cross sections, drill core logs combined with observations from underground mine galleries, structural measurements, and data from seismic survey lines. The latter have been used to detect upper crustal-scale structures and have been reprocessed for our purpose. The models reveal that the ore body has formed during remobilisation of a proto-ore and is closely related to thrust zones that truncate the OKA. Later faults dismembered the ore explaining the variable depth of the different ore bodies along the Outokumpu ore zone. On a larger scale, at least four km-scale thrust sheets separated by major listric shear zones (curved dislocations in the seismic lines) can be recognized, each internally further imbricated by subordinate shear zones containing a number of lens-shape bodies of probably OKA rocks. Thrust stacking was followed by at least 3 stages of faulting that divided the ore belt into fault-bounded blocks with heterogeneous displacements: (i) NW-dipping faults with unresolved kinematics, (ii) reverse faulting along c.50°-60° SE

  5. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  6. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  7. GPM Sees Powerful Storms in Tropical Storm Hermine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This is a 3-D animated flyby of Tropical Storm Hermine created using radar data from the GPM core satellite. On Aug. 31 at 4 p.m. EDT GPM found rainfall occurring at a rate of over 9.9 inches (251 ...

  8. Perception of 3D spatial relations for 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Paul; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Hoffmann, Christoph; Popescu, Voicu S.

    2004-05-01

    We test perception of 3D spatial relations in 3D images rendered by a 3D display (Perspecta from Actuality Systems) and compare it to that of a high-resolution flat panel display. 3D images provide the observer with such depth cues as motion parallax and binocular disparity. Our 3D display is a device that renders a 3D image by displaying, in rapid succession, radial slices through the scene on a rotating screen. The image is contained in a glass globe and can be viewed from virtually any direction. In the psychophysical experiment several families of 3D objects are used as stimuli: primitive shapes (cylinders and cuboids), and complex objects (multi-story buildings, cars, and pieces of furniture). Each object has at least one plane of symmetry. On each trial an object or its "distorted" version is shown at an arbitrary orientation. The distortion is produced by stretching an object in a random direction by 40%. This distortion must eliminate the symmetry of an object. The subject's task is to decide whether or not the presented object is distorted under several viewing conditions (monocular/binocular, with/without motion parallax, and near/far). The subject's performance is measured by the discriminability d', which is a conventional dependent variable in signal detection experiments.

  9. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  10. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  11. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  12. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  13. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  14. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  15. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  16. Phoenix La Mancha Trench in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-09

    This anaglyph was taken by NASA Phoenix Mars Lander Surface Stereo Imager Oct. 7, 2008. The anaglyph highlights the depth of the trench, informally named La Mancha, and reveals the ice layer beneath the soil surface. 3D glasses are necessary.

  17. 3D multifocus astigmatism and compressed sensing (3D MACS) based superresolution reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiaqing; Sun, Mingzhai; Gumpper, Kristyn; Chi, Yuejie; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule based superresolution techniques (STORM/PALM) achieve nanometer spatial resolution by integrating the temporal information of the switching dynamics of fluorophores (emitters). When emitter density is low for each frame, they are located to the nanometer resolution. However, when the emitter density rises, causing significant overlapping, it becomes increasingly difficult to accurately locate individual emitters. This is particularly apparent in three dimensional (3D) localization because of the large effective volume of the 3D point spread function (PSF). The inability to precisely locate the emitters at a high density causes poor temporal resolution of localization-based superresolution technique and significantly limits its application in 3D live cell imaging. To address this problem, we developed a 3D high-density superresolution imaging platform that allows us to precisely locate the positions of emitters, even when they are significantly overlapped in three dimensional space. Our platform involves a multi-focus system in combination with astigmatic optics and an ℓ1-Homotopy optimization procedure. To reduce the intrinsic bias introduced by the discrete formulation of compressed sensing, we introduced a debiasing step followed by a 3D weighted centroid procedure, which not only increases the localization accuracy, but also increases the computation speed of image reconstruction. We implemented our algorithms on a graphic processing unit (GPU), which speeds up processing 10 times compared with central processing unit (CPU) implementation. We tested our method with both simulated data and experimental data of fluorescently labeled microtubules and were able to reconstruct a 3D microtubule image with 1000 frames (512×512) acquired within 20 seconds. PMID:25798314

  18. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  19. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  20. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  1. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  2. Genetic and comparative genomics mapping reveals that a powdery mildew resistance gene Ml3D232 originating from wild emmer co-segregates with an NBS-LRR analog in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Guan, Haiying; Li, Jingting; Zhu, Jie; Xie, Chaojie; Zhou, Yilin; Duan, Xiayu; Yang, Tsomin; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2010-11-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide and breeding for resistance using diversified disease resistance genes is the most promising approach to prevent outbreaks of powdery mildew. A powdery mildew resistance gene, originating from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) accessions collected from Israel, has been transferred into the hexaploid wheat line 3D232 through crossing and backcrossing. Inoculation results with 21 B. graminis f. sp. tritici races indicated that 3D232 is resistant to all of the powdery mildew isolates tested. Genetic analyses of 3D232 using an F(2) segregating population and F(3) families indicated that a single dominant gene, Ml3D232, confers resistance in the host seedling stage. By applying molecular markers and bulked segregant analysis (BSA), we have identified polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tags (EST) and derived sequence tagged site (STS) markers to determine that the Ml3D232 is located on chromosome 5BL bin 0.59-0.76. Comparative genetic analyses using mapped EST markers and genome sequences of rice and Brachypodium established co-linearity of the Ml3D232 genomic region with a 1.4 Mb genomic region on Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 4, and a 1.2 Mb contig located on the Oryza sativa chromosome 9. Our comparative approach enabled us to develop new EST-STS markers and to delimit the genomic region carrying Ml3D232 to a 0.8 cM segment that is collinear with a 558 kb region on B. distachyon. Eight EST markers, including an NBS-LRR analog, co-segregated with Ml3D232 to provide a target site for fine genetic mapping, chromosome landing and map-based cloning of the powdery mildew resistance gene. This newly developed common wheat germplasm provides broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew and a valuable resource for wheat breeding programs.

  3. Implications for the crustal Architecture in West Antarctica revealed by the means of depth-to-the-bottom of the magnetic source (DBMS) mapping and 3D FEM geothermal heat flux models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziadek, Ricarda; Gohl, Karsten; Kaul, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the largest rift systems in the world, which displays unique coupled relationships between tectonic processes and ice sheet dynamics. Palaeo-ice streams have eroded troughs across the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) that today route warm ocean deep water to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) grounding zone and reinforce dynamic ice sheet thinning. Rift basins, which cut across West Antarctica's landward-sloping shelves, promote ice sheet instability. Young, continental rift systems are regions with significantly elevated geothermal heat flux (GHF), because the transient thermal perturbation to the lithosphere caused by rifting requires 100 m.y. to reach long-term thermal equilibrium. The GHF in this region is, especially on small scales, poorly constrained and suspected to be heterogeneous as a reflection of the distribution of tectonic and volcanic activity along the complex branching geometry of the WARS, which reflects its multi-stage history and structural inheritance. We investigate the crustal architecture and the possible effects of rifting history from the WARS on the ASE ice sheet dynamics, by the use of depth-to-the-bottom of the magnetic source (DBMS) estimates. These are based on airborne-magnetic anomaly data and provide an additional insight into the deeper crustal properties. With the DBMS estimates we reveal spatial changes at the bottom of the igneous crust and the thickness of the magnetic layer, which can be further incorporated into tectonic interpretations. The DBMS also marks an important temperature transition zone of approximately 580°C and therefore serves as a boundary condition for our numerical FEM models in 2D and 3D. On balance, and by comparison to global values, we find average GHF of 90 mWm-2 with spatial variations due to crustal heterogeneities and volcanic activities. This estimate is 30% more than commonly used in ice sheet models in the ASE region.

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  5. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  6. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  8. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  9. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  10. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  11. Storming ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Fourteen tropical storms, nine hurricanes, and four intense hurricanes with winds above 111 mph. That's the forecast for hurricane activity in the Atlantic Basin for the upcoming hurricane season which extends from June 1 through November 30, 1999, according to a Colorado State Hurricane Forecast team led by William Gray, professor of atmospheric science. The forecast supports an earlier report by the team.Hurricane activity, said Gray will be similar to 1998—which yielded 14 tropical storms, 10 hurricanes, and 3 intense storms. These numbers are significantly higher than the long-term statistical averages of 9.3, 5.8, and 2.2, annually.

  12. Thyroid storm and warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joseph A; Gliga, Louise; Nagalla, Srikanth

    2017-08-18

    Graves' disease is often associated with other autoimmune disorders, including rare associations with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We describe a unique presentation of thyroid storm and warm AIHA diagnosed concurrently in a young female with hyperthyroidism. The patient presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and altered mental status. Laboratory studies revealed hemoglobin 3.9g/dL, platelets 171×10(9)L(-1), haptoglobin <5mg/dL, reticulocytosis, and positive direct antiglobulin test (IgG, C3d, warm). Additional workup revealed serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) <0.01μIU/mL and serum free-T4 (FT4) level 7.8ng/dL. Our patient was diagnosed with concurrent thyroid storm and warm AIHA. She was started on glucocorticoids to treat both warm AIHA and thyroid storm, as well as antithyroid medications, propranolol and folic acid. Due to profound anemia and hemodynamic instability, the patient was transfused two units of uncrossmatched packed red blood cells slowly and tolerated this well. She was discharged on methimazole as well as a prolonged prednisone taper, and achieved complete resolution of the thyrotoxicosis and anemia at one month. Hyperthyroidism can affect all three blood cell lineages of the hematopoietic system. Anemia can be seen in 10-20% of patients with thyrotoxicosis. Several autoimmune processes can lead to anemia in Graves' disease, including pernicious anemia, celiac disease, and warm AIHA. This case illustrates a rarely described presentation of a patient with Graves' disease presenting with concurrent thyroid storm and warm AIHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ASI/MET - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    The Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package ASI/MET is the mast and windsocks at the center of this stereo image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  14. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  15. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  16. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  17. [Tridimensional (3D) endoscopic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Varas Lorenzo, M J; Muñoz Agel, F; Abad Belando, R

    2007-01-01

    A review and update on 3D endoscopic ultrasonography is included regarding all of this technique s aspects, technical details, and current indications. Images from our own clinical experience are presented.

  18. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  19. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  20. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first large statistical study of extreme geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence

  1. Sample drift correction in 3D fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlodzianoski, Michael J.; Schreiner, John M.; Callahan, Steven P.; Smolková, Katarina; Dlasková, Andrea; Šantorová, Jitka; Ježek, Petr; Bewersdorf, Joerg

    2011-08-01

    The recent development of diffraction-unlimited far-field fluorescence microscopy has overcome the classical resolution limit of ~250 nm of conventional light microscopy by about a factor of ten. The improved resolution, however, reveals not only biological structures at an unprecedented resolution, but is also susceptible to sample drift on a much finer scale than previously relevant. Without correction, sample drift leads to smeared images with decreased resolution, and in the worst case to misinterpretation of the imaged structures. This poses a problem especially for techniques such as Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy (FPALM/PALM) or Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM), which often require minutes recording time. Here we discuss an approach that corrects for three-dimensional (3D) drift in images of fixed samples without the requirement for fiduciary markers or instrument modifications. Drift is determined by calculating the spatial cross-correlation function between subsets of localized particles imaged at different times. Correction down to ~5 nm precision is achieved despite the fact that different molecules are imaged in each frame. We demonstrate the performance of our drift correction algorithm with different simulated structures and analyze its dependence on particle density and localization precision. By imaging mitochondria with Biplane FPALM we show our algorithm's feasibility in a practical application.

  2. Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.

    1998-01-01

    One of the oldest mysteries in geomagnetism is the linkage between solar and geomagnetic activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth geomagnetic storms were first noted by Sabine. A few years later, speculation on a causal relationship between flares and storms arose when Carrington reported that a large magnetic storm followed the great September 1859 solar flare. However, it was not until this century that a well-accepted statistical survey on large solar flares and geomagnetic storms was performed, and a significant correlation between flares and geomagnetic storms was noted. Although the two phenomena, one on the Sun and the other on the Earth, were statistically correlated, the exact physical linkage was still an unknown at this time. Various hypotheses were proposed, but it was not until interplanetary spacecraft measurements were available that a high-speed plasma stream rich in helium was associated with an intense solar flare. The velocity of the solar wind increased just prior to and during the helium passage, identifying the solar ejecta for the first time. Space plasma measurements and Skylab's coronagraph images of coronal mass elections (CMES) from the Sun firmly established the plasma link between the Sun and the Earth. One phenomenon associated with magnetic storms is brilliant "blood" red auroras, as shown.

  3. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  4. 3-D threat image projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat

  5. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  6. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  7. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  8. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  10. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  11. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. Slow Narrow Spectral Width E Region Echoes Observed During the March 17-2015 Storm and What They Reveal About the Disturbed Ionosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Maurice, J. P.; Chau, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    As auroral-type disturbances moved equatorward during the March 17-2015 storm, coherent E region echoes were observed simultaneously with three radar links separated by 40 km each in the east-west direction in northern Germany. One radar operated at 36.2, and the other two at 32.55 MHz. One of the latter operated in a bistatic configuration. On each radar site five separate antennas were used to locate the echoes using interferometry. The unique configuration provided an unsurpassed opportunity to study the origin and evolution of ionospheric structures in a wide field of view during a strong storm. A most noticeable feature was that over a few time intervals, several minutes in duration each, very narrow spectra were observed, with Doppler shifts roughly 1/2 the ion-acoustic speed (often called "type III" echoes in the past). The inferred location indicated that the echoes came from below 100 km altitude. Echoes moving at the nominal ion-acoustic speed came from higher up and/or different flow angles. In one particularly clear instance the "Type III" echo region came from a region 50 to 75 km in extent drifting at roughly 1.5 km/s, while moving at some small (but non-zero) flow angle with respect to the line-of-sight. In view of the observations, a reevaluation of existing theories indicates that the echoes cannot be related to ion cyclotron waves. Instead, their low altitude and flow angle dependence reveal that they are the by-product of the ion Pedersen instability, which has been investigated by a few groups in relation to a non-isothermal treatment of the Farley-Buneman instability. In our present treatment of the problem, nonlinear effects are invoked to compute the final Doppler shift of the resulting structures. We find that the stronger the electric field is, the closer the region of slow echoes has to be to the ExB direction. In our most dramatic example of Type III structures, the size of the echo region pointed to a region of high energy precipitation

  14. Moist convective storms in the atmosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2003-05-01

    Moist convective storms might be a key aspect in the global energy budget of the atmospheres of the Giant Planets. In spite of its dull appearance, Saturn is known to develop the largest scale convective storms in the Solar System, the Great White Spots, the last of them arising in 1990 triggered a planetary scale disturbance that encircled the whole Equatorial region. However, Saturn seems to be very much less convective than Jupiter, being convective storms rare and small for the most part of the cases. Here we present simulations of moist convective storms in the atmosphere of Saturn at different latitudes, the Equator and 42 deg S, the regions where most of the convective activity of the planet has been observed. We use a 3D anelastic model of the atmosphere with parameterized microphysics (Hueso and Sánchez-Lavega, 2001) and we study the onset and evolution of moist convective storms. Ammonia storms are able to develop only if the static stability of the upper atmosphere is slightly decreased. Water storms are difficult to develop requiring very specific atmospheric conditions. However, when they develop they can be very energetic arriving at least to the 150 mbar level. The Coriolis forces play a mayor role in the characteristics of water based storms in the atmosphere of Saturn. The 3-D Coriolis forces at the Equator transfer upward momentum to westward motions acting to diminish the strength of the equatorial jet. The GWS of 1990 could have been a mayor force in reducing the intensity of the equatorial jet stream as revealed recently (Sánchez-Lavega et al. Nature, 2003). The Cassini spacecraft will arrive to Saturn in a year. Its observations of the atmosphere will allow to measure the amount of convective activity on the planet, its characteristics and it will clarify the role of moist convection in the atmospheric dynamics of the Giant Planets. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT PNAYA 2000-0932. RH acknowledges a Post

  15. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, John C.; Haas, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales.

  17. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  18. Baghdad Sulcus in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-23

    This anaglyph from images captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft shows a dramatic, 3-D view of one of the deep fractures nicknamed tiger stripes on Saturn moon Enceladus which are located near the moon south pole, spray jets of water ice.

  19. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  20. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  1. Ganges Chasma in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-25

    Ganges Chasma is part of the Valles Marineris trough system that stretches nearly 5,000 kilometers 3,000 miles across the western equatorial region of Mars. This stereo anaglyph is from NASA Mars Global Surveyor. 3D glasses are necessary.

  2. Opportunity Stretches Out 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-02

    This is a three-dimensional stereo anaglyph of an image taken by the front hazard-identification camera onboard NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, showing the rover arm in its extended position. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  3. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  4. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  5. Rosetta Comet in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-21

    A 3D image shows what it would look like to fly over the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The image was generated by data collected by ESA Philae spacecraft during the decent to the spacecraft initial touchdown on the comet Nov. 12, 2014.

  6. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  7. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  8. Finite element micro-modelling of a human ankle bone reveals the importance of the trabecular network to mechanical performance: new methods for the generation and comparison of 3D models.

    PubMed

    Parr, W C H; Chamoli, U; Jones, A; Walsh, W R; Wroe, S

    2013-01-04

    Most modelling of whole bones does not incorporate trabecular geometry and treats bone as a solid non-porous structure. Some studies have modelled trabecular networks in isolation. One study has modelled the performance of whole human bones incorporating trabeculae, although this required considerable computer resources and purpose-written code. The difference between mechanical behaviour in models that incorporate trabecular geometry and non-porous models has not been explored. The ability to easily model trabecular networks may shed light on the mechanical consequences of bone loss in osteoporosis and remodelling after implant insertion. Here we present a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of a human ankle bone that includes trabecular network geometry. We compare results from this model with results from non-porous models and introduce protocols achievable on desktop computers using widely available softwares. Our findings show that models including trabecular geometry are considerably stiffer than non-porous whole bone models wherein the non-cortical component has the same mass as the trabecular network, suggesting inclusion of trabecular geometry is desirable. We further present new methods for the construction and analysis of 3D models permitting: (1) construction of multi-property, non-porous models wherein cortical layer thickness can be manipulated; (2) maintenance of the same triangle network for the outer cortical bone surface in both 3D reconstruction and non-porous models allowing exact replication of load and restraint cases; and (3) creation of an internal landmark point grid allowing direct comparison between 3D FE Models (FEMs).

  9. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  10. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  11. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  12. 3-D sprag ratcheting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Michael O. (Inventor); Poland, Jr., James W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A ratcheting device comprising a driver head assembly which includes at least two 3-D sprag elements positioned within a first groove within the driver head assembly such that at least one of the 3-D sprag elements may lockingly engage the driver head assembly and a mating hub assembly to allow for rotation of the hub assembly in one direction with respect to the driver head assembly. This arrangement allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction without having to first rotate the ratcheting tool in the direction opposite the direction in which the torque is applied. This arrangement also allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction while in the neutral position.

  13. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  14. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  15. 3D Vortices in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Samy; Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip

    2010-11-01

    Like the atmosphere of Jupiter, protoplanetary disks (thin disks of gas & dust in orbit around newly-formed stars) are characterized by rapid rotation and intense shear, inspiring proposals that disks may also be populated with long-lived, robust storms analogous to the Great Red Spot. Such vortices may play key roles in the formation of stars and planets by transporting angular momentum, as well as trapping and concentrating dust grains, seeding the formation of planetesimals, the "building blocks" of planets. In our previous work (Barranco & Marcus 2005), we showed via numerical simulation (with an anelastic spectral code) that vortices near the midplane of the disk suffer an antisymmetric instability and are destroyed. However, internal gravity waves propagate away from the midplane, amplify and break, creating bands of vorticity that roll-up into new long-lived, stable vortices above and below the midplane. We will present new results on 3D vortex dynamics in protoplanetary disks, exploring the role of factors unique to this context: the Coriolis parameter f, the shear rate σ, and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N are all of the same order of magnitude. In the region around the midplane Nf. This leads to strong refraction of internal gravity waves, causing the waves to amplify and break, generating vorticity.

  16. 3D View of Mars Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a 3D representation of the pits seen in the first Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM, images sent back from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Red represents the highest point and purple represents the lowest point.

    The particle in the upper left corner shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a rounded particle about one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across. It is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The particle was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress' delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The AFM is part of Phoenix's microscopic station called MECA, or the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. 3D-model: Earth's seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirlaen, Koen

    2017-04-01

    A lot of subjects in geography and geology are linked to the seasons of the earth. Most of the students think that the earth's seasons are caused by the differences in the distance from the sun throughout the year. So as a teacher I tried year after year to explain the motion of the earth around the sun. Even when I used animations/movies/… it still seemed difficult for the students to understand the 3D-situation. Most of the animations only show the start of every season but it's important to demonstrate to the students the motion of the earth during a year so they can see that the tilt of our planet causes the seasons. The earth's axis is tilted by 23.4 degrees to the plane in which it travels around the sun, the ecliptic. So I started to work on a 3D-model on a scale to use in a classroom. It measures approximately 2m by 1m. You can buy all the materials in DIY-shop for less than € 100: wooden plank, lamp, styrofoam spheres (= earth), … I have been using the model for over 4 years now and it's very nice to work with. You can involve the students more and let them investigate for themselves what causes the seasons. The model demonstrates the start of every season, why it is dark for several months in several places on Earth. They can draw the positions of the Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle on the styrofoam spheres. Also the difference between day and night is well shown on the globes. A lot of subjects in geography and geology are linked to the seasons of the earth: the changes in weather, ocean currents, winds, tropical storms, vegetation, fauna and flora, hours of daylight, … even economy, migration and social health. This way the model can be used in many lessons during the year. The poster session will demonstrate how you can make the 3D-model, some exercises, …

  18. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  19. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  20. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  1. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  2. Dissection of C. elegans behavioral genetics in 3-D environments

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Namseop; Hwang, Ara B.; You, Young-Jai; V. Lee, Seung-Jae; Ho Je, Jung

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a widely used model for genetic dissection of animal behaviors. Despite extensive technical advances in imaging methods, it remains challenging to visualize and quantify C. elegans behaviors in three-dimensional (3-D) natural environments. Here we developed an innovative 3-D imaging method that enables quantification of C. elegans behavior in 3-D environments. Furthermore, for the first time, we characterized 3-D-specific behavioral phenotypes of mutant worms that have defects in head movement or mechanosensation. This approach allowed us to reveal previously unknown functions of genes in behavioral regulation. We expect that our 3-D imaging method will facilitate new investigations into genetic basis of animal behaviors in natural 3-D environments. PMID:25955271

  3. Dissection of C. elegans behavioral genetics in 3-D environments.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Namseop; Hwang, Ara B; You, Young-Jai; V Lee, Seung-Jae; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-05-08

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a widely used model for genetic dissection of animal behaviors. Despite extensive technical advances in imaging methods, it remains challenging to visualize and quantify C. elegans behaviors in three-dimensional (3-D) natural environments. Here we developed an innovative 3-D imaging method that enables quantification of C. elegans behavior in 3-D environments. Furthermore, for the first time, we characterized 3-D-specific behavioral phenotypes of mutant worms that have defects in head movement or mechanosensation. This approach allowed us to reveal previously unknown functions of genes in behavioral regulation. We expect that our 3-D imaging method will facilitate new investigations into genetic basis of animal behaviors in natural 3-D environments.

  4. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton I.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson–Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access. PMID:23970545

  5. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anton I; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles B

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson-Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access.

  6. Patient-specific 3D scanned and 3D printed antimicrobial polycaprolactone wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Muwaffak, Zaid; Goyanes, Alvaro; Clark, Vivienne; Basit, Abdul W; Hilton, Stephen T; Gaisford, Simon

    2017-07-15

    The increasing prevalence of wound infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria is an urgent challenge facing modern medicine. To address this issue the expedient use of antimicrobial metals such as zinc, copper and silver were incorporated into an FDA-approved polymer (polycaprolactone - PCL) to produce filaments for 3D printing. These metals have broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties, and moreover, copper and zinc can enhance the wound healing process. 3D scanning was used to construct 3D models of a nose and ear to provide the opportunity to customize shape and size of a wound dressing to an individual patient. Hot melt extrusion was used to extrude pellets obtained by vacuum-drying of solutions of PCL and the different metals in order to manufacture metal-homogeneously-loaded filaments. Wound dressings with different shapes were produced with the filaments containing different concentrations of metals. Release of the metals from the dressings was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. All the different metal dressings show fast release (up to 24h) followed by slow release (up to 72h). The antibacterial efficacy of the wound dressings was tested using a thermal activity monitor system, revealing that silver and copper wound dressings had the most potent bactericidal properties. This study shows that 3D scanning and 3D printing, which are becoming simpler and more affordable, have the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised wound dressings. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetosphere-associated storms and the autonomous storms in the ionosphere-plasmasphere environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Stanislawska, I.

    2010-01-01

    Global GPS-derived ionosphere maps (GIM) of total electron content (TEC) were transformed into magnetic latitude (MLAT) versus magnetic local time (MLT) frame. TEC enhancement or depletion marked by W index show dominant electron content depressions and the ionosphere-plasmasphere storms increasing by nighttime, at high magnetic latitudes and over the crests of equatorial anomaly. Based on W maps, the planetary Wp index was produced and used for derivation of a catalogue of more than 140 TEC storms during 1999-2009. In total 33 space weather intense storms and 35 moderate storms are revealed with four series of indices (AE, Ap, Dst and Wp) but more than half Wp storms were either partially overlapping in time with magnetic storm or observed autonomously under non-storm magnetosphere conditions. Relation between an annual number of intense Dst storms and Wp storms has been used for their prediction towards the peak of the forthcoming 24th solar cycle.

  8. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  9. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  10. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  11. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  12. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  13. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  14. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  15. Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang

    2015-04-30

    For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Growth of bacteria in 3-d colonies

    PubMed Central

    Mugler, Andrew; Kim, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of growth of bacterial populations has been extensively studied for planktonic cells in well-agitated liquid culture, in which all cells have equal access to nutrients. In the real world, bacteria are more likely to live in physically structured habitats as colonies, within which individual cells vary in their access to nutrients. The dynamics of bacterial growth in such conditions is poorly understood, and, unlike that for liquid culture, there is not a standard broadly used mathematical model for bacterial populations growing in colonies in three dimensions (3-d). By extending the classic Monod model of resource-limited population growth to allow for spatial heterogeneity in the bacterial access to nutrients, we develop a 3-d model of colonies, in which bacteria consume diffusing nutrients in their vicinity. By following the changes in density of E. coli in liquid and embedded in glucose-limited soft agar, we evaluate the fit of this model to experimental data. The model accounts for the experimentally observed presence of a sub-exponential, diffusion-limited growth regime in colonies, which is absent in liquid cultures. The model predicts and our experiments confirm that, as a consequence of inter-colony competition for the diffusing nutrients and of cell death, there is a non-monotonic relationship between total number of colonies within the habitat and the total number of individual cells in all of these colonies. This combined theoretical-experimental study reveals that, within 3-d colonies, E. coli cells are loosely packed, and colonies produce about 2.5 times as many cells as the liquid culture from the same amount of nutrients. We verify that this is because cells in liquid culture are larger than in colonies. Our model provides a baseline description of bacterial growth in 3-d, deviations from which can be used to identify phenotypic heterogeneities and inter-cellular interactions that further contribute to the structure of bacterial

  17. Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang

    2015-01-01

    For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. PMID:25690896

  18. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  19. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  20. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  1. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  2. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  3. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  4. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  5. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  6. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  7. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  10. Large Geomagnetic Storms: Introduction to Special Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cycle 23 witnessed the accumulation of rich data sets that reveal various aspects of geomagnetic storms in unprecedented detail both at the Sun where the storm causing disturbances originate and in geospace where the effects of the storms are directly felt. During two recent coordinated data analysis workshops (CDAWs) the large geomagnetic storms (Dst < or = -100 nT) of solar cycle 23 were studied in order to understand their solar, interplanetary, and geospace connections. This special section grew out of these CDAWs with additional contributions relevant to these storms. Here I provide a brief summary of the results presented in the special section.

  11. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  12. GPM Core Observatory Views Feb. 17, 2015, Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory captured a 3-D image of a winter storm on Feb. 17, 2015, that left 6 to 12 inches of snow over much of Kentucky, southwestern West Virgin...

  13. Structural Hypervariability of the Two Human Protein Kinase CK2 Catalytic Subunit Paralogs Revealed by Complex Structures with a Flavonol- and a Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-Based Inhibitor †

    PubMed Central

    Niefind, Karsten; Bischoff, Nils; Golub, Andriy G.; Bdzhola, Volodymyr G.; Balanda, Anatoliy O.; Prykhod’ko, Andriy O.; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M.

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is associated with a number of human diseases, among them cancer, and is therefore a target for inhibitor development in industry and academia. Six crystal structures of either CK2α, the catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2, or its paralog CK2α′ in complex with two ATP-competitive inhibitors—based on either a flavonol or a thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine framework—are presented. The structures show examples for extreme structural deformations of the ATP-binding loop and its neighbourhood and of the hinge/helix αD region, i.e., of two zones of the broader ATP site environment. Thus, they supplement our picture of the conformational space available for CK2α and CK2α′. Further, they document the potential of synthetic ligands to trap unusual conformations of the enzymes and allow to envision a new generation of inhibitors that stabilize such conformations. PMID:28085026

  14. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  15. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  16. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  17. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  18. Operational Aspects of Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-12

    Battalion (MIB), 3d Armored Division leading up to and during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. This paper represents the personal assessment of the author...DESERT SHIELD A$DDESERT STORM ...J BY Lieutenant Colonel Henry C. Shirah United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...Classification) OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF DESERT SHIELD AND DESERT STORM 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year

  19. Direct-Write 3D Nanoprinting of Plasmonic Structures.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Robert; Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Haselmann, Ulrich; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lewis, Brett B; Kothleitner, Gerald; Rack, Philip D; Plank, Harald

    2017-03-08

    During the past decade, significant progress has been made in the field of resonant optics ranging from fundamental aspects to concrete applications. While several techniques have been introduced for the fabrication of highly defined metallic nanostructures, the synthesis of complex, free-standing three-dimensional (3D) structures is still an intriguing, but so far intractable, challenge. In this study, we demonstrate a 3D direct-write synthesis approach that addresses this challenge. Specifically, we succeeded in the direct-write fabrication of 3D nanoarchitectures via electron-stimulated reactions, which are applicable on virtually any material and surface morphology. By that, complex 3D nanostructures composed of highly compact, pure gold can be fabricated, which reveal strong plasmonic activity and pave the way for a new generation of 3D nanoplasmonic architectures that can be printed on-demand.

  20. New software for 3D fracture network analysis and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, J.; Noh, Y.; Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Hwang, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents new software to perform analysis and visualization of the fracture network system in 3D. The developed software modules for the analysis and visualization, such as BOUNDARY, DISK3D, FNTWK3D, CSECT and BDM, have been developed using Microsoft Visual Basic.NET and Visualization TookKit (VTK) open-source library. Two case studies revealed that each module plays a role in construction of analysis domain, visualization of fracture geometry in 3D, calculation of equivalent pipes, production of cross-section map and management of borehole data, respectively. The developed software for analysis and visualization of the 3D fractured rock mass can be used to tackle the geomechanical problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses.

  1. Direct-Write 3D Nanoprinting of Plasmonic Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Robert; Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Haselmann, Ulrich; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lewis, Brett B.; Kothleitner, Gerald; Rack, Philip D.; Plank, Harald

    2016-11-23

    During the past decade, significant progress has been made in the field of resonant optics ranging from fundamental aspects to concrete applications. And while several techniques have been introduced for the fabrication of highly defined metallic nanostructures, the synthesis of complex, free-standing three-dimensional (3D) structures is still an intriguing, but so far intractable, challenge. Here, we demonstrate a 3D direct-write synthesis approach that addresses this challenge. Specifically, we succeeded in the direct-write fabrication of 3D nanoarchitectures via electron-stimulated reactions, which are applicable on virtually any material and surface morphology. Furthermore, by that, complex 3D nanostructures composed of highly compact, pure gold can be fabricated, which reveal strong plasmonic activity and pave the way for a new generation of 3D nanoplasmonic architectures that can be printed on-demand.

  2. Direct-Write 3D Nanoprinting of Plasmonic Structures

    DOE PAGES

    Winkler, Robert; Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Karl-Franzens Univ.; ...

    2016-11-23

    During the past decade, significant progress has been made in the field of resonant optics ranging from fundamental aspects to concrete applications. And while several techniques have been introduced for the fabrication of highly defined metallic nanostructures, the synthesis of complex, free-standing three-dimensional (3D) structures is still an intriguing, but so far intractable, challenge. Here, we demonstrate a 3D direct-write synthesis approach that addresses this challenge. Specifically, we succeeded in the direct-write fabrication of 3D nanoarchitectures via electron-stimulated reactions, which are applicable on virtually any material and surface morphology. Furthermore, by that, complex 3D nanostructures composed of highly compact, puremore » gold can be fabricated, which reveal strong plasmonic activity and pave the way for a new generation of 3D nanoplasmonic architectures that can be printed on-demand.« less

  3. Using 3-D Super-Resolution Microscopy to Probe Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Their Microenvironment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    microscope, which now has the capabilities to perform both 2D and 3D multi-color Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) and Photoactivated...this cellular phenotype. To realize this goal, we had proposed to use 3D super-resolution microscopy to visualize how individual breast CaSCs and...techniques. Using AutoCAD , we create a mask and use soft lithography to create PDMS (Sylgard 184) microposts with a given aspect ratio and

  4. 3D Band Diagram and Photoexcitation of 2D–3D Semiconductor Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bo; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; He, Yongmin; Gao, Weilu; Gong, Yongji; Ye, Gonglan; Zhou, Wu; Keyshar, Kunttal; Hao, Ji; Dong, Pei; Ge, Liehui; Lou, Jun; Kono, Junichiro; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2015-08-17

    The emergence of a rich variety of two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductor materials has enabled the creation of atomically thin heterojunction devices. Junctions between atomically thin 2D layers and 3D bulk semiconductors can lead to junctions that are fundamentally electronically different from the covalently bonded conventional semiconductor junctions. In this paper, we propose a new 3D band diagram for the heterojunction formed between n-type monolayer MoS2 and p-type Si, in which the conduction and valence band-edges of the MoS2 monolayer are drawn for both stacked and in-plane directions. This new band diagram helps visualize the flow of charge carriers inside the device in a 3D manner. Our detailed wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements fully support the diagrams and unambiguously show that the band alignment is type I for this 2D-3D heterojunction. Photogenerated electron–hole pairs in the atomically thin monolayer are separated and driven by an external bias and control the “on/off” states of the junction photodetector device. Finally, two photoresponse regimes with fast and slow relaxation are also revealed in time-resolved photocurrent measurements, suggesting the important role played by charge trap states.

  5. 3D Band Diagram and Photoexcitation of 2D–3D Semiconductor Heterojunctions

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Bo; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; ...

    2015-08-17

    The emergence of a rich variety of two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductor materials has enabled the creation of atomically thin heterojunction devices. Junctions between atomically thin 2D layers and 3D bulk semiconductors can lead to junctions that are fundamentally electronically different from the covalently bonded conventional semiconductor junctions. In this paper, we propose a new 3D band diagram for the heterojunction formed between n-type monolayer MoS2 and p-type Si, in which the conduction and valence band-edges of the MoS2 monolayer are drawn for both stacked and in-plane directions. This new band diagram helps visualize the flow of charge carriers inside themore » device in a 3D manner. Our detailed wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements fully support the diagrams and unambiguously show that the band alignment is type I for this 2D-3D heterojunction. Photogenerated electron–hole pairs in the atomically thin monolayer are separated and driven by an external bias and control the “on/off” states of the junction photodetector device. Finally, two photoresponse regimes with fast and slow relaxation are also revealed in time-resolved photocurrent measurements, suggesting the important role played by charge trap states.« less

  6. Intermittent criticality revealed in the ENIGMA magnetometer array time series prior to the strongest magnetic storms of the present solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasis, Georgios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Potirakis, Stelios M.; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Giannakis, Omiros; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Kontoes, Charalampos

    2017-04-01

    The geomagnetic field observations of the ENIGMA magnetometer array associated with the most intense magnetic storms of solar cycle 24 are studied in terms of the theory of critical phenomena and phase transitions. The application of the critical fluctuations analysis method on the unprocessed Earth's magnetic field variations provides evidence of the existence of criticality from 8 up to 45 hours before the occurrence of these intense magnetic storms. The identified dynamics are analogous to those of thermal systems undergoing phase transition of the second-order. Detrended fluctuation analysis results are consistent to the findings of the method of critical fluctuations implying that the underlying nonlinear processes are anti-persistent, as expected for criticality caused by intermittent dynamics.

  7. From Surface Data to 3D Geologic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, D.; Luxey, P.; Longuesserre, V.; Monod, B.; Guillaume, B.

    2008-12-01

    New trends in earth sciences are mostly related to technologies allowing graphical representations of the geology in 3D. However, the concept of 3D geologic map is commonly misused. For instance, displays of geologic maps draped onto DEM in rotating perspective views have been misleadingly called 3D geologic maps, but this still cannot provide any volumetric underground information as a true 3D geologic map should. Here, we present a way to produce mathematically and geometrically correct 3D geologic maps constituted by the volume and shape of all geologic features of a given area. The originality of the method is that it is based on the integration of surface data only consisting of (1) geologic maps, (2) satellite images, (3) DEM and (4) bedding dips and strikes. To generate 3D geologic maps, we used a 3D geologic modeler that combines and extrapolates the surface information into a coherent 3D data set. The significance of geometrically correct 3D geologic maps is demonstrated for various geologic settings and applications. 3D models are of primarily importance for educational purposes because they reveal features that standard 2D geologic maps by themselves could not show. The 3D visualization helps in the understanding of the geometrical relationship between the different geologic features and, in turn, for the quantification of the geology at the regional scale. Furthermore, given the logistical challenges associated with modern oil and mineral exploration in remote and rugged terrain, these volume-based models can provide geological and commercial insight prior to seismic evaluation.

  8. Shoreline resilience to individual storms and storm clusters on a meso-macrotidal barred beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angnuureng, Donatus Bapentire; Almar, Rafael; Senechal, Nadia; Castelle, Bruno; Addo, Kwasi Appeaning; Marieu, Vincent; Ranasinghe, Roshanka

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the impact of individual storms and storm clusters on shoreline recovery for the meso-to macrotidal, barred Biscarrosse beach in SW France, using 6 years of daily video observations. While the study area experienced 60 storms during the 6-year study period, only 36 storms were analysed due to gaps in the video data. Based on the 36 individual storms and 13 storm clusters analysed, our results show that clustering impact is cumulatively weak and shoreline retreat is governed by the first storms in clusters, while the impact of subsequent events is less pronounced. The average post-storm beach recovery period at this site is 9 days, consistent with observations at other beaches. Apart from the dominant effect of present storm conditions, shoreline dynamics are also significantly affected by previous storm influence, while recovery is strongly modulated by tidal range and the bar location. Our results reveal that not only is the storm energy important but also the frequency of recurrence (storms result in greater retreat when time intervals between them are longer), which suggests an interaction between short storm events and longer-term evolution.

  9. Microbial metabolic exchange in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Watrous, Jeramie D; Phelan, Vanessa V; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Moree, Wilna J; Duggan, Brendan M; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2013-01-01

    Mono- and multispecies microbial populations alter the chemistry of their surrounding environments during colony development thereby influencing multicellular behavior and interspecies interactions of neighboring microbes. Here we present a methodology that enables the creation of three-dimensional (3D) models of a microbial chemotype that can be correlated to the colony phenotype through multimodal imaging analysis. These models are generated by performing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) on serial cross-sections of microbial colonies grown on 8 mm deep agar, registering data sets of each serial section in MATLAB to create a model, and then superimposing the model with a photograph of the colonies themselves. As proof-of-principle, 3D models were used to visualize metabolic exchange during microbial interactions between Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces coelicolor, as well as, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The resulting models were able to capture the depth profile of secreted metabolites within the agar medium and revealed properties of certain mass signals that were previously not observable using two-dimensional MALDI-TOF IMS. Most significantly, the 3D models were capable of mapping previously unobserved chemical distributions within the array of sub-surface hyphae of C. albicans and how this chemistry is altered by the presence of P. aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen known to alter virulence of C. albicans. It was determined that the presence of C. albicans triggered increased rhamnolipid production by P. aeruginosa, which in turn was capable of inhibiting embedded hyphal growth produced beneath the C. albicans colony at ambient temperature. PMID:23283018

  10. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  11. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  12. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  13. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  14. Morphology of Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vestine, E. H.

    1961-01-01

    This publication is a product of the continuing study of the properties of charged particles and fields in space being conducted by The RAND Corporation under contract No. NAS5-276 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Magnetic storms, revealed by world-wide changes in the intensity of the earth's magnetic field, and emphasized by disturbances in electromagnetic communication channels, form detectable patterns on the surface of the earth and above it. The author draws together data from various times, places, and altitudes and, coupling these with what is known or inferred about the aurora, the ionosphere, and the relationship between them and the earth's radiation belts, creates a picture of what is believed to occur during a magnetic storm.

  15. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  16. TRMM Satellite Flyby of Tropical Storm Halong

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's TRMM Satellite 3-D Flyby of Tropical Storm Halong On July 31, NASA's TRMM Satellite showed rain was falling at a rate of over 85.6 mm (about 3.4 inches) per hour in bands wrapping around Hal...

  17. Future earthquake source faults on deep sea-floor around the Boso triple plate junction revealed by tectonic geomorphology using 3D images produced from 150 meter grid DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, H.; Nakata, T.; Watanabe, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Izumi, N.; Nishizawa, A.; Horiuchi, D.; Kido, Y. N.

    2013-12-01

    that is tilted to the west, indicating up-growing of Taito spur. Northeastern part of Izu bar on Philippine Sea plate is characterized by rather smooth extensive convex slope between 1500m-7500m for over 200km long along the trench. On the lower part of the slope below 6000m, several gullies such as Mikura canyon and Kita-Hachijo canyon dissecting the slope forms rapids, probably due to continuous up-warping by subsurface thrusting dipping to the west under the slope. It is noteworthy that we can identify prominent active tectonic features on even very deep sea-floor along the plate boundaries, by using 3D images produced from 150 meter grid DEM.

  18. High resolution MR eye protocol optimization: Comparison between 3D-CISS, 3D-PSIF and 3D-VIBE sequences.

    PubMed

    Tsiapa, Irene; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Papadaki, Efrosini; Bouziotis, Penelope; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Maris, Thomas G

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare selected MRI pulse sequences and to evaluate their utility for depicting specific anatomic regions in the eye. A High-Resolution (HR) 0.08 × 0.08 × 0.60 mm(3) MRI protocol was developed on a 1.5-T clinical system and applied in the left eye of an albino rabbit, utilizing a small field of view surface coil. The comprehensive MRI protocol consisted of two 3D (T2/T1)w sequences (3D-PSIF and 3D-CISS), and one 3D T1w sequence (3D-VIBE). The T1w 3D-VIBE sequence was acquired, before and after intravenous injection of 0.2 mmol/kgr gadolinium-DTPA. Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR) and Contrast-to-Noise Ratios (CNR) amongst specific eye anatomical areas were calculated for each sequence. The presence of artifacts was rated subjectively utilizing a 5 point scale. 3D-PSIF and 3D-CISS provide better delineation and visualization of the eye as compared with 3D-VIBE sequences. 3D-CISS images present the highest SNR and revealed better discrimination of the ocular surrounding tissues; its basic drawback though is related to ghost artifacts appearing in the anterior chamber and resulting in the lowest image quality. In post-contrast imaging, the T1w 3D-VIBE sequence provided the best overall image quality. Moreover, 3D (T2/T1)w sequences can provide good anatomic depiction of the eye segments. Agreement between the two independent readers was good. Optimization of a comprehensive MR eye imaging protocol is achieved. A higher SNR, a better spatial resolution and a reduction of the total scan time were obtained, thus making clinical MRI systems more reliable in eye imaging. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 3D Geomodeling of the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monod, B.; Dhont, D.; Hervouet, Y.; Backé, G.; Klarica, S.; Choy, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The crustal structure of the Venezuelan Andes is investigated thanks to a geomodel. The method integrates surface structural data, remote sensing imagery, crustal scale balanced cross-sections, earthquake locations and focal mechanism solutions to reconstruct fault surfaces at the scale of the mountain belt into a 3D environment. The model proves to be essential for understanding the basic processes of both the orogenic float and the tectonic escape involved in the Plio-Quaternary evolution of the orogen. The reconstruction of the Bocono and Valera faults reveals the 3D shape of the Trujillo block whose geometry can be compared to a boat bow floating over a mid-crustal detachment horizon emerging at the Bocono-Valera triple junction. Motion of the Trujillo block is accompanied by a generalized extension in the upper crust accommodated by normal faults with listric geometries such as for the Motatan, Momboy and Tuñame faults. Extension may be related to the lateral spreading of the upper crust, suggesting that gravity forces play an important role in the escape process.

  20. 3D Reconstruction For The Detection Of Cranial Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, B.; Shalev, S.; Lavelle, C.

    1986-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of three-dimensional (3D) cranial reconstruction from CT scans for surgical planning. A low-cost imaging system has been developed, which provides pseudo-3D images which may be manipulated to reveal the craniofacial skeleton as a whole or any particular component region. The contrast between congenital (hydrocephalic), normocephalic and acquired (carcinoma of the maxillary sinus) anomalous cranial forms demonstrates the potential of this system.

  1. AIRS Storm Front Approaching California (animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the AIRS Storm Front Approaching California Animation

    NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument is able to peel back cloud cover to reveal 3-D structure of a storm's water vapor content, information that can be used to improve weather forecast models.

    In this animation the initial visible cloud image series shows a front moving toward the West Coast of the United States as a low pressure area moves into the Pacific Northwest. The 'Pineapple Express,' a stream of moisture that originates in the tropics South of Hawaii and usually crosses Mexico to enter New Mexico and Texas, has shifted Westward and is also visible moving into Baja California. The area preceding the front appears to be relatively clear in the visible images.

    As the view shifts from the visible to the infrared wavelengths which highlight water vapor, we see both cloud areas contain heavy burdens of moisture. The area which appears clear in the visible images is seen to contain water vapor near the coastline as well. The viewpoint then rotates so that we can see the vertical cross section of the fronts. The variability of the vertical extent of water vapor and the amount is now clearly visible. The storm moving in from the Gulf of Alaska is more heavily laden with water vapor than that moving in from the Southwest. The moisture is concentrated in the lower atmosphere. The colors indicate the amount of water vapor present. Blue areas denote low water vapor content; green areas are medium water vapor content; red areas signify high water vapor content. The vertical grid for the final frame ranges from 250 millibar pressure at the top to 1000 millibar pressure at the bottom. The top is about 10 km (6.2 miles) above the surface of the Earth.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in

  2. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  3. America's National Parks 3d (4)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-11

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 4)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  4. America's National Parks 3d (3)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 3)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  5. America's National Parks 3d (2)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 2)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  6. America's National Parks 3d (1)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 1)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  7. 3D ultrasound in fetal spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Schramm, T; Gloning, K-P; Minderer, S; Tutschek, B

    2008-12-01

    3D ultrasound can be used to study the fetal spine, but skeletal mode can be inconclusive for the diagnosis of fetal spina bifida. We illustrate a diagnostic approach using 2D and 3D ultrasound and indicate possible pitfalls.

  8. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  9. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  10. 3D morphological measurement of whole slide histological vasculature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. G.; Nong, Zengxuan; Ward, Aaron D.

    2016-03-01

    Properties of the microvasculature that contribute to tissue perfusion can be assessed using immunohistochemistry on 2D histology sections. However, the vasculature is inherently 3D and the ability to measure and visualize the vessel wall components in 3D will aid in detecting focal pathologies. Our objectives were (1) to develop a method for 3D measurement and visualization of microvasculature in 3D, (2) to compare the normal and regenerated post-ischemia mouse hind limb microvasculature, and (3) to compare the 2D and 3D vessel morphology measures. Vessels were stained for smooth muscle using 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunostain for both normal (n = 6 mice) and regenerated vasculature (n = 5 mice). 2D vessel segmentations were reconstructed into 3D using landmark based registration. No substantial bias was found in the 2D measurements relative to 3D, but larger differences were observed for individual vessels oriented non-orthogonally to the plane of sectioning. A larger value of area, perimeter, and vessel wall thickness was found in the normal vasculature as compared to the regenerated vasculature, for both the 2D and 3D measurements (p < 0.01). Aggregated 2D measurements are sufficient for identifying morphological differences between groups of mice; however, one must interpret individual 2D measurements with caution if the vessel centerline direction is unknown. Visualization of 3D measurements permits the detection of localized vessel morphology aberrations that are not revealed by 2D measurements. With vascular measure visualization methodologies in 3D, we are now capable of locating focal pathologies on a whole slide level.

  11. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    modifications to the floor planning stage of the 3-D design flow that are necessary to support our design approach. We strongly recommend that the 3-D EDA ...and we outline problems, challenges, attacks, solutions, and topics for future research. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Requirements for automated 3-D IC design tools for the physical layout of components. Since fully automated Electronic Design Automation ( EDA ) for 3-D

  12. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  13. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating 3D structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into 3D shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate 3D structures com...materials Figure 1. (A–C) Schematic illustrating the steps in the laser origami process and (D) a resulting folded out-of-plane 3D structure. that can

  14. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  15. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  16. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  17. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  18. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  19. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  20. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  1. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  2. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  3. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  4. Tropical Storm Erin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    . Therefore deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. Land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity.

    Visible/Near-Infrared Images The AIRS instrument suite contains a sensor that captures radiation in four bands of the visible/near-infrared portion of the electromagetic spectrum. Data from three of these bands are combined to create 'visible' images similar to a snapshot taken with your camera.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. A generalized operational formula based on total electronic densities to obtain 3D pictures of the dual descriptor to reveal nucleophilic and electrophilic sites accurately on closed-shell molecules.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge I

    2016-09-30

    By means of the conceptual density functional theory, the so-called dual descriptor (DD) has been adapted to be used in any closed-shell molecule that presents degeneracy in its frontier molecular orbitals. The latter is of paramount importance because a correct description of local reactivity will allow to predict the most favorable sites on a molecule to undergo nucleophilic or electrophilic attacks; on the contrary, an incomplete description of local reactivity might have serio us consequences, particularly for those experimental chemists that have the need of getting an insight about reactivity of chemical reagents before using them in synthesis to obtain a new compound. In the present work, the old approach based only on electronic densities of frontier molecular orbitals is replaced by the most accurate procedure that implies the use of total electronic densities thus keeping consistency with the essential principle of the DFT in which the electronic density is the fundamental variable and not the molecular orbitals. As a result of the present work, the DD will be able to properly describe local reactivities only in terms of total electronic densities. To test the proposed operational formula, 12 very common molecules were selected as the original definition of the DD was not able to describe their local reactivities properly. The ethylene molecule was additionally used to test the capability of the proposed operational formula to reveal a correct local reactivity even in absence of degeneracy in frontier molecular orbitals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    PubMed

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©.

  7. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  8. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  9. How little do we need for 3-D shape perception?

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Chetan; Torralba, Antonio; Malik, Jitendra

    2011-01-01

    How little do we need to perceive 3-D shape in monocular natural images? The shape-from-texture and shape-from-shading perspectives would motivate that 3-D perception vanishes once low-level cues are disrupted. Is this the case in human vision? Or can top-down influences salvage the percept? In this study we probe this question by employing a gauge-figure paradigm similar to that used by Koenderink et al (1992, Perception & Psychophysics 52 487-496). Subjects were presented degraded natural images and instructed to make local assessments of slant and tilt at various locations thereby quantifying their internal 3-D percept. Analysis of subjects' responses reveals recognition to be a significant influence thereby allowing subjects to perceive 3-D shape at high levels of degradation. Specifically, we identify the 'medium-blur' condition, images approximately 32 pixels on a side, to be the limit for accurate 3-D shape perception. In addition, we find that degradation affects the perceived slant of point-estimates making images look flatter as degradation increases. A subsequent condition that eliminates texture and shading but preserves contour and recognition reveals how bottom-up and top-down cues can combine for accurate 3-D shape perception.

  10. Gap Opening in 3D: Single-planet Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Giant planets can clear deep gaps when embedded in 2D (razor-thin) viscous circumstellar disks. We show by direct simulation that giant planets are just as capable of carving out gaps in 3D. Surface density maps are similar between 2D and 3D, even in detail. In particular, the scaling {{{Σ }}}{gap}\\propto {q}-2 of gap surface density with planet mass, derived from a global “zero-dimensional” balance of Lindblad and viscous torques, applies equally well to results obtained at higher dimensions. Our 3D simulations reveal extensive, near-sonic, meridional flows both inside and outside the gaps; these large-scale circulations might bear on disk compositional gradients, in dust or other chemical species. At high planet mass, gap edges are mildly Rayleigh unstable and intermittently shed streams of material into the gap—less so in 3D than in 2D.

  11. Understanding Crystal Populations; Looking Towards 3D Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerram, D. A.; Morgan, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand volcanic systems, the potential record held within crystal populations needs to be revealed. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that the crystal populations that arrive at the surface in volcanic eruptions are commonly mixtures of crystals, which may be representative of simple crystallization, recycling of crystals and incorporation of alien crystals. If we can quantify the true 3D population within a sample then we will be able to separate crystals with different histories and begin to interrogate the true and complex plumbing within the volcanic system. Modeling crystal populations is one area where we can investigate the best methodologies to use when dealing with sections through 3D populations. By producing known 3D shapes and sizes with virtual textures and looking at the statistics of shape and size when such populations are sectioned, we are able to gain confidence about what our 2D information is telling us about the population. We can also use this approach to test the size of population we need to analyze. 3D imaging through serial sectioning or x-ray CT, provides a complete 3D quantification of a rocks texture. Individual phases can be identified and in principle the true 3D statistics of the population can be interrogated. In practice we need to develop strategies (as with 2D-3D transformations), that enable a true characterization of the 3D data, and an understanding of the errors and pitfalls that exist. Ultimately, the reproduction of true 3D textures and the wealth of information they hold, is now within our reach.

  12. Tomographic 3D-PIV and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsinga, Gerrit E.; Wieneke, Bernhard; Scarano, Fulvio; Schröder, Andreas

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry is a 3D PIV technique based on the illumination, recording, reconstruction and analysis of tracer-particle motion within a three-dimensional measurement volume. The recently developed technique makes use of several simultaneous views of the illuminated particles, typically 4, and their three-dimensional reconstruction as a light-intensity distribution by means of optical tomography. The reconstruction is performed with the MART algorithm (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique), yielding a 3D distribution of light intensity discretized over an array of voxels. The reconstructed tomogram pair is then analyzed by means of 3D crosscorrelation with an iterative multigrid volume-deformation technique, returning the three-component velocity vector distribution over the measurement volume. The implementation of the tomographic technique in time-resolved mode by means of high repetition rate PIV hardware has the capability to yield 4D velocity information. The first part of the chapter describes the operation principles and gives a detailed assessment of the tomographic reconstruction algorithm performance based upon a computer-simulated experiment. The second part of the chapter proposes four applications on two flow cases: 1. the transitional wake behind a circular cylinder; 2. the turbulent boundary layer developing over a flat plate. For the first case, experiments in air at ReD = 2700 are described together with the experimental assessment of the tomographic reconstruction accuracy. In this experiment a direct comparison is made between the results obtained by tomographic PIV and stereo-PIV. Experiments conducted in a water facility on the cylinder wake shows the extension of the technique to time-resolved measurements in water at ReD = 540 by means of a low repetition rate PIV system. A high data yield is obtained using high-resolution cameras (2k × 2k pixels) returning 650k vectors per volume. Measurements of the

  13. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  14. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  15. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  16. Looking Back at 'Eagle Crater'(3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Looking Back at 'Eagle Crater'(3-D) (QTVR)

    This is a 3-D version of the first 360-degree view from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's new position outside 'Eagle Crater,' the small crater where the rover landed about two months ago. Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. The rover's tracks can be seen leading away from Eagle Crater. At the far left are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across---that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants, which are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, at the left of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  17. Interactive modeling of storm impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooijen, A.; Baart, F.; Roelvink, J. A.; Donchyts, G.; Scheel, F.; de Boer, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades the impact of storms on the coastal zone has increasingly drawn the attention of policy makers and coastal planners, engineers and researchers. The mean reason for this interest is the high density of the world's population living near the ocean, in combination with climate change. Due to sea level rise and extremer weather conditions, many of the world's coastlines are becoming more vulnerable to the potential of flooding. Currently it is common practice to predict storm impact using physics-based numerical models. The numerical model utilizes several inputs (e.g. bathymetry, waves, surge) to calculate the impact on the coastline. Traditionally, the numerical modeller takes the following three steps: schematization/model setup, running and post-processing. This process generally has a total feedback time in the order of hours to days, and is suitable for so-called confirmatory modelling.However, often models are applied as an exploratory tool, in which the effect of e.g. different hydraulic conditions, or measures is investigated. The above described traditional work flow is not the most efficient method for exploratory modelling. Interactive modelling lets users adjust a simulation while running. For models typically used for storm impact studies (e.g. XBeach, Delft3D, D-Flow FM), the user can for instance change the storm surge level, wave conditions, or add a measure such as a nourishment or a seawall. The model will take the adjustments into account immediately, and will directly compute the effect. Using this method, tools can be developed in which stakeholders (e.g. coastal planners, policy makers) are in control and together evaluate ideas by interacting with the model. Here we will show initial results for interactive modelling with a storm impact model.

  18. 3D Printer Coupon removal and stowage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-09

    iss042e031282 (12/09/2014) ---US Astronaut Barry (Butch) Wilmore holding a 3D coupon works with the new 3D printer aboard the International Space Station. The 3D Printing experiment in zero gravity demonstrates that a 3D printer works normally in space. In general, a 3D printer extrudes streams of heated plastic, metal or other material, building layer on top of layer to create 3 dimensional objects. Testing a 3D printer using relatively low-temperature plastic feedstock on the International Space Station is the first step towards establishing an on-demand machine shop in space, a critical enabling component for deep-space crewed missions and in-space manufacturing.

  19. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  20. TRMM 3-D Flyby of 91S

    NASA Image and Video Library

    TRMM satellite flew above a tropical low (91S) in the Mozambique Channel on January 28, 2014 at 1011 UTC and saw some towering storms (red) near the center of the low were reaching heights of above...

  1. Expedient Gap Definition Using 3D LADAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Research and Development Center (ERDC), ASI has developed an algorithm to reduce the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D ...developed an algorithm to extract from this 3D point cloud any user-defined number of 2D slices. ASI has incorporated this sensor and algorithm into...direction, ASI has developed an algorithm to condense the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D profiles that describe the

  2. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  3. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  4. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  5. Terahertz Lasers Reveal Information for 3D Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    After taking off her shoes and jacket, she places them in a bin. She then takes her laptop out of its case and places it in a separate bin. As the items move through the x-ray machine, the woman waits for a sign from security personnel to pass through the metal detector. Today, she was lucky; she did not encounter any delays. The man behind her, however, was asked to step inside a large circular tube, raise his hands above his head, and have his whole body scanned. If you have ever witnessed a full-body scan at the airport, you may have witnessed terahertz imaging. Terahertz wavelengths are located between microwave and infrared on the electromagnetic spectrum. When exposed to these wavelengths, certain materials such as clothing, thin metal, sheet rock, and insulation become transparent. At airports, terahertz radiation can illuminate guns, knives, or explosives hidden underneath a passenger s clothing. At NASA s Kennedy Space Center, terahertz wavelengths have assisted in the inspection of materials like insulating foam on the external tanks of the now-retired space shuttle. "The foam we used on the external tank was a little denser than Styrofoam, but not much," says Robert Youngquist, a physicist at Kennedy. The problem, he explains, was that "we lost a space shuttle by having a chunk of foam fall off from the external fuel tank and hit the orbiter." To uncover any potential defects in the foam covering, such as voids or air pockets, that could keep the material from staying in place, NASA employed terahertz imaging to see through the foam. For many years, the technique ensured the integrity of the material on the external tanks.

  6. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  7. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  8. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, T.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  9. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1993-11-30

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  10. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1991-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  11. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  12. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  13. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  14. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients.

  15. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  16. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  17. Enhanced Ahead-of-Eye Cooling of Stratified Coastal Oceans in Tropical Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Integrated ocean observations from Hurricane Irene (2011) reveal widespread and significant ahead-of-eye cooling (at least 5°C and up to 11°C) as it crossed the seasonally stratified continental shelf of the Mid-Atlantic Bight of North America. Buoys and gliders deployed in the storm allow the detailed evolution of the surface temperature to be examined at select points, revealing approximately 80% of the total cooling occurs before eye passage. A range of ocean models were used to diagnose the processes responsible for the observed cooling. In Irene, 1D vertical mixing models generate only 17% of the total cooling ahead of eye, while deepwater 3-D models forced by Irene's nearly symmetrical offshore windfield produce an approximately 50-50 split in the cooling between the front and back side. A 3-D coastal ocean model (ROMS) generates a wind-forced two-layer circulation in the stratified Mid-Atlantic not present in the 1-D and 3-D deepwater models. The resultant shear-induced mixing more accurately reproduces both the magnitude and timing of the surface cooling with respect to eye passage. Atmospheric simulations establish that this cooling was the missing contribution required to reproduce Irene's accelerated reduction in intensity over the Mid Atlantic Bight. Historical buoys from 1985 to present show that ahead-of-eye cooling occurred beneath all 11 tropical cyclones that traversed along the Mid Atlantic Bight continental shelf during stratified summer conditions. The buoys also reveal that an average of about 74% of the cooling occurs ahead of eye. A Yellow Sea buoy array similarly revealed significant and rapid ahead-of-eye cooling during Typhoon Muifa (2011). These findings establish that including realistic 3D coastal ocean processes in forecasts of landfalling storm intensity and impacts will be increasingly critical to mid-latitude population centers as sea levels rise and tropical cyclone maximum intensities migrate poleward.

  18. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  19. 3D super-resolution microscopy of bacterial division machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Morozova, N. E.; Polinovskaya, V. S.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a promising tool for the field of microbiology, as bacteria sizes are comparable to the resolution limit of light microscopy. Bacterial division machinery and FtsZ protein in particular attract much attention of scientists who use different super-resolution microscopy techniques, but most of the available data on FtsZ structures was obtained using two-dimensional (2D) super-resolution microscopy. Using 3D single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM, namely dSTORM) to visualize FtsZ, we demonstrate that this approach allows more accurate interpretation of super-resolution images and provides new opportunities for the study of complex structures like bacterial divisome.

  20. Photogrammetric 3D skull/photo superimposition: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Valeria; Lubelli, Sergio; De Donno, Antonio; Inchingolo, Alessio; Lavecchia, Fulvio; Introna, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The identification of bodies through the examination of skeletal remains holds a prominent place in the field of forensic investigations. Technological advancements in 3D facial acquisition techniques have led to the proposal of a new body identification technique that involves a combination of craniofacial superimposition and photogrammetry. The aim of this study was to test the method by superimposing various computerized 3D images of skulls onto various photographs of missing people taken while they were still alive in cases when there was a suspicion that the skulls in question belonged to them. The technique is divided into four phases: preparatory phase, 3d acquisition phase, superimposition phase, and metric image analysis 3d. The actual superimposition of the images was carried out in the fourth step. and was done so by comparing the skull images with the selected photos. Using a specific software, the two images (i.e. the 3D avatar and the photo of the missing person) were superimposed. Cross-comparisons of 5 skulls discovered in a mass grave, and of 2 skulls retrieved in the crawlspace of a house were performed. The morphologyc phase reveals a full overlap between skulls and photos of disappeared persons. Metric phase reveals that correlation coefficients of this values, higher than 0.998-0,997 allow to confirm identification hypothesis.

  1. Developing 3D SEM in a broad biological context

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, A; Lippens, S; Bartunkova, S; Asselbergh, B; Blanpain, C; Fendrych, M; Goossens, A; Holt, M; Janssens, S; Krols, M; Larsimont, J-C; Mc Guire, C; Nowack, MK; Saelens, X; Schertel, A; Schepens, B; Slezak, M; Timmerman, V; Theunis, C; Van Brempt, R; Visser, Y; GuÉRin, CJ

    2015-01-01

    results of high resolution 3D imaging in a number of diverse cells and tissues from multiple species. 3D reconstructions of cell structures often revealed them to be significantly more complex when compared to extrapolations made from 2D studies. Correlating functional 3D LM studies with 3D EM results opens up the possibility of making new strides in our understanding of how cell structure is connected to cell function. PMID:25623622

  2. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  3. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  4. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  5. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  6. Berries on the Ground 2 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-12

    This 3-D anaglyph, from NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, shows a microscopic image taken of soil featuring round, blueberry-shaped rock formations on the crater floor at Meridiani Planum, Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  7. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  8. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  9. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  10. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  11. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  12. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  13. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  14. Computer Assisted Cancer Device - 3D Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    tomosynthesis images of the breast. iCAD has identified several sources of 3D tomosynthesis data, and has begun adapting its image analysis...collaborative relationships with major manufacturers of tomosynthesis equipment. 21. iCAD believes that tomosynthesis , a 3D breast imaging technique...purported advantages of tomosynthesis relative to conventional mammography include; improved lesion visibility, improved lesion detectability and

  15. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  16. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  17. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liang, Jinrong; Shen, Linlin; Yang, Meng; Zhang, David; Lai, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D) fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D) fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER) of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  18. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  19. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  20. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  1. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  2. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  3. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  4. DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-07-27

    DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE MOUNTED IN THE NACA AMES RESEARCH CENTER'S 40X80_FOOT SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL Testing the boundary layer control of the A3D in the 40 x 80 wind tunnel. Boundary layer control was added to increase the lift of the wing for take off from an aircraft carrier.

  5. DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-07-27

    DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE MOUNTED IN THE NACA AMES RESEARCH CENTER'S 40X80_FOOT SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL sweptback wing Testing the wing boundary layer control of the A3D in the 40 x 80 wind tunnel. Boundary layer control was added to increase the lift of the wing for aircraft carrier take off and landing.

  6. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  7. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  8. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  9. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  10. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  11. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  12. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  13. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  14. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  15. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  16. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  17. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  18. Spotting Saturn Northern Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-06

    NASA Cassini spacecraft captures a composite near-true-color view of the largest and most intense storm observed on Saturn. The storm is seen churning through the atmosphere in Saturn northern hemisphere.

  19. Tropical Storm Bud

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  A Strengthening Eastern Pacific Storm     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) show then Tropical Storm Bud as it was intensifying toward hurricane status, which it acquired ...

  20. Simulating complex storm surge dynamics: Three-dimensionality, vegetation effect, and onshore sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapetina, Andrew; Sheng, Y. Peter

    2015-11-01

    The 3-D hydrodynamics of storm surge events, including the effects of vegetation and impact on onshore transport of marine sediment, have important consequences for coastal communities. Here, complex storm surge dynamics during Hurricane Ike are investigated using a three-dimensional (3-D), vegetation-resolving storm surge-wave model (CH3D-SWAN) which includes such effects of vegetation as profile drag, skin friction, and production, dissipation, and transport of turbulence. This vegetation-resolving 3-D model features a turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) closure model, which uses momentum equations with vegetation-induced profile and skin friction drags, a dynamic q2 equation including turbulence production and dissipation by vegetation, as well as vegetation-dependent algebraic length-scale equations, and a Smagorinsky-type horizontal turbulence model. This vegetation model has been verified using extensive laboratory tests, but this study is a comparison of 2-D and 3-D simulations of complex storm surge dynamics during Hurricane Ike. We examine the value of 3-D storm surge models relative to 2-D models for simulating coastal currents, effects of vegetation on surge, and sediment transport during storm events. Comparisons are made between results obtained using simple 2-D formulations for bottom friction, the Manning coefficient (MC) approach, and physics-based 3-D vegetation-modeling (VM) approach. Last, the role that the 3-D hydrodynamics on onshore transport and deposition of marine sediments during the storm is investigated. While both the 3-D and 2-D results simulated the water level dynamics, results of the physics-based 3-D VM approach, as compared to the 2-D MC approach, more accurately captures the complex storm surge dynamics.

  1. Two Pairs of Storms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-04

    Two pairs of dark spots, or storms, in Saturn atmosphere squeeze past each other as they dance around the planet. In this group of four storms, the top left and lower right storms are fringed with white clouds as seen by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  2. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  3. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  4. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  5. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  6. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  7. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  8. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  9. Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): Impact of extreme storms and floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Palanques, A.

    2008-08-01

    In situ observations were combined with 3D modeling to gain understanding of and to quantify the suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea). The outputs of a hydrodynamic-sediment transport coupled model were compared to near-bottom current and suspended sediment concentration measurements collected at the head of seven submarine canyons and at a shallow shelf site, over a 6-month period (November 2003-May 2004). The comparisons provide a reasonable validation of the model that reproduces the observed spatial and time variations. The study period was marked by an unusual occurrence of marine storms and high river inputs. The major water and sediment discharges were supplied by the Rhone, the largest Mediterranean river, during an exceptional flood accompanying a severe marine storm in early December 2003. A second major storm, with moderate flooding, occurred in February 2004. The estimate of river input during the studied period was 5.9 Mt. Our study reveals (i) that most of the particulate matter delivered by the Rhone was entrapped on the prodelta, and (ii) that marine storms played a crucial role on the sediment dispersal on the shelf and the off-shelf export. The marine storms occurring in early December 2003 and late February 2004 resuspended a very large amount of shelf sediment (>8 Mt). Erosion was controlled by waves on the inner shelf and by energetic currents on the outer shelf. Sediment deposition took place in the middle part of the shelf, between 50 and 100 m depth. Resuspended sediments and river-borne particles were transported to the southwestern end of the shelf by a cyclonic circulation induced by these onshore winds and exported towards the Catalan shelf and into the Cap de Creus Canyon which incises the slope close to the shore. Export taking place mostly during marine storms was estimated to reach 9.1 Mt during the study period.

  10. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  15. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  16. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  19. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  20. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  1. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  2. 3D Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew; MacDonald, Nicole; Jensen, Dorte Juul

    A three-dimensional (3D) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the 3D electron backscattering diffraction technique. The 3D shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain and deformed matrix, was reconstructed. The result shows a very complex structure containing several large protrusions and retrusions. A correlation between the protrusions/retrusions and the deformed matrix in front of the boundary shows that the deformed microstructure has a very strong influence on the formation of protrusions/retrusions.

  3. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  4. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  5. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  6. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  7. Antenatal 3-D sonographic features of uterine synechia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miki; Kanenishi, Kenji; Ito, Megumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Takemoto, Mikihiko; Hata, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of uterine synechia diagnosed by conventional 2-D color Doppler, 3-D sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging at 26 weeks' gestation. 3-D sonography clearly revealed umbilical cord prolapse through an oblique transverse uterine synechia. Loops of the umbilical cord were below and the fetus was superior to the uterine synechia. The edge of the umbilical cord loops was attached to the amniotic membrane, and a small echo-free space was noted beneath the attachment. 2-D color Doppler showed arterial blood flow consistent with the maternal heart rate. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the oblique horizontal membrane dividing the uterus with umbilical cord prolapse, its attachment to the amniotic membrane, and a small echo-free space in the low, liquor-filled amniotic cavity. We demonstrate how 3-D sonography provided a novel visual depiction of uterine synechia, which greatly helped in prenatal diagnosis and counseling.

  8. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  9. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  10. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  11. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  12. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  13. [Pathophysiological diagnosis of facial paralysis using 3-D MRI].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, T; Hirata, K; Yuki, N; Sato, T

    2001-04-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis(facial diplesia) is often observed in Guillain-Barré syndrome(GBS) and Fisher's syndrome (FS). We tried to observe injured facial nerves using three-dimensional(3-D) MRI in facial diplesia due to GBS and its variants and examined function of blood nerve barrier and clinical use of 3-D MRI for detecting injured facial nerves. In the four patients with GBS and its variants(GBS three cases, FS one case), while routine brain MRI did not show any abnormal findings, contrast-enhanced 3-D MRI revealed Gd-enhancement of the facial nerves. On the other hand, only one case showed visualization using contrast-enhanced 3-D MRI in twelve cases of Bell's palsy. Therefore, it may be presumed that the reason why the significantly higher rate of visualization in facial paralysis in GBS and its variants than in Bell's palsy is attributable to a difference in the mechanism of injury or the extreme seriousness of the disease. In conclusion, the observation of facial nerve using 3-D MRI was very useful to know the condition of the facial diplesia in GBS and its variants.

  14. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  15. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-01-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity. PMID:27667638

  16. Biochemistry-Enabled 3D Foams for Ultrafast Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanping; Rui, Xianhong; Sun, Wenping; Xu, Zhichuan; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern; Yan, Qingyu; Fong, Eileen

    2015-04-28

    Metal vanadium phosphates (MVP), particularly Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) and Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP), are regarded as the next-generation cathode materials in lithium/sodium ion batteries. These materials possess desirable properties such as high stability, theoretical capacity, and operating voltages. Yet, low electrical/ionic conductivities of LVP and NVP have limited their applications in demanding devices such as electric vehicles. In this work, a novel synthesis route for the preparation of LVP/NVP micro/mesoporous 3D foams via assembly of elastin-like polypeptides is demonstrated. The as-synthesized MVP 3D foams consist of microporous networks of mesoporous nanofibers, where the surfaces of individual fibers are covered with MVP nanocrystallites. TEM images further reveal that LVP/NVP nanoparticles are about 100-200 nm in diameter, with each particle enveloped by a 5 nm thick carbon shell. The MVP 3D foams prepared in this work exhibit ultrafast rate capabilities (79 mA h g(-1) at 100C and 66 mA h g(-1) at 200C for LVP 3D foams; 73 mA h g(-1) at 100C and 51 mA h g(-1) at 200C for NVP 3D foams) and excellent cycle performance (almost 100% performance retention after 1000 cycles at 100C); their properties are far superior compared to current state-of-the-art active materials.

  17. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-26

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  18. Comparison of Probabilistic Coastal Inundation Maps Based on Historical Storms and Statistically Modeled Storm Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Sheng, Y.; Condon, A. J.; Paramygin, V. A.; Hall, T.

    2012-12-01

    A cost effective method, JPM-OS (Joint Probability Method with Optimal Sampling), for determining storm response and inundation return frequencies was developed and applied to quantify the hazard of hurricane storm surges and inundation along the Southwest FL,US coast (Condon and Sheng 2012). The JPM-OS uses piecewise multivariate regression splines coupled with dimension adaptive sparse grids to enable the generation of a base flood elevation (BFE) map. Storms are characterized by their landfall characteristics (pressure deficit, radius to maximum winds, forward speed, heading, and landfall location) and a sparse grid algorithm determines the optimal set of storm parameter combinations so that the inundation from any other storm parameter combination can be determined. The end result is a sample of a few hundred (197 for SW FL) optimal storms which are simulated using a dynamically coupled storm surge / wave modeling system CH3D-SSMS (Sheng et al. 2010). The limited historical climatology (1940 - 2009) is explored to develop probabilistic characterizations of the five storm parameters. The probability distributions are discretized and the inundation response of all parameter combinations is determined by the interpolation in five-dimensional space of the optimal storms. The surge response and the associated joint probability of the parameter combination is used to determine the flood elevation with a 1% annual probability of occurrence. The limited historical data constrains the accuracy of the PDFs of the hurricane characteristics, which in turn affect the accuracy of the BFE maps calculated. To offset the deficiency of limited historical dataset, this study presents a different method for producing coastal inundation maps. Instead of using the historical storm data, here we adopt 33,731 tracks that can represent the storm climatology in North Atlantic basin and SW Florida coasts. This large quantity of hurricane tracks is generated from a new statistical model

  19. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.