Science.gov

Sample records for 3d texture mapping

  1. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  2. Real-time volume rendering of 4D image using 3D texture mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, June-Sic; Kim, Jae Seok; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun Il

    2001-05-01

    Four dimensional image is 3D volume data that varies with time. It is used to express deforming or moving object in virtual surgery of 4D ultrasound. It is difficult to render 4D image by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering time or pre-processing stage whenever the volume data are changed. Even 3D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is also time-consuming in 4D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real time rendering based on 3D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one which was already loaded in memory. If the brick passed the test, it is defined as 3D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Continuously deforming fifty volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Real-time volume rendering based on 3D texture mapping is currently available on PC.

  3. Texture mapping 3D models of indoor environments with noisy camera poses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peter; Anderson, Michael; He, Stewart; Zakhor, Avideh

    2013-03-01

    Automated 3D modeling of building interiors is used in applications such as virtual reality and environment mapping. Texturing these models allows for photo-realistic visualizations of the data collected by such modeling systems. While data acquisition times for mobile mapping systems are considerably shorter than for static ones, their recovered camera poses often suffer from inaccuracies, resulting in visible discontinuities when successive images are projected onto a surface for texturing. We present a method for texture mapping models of indoor environments that starts by selecting images whose camera poses are well-aligned in two dimensions. We then align images to geometry as well as to each other, producing visually consistent textures even in the presence of inaccurate surface geometry and noisy camera poses. Images are then composited into a final texture mosaic and projected onto surface geometry for visualization. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a number of different indoor environments.

  4. Inlining 3d Reconstruction, Multi-Source Texture Mapping and Semantic Analysis Using Oblique Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommholz, D.; Linkiewicz, M.; Poznanska, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. Further, the resulting unrectified texture atlases are analyzed for façade elements like windows to be reintegrated into the original 3D models. Tests on real-world data of Heligoland/ Germany comprising more than 800 buildings exposed a median positional deviation of 0.31 m at the façades compared to the cadastral map, a correctness of 67% for the detected windows and good visual quality when being rendered with GPU-based perspective correction. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching (SGM). The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution. Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model (DSM) of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. The atlas bitmap is passed to a commercial object-based image analysis (OBIA) tool running a custom rule set to identify windows on the contained façade patches. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric constraints and

  5. 3D modelling of soil texture: mapping and incertitude estimation in centre-France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Martin, Manuel P.; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Richer de Forges, Anne C.; Nehlig, Pierre; Martelet, Guillaume; Arrouays, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    Soil texture is an important component of all soil physical-chemical processes. The spatial variability of soil texture plays a crucial role in the evaluation and modelling of all distributed processes. The object of this study is to determine the spatial variation of soil granulometric fractions (i.e., clay, silt, sand) in the region "Centre" of France in relation to the main controlling factors, and to create extended maps of these properties following GlobalSoilMap specifications. For this purpose we used 2487 soil profiles of the French soil database (IGCS - Inventory Management and Soil Conservation) and continuum depth values of the properties within the soil profiles have been calculated with a quadratic splines methodology optimising the spline parameters in each soil profile. We used environmental covariates to predict soil properties within the region at depth intervals 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-100, and 100-200 cm. Concerning environmental covariates, we used SRTM and ASTER DEM with 90m and 30m resolution, respectively, to generate terrain parameters and topographic indexes. Other covariates we used are Gamma Ray maps, Corine land cover, available geological and soil maps of the region at scales 1M, 250k and 50k. Soil texture is modeled with the application of the compositional data analysis theory namely, alr-transform (Aitchison, 1986) which considers in statistical calculation the complementary dependence between the different granulometric classes (i.e. 100% constraint). The prediction models of the alr-transformed variables have been developed with the use of boosting regression trees (BRT), then, using a LMM - Linear Mixed Model - that separates a fixed effect from a random effect related to the continuous spatially correlated variation of the property. In this case, the LMM is applied to the two co-regionalized properties (clay and sand alr-transforms). Model uncertainty mapping represents a practical way to describe efficiency and limits of

  6. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  7. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  8. Automatic Texture Reconstruction of 3d City Model from Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; Li, Xinwei; Wan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.

  9. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  10. MAP3D: a media processor approach for high-end 3D graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsa, Lucia; Stadnicki, Steven; Basoglu, Chris

    1999-12-01

    Equator Technologies, Inc. has used a software-first approach to produce several programmable and advanced VLIW processor architectures that have the flexibility to run both traditional systems tasks and an array of media-rich applications. For example, Equator's MAP1000A is the world's fastest single-chip programmable signal and image processor targeted for digital consumer and office automation markets. The Equator MAP3D is a proposal for the architecture of the next generation of the Equator MAP family. The MAP3D is designed to achieve high-end 3D performance and a variety of customizable special effects by combining special graphics features with high performance floating-point and media processor architecture. As a programmable media processor, it offers the advantages of a completely configurable 3D pipeline--allowing developers to experiment with different algorithms and to tailor their pipeline to achieve the highest performance for a particular application. With the support of Equator's advanced C compiler and toolkit, MAP3D programs can be written in a high-level language. This allows the compiler to successfully find and exploit any parallelism in a programmer's code, thus decreasing the time to market of a given applications. The ability to run an operating system makes it possible to run concurrent applications in the MAP3D chip, such as video decoding while executing the 3D pipelines, so that integration of applications is easily achieved--using real-time decoded imagery for texturing 3D objects, for instance. This novel architecture enables an affordable, integrated solution for high performance 3D graphics.

  11. Novel 3D Compression Methods for Geometry, Connectivity and Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    A large number of applications in medical visualization, games, engineering design, entertainment, heritage, e-commerce and so on require the transmission of 3D models over the Internet or over local networks. 3D data compression is an important requirement for fast data storage, access and transmission within bandwidth limitations. The Wavefront OBJ (object) file format is commonly used to share models due to its clear simple design. Normally each OBJ file contains a large amount of data (e.g. vertices and triangulated faces, normals, texture coordinates and other parameters) describing the mesh surface. In this paper we introduce a new method to compress geometry, connectivity and texture coordinates by a novel Geometry Minimization Algorithm (GM-Algorithm) in connection with arithmetic coding. First, each vertex ( x, y, z) coordinates are encoded to a single value by the GM-Algorithm. Second, triangle faces are encoded by computing the differences between two adjacent vertex locations, which are compressed by arithmetic coding together with texture coordinates. We demonstrate the method on large data sets achieving compression ratios between 87 and 99 % without reduction in the number of reconstructed vertices and triangle faces. The decompression step is based on a Parallel Fast Matching Search Algorithm (Parallel-FMS) to recover the structure of the 3D mesh. A comparative analysis of compression ratios is provided with a number of commonly used 3D file formats such as VRML, OpenCTM and STL highlighting the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  13. Realistic texture extraction for 3D face models robust to self-occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengchao; Monari, Eduardo; Schuchert, Tobias; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    In the context of face modeling, probably the most well-known approach to represent 3D faces is the 3D Morphable Model (3DMM). When 3DMM is fitted to a 2D image, the shape as well as the texture and illumination parameters are simultaneously estimated. However, if real facial texture is needed, texture extraction from the 2D image is necessary. This paper addresses the possible problems in texture extraction of a single image caused by self-occlusion. Unlike common approaches that leverage the symmetric property of the face by mirroring the visible facial part, which is sensitive to inhomogeneous illumination, this work first generates a virtual texture map for the skin area iteratively by averaging the color of neighbored vertices. Although this step creates unrealistic, overly smoothed texture, illumination stays constant between the real and virtual texture. In the second pass, the mirrored texture is gradually blended with the real or generated texture according to the visibility. This scheme ensures a gentle handling of illumination and yet yields realistic texture. Because the blending area only relates to non-informative area, main facial features still have unique appearance in different face halves. Evaluation results reveal realistic rendering in novel poses robust to challenging illumination conditions and small registration errors.

  14. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  15. Biologically Inspired Model for Inference of 3D Shape from Texture

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Olman; Neumann, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    A biologically inspired model architecture for inferring 3D shape from texture is proposed. The model is hierarchically organized into modules roughly corresponding to visual cortical areas in the ventral stream. Initial orientation selective filtering decomposes the input into low-level orientation and spatial frequency representations. Grouping of spatially anisotropic orientation responses builds sketch-like representations of surface shape. Gradients in orientation fields and subsequent integration infers local surface geometry and globally consistent 3D depth. From the distributions in orientation responses summed in frequency, an estimate of the tilt and slant of the local surface can be obtained. The model suggests how 3D shape can be inferred from texture patterns and their image appearance in a hierarchically organized processing cascade along the cortical ventral stream. The proposed model integrates oriented texture gradient information that is encoded in distributed maps of orientation-frequency representations. The texture energy gradient information is defined by changes in the grouped summed normalized orientation-frequency response activity extracted from the textured object image. This activity is integrated by directed fields to generate a 3D shape representation of a complex object with depth ordering proportional to the fields output, with higher activity denoting larger distance in relative depth away from the viewer. PMID:27649387

  16. Texture mapping based on multiple aerial imageries in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Ye, Siqi; Wang, Yuefeng; Han, Caiyun; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-12-01

    In the realistic 3D model reconstruction, the requirement of the texture is very high. Texture is one of the key factors that affecting realistic of the model and using texture mapping technology to realize. In this paper we present a practical approach of texture mapping based on photogrammetry theory from multiple aerial imageries in urban areas. By collinearity equation to matching the model and imageries, and in order to improving the quality of texture, we describe an automatic approach for select the optimal texture to realized 3D building from the aerial imageries of many strip. The texture of buildings can be automatically matching by the algorithm. The experimental results show that the platform of texture mapping process has a high degree of automation and improve the efficiency of the 3D modeling reconstruction.

  17. Conveying the 3D Shape of Transparent Surfaces Via Texture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Fuchs, Henry; Pizer, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Transparency can be a useful device for depicting multiple overlapping surfaces in a single image. The challenge is to render the transparent surfaces in such a way that their three-dimensional shape can be readily understood and their depth distance from underlying structures clearly perceived. This paper describes our investigations into the use of sparsely-distributed discrete, opaque texture as an 'artistic device' for more explicitly indicating the relative depth of a transparent surface and for communicating the essential features of its 3D shape in an intuitively meaningful and minimally occluding way. The driving application for this work is the visualization of layered surfaces in radiation therapy treatment planning data, and the technique is illustrated on transparent isointensity surfaces of radiation dose. We describe the perceptual motivation and artistic inspiration for defining a stroke texture that is locally oriented in the direction of greatest normal curvature (and in which individual strokes are of a length proportional to the magnitude of the curvature in the direction they indicate), and discuss several alternative methods for applying this texture to isointensity surfaces defined in a volume. We propose an experimental paradigm for objectively measuring observers' ability to judge the shape and depth of a layered transparent surface, in the course of a task relevant to the needs of radiotherapy treatment planning, and use this paradigm to evaluate the practical effectiveness of our approach through a controlled observer experiment based on images generated from actual clinical data.

  18. Exploiting Textured 3D Models for Developing Serious Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontogianni, G.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-08-01

    Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic 3D textured models which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how 3D textured models which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The 3D models used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc.) is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these models were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.

  19. Geometric and Textural Blending for 3D Model Stylization.

    PubMed

    Huang, YiJheng; Lin, Wen-Chieh; Yeh, I-Cheng; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2017-01-25

    Stylizing a 3D model with characteristic shapes or appearances is common in product design, particularly in the design of 3D model merchandise, such as souvenirs, toys, furniture, and stylized items. A model stylization approach is proposed in this study. The approach combines base and style models while preserving user-specified shape features of the base model and the attractive features of the style model with limited assistance from a user. The two models are first combined at the topological level. A tree-growing technique is utilized to search for all possible combinations of the two models. Second, the models are combined at textural and geometric levels by employing a morphing technique. Results show that the proposed approach generates various appealing models and allows users to control the diversity of the output models and adjust the blending degree between the base and style models. The results of this work are also experimentally compared with those of a recent work through a user study. The comparison indicates that our results are more appealing, feature-preserving, and reasonable than those of the compared previous study. The proposed system allows product designers to easily explore design possibilities and assists novice users in creating their own stylized models.

  20. Interactive mapping on 3-D terrain models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardin, T.; Cowgill, E.; Gold, R.; Hamann, B.; Kreylos, O.; Schmitt, A.

    2006-10-01

    We present an interactive, real-time mapping system for use with digital elevation models and remotely sensed multispectral imagery that aids geoscientists in the creation and interpretation of geologic/neotectonic maps at length scales of 10 m to 1000 km. Our system provides a terrain visualization of the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets by displaying a virtual terrain model generated from a digital elevation model overlain by a color texture generated from orthophotos or satellite imagery. We use a quadtree-based, multiresolution display method to render in real time high-resolution virtual terrain models that span large spatial regions. The system allows users to measure the orientations of geologic surfaces and record their observations by drawing lines directly on the virtual terrain model. In addition, interpretive surfaces can be generated from these drawings and displayed to facilitate understanding of the three-dimensional geometry of geologic surfaces. The main strength of our system is the combination of real-time rendering and interactive mapping performed directly on the virtual terrain model with the ability to navigate the scene while changing viewpoints arbitrarily during mapping. User studies and comparisons with commercially available mapping software show that our system improves mapping accuracy and efficiency and also yields observations that cannot be made with existing systems.

  1. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame

  2. Very fast road database verification using textured 3D city models obtained from airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatov, Dimitri; Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Pohl, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    Road databases are known to be an important part of any geodata infrastructure, e.g. as the basis for urban planning or emergency services. Updating road databases for crisis events must be performed quickly and with the highest possible degree of automation. We present a semi-automatic algorithm for road verification using textured 3D city models, starting from aerial or even UAV-images. This algorithm contains two processes, which exchange input and output, but basically run independently from each other. These processes are textured urban terrain reconstruction and road verification. The first process contains a dense photogrammetric reconstruction of 3D geometry of the scene using depth maps. The second process is our core procedure, since it contains various methods for road verification. Each method represents a unique road model and a specific strategy, and thus is able to deal with a specific type of roads. Each method is designed to provide two probability distributions, where the first describes the state of a road object (correct, incorrect), and the second describes the state of its underlying road model (applicable, not applicable). Based on the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a single distribution that refers to three states: correct, incorrect, and unknown. With respect to the interaction of both processes, the normalized elevation map and the digital orthophoto generated during 3D reconstruction are the necessary input - together with initial road database entries - for the road verification process. If the entries of the database are too obsolete or not available at all, sensor data evaluation enables classification of the road pixels of the elevation map followed by road map extraction by means of vectorization and filtering of the geometrically and topologically inconsistent objects. Depending on the time issue and availability of a geo-database for buildings, the urban terrain reconstruction procedure has semantic models

  3. Conformal Surface Parameterization for Texture Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-25

    Conformal Surface Parameterization for Texture Mapping Steven Haker Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Minnesota...also like to thank Professor Victoria Interrante for some very helpful conversations on texture mappings. References [1] S. Angenent, S. Haker , A

  4. Acquiring 3-D information about thick objects from differential interference contrast images using texture extraction.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Heidy; Brooks, Dana; DiMarzio, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of 3-D morphological information about thick objects is explored in this work. We extract this information from 3-D differential interference contrast (DIC) images by applying a texture detection method. Texture extraction methods have been successfully used in different applications to study biological samples. A 3-D texture image is obtained by applying a local entropy-based texture extraction method. The use of this method to detect regions of blastocyst mouse embryos that are used in assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization is presented as an example. Results demonstrate the potential of using texture detection methods to improve morphological analysis of thick samples, which is relevant to many biomedical and biological studies. Fluorescence and optical quadrature microscope phase images are used for validation.

  5. Acquiring 3-D information about thick objects from differential interference contrast images using texture extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Heidy; Brooks, Dana; Dimarzio, Charles

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of 3-D morphological information about thick objects is explored in this work. We extract this information from 3-D differential interference contrast (DIC) images by applying a texture detection method. Texture extraction methods have been successfully used in different applications to study biological samples. A 3-D texture image is obtained by applying a local entropy-based texture extraction method. The use of this method to detect regions of blastocyst mouse embryos that are used in assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization is presented as an example. Results demonstrate the potential of using texture detection methods to improve morphological analysis of thick samples, which is relevant to many biomedical and biological studies. Fluorescence and optical quadrature microscope phase images are used for validation.

  6. Differentiating bladder carcinoma from bladder wall using 3D textural features: an initial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaopan; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Yang; Tian, Qiang; Zhang, Guopeng; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Differentiating bladder tumors from wall tissues is of critical importance for the detection of invasion depth and cancer staging. The textural features embedded in bladder images have demonstrated their potentials in carcinomas detection and classification. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of differentiating bladder carcinoma from bladder wall using three-dimensional (3D) textural features extracted from MR bladder images. The widely used 2D Tamura features were firstly wholly extended to 3D, and then different types of 3D textural features including 3D features derived from gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) and grey level-gradient co-occurrence matrix (GLGCM), as well as 3D Tamura features, were extracted from 23 volumes of interest (VOIs) of bladder tumors and 23 VOIs of patients' bladder wall. Statistical results show that 30 out of 47 features are significantly different between cancer tissues and wall tissues. Using these features with significant differences between these two types of tissues, classification performance with a supported vector machine (SVM) classifier demonstrates that the combination of three types of selected 3D features outperform that of using only one type of features. All the observations demonstrate that significant textural differences exist between carcinomatous tissues and bladder wall, and 3D textural analysis may be an effective way for noninvasive staging of bladder cancer.

  7. 3-D Solid Texture Classification Using Locally-Oriented Wavelet Transforms.

    PubMed

    Dicente Cid, Yashin; Muller, Henning; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre; Depeursinge, Adrien

    2017-02-06

    Many image acquisition techniques used in biomedical imaging, material analysis, and structural geology are capable of acquiring 3-D solid images. Computational analysis of these images is complex but necessary since it is difficult for humans to visualize and quantify their detailed 3-D content. One of the most common methods to analyze 3-D data is to characterize the volumetric texture patterns. Texture analysis generally consists of encoding the local organization of image scales and directions, which can be extremely diverse in 3-D. Current state-of-the- art techniques face many challenges when working with 3-D solid texture, where most approaches are not able to consistently characterize both scale and directional information. 3-D Riesz- wavelets can deal with both properties. One key property of Riesz filterbanks is steerability, which can be used to locally align the filters and compare textures with arbitrary (local) orientations. This paper proposes and compares three novel local alignment criteria for higher-order 3-D Riesz-wavelet transforms. The estimations of local texture orientations are based on higher- order extensions of regularized structure tensors. An experimental evaluation of the proposed methods for the classification of synthetic 3-D solid textures with alterations (such as rotations and noise) demonstrated the importance of local directional information for robust and accurate solid texture recognition. These alignment methods improved the accuracy of the unaligned Riesz descriptors up to 0.63, from 0.32 to 0.95 over 1 in the rotated data, which is better than all other techniques that are published and tested on the same database.

  8. From Surface Data to 3D Geologic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, D.; Luxey, P.; Longuesserre, V.; Monod, B.; Guillaume, B.

    2008-12-01

    New trends in earth sciences are mostly related to technologies allowing graphical representations of the geology in 3D. However, the concept of 3D geologic map is commonly misused. For instance, displays of geologic maps draped onto DEM in rotating perspective views have been misleadingly called 3D geologic maps, but this still cannot provide any volumetric underground information as a true 3D geologic map should. Here, we present a way to produce mathematically and geometrically correct 3D geologic maps constituted by the volume and shape of all geologic features of a given area. The originality of the method is that it is based on the integration of surface data only consisting of (1) geologic maps, (2) satellite images, (3) DEM and (4) bedding dips and strikes. To generate 3D geologic maps, we used a 3D geologic modeler that combines and extrapolates the surface information into a coherent 3D data set. The significance of geometrically correct 3D geologic maps is demonstrated for various geologic settings and applications. 3D models are of primarily importance for educational purposes because they reveal features that standard 2D geologic maps by themselves could not show. The 3D visualization helps in the understanding of the geometrical relationship between the different geologic features and, in turn, for the quantification of the geology at the regional scale. Furthermore, given the logistical challenges associated with modern oil and mineral exploration in remote and rugged terrain, these volume-based models can provide geological and commercial insight prior to seismic evaluation.

  9. 3D texture-based classification applied on brain white matter lesions on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Mariana; Gobbi, David; Salluzi, Marina; Frayne, Richard; Lotufo, Roberto; Rittner, Letícia

    2016-03-01

    Lesions in the brain white matter are among the most frequently observed incidental findings on MR images. This paper presents a 3D texture-based classification to distinguish normal appearing white matter from white matter containing lesions, and compares it with the 2D approach. Texture analysis were based on 55 texture attributes extracted from gray-level histogram, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, run-length matrix and gradient. The results show that the 3D approach achieves an accuracy rate of 99.28%, against 97.41% of the 2D approach by using a support vector machine classifier. Furthermore, the most discriminating texture attributes on both 2D and 3D cases were obtained from the image histogram and co-occurrence matrix.

  10. A statistical description of 3D lung texture from CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Paul, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    A method was described to create a statistical description of 3D lung texture from CT data. The second order statistics, i.e. the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), has been applied to characterize texture of lung by defining the joint probability distribution of pixel pairs. The required GLCM was extended to three-dimensional image regions to deal with CT volume data. For a fine-scale lung segmentation, both the 3D GLCM of lung and thorax without lung are required. Once the co-occurrence densities are measured, the 3D models of the joint probability density function for each describing direction of involving voxel pairs and for each class (lung or thorax) are estimated using mixture of Gaussians through the expectation-maximization algorithm. This leads to a feature space that describes the 3D lung texture.

  11. Accurate 3d Textured Models of Vessels for the Improvement of the Educational Tools of a Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soile, S.; Adam, K.; Ioannidis, C.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2013-02-01

    Besides the demonstration of the findings, modern museums organize educational programs which aim to experience and knowledge sharing combined with entertainment rather than to pure learning. Toward that effort, 2D and 3D digital representations are gradually replacing the traditional recording of the findings through photos or drawings. The present paper refers to a project that aims to create 3D textured models of two lekythoi that are exhibited in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens in Greece; on the surfaces of these lekythoi scenes of the adventures of Odysseus are depicted. The project is expected to support the production of an educational movie and some other relevant interactive educational programs for the museum. The creation of accurate developments of the paintings and of accurate 3D models is the basis for the visualization of the adventures of the mythical hero. The data collection was made by using a structured light scanner consisting of two machine vision cameras that are used for the determination of geometry of the object, a high resolution camera for the recording of the texture, and a DLP projector. The creation of the final accurate 3D textured model is a complicated and tiring procedure which includes the collection of geometric data, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering, the merging of individual surfaces, the creation of a c-mesh, the creation of the UV map, the provision of the texture and, finally, the general processing of the 3D textured object. For a better result a combination of commercial and in-house software made for the automation of various steps of the procedure was used. The results derived from the above procedure were especially satisfactory in terms of accuracy and quality of the model. However, the procedure was proved to be time consuming while the use of various software packages presumes the services of a specialist.

  12. Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

  13. 3D texture analysis in renal cell carcinoma tissue image grading.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Yun; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Jeong, Goo-Bo; Bengtsson, Ewert; Choi, Heung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  14. 3D texture analysis of solitary pulmonary nodules using co-occurrence matrix from volumetric lung CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we have investigated a new approach for texture features extraction using co-occurrence matrix from volumetric lung CT image. Traditionally texture analysis is performed in 2D and is suitable for images collected from 2D imaging modality. The use of 3D imaging modalities provide the scope of texture analysis from 3D object and 3D texture feature are more realistic to represent 3D object. In this work, Haralick's texture features are extended in 3D and computed from volumetric data considering 26 neighbors. The optimal texture features to characterize the internal structure of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules (SPN) are selected based on area under curve (AUC) values of ROC curve and p values from 2-tailed Student's t-test. The selected texture feature in 3D to represent SPN can be used in efficient Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) design plays an important role in fast and accurate lung cancer screening. The reduced number of input features to the CAD system will decrease the computational time and classification errors caused by irrelevant features. In the present work, SPN are classified from Ground Glass Nodule (GGN) using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier considering top five 3D texture features and top five 2D texture features separately. The classification is performed on 92 SPN and 25 GGN from Imaging Database Resources Initiative (IDRI) public database and classification accuracy using 3D texture features and 2D texture features provide 97.17% and 89.1% respectively.

  15. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using 23Na and proton MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60 × 60 × 60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  16. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) Using 23Na and Proton MRI

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/hour concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/ PMID:25261742

  17. 3D texture analysis for classification of second harmonic generation images of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Bruce; Campbell, Kirby R.; Tilbury, Karissa; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Brewer, Molly A.; Patankar, Manish; Singh, Vikas; Eliceiri, Kevin. W.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Remodeling of the collagen architecture in the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantify these alterations we implemented a form of 3D texture analysis to delineate the fibrillar morphology observed in 3D Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy image data of normal (1) and high risk (2) ovarian stroma, benign ovarian tumors (3), low grade (4) and high grade (5) serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors (6). We developed a tailored set of 3D filters which extract textural features in the 3D image sets to build (or learn) statistical models of each tissue class. By applying k-nearest neighbor classification using these learned models, we achieved 83–91% accuracies for the six classes. The 3D method outperformed the analogous 2D classification on the same tissues, where we suggest this is due the increased information content. This classification based on ECM structural changes will complement conventional classification based on genetic profiles and can serve as an additional biomarker. Moreover, the texture analysis algorithm is quite general, as it does not rely on single morphological metrics such as fiber alignment, length, and width but their combined convolution with a customizable basis set. PMID:27767180

  18. 3D texture analysis for classification of second harmonic generation images of human ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Bruce; Campbell, Kirby R.; Tilbury, Karissa; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Brewer, Molly A.; Patankar, Manish; Singh, Vikas; Eliceiri, Kevin. W.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2016-10-01

    Remodeling of the collagen architecture in the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantify these alterations we implemented a form of 3D texture analysis to delineate the fibrillar morphology observed in 3D Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy image data of normal (1) and high risk (2) ovarian stroma, benign ovarian tumors (3), low grade (4) and high grade (5) serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors (6). We developed a tailored set of 3D filters which extract textural features in the 3D image sets to build (or learn) statistical models of each tissue class. By applying k-nearest neighbor classification using these learned models, we achieved 83–91% accuracies for the six classes. The 3D method outperformed the analogous 2D classification on the same tissues, where we suggest this is due the increased information content. This classification based on ECM structural changes will complement conventional classification based on genetic profiles and can serve as an additional biomarker. Moreover, the texture analysis algorithm is quite general, as it does not rely on single morphological metrics such as fiber alignment, length, and width but their combined convolution with a customizable basis set.

  19. Perception of 3D shape from homogeneous and nonhomogeneous surface textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Andrea; Zaidi, Qasim

    2004-06-01

    When a textured 3-dimensional surface is projected in perspective, the statistics of the texture in the image change with the shape of the surface. Most shape-from-texture models assume that these changes are due solely to the projection of non-fronto-parallel portions of the surface. This is true for developable surfaces, which are formed by bending or curving flat, textured sheets without tearing or stretching. However, for other surfaces such as those carved from solids or formed by stretched materials, the texture on the surface is generally not homogenous. If the perspective image is parsed into local Fourier spectra, we find that signature patterns of orientation flows occur at locations corresponding to specific 3-D shapes. These patterns occur generically for developable, carved and stretched surfaces and when they are visible, observers make veridical shape judgments. In contrast, frequency modulations vary systematically for different types of surfaces, and often lead to non-veridical percepts when they are caused by changes in slant (e.g. isotropically textured developable surfaces). Our results suggest that in the extraction of 3-D shape, the visual system can generically employ a limited number of neural mechanisms to extract the signature orientation flows from the image regardless of homogeneity.

  20. Surface classification and detection of latent fingerprints based on 3D surface texture parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhn, Stefan; Fischer, Robert; Vielhauer, Claus

    2012-06-01

    In the field of latent fingerprint detection in crime scene forensics the classification of surfaces has importance. A new method for the scientific analysis of image based information for forensic science was investigated in the last years. Our image acquisition based on a sensor using Chromatic White Light (CWL) with a lateral resolution up to 2 μm. The used FRT-MicroProf 200 CWL 600 measurement device is able to capture high-resolution intensity and topography images in an optical and contact-less way. In prior work, we have suggested to use 2D surface texture parameters to classify various materials, which was a novel approach in the field of criminalistic forensic using knowledge from surface appearance and a chromatic white light sensor. A meaningful and useful classification of different crime scene specific surfaces is not existent. In this work, we want to extend such considerations by the usage of fourteen 3D surface parameters, called 'Birmingham 14'. In our experiment we define these surface texture parameters and use them to classify ten different materials in this test set-up and create specific material classes. Further it is shown in first experiments, that some surface texture parameters are sensitive to separate fingerprints from carrier surfaces. So far, the use of surface roughness is mainly known within the framework of material quality control. The analysis and classification of the captured 3D-topography images from crime scenes is important for the adaptive preprocessing depending on the surface texture. The adaptive preprocessing in dependency of surface classification is necessary for precise detection because of the wide variety of surface textures. We perform a preliminary study in usage of these 3D surface texture parameters as feature for the fingerprint detection. In combination with a reference sample we show that surface texture parameters can be an indication for a fingerprint and can be a feature in latent fingerprint detection.

  1. MSV3d: database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure.

    PubMed

    Luu, Tien-Dao; Rusu, Alin-Mihai; Walter, Vincent; Ripp, Raymond; Moulinier, Luc; Muller, Jean; Toursel, Thierry; Thompson, Julie D; Poch, Olivier; Nguyen, Hoan

    2012-01-01

    The elucidation of the complex relationships linking genotypic and phenotypic variations to protein structure is a major challenge in the post-genomic era. We present MSV3d (Database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure), a new database that contains detailed annotation of missense variants of all human proteins (20 199 proteins). The multi-level characterization includes details of the physico-chemical changes induced by amino acid modification, as well as information related to the conservation of the mutated residue and its position relative to functional features in the available or predicted 3D model. Major releases of the database are automatically generated and updated regularly in line with the dbSNP (database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and SwissVar releases, by exploiting the extensive Décrypthon computational grid resources. The database (http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d) is easily accessible through a simple web interface coupled to a powerful query engine and a standard web service. The content is completely or partially downloadable in XML or flat file formats. Database URL: http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d.

  2. A 3D digital map of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Toga, A W; Santori, E M; Hazani, R; Ambach, K

    1995-01-01

    A three dimensional (3D) computerized map of rat brain anatomy created with digital imaging techniques is described. Six male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 270-320 g, were used in the generation of this atlas. Their heads were frozen, and closely spaced cryosectional images were digitally captured. Each serial data set was organized into a digital volume, reoriented into a flat skull position, and brought into register with each other. A volume representative of the group following registration was chosen based on its anatomic correspondence with the other specimens as measured by image correlation coefficients and landmark matching. Mean positions of lambda, bregma, and the interaural plane of the group within the common coordinate system were used to transform the representative volume into a 3D map of rat neuroanatomy. images reconstructed from this 3D map are available to the public via Internet with an anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) and World Wide Web. A complete description of the digital map is provided in a comprehensive set of sagittal planes (up to 0.031 mm spacing) containing stereotaxic reference grids. Sets of coronal and horizontal planes, resampled at the same increment, also are included. Specific anatomic features are identified in a second collection of images. Stylized anatomic boundaries and structural labels were incorporated into selected orthogonal planes. Electronic sharing and interactive use are benefits afforded by a digital format, but the foremost advantage of this 3D map is its whole brain integrated representation of rat in situ neuroanatomy.

  3. Seamless texture mapping algorithm for image-based three-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiapeng; Liu, Bin; Fang, Tao; Huo, Hong; Zhao, Yuming

    2016-09-01

    Texture information plays an important role in rendering true objects, especially with the wide application of image-based three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction and 3-D laser scanning. This paper proposes a seamless texture mapping algorithm to achieve a high-quality visual effect for 3-D reconstruction. At first, a series of image sets is produced by analyzing the visibility of triangular facets, the image sets are clustered and segmented into a number of optimal reference texture patches. Second, the generated texture patches are sequenced to create a rough texture map, then a weighting process is adopted to reduce the color discrepancies between adjacent patches. Finally, a multiresolution decomposition and fusion technique is used to generate the transition section and eliminate the boundary effect. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is effective and practical for obtaining high-quality 3-D texture mapping for 3-D reconstruction. Compared with traditional methods, it maintains the texture clarity while eliminating the color seams, in addition, it also supports 3-D texture mapping for big data application.

  4. gEMfitter: a highly parallel FFT-based 3D density fitting tool with GPU texture memory acceleration.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thai V; Cavin, Xavier; Ritchie, David W

    2013-11-01

    Fitting high resolution protein structures into low resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps is an important technique for modeling the atomic structures of very large macromolecular assemblies. This article presents "gEMfitter", a highly parallel fast Fourier transform (FFT) EM density fitting program which can exploit the special hardware properties of modern graphics processor units (GPUs) to accelerate both the translational and rotational parts of the correlation search. In particular, by using the GPU's special texture memory hardware to rotate 3D voxel grids, the cost of rotating large 3D density maps is almost completely eliminated. Compared to performing 3D correlations on one core of a contemporary central processor unit (CPU), running gEMfitter on a modern GPU gives up to 26-fold speed-up. Furthermore, using our parallel processing framework, this speed-up increases linearly with the number of CPUs or GPUs used. Thus, it is now possible to use routinely more robust but more expensive 3D correlation techniques. When tested on low resolution experimental cryo-EM data for the GroEL-GroES complex, we demonstrate the satisfactory fitting results that may be achieved by using a locally normalised cross-correlation with a Laplacian pre-filter, while still being up to three orders of magnitude faster than the well-known COLORES program.

  5. Uniform Local Binary Pattern Based Texture-Edge Feature for 3D Human Behavior Recognition.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yue; Wang, Guangchao; Fan, Chunxiao

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of 3D somatosensory technology, human behavior recognition has become an important research field. Human behavior feature analysis has evolved from traditional 2D features to 3D features. In order to improve the performance of human activity recognition, a human behavior recognition method is proposed, which is based on a hybrid texture-edge local pattern coding feature extraction and integration of RGB and depth videos information. The paper mainly focuses on background subtraction on RGB and depth video sequences of behaviors, extracting and integrating historical images of the behavior outlines, feature extraction and classification. The new method of 3D human behavior recognition has achieved the rapid and efficient recognition of behavior videos. A large number of experiments show that the proposed method has faster speed and higher recognition rate. The recognition method has good robustness for different environmental colors, lightings and other factors. Meanwhile, the feature of mixed texture-edge uniform local binary pattern can be used in most 3D behavior recognition.

  6. 3D Regression Heat Map Analysis of Population Study Data.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paul; Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Niemann, Uli; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Preim, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies comprise heterogeneous data about a subject group to define disease-specific risk factors. These data contain information (features) about a subject's lifestyle, medical status as well as medical image data. Statistical regression analysis is used to evaluate these features and to identify feature combinations indicating a disease (the target feature). We propose an analysis approach of epidemiological data sets by incorporating all features in an exhaustive regression-based analysis. This approach combines all independent features w.r.t. a target feature. It provides a visualization that reveals insights into the data by highlighting relationships. The 3D Regression Heat Map, a novel 3D visual encoding, acts as an overview of the whole data set. It shows all combinations of two to three independent features with a specific target disease. Slicing through the 3D Regression Heat Map allows for the detailed analysis of the underlying relationships. Expert knowledge about disease-specific hypotheses can be included into the analysis by adjusting the regression model formulas. Furthermore, the influences of features can be assessed using a difference view comparing different calculation results. We applied our 3D Regression Heat Map method to a hepatic steatosis data set to reproduce results from a data mining-driven analysis. A qualitative analysis was conducted on a breast density data set. We were able to derive new hypotheses about relations between breast density and breast lesions with breast cancer. With the 3D Regression Heat Map, we present a visual overview of epidemiological data that allows for the first time an interactive regression-based analysis of large feature sets with respect to a disease.

  7. 3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tucher, Nico; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Kiefel, Peter; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Peters, Marius; Müller, Claas; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Bläsi, Benedikt

    2015-11-30

    In this paper we introduce the three-dimensional formulation of the OPTOS formalism, a matrix-based method that allows for the efficient simulation of non-coherent light propagation and absorption in thick textured sheets. As application examples, we calculate the absorptance of solar cells featuring textures on front and rear side with different feature sizes operating in different optical regimes. A discretization of polar and azimuth angle enables a three-dimensional description of systems with arbitrary surface textures. We present redistribution matrices for 3D surface textures, including pyramidal textures, binary crossed gratings and a Lambertian scatterer. The results of the OPTOS simulations for silicon sheets with different combinations of these surfaces are in accordance with both optical measurements and results based on established simulation methods like ray tracing. Using OPTOS, we show that the integration of a diffractive grating at the rear side of a silicon solar cell featuring a pyramidal front side results in absorption close to the Yablonovitch Limit enhancing the photocurrent density by 0.6 mA/cm2 for a 200 µm thick cell.

  8. Segmentation of Textures Defined on Flat vs. Layered Surfaces using Neural Networks: Comparison of 2D vs. 3D Representations.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sejong; Choe, Yoonsuck

    2007-08-01

    Texture boundary detection (or segmentation) is an important capability in human vision. Usually, texture segmentation is viewed as a 2D problem, as the definition of the problem itself assumes a 2D substrate. However, an interesting hypothesis emerges when we ask a question regarding the nature of textures: What are textures, and why did the ability to discriminate texture evolve or develop? A possible answer to this question is that textures naturally define physically distinct (i.e., occluded) surfaces. Hence, we can hypothesize that 2D texture segmentation may be an outgrowth of the ability to discriminate surfaces in 3D. In this paper, we conducted computational experiments with artificial neural networks to investigate the relative difficulty of learning to segment textures defined on flat 2D surfaces vs. those in 3D configurations where the boundaries are defined by occluding surfaces and their change over time due to the observer's motion. It turns out that learning is faster and more accurate in 3D, very much in line with our expectation. Furthermore, our results showed that the neural network's learned ability to segment texture in 3D transfers well into 2D texture segmentation, bolstering our initial hypothesis, and providing insights on the possible developmental origin of 2D texture segmentation function in human vision.

  9. Lidar on small UAV for 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulldahl, H. Michael; Larsson, Hâkan

    2014-10-01

    Small UAV:s (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are currently in an explosive technical development phase. The performance of UAV-system components such as inertial navigation sensors, propulsion, control processors and algorithms are gradually improving. Simultaneously, lidar technologies are continuously developing in terms of reliability, accuracy, as well as speed of data collection, storage and processing. The lidar development towards miniature systems with high data rates has, together with recent UAV development, a great potential for new three dimensional (3D) mapping capabilities. Compared to lidar mapping from manned full-size aircraft a small unmanned aircraft can be cost efficient over small areas and more flexible for deployment. An advantage with high resolution lidar compared to 3D mapping from passive (multi angle) photogrammetry is the ability to penetrate through vegetation and detect partially obscured targets. Another advantage is the ability to obtain 3D data over the whole survey area, without the limited performance of passive photogrammetry in low contrast areas. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate 3D lidar mapping capability from a small multirotor UAV. We present the first experimental results and the mechanical and electrical integration of the Velodyne HDL-32E lidar on a six-rotor aircraft with a total weight of 7 kg. The rotating lidar is mounted at an angle of 20 degrees from the horizontal plane giving a vertical field-of-view of 10-50 degrees below the horizon in the aircraft forward directions. For absolute positioning of the 3D data, accurate positioning and orientation of the lidar sensor is of high importance. We evaluate the lidar data position accuracy both based on inertial navigation system (INS) data, and on INS data combined with lidar data. The INS sensors consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS, magnetometers, and a pressure sensor for altimetry. The lidar range resolution and accuracy is documented as well as the

  10. Sensing and 3D Mapping of Soil Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Yücel; Kul, Basri; Okursoy, Rasim

    2008-01-01

    Soil compaction is an important physical limiting factor for the root growth and plant emergence and is one of the major causes for reduced crop yield worldwide. The objective of this study was to generate 2D/3D soil compaction maps for different depth layers of the soil. To do so, a soil penetrometer was designed, which was mounted on the three-point hitch of an agricultural tractor, consisting of a mechanical system, data acquisition system (DAS), and 2D/3D imaging and analysis software. The system was successfully tested in field conditions, measuring soil penetration resistances as a function of depth from 0 to 40 cm at 1 cm intervals. The software allows user to either tabulate the measured quantities or generate maps as soon as data collection has been terminated. The system may also incorporate GPS data to create geo-referenced soil maps. The software enables the user to graph penetration resistances at a specified coordinate. Alternately, soil compaction maps could be generated using data collected from multiple coordinates. The data could be automatically stratified to determine soil compaction distribution at different layers of 5, 10,.…, 40 cm depths. It was concluded that the system tested in this study could be used to assess the soil compaction at topsoil and the randomly distributed hardpan formations just below the common tillage depths, enabling visualization of spatial variability through the imaging software. PMID:27879888

  11. 3D map of the human corneal endothelial cell

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gain, Philippe; Rageade, Damien; Bernard, Aurélien; Acquart, Sophie; Peoc’h, Michel; Defoe, Dennis M.; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are terminally differentiated cells, specialized in regulating corneal hydration and transparency. They are highly polarized flat cells that separate the cornea from the aqueous humor. Their apical surface, in contact with aqueous humor is hexagonal, whereas their basal surface is irregular. We characterized the structure of human CECs in 3D using confocal microscopy of immunostained whole corneas in which cells and their interrelationships remain intact. Hexagonality of the apical surface was maintained by the interaction between tight junctions and a submembraneous network of actomyosin, braced like a drum. Lateral membranes, which support enzymatic pumps, presented complex expansions resembling interdigitated foot processes at the basal surface. Using computer-aided design and drafting software, we obtained a first simplified 3D model of CECs. By comparing their expression with those in epithelial, stromal and trabecular corneal cells, we selected 9 structural or functional proteins for which 3D patterns were specific to CECs. This first 3D map aids our understanding of the morphologic and functional specificity of CECs and could be used as a reference for characterizing future cell therapy products destined to treat endothelial dysfunctions. PMID:27381832

  12. Semantic segmentation of 3D textured meshes for urban scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhani, Mohammad; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Classifying 3D measurement data has become a core problem in photogrammetry and 3D computer vision, since the rise of modern multiview geometry techniques, combined with affordable range sensors. We introduce a Markov Random Field-based approach for segmenting textured meshes generated via multi-view stereo into urban classes of interest. The input mesh is first partitioned into small clusters, referred to as superfacets, from which geometric and photometric features are computed. A random forest is then trained to predict the class of each superfacet as well as its similarity with the neighboring superfacets. Similarity is used to assign the weights of the Markov Random Field pairwise-potential and to account for contextual information between the classes. The experimental results illustrate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed framework.

  13. Geomorphological maps and 3d models in cave research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María

    2013-04-01

    Cave geomorphological processes and features can be studied by geomorphological maps although topographic maps, aerial photos and GPS are not available. Methods in cave geomorphological mapping are conditioned by cave environment configuration, the need of using speleological techniques, and limitations arising from the projection of the 3D data from the cave to a 2D plan. Some of our previous works in the Cantabrian Mountains and Cantabrian Coast (NW Spain) established the approach of the design of cave geomorphological maps and its legend. Today we are improving the display of cave process combining geomorphological maps and 3d models based on the experience obtained from the research of one cave from the Cantabrian Coast and four caves in the Picos de Europa National Park (funded by GEOCAVE project, Spanish National Parks Agency). The five caves are developed in Carboniferous limestone affected by faults and thrusts. The method of work includes: 1) the elaboration of the cave survey at 1:50 to 1:500 scale; 2) the check of the cave survey of three caves by closed loops; 3) the mapping of cave features based on the performed survey; 4) the 3d modeling of the caves approximating each survey shoot by an octagonal prism; and 5) the implementation and management of the survey and geomorphological map in a Geographic Information System. Based on the survey, the cavities are small caves to deep alpine shafts with 281 to 4,438 m length and up to 738 m deep. The precision of the cave maps only could be estimated in two caves at a cavity scale, displaying both of them a 2.49 % error. The prisms of the 3d model was classified into four groups according to the morphology of the cave passage: 1) canyons, 2) phreatic and epiphreatic tubes, 3) soutirage conduits, 4) mixed forms composed by phreatic and epiphreatic tubes modified by fluvial incision, 5) pitches and 6) irregular passages enlarged strongly by gravity process. According to our previous works geomorphological

  14. 3D Gel Map of Arabidopsis Complex I

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Katrin; Belt, Katharina; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Complex I has a unique structure in plants and includes extra subunits. Here, we present a novel study to define its protein constituents. Mitochondria were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures, leaves, and roots. Subunits of complex I were resolved by 3D blue-native (BN)/SDS/SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. Overall, 55 distinct proteins were found, seven of which occur in pairs of isoforms. We present evidence that Arabidopsis complex I consists of 49 distinct types of subunits, 40 of which represent homologs of bovine complex I. The nine other subunits represent special proteins absent in the animal linage of eukaryotes, most prominently a group of subunits related to bacterial gamma-type carbonic anhydrases. A GelMap http://www.gelmap.de/arabidopsis-3d-complex-i/ is presented for promoting future complex I research in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:23761796

  15. Within-guild dietary discrimination from 3-D textural analysis of tooth microwear in insectivorous mammals

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, M A; Crumpton, N; Gill, P G; Jones, G; Rayfield, E J

    2013-01-01

    Resource exploitation and competition for food are important selective pressures in animal evolution. A number of recent investigations have focused on linkages between diversification, trophic morphology and diet in bats, partly because their roosting habits mean that for many bat species diet can be quantified relatively easily through faecal analysis. Dietary analysis in mammals is otherwise invasive, complicated, time consuming and expensive. Here we present evidence from insectivorous bats that analysis of three-dimensional (3-D) textures of tooth microwear using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) roughness parameters derived from sub-micron surface data provides an additional, powerful tool for investigation of trophic resource exploitation in mammals. Our approach, like scale-sensitive fractal analysis, offers considerable advantages over two-dimensional (2-D) methods of microwear analysis, including improvements in robustness, repeatability and comparability of studies. Our results constitute the first analysis of microwear textures in carnivorous mammals based on ISO roughness parameters. They demonstrate that the method is capable of dietary discrimination, even between cryptic species with subtly different diets within trophic guilds, and even when sample sizes are small. We find significant differences in microwear textures between insectivore species whose diet contains different proportions of ‘hard’ prey (such as beetles) and ‘soft’ prey (such as moths), and multivariate analyses are able to distinguish between species with different diets based solely on their tooth microwear textures. Our results show that, compared with previous 2-D analyses of microwear in bats, ISO roughness parameters provide a much more sophisticated characterization of the nature of microwear surfaces and can yield more robust and subtle dietary discrimination. ISO-based textural analysis of tooth microwear thus has a useful role to play

  16. Scale Space Graph Representation and Kernel Matching for Non Rigid and Textured 3D Shape Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Garro, Valeria; Giachetti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel framework for 3D object retrieval that relies on tree-based shape representations (TreeSha) derived from the analysis of the scale-space of the Auto Diffusion Function (ADF) and on specialized graph kernels designed for their comparison. By coupling maxima of the Auto Diffusion Function with the related basins of attraction, we can link the information at different scales encoding spatial relationships in a graph description that is isometry invariant and can easily incorporate texture and additional geometrical information as node and edge features. Using custom graph kernels it is then possible to estimate shape dissimilarities adapted to different specific tasks and on different categories of models, making the procedure a powerful and flexible tool for shape recognition and retrieval. Experimental results demonstrate that the method can provide retrieval scores similar or better than state-of-the-art on textured and non textured shape retrieval benchmarks and give interesting insights on effectiveness of different shape descriptors and graph kernels.

  17. SU-F-BRF-08: Conformal Mapping-Based 3D Surface Matching and Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y; Zeng, W; Gu, X; Liu, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, non-rigid 3D surface matching and registration has been used extensively in engineering and medicine. However, matching 3D surfaces undergoing non-rigid deformation accurately is still a challenging mathematical problem. In this study, we present a novel algorithm to address this issue by introducing intrinsic symmetry to the registration Methods: Our computational algorithm for symmetric conformal mapping is divided into three major steps: 1) Finding the symmetric plane; 2) Finding feature points; and 3) Performing cross registration. The key strategy is to preserve the symmetry during the conformal mapping, such that the image on the parameter domain is symmetric and the area distortion factor on the parameter image is also symmetric. Several novel algorithms were developed using different conformal geometric tools. One was based on solving Riemann-Cauchy equation and the other one employed curvature flow Results: Our algorithm was implemented using generic C++ on Windows XP and used conjugate gradient search optimization for acceleration. The human face 3D surface images were acquired using a high speed 3D scanner based on the phase-shifting method. The scanning speed was 30 frames/sec. The image resolution for each frame was 640 × 480. For 3D human face surfaces with different expressions, postures, and boundaries, our algorithms were able to produce consistent result on the texture pattern on the overlapping region Conclusion: We proposed a novel algorithm to improve the robustness of conformal geometric methods by incorporating the symmetric information into the mapping process. To objectively evaluate its performance, we compared it with most existing techniques. Experimental results indicated that our method outperformed all the others in terms of robustness. The technique has a great potential in real-time patient monitoring and tracking in image-guided radiation therapy.

  18. A new 3D texture feature based computer-aided diagnosis approach to differentiate pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fangfang; Wang, Huafeng; Song, Bowen; Zhang, Guopeng; Lu, Hongbing; Moore, William; Zhao, Hong; Liang, Zhengrong

    2013-02-01

    To distinguish malignant pulmonary nodules from benign ones is of much importance in computer-aided diagnosis of lung diseases. Compared to many previous methods which are based on shape or growth assessing of nodules, this proposed three-dimensional (3D) texture feature based approach extracted fifty kinds of 3D textural features from gray level, gradient and curvature co-occurrence matrix, and more derivatives of the volume data of the nodules. To evaluate the presented approach, the Lung Image Database Consortium public database was downloaded. Each case of the database contains an annotation file, which indicates the diagnosis results from up to four radiologists. In order to relieve partial-volume effect, interpolation process was carried out to those volume data with image slice thickness more than 1mm, and thus we had categorized the downloaded datasets to five groups to validate the proposed approach, one group of thickness less than 1mm, two types of thickness range from 1mm to 1.25mm and greater than 1.25mm (each type contains two groups, one with interpolation and the other without). Since support vector machine is based on statistical learning theory and aims to learn for predicting future data, so it was chosen as the classifier to perform the differentiation task. The measure on the performance was based on the area under the curve (AUC) of Receiver Operating Characteristics. From 284 nodules (122 malignant and 162 benign ones), the validation experiments reported a mean of 0.9051 and standard deviation of 0.0397 for the AUC value on average over 100 randomizations.

  19. Construction of 3-D geologic framework and textural models for Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of water supply in Cuyama Valley, a rural agricultural area in Santa Barbara County, California, in the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges of California. Continued groundwater withdrawals and associated water-resource management concerns have prompted an evaluation of the hydrogeology and water availability for the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Water Agency Division of the Santa Barbara County Department of Public Works. As a part of the overall groundwater evaluation, this report documents the construction of a digital three-dimensional geologic framework model of the groundwater basin suitable for use within a numerical hydrologic-flow model. The report also includes an analysis of the spatial variability of lithology and grain size, which forms the geologic basis for estimating aquifer hydraulic properties. The geologic framework was constructed as a digital representation of the interpreted geometry and thickness of the principal stratigraphic units within the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, which include younger alluvium, older alluvium, and the Morales Formation, and underlying consolidated bedrock. The framework model was constructed by creating gridded surfaces representing the altitude of the top of each stratigraphic unit from various input data, including lithologic and electric logs from oil and gas wells and water wells, cross sections, and geologic maps. Sediment grain-size data were analyzed in both two and three dimensions to help define textural variations in the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin and identify areas with similar geologic materials that potentially have fairly uniform hydraulic properties. Sediment grain size was used to construct three-dimensional textural models that employed simple interpolation between drill holes and two-dimensional textural models for each stratigraphic unit that incorporated spatial structure of the textural data.

  20. Core Formation in Planetesimals: Textural Analyses From 3D Synchrotron Imaging and Complex Systems Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushmer, T. A.; Tordesillas, A.; Walker, D. M.; Parkinson, D. Y.; Clark, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent scenarios of core formation in planetesimals using calculations from planetary dynamists and from extinct radionuclides (e.g. 26Al, 60Fe), call for segregation of a metal liquid (core) from both solid silicate and a partially molten silicate - a silicate mush - matrix. These segregation scenarios require segregation of metallic metal along fracture networks or by the growth of molten core material into blebs large enough to overcome the strength of the mush matrix. Such segregation scenarios usually involve high strain rates so that separation can occur, which is in agreement with the accretion model of planetary growth. Experimental work has suggested deformation and shear can help develop fracture networks and coalesce metallic blebs. Here, we have developed an innovative approach that currently combines 2D textures in experimental deformation experiments on a partially molten natural meteorite with complex network analyses. 3D textural data from experimental samples, deformed at high strain rates, with or without silicate melts present, have been obtained by synchrotron-based high resolution hard x-ray microtomography imaging. A series of two-dimensional images is collected as the sample is rotated, and tomographic reconstruction yields the full 3D representation of the sample. Virtual slices through the 3D object in any arbitrary direction can be visualized, or the full data set can be visualized by volume rendering. More importantly, automated image filtering and segmentation allows the extraction of boundaries between the various phases. The volumes, shapes, and distributions of each phase, and the connectivity between them, can then be quantitatively analysed, and these results can be compared to models. We are currently using these new visual data sets to augment our 2D data. These results will be included in our current complex system analytical approach. This integrated method can elucidate and quantify the growth of metallic blebs in regions where

  1. Intra-retinal layer segmentation of 3D optical coherence tomography using coarse grained diffusion map.

    PubMed

    Kafieh, Raheleh; Rabbani, Hossein; Abramoff, Michael D; Sonka, Milan

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful and noninvasive method for retinal imaging. In this paper, we introduce a fast segmentation method based on a new variant of spectral graph theory named diffusion maps. The research is performed on spectral domain (SD) OCT images depicting macular and optic nerve head appearance. The presented approach does not require edge-based image information in localizing most of boundaries and relies on regional image texture. Consequently, the proposed method demonstrates robustness in situations of low image contrast or poor layer-to-layer image gradients. Diffusion mapping applied to 2D and 3D OCT datasets is composed of two steps, one for partitioning the data into important and less important sections, and another one for localization of internal layers. In the first step, the pixels/voxels are grouped in rectangular/cubic sets to form a graph node. The weights of the graph are calculated based on geometric distances between pixels/voxels and differences of their mean intensity. The first diffusion map clusters the data into three parts, the second of which is the area of interest. The other two sections are eliminated from the remaining calculations. In the second step, the remaining area is subjected to another diffusion map assessment and the internal layers are localized based on their textural similarities. The proposed method was tested on 23 datasets from two patient groups (glaucoma and normals). The mean unsigned border positioning errors (mean ± SD) was 8.52 ± 3.13 and 7.56 ± 2.95 μm for the 2D and 3D methods, respectively.

  2. Hierarchical image-based rendering using texture mapping hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    1999-01-15

    Multi-layered depth images containing color and normal information for subobjects in a hierarchical scene model are precomputed with standard z-buffer hardware for six orthogonal views. These are adaptively selected according to the proximity of the viewpoint, and combined using hardware texture mapping to create ''reprojected'' output images for new viewpoints. (If a subobject is too close to the viewpoint, the polygons in the original model are rendered.) Specific z-ranges are selected from the textures with the hardware alpha test to give accurate 3D reprojection. The OpenGL color matrix is used to transform the precomputed normals into their orientations in the final view, for hardware shading.

  3. Relevance of 2D radiographic texture analysis for the assessment of 3D bone micro-architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Apostol, Lian; Boudousq, Vincent; Basset, Oliver; Odet, Christophe; Yot, Sophie; Tabary, Joachim; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Boller, Elodie; Kotzki, Pierre-Olivier; Peyrin, Francoise

    2006-09-15

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on dual x-ray absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regard to fracture risk. In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution x-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. Thirty-three calcaneus and femoral neck bone samples including the cortical shells (diameter: 14 mm, height: 30-40 mm) were imaged using 3D-synchrotron x-ray micro-CT at the ESRF. The 3D reconstructed images with a cubic voxel size of 15 {mu}m were further used for two purposes: (1) quantification of three-dimensional trabecular bone micro-architecture (2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. The simulated x-ray radiographs were then analyzed using a large variety of texture analysis methods (co-occurrence, spectral density, fractal, morphology, etc.). The range of micro-architecture parameters was in agreement with previous studies and rather large, suggesting that the population was representative. More than 350 texture parameters were tested. A small number of them were selected based on their correlation to micro-architectural morphometric parameters. Using this subset of texture parameters, multiple regression allowed one to predict up to 93% of the variance of micro-architecture parameters using three texture features. 2D texture features predicting 3D micro-architecture parameters other than BV/TV were identified. The methodology proposed for evaluating the relationships between 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters may also be used for optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Further work will include the application of the method to physical radiographs. In the future, this approach could be used in combination with DXA to refine osteoporosis diagnosis.

  4. 3D Texture Analysis Reveals Imperceptible MRI Textural Alterations in the Thalamus and Putamen in Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy Type 1, EPM1

    PubMed Central

    Suoranta, Sanna; Holli-Helenius, Kirsi; Koskenkorva, Päivi; Niskanen, Eini; Könönen, Mervi; Äikiä, Marja; Eskola, Hannu; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva

    2013-01-01

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1 (EPM1) is an autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young onset age, myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. At the time of diagnosis, the visual assessment of the brain MRI is usually normal, with no major changes found later. Therefore, we utilized texture analysis (TA) to characterize and classify the underlying properties of the affected brain tissue by means of 3D texture features. Sixteen genetically verified patients with EPM1 and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. TA was performed upon 3D volumes of interest that were placed bilaterally in the thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Compared to the healthy controls, EPM1 patients had significant textural differences especially in the thalamus and right putamen. The most significantly differing texture features included parameters that measure the complexity and heterogeneity of the tissue, such as the co-occurrence matrix-based entropy and angular second moment, and also the run-length matrix-based parameters of gray-level non-uniformity, short run emphasis and long run emphasis. This study demonstrates the usability of 3D TA for extracting additional information from MR images. Textural alterations which suggest complex, coarse and heterogeneous appearance were found bilaterally in the thalamus, supporting the previous literature on thalamic pathology in EPM1. The observed putamenal involvement is a novel finding. Our results encourage further studies on the clinical applications, feasibility, reproducibility and reliability of 3D TA. PMID:23922849

  5. A procedure for the evaluation of 2D radiographic texture analysis to assess 3D bone micro-architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Lian; Peyrin, Francoise; Yot, Sophie; Basset, Olivier; Odet, Christophe; Tabary, Joachim; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Boller, Elodie; Boudousq, Vincent; Kotzki, Pierre-Olivier

    2004-05-01

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regards of fracture risk, which can be efficiently assessed in vitro using three-dimensional x-ray microtomography (μCT). In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution s-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for evaluating the relationships betweeen 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters, and optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Bone sample images taken from cortical to cortical were acquired using 3D-synchrotron x-ray μCT at the ESRF. The 3D digital imagees were further used for two purposes: 1) quantification of three-dimensional bone micro-architecture, 2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. Texture analysis was then applied to these 2D radiographs using a large variety of methods (co-occurence, spectrum, fractal...). First results of the statistical analysis between 2D and 3D parameters allowed identfying the most relevant 2D texture parameters.

  6. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  7. Disaster Prevention Coastal Map Production by MMS & C3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatake, Shuhei; Kohori, Yuki; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    In March 2011, Eastern Japan suffered serious damage of Tsunami caused by a massive earthquake. In 2012, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport published "Guideline of setting assumed areas of inundation by Tsunami" to establish the conditions of topography data used for simulation of Tsunami. In this guideline, the elevation data prepared by Geographical Survey Institute of Japan and 2m/5m/10m mesh data of NSDI are adopted for land area, while 500m mesh data of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard and sea charts are adopted for water area. These data, however, do not have continuity between land area and water area. Therefore, in order to study the possibility of providing information for coastal disaster prevention, we have developed an efficient method to acquire continuous topography over land and water including tidal zone. Land area data are collected by Mobile Mapping System (MMS) and water area depth data are collected by interferometry echo sounder (C3D), and both data are simultaneously acquired on a same boat. Elaborate point cloud data of 1m or smaller are expected to be used for realistic simulation of Tsunami waves going upstream around shoreline. Tests were made in Tokyo Bay (in 2014) and Osaka Bay (in 2015). The purpose the test in Osaka Bay is to make coastal map for disaster prevention as a countermeasure for predicted Nankai massive earthquake. In addition to Tsunami simulation, the continuous data covering land and marine areas are expected to be used effectively for maintenance and repair of aged port and river facilities, maintenance and investigation of dykes, and ecosystem preservation.

  8. 3D mapping and simulation of Geneva Lake environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villard, Roch; Maignan, Michel; Kanevski, Mikhail; Rapin, Francois; Klein, Audrey

    2010-05-01

    The Geneva Lake is the biggest alpine and subalpine lake in central Europe. The depth of this lake is 309 meters and its total volume of water is 89 billions m3. It takes, on average, around twelve years so that waters of the lake are completely brewed. Furthermore the Geneva lake waters are rich in dissolved substances as carbonate, sulfate. The quantity of particles in suspension in the lake, which mainly arrived from the Rhône, is nowadays around height million of tones. The International Commission for the Leman Lake (CIPEL) works about the improvement of the quality of this lake since 1962. In the present study three dimensional environmental data (temperature, oxygen and nitrate) which cover the period from 1954 to 2008, for a total of 27'500 cases are investigated. We are interested to study the evolution of the temperature of the lake because there is an impact on the reproduction of fishes and also because the winter brewing of the water makes the re-oxygenation of deep-water. In order that biological balance is maintained in a lake, there must be enough oxygen in the water. Moreover, we work on nitrate distribution and evolution because contributions in fertilizers cause eutrophication of lake. The data are very numerous when we consider the time series, some of them with more than 300 occurrences, but there are between 2 and 15 data available for spatial cartography. The basic methodology used for the analysis, mapping and simulations of 3D patterns of environmental data is based on geostatistical predictions (family of kriging models) and conditional stochastic simulations. Spatial and temporal variability, 3D monitoring networks changing over time, make this study challenging. An important problem is also to make interpolation/simulations over a long period of time, like ten years. One way used to overcome this problem, consists in using a weighted average of ten variograms during this period. 3D mapping was carried out using environment data for

  9. 3D Color Digital Elevation Map of AFM Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image is a three dimensional (3D) view of a digital elevation map of a sample collected by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The particle was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress' delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The AFM is part of Phoenix's microscopic station called MECA, or the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Computerized lung cancer malignancy level analysis using 3D texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Huang, Xia; Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Based on the likelihood of malignancy, the nodules are classified into five different levels in Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. In this study, we tested the possibility of using threedimensional (3D) texture features to identify the malignancy level of each nodule. Five groups of features were implemented and tested on 172 nodules with confident malignancy levels from four radiologists. These five feature groups are: grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features, local binary pattern (LBP) features, scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features, steerable features, and wavelet features. Because of the high dimensionality of our proposed features, multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used for dimension reduction. RUSBoost was applied for our extracted features for classification, due to its advantages in handling imbalanced dataset. Each group of features and the final combined features were used to classify nodules highly suspicious for cancer (level 5) and moderately suspicious (level 4). The results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy are 0.7659 and 0.8365 when using the finalized features. These features were also tested on differentiating benign and malignant cases, and the reported AUC and accuracy were 0.8901 and 0.9353.

  11. 3-D Mapping of the Galactic Nuclear Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel

    The Galactic center of our Galaxy provides an excellent laboratory to study the star formation mode and history as well as the structure and dynamics of stars and gas under an extreme galactic nuclear environment. We propose a comprehensive data analysis program to investigate the 3-D properties of the region enclosed by the Central Molecular Zone of the Galaxy. We will capitalize on an extensive data set now available from Planck, Herschel, Spitzer, and Hubble Space Telescopes, as well as the Large Millimeter Telescope and other ground-based facilities. This data set provides sensitive high-resolution probes of the region over the millimeter to nearIR wavelength range. The data set, together with dedicated state-of-art analysis tools that we have been developing, will enable us to obtain (1) the first full-spacing millimeter dust emission image of the region at a resolution better than 10 arcseconds (FWHM), (2) the column density, temperature, and opacity spectral index distributions of dusty gas; (3) the mapping of dust extinction toward individual stars; (4) the line-of-sight locations of individual dense clouds, (5) the global spatial distribution and formation history of stars, and (6) the characterization of environment effects on stellar and gas dynamics in the region. The combined analysis of the dust emission and extinction will represent a major step forward in determining the properties of the dusty gas as well as its effect on the stellar light observations of the region. This body of work will likely have strong implications for our understanding the stellar and gas properties in other galactic nuclei and their role in regulating the evolution of galaxies as whole.

  12. Mapping gray-scale image to 3D surface scanning data by ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jones, Peter R. M.

    1997-03-01

    The extraction and location of feature points from range imaging is an important but difficult task in machine vision based measurement systems. There exist some feature points which are not able to be detected from pure geometric characteristics, particularly in those measurement tasks related to the human body. The Loughborough Anthropometric Shadow Scanner (LASS) is a whole body surface scanner based on structured light technique. Certain applications of LASS require accurate location of anthropometric landmarks from the scanned data. This is sometimes impossible from existing raw data because some landmarks do not appear in the scanned data. Identification of these landmarks has to resort to surface texture of the scanned object. Modifications to LASS were made to allow gray-scale images to be captured before or after the object was scanned. Two-dimensional gray-scale image must be mapped to the scanned data to acquire the 3D coordinates of a landmark. The method to map 2D images to the scanned data is based on the colinearity conditions and ray-tracing method. If the camera center and image coordinates are known, the corresponding object point must lie on a ray starting from the camera center and connecting to the image coordinate. By intersecting the ray with the scanned surface of the object, the 3D coordinates of a point can be solved. Experimentation has demonstrated the feasibility of the method.

  13. [Application of bump texture mapping in block mapping].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Bin; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jingtao

    2014-08-01

    With the progresses of the research on "Digital Human", more and more information has been needed for the setting up of the three-dimensional digital models of human organs. In the present paper, based on the method of block mapping with a normal-style bump mapping method, we normalized the vector of the surface of the models, computed offset of the texture coordinates and added to them. The projection of the coordinates to the tangential space complemented the disturbance to the vector of models' surface. The method was proposed with bump texture mapping on the surface of the biological models of organs to improve the impression of the visualization of the organ models and to enhance the sense of reality of the models.

  14. Efficient 3D texture feature extraction from CT images for computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fangfang; Wang, Huafeng; Song, Bowen; Zhang, Guopeng; Lu, Hongbing; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhao, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Texture feature from chest CT images for malignancy assessment of pulmonary nodules has become an un-ignored and efficient factor in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx). In this paper, we focus on extracting as fewer as needed efficient texture features, which can be combined with other classical features (e.g. size, shape, growing rate, etc.) for assisting lung nodule diagnosis. Based on a typical calculation algorithm of texture features, namely Haralick features achieved from the gray-tone spatial-dependence matrices, we calculated two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) Haralick features from the CT images of 905 nodules. All of the CT images were downloaded from the Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI), which is the largest public chest database. 3D Haralick feature model of thirteen directions contains more information from the relationships on the neighbor voxels of different slices than 2D features from only four directions. After comparing the efficiencies of 2D and 3D Haralick features applied on the diagnosis of nodules, principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm was used to extract as fewer as needed efficient texture features. To achieve an objective assessment of the texture features, the support vector machine classifier was trained and tested repeatedly for one hundred times. And the statistical results of the classification experiments were described by an average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The mean value (0.8776) of the area under the ROC curves in our experiments can show that the two extracted 3D Haralick projected features have the potential to assist the classification of benign and malignant nodules.

  15. Sector mapping method for 3D detached retina visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi-Ran; Zhao, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Li, Ke; Lu, Cui-Xin; Zhang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    A new sphere-mapping algorithm called sector mapping is introduced to map sector images to the sphere of an eyeball. The proposed sector-mapping algorithm is evaluated and compared with the plane-mapping algorithm adopted in previous work. A simulation that maps an image of concentric circles to the sphere of the eyeball and an analysis of the difference in distance between neighboring points in a plane and sector were used to compare the two mapping algorithms. A three-dimensional model of a whole retina with clear retinal detachment was generated using the Visualization Toolkit software. A comparison of the mapping results shows that the central part of the retina near the optic disc is stretched and its edges are compressed when the plane-mapping algorithm is used. A better mapping result is obtained by the sector-mapping algorithm than by the plane-mapping algorithm in both the simulation results and real clinical retinal detachment three-dimensional reconstruction.

  16. New algorithms to map asymmetries of 3D surfaces.

    PubMed

    Combès, Benoît; Prima, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a set of new generic automated processing tools to characterise the local asymmetries of anatomical structures (represented by surfaces) at an individual level, and within/between populations. The building bricks of this toolbox are: (1) a new algorithm for robust, accurate, and fast estimation of the symmetry plane of grossly symmetrical surfaces, and (2) a new algorithm for the fast, dense, nonlinear matching of surfaces. This last algorithm is used both to compute dense individual asymmetry maps on surfaces, and to register these maps to a common template for population studies. We show these two algorithms to be mathematically well-grounded, and provide some validation experiments. Then we propose a pipeline for the statistical evaluation of local asymmetries within and between populations. Finally we present some results on real data.

  17. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth®, providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes. PMID:22163952

  18. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D vine plantation map generation.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth(®), providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  19. Semi-Automatic Building Models and FAÇADE Texture Mapping from Mobile Phone Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, J.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    Research on 3D urban modelling has been actively carried out for a long time. Recently the need of 3D urban modelling research is increased rapidly due to improved geo-web services and popularized smart devices. Nowadays 3D urban models provided by, for example, Google Earth use aerial photos for 3D urban modelling but there are some limitations: immediate update for the change of building models is difficult, many buildings are without 3D model and texture, and large resources for maintaining and updating are inevitable. To resolve the limitations mentioned above, we propose a method for semi-automatic building modelling and façade texture mapping from mobile phone images and analyze the result of modelling with actual measurements. Our method consists of camera geometry estimation step, image matching step, and façade mapping step. Models generated from this method were compared with actual measurement value of real buildings. Ratios of edge length of models and measurements were compared. Result showed 5.8% average error of length ratio. Through this method, we could generate a simple building model with fine façade textures without expensive dedicated tools and dataset.

  20. Real-time volume rendering of four-dimensional images based on three-dimensional texture mapping.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J; Kim, J S; Kim, J S; Kim, I Y; Kim, S I

    2001-06-01

    A four-dimensional (4-D) image consists of three-dimensional (3-D) volume data that varies with time. It is used to express a deforming or moving object in virtual surgery or 4-D ultrasound. It is difficult to obtain 4-D images by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering process and the pre-processing stage necessary whenever the volume data are changed. Even when 3-D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is time-consuming in 4-D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real-time rendering based on 3-D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one that was already loaded in memory. If the brick passes the test, it is defined as 3-D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Using continuous deforming, 50 volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Realtime volume rendering based on 3-D texture mapping is currently available for personal computers.

  1. Using Parameters of Dynamic Pulse Function for 3d Modeling in LOD3 Based on Random Textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadehashrafi, B.

    2015-12-01

    The pulse function (PF) is a technique based on procedural preprocessing system to generate a computerized virtual photo of the façade with in a fixed size square(Alizadehashrafi et al., 2009, Musliman et al., 2010). Dynamic Pulse Function (DPF) is an enhanced version of PF which can create the final photo, proportional to real geometry. This can avoid distortion while projecting the computerized photo on the generated 3D model(Alizadehashrafi and Rahman, 2013). The challenging issue that might be handled for having 3D model in LoD3 rather than LOD2, is the final aim that have been achieved in this paper. In the technique based DPF the geometries of the windows and doors are saved in an XML file schema which does not have any connections with the 3D model in LoD2 and CityGML format. In this research the parameters of Dynamic Pulse Functions are utilized via Ruby programming language in SketchUp Trimble to generate (exact position and deepness) the windows and doors automatically in LoD3 based on the same concept of DPF. The advantage of this technique is automatic generation of huge number of similar geometries e.g. windows by utilizing parameters of DPF along with defining entities and window layers. In case of converting the SKP file to CityGML via FME software or CityGML plugins the 3D model contains the semantic database about the entities and window layers which can connect the CityGML to MySQL(Alizadehashrafi and Baig, 2014). The concept behind DPF, is to use logical operations to project the texture on the background image which is dynamically proportional to real geometry. The process of projection is based on two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses starting from upper-left corner of the background wall in down and right directions respectively based on image coordinate system. The logical one/zero on the intersections of two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses projects/does not project the texture on the background image. It is possible to define

  2. Face recognition using 3D facial shape and color map information: comparison and combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godil, Afzal; Ressler, Sandy; Grother, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of 3D surface geometry for face recognition and compare it to one based on color map information. The 3D surface and color map data are from the CAESAR anthropometric database. We find that the recognition performance is not very different between 3D surface and color map information using a principal component analysis algorithm. We also discuss the different techniques for the combination of the 3D surface and color map information for multi-modal recognition by using different fusion approaches and show that there is significant improvement in results. The effectiveness of various techniques is compared and evaluated on a dataset with 200 subjects in two different positions.

  3. Identifying the third dimension in 2D fluoroscopy to create 3D cardiac maps.

    PubMed

    Sra, Jasbir; Krum, David; Choudhuri, Indrajit; Belanger, Barry; Palma, Mark; Brodnick, Donald; Rowe, Daniel B

    2016-12-22

    Three-dimensional cardiac mapping is important for optimal visualization of the heart during cardiac ablation for the treatment of certain arrhythmias. However, many hospitals and clinics worldwide cannot afford the high cost of the current mapping systems. We set out to determine if, using predefined algorithms, comparable 3D cardiac maps could be created by a new device that relies on data generated from single-plane fluoroscopy and patient recording and monitoring systems, without the need for costly equipment, infrastructure changes, or specialized catheters. The study included phantom and animal experiments to compare the prototype test device, Navik 3D, with the existing CARTO 3 System. The primary endpoint directly compared: (a) the 3D distance between the Navik 3D-simulated ablation location and the back-projected ground truth location of the pacing and mapping catheter electrode, and (b) the same distance for CARTO. The study's primary objective was considered met if the 95% confidence lower limit was greater than 0.75% for the Navik 3D-CARTO difference between the 2 distances, or less than or equal to 2 mm. Study results showed that the Navik 3D performance was equivalent to the CARTO system, and that accurate 3D cardiac maps can be created using data from equipment that already exists in all electrophysiology labs.

  4. Lithologic identification & mapping test based on 3D inversion of magnetic and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtian; Qi, Guang; Zhao, Jinhua; Zhang, Yongqian

    2016-04-01

    Though lithologic identification & mapping to achieve ore concentration district transparent within 5km depth is the main way to realize deep fine structures study, to explore deep mineral resources and to reveal metallogenic regularity of large-scale ore district . Owing to the wide covered area, high sampling density and mature three-dimensional inversion algorithm of gravity and magnetic data, so gravity and magnetic inversion become the most likely way to achieve three-dimensional lithologic mapping at the present stage. In this paper, we take Lu-zong(Lujiang county to Zongyang county in Anhui province ,east China) ore district as a case, we proposed lithologic mapping flow based 3D inversion of gravity magnetic and then carry out the lithologic mapping test. Lithologic identification & mapping flow is as follows: 1. Analysis relations between lithology and density and magnetic susceptibility by cross plot. 2.Extracting appropriate residual anomalies from high-precision Bourger gravity and aeromagnetic. 3.Use same mesh, do 3D magnetic and gravity inversion respectively under prior information constrained, and then invert susceptibility and density 3D model. 4. According setp1, construct logical topology operations between density 3D model and susceptibility. 5.Use the logical operations, identify lithogies cell by cell in 3D mesh, and then get 3D lithological model. According this flow, we obtained three-dimensional distribution of five main type lithologies in the Lu-Zong ore district within 5km depth. The result of lithologic mapping not only showed that the shallow characteristics and surface geological mapping are basically Coincide,more importantly ,it reveals the deeper lithologic changes.The lithlogical model make up the insufficient of surface geological mapping. The lithologic mapping test results in Lu-Zong ore concentration district showed that lithological mapping using 3D inversion of gravity and magnetic is a effective method to reveal the

  5. 3D tooth microwear texture analysis in fishes as a test of dietary hypotheses of durophagy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnell, Mark A.; Darras, Laurent P. G.

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of how extinct animals functioned underpins our understanding of past evolutionary events, including adaptive radiations, and the role of functional innovation and adaptation as drivers of both micro- and macroevolution. Yet analysis of function in extinct animals is fraught with difficulty. Hypotheses that interpret molariform teeth in fishes as evidence of durophagous (shell-crushing) diets provide a good example of the particular problems inherent in the methods of functional morphology. This is because the assumed close coupling of form and function upon which the approach is based is weakened by, among other things, behavioural flexibility and the absence of a clear one to one relationship between structures and functions. Here we show that ISO 25178-2 standard parameters for surface texture, derived from analysis of worn surfaces of molariform teeth of fishes, vary significantly between species that differ in the amount of hard-shelled prey they consume. Two populations of the Sheepshead Seabream (Archosargus probatocephalus) were studied. This fish is not a dietary specialist, and one of the populations is known to consume more vegetation and less hard-shelled prey than the other; this is reflected in significant differences in their microwear textures. The Archosargus populations differ significantly in their microwear from the specialist shell-crusher Anarhichas lupus (the Atlantic Wolffish). Multivariate analysis of these three groups of fishes lends further support to the relationship between diet and tooth microwear, and provides robust validation of the approach. Application of the multivariate models derived from microwear texture in Archosargus and Anarhichas to a third fish species—the cichlid Astatoreochromis alluaudi—successfully separates wild caught fish that ate hard-shelled prey from lab-raised fish that did not. This cross-taxon validation demonstrates that quantitative analysis of tooth microwear texture can

  6. Holographic microscopy and microfluidics platform for measuring wall stress and 3D flow over surfaces textured by micro-pillars

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Gorumlu, Serdar; Aksak, Burak; Castillo, Luciano; Sheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how fluid flow interacts with micro-textured surfaces is crucial for a broad range of key biological processes and engineering applications including particle dispersion, pathogenic infections, and drag manipulation by surface topology. We use high-speed digital holographic microscopy (DHM) in combination with a correlation based de-noising algorithm to overcome the optical interference generated by surface roughness and to capture a large number of 3D particle trajectories in a microfluidic channel with one surface patterned with micropillars. It allows us to obtain a 3D ensembled velocity field with an uncertainty of 0.06% and 2D wall shear stress distribution at the resolution of ~65 μPa. Contrary to laminar flow in most microfluidics, we find that the flow is three-dimensional and complex for the textured microchannel. While the micropillars affect the velocity flow field locally, their presence is felt globally in terms of wall shear stresses at the channel walls. These findings imply that micro-scale mixing and wall stress sensing/manipulation can be achieved through hydro-dynamically smooth but topologically rough micropillars. PMID:27353632

  7. Design and fabrication of cast orthopedic implants with freeform surface textures from 3-D printed ceramic shell.

    PubMed

    Curodeau, A; Sachs, E; Caldarise, S

    2000-09-01

    Three-dimensional printing is a solid freeform fabrication process, which creates parts directly from a computer model. The parts are built by repetitively spreading a layer of powder and selectively joining the powder in the layer by ink-jet printing of a binder material. 3D printing was applied to the fabrication of sub-millimeter surface textures with overhang and undercut geometries for use in orthopedic prostheses as bony ingrowth structures. 3D printing is used to fabricate ceramic molds of alumina powder and silica binder, and these molds are used to cast the bony ingrowth surfaces of Co-Cr (ASTM F75) alloy. Minimum positive feature sizes of the ceramic mold and, therefore, minimum negative feature sizes of castings were determined to be approximately 200 x 200 x 175 microm and were limited by the strength of ceramic needed to withstand handling. Minimum negative feature sizes in the ceramic mold and, therefore, minimum positive features in the casting were found to be approximately 350 x 350 x 175 microm and were determined by limitations on removal of powder from the ceramic and the pressure required to fill these small features with molten metal during casting. Textures were designed with 5 layers of distinct geometric definition, allowing for the design of overhung geometry with overall porosity ranging from 30-70%. Features as small as 350 x 350 x 200 microm were included in these designs and successfully cast.

  8. Toward Automated FAÇADE Texture Generation for 3d Photorealistic City Modelling with Smartphones or Tablet Pcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.

    2012-07-01

    An automated model-image fitting algorithm is proposed in this paper for generating façade texture image from pictures taken by smartphones or tablet PCs. The façade texture generation requires tremendous labour work and thus, has been the bottleneck of 3D photo-realistic city modelling. With advanced developments of the micro electro mechanical system (MEMS), camera, global positioning system (GPS), and gyroscope (G-sensors) can all be integrated into a smartphone or a table PC. These sensors bring the possibility of direct-georeferencing for the pictures taken by smartphones or tablet PCs. Since the accuracy of these sensors cannot compared to the surveying instruments, the image position and orientation derived from these sensors are not capable of photogrammetric measurements. This paper adopted the least-squares model-image fitting (LSMIF) algorithm to iteratively improve the image's exterior orientation. The image position from GPS and the image orientation from gyroscope are treated as the initial values. By fitting the projection of the wireframe model to the extracted edge pixels on image, the image exterior orientation elements are solved when the optimal fitting achieved. With the exact exterior orientation elements, the wireframe model of the building can be correctly projected on the image and, therefore, the façade texture image can be extracted from the picture.

  9. First 3D thermal mapping of an active volcano using an advanced photogrammetric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Raphael; Baratoux, David; Lacogne, Julien; Lopez, Teodolina; Fauchard, Cyrille; Bretar, Frédéric; Arab-Sedze, Mélanie; Staudacher, Thomas; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Thermal infrared data obtained in the [7-14 microns] spectral range are usually used in many Earth Science disciplines. These studies are exclusively based on the analysis of 2D information. In this case, a quantitative analysis of the surface energy budget remains limited, as it may be difficult to estimate the radiative contribution of the topography, the thermal influence of winds on the surface or potential imprints of subsurface flows on the soil without any precise DEM. The draping of a thermal image on a recent DEM is a common method to obtain a 3D thermal map of a surface. However, this method has many disadvantages i) errors can be significant in the orientation process of the thermal images, due to the lack of tie points between the images and the DEM; ii) the use of a recent DEM implies the use of another remote sensing technique to quantify the topography; iii) finally, the characterization of the evolution of a surface requires the simultaneous acquisition of thermal data and topographic information, which may be expensive in most cases. The stereophotogrammetry method allows to reconstitute the relief of an object from photos taken from different positions. Recently, substantial progress have been realized in the generation of high spatial resolution topographic surfaces using stereophotogrammetry. However, the presence of shadows, homogeneous textures and/or weak contrasts in the visible spectrum (e.g., flowing lavas, uniform lithologies) may prevent from the use of such method, because of the difficulties to find tie points on each image. Such situations are more favorable in the thermal infrared spectrum, as any variation in the thermal properties or geometric orientation of the surfaces may induce temperature contrasts that are detectable with a thermal camera. This system, usually functioning with a array sensor (Focal Plane Array) and an optical device, have geometric characteristics that are similar to digital cameras. Thus, it may be possible

  10. The effect of volumetric (3D) tactile symbols within inclusive tactile maps.

    PubMed

    Gual, Jaume; Puyuelo, Marina; Lloveras, Joaquim

    2015-05-01

    Point, linear and areal elements, which are two-dimensional and of a graphic nature, are the morphological elements employed when designing tactile maps and symbols for visually impaired users. However, beyond the two-dimensional domain, there is a fourth group of elements - volumetric elements - which mapmakers do not take sufficiently into account when it comes to designing tactile maps and symbols. This study analyses the effect of including volumetric, or 3D, symbols within a tactile map. In order to do so, the researchers compared two tactile maps. One of them uses only two-dimensional elements and is produced using thermoforming, one of the most popular systems in this field, while the other includes volumetric symbols, thus highlighting the possibilities opened up by 3D printing, a new area of production. The results of the study show that including 3D symbols improves the efficiency and autonomous use of these products.

  11. Band structure and spin texture of Bi2Se3 3 d ferromagnetic metal interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Velev, Julian P.; Dang, Xiaoqian; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2016-07-01

    The spin-helical surface states in a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), such as Bi2Se3 , are predicted to have superior efficiency in converting charge current into spin polarization. This property is said to be responsible for the giant spin-orbit torques observed in ferromagnetic metal/TI structures. In this work, using first-principles and model tight-binding calculations, we investigate the interface between the topological insulator Bi2Se3 and 3 d -transition ferromagnetic metals Ni and Co. We find that the difference in the work functions of the topological insulator and the ferromagnetic metals shift the topological surface states down about 0.5 eV below the Fermi energy where the hybridization of these surface states with the metal bands destroys their helical spin structure. The band alignment of Bi2Se3 and Ni (Co) places the Fermi energy far in the conduction band of bulk Bi2Se3 , where the spin of the carriers is aligned with the magnetization in the metal. Our results indicate that the topological surface states are unlikely to be responsible for the huge spin-orbit torque effect observed experimentally in these systems.

  12. Computational methods for constructing protein structure models from 3D electron microscopy maps.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke

    2013-10-01

    Protein structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy (EM) has made significant progress in the past decades. Resolutions of EM maps have been improving as evidenced by recently reported structures that are solved at high resolutions close to 3Å. Computational methods play a key role in interpreting EM data. Among many computational procedures applied to an EM map to obtain protein structure information, in this article we focus on reviewing computational methods that model protein three-dimensional (3D) structures from a 3D EM density map that is constructed from two-dimensional (2D) maps. The computational methods we discuss range from de novo methods, which identify structural elements in an EM map, to structure fitting methods, where known high resolution structures are fit into a low-resolution EM map. A list of available computational tools is also provided.

  13. TU-F-12A-05: Sensitivity of Textural Features to 3D Vs. 4D FDG-PET/CT Imaging in NSCLC Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F; Nyflot, M; Bowen, S; Kinahan, P; Sandison, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Neighborhood Gray-level difference matrices (NGLDM) based texture parameters extracted from conventional (3D) 18F-FDG PET scans in patients with NSCLC have been previously shown to associate with response to chemoradiation and poorer patient outcome. However, the change in these parameters when utilizing respiratory-correlated (4D) FDG-PET scans has not yet been characterized for NSCLC. The Objectives: of this study was to assess the extent to which NGLDM-based texture parameters on 4D PET images vary with reference to values derived from 3D scans in NSCLC. Methods: Eight patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. 4D PET scans were reconstructed with OSEM-IR in 5 respiratory phase-binned images and corresponding CT data of each phase were employed for attenuation correction. NGLDM-based texture features, consisting of coarseness, contrast, busyness, complexity and strength, were evaluated for gross tumor volumes defined on 3D/4D PET scans by radiation oncologists. Variation of the obtained texture parameters over the respiratory cycle were examined with respect to values extracted from 3D scans. Results: Differences between texture parameters derived from 4D scans at different respiratory phases and those extracted from 3D scans ranged from −30% to 13% for coarseness, −12% to 40% for contrast, −5% to 50% for busyness, −7% to 38% for complexity, and −43% to 20% for strength. Furthermore, no evident correlations were observed between respiratory phase and 4D scan texture parameters. Conclusion: Results of the current study showed that NGLDM-based texture parameters varied considerably based on choice of 3D PET and 4D PET reconstruction of NSCLC patient images, indicating that standardized image acquisition and analysis protocols need to be established for clinical studies, especially multicenter clinical trials, intending to validate prognostic values of texture features for NSCLC.

  14. Identifying the third dimension in 2D fluoroscopy to create 3D cardiac maps

    PubMed Central

    Krum, David; Choudhuri, Indrajit; Belanger, Barry; Palma, Mark; Brodnick, Donald; Rowe, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional cardiac mapping is important for optimal visualization of the heart during cardiac ablation for the treatment of certain arrhythmias. However, many hospitals and clinics worldwide cannot afford the high cost of the current mapping systems. We set out to determine if, using predefined algorithms, comparable 3D cardiac maps could be created by a new device that relies on data generated from single-plane fluoroscopy and patient recording and monitoring systems, without the need for costly equipment, infrastructure changes, or specialized catheters. The study included phantom and animal experiments to compare the prototype test device, Navik 3D, with the existing CARTO 3 System. The primary endpoint directly compared: (a) the 3D distance between the Navik 3D–simulated ablation location and the back-projected ground truth location of the pacing and mapping catheter electrode, and (b) the same distance for CARTO. The study’s primary objective was considered met if the 95% confidence lower limit was greater than 0.75% for the Navik 3D–CARTO difference between the 2 distances, or less than or equal to 2 mm. Study results showed that the Navik 3D performance was equivalent to the CARTO system, and that accurate 3D cardiac maps can be created using data from equipment that already exists in all electrophysiology labs. PMID:28018976

  15. An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.

  16. The application of iterative closest point (ICP) registration to improve 3D terrain mapping estimates using the flash 3D ladar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Jack; Armstrong, Ernest E.; Armbruster, Walter; Richmond, Richard

    2010-04-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to develop an effective means of creating a 3D terrain map image (point-cloud) in GPS denied regions from a sequence of co-bore sighted visible and 3D LIDAR images. Both the visible and 3D LADAR cameras were hard mounted to a vehicle. The vehicle was then driven around the streets of an abandoned village used as a training facility by the German Army and imagery was collected. The visible and 3D LADAR images were then fused and 3D registration performed using a variation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The ICP algorithm is widely used for various spatial and geometric alignment of 3D imagery producing a set of rotation and translation transformations between two 3D images. ICP rotation and translation information obtain from registering the fused visible and 3D LADAR imagery was then used to calculate the x-y plane, range and intensity (xyzi) coordinates of various structures (building, vehicles, trees etc.) along the driven path. The xyzi coordinates information was then combined to create a 3D terrain map (point-cloud). In this paper, we describe the development and application of 3D imaging techniques (most specifically the ICP algorithm) used to improve spatial, range and intensity estimates of imagery collected during urban terrain mapping using a co-bore sighted, commercially available digital video camera with focal plan of 640×480 pixels and a 3D FLASH LADAR. Various representations of the reconstructed point-clouds for the drive through data will also be presented.

  17. Vulnerability mapping of groundwater contamination based on 3D lithostratigraphical models of porous aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply a methodology in order to reconstruct a lithostratigraphic 3D model of an aquifer so as to define some parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination of porous aquifers. The DRASTIC, SINTACS and AVI methods have been applied to an alluvial coastal aquifer of southern Italy. The stratigraphic reconstruction has been obtained by interpolating stratigraphic data from more than one borehole per 2 km. The lithostratigraphic reconstruction of a 3D model has been applied and used for three-dimensional or two-dimensional representations. In the first two methods, the layers of the vadose zone and the aquifer media have been evaluated not only by the interpolation of the single boreholes and piezometers, but also by the 3D model, assigning the scores of the parameters of each layer of the 3D model. The comparison between the maps constructed from the weighted values in each borehole and the maps deriving from the attribution of the values of each layer of the 3D model, highlights that the second representation avoids or minimizes the "bullseye" effect linked to the presence of boreholes with higher or lower values. The study has demonstrated that it is possible to integrate a 3D lithostratigraphic model of an aquifer in the assessment of the parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination by Point Count System methods.

  18. 3-D ultrafast Doppler imaging applied to the noninvasive mapping of blood vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Demene, Charlie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast Doppler imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on a 3-D plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that noninvasive 3-D ultrafast power Doppler, pulsed Doppler, and color Doppler imaging can be used to perform imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of 3-D tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D ultrafast imaging. Using a 32 × 32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, Tours, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. The proof of principle of 3-D ultrafast power Doppler imaging was first performed by imaging Tygon tubes of various diameters, and in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D color and pulsed Doppler imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer.

  19. Design of 3D scanner for surface contour mapping by ultrasonic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Muhammad Miftahul; Billah, Mohammad Aziz; Surachman, Arif; Budiman, Maman; Khairurrijal

    2015-04-01

    Surface mapping systems have attracted great attention due to their potential applications in many areas. In this paper, a simple 3D scanner based on ultrasonic sensor was designed for mapping a contour of object surface. The scanner using an SRF02 ultrasonic sensor, a microcontroller and radio frequency (RF) module to collect coordinates of object surface (point cloud), and sent data to computer. The point cloud collection process was performed by moving two ultrasonic sensors in y and x directions. Both sensors measure a distance from an object surface to a reference point of each sensor. The measurement results represent the point cloud of object surface and the data will be sent to computer via RF module. The point cloud then converted to 3D model using MATLAB. It was found that the object contours can be reconstructed very well by the developed 3D scanner system.

  20. The Use of Uas for Rapid 3d Mapping in Geomatics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tee-Ann; Tian-Yuan Shih, Peter; Yu, Sz-Cheng; Tsai, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    With the development of technology, UAS is an advance technology to support rapid mapping for disaster response. The aim of this study is to develop educational modules for UAS data processing in rapid 3D mapping. The designed modules for this study are focused on UAV data processing from available freeware or trial software for education purpose. The key modules include orientation modelling, 3D point clouds generation, image georeferencing and visualization. The orientation modelling modules adopts VisualSFM to determine the projection matrix for each image station. Besides, the approximate ground control points are measured from OpenStreetMap for absolute orientation. The second module uses SURE and the orientation files from previous module for 3D point clouds generation. Then, the ground point selection and digital terrain model generation can be archived by LAStools. The third module stitches individual rectified images into a mosaic image using Microsoft ICE (Image Composite Editor). The last module visualizes and measures the generated dense point clouds in CloudCompare. These comprehensive UAS processing modules allow the students to gain the skills to process and deliver UAS photogrammetric products in rapid 3D mapping. Moreover, they can also apply the photogrammetric products for analysis in practice.

  1. From digital mapping to GIS-based 3D visualization of geological maps: example from the Western Alps geological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestro, Gianni; Cassulo, Roberto; Festa, Andrea; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Nicolò, Gabriele; Perotti, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Collection of field geological data and sharing of geological maps are nowadays greatly enhanced by using digital tools and IT (Information Technology) applications. Portable hardware allows accurate GPS localization of data and homogeneous storing of information in field databases, whereas GIS (Geographic Information Systems) applications enable generalization of field data and realization of geological map databases. A further step in the digital processing of geological map information consists of building virtual visualization by means of GIS-based 3D viewers, that allow projection and draping of significant geological features over photo-realistic terrain models. Digital fieldwork activities carried out by the Authors in the Western Alps, together with building of geological map databases and related 3D visualizations, are an example of application of the above described digital technologies. Digital geological mapping was performed by means of a GIS mobile software loaded on a rugged handheld device, and lithological, structural and geomorphological features with their attributes were stored in different layers that form the field database. The latter was then generalized through usual map processing steps such as outcrops interpolation, characterization of geological boundaries and selection of meaningful punctual observations. This map databases was used for building virtual visualizations through a GIS-based 3D-viewer that loaded detailed DTM (resolution of 5 meters) and aerial images. 3D visualizations were focused on projection and draping of significant stratigraphic contacts (e.g. contacts that separate different Quaternary deposits) and tectonic contacts (i.e. exhumation-related contacts that dismembered original ophiolite sequences). In our experience digital geological mapping and related databases ensured homogeneous data storing and effective sharing of information, and allowed subsequent building of 3D GIS-based visualizations. The latters gave

  2. Protein contact maps: A binary depiction of protein 3D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Isaac Arnold; Amala, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in examining the structure and dynamics of complex networks. Proteins in 3D space may also be considered as complex systems emerged through the interactions of their constituent amino acids. This representation provides a powerful framework to uncover the general organized principle of protein contact network. Here we reviewed protein contact map in terms of protein structure prediction and analyses. In addition, we had also discussed the various computational techniques for the prediction of protein contact maps and the tools to visualize contact maps.

  3. 3D Geological Mapping - uncovering the subsurface to increase environmental understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, H.; Mathers, S.; Peach, D.

    2012-12-01

    Geological understanding is required for many disciplines studying natural processes from hydrology to landscape evolution. The subsurface structure of rocks and soils and their properties occupies three-dimensional (3D) space and geological processes operate in time. Traditionally geologists have captured their spatial and temporal knowledge in 2 dimensional maps and cross-sections and through narrative, because paper maps and later two dimensional geographical information systems (GIS) were the only tools available to them. Another major constraint on using more explicit and numerical systems to express geological knowledge is the fact that a geologist only ever observes and measures a fraction of the system they study. Only on rare occasions does the geologist have access to enough real data to generate meaningful predictions of the subsurface without the input of conceptual understanding developed from and knowledge of the geological processes responsible for the deposition, emplacement and diagenesis of the rocks. This in turn has led to geology becoming an increasingly marginalised science as other disciplines have embraced the digital world and have increasingly turned to implicit numerical modelling to understand environmental processes and interactions. Recent developments in geoscience methodology and technology have gone some way to overcoming these barriers and geologists across the world are beginning to routinely capture their knowledge and combine it with all available subsurface data (of often highly varying spatial distribution and quality) to create regional and national geological three dimensional geological maps. This is re-defining the way geologists interact with other science disciplines, as their concepts and knowledge are now expressed in an explicit form that can be used downstream to design process models structure. For example, groundwater modellers can refine their understanding of groundwater flow in three dimensions or even directly

  4. 3D volume MR temperature mapping for HIFU heating trajectory comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Nick; Vyas, Urvi; de Bever, Josh; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L.

    2012-10-01

    Many areas of MR-guided thermal therapy research would benefit from temperature maps with high spatial and temporal resolution that cover a large 3-D volume. This paper describes an approach to achieve these goals that is suitable for research applications where retrospective reconstruction of the temperature maps is acceptable. The method acquires undersampled data from a modified 3-D segmented EPI sequence and creates images using a temporally constrained reconstruction algorithm. The 3-D images can be zero-filled to arbitrarily small voxel spacing in all directions and then converted into temperature maps using the standard proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift technique. During HIFU heating experiments, the proposed method was used to obtain temperature maps with 1.5×1.5×3.0 mm resolution, 288×162×78 mm field of view, and 1.7 second temporal resolution. The approach is validated to demonstrate that it can accurately capture the spatial characteristics and time dynamics of rapidly changing HIFU-induced temperature distributions. An example application is presented where the method is used to analyze and compare different HIFU volumetric heating trajectories.

  5. Mapping 3D fiber orientation in tissue using dual-angle optical polarization tractography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Ravanfar, M.; Zhang, K.; Duan, D.; Yao, G.

    2016-01-01

    Optical polarization tractography (OPT) has recently been applied to map fiber organization in the heart, skeletal muscle, and arterial vessel wall with high resolution. The fiber orientation measured in OPT represents the 2D projected fiber angle in a plane that is perpendicular to the incident light. We report here a dual-angle extension of the OPT technology to measure the actual 3D fiber orientation in tissue. This method was first verified by imaging the murine extensor digitorum muscle placed at various known orientations in space. The accuracy of the method was further studied by analyzing the 3D fiber orientation of the mouse tibialis anterior muscle. Finally we showed that dual-angle OPT successfully revealed the unique 3D “arcade” fiber structure in the bovine articular cartilage. PMID:27867698

  6. Mapping 3D fiber orientation in tissue using dual-angle optical polarization tractography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Ravanfar, M; Zhang, K; Duan, D; Yao, G

    2016-10-01

    Optical polarization tractography (OPT) has recently been applied to map fiber organization in the heart, skeletal muscle, and arterial vessel wall with high resolution. The fiber orientation measured in OPT represents the 2D projected fiber angle in a plane that is perpendicular to the incident light. We report here a dual-angle extension of the OPT technology to measure the actual 3D fiber orientation in tissue. This method was first verified by imaging the murine extensor digitorum muscle placed at various known orientations in space. The accuracy of the method was further studied by analyzing the 3D fiber orientation of the mouse tibialis anterior muscle. Finally we showed that dual-angle OPT successfully revealed the unique 3D "arcade" fiber structure in the bovine articular cartilage.

  7. Choroidal Thickness in Patients With Reticular Pseudodrusen Using 3D 1060-nm OCT Maps

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Paulina; Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Drexler, Wolfgang; Binder, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To map and analyze choroidal thickness (ChT) in AMD patients with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) using three-dimensional (3D) 1060-nm optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. Fifty eyes from 25 patients with RPD were grouped according to the severity of AMD and the presence of RPD. All patients were imaged by high-speed (60,000 A-scans/s) 3D 1060-nm OCT over a 36 × 36° field of view. Choroidal thickness maps were automatically generated and compared with RPD areas visualized by fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging. Retinal thickness maps, ChT maps, Haller's and Sattler's layer thickness were statistically analyzed between groups. Results. The mean ± SD (micrometers) subfoveal ChT was 201 ± 88 μm, 145 ± 48 μm, and 271 ± 130 μm for dry AMD with RPD, wet AMD with RPD, and eyes with wet AMD and no RPD, respectively. Choroidal thickness maps demonstrated the most significant choroidal thinning within eyes with wet AMD and RPD. Sattler's and Haller's layer thickness differed across the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid when compared between eyes with and without RPD. Within eyes with RPD, ChT maps visualized that ChT was thicker below RDP areas than non-RPD areas. Conclusions. The 3D 1060-nm OCT choroidal maps over a large field of view offer noninvasive visualization for demonstrating local thickening correlation with RPD within each eye and overall thinning owing to AMD severity and RPD. This choroidal thinning was most striking in Sattler's layer, suggesting a choroidopathy of this vascular layer. PMID:24651554

  8. Comparison of interferometric and stereo-radargrammetric 3D metrics in mapping of forest resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karila, K.; Karjalainen, M.; Yu, X.; Vastaranta, M.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppa, J.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate forest resources maps are needed in diverse applications ranging from the local forest management to the global climate change research. In particular, it is important to have tools to map changes in forest resources, which helps us to understand the significance of the forest biomass changes in the global carbon cycle. In the task of mapping changes in forest resources for wide areas, Earth Observing satellites could play the key role. In 2013, an EU/FP7-Space funded project "Advanced_SAR" was started with the main objective to develop novel forest resources mapping methods based on the fusion of satellite based 3D measurements and in-situ field measurements of forests. During the summer 2014, an extensive field surveying campaign was carried out in the Evo test site, Southern Finland. Forest inventory attributes of mean tree height, basal area, mean stem diameter, stem volume, and biomass, were determined for 91 test plots having the size of 32 by 32 meters (1024 m2). Simultaneously, a comprehensive set of satellite and airborne data was collected. Satellite data also included a set of TanDEM-X (TDX) and TerraSAR-X (TSX) X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, suitable for interferometric and stereo-radargrammetric processing to extract 3D elevation data representing the forest canopy. In the present study, we compared the accuracy of TDX InSAR and TSX stereo-radargrammetric derived 3D metrics in forest inventory attribute prediction. First, 3D data were extracted from TDX and TSX images. Then, 3D data were processed as elevations above the ground surface (forest canopy height values) using an accurate Digital Terrain Model (DTM) based on airborne laser scanning survey. Finally, 3D metrics were calculated from the canopy height values for each test plot and the 3D metrics were compared with the field reference data. The Random Forest method was used in the forest inventory attributes prediction. Based on the results InSAR showed slightly better

  9. Depth map coding using residual segmentation for 3D video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheon; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2013-06-01

    Advanced 3D video systems employ multi-view video-plus-depth data to support the free-viewpoint navigation and comfortable 3D viewing; thus efficient depth map coding becomes an important issue. Unlike the color image, the depth map has a property that depth values of the inner part of an object are monotonic, but those of object boundaries change abruptly. Therefore, residual data generated by prediction errors around object boundaries consume many bits in depth map coding. Representing them with segment data can be better than the use of the conventional transformation around the boundary regions. In this paper, we propose an efficient depth map coding method using a residual segmentation instead of using transformation. The proposed residual segmentation divides residual data into two regions with a segment map and two mean values. If the encoder selects the proposed method in terms of rates, two quantized mean values and an index of the segment map are transmitted. Simulation results show significant gains of up to 10 dB compared to the state-of-the-art coders, such as JPEG2000 and H.264/AVC. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Generation of 3-D surface maps in waste storage silos using a structured light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, B. L.; Rowe, J. C.; Dinkins, M. A.; Christensen, B.; Selleck, C.; Jacoboski, D.; Markus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface contours inside the large waste storage tanks typical of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are, in general, highly irregular. In addition to pipes and other pieces of equipment in the tanks, the surfaces may have features such as mounds, fissures, crystalline structures, and mixed solid and liquid forms. Prior to remediation activities, it will be necessary to characterize the waste to determine the most effective remediation approaches. Surface contour data will be required both prior to and during remediation. The use is described of a structured light source to generate 3-D surface contour maps of the interior of waste storage silos at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, OH. The landscape inside these large waste storage tanks bears a strong resemblance to some of the landscapes that might be encountered during lunar or planetary exploration. Hence, these terrestrial 3-D mapping techniques may be directly applicable to extraterrestrial exploration. In further development, it will be demonstrated that these 3-D data can be used for robotic task planning just as 3-D surface contour data of a satellite could be used to plan maintenance tasks for a space-based servicing robot.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3D interstellar extinct. map within nearest kpc (Gontcharov, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontcharov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    The product of the previously constructed 3D maps of stellar reddening (2010AstL...36..584G) and Rv variations (2012AstL...38...12G) has allowed us to produce a 3D interstellar extinction map within the nearest kiloparsec from the Sun with a spatial resolution of 100pc and an accuracy of 0.2m. This map is compared with the 2D reddening map by Schlegel et al. (1998ApJ...500..525S), the 3D extinction map at high latitudes by Jones et al. (2011AJ....142...44J), and the analytical 3D extinction models by Arenou et al. (1992A&A...258..104A) and Gontcharov (2009AstL...35..780G). In all cases, we have found good agreement and show that there are no systematic errors in the new map everywhere except the direction toward the Galactic center. We have found that the map by Schlegel et al. (1998ApJ...500..525S) reaches saturation near the Galactic equator at E(B-V)>0.8m, has a zero-point error and systematic errors gradually increasing with reddening, and among the analytical models those that take into account the extinction in the Gould Belt are more accurate. Our extinction map shows that it is determined by reddening variations at low latitudes and Rv variations at high ones. This naturally explains the contradictory data on the correlation or anticorrelation between reddening and Rv available in the literature. There is a correlation in a thin layer near the Galactic equator, because both reddening and Rv here increase toward the Galactic center. There is an anticorrelation outside this layer, because higher values of Rv correspond to lower reddening at high and middle latitudes. Systematic differences in sizes and other properties of the dust grains in different parts of the Galaxy manifest themselves in this way. The largest structures within the nearest kiloparsec, including the Local Bubble, the Gould Belt, the Great Tunnel, the Scorpius, Perseus, Orion, and other complexes, have manifested themselves in the constructed map. (1 data file).

  12. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Robinson, Larry R

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system. PMID:19849837

  13. 3D mapping of elastic modulus using shear wave optical micro-elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Qi, Li; Miao, Yusi; Ma, Teng; Dai, Cuixia; Qu, Yueqiao; He, Youmin; Gao, Yiwei; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-10-01

    Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves. In this study, we developed acoustic radiation force (ARF) orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) to visualize shear waves in 3D. This method uses acoustic force perpendicular to the OCT beam to excite shear waves in internal specimens and uses Doppler variance method to visualize shear wave propagation in 3D. The measured propagation of shear waves agrees well with the simulation results obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). Orthogonal acoustic excitation allows this method to measure the shear modulus in a deeper specimen which extends the elasticity measurement range beyond the OCT imaging depth. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE system has the ability to noninvasively determine the 3D elastic map.

  14. 3D mapping of elastic modulus using shear wave optical micro-elastography

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiang; Qi, Li; Miao, Yusi; Ma, Teng; Dai, Cuixia; Qu, Yueqiao; He, Youmin; Gao, Yiwei; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves. In this study, we developed acoustic radiation force (ARF) orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) to visualize shear waves in 3D. This method uses acoustic force perpendicular to the OCT beam to excite shear waves in internal specimens and uses Doppler variance method to visualize shear wave propagation in 3D. The measured propagation of shear waves agrees well with the simulation results obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). Orthogonal acoustic excitation allows this method to measure the shear modulus in a deeper specimen which extends the elasticity measurement range beyond the OCT imaging depth. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE system has the ability to noninvasively determine the 3D elastic map. PMID:27762276

  15. 3D Magnetic Induction Maps of Nanoscale Materials Revealed by Electron Holographic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of three-dimensional (3D) ferromagnetic nanoscale materials constitutes one of the key research areas of the current magnetism roadmap and carries great potential to impact areas such as data storage, sensing, and biomagnetism. The properties of such nanostructures are closely connected with their 3D magnetic nanostructure, making their determination highly valuable. Up to now, quantitative 3D maps providing both the internal magnetic and electric configuration of the same specimen with high spatial resolution are missing. Here, we demonstrate the quantitative 3D reconstruction of the dominant axial component of the magnetic induction and electrostatic potential within a cobalt nanowire (NW) of 100 nm in diameter with spatial resolution below 10 nm by applying electron holographic tomography. The tomogram was obtained using a dedicated TEM sample holder for acquisition, in combination with advanced alignment and tomographic reconstruction routines. The powerful approach presented here is widely applicable to a broad range of 3D magnetic nanostructures and may trigger the progress of novel spintronic nonplanar nanodevices. PMID:27182110

  16. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulos, Maged N.K.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.

  17. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Robinson, Larry R

    2009-10-22

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.

  18. Visualizing human brain surface from T1-weighted MR images using texture-mapped triangle meshes.

    PubMed

    Seppä, Mika; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2005-05-15

    We describe a novel method for visualizing brain surface from anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRIs). The method utilizes standard 2D texture mapping capabilities of OpenGL graphics language. It combines the benefits of volume rendering and triangle-mesh rendering, allowing fast and realistic-looking brain surface visualizations. Consequently, relatively low-resolution triangle meshes can be used while the texture images provide the necessary details. The mapping is optimized to provide good texture-image resolution for the triangles with respect to their original sizes in the 3D MRI volume. The actual 2D texture images are generated by depth integration from the original MRI data. Our method adapts to anisotropic voxel sizes without any need to interpolate the volume data into cubic voxels, and it is very well suited for visualizing brain anatomy from standard T(1)-weighted MR images. Furthermore, other OpenGL objects and techniques can be easily combined, for example, to use cut planes, to show other surfaces and objects, and to visualize functional data in addition to the anatomical information.

  19. 3D Mapping of Glacially-Sculpted Bedrock in Central Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laderman, L.; Stark, C. P.; Creyts, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    The movement of glaciers and ice sheets through sliding over bedrock depends on the configuration of the subglacial hydrological system. Over time, the glacier erodes the bedrock, which in turn changes water drainage pathways, the overall interaction with the ice, and potentially sliding rates. Drainage can take many forms. At the largest scale, subglacial lakes tens of kilometers in length store water, but the individual pathways are often on the order of meters or smaller. Studies at such a fine scale are only possible by looking at deglaciated beds to infer water drainage. 3D mapping can resolve centimeter scale features and inform studies of the processes that created them. In this survey, Agisoft Photoscan's structure from motion algorithm is used to create a map of Umpire Rock in New York's Central Park from digital photographs. Over 3300 photographs are taken at a separation of roughly half a meter to cover the 1000 square meter survey area. The surface is imaged in separate sections and the resulting point clouds are each aligned with a central section using Photoscan's Align Chunks tool. This process allows additional areas to easily be added to the 3D map. The scale of the final model is accurate to 1mm across the survey area and 3D meshes with a surface resolution of up to 5mm can be created. The distribution of striation directions and sizes on surfaces across the outcrop gives the overall flow direction of the ice and, more locally, illustrates how ice deforms around bedrock features. In addition to striations, we identify cavities and subtle drainage features that are oblique to ice flow. This study demonstrates the relative ease of 3D mapping bedrock outcrops from digital photographs, and indicates the utility of applying this process to more recently deglaciated areas.

  20. Low Cost and Efficient 3d Indoor Mapping Using Multiple Consumer Rgb-D Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Yang, B. S.; Song, S.

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the miniaturization, lightweight of positioning and remote sensing sensors as well as the urgent needs for fusing indoor and outdoor maps for next generation navigation, 3D indoor mapping from mobile scanning is a hot research and application topic. The point clouds with auxiliary data such as colour, infrared images derived from 3D indoor mobile mapping suite can be used in a variety of novel applications, including indoor scene visualization, automated floorplan generation, gaming, reverse engineering, navigation, simulation and etc. State-of-the-art 3D indoor mapping systems equipped with multiple laser scanners product accurate point clouds of building interiors containing billions of points. However, these laser scanner based systems are mostly expensive and not portable. Low cost consumer RGB-D Cameras provides an alternative way to solve the core challenge of indoor mapping that is capturing detailed underlying geometry of the building interiors. Nevertheless, RGB-D Cameras have a very limited field of view resulting in low efficiency in the data collecting stage and incomplete dataset that missing major building structures (e.g. ceilings, walls). Endeavour to collect a complete scene without data blanks using single RGB-D Camera is not technic sound because of the large amount of human labour and position parameters need to be solved. To find an efficient and low cost way to solve the 3D indoor mapping, in this paper, we present an indoor mapping suite prototype that is built upon a novel calibration method which calibrates internal parameters and external parameters of multiple RGB-D Cameras. Three Kinect sensors are mounted on a rig with different view direction to form a large field of view. The calibration procedure is three folds: 1, the internal parameters of the colour and infrared camera inside each Kinect are calibrated using a chess board pattern, respectively; 2, the external parameters between the colour and infrared camera inside each

  1. Large-scale Inference Problems in Astronomy: Building a 3D Galactic Dust Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkbeiner, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    The term ''Big Data'' has become trite, as modern technology has made data sets of terabytes or even petabytes easy to store. Such data sets provide a sandbox in which to develop new statistical inference techniques that can extract interesting results from increasingly rich (and large) databases. I will give an example from my work on mapping the interstellar dust of the Milky Way. 2D emission-based maps have been used for decades to estimate the reddening and emission from interstellar dust, with applications from CMB foregrounds to surveys of large-scale structure. For studies within the Milky Way, however, the third dimension is required. I will present our work on a 3D dust map based on Pan-STARRS1 and 2MASS over 3/4 of the sky (http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.01005), assess its usefulness relative to other dust maps, and discuss future work. Supported by the NSF.

  2. Digital mono- and 3D stereo-photogrammetry for geological and geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapozza, Cristian; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Castelletti, Claudio; Bozzini, Claudio; Ambrosi, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The generalization of application of digital tools for managing, mapping and updating geological data have become widely accepted in the last decennia. Despite the increasing quality and availability of digital topographical maps, orthorectified aerial photographs (orthophotos) and high resolution (5 up to 0.5 m) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), a correct recognition of the kind, the nature and the boundaries of geological formations and geomophological landforms, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits or slope instabilities is often very difficult on conventional two-dimensional (2D) products, in particular in steep zones (rock walls and talus slopes), under the forest cover, for a very complex topography and in deeply urbanised zones. In many cases, photo-interpretative maps drawn only by 2D data sets must be improved by field verifications or, at least, by field oblique photographs. This is logical, because our natural perception of the real world is three-dimensional (3D), which is partially disabled by the application of 2D visualization techniques. Here we present some examples of application of digital mapping based on a 3D visualization (for aerial and satellite images photo-interpretation) or on a terrestrial perception by digital mono-photogrammetry (for oblique photographs). The 3D digital mapping was performed thanks to an extension of the software ESRI® ArcGIS™ called ArcGDS™. This methodology was also applied on historical aerial photographs (normally analysed by optical stereo-photogrammetry), which were digitized by scanning and then oriented and aero-triangulated thanks to the ArcGDS™ software, allowing the 3D visualisation and the mapping in a GIS environment (Ambrosi and Scapozza, 2015). The mono-photogrammetry (or monoplotting) is the technique of photogrammetrical georeferentiation of single oblique unrectified photographs, which are related to a DEM. In other words, the monoplotting allows relating each pixel of the photograph to the

  3. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  4. Processing of noised residual stress phase maps by using a 3D phase unwrapping algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viotti, Matias R.; Fantin, Analucia V.; Albertazzi, Armando; Willemann, Daniel P.

    2013-07-01

    The measurement of residual stress by using digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) combined with the hole drilling technique is a valuable and fast tool for integrity evaluation of civil structures and mechanical parts. However, in some cases, measured phase maps are badly corrupted by noise which makes phase unwrapping a difficult and unsuccessful task. By following recommendations given by the ASTM E837 standard, 20 consecutive hole steps should be performed for the measurement of non-uniform stresses. As a consequence, 20 difference phase maps along the hole depth will be available for the DSPI technique. An adaptive phase unwrapping algorithm could be used in order to unwrap images following paths localized along well modulated pixels and performing two dimensional phase unwrapping (following paths inside a difference phase map corresponding to a hole step) or 3D phase unwrapping (similar to a temporal phase unwrapping following paths located at well-modulated pixels in a previous or a subsequent hole image). Non-corrupted and corrupted hole-drilling tests were processed with a traditional phase unwrapping algorithm as well as with the proposed 3D approach. Comparisons between unwrapped phase maps and simulated ones have shown that the proposed method gave results with best accordance than 2D results.

  5. 3D mapping of somatotopic reorganization with small animal functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Wang, Shumin; Chen, Der-Yow; Dodd, Stephen; Goloshevsky, Artem; Koretsky, Alan P.

    2009-01-01

    There are few in vivo noninvasive methods to study neuroplasticity in animal brains. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been developed for animal brain mapping, but few fMRI studies have analyzed functional alteration due to plasticity in animal models. One major limitation is that fMRI maps are characterized by statistical parametric mapping making the apparent boundary dependent on the statistical threshold used. Here, we developed a method to characterize the location of center-of-mass in fMRI maps that is shown not to be sensitive to statistical threshold. Utilizing centers-of-mass as anchor points to fit the spatial distribution of the BOLD response enabled quantitative group analysis of altered boundaries of functional somatosensory maps. This approach was used to study cortical reorganization in the rat primary somatosensory cortex (S1) after sensory deprivation to the barrel cortex by follicle ablation (F.A.). FMRI demonstrated an enlarged nose S1 representation in the 3D somatotopic functional maps. This result clearly demonstrates that fMRI enables the spatial mapping of functional changes that can characterize multiple regions of S1 cortex and still be sensitive to changes due to plasticity. PMID:19770051

  6. Enhanced Rgb-D Mapping Method for Detailed 3d Modeling of Large Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shengjun; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Wu; Darwish, Walid; Wu, Bo; Hu, Han; Chen, Min

    2016-06-01

    RGB-D sensors are novel sensing systems that capture RGB images along with pixel-wise depth information. Although they are widely used in various applications, RGB-D sensors have significant drawbacks with respect to 3D dense mapping of indoor environments. First, they only allow a measurement range with a limited distance (e.g., within 3 m) and a limited field of view. Second, the error of the depth measurement increases with increasing distance to the sensor. In this paper, we propose an enhanced RGB-D mapping method for detailed 3D modeling of large indoor environments by combining RGB image-based modeling and depth-based modeling. The scale ambiguity problem during the pose estimation with RGB image sequences can be resolved by integrating the information from the depth and visual information provided by the proposed system. A robust rigid-transformation recovery method is developed to register the RGB image-based and depth-based 3D models together. The proposed method is examined with two datasets collected in indoor environments for which the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method

  7. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  8. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-03-12

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed.

  9. Representation and coding of large-scale 3D dynamic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Tian, Dong; Krivokuća, Maja; Sugimoto, Kazuo; Vetro, Anthony; Wakimoto, Koji; Sekiguchi, Shunichi

    2016-09-01

    combined with depth and color measurements of the surrounding environment. Localization could be achieved with GPS, inertial measurement units (IMU), cameras, or combinations of these and other devices, while the depth measurements could be achieved with time-of-flight, radar or laser scanning systems. The resulting 3D maps, which are composed of 3D point clouds with various attributes, could be used for a variety of applications, including finding your way around indoor spaces, navigating vehicles around a city, space planning, topographical surveying or public surveying of infrastructure and roads, augmented reality, immersive online experiences, and much more. This paper discusses application requirements related to the representation and coding of large-scale 3D dynamic maps. In particular, we address requirements related to different types of acquisition environments, scalability in terms of progressive transmission and efficiently rendering different levels of details, as well as key attributes to be included in the representation. Additionally, an overview of recently developed coding techniques is presented, including an assessment of current performance. Finally, technical challenges and needs for future standardization are discussed.

  10. Multislice diffusion mapping for 3-D evolution of cerebral ischemia in a rat stroke model.

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Hasegawa, Y; Latour, L L; Dardzinski, B J; Sotak, C H; Fisher, M

    1995-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can quantitatively demonstrate cerebral ischemia within minutes after the onset of ischemia. The use of a DWI echo-planar multislice technique in this study and the mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water, a reliable indicator of ischemic regions, allow for the detection of the three-dimensional (3-D) evolution of ischemia in a rat stroke model. We evaluated 13 time points from 5 to 180 minutes after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and monitored the 3-D spread of ischemia. Within 5 minutes after the onset of ischemia, regions with reduced ADC values occurred. The core of the lesion, with the lowest absolute ADC values, first appeared in the lateral caudoputamen and frontoparietal cortex, then spread to adjacent areas. The volume of ischemic tissue was 224 +/- 48.5 mm3 (mean +/- SEM) after 180 minutes, ranging from 92 to 320 mm3, and this correlated well with the corrected infarct volume at postmortem (194 +/- 23.1 mm3, r = 0.72, p < 0.05). This experiment demonstrated that 3-D multislice diffusion mapping can detect ischemic regions noninvasively 5 minutes after MCA occlusion and follow the development of ischemia. The distribution of changes in absolute ADC values within the ischemic region can be followed over time, giving important information about the evolution of focal ischemia.

  11. Virtual 3D tumor marking-exact intraoperative coordinate mapping improve post-operative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the interdisciplinary interface in oncological treatment between surgery, pathology and radiotherapy is mainly dependent on reliable anatomical three-dimensional (3D) allocation of specimen and their context sensitive interpretation which defines further treatment protocols. Computer-assisted preoperative planning (CAPP) allows for outlining macroscopical tumor size and margins. A new technique facilitates the 3D virtual marking and mapping of frozen sections and resection margins or important surgical intraoperative information. These data could be stored in DICOM format (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) in terms of augmented reality and transferred to communicate patient's specific tumor information (invasion to vessels and nerves, non-resectable tumor) to oncologists, radiotherapists and pathologists. PMID:22087558

  12. 3D mapping of neuronal migration in the embryonic mouse brain with magnetic resonance microimaging.

    PubMed

    Deans, Abby E; Wadghiri, Youssef Zaim; Aristizábal, Orlando; Turnbull, Daniel H

    2015-07-01

    A prominent feature of the developing mammalian brain is the widespread migration of neural progenitor (NP) cells during embryogenesis. A striking example is provided by NP cells born in the ventral forebrain of mid-gestation stage mice, which subsequently migrate long distances to their final positions in the cortex and olfactory bulb. Previous studies have used two-dimensional histological methods, making it difficult to analyze three-dimensional (3D) migration patterns. Unlike histology, magnetic resonance microimaging (micro-MRI) is a non-destructive, quantitative and inherently 3D imaging method for analyzing mouse embryos. To allow mapping of migrating NP cells with micro-MRI, cells were labeled in situ in the medial (MGE) and lateral (LGE) ganglionic eminences, using targeted in utero ultrasound-guided injection of micron-sized particles of iron-oxide (MPIO). Ex vivo micro-MRI and histology were then performed 5-6days after injection, demonstrating that the MPIO had magnetically labeled the migrating NP populations, which enabled 3D visualization and automated segmentation of the labeled cells. This approach was used to analyze the distinct patterns of migration from the MGE and LGE, and to construct rostral-caudal migration maps from each progenitor region. Furthermore, abnormal migratory phenotypes were observed in Nkx2.1(-/-) embryos, most notably a significant increase in cortical neurons derived from the Nkx2.1(-/-) LGE. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MPIO labeling and micro-MRI provide an efficient and powerful approach for analyzing 3D cell migration patterns in the normal and mutant mouse embryonic brain.

  13. Design, fabrication, and implementation of voxel-based 3D printed textured phantoms for task-based image quality assessment in CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Justin; Ba, Alexandre; Diao, Andrew; Lo, Joseph; Bier, Elianna; Bochud, François; Gehm, Michael; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-03-01

    In x-ray computed tomography (CT), task-based image quality studies are typically performed using uniform background phantoms with low-contrast signals. Such studies may have limited clinical relevancy for modern non-linear CT systems due to possible influence of background texture on image quality. The purpose of this study was to design and implement anatomically informed textured phantoms for task-based assessment of low-contrast detection. Liver volumes were segmented from 23 abdominal CT cases. The volumes were characterized in terms of texture features from gray-level co-occurrence and run-length matrices. Using a 3D clustered lumpy background (CLB) model, a fitting technique based on a genetic optimization algorithm was used to find the CLB parameters that were most reflective of the liver textures, accounting for CT system factors of spatial blurring and noise. With the modeled background texture as a guide, a cylinder phantom (165 mm in diameter and 30 mm height) was designed, containing 20 low-contrast spherical signals (6 mm in diameter at targeted contrast levels of ~3.2, 5.2, 7.2, 10, and 14 HU, 4 repeats per signal). The phantom was voxelized and input into a commercial multi-material 3D printer (Object Connex 350), with custom software for voxel-based printing. Using principles of digital half-toning and dithering, the 3D printer was programmed to distribute two base materials (VeroWhite and TangoPlus, nominal voxel size of 42x84x30 microns) to achieve the targeted spatial distribution of x-ray attenuation properties. The phantom was used for task-based image quality assessment of a clinically available iterative reconstruction algorithm (Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction, SAFIRE) using a channelized Hotelling observer paradigm. Images of the textured phantom and a corresponding uniform phantom were acquired at six dose levels and observer model performance was estimated for each condition (5 contrasts x 6 doses x 2 reconstructions x 2

  14. Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  15. Mapping 3-D functional capillary geometry in rat skeletal muscle in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Milkovich, Stephanie; Goldman, Daniel; Ellis, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel mapping software package to reconstruct microvascular networks in three dimensions (3-D) from in vivo video images for use in blood flow and O2 transport modeling. An intravital optical imaging system was used to collect video sequences of blood flow in microvessels at different depths in the tissue. Functional images of vessels were produced from the video sequences and were processed using automated edge tracking software to yield location and geometry data for construction of the 3-D network. The same video sequences were analyzed for hemodynamic and O2 saturation data from individual capillaries in the network. Simple user-driven commands allowed the connection of vessel segments at bifurcations, and semiautomated registration enabled the tracking of vessels across multiple focal planes and fields of view. The reconstructed networks can be rotated and manipulated in 3-D to verify vessel connections and continuity. Hemodynamic and O2 saturation measurements made in vivo can be indexed to corresponding vessels and visualized using colorized maps of the vascular geometry. Vessels in each reconstruction are saved as text-based files that can be easily imported into flow or O2 transport models with complete geometry, hemodynamic, and O2 transport conditions. The results of digital morphometric analysis of seven microvascular networks showed mean capillary diameters and overall capillary density consistent with previous findings using histology and corrosion cast techniques. The described mapping software is a valuable tool for the quantification of in vivo microvascular geometry, hemodynamics, and oxygenation, thus providing rich data sets for experiment-based computational models. PMID:22140042

  16. Dose distribution and mapping with 3D imaging presentation in intraoral and panoramic examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Yung-Hui; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Lee, Jason J. S.

    2011-10-01

    In current medical imaging applications, high quality images not only provide more diagnostic value for anatomic delineation but also offer functional information for treatment direction. However, this approach would potentially subscribe higher radiation dose in dental radiographies, which has been putatively associated with low-birth-weight during pregnancy, which affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis or thereby directly affects the reproductive organs. The aim of this study was to apply the high resolution 3-D image mapping technique to evaluate radiation doses from the following aspects: (1) verifying operating parameters of dental X-ray units, (2) measuring the leakage radiations and (3) mapping dose with 3-D radiographic imaging to evaluate dose distribution in head and neck regions. From the study results, we found that (1) leakage radiation from X-ray units was about 21.31±15.24 mR/h (<100 mR/h), (2) error of actual tube voltage for 60 kVp setting was from 0.2% to 6.5%, with an average of 2.5% (<7%) and (3) the error of exposure time for a 0.5-1.5 s setting was within 0.7-8.5%, with an average of 7.3% (<10%) error as well. Our 3-D dose mapping demonstrated that dose values were relatively lower in soft tissues and higher in bone surfaces compared with other investigations. Multiple causes could contribute to these variations, including irradiation geometry, image equipment and type of technique applied, etc. From the results, we also observed that larger accumulated doses were presented in certain critical organs, such as salivary gland, thyroid gland and bone marrow. Potential biological affects associated with these findings warrant further investigation.

  17. 3D mapping of lithium in battery electrodes using neutron activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuping; Downing, R. Gregory; Wang, Howard

    2015-08-01

    The neutron depth profiling technique based on the neutron activation reaction, 6Li (n, α) 3H, was applied with two dimensional (2D) pinhole aperture scans to spatially map lithium in 3D. The technique was used to study model LiFePO4 electrodes of rechargeable batteries for spatial heterogeneities of lithium in two cathode films that had undergone different electrochemical cycling histories. The method is useful for better understanding the functioning and failure of batteries using lithium as the active element.

  18. Efficient dense blur map estimation for automatic 2D-to-3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosters, L. P. J.; de Haan, G.

    2012-03-01

    Focus is an important depth cue for 2D-to-3D conversion of low depth-of-field images and video. However, focus can be only reliably estimated on edges. Therefore, Bea et al. [1] first proposed an optimization based approach to propagate focus to non-edge image portions, for single image focus editing. While their approach produces accurate dense blur maps, the computational complexity and memory requirements for solving the resulting sparse linear system with standard multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques, are infeasible within the stringent requirements of the consumer electronics and broadcast industry. In this paper we propose fast, efficient, low latency, line scanning based focus propagation, which mitigates the need for complex multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques. In addition we propose facial blur compensation to compensate for false shading edges that cause incorrect blur estimates in people's faces. In general shading leads to incorrect focus estimates, which may lead to unnatural 3D and visual discomfort. Since visual attention mostly tends to faces, our solution solves the most distracting errors. A subjective assessment by paired comparison on a set of challenging low-depth-of-field images shows that the proposed approach achieves equal 3D image quality as optimization based approaches, and that facial blur compensation results in a significant improvement.

  19. Pore detection in Computed Tomography (CT) soil 3D images using singularity map analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotoca, Juan J. Martin; Tarquis, Ana M.; Saa Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan B.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images have significantly helped the study of the internal soil structure. This technique has two main advantages: 1) it is a non-invasive technique, i.e., it doesńt modify the internal soil structure, and 2) it provides a good resolution. The major disadvantage is that these images are sometimes low-contrast in the solid/pore interface. One of the main problems in analyzing soil structure through CT images is to segment them in solid/pore space. To do so, we have different segmentation techniques at our disposal that are mainly based on thresholding methods in which global or local thresholds are calculated to separate pore space from solid space. The aim of this presentation is to develop the fractal approach to soil structure using "singularity maps" and the "Concentration-Area (CA) method". We will establish an analogy between mineralization processes in ore deposits and morphogenesis processes in soils. Resulting from this analogy a new 3D segmentation method is proposed, the "3D Singularity-CA" method. A comparison with traditional 3D segmentation methods will be performed to show the main differences among them.

  20. A Novel 2D-to-3D Video Conversion Method Using Time-Coherent Depth Maps

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shouyi; Dong, Hao; Jiang, Guangli; Liu, Leibo; Wei, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel 2D-to-3D video conversion method for 3D entertainment applications. 3D entertainment is getting more and more popular and can be found in many contexts, such as TV and home gaming equipment. 3D image sensors are a new method to produce stereoscopic video content conveniently and at a low cost, and can thus meet the urgent demand for 3D videos in the 3D entertaiment market. Generally, 2D image sensor and 2D-to-3D conversion chip can compose a 3D image sensor. Our study presents a novel 2D-to-3D video conversion algorithm which can be adopted in a 3D image sensor. In our algorithm, a depth map is generated by combining global depth gradient and local depth refinement for each frame of 2D video input. Global depth gradient is computed according to image type while local depth refinement is related to color information. As input 2D video content consists of a number of video shots, the proposed algorithm reuses the global depth gradient of frames within the same video shot to generate time-coherent depth maps. The experimental results prove that this novel method can adapt to different image types, reduce computational complexity and improve the temporal smoothness of generated 3D video. PMID:26131674

  1. Identifying secondary structures in proteins using NMR chemical shift 3D correlation maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Amrita; Dorai, Kavita

    2013-06-01

    NMR chemical shifts are accurate indicators of molecular environment and have been extensively used as aids in protein structure determination. This work focuses on creating empirical 3D correlation maps of backbone chemical shift nuclei for use as identifiers of secondary structure elements in proteins. A correlated database of backbone nuclei chemical shifts was constructed from experimental structural data gathered from entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) as well as isotropic chemical shift values from the RefDB database. Rigorous statistical analysis of the maps led to the conclusion that specific correlations between triplets of backbone chemical shifts are best able to differentiate between different secondary structures such as α-helices, β-strands and turns. The method is compared with similar techniques that use NMR chemical shift information as aids in biomolecular structure determination and performs well in tests done on experimental data determined for different types of proteins, including large multi-domain proteins and membrane proteins.

  2. Structured light 3D depth map enhancement and gesture recognition using image content adaptive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Atanassov, Kalin; Goma, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    A structured-light system for depth estimation is a type of 3D active sensor that consists of a structured-light projector that projects an illumination pattern on the scene (e.g. mask with vertical stripes) and a camera which captures the illuminated scene. Based on the received patterns, depths of different regions in the scene can be inferred. In this paper, we use side information in the form of image structure to enhance the depth map. This side information is obtained from the received light pattern image reflected by the scene itself. The processing steps run real time. This post-processing stage in the form of depth map enhancement can be used for better hand gesture recognition, as is illustrated in this paper.

  3. Mapping 3D Large-Scale Structure at z ˜2 with Lyman-α Forest Tomographic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, J. F.; White, M.; Croft, R. A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Schlegel, D. J.; Suzuki, N.; Kneib, J.; Bailey, S. J.; Spergel, D. N.; Rix, H.; Strauss, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lyman-α (Lyα) forest absorption at z>2 traces the underlying dark-matter distribution, and with a sufficient density of background sightlines can be used to create 3D tomographic maps of large-scale structure. Since the useful Lyα forest in each sightline spans ˜400-500 h-1Mpc, Lyα forest tomography can efficiently map out large-scale structure at z˜2. The Cosmic Lyman-Alpha Program for the Tomographic Reconstruction of Absorption Probes (CLAPTRAP) will be the first survey to attempt this technique. We aim to obtain spectra for a background grid of faint quasars and bright LBGs at 23D map with similar 3 h-1Mpc resolution to be reconstructed from the data. In a recent paper, we have found that spectra with S/N ˜ 4 per Å are sufficient to make excellent-quality tomographic maps that clearly trace the underlying dark-matter distribution at overdensities of order unity. This requires integrations of several hours on moderate-resolution spectrographs mounted on existing 8-10m telescopes, such as LRIS on the Keck-I telescope and VIMOS on the Very Large Telescopes. We aim to observe ˜1500-2000 background sources over 1 sq deg of the COSMOS field with Lyα forest coverage over 2.0map out a total comoving volume of ˜106h-3Mpc3, equivalent to the zCOSMOS and DEEP2 galaxy redshift maps out to z˜1. The total time requirement is 16 nights on either VLT-VIMOS or Keck-LRIS. The resulting tomographic maps will be the first 3D maps of large-scale structure at z>1. In conjunction with the rich multi-wavelength data from the COSMOS survey, these maps will facilitate the study of galaxies in the context of the large-scale environment, reveal the topology of large-scale structure at high-redshifts, and allow the direct detection of galaxy protoclusters at the intersections of the cosmic web. The

  4. Mass Movement Susceptibility in the Western San Juan Mountains, Colorado: A Preliminary 3-D Mapping Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, K. A.; Giardino, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Mass movement is a major activity that impacts lives of humans and their infrastructure. Human activity in steep, mountainous regions is especially at risk to this potential hazard. Thus, the identification and quantification of risk by mapping and determining mass movement susceptibility are fundamental in protecting lives, resources and ensuring proper land use regulation and planning. Specific mass-movement processes including debris flows, rock falls, snow avalanches and landslides continuously modify the landscape of the San Juan Mountains. Historically, large-magnitude slope failures have repeatedly occurred in the region. Common triggers include intense, long-duration precipitation, freeze-thaw processes, human activity and various volcanic lithologies overlying weaker sedimentary formations. Predicting mass movement is challenging because of its episodic and spatially, discontinuous occurrence. Landslides in mountain terrain are characterized as widespread, highly mobile and have a long duration of activity. We developed a 3-D model for landslide susceptibility using Geographic Information Systems Technology (GIST). The study area encompasses eight USGS quadrangles: Ridgway, Dallas, Mount Sneffels, Ouray, Telluride, Ironton, Ophir and Silverton. Fieldwork consisted of field reconnaissance mapping at 1:5,000 focusing on surficial geomorphology. Field mapping was used to identify potential locations, which then received additional onsite investigation and photographic documentation of features indicative of slope failure. A GIS module was created using seven terrain spatial databases: geology, surficial geomorphology (digitized), slope aspect, slope angle, vegetation, soils and distance to infrastructure to map risk. The GIS database will help determine risk zonation for the study area. Correlations between terrain parameters leading to slope failure were determined through the GIS module. This 3-D model will provide a spatial perspective of the landscape to

  5. Design and implementation of three-dimension texture mapping algorithm for panoramic system based on smart platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi; Zhou, Baotong; Zhang, Changnian

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle-mounted panoramic system is important safety assistant equipment for driving. However, traditional systems only render fixed top-down perspective view of limited view field, which may have potential safety hazard. In this paper, a texture mapping algorithm for 3D vehicle-mounted panoramic system is introduced, and an implementation of the algorithm utilizing OpenGL ES library based on Android smart platform is presented. Initial experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can render a good 3D panorama, and has the ability to change view point freely.

  6. Evaluation Model for Pavement Surface Distress on 3d Point Clouds from Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pavement surface distress for maintenance planning of road pavement using 3D point clouds from Mobile Mapping System (MMS). The issue on maintenance planning of road pavement requires scheduled rehabilitation activities for damaged pavement sections to keep high level of services. The importance of this performance-based infrastructure asset management on actual inspection data is globally recognized. Inspection methodology of road pavement surface, a semi-automatic measurement system utilizing inspection vehicles for measuring surface deterioration indexes, such as cracking, rutting and IRI, have already been introduced and capable of continuously archiving the pavement performance data. However, any scheduled inspection using automatic measurement vehicle needs much cost according to the instruments' specification or inspection interval. Therefore, implementation of road maintenance work, especially for the local government, is difficult considering costeffectiveness. Based on this background, in this research, the methodologies for a simplified evaluation for pavement surface and assessment of damaged pavement section are proposed using 3D point clouds data to build urban 3D modelling. The simplified evaluation results of road surface were able to provide useful information for road administrator to find out the pavement section for a detailed examination and for an immediate repair work. In particular, the regularity of enumeration of 3D point clouds was evaluated using Chow-test and F-test model by extracting the section where the structural change of a coordinate value was remarkably achieved. Finally, the validity of the current methodology was investigated by conducting a case study dealing with the actual inspection data of the local roads.

  7. [3D display of sequential 2D medical images].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yisong; Chen, Yazhu

    2003-12-01

    A detailed review is given in this paper on various current 3D display methods for sequential 2D medical images and the new development in 3D medical image display. True 3D display, surface rendering, volume rendering, 3D texture mapping and distributed collaborative rendering are discussed in depth. For two kinds of medical applications: Real-time navigation system and high-fidelity diagnosis in computer aided surgery, different 3D display methods are presented.

  8. A 3D endoscopy reconstruction as a saliency map for analysis of polyp shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Josue; Martínez, Fabio; Gómez, Martín.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    A first diagnosis of colorectal cancer is performed by examination of polyp shape and appearance during an endoscopy routine procedure. However, the video-endoscopy is highly noisy because exacerbated physiological conditions like increased motility or secretion may limit the visual analysis of lesions. In this work a 3D reconstruction of the digestive tract is proposed, facilitating the polyp shape evaluation by highlighting its surface geometry and allowing an analysis from different perspectives. The method starts by a spatio-temporal map, constructed to group the different regions of the tract by their similar dynamic patterns during the sequence. Then, such map was convolved with a second derivative of a Gaussian kernel that emulates the camera distortion and allows to highlight the polyp surface. The position initialization in each frame of the kernel was computed from expert manual delineation and propagated along the sequence based on. Results show reliable reconstructions, with a salient 3D polyp structure that can then be better observed.

  9. Multi-layer 3D imaging using a few viewpoint images and depth map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suginohara, Hidetsugu; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method that makes multi-layer images from a few viewpoint images to display a 3D image by the autostereoscopic display that has multiple display screens in the depth direction. We iterate simple "Shift and Subtraction" processes to make each layer image alternately. The image made in accordance with depth map like a volume slicing by gradations is used as the initial solution of iteration process. Through the experiments using the prototype stacked two LCDs, we confirmed that it was enough to make multi-layer images from three viewpoint images to display a 3D image. Limiting the number of viewpoint images, the viewing area that allows stereoscopic view becomes narrow. To broaden the viewing area, we track the head motion of the viewer and update screen images in real time so that the viewer can maintain correct stereoscopic view within +/- 20 degrees area. In addition, we render pseudo multiple viewpoint images using depth map, then we can generate motion parallax at the same time.

  10. New 3D seismicity maps using chromo-stereoscopy with two alternative freewares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Seismicity maps play a key role in an introduction of geosciences studies or outreach programs. Various techniques are used in order to show earthquakes in a three dimensional field. To use "chromo-stereoscopy" is our simple and easier-making solution. The Chroma Depth 3D Glasses are employed for this purpose. The glasses consist of two transparent blazed grating films covered with a paper holder and cost a little (1 US$). Looking through these glasses, the colored chart turns into three dimensional perspective due to the mechanism that the color codes make a depth dimension with dispersion. We use two complementary freewares to make maps, the GMT (Generic Mapping Tools, Wessel and Smith.1988) and the POV-Ray (Persistence of Vision Pty. Ltd. 2004). The two softwares have their own advantages; the GMT is specialized for map making with simple scripts, while the POV-Ray produces realistic 3D rendering images with more complicated scripts. The earthquakes are plotted with the rainbow color codes depending on their depths in a black background as printed or PC images. Therefore, the red colored shallow earthquakes are float in front and blue colored ones sink deeper. This effect is so amazing that the students who first wear these glasses are strongly moved and fascinated with this simple mechanism. The data used here are from JMA seismicity catalogue and USGS (ANSS) catalogue. The POV-Ray version needs coastline data, so we got them from the Coastline Extractor (NGDC) web site. Also, the POR-Ray has no function to draw lines in three dimensions, so we had to make some trials for showing them in relief. The main target of our map is "the Wadati-Beniof zone", in which the sub-ducting oceanic plate surface is fringed by deeper earthquakes colored yellow, green to blue. The active volcanic regions such as the Hawaii islands or the active fault regions such as the San Andreas Fault are also effective targets of our method. However, since their shallow complicated seismic

  11. R2OBBIE-3D, a Fast Robotic High-Resolution System for Quantitative Phenotyping of Surface Geometry and Colour-Texture

    PubMed Central

    Manukyan, Liana; Milinkovitch, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    While recent imaging techniques provide insights into biological processes from the molecular to the cellular scale, phenotypes at larger scales remain poorly amenable to quantitative analyses. For example, investigations of the biophysical mechanisms generating skin morphological complexity and diversity would greatly benefit from 3D geometry and colour-texture reconstructions. Here, we report on R2OBBIE-3D, an integrated system that combines a robotic arm, a high-resolution digital colour camera, an illumination basket of high-intensity light-emitting diodes and state-of-the-art 3D-reconstruction approaches. We demonstrate that R2OBBIE generates accurate 3D models of biological objects between 1 and 100 cm, makes multiview photometric stereo scanning possible in practical processing times, and enables the capture of colour-texture and geometric resolutions better than 15 μm without the use of magnifying lenses. R2OBBIE has the potential to greatly improve quantitative analyses of phenotypes in addition to providing multiple new applications in, e.g., biomedical science. PMID:26039509

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-D texture analysis of lung parenchyma is better than 2-D for discrimination of lung pathology in stage 0 COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Sonka, Milan; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Lung parenchyma evaluation via multidetector-row CT (MDCT), has significantly altered clinical practice in the early detection of lung disease. Our goal is to enhance our texture-based tissue classification ability to differentiate early pathologic processes by extending our 2-D Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) to 3-D AMFM. We performed MDCT on 34 human volunteers in five categories: emphysema in severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as EC, emphysema in mild COPD (MC), normal appearing lung in COPD (NC), non-smokers with normal lung function (NN), smokers with normal function (NS). We volumetrically excluded the airway and vessel regions, calculated 24 volumetric texture features for each Volume of Interest (VOI); and used Bayesian rules for discrimination. Leave-one-out and half-half methods were used for testing. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the four-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: EC: 84.9%/70.7%, MC: 89.8%/82.7%; NC: 87.5.0%/49.6%; NN: 100.0%/60.0%. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the two-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: NN: 99.3%/71.6%; NS: 99.7%/74.5%. We conclude that 3-D AMFM analysis of the lung parenchyma improves discrimination compared to 2-D analysis of the same images.

  13. Re-Dimensional Thinking in Earth Science: From 3-D Virtual Reality Panoramas to 2-D Contour Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John; Carter, Glenda; Butler, Susan; Slykhuis, David; Reid-Griffin, Angelia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of gender and spatial perception on student interactivity with contour maps and non-immersive virtual reality. Eighteen eighth-grade students elected to participate in a six-week activity-based course called "3-D GeoMapping." The course included nine days of activities related to topographic mapping.…

  14. Combination of 3D skin surface texture features and 2D ABCD features for improved melanoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; John, Nigel W; Smith, Lyndon; Sun, Jiuai; Smith, Melvyn

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetry, border irregularity, colour variegation and diameter (ABCD) features are important indicators currently used for computer-assisted diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM); however, they often prove to be insufficient to make a convincing diagnosis. Previous work has demonstrated that 3D skin surface normal features in the form of tilt and slant pattern disruptions are promising new features independent from the existing 2D ABCD features. This work investigates that whether improved lesion classification can be achieved by combining the 3D features with the 2D ABCD features. Experiments using a nonlinear support vector machine classifier show that many combinations of the 2D ABCD features and the 3D features can give substantially better classification accuracy than using (1) single features and (2) many combinations of the 2D ABCD features. The best 2D and 3D feature combination includes the overall 3D skin surface disruption, the asymmetry and all the three colour channel features. It gives an overall 87.8 % successful classification, which is better than the best single feature with 78.0 % and the best 2D feature combination with 83.1 %. These demonstrate that (1) the 3D features have additive values to improve the existing lesion classification and (2) combining the 3D feature with all the 2D features does not lead to the best lesion classification. The two ABCD features not selected by the best 2D and 3D combination, namely (1) the border feature and (2) the diameter feature, were also studied in separate experiments. It found that inclusion of either feature in the 2D and 3D combination can successfully classify 3 out of 4 lesion groups. The only one group not accurately classified by either feature can be classified satisfactorily by the other. In both cases, they have shown better classification performances than those without the 3D feature in the combinations. This further demonstrates that (1) the 3D feature can be used to

  15. SU-F-BRB-05: Collision Avoidance Mapping Using Consumer 3D Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Cardan, R; Popple, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a fast and economical method of scanning a patient’s full body contour for use in collision avoidance mapping without the use of ionizing radiation. Methods: Two consumer level 3D cameras used in electronic gaming were placed in a CT simulator room to scan a phantom patient set up in a high collision probability position. A registration pattern and computer vision algorithms were used to transform the scan into the appropriate coordinate systems. The cameras were then used to scan the surface of a gantry in the treatment vault. Each scan was converted into a polygon mesh for collision testing in a general purpose polygon interference algorithm. All clinically relevant transforms were applied to the gantry and patient support to create a map of all possible collisions. The map was then tested for accuracy by physically testing the collisions with the phantom in the vault. Results: The scanning fidelity of both the gantry and patient was sufficient to produce a collision prediction accuracy of 97.1% with 64620 geometry states tested in 11.5 s. The total scanning time including computation, transformation, and generation was 22.3 seconds. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate an economical system to generate collision avoidance maps. Future work includes testing the speed of the framework in real-time collision avoidance scenarios. Research partially supported by a grant from Varian Medical Systems.

  16. Indoor Localization Algorithms for an Ambulatory Human Operated 3D Mobile Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Corso, N; Zakhor, A

    2013-12-03

    Indoor localization and mapping is an important problem with many applications such as emergency response, architectural modeling, and historical preservation. In this paper, we develop an automatic, off-line pipeline for metrically accurate, GPS-denied, indoor 3D mobile mapping using a human-mounted backpack system consisting of a variety of sensors. There are three novel contributions in our proposed mapping approach. First, we present an algorithm which automatically detects loop closure constraints from an occupancy grid map. In doing so, we ensure that constraints are detected only in locations that are well conditioned for scan matching. Secondly, we address the problem of scan matching with poor initial condition by presenting an outlier-resistant, genetic scan matching algorithm that accurately matches scans despite a poor initial condition. Third, we present two metrics based on the amount and complexity of overlapping geometry in order to vet the estimated loop closure constraints. By doing so, we automatically prevent erroneous loop closures from degrading the accuracy of the reconstructed trajectory. The proposed algorithms are experimentally verified using both controlled and real-world data. The end-to-end system performance is evaluated using 100 surveyed control points in an office environment and obtains a mean accuracy of 10 cm. Experimental results are also shown on three additional datasets from real world environments including a 1500 meter trajectory in a warehouse sized retail shopping center.

  17. Texture

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.

    2005-01-03

    The chapter focuses on the quantitative aspect of soil texture, the classification of size separates, methods for obtaining particle-size distributions, textural classifications, and how quantitative textural information can be used to estimate other soil properties.

  18. 3D viscosity maps for Greenland and effect on GRACE mass balance estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Xu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The GRACE satellite mission measures mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. To correct for glacial isostatic adjustment numerical models are used. Although generally found to be a small signal, the full range of possible GIA models has not been explored yet. In particular, low viscosities due to a wet mantle and high temperatures due to the nearby Iceland hotspot could have a significant effect on GIA gravity rates. The goal of this study is to present a range of possible viscosity maps, and investigate the effect on GRACE mass balance estimates. Viscosity is derived using flow laws for olivine. Mantle temperature is computed from global seismology models, based on temperature derivatives for different mantle compositions. An indication for grain sizes is obtained by xenolith findings at a few locations. We also investigate the weakening effect of the presence of melt. To calculate gravity rates, we use a finite-element GIA model with the 3D viscosity maps and the ICE-5G loading history. GRACE mass balances for mascons in Greenland are derived with a least-squares inversion, using separate constraints for the inland and coastal areas in Greenland. Biases in the least-squares inversion are corrected using scale factors estimated from a simulation based on a surface mass balance model (Xu et al., submitted to The Cryosphere). Model results show enhanced gravity rates in the west and south of Greenland with 3D viscosity maps, compared to GIA models with 1D viscosity. The effect on regional mass balance is up to 5 Gt/year. Regional low viscosity can make present-day gravity rates sensitivity to ice thickness changes in the last decades. Therefore, an improved ice loading history for these time scales is needed.

  19. 2D/3D registration for X-ray guided bronchoscopy using distance map classification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Xu, Sheng; Herzka, Daniel A; Yung, Rex C; Bergtholdt, Martin; Gutierrez, Luis F; McVeigh, Elliot R

    2010-01-01

    In X-ray guided bronchoscopy of peripheral pulmonary lesions, airways and nodules are hardly visible in X-ray images. Transbronchial biopsy of peripheral lesions is often carried out blindly, resulting in degraded diagnostic yield. One solution of this problem is to superimpose the lesions and airways segmented from preoperative 3D CT images onto 2D X-ray images. A feature-based 2D/3D registration method is proposed for the image fusion between the datasets of the two imaging modalities. Two stereo X-ray images are used in the algorithm to improve the accuracy and robustness of the registration. The algorithm extracts the edge features of the bony structures from both CT and X-ray images. The edge points from the X-ray images are categorized into eight groups based on the orientation information of their image gradients. An orientation dependent Euclidean distance map is generated for each group of X-ray feature points. The distance map is then applied to the edge points of the projected CT images whose gradient orientations are compatible with the distance map. The CT and X-ray images are registered by matching the boundaries of the projected CT segmentations to the closest edges of the X-ray images after the orientation constraint is satisfied. Phantom and clinical studies were carried out to validate the algorithm's performance, showing a registration accuracy of 4.19(± 0.5) mm with 48.39(± 9.6) seconds registration time. The algorithm was also evaluated on clinical data, showing promising registration accuracy and robustness.

  20. B1-insensitive T2 mapping of healthy thigh muscles using a T2-prepared 3D TSE sequence

    PubMed Central

    Klupp, Elisabeth; Weidlich, Dominik; Schlaeger, Sarah; Baum, Thomas; Cervantes, Barbara; Deschauer, Marcus; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To propose a T2-prepared 3D turbo spin echo (T2prep 3D TSE) sequence for B1-insensitive skeletal muscle T2 mapping and compare its performance with 2D and 3D multi-echo spin echo (MESE) for T2 mapping in thigh muscles of healthy subjects. Methods The performance of 2D MESE, 3D MESE and the proposed T2prep 3D TSE in the presence of transmit B1 and B0 inhomogeneities was first simulated. The thigh muscles of ten young and healthy subjects were then scanned on a 3 T system and T2 mapping was performed using the three sequences. Transmit B1-maps and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) maps were also acquired. The subjects were scanned three times to assess reproducibility. T2 values were compared among sequences and their sensitivity to B1 inhomogeneities was compared to simulation results. Correlations were also determined between T2 values, PDFF and B1. Results The left rectus femoris muscle showed the largest B1 deviations from the nominal value (from 54.2% to 92.9%). Significant negative correlations between T2 values and B1 values were found in the left rectus femoris muscle for 3D MESE (r = -0.72, p<0.001) and 2D MESE (r = -0.71, p<0.001), but not for T2prep 3D TSE (r = -0.32, p = 0.09). Reproducibility of T2 expressed by root mean square coefficients of variation (RMSCVs) were equal to 3.5% in T2prep 3D TSE, 2.6% in 3D MESE and 2.4% in 2D MESE. Significant differences between T2 values of 3D sequences (T2prep 3D TSE and 3D MESE) and 2D MESE were found in all muscles with the highest values for 2D MESE (p<0.05). No significant correlations were found between PDFF and T2 values. Conclusion A strong influence of an inhomogeneous B1 field on the T2 values of 3D MESE and 2D MESE was shown, whereas the proposed T2prep 3D TSE gives B1-insensitive and reproducible thigh muscle T2 mapping. PMID:28196133

  1. Non-destructive mapping of grain orientations in 3D by laboratory X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, S. A.; Reischig, P.; Holzner, C.; Lauridsen, E. M.; Withers, P. J.; Merkle, A. P.; Feser, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterise crystallographic microstructure, non-destructively and in three-dimensions, is a powerful tool for understanding many aspects related to damage and deformation mechanisms in polycrystalline materials. To this end, the technique of X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) using monochromatic synchrotron and polychromatic laboratory X-ray sources has been shown to be capable of mapping crystal grains and their orientations non-destructively in 3D. Here we describe a novel laboratory-based X-ray DCT modality (LabDCT), enabling the wider accessibility of the DCT technique for routine use and in-depth studies of, for example, temporal changes in crystallographic grain structure non-destructively over time through ‘4D’ in situ time-lapse studies. The capability of the technique is demonstrated by studying a titanium alloy (Ti-β21S) sample. In the current implementation the smallest grains that can be reliably detected are around 40 μm. The individual grain locations and orientations are reconstructed using the LabDCT method and the results are validated against independent measurements from phase contrast tomography and electron backscatter diffraction respectively. Application of the technique promises to provide important insights related to the roles of recrystallization and grain growth on materials properties as well as supporting 3D polycrystalline modelling of materials performance. PMID:26494523

  2. Mapping Nearby Terrain in 3D by Use of a Grid of Laser Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Curtis; Liebe, Carl; Chang, Johnny; Brown, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic system, to be mounted aboard an exploratory robotic vehicle, would be used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) map of nearby terrain and obstacles for purposes of navigating the vehicle across the terrain and avoiding the obstacles. The difference between this system and the other systems would lie in the details of implementation. In this system, the illumination would be provided by a laser. The beam from the laser would pass through a two-dimensional diffraction grating, which would divide the beam into multiple beams propagating in different, fixed, known directions. These beams would form a grid of bright spots on the nearby terrain and obstacles. The centroid of each bright spot in the image would be computed. For each such spot, the combination of (1) the centroid, (2) the known direction of the light beam that produced the spot, and (3) the known baseline would constitute sufficient information for calculating the 3D position of the spot.

  3. GPR data processing for 3D fracture mapping in a marble quarry (Thassos, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, G.; Gourry, J. C.

    1996-11-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been successfully applied to detect and map fractures in marble quarries. The aim was to distinguish quickly intact marketable marble areas from fractured ones in order to improve quarry management. The GPR profiling method was chosen because it is non destructive and quickly provides a detailed image of the subsurface. It was performed in domains corresponding to future working areas in real quarry-exploitation conditions. Field surveying and data processing were adapted to the local characteristics of the fractures: E-W orientation, sub-vertical dip, and karst features. After the GPR profiles had been processed, using methods adapted from seismics (amplitude compensation, filtering and Fourier migration), the interpreted fractures from a 12 × 24 × 15 m zone were incorporated into a 3D model. Due to the low electrical conductivity of the marble, GPR provides penetration depths of about 8 and 15 m, and resolutions of about 1 and 5 cm for frequencies of 900 and 300 MHz respectively. The detection power thus seems to be sufficient to recommend use of this method. As requested by the quarriers, the 3D representation can be used directly by themselves to locate high- or low-quality marble areas. Comparison between the observed surface fractures and the fractures detected using GPR showed reasonable correlation.

  4. 3D mapping of nanoscale electric potentials in semiconductor structures using electron-holographic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Daniel; Lubk, Axel; Prete, Paola; Lovergine, Nico; Lichte, Hannes

    2016-09-01

    Off-axis electron holography (EH) is a powerful method for mapping projected electric potentials, such as built-in potentials in semiconductor devices, in two dimensions (2D) at nanometer resolution. However, not well-defined thickness profiles, surface effects, and composition changes of the sample under investigation complicate the interpretation of the projected potentials. Here, we demonstrate how these problems can be overcome by combining EH with tomographic techniques, that is, electron holographic tomography (EHT), reconstructing electric potentials in 3D. We present EHT reconstructions of an n-type MOSFET including its dopant-related built-in potentials inside the device, as well as of a GaAs/AlGaAs core-multishell nanowire containing a 5 nm thick quantum well tube.

  5. 3D-Mapping of Dolomitized Structures in Lower Cambrian Phosphorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippler, Dorothee; Stammeier, Jessica A.; Brunner, Roland; Rosc, Jördis; Franz, Gerhard; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Dolomitization is a widespread phenomenon in ancient sedimentary rocks, particularly close to the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Dolomite can form in synsedimentary or hydrothermal environments, preferentially via the replacement of solid carbonate precursor phases. Synsedimentary dolomite formation is often associated with microbial activity, such as bacterial sulfate reduction or methanogenesis. In this study, we investigate dolomitic phosphorites from the Lowermost Cambrian Tal Group, Mussoori Syncline, Lesser Himalaya, India, using micro-CT 3D-mapping, in order to unravel the complex diagenetic history of the rocks. The selected sample shows alternating layering of phosphatic mudstones and sparitic dolostone, in which brecciated layers of phosphorite or phosphatic mudstones are immersed in a dolomite-rich matrix. Lamination occurs on a sub-millimetre scale, with lamination sometimes wavy to crinkly. This fabric is interpreted as former microbial mats, providing the environment for early diagenetic phosphatization. Preliminary electron backscatter imaging with scanning microscopy revealed that dolomite crystals often occur in spherical to ellipsoidal structures, typically with a high porosity. This dolomite is associated with botryoidal apatite, organic matter and small amounts of calcite. Micro-CT 3D-mappings reveal that dolomite structures are cigar-shaped, elongated and up to 600 μm long. They are further arranged in a Mikado-like oriented framework spanning a layer thickness of a few millimetres. Analyses of ambient pore space, with similar elongated outlines and filled with organic matter, suggest a potential coherence of ambient pore space and shape of the dolomite structures. Allowing for other associated mineral phases, such as pyrite and silicates, and their spatial distribution, the present approach can be used to unravel distinct diagenetic reaction pathways, and might thus constrain the proxy potential of these Lower Cambrian dolomitic phosphorites

  6. True-3D accentuating of grids and streets in urban topographic maps enhances human object location memory.

    PubMed

    Edler, Dennis; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Kuchinke, Lars; Dickmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems) or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids), provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic) displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids) and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets) in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000) further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate) and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy). It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm) significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information.

  7. True-3D Accentuating of Grids and Streets in Urban Topographic Maps Enhances Human Object Location Memory

    PubMed Central

    Edler, Dennis; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Kuchinke, Lars; Dickmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems) or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids), provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic) displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids) and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets) in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000) further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate) and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy). It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm) significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information. PMID:25679208

  8. Enabling 3D-Liver Perfusion Mapping from MR-DCE Imaging Using Distributed Computing.

    PubMed

    Leporq, Benjamin; Camarasu-Pop, Sorina; Davila-Serrano, Eduardo E; Pilleul, Frank; Beuf, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    An MR acquisition protocol and a processing method using distributed computing on the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) to allow 3D liver perfusion parametric mapping after Magnetic Resonance Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (MR-DCE) imaging are presented. Seven patients (one healthy control and six with chronic liver diseases) were prospectively enrolled after liver biopsy. MR-dynamic acquisition was continuously performed in free-breathing during two minutes after simultaneous intravascular contrast agent (MS-325 blood pool agent) injection. Hepatic capillary system was modeled by a 3-parameters one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The processing step was parallelized and executed on the EGI. It was modeled and implemented as a grid workflow using the Gwendia language and the MOTEUR workflow engine. Results showed good reproducibility in repeated processing on the grid. The results obtained from the grid were well correlated with ROI-based reference method ran locally on a personal computer. The speed-up range was 71 to 242 with an average value of 126. In conclusion, distributed computing applied to perfusion mapping brings significant speed-up to quantification step to be used for further clinical studies in a research context. Accuracy would be improved with higher image SNR accessible on the latest 3T MR systems available today.

  9. Developed Design for Humeral Head Replacement Using 3D Surface Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of dimensional and geometrical data on the humeral head replacement (HHR) objects is essential for solving the relevant designing problems in the physics of reverse engineering (RE). In this work, 2D-assessment for human humerus was performed using the computed tomography (CT) technique within the RE plan, after which the 2D images of humeral objects were converted into 3D images. The conversion was successful and indicated a clear difference in the 2D and 3D estimates of sizes and geometry of the humerus. The authors have analyzed and confirmed experimentally the statistical information on the relevant anatomical objects. The results of finite-element simulation of the compressive stresses affecting the geometry of 3D surface mapping were analyzed using SolidWorks software. For developing the biomechanical design of an HHR object suitable biomaterials were selected, and different metal-based biomaterials are discussed as applied at various loads. New methodology is presented for the size estimation of humeral head - both anatomical and artificial - in 3D-shape. A detailed interpretation is given for the results of CT D-measurements. Izmēru un ģeometrisko datu novērtējums, kas attiecas uz pleca kaula galviņas nomaiņas (PKGN) objektiem, nepieciešams, lai risinātu virkni reversīvās inženierijas (RI) problēmu. Šajā darbā cilvēka pleca kaula galviņas divdimensiju novērtējums tika veikts ar datortomogrāfijas palīdzību (RI) ietvaros, un pēc tam objekta divdimensiju attēlojums tika pārveidots trīsdimensiju. Pārveidojums bija sekmīgs, parādot pleca kaula galviņas izmēru un ģeometrijas atšķirības starp 2D un 3D novērtējumiem. Autori izanalizēja un eksperimentāli apstiprināja statistisko informāciju pēc dotā veida anatomiskiem objektiem. Saspiešanas sasprindzinājumi, kuri ietekmē trīsdimensiju virsmas attēlojuma ģeometriju, tika analizēti ar gala-elementu simulācijas metodi, lietojot programmu Solid

  10. Calculation of the nuclear material inventory in a sealed vault by 3D radiation mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Adsley, Ian; Klepikov, Alexander; Tur, Yevgeniy; Wells, David

    2013-07-01

    The paper relates to the determination of the amount of nuclear material contained in a closed, concrete lined vault at the Aktau fast breeder reactor in Kazakhstan. This material had been disposed into the vault after examination in an experimental hot cell directly above the vault. In order to comply with IAEA Safeguards requirements it was necessary to determine the total quantities of nuclear materials - enriched uranium and plutonium - that were held with Kazakhstan. Although it was possible to determine the inventory of all of the accessible nuclear material - the quantity remaining in the vault was unknown. As part of the Global Threat Reduction Programme the UK Government funded a project to determine the inventory of these nuclear materials in this vault. This involved drilling three penetrations through the concrete lined roof of the vault; this enabled the placement of lights and a camera into the vault through two penetrations; while the third penetration enabled a lightweight manipulator arm to be introduced into the vault. This was used to provide a detailed 3D mapping of the dose rate within the vault and it also enabled the collection of samples for radionuclide analysis. The deconvolution of the 3D dose rate profile within the vault enabled the determination of the gamma emitting source distribution on the floor and walls of the vault. The samples were analysed to determine the fingerprint of those radionuclides producing the gamma dose - namely {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co - to the nuclear materials. The combination of the dose rate source terms on the surfaces of the vault and the fingerprint then enabled the quantities of nuclear materials to be determined. The project was a major success and enabled the Kazakhstan Government to comply with IAEA Safeguards requirements. It also enabled the UK DECC Ministry to develop a technology of national (and international) use. Finally the technology was well received by IAEA Safeguards as an acceptable

  11. 3D mapping of airway wall thickening in asthma with MSCT: a level set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetita, Catalin; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Hartley, Ruth; Grenier, Philippe A.; Brightling, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Assessing the airway wall thickness in multi slice computed tomography (MSCT) as image marker for airway disease phenotyping such asthma and COPD is a current trend and challenge for the scientific community working in lung imaging. This paper addresses the same problem from a different point of view: considering the expected wall thickness-to-lumen-radius ratio for a normal subject as known and constant throughout the whole airway tree, the aim is to build up a 3D map of airway wall regions of larger thickness and to define an overall score able to highlight a pathological status. In this respect, the local dimension (caliber) of the previously segmented airway lumen is obtained on each point by exploiting the granulometry morphological operator. A level set function is defined based on this caliber information and on the expected wall thickness ratio, which allows obtaining a good estimate of the airway wall throughout all segmented lumen generations. Next, the vascular (or mediastinal dense tissue) contact regions are automatically detected and excluded from analysis. For the remaining airway wall border points, the real wall thickness is estimated based on the tissue density analysis in the airway radial direction; thick wall points are highlighted on a 3D representation of the airways and several quantification scores are defined. The proposed approach is fully automatic and was evaluated (proof of concept) on a patient selection coming from different databases including mild, severe asthmatics and normal cases. This preliminary evaluation confirms the discriminative power of the proposed approach regarding different phenotypes and is currently extending to larger cohorts.

  12. Hot deformation characterization of duplex low-density steel through 3D processing map development

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamadizadeh, A.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H.R.; Mehtonen, S.; Porter, D.

    2015-09-15

    The high temperature deformation behavior of duplex low-density Fe–18Mn–8Al–0.8C steel was investigated at temperatures in the range of 600–1000 °C. The primary constitutive analysis indicated that the Zener–Hollomon parameter, which represents the coupled effects of temperature and strain rate, significantly varies with the amount of deformation. Accordingly, the 3D processing maps were developed considering the effect of strain and were used to determine the safe and unsafe deformation conditions in association with the microstructural evolution. The deformation at efficiency domain I (900–1100 °C\\10{sup −} {sup 2}–10{sup −} {sup 3} s{sup −} {sup 1}) was found to be safe at different strains due to the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization in austenite. The safe efficiency domain II (700–900 °C\\1–10{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1}), which appeared at logarithmic strain of 0.4, was characterized by deformation induced ferrite formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microband formation and crack initiation at ferrite\\austenite interphases were the main causes of deformation instability at 600–800 °C\\10{sup −} {sup 2}–10{sup −} {sup 3} s{sup −} {sup 1}. The degree of instability was found to decrease by increasing the strain due to the uniformity of microbanded structure obtained at higher strains. The shear band formation at 900–1100 °C\\1–10{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1} was verified by electron backscattered diffraction. The local dynamic recrystallization of austenite and the deformation induced ferrite formation were observed within shear-banded regions as the results of flow localization. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The 3D processing map is developed for duplex low-density Fe–Mn–Al–C steel. • The efficiency domains shrink, expand or appear with increasing strain. • The occurrence of DRX and DIFF increases the power efficiency. • Crack initiation

  13. New non-Doppler remote sensing technique for 3D wind field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen'kii, Mikhail S.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Gurvich, Alexander V.

    1994-06-01

    A new approach to the statistical analysis of fluctuating, photon-limited signals that permits us to accumulate and process the lidar returns without averaging of the reflected energy fluctuations is developed. This approach requires recording the photocounts for each pulse in a series of pulses and then determining photocount statistics. Based on the semiclassical theory of photodetection and Mandel's formula, a relationship has been obtained between the time-space cross correlation function and the cross spectrum of the lidar returns and corresponding photocount statistics. It is shown that the relative uncertainties of measuring the cross correlation or the cross spectrum of the lidar returns is determined by the general number of photocounts, but not by their mean value. A fast-scanning lidar system, which is based on a new photocounting analysis approach, is described for 3D wind field mapping in the atmosphere at altitudes up to 5 km. A program for the experimental verification of the new approach is presented.

  14. Inferring functional constraints and divergence in protein families using 3D mapping of phylogenetic information

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Christian; Boucher, Yan; Roger, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis has been used to study specific questions about the structure and function of proteins for many years. Here we propose a knowledge-based framework in which the maximum likelihood rate of evolution is used to quantify the level of constraint on the identity of a site. We demonstrate that site-rate mapping on 3D structures using datasets of rhodopsin-like G-protein receptors and α- and β-tubulins provides an excellent tool for pinpointing the functional features shared between orthologous and paralogous proteins. In addition, functional divergence within protein families can be inferred by examining the differences in the site rates, the differences in the chemical properties of the side chains or amino acid usage between aligned sites. Two novel analytical methods are introduced to characterize rate- independent functional divergence. These are tested using a dataset of two classes of HMG-CoA reductases for which only one class can perform both the forward and reverse reaction. We show that functionally divergent sites occur in a cluster of sites interacting with the catalytic residues and that this information should facilitate the design of experimental strategies to directly test functional properties of residues. PMID:12527789

  15. Inferring functional constraints and divergence in protein families using 3D mapping of phylogenetic information.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Christian; Boucher, Yan; Roger, Andrew J

    2003-01-15

    Comparative sequence analysis has been used to study specific questions about the structure and function of proteins for many years. Here we propose a knowledge-based framework in which the maximum likelihood rate of evolution is used to quantify the level of constraint on the identity of a site. We demonstrate that site-rate mapping on 3D structures using datasets of rhodopsin-like G-protein receptors and alpha- and beta-tubulins provides an excellent tool for pinpointing the functional features shared between orthologous and paralogous proteins. In addition, functional divergence within protein families can be inferred by examining the differences in the site rates, the differences in the chemical properties of the side chains or amino acid usage between aligned sites. Two novel analytical methods are introduced to characterize rate- independent functional divergence. These are tested using a dataset of two classes of HMG-CoA reductases for which only one class can perform both the forward and reverse reaction. We show that functionally divergent sites occur in a cluster of sites interacting with the catalytic residues and that this information should facilitate the design of experimental strategies to directly test functional properties of residues.

  16. 3-D modeling useful tool for planning. [mapping groundwater and soil pollution and subsurface features

    SciTech Connect

    Calmbacher, C.W. )

    1992-12-01

    Visualizing and delineating subsurface geological features, groundwater contaminant plumes, soil contamination, geological faults, shears and other features can prove invaluable to environmental consultants, engineers, geologists and hydrogeologists. Three-dimensional modeling is useful for a variety of applications from planning remediation to site planning design. The problem often is figuring out how to convert drilling logs, map lists or contaminant levels from soil and groundwater into a 3-D model. Three-dimensional subsurface modeling is not a new requirement, but a flexible, easily applied method of developing such models has not always been readily available. LYNX Geosystems Inc. has developed the Geoscience Modeling System (GMS) in answer to the needs of those regularly having to do three-dimensional geostatistical modeling. The GMS program has been designed to allow analysis, interpretation and visualization of complex geological features and soil and groundwater contamination. This is a powerful program driven by a 30 volume modeling technology engine. Data can be entered, stored, manipulated and analyzed in ways that will present very few limitations to the user. The program has selections for Geoscience Data Management, Geoscience Data Analysis, Geological Modeling (interpretation and analysis), Geostatistical Modeling and an optional engineering component.

  17. Euro-Maps 3D- A Transnational, High-Resolution Digital Surface Model For Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttenthaler, A.; Barner, F.; Hass, T.; Makiola, J.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.; Carl, S.; Steiner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Euro-Maps 3D is a homogeneous 5 m spaced digital surface model (DSM) semi-automatically derived by Euromap from 2.5 m in-flight stereo data provided by the Indian IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 satellite. This new and innovative product has been developed in close co- operation with the Remote Sensing Technology Institute (IMF) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and is being jointly exploited. The very detailed and accurate representation of the surface is achieved by using a sophisticated and well adapted algorithm implemented on the basis of the Semi-Global Matching approach. In addition, the final product includes detailed flanking information consisting of several pixel-based quality and traceability layers also including an ortho layer. The product is believed to provide maximum accuracy and transparency. The DSM product meets and exceeds HRE80 qualification standards. The DSM product will be made available transnational in a homogeneous quality for most parts of Europe, North Africa and Turkey by Euromap step-by-step. Other areas around the world are processed on demand.

  18. 3-D pain drawings and seating pressure maps: relationships and challenges.

    PubMed

    Spyridonis, Fotios; Ghinea, Gheorghita

    2011-05-01

    Mobility impaired people constitute a significant portion of the adult population, which often experience back pain at some point during their lifetime. Such pain is usually characterized by severe implications reflected on both their personal lives, as well as on a country's health and economic systems. The traditional 2-D representations of the human body often used can be limited in their ability to efficiently visualize such pain for diagnosis purposes. Yet, patients have been shown to prefer such drawings. However, considering that pain is a feeling or emotion that is subjective in nature, the pain drawings could be consequently regarded as a subjective means of communicating such pain. As a result, the study described in this paper proposes an alternative, which encompasses a 3-D pain visualization solution, developed in a previous work of ours. This alternative is complemented with the upcoming technique of pressure mapping for more objectivity in the pain data collection. The results of this study have shown that the proposed approach is a promising solution for the purpose intended, and it could generally prove to be a significant complementary method in the area of medical practice for the mobility impaired community.

  19. 3D mapping of the dense interstellar gas around the Local Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallement, R.; Welsh, B. Y.; Vergely, J. L.; Crifo, F.; Sfeir, D.

    2003-12-01

    We present intermediate results from a long-term program of mapping the neutral absorption characteristics of the local interstellar medium, motivated by the availability of accurate and consistent parallaxes from the Hipparcos satellite. Equivalent widths of the interstellar NaI D-line doublet at 5890 Å are presented for the lines-of-sight towards some 311 new target stars lying within ~ 350 pc of the Sun. Using these data, together with NaI absorption measurements towards a further ~ 240 nearby targets published in the literature (for many of them, in the directions of molecular clouds), and the ~ 450 lines-of-sight already presented by (Sfeir et al. \\cite{sfeir99}), we show 3D absorption maps of the local distribution of neutral gas towards 1005 sight-lines with Hipparcos distances as viewed from a variety of different galactic projections. The data are synthesized by means of two complementary methods, (i) by mapping of iso-equivalent width contours, and (ii) by density distribution calculation from the inversion of column-densities, a method devised by Vergely et al. (\\cite{vergely01}). Our present data confirms the view that the local cavity is deficient in cold and neutral interstellar gas. The closest dense and cold gas ``wall'', in the first quadrant, is at ~ 55-60 pc. There are a few isolated clouds at closer distance, if the detected absorption is not produced by circumstellar material. The maps reveal narrow or wide ``interstellar tunnels'' which connect the Local Bubble to surrounding cavities, as predicted by the model of Cox & Smith (1974). In particular, one of these tunnels, defined by stars at 300 to 600 pc from the Sun showing negligible sodium absorption, connects the well known CMa void (Gry et al. \\cite{gry85}), which is part of the Local Bubble, with the supershell GSH 238+00+09 (Heiles \\cite{heiles98}). High latitude lines-of-sight with the smallest absorption are found in two ``chimneys'', whose directions are perpendicular to the

  20. Flow visualization using moving textures

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Becker, B.

    1995-04-01

    An intuitive way to visualize a flow is to watch particles or textures move in the flow. In this paper, the authors show how texture mapping hardware can produce near-real-time texture motion, using a polygon grid, and one fixed texture. However, the authors make no attempt to indicate the flow direction in a still frame. As discussed here, any anisotropic stretching comes from the velocity gradient, not the velocity itself. The basic idea is to advect the texture by the flow field. In a cited paper, they gave an indication of the wind velocity by advecting the 3D texture coordinates on the polygon vertices of a cloudiness contour surface in a climate simulation. This was slow, because the 3D texture was rendered in software, and because advecting the texture was difficult for time-varying flows. In this paper, they replace the 3D textures by 2D texture maps compatible with hardware rendering, and give techniques for handling time-varying flows more efficiently. The next section gives their technique for the case of 2D steady flows, and the following one discusses the problems of texture distortion. Then they discuss the problems with extending method to time-varying flows, and two solutions. Next they develop compositing methods for visualizing 3D flows. The final section gives their results and conclusions.

  1. Enhanced RGB-D Mapping Method for Detailed 3D Indoor and Outdoor Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shengjun; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Wu; Darwish, Walid; Wu, Bo; Hu, Han; Chen, Min

    2016-01-01

    RGB-D sensors (sensors with RGB camera and Depth camera) are novel sensing systems that capture RGB images along with pixel-wise depth information. Although they are widely used in various applications, RGB-D sensors have significant drawbacks including limited measurement ranges (e.g., within 3 m) and errors in depth measurement increase with distance from the sensor with respect to 3D dense mapping. In this paper, we present a novel approach to geometrically integrate the depth scene and RGB scene to enlarge the measurement distance of RGB-D sensors and enrich the details of model generated from depth images. First, precise calibration for RGB-D Sensors is introduced. In addition to the calibration of internal and external parameters for both, IR camera and RGB camera, the relative pose between RGB camera and IR camera is also calibrated. Second, to ensure poses accuracy of RGB images, a refined false features matches rejection method is introduced by combining the depth information and initial camera poses between frames of the RGB-D sensor. Then, a global optimization model is used to improve the accuracy of the camera pose, decreasing the inconsistencies between the depth frames in advance. In order to eliminate the geometric inconsistencies between RGB scene and depth scene, the scale ambiguity problem encountered during the pose estimation with RGB image sequences can be resolved by integrating the depth and visual information and a robust rigid-transformation recovery method is developed to register RGB scene to depth scene. The benefit of the proposed joint optimization method is firstly evaluated with the publicly available benchmark datasets collected with Kinect. Then, the proposed method is examined by tests with two sets of datasets collected in both outside and inside environments. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:27690028

  2. Enhanced RGB-D Mapping Method for Detailed 3D Indoor and Outdoor Modeling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shengjun; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Wu; Darwish, Walid; Wu, Bo; Hu, Han; Chen, Min

    2016-09-27

    RGB-D sensors (sensors with RGB camera and Depth camera) are novel sensing systems that capture RGB images along with pixel-wise depth information. Although they are widely used in various applications, RGB-D sensors have significant drawbacks including limited measurement ranges (e.g., within 3 m) and errors in depth measurement increase with distance from the sensor with respect to 3D dense mapping. In this paper, we present a novel approach to geometrically integrate the depth scene and RGB scene to enlarge the measurement distance of RGB-D sensors and enrich the details of model generated from depth images. First, precise calibration for RGB-D Sensors is introduced. In addition to the calibration of internal and external parameters for both, IR camera and RGB camera, the relative pose between RGB camera and IR camera is also calibrated. Second, to ensure poses accuracy of RGB images, a refined false features matches rejection method is introduced by combining the depth information and initial camera poses between frames of the RGB-D sensor. Then, a global optimization model is used to improve the accuracy of the camera pose, decreasing the inconsistencies between the depth frames in advance. In order to eliminate the geometric inconsistencies between RGB scene and depth scene, the scale ambiguity problem encountered during the pose estimation with RGB image sequences can be resolved by integrating the depth and visual information and a robust rigid-transformation recovery method is developed to register RGB scene to depth scene. The benefit of the proposed joint optimization method is firstly evaluated with the publicly available benchmark datasets collected with Kinect. Then, the proposed method is examined by tests with two sets of datasets collected in both outside and inside environments. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method.

  3. 3D leaf water content mapping using terrestrial laser scanner backscatter intensity with radiometric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xi; Wang, Tiejun; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Niemann, K. Olaf

    2015-12-01

    Leaf water content (LWC) plays an important role in agriculture and forestry management. It can be used to assess drought conditions and wildfire susceptibility. Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) data have been widely used in forested environments for retrieving geometrically-based biophysical parameters. Recent studies have also shown the potential of using radiometric information (backscatter intensity) for estimating LWC. However, the usefulness of backscatter intensity data has been limited by leaf surface characteristics, and incidence angle effects. To explore the idea of using LiDAR intensity data to assess LWC we normalized (for both angular effects and leaf surface properties) shortwave infrared TLS data (1550 nm). A reflectance model describing both diffuse and specular reflectance was applied to remove strong specular backscatter intensity at a perpendicular angle. Leaves with different surface properties were collected from eight broadleaf plant species for modeling the relationship between LWC and backscatter intensity. Reference reflectors (Spectralon from Labsphere, Inc.) were used to build a look-up table to compensate for incidence angle effects. Results showed that before removing the specular influences, there was no significant correlation (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05) between the backscatter intensity at a perpendicular angle and LWC. After the removal of the specular influences, a significant correlation emerged (R2 = 0.74, P < 0.05). The agreement between measured and TLS-derived LWC demonstrated a significant reduction of RMSE (root mean square error, from 0.008 to 0.003 g/cm2) after correcting for the incidence angle effect. We show that it is possible to use TLS to estimate LWC for selected broadleaved plants with an R2 of 0.76 (significance level α = 0.05) at leaf level. Further investigations of leaf surface and internal structure will likely result in improvements of 3D LWC mapping for studying physiology and ecology in vegetation.

  4. Seismic Hazard Maps for Seattle, Washington, Incorporating 3D Sedimentary Basin Effects, Nonlinear Site Response, and Rupture Directivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Stephenson, William J.; Carver, David L.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Rhea, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This report presents probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Seattle, Washington, based on over 500 3D simulations of ground motions from scenario earthquakes. These maps include 3D sedimentary basin effects and rupture directivity. Nonlinear site response for soft-soil sites of fill and alluvium was also applied in the maps. The report describes the methodology for incorporating source and site dependent amplification factors into a probabilistic seismic hazard calculation. 3D simulations were conducted for the various earthquake sources that can affect Seattle: Seattle fault zone, Cascadia subduction zone, South Whidbey Island fault, and background shallow and deep earthquakes. The maps presented in this document used essentially the same set of faults and distributed-earthquake sources as in the 2002 national seismic hazard maps. The 3D velocity model utilized in the simulations was validated by modeling the amplitudes and waveforms of observed seismograms from five earthquakes in the region, including the 2001 M6.8 Nisqually earthquake. The probabilistic seismic hazard maps presented here depict 1 Hz response spectral accelerations with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years. The maps are based on determinations of seismic hazard for 7236 sites with a spacing of 280 m. The maps show that the most hazardous locations for this frequency band (around 1 Hz) are soft-soil sites (fill and alluvium) within the Seattle basin and along the inferred trace of the frontal fault of the Seattle fault zone. The next highest hazard is typically found for soft-soil sites in the Duwamish Valley south of the Seattle basin. In general, stiff-soil sites in the Seattle basin exhibit higher hazard than stiff-soil sites outside the basin. Sites with shallow bedrock outside the Seattle basin have the lowest estimated hazard for this frequency band.

  5. 3-D or median map? Earthquake scenario ground-motion maps from physics-based models versus maps from ground-motion prediction equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are two common ways to create a ground-motion map for a hypothetical earthquake: using ground motion prediction equations (by far the more common of the two) and using 3-D physics-based modeling. The former is very familiar to engineers, the latter much less so, and the difference can present a problem because engineers tend to trust the familiar and distrust novelty. Maps for essentially the same hypothetical earthquake using the two different methods can look very different, while appearing to present the same information. Using one or the other can lead an engineer or disaster planner to very different estimates of damage and risk. The reasons have to do with depiction of variability, spatial correlation of shaking, the skewed distribution of real-world shaking, and the upward-curving relationship between shaking and damage. The scientists who develop the two kinds of map tend to specialize in one or the other and seem to defend their turf, which can aggravate the problem of clearly communicating with engineers.The USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) HayWired scenario has addressed the challenge of explaining to engineers the differences between the two maps, and why, in a disaster planning scenario, one might want to use the less-familiar 3-D map.

  6. Preliminary 3D In-situ measurements of the texture evolution of strained H2O ice during annealing using neutron Laue diffractometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Montagnat, Maurine; Chauve, Thomas; Ouladdiaf, Bachir; Allibon, John

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) strongly affects the evolution of microstructure (grain size and shape) and texture (crystal preferred orientation) in materials during deformation at high temperature. Since texturing leads to anisotropic physical properties, predicting the effect of DRX is essential for industrial applications, for interpreting geophysical data and modeling geodynamic flows, and predicting ice sheet flow and climate evolution. A large amount of literature is available related to metallurgy, geology or glaciology, but there remains overall fundamental questions about the relationship between nucleation, grain boundary migration and texture development at the microscopic scale. Previous measurements of DRX in ice were either conducted using 2D ex-situ techniques such as AITA [1,2] or Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) [3], or using 3D statistical ex-situ [4] or in-situ [5] techniques. Nevertheless, all these techniques failed to observe at the scale of nucleation processes during DRX in full 3D. Here we present a new approach using neutron Laue diffraction, which enable to perform 3D measurements of in-situ texture evolution of strained polycrystalline H2O ice (>2% at 266 K) during annealing at the microscopic scale. Thanks the CYCLOPS instrument [6] (Institut Laue Langevin Grenoble, France) and the intrinsic low background of this setup, preliminary observations enabled us to follow, in H2O ice, the evolution of serrated grain boundaries, and kink-band during annealing. Our observations show a significant evolution of the texture and internal misorientation over the course of few hours at an annealing temperature of 268.5 K. In the contrary, ice kink-band structures seem to be very stable over time at near melting temperatures. The same samples have been analyzed ex-situ using EBSD for comparison. These results represent a first step toward in-situ microscopic measurements of dynamic recrystallization processes in ice during strain. This

  7. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  8. a Review of Cooling Road Maps for 3d Chip Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agonafer, Dereje

    The microelectronics industry has thrived through dimensional scaling and corresponding reduction in cost and increase in performance. It has been reported that the average selling price of a transistor has reduced from a few dollars in the early 50's to a billionth of a dollar in the early 2000. It has, however, become more difficult to sustain reduction in cost by scaling. Also, while new technology nodes results in reduced gate delay, it also effects an increase in the interconnect delay. One approach to delaying new technology node and improving performance is through reduction in interconnect delay through packaging. In particular, 3-D Through-Silicon-Via (3D TSV) technology is emerging as a powerful technology to reduce package footprint, decrease interconnection power, higher frequencies, and provide efficient integration of heterogeneous devices. TSVs provide high speed signal propagation due to reduced interconnect lengths as compared to wirebonding and SOC (system-on-chip). However, with many advantages of 3D ICs over conventional 2D counterpart, there are some inherent thermal-mechanical-electrical challenges that need to be addressed before 3D ICs could become mainstream. This chapter talks about a few of the 3D TSV IC challenges from the thermal, mechanical and the performance standpoint of view. It also discusses a novel technique for high powered 3D IC cooling to sub-ambient temperatures using thermo-electric cooler (TEC).

  9. Performance of linear and nonlinear texture measures in 2D and 3D for monitoring architectural changes in osteoporosis using computer-generated models of trabecular bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Link, Thomas M.; Monetti, Roberto A.; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease leading to de-mineralization and increased risk of fracture. The two major factors that determine the biomechanical competence of bone are the degree of mineralization and the micro-architectural integrity. Today, modern imaging modalities (high resolution MRI, micro-CT) are capable of depicting structural details of trabecular bone tissue. From the image data, structural properties obtained by quantitative measures are analysed with respect to the presence of osteoporotic fractures of the spine (in-vivo) or correlated with biomechanical strength as derived from destructive testing (in-vitro). Fairly well established are linear structural measures in 2D that are originally adopted from standard histo-morphometry. Recently, non-linear techniques in 2D and 3D based on the scaling index method (SIM), the standard Hough transform (SHT), and the Minkowski Functionals (MF) have been introduced, which show excellent performance in predicting bone strength and fracture risk. However, little is known about the performance of the various parameters with respect to monitoring structural changes due to progression of osteoporosis or as a result of medical treatment. In this contribution, we generate models of trabecular bone with pre-defined structural properties which are exposed to simulated osteoclastic activity. We apply linear and non-linear texture measures to the models and analyse their performance with respect to detecting architectural changes. This study demonstrates, that the texture measures are capable of monitoring structural changes of complex model data. The diagnostic potential varies for the different parameters and is found to depend on the topological composition of the model and initial "bone density". In our models, non-linear texture measures tend to react more sensitively to small structural changes than linear measures. Best performance is observed for the 3rd and 4th Minkowski Functionals and for the scaling

  10. 3D Euler equations and ideal MHD mapped to regular systems: Probing the finite-time blowup hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Miguel D.

    2011-06-01

    We prove by an explicit construction that solutions to incompressible 3D Euler equations defined in the periodic cube Ω=[0 can be mapped bijectively to a new system of equations whose solutions are globally regular. We establish that the usual Beale-Kato-Majda criterion for finite-time singularity (or blowup) of a solution to the 3D Euler system is equivalent to a condition on the corresponding regular solution of the new system. In the hypothetical case of Euler finite-time singularity, we provide an explicit formula for the blowup time in terms of the regular solution of the new system. The new system is amenable to being integrated numerically using similar methods as in Euler equations. We propose a method to simulate numerically the new regular system and describe how to use this to draw robust and reliable conclusions on the finite-time singularity problem of Euler equations, based on the conservation of quantities directly related to energy and circulation. The method of mapping to a regular system can be extended to any fluid equation that admits a Beale-Kato-Majda type of theorem, e.g. 3D Navier-Stokes, 2D and 3D magnetohydrodynamics, and 1D inviscid Burgers. We discuss briefly the case of 2D ideal magnetohydrodynamics. In order to illustrate the usefulness of the mapping, we provide a thorough comparison of the analytical solution versus the numerical solution in the case of 1D inviscid Burgers equation.

  11. Advances in animal ecology from 3D ecosystem mapping with LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Although the use of LiDAR data is widespread in vegetation science, it has only recently (< 14 years) been applied to animal ecology. Despite such recent application, LiDAR has enabled new insights in the field and revealed the fundamental importance of 3D ecosystem structure for animals. We reviewed the studies to date that have used LiDAR in animal ecology, synthesising the insights gained. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential than traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. LiDAR technology can be applied to animal ecology studies in a wide variety of environments to answer an impressive array of questions. Drawing on case studies from vastly different groups, termites and lions, we further demonstrate the applicability of LiDAR and highlight new understanding, ranging from habitat preference to predator-prey interactions, that would not have been possible from studies restricted to field based methods. We conclude with discussion of how future studies will benefit by using LiDAR to consider 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa to develop a better understanding of animal dynamics.

  12. True-3D Strain Mapping for Assessment of Material Deformation by Synchrotron X-Ray Microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J.J.; Toda, H.; Niinomi, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Akahori, T.; Uesugi, K.

    2005-04-09

    Downsizing of products with complex shapes has been accelerated thanks to the rapid development of electrodevice manufacturing technology. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) are one of such typical examples. 3D strain measurement of such miniature products is needed to ensure their reliability. In the present study, as preliminary trial for it 3D tensile deformation behavior of a pure aluminum wire is examined using the synchrotron X-ray microtomography technique at Spring-8, Japan. Multipurpose in-situ tester is used to investigate real-time tensile deformation behavior of the Al wire. Tensile tests are carried out under strokes of 0, 0.005, 0.01 and 0.015mm. It measures 3D local deformation of a region of interest by tracking a relative movement of a pair of particles at each point. Local deformation behavior of the Al wire is identified to be different from macroscopic deformation behavior. It may be closely associated with underlying microstructure.

  13. Edge-based intramode selection for depth-map coding in 3D-HEVC.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    The 3D video extension of High Efficiency Video Coding (3D-HEVC) is the state-of-the-art video coding standard for the compression of the multiview video plus depth format. In the 3D-HEVC design, new depth-modeling modes (DMMs) are utilized together with the existing intraprediction modes for depth intracoding. The DMMs can provide more accurate prediction signals and thereby achieve better compression efficiency. However, testing the DMMs in the intramode decision process causes a drastic increase in the computational complexity. In this paper, we propose a fast mode decision algorithm for depth intracoding. The proposed algorithm first performs a simple edge classification in the Hadamard transform domain. Then, based on the edge classification results, the proposed algorithm selectively omits unnecessary DMMs in the mode decision process. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm speeds up the mode decision process by up to 37.65% with negligible loss of coding efficiency.

  14. GIS prospectivity mapping and 3D modeling validation for potential uranium deposit targets in Shangnan district, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiayu; Wang, Gongwen; Sha, Yazhou; Liu, Jiajun; Wen, Botao; Nie, Ming; Zhang, Shuai

    2017-04-01

    Integrating multi-source geoscience information (such as geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and remote sensing) using GIS mapping is one of the key topics and frontiers in quantitative geosciences for mineral exploration. GIS prospective mapping and three-dimensional (3D) modeling can be used not only to extract exploration criteria and delineate metallogenetic targets but also to provide important information for the quantitative assessment of mineral resources. This paper uses the Shangnan district of Shaanxi province (China) as a case study area. GIS mapping and potential granite-hydrothermal uranium targeting were conducted in the study area combining weights of evidence (WofE) and concentration-area (C-A) fractal methods with multi-source geoscience information. 3D deposit-scale modeling using GOCAD software was performed to validate the shapes and features of the potential targets at the subsurface. The research results show that: (1) the known deposits have potential zones at depth, and the 3D geological models can delineate surface or subsurface ore-forming features, which can be used to analyze the uncertainty of the shape and feature of prospectivity mapping at the subsurface; (2) single geochemistry anomalies or remote sensing anomalies at the surface require combining the depth exploration criteria of geophysics to identify potential targets; and (3) the single or sparse exploration criteria zone with few mineralization spots at the surface has high uncertainty in terms of the exploration target.

  15. A mapping of an ensemble of mitochondrial sequences for various organisms into 3D space based on the word composition.

    PubMed

    Aita, Takuyo; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    To visualize a bird's-eye view of an ensemble of mitochondrial genome sequences for various species, we recently developed a novel method of mapping a biological sequence ensemble into Three-Dimensional (3D) vector space. First, we represented a biological sequence of a species s by a word-composition vector x(s), where its length [absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] represents the sequence length, and its unit vector x(s)/[absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] represents the relative composition of the K-tuple words through the sequence and the size of the dimension, N=4(K), is the number of all possible words with the length of K. Second, we mapped the vector x(s) to the 3D position vector y(s), based on the two following simple principles: (1) [absolute value]y(s)[absolute value]=[absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] and (2) the angle between y(s) and y(t) maximally correlates with the angle between x(s) and x(t). The mitochondrial genome sequences for 311 species, including 177 Animalia, 85 Fungi and 49 Green plants, were mapped into 3D space by using K=7. The mapping was successful because the angles between vectors before and after the mapping highly correlated with each other (correlation coefficients were 0.92-0.97). Interestingly, the Animalia kingdom is distributed along a single arc belt (just like the Milky Way on a Celestial Globe), and the Fungi and Green plant kingdoms are distributed in a similar arc belt. These two arc belts intersect at their respective middle regions and form a cross structure just like a jet aircraft fuselage and its wings. This new mapping method will allow researchers to intuitively interpret the visual information presented in the maps in a highly effective manner.

  16. Joint 2D and 3D phase processing for quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to 2D echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yuyao; Gibbs, Eric; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Nian; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) measures tissue magnetic susceptibility and typically relies on time-consuming three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) MRI. Recent studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI), which is commonly used in functional MRI (fMRI) and other dynamic imaging techniques, can also be used to produce data suitable for QSM with much shorter scan times. However, the production of high-quality QSM maps is difficult because data obtained by 2D multi-slice scans often have phase inconsistencies across adjacent slices and strong susceptibility field gradients near air-tissue interfaces. To address these challenges in 2D EPI-based QSM studies, we present a new data processing procedure that integrates 2D and 3D phase processing. First, 2D Laplacian-based phase unwrapping and 2D background phase removal are performed to reduce phase inconsistencies between slices and remove in-plane harmonic components of the background phase. This is followed by 3D background phase removal for the through-plane harmonic components. The proposed phase processing was evaluated with 2D EPI data obtained from healthy volunteers, and compared against conventional 3D phase processing using the same 2D EPI datasets. Our QSM results were also compared with QSM values from time-consuming 3D GRE data, which were taken as ground truth. The experimental results show that this new 2D EPI-based QSM technique can produce quantitative susceptibility measures that are comparable with those of 3D GRE-based QSM across different brain regions (e.g. subcortical iron-rich gray matter, cortical gray and white matter). This new 2D EPI QSM reconstruction method is implemented within STI Suite, which is a comprehensive shareware for susceptibility imaging and quantification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Fluorescent stereo microscopy for 3D surface profilometry and deformation mapping.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenxing; Luo, Huiyang; Du, Yingjie; Lu, Hongbing

    2013-05-20

    Recently, mechanobiology has received increased attention. For investigation of biofilm and cellular tissue, measurements of the surface topography and deformation in real-time are a pre-requisite for understanding the growth mechanisms. In this paper, a novel three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent microscopic method for surface profilometry and deformation measurements is developed. In this technique a pair of cameras are connected to a binocular fluorescent microscope to acquire micrographs from two different viewing angles of a sample surface doped or sprayed with fluorescent microparticles. Digital image correlation technique is used to search for matching points in the pairing fluorescence micrographs. After calibration of the system, the 3D surface topography is reconstructed from the pair of planar images. When the deformed surface topography is compared with undeformed topography using fluorescent microparticles for movement tracking of individual material points, the full field deformation of the surface is determined. The technique is demonstrated on topography measurement of a biofilm, and also on surface deformation measurement of the biofilm during growth. The use of 3D imaging of the fluorescent microparticles eliminates the formation of bright parts in an image caused by specular reflections. The technique is appropriate for non-contact, full-field and real-time 3D surface profilometry and deformation measurements of materials and structures at the microscale.

  18. 2D map projections for visualization and quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence micrographs

    PubMed Central

    Sendra, G. Hernán; Hoerth, Christian H.; Wunder, Christian; Lorenz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Map3-2D, a freely available software to accurately project up to five-dimensional (5D) fluorescence microscopy image data onto full-content 2D maps. Similar to the Earth’s projection onto cartographic maps, Map3-2D unfolds surface information from a stack of images onto a single, structurally connected map. We demonstrate its applicability for visualization and quantitative analyses of spherical and uneven surfaces in fixed and dynamic live samples by using mammalian and yeast cells, and giant unilamellar vesicles. Map3-2D software is available at http://www.zmbh.uni-heidelberg.de//Central_Services/Imaging_Facility/Map3-2D.html. PMID:26208256

  19. Mapping molecular orientational distributions for biological sample in 3D (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HE, Wei; Ferrand, Patrick; Richter, Benjamin; Bastmeyer, Martin; Brasselet, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Measuring molecular orientation properties is very appealing for scientists in molecular and cell biology, as well as biomedical research. Orientational organization at the molecular scale is indeed an important brick to cells and tissues morphology, mechanics, functions and pathologies. Recent work has shown that polarized fluorescence imaging, based on excitation polarization tuning in the sample plane, is able to probe molecular orientational order in biological samples; however this applies only to information in 2D, projected in the sample plane. To surpass this limitation, we extended this approach to excitation polarization tuning in 3D. The principle is based on the decomposition of any arbitrary 3D linear excitation in a polarization along the longitudinal z-axis, and a polarization in the transverse xy-sample plane. We designed an interferometer with one arm generating radial polarization light (thus producing longitudinal polarization under high numerical aperture focusing), the other arm controlling a linear polarization in the transverse plane. The amplitude ratio between the two arms can vary so as to get any linear polarized excitation in 3D at the focus of a high NA objective. This technique has been characterized by polarimetry imaging at the back focal plane of the focusing objective, and modeled theoretically. 3D polarized fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated on actin stress fibers in non-flat cells suspended on synthetic polymer structures forming supporting pillars, for which heterogeneous actin orientational order could be identified. This technique shows a great potential in structural investigations in 3D biological systems, such as cell spheroids and tissues.

  20. Measuring distances and reddenings for a billion stars: Toward a 3D dust map from Pan-STARRS 1

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gregory Maurice; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Jurić, Mario; Burgett, Will; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kudritzki, Rolf Peter; Magnier, Eugene; Tonry, John; Wainscoat, Richard; Waters, Christopher; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Martin, Nicolas

    2014-03-10

    We present a method to infer reddenings and distances to stars based only on their broad-band photometry, and show how this method can be used to produce a three-dimensional (3D) dust map of the Galaxy. Our method samples from the full probability density function of distance, reddening, and stellar type for individual stars, as well as the full uncertainty in reddening as a function of distance in the 3D dust map. We incorporate prior knowledge of the distribution of stars in the Galaxy and the detection limits of the survey. For stars in the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) 3π survey, we demonstrate that our reddening estimates are unbiased and accurate to ∼0.13 mag in E(B – V) for the typical star. Based on comparisons with mock catalogs, we expect distances for main-sequence stars to be constrained to within ∼20%-60%, although this range can vary, depending on the reddening of the star, the precise stellar type, and its position on the sky. A later paper will present a 3D map of dust over the three quarters of the sky surveyed by PS1. Both the individual stellar inferences and the 3D dust map will enable a wealth of Galactic science in the plane. The method we present is not limited to the passbands of the PS1 survey but may be extended to incorporate photometry from other surveys, such as the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (where available), and in the future, LSST and Gaia.

  1. An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured Grids in Computational Biomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Carson, James P.; Einstein, David M.; Corley, Richard A.; Jacob, Rick E.

    2013-01-01

    Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous information other than geometry that are relevant to such simulations either as initial conditions or in the form of model parameters. In this manuscript, we present an algorithm for the efficient and robust mapping of such data to imaging based unstructured polyhedral grids in parallel. We then illustrate the application of our mapping algorithm to three different mapping problems: 1) the mapping of MRI diffusion tensor data to an unstuctured ventricular grid; 2) the mapping of serial cyro-section histology data to an unstructured mouse brain grid; and 3) the mapping of CT-derived volumetric strain data to an unstructured multiscale lung grid. Execution times and parallel performance are reported for each case.

  2. Use of radar image texture in geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Large slope angle radar and small slope angle radar techniques are discussed. The techniques are developed to aid in the geologic interpretation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The application presented is for heavy vegetation and where very little other data can be obtained directly from remote sensing images. To understand the relationships between image texture, topography, lithology, geomorphology, and climate improves, textural information from SAR images are used for the identification of rock types to discriminate units. An active program is to integrate textural information from radar images directly with backscatter data from the same images, and with compositional information derived from visible near infrared sensors such as LANDSAT is explored. The role of quantitative textural information in this type of multisensor analysis which promises to be significant is outlined.

  3. Improving GOOGLE'S Cartographer 3d Mapping by Continuous-Time Slam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüchter, A.; Bleier, M.; Schauer, J.; Janotta, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows how to use the result of Google's SLAM solution, called Cartographer, to bootstrap our continuous-time SLAM algorithm. The presented approach optimizes the consistency of the global point cloud, and thus improves on Google's results. We use the algorithms and data from Google as input for our continuous-time SLAM software. We also successfully applied our software to a similar backpack system which delivers consistent 3D point clouds even in absence of an IMU.

  4. 5D Modelling: An Efficient Approach for Creating Spatiotemporal Predictive 3D Maps of Large-Scale Cultural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Ioannidis, C.; Chrysouli, C.; Grammalidis, N.; Dimitropoulos, K.; Potsiou, C.; Stathopoulou, E.-K.; Ioannides, M.

    2015-08-01

    Outdoor large-scale cultural sites are mostly sensitive to environmental, natural and human made factors, implying an imminent need for a spatio-temporal assessment to identify regions of potential cultural interest (material degradation, structuring, conservation). On the other hand, in Cultural Heritage research quite different actors are involved (archaeologists, curators, conservators, simple users) each of diverse needs. All these statements advocate that a 5D modelling (3D geometry plus time plus levels of details) is ideally required for preservation and assessment of outdoor large scale cultural sites, which is currently implemented as a simple aggregation of 3D digital models at different time and levels of details. The main bottleneck of such an approach is its complexity, making 5D modelling impossible to be validated in real life conditions. In this paper, a cost effective and affordable framework for 5D modelling is proposed based on a spatial-temporal dependent aggregation of 3D digital models, by incorporating a predictive assessment procedure to indicate which regions (surfaces) of an object should be reconstructed at higher levels of details at next time instances and which at lower ones. In this way, dynamic change history maps are created, indicating spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Using these maps, predictive assessment can be made, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 5D Digital Cultural Heritage Model (5D-DCHM) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework, which also allows the description of additional semantic metadata information. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 5D-DCHM geometry and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCity

  5. Comparative analysis of 3D expression patterns of transcription factor genes and digit fate maps in the developing chick wing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Malcolm; Downie, Helen; Welten, Monique C M; Delgado, Irene; Bain, Andrew; Planzer, Thorsten; Sherman, Adrian; Sang, Helen; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-04-22

    Hoxd13, Tbx2, Tbx3, Sall1 and Sall3 genes are candidates for encoding antero-posterior positional values in the developing chick wing and specifying digit identity. In order to build up a detailed profile of gene expression patterns in cell lineages that give rise to each of the digits over time, we compared 3 dimensional (3D) expression patterns of these genes during wing development and related them to digit fate maps. 3D gene expression data at stages 21, 24 and 27 spanning early bud to digital plate formation, captured from in situ hybridisation whole mounts using Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) were mapped to reference wing bud models. Grafts of wing bud tissue from GFP chicken embryos were used to fate map regions of the wing bud giving rise to each digit; 3D images of the grafts were captured using OPT and mapped on to the same models. Computational analysis of the combined computerised data revealed that Tbx2 and Tbx3 are expressed in digit 3 and 4 progenitors at all stages, consistent with encoding stable antero-posterior positional values established in the early bud; Hoxd13 and Sall1 expression is more dynamic, being associated with posterior digit 3 and 4 progenitors in the early bud but later becoming associated with anterior digit 2 progenitors in the digital plate. Sox9 expression in digit condensations lies within domains of digit progenitors defined by fate mapping; digit 3 condensations express Hoxd13 and Sall1, digit 4 condensations Hoxd13, Tbx3 and to a lesser extent Tbx2. Sall3 is only transiently expressed in digit 3 progenitors at stage 24 together with Sall1 and Hoxd13; then becomes excluded from the digital plate. These dynamic patterns of expression suggest that these genes may play different roles in digit identity either together or in combination at different stages including the digit condensation stage.

  6. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (<300Euros) Windows tablets. However, the lack of flexibility in data structure makes for cumbersome workflows when trying to interface our existing shapefile-centric data structures to Move. Nonetheless, in spring 2014 we will experiment with full-3D immersion in the field using the full Move software package in combination with ground based LiDAR and photogrammetry. One new workflow suggested by our initial experiments is that field geologists should consider using photogrammetry software to capture 3D visualizations of key outcrops. This process is now straightforward in several software packages, and

  7. 3D Face modeling using the multi-deformable method.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-09-25

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper.

  8. Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) validation in all four cardiac chambers with 3D electroanatomic mapping in canines in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costet, Alexandre; Wan, Elaine; Bunting, Ethan; Grondin, Julien; Garan, Hasan; Konofagou, Elisa

    2016-11-01

    Characterization and mapping of arrhythmias is currently performed through invasive insertion and manipulation of cardiac catheters. Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is a non-invasive ultrasound-based imaging technique, which tracks the electromechanical activation that immediately follows electrical activation. Electrical and electromechanical activations were previously found to be linearly correlated in the left ventricle, but the relationship has not yet been investigated in the three other chambers of the heart. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between electrical and electromechanical activations and validate EWI in all four chambers of the heart with conventional 3D electroanatomical mapping. Six (n  =  6) normal adult canines were used in this study. The electrical activation sequence was mapped in all four chambers of the heart, both endocardially and epicardially using the St Jude’s EnSite 3D mapping system (St. Jude Medical, Secaucus, NJ). EWI acquisitions were performed in all four chambers during normal sinus rhythm, and during pacing in the left ventricle. Isochrones of the electromechanical activation were generated from standard echocardiographic imaging views. Electrical and electromechanical activation maps were co-registered and compared, and electrical and electromechanical activation times were plotted against each other and linear regression was performed for each pair of activation maps. Electromechanical and electrical activations were found to be directly correlated with slopes of the correlation ranging from 0.77 to 1.83, electromechanical delays between 9 and 58 ms and R 2 values from 0.71 to 0.92. The linear correlation between electrical and electromechanical activations and the agreement between the activation maps indicate that the electromechanical activation follows the pattern of propagation of the electrical activation. This suggests that EWI may be used as a novel non-invasive method

  9. Visualization and mapping of neurosurgical functional brain data onto a 3-D MR-based model of the brain surface.

    PubMed

    Modayur, B R; Prothero, J; Rosse, C; Jakobovits, R; Brinkley, J F

    1996-01-01

    The Human Brain Project was initiated with the goal of developing methods for managing and sharing information about the brain. As a prototype Human Brain Project application we are developing a system for organizing, visualizing, integrating and sharing information about human language function. The goal of the brain mapping component of our work, described in this article, is to generate the 3D location and extent of cortical language sites with respect to a uniform, 3D patient coordinate system. The language sites of individual patients can then be combined with or related to other patient data in terms of a Talairach, surface-based, or other deformable coordinate systems. Language site mapping is done by visually comparing an intraoperative photograph with the rendered image (from MRI data). The techniques outlined in this article have been utilized to map cortical language sites of six patients. Preliminary results point to the adequacy of our volume visualizations for language mapping. The strength of the visualization scheme lies in the combination of interactive segmentation with volume and surface visualization. We are now in the process of acquiring more patient data to further validate the usefulness of our method.

  10. A simple, fast, and repeatable survey method for underwater visual 3D benthic mapping and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Oscar; Friedman, Ariell; Bryson, Mitch; Williams, Stefan B; Madin, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    Visual 3D reconstruction techniques provide rich ecological and habitat structural information from underwater imagery. However, an unaided swimmer or diver struggles to navigate precisely over larger extents with consistent image overlap needed for visual reconstruction. While underwater robots have demonstrated systematic coverage of areas much larger than the footprint of a single image, access to suitable robotic systems is limited and requires specialized operators. Furthermore, robots are poor at navigating hydrodynamic habitats such as shallow coral reefs. We present a simple approach that constrains the motion of a swimmer using a line unwinding from a fixed central drum. The resulting motion is the involute of a circle, a spiral-like path with constant spacing between revolutions. We test this survey method at a broad range of habitats and hydrodynamic conditions encircling Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The approach generates fast, structured, repeatable, and large-extent surveys (~110 m(2) in 15 min) that can be performed with two people and are superior to the commonly used "mow the lawn" method. The amount of image overlap is a design parameter, allowing for surveys that can then be reliably used in an automated processing pipeline to generate 3D reconstructions, orthographically projected mosaics, and structural complexity indices. The individual images or full mosaics can also be labeled for benthic diversity and cover estimates. The survey method we present can serve as a standard approach to repeatedly collecting underwater imagery for high-resolution 2D mosaics and 3D reconstructions covering spatial extents much larger than a single image footprint without requiring sophisticated robotic systems or lengthy deployment of visual guides. As such, it opens up cost-effective novel observations to inform studies relating habitat structure to ecological processes and biodiversity at scales and spatial resolutions not readily

  11. Improved 3D Look-Locker Acquisition Scheme and Angle Map Filtering Procedure for T1 Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, CheukKai; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2013-01-01

    The 3D Look-Locker (LL) acquisition is a widely used fast and efficient T1 mapping method. However, the multi-shot approach of 3D LL acquisition can introduce reconstruction artifacts that result in intensity distortions. Traditional 3D LL acquisition generally utilizes centric encoding scheme that is limited to a single phase encoding direction in the k-space. To optimize the k-space segmentation, an elliptical scheme with two phase encoding directions is implemented for the LL acquisition. This elliptical segmentation can reduce the intensity errors in the reconstructed images and improve the final T1 estimation. One of the major sources of error in LL based T1 estimation is lack of accurate knowledge of the actual flip angle. Multi-parameter curve fitting procedure can account for some of the variability in the flip angle. However, curve fitting can also introduce errors in the estimated flip angle that can result in incorrect T1 values. A filtering procedure based on goodness of fit (GOF) is proposed to reduce the effect of false flip angle estimates. Filtering based on the GOF weighting can remove likely incorrect angles that result in bad curve fit. Simulation, phantom, and in-vivo studies have demonstrated that these techniques can improve the accuracy of 3D LL T1 estimation. PMID:23784967

  12. GPU-based rapid reconstruction of cellular 3D refractive index maps from tomographic phase microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardikman, Gili; Shaked, Natan T.

    2016-03-01

    We present highly parallel and efficient algorithms for real-time reconstruction of the quantitative three-dimensional (3-D) refractive-index maps of biological cells without labeling, as obtained from the interferometric projections acquired by tomographic phase microscopy (TPM). The new algorithms are implemented on the graphic processing unit (GPU) of the computer using CUDA programming environment. The reconstruction process includes two main parts. First, we used parallel complex wave-front reconstruction of the TPM-based interferometric projections acquired at various angles. The complex wave front reconstructions are done on the GPU in parallel, while minimizing the calculation time of the Fourier transforms and phase unwrapping needed. Next, we implemented on the GPU in parallel the 3-D refractive index map retrieval using the TPM filtered-back projection algorithm. The incorporation of algorithms that are inherently parallel with a programming environment such as Nvidia's CUDA makes it possible to obtain real-time processing rate, and enables high-throughput platform for label-free, 3-D cell visualization and diagnosis.

  13. In vivo MEMRI characterization of brain metastases using a 3D Look-Locker T1-mapping sequence

    PubMed Central

    Castets, Charles R.; Koonjoo, Néha; Hertanu, Andreea; Voisin, Pierre; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Miraux, Sylvain; Ribot, Emeline J.

    2016-01-01

    Although MEMRI (Manganese Enhanced MRI) informations were obtained on primary tumors in small animals, MEMRI data on metastases are lacking. Thus, our goal was to determine if 3D Look-Locker T1 mapping was an efficient method to evaluate Mn ions transport in brain metastases in vivo. The high spatial resolution in 3D (156 × 156 × 218 μm) of the sequence enabled to detect metastases of 0.3 mm3. In parallel, the T1 quantitation enabled to distinguish three populations of MDA-MB-231 derived brain metastases after MnCl2 intravenous injection: one with a healthy blood-tumor barrier that did not internalize Mn2+ ions, and two others, which T1 shortened drastically by 54.2% or 24%. Subsequent scans of the mice, enabled by the fast acquisition (23 min), demonstrated that these T1 reached back their pre-injection values in 24 h. Contrarily to metastases, the T1 of U87-MG glioma remained 26.2% shorter for one week. In vitro results supported the involvement of the Transient Receptor Potential channels and the Calcium-Sensing Receptor in the uptake and efflux of Mn2+ ions, respectively. This study highlights the ability of the 3D Look-Locker T1 mapping sequence to study heterogeneities (i) amongst brain metastases and (ii) between metastases and glioma regarding Mn transport. PMID:27995976

  14. Texture descriptions of lunar surface derived from LOLA data: Kilometer-scale roughness and entropy maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Ling, Zongcheng; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Wu, Zhongchen; Ni, Yuheng; Zhao, Haowei

    2015-11-01

    The lunar global texture maps of roughness and entropy are derived at kilometer scales from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) data obtained by Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) aboard on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We use statistical moments of a gray-level histogram of elevations in a neighborhood to compute the roughness and entropy value. Our texture descriptors measurements are shown in global maps at multi-sized square neighborhoods, whose length of side is 3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 pixels, respectively. We found that large-scale topographical changes can only be displayed in maps with longer side of neighborhood, but the small scale global texture maps are more disorderly and unsystematic because of more complicated textures' details. Then, the frequency curves of texture maps are made out, whose shapes and distributions are changing as the spatial scales increases. Entropy frequency curve with minimum 3-pixel scale has large fluctuations and six peaks. According to this entropy curve we can classify lunar surface into maria, highlands, different parts of craters preliminarily. The most obvious textures in the middle-scale roughness and entropy maps are the two typical morphological units, smooth maria and rough highlands. For the impact crater, its roughness and entropy value are characterized by a multiple-ring structure obviously, and its different parts have different texture results. In the last, we made a 2D scatter plot between the two texture results of typical lunar maria and highlands. There are two clusters with largest dot density which are corresponded to the lunar highlands and maria separately. In the lunar mare regions (cluster A), there is a high correlation between roughness and entropy, but in the highlands (Cluster B), the entropy shows little change. This could be subjected to different geological processes of maria and highlands forming different landforms.

  15. 3D-Pharmacophore mapping of thymidine-based inhibitors of TMPK as potential antituberculosis agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Carolina Horta; Pasqualoto, Kerly F. M.; Ferreira, Elizabeth I.; Hopfinger, Anton J.

    2010-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the primary cause of mortality among infectious diseases. Mycobacterium tuberculosis monophosphate kinase (TMPKmt) is essential to DNA replication. Thus, this enzyme represents a promising target for developing new drugs against TB. In the present study, the receptor-independent, RI, 4D-QSAR method has been used to develop QSAR models and corresponding 3D-pharmacophores for a set of 81 thymidine analogues, and two corresponding subsets, reported as inhibitors of TMPKmt . The resulting optimized models are not only statistically significant with r 2 ranging from 0.83 to 0.92 and q 2 from 0.78 to 0.88, but also are robustly predictive based on test set predictions. The most and the least potent inhibitors in their respective postulated active conformations, derived from each of the models, were docked in the active site of the TMPKmt crystal structure. There is a solid consistency between the 3D-pharmacophore sites defined by the QSAR models and interactions with binding site residues. Moreover, the QSAR models provide insights regarding a probable mechanism of action of the analogues.

  16. CheS-Mapper - Chemical Space Mapping and Visualization in 3D

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing chemical datasets is a challenging task for scientific researchers in the field of chemoinformatics. It is important, yet difficult to understand the relationship between the structure of chemical compounds, their physico-chemical properties, and biological or toxic effects. To that respect, visualization tools can help to better comprehend the underlying correlations. Our recently developed 3D molecular viewer CheS-Mapper (Chemical Space Mapper) divides large datasets into clusters of similar compounds and consequently arranges them in 3D space, such that their spatial proximity reflects their similarity. The user can indirectly determine similarity, by selecting which features to employ in the process. The tool can use and calculate different kind of features, like structural fragments as well as quantitative chemical descriptors. These features can be highlighted within CheS-Mapper, which aids the chemist to better understand patterns and regularities and relate the observations to established scientific knowledge. As a final function, the tool can also be used to select and export specific subsets of a given dataset for further analysis. PMID:22424447

  17. In-situ biofouling assessment in spacer filled channels using optical coherence tomography (OCT): 3D biofilm thickness mapping.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Luca; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-04-01

    Membrane systems for water purification can be seriously hampered by biofouling. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate biofilms in membrane systems has recently increased due to the ability to do the characterization in-situ and non-destructively. The OCT biofilm thickness map is presented for the first time as a tool to assess biofilm spatial distribution on a surface. The map allows the visualization and evaluation of the biofilm formation and growth in membrane filtration systems through the use of a false color scale. The biofilm development was monitored with OCT to evaluate the suitability of the proposed approach. A 3D time series analysis of biofilm development in a spacer filled channel representative of a spiral-wound membrane element was performed. The biofilm thickness map enables the time-resolved and spatial-resolved evaluation and visualization of the biofilm deposition pattern in-situ non-destructively.

  18. Mapping of the C3d receptor (CR2)-binding site and a neoantigenic site in the C3d domain of the third component of complement.

    PubMed Central

    Lambris, J D; Ganu, V S; Hirani, S; Müller-Eberhard, H J

    1985-01-01

    The C3d domain of C3 contains the site that binds to the C3d receptor (CR2) which is expressed on B lymphocytes. It also contains a neoantigenic determinant that is recognized by monoclonal antibody (mAb) 130 and is expressed when C3b is cleaved to iC3b and subsequently to C3dg or C3d. mAb 130 inhibits the binding of C3d to CR2. In this study, the locations of the CR2-binding site and of the neoantigen recognized by mAb 130 within the C3d domain were investigated. Treatment of human C3d with CNBr generated two major fragments with Mrs of 12,500 and 8600. Binding studies showed that only the Mr 8600 fragment was capable of binding to both CR2 and mAb 130. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the Mr 8600 fragment and comparison with the amino acid sequence derived from human C3 cDNA [de Bruijn, M. H. L. & Fey, G. H. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 708-712] placed it between residues 1199 and 1274 of the C3 sequence. Several peptides were synthesized according to the derived C3 sequence of amino acid residues 1209-1236. Based on their differential binding to CR2 and mAb 130, we localized the CR2-binding site and mAb 130 neoantigenic site, respectively, to residues 1227-1232 and 1217-1232 of the C3 sequence. PMID:2408276

  19. Mapping snow avalanche risk using GIS technique and 3D modeling in Ceahlau Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covasnianu, A.; Grigoras, I. R.; State, L. E.; Balin, D.; Hogas, S.; Balin, I.

    2009-04-01

    This study consisted in a precise mapping project (GPS field campaign and on-screen digitization of the topographic maps at 1:5.000 scale) of the Ceahlau mountain area in Romanian Carpathians in order to address the snow avalanche risk management, surveying and monitoring. Thus we considered the slope, aspect, altitude, landforms and roughness derived from a high resolute numerical terrain model (31 km2 at 1: 5.000 scale resulted in a spatial resolution of 3 m by the help of Topo to Raster tool). These parameters were classified according to a model applied into Tatra Mountains and used over Ceahlau Massive. The results were adapted and interpreted considering to the European Avalanche Hazard Scale. This work was made in the context of the elaboration of Risk Map and is directly concerning both the security of tourism activities but also the management of the Natural Park Ceahlau. The extension of this method to similar mountain areas is ongoing.

  20. Evaluating the Potential of Rtk-Uav for Automatic Point Cloud Generation in 3d Rapid Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, H.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, 3D geospatial data can provide essential information for decision support systems. The utilization of geospatial data using digital surface models as a basic reference is mandatory to provide accurate quick emergency response in so called rapid mapping activities. The recipe between accuracy requirements and time restriction is considered critical in this situations. UAVs as alternative platforms for 3D point cloud acquisition offer potentials because of their flexibility and practicability combined with low cost implementations. Moreover, the high resolution data collected from UAV platforms have the capabilities to provide a quick overview of the disaster area. The target of this paper is to experiment and to evaluate a low-cost system for generation of point clouds using imagery collected from a low altitude small autonomous UAV equipped with customized single frequency RTK module. The customized multi-rotor platform is used in this study. Moreover, electronic hardware is used to simplify user interaction with the UAV as RTK-GPS/Camera synchronization, and beside the synchronization, lever arm calibration is done. The platform is equipped with a Sony NEX-5N, 16.1-megapixel camera as imaging sensor. The lens attached to camera is ZEISS optics, prime lens with F1.8 maximum aperture and 24 mm focal length to deliver outstanding images. All necessary calibrations are performed and flight is implemented over the area of interest at flight height of 120 m above the ground level resulted in 2.38 cm GSD. Earlier to image acquisition, 12 signalized GCPs and 20 check points were distributed in the study area and measured with dualfrequency GPS via RTK technique with horizontal accuracy of σ = 1.5 cm and vertical accuracy of σ = 2.3 cm. results of direct georeferencing are compared to these points and experimental results show that decimeter accuracy level for 3D points cloud with proposed system is achievable, that is suitable

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3D extinction map of northern Galactic plane (Sale+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sale, S. E.; Drew, J. E.; Barentsen, G.; Farnhill, H. J.; Raddi, R.; Barlow, M. J.; Eisloffel, J.; Vink, J. S.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Wright, N. J.

    2014-06-01

    We present a three dimensional map of extinction in the Northern Galactic Plane derived using photometry from the IPHAS survey. We construct the map using a method based on a hierarchical Bayesian model as previously described by Sale (2012MNRAS.427.2119S). In addition to mean extinction, we also measure differential extinction, which arises from the fractal nature of the ISM. The method applied also furnishes us with photometric estimates of the distance, extinction, effective temperature, surface gravity, and mass for ~38 million stars. Further details about the data as well as additional formats and data products are available via http://www.iphas.org/extinction. (2 data files).

  2. A 3D dust map from Pan-STARRS 1 photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Gregory M.

    We have constructed a three-dimensional map of dust in the Milky Way, tracing reddening on ˜ 7' scales out to a distance of several kiloparsecs. We trace reddening using stars embedded in the dust, by simultaneously inferring stellar distance, stellar type, and the reddening along the line of sight. We use 5-band grizy Pan-STARRS 1 photometry of 800 million stars, augmented by 3-band 2MASS JHKs photometry when available. The full map is available at http://argonaut.skymaps.info. An online version of this talk is available at http://http://greg.ory.gr/present/ewass2015.

  3. EMRinger: side chain–directed model and map validation for 3D cryo-electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Barad, Benjamin A.; Echols, Nathaniel; Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; ...

    2015-08-17

    Advances in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) require the development of validation metrics to independently assess map quality and model geometry. We report that EMRinger is a tool that assesses the precise fitting of an atomic model into the map during refinement and shows how radiation damage alters scattering from negatively charged amino acids. EMRinger (https://github.com/fraser-lab/EMRinger) will be useful for monitoring progress in resolving and modeling high-resolution features in cryo-EM.

  4. Mapping of the spontaneous deletion in the Ap3d1 gene of mocha mice: fast and reliable genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Holm, Mai Marie; Delenclos, Marion; Jensen, Kimmo

    2008-01-01

    Background The mocha mouse carries a spontaneous deletion in the Ap3d1 gene, encoding the delta 1 subunit of the adaptor related protein complex 3, (Ap3d1), and subsequently lack the expression of functional AP-3. This leads to a deficiency in vesicle transport and storage, which affects neurotransmitter vesicle turnover and release in the central nervous system. Since the genomic sequence of the Ap3d1 gene of mocha mouse is not known, precise mapping of the deletion as well as reliable genotyping protocols are lacking. Findings We sequenced the Ap3d1 gene (HGNC GeneID: 8943) around the deletion site in the mocha mouse and revealed a 10639 bp deletion covering exon 2 to 6. Subsequently, new PCR primers were designed yielding a reliable genotyping protocol of both newborn and adult tissue. To examine the genotypes further, hippocampal neurons were cultured from mocha and control mice. Patch-clamp recordings showed that mocha neurons had a higher input resistance, and that autaptic EPSC in mocha cultures depressed faster and stronger as compared with control cultures. Conclusion Our study reports the sequence of the deleted part of the Ap3d1 gene in mocha mice, as well as a reliable PCR-based genotyping protocol. We cultured hippocampal neurons from control and mocha mice, and found a difference in input resistance of the neurons, and in the synaptic short-term plasticity of glutamatergic autapses showing a larger synaptic depression than controls. The described procedures may be useful for the future utilization of the mocha mouse as a model of defective vesicle biogenesis. Importantly, as genotyping by eye color is complicated in newborn mice, the designed protocol is so fast and reliable that newborn mice could rapidly be genotyped and hippocampal neurons dissociated and cultured, which is normally best done at P0-P2. PMID:19032734

  5. Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping Registration of Reconstructed 3D Histological Section Images and in vivo MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Ceritoglu, Can; Wang, Lei; Selemon, Lynn D.; Csernansky, John G.; Miller, Michael I.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak

    2009-01-01

    Our current understanding of neuroanatomical abnormalities in neuropsychiatric diseases is based largely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and post mortem histological analyses of the brain. Further advances in elucidating altered brain structure in these human conditions might emerge from combining MRI and histological methods. We propose a multistage method for registering 3D volumes reconstructed from histological sections to corresponding in vivo MRI volumes from the same subjects: (1) manual segmentation of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments in histological sections, (2) alignment of consecutive histological sections using 2D rigid transformation to construct a 3D histological image volume from the aligned sections, (3) registration of reconstructed 3D histological volumes to the corresponding 3D MRI volumes using 3D affine transformation, (4) intensity normalization of images via histogram matching, and (5) registration of the volumes via intensity based large deformation diffeomorphic metric (LDDMM) image matching algorithm. Here we demonstrate the utility of our method in the transfer of cytoarchitectonic information from histological sections to identify regions of interest in MRI scans of nine adult macaque brains for morphometric analyses. LDDMM improved the accuracy of the registration via decreased distances between GM/CSF surfaces after LDDMM (0.39 ± 0.13 mm) compared to distances after affine registration (0.76 ± 0.41 mm). Similarly, WM/GM distances decreased to 0.28 ± 0.16 mm after LDDMM compared to 0.54 ± 0.39 mm after affine registration. The multistage registration method may find broad application for mapping histologically based information, for example, receptor distributions, gene expression, onto MRI volumes. PMID:20577633

  6. Symmetry-plane model of 3D Euler flows: Mapping to regular systems and numerical solutions of blowup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulungye, Rachel M.; Lucas, Dan; Bustamante, Miguel D.

    2014-11-01

    We introduce a family of 2D models describing the dynamics on the so-called symmetry plane of the full 3D Euler fluid equations. These models depend on a free real parameter and can be solved analytically. For selected representative values of the free parameter, we apply the method introduced in [M.D. Bustamante, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenom. 240, 1092 (2011)] to map the fluid equations bijectively to globally regular systems. By comparing the analytical solutions with the results of numerical simulations, we establish that the numerical simulations of the mapped regular systems are far more accurate than the numerical simulations of the original systems, at the same spatial resolution and CPU time. In particular, the numerical integrations of the mapped regular systems produce robust estimates for the growth exponent and singularity time of the main blowup quantity (vorticity stretching rate), converging well to the analytically-predicted values even beyond the time at which the flow becomes under-resolved (i.e. the reliability time). In contrast, direct numerical integrations of the original systems develop unstable oscillations near the reliability time. We discuss the reasons for this improvement in accuracy, and explain how to extend the analysis to the full 3D case. Supported under the programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (PRTLI) Cycle 5 and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

  7. Hard Copy to Digital Transfer: 3D Models that Match 2D Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes technical drawing techniques applied in a project involving digitizing of existing hard copy subsurface mapping for the preparation of three dimensional graphic and mathematical models. The intent of this research was to identify work flows that would support the project, ensure the accuracy of the digital data obtained,…

  8. Learning Benefits of Using 2D versus 3D Maps: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Ellder, Erik; Larsson, Anders; Thelin, Mikael; Jansund, Bodil

    2013-01-01

    The traditional important role of maps used for educational purposes has gained further potential with recent advances in GIS technology. But beyond specific courses in cartography this potential seems little realized in geography teaching. This article investigates the extent to which any learning benefits may be derived from the use of such…

  9. GPR Detection and 3D Mapping of Lateral Macropores II. Riparian Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology and prevalence of 1-10 cm diameter macropores in forested riparian wetland buffers is largely unknown despite their importance as a source of preferential nutrient delivery to stream channels. Here, we validated in situ procedures for detecting and mapping the three-dimensional struct...

  10. Mapping tropical biodiversity using spectroscopic imagery : characterization of structural and chemical diversity with 3-D radiative transfer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, J. B.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Lefèvre-Fonollosa, M. J.; Proisy, C.; Asner, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The accelerating loss of biodiversity is a major environmental trend. Tropical ecosystems are particularly threatened due to climate change, invasive species, farming and natural resources exploitation. Recent advances in remote sensing of biodiversity confirmed the potential of high spatial resolution spectroscopic imagery for species identification and biodiversity mapping. Such information bridges the scale-gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. In order to produce fine-scale resolution maps of canopy alpha-diversity and beta-diversity of the Peruvian Amazonian forest, we designed, applied and validated a method based on spectral variation hypothesis to CAO AToMS (Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System) images, acquired from 2011 to 2013. There is a need to understand on a quantitative basis the physical processes leading to this spectral variability. This spectral variability mainly depends on canopy chemistry, structure, and sensor's characteristics. 3D radiative transfer modeling provides a powerful framework for the study of the relative influence of each of these factors in dense and complex canopies. We simulated series of spectroscopic images with the 3D radiative model DART, with variability gradients in terms of leaf chemistry, individual tree structure, spatial and spectral resolution, and applied methods for biodiversity mapping. This sensitivity study allowed us to determine the relative influence of these factors on the radiometric signal acquired by different types of sensors. Such study is particularly important to define the domain of validity of our approach, to refine requirements for the instrumental specifications, and to help preparing hyperspectral spatial missions to be launched at the horizon 2015-2025 (EnMAP, PRISMA, HISUI, SHALOM, HYSPIRI, HYPXIM). Simulations in preparation include topographic variations in order to estimate the robustness

  11. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  12. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Love, Lonnie J; Rowe, John C

    2013-01-01

    An extended range IR camera was used to make temperature measurements of samples as they are being manufactured. The objective is to quantify the temperature variation inside the system as parts are being fabricated, as well as quantify the temperature of a part during fabrication. The IR camera was used to map the temperature within the build volume of the oven and surface temperature measurement of a part as it was being manufactured. The development of the temperature map of the oven provides insight into the global temperature variation within the oven that may lead to understanding variations in the properties of parts as a function of location. The observation of the temperature variation of a part that fails during construction provides insight into how the deposition process itself impacts temperature distribution within a single part leading to failure.

  13. Dynamic 3-D chemical agent cloud mapping using a sensor constellation deployed on mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Konno, Daisei; Rossi, David; Marinelli, William J.; Seem, Pete

    2014-05-01

    The need for standoff detection technology to provide early Chem-Bio (CB) threat warning is well documented. Much of the information obtained by a single passive sensor is limited to bearing and angular extent of the threat cloud. In order to obtain absolute geo-location, range to threat, 3-D extent and detailed composition of the chemical threat, fusion of information from multiple passive sensors is needed. A capability that provides on-the-move chemical cloud characterization is key to the development of real-time Battlespace Awareness. We have developed, implemented and tested algorithms and hardware to perform the fusion of information obtained from two mobile LWIR passive hyperspectral sensors. The implementation of the capability is driven by current Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle operational tactics and represents a mission focused alternative of the already demonstrated 5-sensor static Range Test Validation System (RTVS).1 The new capability consists of hardware for sensor pointing and attitude information which is made available for streaming and aggregation as part of the data fusion process for threat characterization. Cloud information is generated using 2-sensor data ingested into a suite of triangulation and tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The approaches are amenable to using a limited number of viewing projections and unfavorable sensor geometries resulting from mobile operation. In this paper we describe the system architecture and present an analysis of results obtained during the initial testing of the system at Dugway Proving Ground during BioWeek 2013.

  14. Whole-brain 3D mapping of human neural transplant innervation

    PubMed Central

    Doerr, Jonas; Schwarz, Martin Karl; Wiedermann, Dirk; Leinhaas, Anke; Jakobs, Alina; Schloen, Florian; Schwarz, Inna; Diedenhofen, Michael; Braun, Nils Christian; Koch, Philipp; Peterson, Daniel A.; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Hoehn, Mathias; Brüstle, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    While transplantation represents a key tool for assessing in vivo functionality of neural stem cells and their suitability for neural repair, little is known about the integration of grafted neurons into the host brain circuitry. Rabies virus-based retrograde tracing has developed into a powerful approach for visualizing synaptically connected neurons. Here, we combine this technique with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize transplanted cells and connected host neurons in whole-mouse brain preparations. Combined with co-registration of high-precision three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) reference data sets, this approach enables precise anatomical allocation of the host input neurons. Our data show that the same neural donor cell population grafted into different brain regions receives highly orthotopic input. These findings indicate that transplant connectivity is largely dictated by the circuitry of the target region and depict rabies-based transsynaptic tracing and LSFM as efficient tools for comprehensive assessment of host–donor cell innervation. PMID:28102196

  15. Maps of clouds modeled with the IPSL Titan 3D-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgalat, J.; Rannou, P.; Lebonnois, S.

    2011-10-01

    A new climate model for Titan's atmosphere has been developed at the IPSL. This model uses the current version of the LMDZ General Circulation Model (GCM) dynamical core with the physics part of the 2D Titan's IPSL-GCM. First simulations made at the LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) used a version of the model with coupled haze microphysics only. We update the model with the implementation of the clouds microphysics scheme inherited frome the previous 2D version. The model is now fully coupled with clouds processes and is a full 3D extension of the Titan IPSL-GCM ([2], [3]). Currently the model is not optimized and is demanding in term of computational time (approximatively 17 days of execution for one Titan's year simulation) and the model can not be used with its full capacities. Therefore all the microphysics is still computed as zonal averages. Nevertheless, new simulations performed including clouds, shows some encouraging results. The lack of asymmetry of the clouds coverage in the results of the 2D simulations. seems to vanish using the new model which tends to show that dissipation process in the 2D model was too strong. With this new model, we intented to get a better tool to understand Titan's climate and to interpret the large amount of data collected by the probes.

  16. Maps of clouds modeled with the IPSL Titan 3D-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgalat, J.; Rannou, P.; Lebonnois, S.

    2012-09-01

    A new climate model for Titan's atmosphere has been developed at the IPSL. This model uses the current version of the LMDZ General Circulation Model (GCM) dynamical core with the physics part of the 2D Titan's IPSL-GCM. First simulations made at the LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) used a version of the model with coupled haze microphysics only. We update the model with the implementation of the clouds microphysics scheme inherited from the previous 2D version. The model is now fully coupled with clouds processes and is a full 3D extension of the Titan IPSL-GCM ([2], [3]). Currently the model is not optimized and is demanding in term of computational time (approximatively 17 days of execution for one Titan's year simulation) and the model can not be used with its full capacities. Therefore all the microphysics is still computed as zonal averages. Nevertheless, new simulations performed including clouds, shows some encouraging results. The lack of asymmetry of the clouds coverage in the results of the 2D simulations seems to vanish using the new model which tends to show that dissipation process in the 2D model was too strong. With this new model, we intented to get a better tool to understand Titan's climate and to interpret the large amount of data collected by the probes.

  17. Geo-Referenced Mapping Using AN Airborne 3d Time-Of Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohoutek, T. K.; Nitsche, M.; Eisenbeiss, H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the first experience of a close range bird's eye view photogrammetry with range imaging (RIM) sensors for the real time generation of high resolution geo-referenced 3D surface models. The aim of this study was to develop a mobile, versatile and less costly outdoor survey methodology to measure natural surfaces compared to the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Two commercial RIM cameras (SR4000 by MESA Imaging AG and a CamCube 2.0 by PMDTechnologies GmbH) were mounted on a lightweight crane and on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The field experiments revealed various challenges in real time deployment of the two state-of-the-art RIM systems, e.g. processing of the large data volume. Acquisition strategy and data processing and first measurements are presented. The precision of the measured distances is less than 1 cm for good conditions. However, the measurement precision degraded under the test conditions due to direct sunlight, strong illumination contrasts and helicopter vibrations.

  18. Whole-brain 3D mapping of human neural transplant innervation.

    PubMed

    Doerr, Jonas; Schwarz, Martin Karl; Wiedermann, Dirk; Leinhaas, Anke; Jakobs, Alina; Schloen, Florian; Schwarz, Inna; Diedenhofen, Michael; Braun, Nils Christian; Koch, Philipp; Peterson, Daniel A; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Hoehn, Mathias; Brüstle, Oliver

    2017-01-19

    While transplantation represents a key tool for assessing in vivo functionality of neural stem cells and their suitability for neural repair, little is known about the integration of grafted neurons into the host brain circuitry. Rabies virus-based retrograde tracing has developed into a powerful approach for visualizing synaptically connected neurons. Here, we combine this technique with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize transplanted cells and connected host neurons in whole-mouse brain preparations. Combined with co-registration of high-precision three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) reference data sets, this approach enables precise anatomical allocation of the host input neurons. Our data show that the same neural donor cell population grafted into different brain regions receives highly orthotopic input. These findings indicate that transplant connectivity is largely dictated by the circuitry of the target region and depict rabies-based transsynaptic tracing and LSFM as efficient tools for comprehensive assessment of host-donor cell innervation.

  19. Development of a numerical procedure to map a general 3-d body onto a near-circle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hommel, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Conformal mapping is a classical technique utilized for solving problems in aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Conformal mapping is utilized in the construction of grids around airfoils, engine inlets and other aircraft configurations. These shapes are transformed onto a near-circle image for which the equations of fluid motion are discretized on the mapped plane and solved numerically by utilizing the appropriate techniques. In comparison to other grid-generation techniques such as algerbraic or differential type, conformal mapping offers an analytical and accurate form even if the grid deformation is large. One of the most appealing features is that the grid can be constrained to remain orthogonal to the body after the transformation. Hence, the grid is suitable for analyzing the supersonic flow past a blunt object. The associated shock as a coordinate surface adjusts its position in the course of computation until convergence is reached. The present work applied conformal mapping to 3-D bodies with no axis of symmetry such as the Aerobraking Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle, transforming the AFE shape onto a near-circle image. A numerical procedure and code are used to generate grids around the AFE body.

  20. Fusion of terrestrial LiDAR and tomographic mapping data for 3D karst landform investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, B.; Forbriger, M.; Siart, C.; Nowaczinski, E.

    2012-04-01

    Highly detailed topographic information has gained in importance for studying Earth surface landforms and processes. LiDAR has evolved into the state-of-the-art technology for 3D data acquisition on various scales. This multi-sensor system can be operated on several platforms such as airborne LS (ALS), mobile LS (MLS) from moving vehicles or stationary on ground (terrestrial LS, TLS). In karst research the integral investigation of surface and subsurface components of solution depressions (e.g. sediment-filled dolines) is required to gather and quantify the linked geomorphic processes such as sediment flux and limestone dissolution. To acquire the depth of the different subsurface layers, a combination of seismic refraction tomography (SRT) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is increasingly applied. This multi-method approach allows modeling the extension of different subsurface media (i.e. colluvial fill, epikarst zone and underlying basal bedrock). Subsequent fusion of the complementary techniques - LiDAR surface and tomographic subsurface data - first-time enables 3D prospection and visualization as well as quantification of geomorphometric parameters (e.g. depth, volume, slope and aspect). This study introduces a novel GIS-based method for semi-automated fusion of TLS and geophysical data. The study area is located in the Dikti Mountains of East Crete and covers two adjacent dolines. The TLS data was acquired with a Riegl VZ-400 scanner from 12 scan positions located mainly at the doline divide. The scan positions were co-registered using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm of RiSCAN PRO. For the digital elevation rasters a resolution of 0.5 m was defined. The digital surface model (DSM) of the study was derived by moving plane interpolation of all laser points (including objects) using the OPALS software. The digital terrain model (DTM) was generated by iteratively "eroding" objects in the DSM by minimum filter, which additionally accounts for

  1. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-10-16

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy.

  2. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  3. Retrieval and Mapping of Soil Texture Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Range Data from MODIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Cai; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Zhao, Ming-Song; Pan, Xian-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Li, De-Cheng; Macmillan, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence dynamic changes in remote images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface temperature is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface temperature product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day temperature, night temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand (> 0.05 mm), clay (< 0.001 mm) and physical clay (< 0.01 mm) contents. The models for each day were used to estimate soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data.

  4. Energy Dispersive X-ray Tomography for 3D Elemental Mapping of Individual Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Thomas J. A.; Lewis, Edward A.; Haigh, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy within the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) provides accurate elemental analysis with high spatial resolution, and is even capable of providing atomically resolved elemental maps. In this technique, a highly focused electron beam is incident upon a thin sample and the energy of emitted X-rays is measured in order to determine the atomic species of material within the beam path. This elementally sensitive spectroscopy technique can be extended to three dimensional tomographic imaging by acquiring multiple spectrum images with the sample tilted along an axis perpendicular to the electron beam direction. Elemental distributions within single nanoparticles are often important for determining their optical, catalytic and magnetic properties. Techniques such as X-ray tomography and slice and view energy dispersive X-ray mapping in the scanning electron microscope provide elementally sensitive three dimensional imaging but are typically limited to spatial resolutions of > 20 nm. Atom probe tomography provides near atomic resolution but preparing nanoparticle samples for atom probe analysis is often challenging. Thus, elementally sensitive techniques applied within the scanning transmission electron microscope are uniquely placed to study elemental distributions within nanoparticles of dimensions 10-100 nm. Here, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy within the STEM is applied to investigate the distribution of elements in single AgAu nanoparticles. The surface segregation of both Ag and Au, at different nanoparticle compositions, has been observed. PMID:27403838

  5. Scatterer size and concentration estimation technique based on a 3D acoustic impedance map from histologic sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamou, Jonathan; Oelze, Michael L.; O'Brien, William D.; Zachary, James F.

    2004-05-01

    Accurate estimates of scatterer parameters (size and acoustic concentration) are beneficial adjuncts to characterize disease from ultrasonic backscatterer measurements. An estimation technique was developed to obtain parameter estimates from the Fourier transform of the spatial autocorrelation function (SAF). A 3D impedance map (3DZM) is used to obtain the SAF of tissue. 3DZMs are obtained by aligning digitized light microscope images from histologic preparations of tissue. Estimates were obtained for simulated 3DZMs containing spherical scatterers randomly located: relative errors were less than 3%. Estimates were also obtained from a rat fibroadenoma and a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor (MMT). Tissues were fixed (10% neutral-buffered formalin), embedded in paraffin, serially sectioned and stained with H&E. 3DZM results were compared to estimates obtained independently against ultrasonic backscatter measurements. For the fibroadenoma and MMT, average scatterer diameters were 91 and 31.5 μm, respectively. Ultrasonic measurements yielded average scatterer diameters of 105 and 30 μm, respectively. The 3DZM estimation scheme showed results similar to those obtained by the independent ultrasonic measurements. The 3D impedance maps show promise as a powerful tool to characterize ultrasonic scattering sites of tissue. [Work supported by the University of Illinois Research Board.

  6. 3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture.

    PubMed

    Topp, Christopher N; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; Anderson, Jill T; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Zurek, Paul R; Symonova, Olga; Zheng, Ying; Bucksch, Alexander; Mileyko, Yuriy; Galkovskyi, Taras; Moore, Brad T; Harer, John; Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Weitz, Joshua S; Benfey, Philip N

    2013-04-30

    Identification of genes that control root system architecture in crop plants requires innovations that enable high-throughput and accurate measurements of root system architecture through time. We demonstrate the ability of a semiautomated 3D in vivo imaging and digital phenotyping pipeline to interrogate the quantitative genetic basis of root system growth in a rice biparental mapping population, Bala × Azucena. We phenotyped >1,400 3D root models and >57,000 2D images for a suite of 25 traits that quantified the distribution, shape, extent of exploration, and the intrinsic size of root networks at days 12, 14, and 16 of growth in a gellan gum medium. From these data we identified 89 quantitative trait loci, some of which correspond to those found previously in soil-grown plants, and provide evidence for genetic tradeoffs in root growth allocations, such as between the extent and thoroughness of exploration. We also developed a multivariate method for generating and mapping central root architecture phenotypes and used it to identify five major quantitative trait loci (r(2) = 24-37%), two of which were not identified by our univariate analysis. Our imaging and analytical platform provides a means to identify genes with high potential for improving root traits and agronomic qualities of crops.

  7. Towards a high performance vertex detector based on 3D integration of deep N-well MAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, V.

    2010-06-01

    The development of deep N-Well (DNW) CMOS active pixel sensors was driven by the ambitious goal of designing a monolithic device with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixel readout chips, such as pixel-level sparsification and time stamping. The implementation of the DNW MAPS concept in a 3D vertical integration process naturally leads the designer towards putting more intelligence in the chip and in the pixels themselves, achieving novel device structures based on the interconnection of two or more layers fabricated in the same technology. These devices are read out with a data-push scheme that makes it possible to use pixel data for the generation of a flexible level 1 track trigger, based on associative memories, with short latency and high efficiency. This paper gives an update of the present status of DNW MAPS design in both 2D and 3D versions, and presents a discussion of the architectures that are being devised for the Layer 0 of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker.

  8. 3D Vegetation Mapping Using UAVSAR, LVIS, and LIDAR Data Acquisition Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, Denice

    2011-01-01

    The overarching objective of this ongoing project is to assess the role of vegetation within climate change. Forests capture carbon, a green house gas, from the atmosphere. Thus, any change, whether, natural (e.g. growth, fire, death) or due to anthropogenic activity (e.g. logging, burning, urbanization) may have a significant impact on the Earth's carbon cycle. Through the use of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) and NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), which are airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) remote sensing technologies, we gather data to estimate the amount of carbon contained in forests and how the content changes over time. UAVSAR and LVIS sensors were sent all over the world with the objective of mapping out terrain to gather tree canopy height and biomass data; This data is in turn used to correlate vegetation with the global carbon cycle around the world.

  9. Photocurrent mapping of 3D CdSe/CdTe windowless solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hangarter, Carlos M; Debnath, Ratan; Ha, Jong Y; Sahiner, Mehmet A; Reehil, Christopher J; Manners, William A; Josell, Daniel

    2013-09-25

    This paper details the use of scanning photocurrent microscopy to examine localized current collection efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic devices with in-plane patterning at a submicrometer length scale. The devices are based upon two interdigitated comb electrodes at the micrometer length scale prepatterned on a substrate, with CdSe electrodeposited on one electrode and CdTe deposited over the entire surface of the resulting structure by pulsed laser deposition. Photocurrent maps provide information on what limits the performance of the windowless CdSe/CdTe thin-film photovoltaic devices, revealing "dead zones" particularly above the electrodes contacting the CdTe which is interpreted as recombination over the back contact. Additionally, the impact of ammonium sulfide passivation is examined, which enables device efficiency to reach 4.3% under simulated air mass 1.5 illumination.

  10. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A.; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  11. High-Resolution 3D Bathymetric Mapping for Small Streams Using Low-Altitude Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, J. T.; Duffin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Geomorphic monitoring of river restoration projects is a critical component of measuring their success. In smaller streams, with depths less than 2 meters, one of the more difficult variables to map at high-resolution is bathymetry. In larger rivers, bathymetry can be measured with instruments like multi-beam sonar, bathymetric airborne LiDAR, or acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP). However, these systems are often limited by their minimum operating depths, which makes them ineffective in shallow water. Remote sensing offers several potential solutions for collecting bathymetry, spectral depth mapping and photogrammetric measurement (e.g. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) multi-view photogrammetry). In this case study, we use SfM to produce both high-resolution above water topography and below water bathymetry for two reaches of a stream restoration project on the Middle Fork of the John Day River in eastern Oregon and one reach on the White River in Vermont. We collected low-allitude multispectral (RGB+NIR) aerial photography at all of the sites at altitudes of 30 to 50 meters. The SfM survey was georeferenced with RTK-GPS ground control points and the bathymetry was refraction-corrected using additional RTK-GPS sample points. The resulting raster data products have horizontal resolutions of ~4-8 centimeters for the topography and ~8-15 cm for the bathymetry. This methodology, like many fluvial remote sensing methods, will only work under ideal conditions (e.g. clear water), but it provides an additional tool for collecting high-resolution bathymetric datasets for geomorphic monitoring efforts.

  12. Stardust Under a Microscope - 3D maps of Wild 2/81P Cometary Samples in Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Amanda J.; Ebel, Denton

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 returned to Earth in 2006 with cometary and interstellar material captured in aerogel. Cometary particles impacted an aerogel collector at a relative velocity of 6.1 km/s, creating three-dimensional (3D) impact tracks of melted and crushed aerogel, void space, and fragmented cometary material. Each track represents the history of a unique hypervelocity capture event. The nature of each impact, including the original state of the impactor, is recorded in track morphology and material distribution. Using a combination of 3D morphological data, chemical data, and microphysical models, it is possible to reconstruct track formation events and a model of the original impactor.The focus of this work is to fully characterize whole tracks both morphologically and chemically using solely non-destructive methods. To achieve this, we combine high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) 3D imaging with synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) chemical mapping. We are also beginning to incorporate Raman spectroscopy to perform mineral phase analysis of fine track wall material. Using a Zeiss LSM 710 LSCM located in the American Museum of Natural History, we have imaged the morphology of over a dozen, whole Stardust tracks at high resolution (<80 nm/pixel in XY). We obtain the distribution of fine material along the track walls both quickly and without disturbing the sample. Complementary chemical data is acquired using the GSECARS X-ray microbe on beamline 13-IDE at the Advance Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. X-ray fluorescence maps of each track were collected with 100ms/pixel dwell time at a resolution of 1 or 2 micron/pixel. Many tracks were tilted and mapped a second time for stereo measurements.A thorough understanding of how cometary material and aerogel is distributed along tracks is required to understand the events which occurred after impact and to back-calculate properties of the original impactor

  13. Land use/land cover mapping using multi-scale texture processing of high resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S. N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are useful for many purposes, and for a long time remote sensing techniques have been used for LULC mapping using different types of data and image processing techniques. In this research, high resolution satellite data from IKONOS was used to perform land use/land cover mapping in Johor Bahru city and adjacent areas (Malaysia). Spatial image processing was carried out using the six texture algorithms (mean, variance, contrast, homogeneity, entropy, and GLDV angular second moment) with five difference window sizes (from 3×3 to 11×11). Three different classifiers i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) were used to classify the texture parameters of different spectral bands individually and all bands together using the same training and validation samples. Results indicated that texture parameters of all bands together generally showed a better performance (overall accuracy = 90.10%) for land LULC mapping, however, single spectral band could only achieve an overall accuracy of 72.67%. This research also found an improvement of the overall accuracy (OA) using single-texture multi-scales approach (OA = 89.10%) and single-scale multi-textures approach (OA = 90.10%) compared with all original bands (OA = 84.02%) because of the complementary information from different bands and different texture algorithms. On the other hand, all of the three different classifiers have showed high accuracy when using different texture approaches, but SVM generally showed higher accuracy (90.10%) compared to MLC (89.10%) and ANN (89.67%) especially for the complex classes such as urban and road.

  14. Temperature Mapping of 3D Printed Polymer Plates: Experimental and Numerical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kousiatza, Charoula; Chatzidai, Nikoleta; Karalekas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), which is a common thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing (AM) method, the polymer model material that is in the form of a flexible filament is heated above its glass transition temperature (Tg) to a semi-molten state in the head’s liquefier. The heated material is extruded in a rastering configuration onto the building platform where it rapidly cools and solidifies with the adjoining material. The heating and rapid cooling cycles of the work materials exhibited during the FDM process provoke non-uniform thermal gradients and cause stress build-up that consequently result in part distortions, dimensional inaccuracy and even possible part fabrication failure. Within the purpose of optimizing the FDM technique by eliminating the presence of such undesirable effects, real-time monitoring is essential for the evaluation and control of the final parts’ quality. The present work investigates the temperature distributions developed during the FDM building process of multilayered thin plates and on this basis a numerical study is also presented. The recordings of temperature changes were achieved by embedding temperature measuring sensors at various locations into the middle-plane of the printed structures. The experimental results, mapping the temperature variations within the samples, were compared to the corresponding ones obtained by finite element modeling, exhibiting good correlation. PMID:28245557

  15. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments. PMID:27536882

  16. 3D unmanned aerial vehicle radiation mapping for assessing contaminant distribution and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. G.; Kwong, S.; Smith, N. T.; Yamashiki, Y.; Payton, O. D.; Russell-Pavier, F. S.; Fardoulis, J. S.; Richards, D. A.; Scott, T. B.

    2016-10-01

    Following the events of March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, significant quantities of radioactive material were released into the local and wider global environment. At five years since the incident, much expense is being currently devoted to the remediation of a large portion of eastern Japan contaminated primarily by radiocesium, yet further significant expenditure will be required over the succeeding decades to complete this clean-up. People displaced from their homes by the incident are now increasingly keen to return, making it more important than ever to provide accurate quantification and representation of any residual radiological contamination. Presented here is the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a laser rangefinder unit to generate a three dimensional point-cloud of an area onto which a radiation contamination map, also obtained concurrently via the unmanned aerial platform, can be rendered. An exemplar site of an un-remediated farm consisting of multiple stepped rice paddy fields with a dedicated irrigation system was used for this work. The results obtained show that heightened radiological contamination exists around the site within the drainage network where material is observed to have collected, having been transported by transient water runoff events. These results obtained in May 2014 suggest that a proportion of the fallout material is highly mobile within the natural environment and is likely to be transported further through the system over the succeeding years.

  17. Mapping the Extinction Curve in 3D: Structure on Kiloparsec Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Peek, J. E. G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Green, G. M.

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy from APOGEE and wide-field optical photometry from Pan-STARRS1 have recently made precise measurements of the shape of the extinction curve possible for tens of thousands of stars, parameterized by R(V). These measurements revealed structures in R(V) with large angular scales, which are challenging to explain in existing dust paradigms. In this work, we combine three-dimensional maps of dust column density with R(V) measurements to constrain the three-dimensional distribution of R(V) in the Milky Way. We find that the variations in R(V) are correlated on kiloparsec scales. In particular, most of the dust within one kiloparsec in the outer Galaxy, including many local molecular clouds (Orion, Taurus, Perseus, California, and Cepheus), has a significantly lower R(V) than more distant dust in the Milky Way. These results provide new input to models of dust evolution and processing, and complicate the application of locally derived extinction curves to more distant regions of the Milky Way and to other galaxies.

  18. Electrical Structure Inferred by 3-D Lightning Mapping Observations During STEPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlin, T.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Zhang, Y.; Thomas, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    The Severe Thunderstorm Electrification and Precipitation Study (STEPS) provided numerous examples of storms which electrified anomalously, developing inverted tripole or quadrupole electrical structures. The storms were often supercells and cases where the lightning activity consisted primarily of IC flashes for substantial periods of time, only followed (if at all) much later by the onset of CG activity, were observed on several occasions. Radar comparisons for the tornadic storm of June 29 and the Bird City storm of June 3 during STEPS indicate that the main positive charge was localized in the precipitation core, but the electrification also had a definite horizontally extensive, multilayer structure extending away from the core. In these storms the upper positive charge region developed rapidly and produced intense lightning activity. The upper positive gradually evolved downward in altitude to become the dominant mid-level charge, forming an inverted tripole structure which appears to be stable for long periods of time. By assuming that a given polarity breakdown is moving into regions of opposite polarity charge (with exceptions) the total charge structure can be inferred and mapped based on information gleaned from the individual flashes; this allows use of the LMA data to detail the charge structure of storms. We take this approach to study the evolution of charge structures for storms during STEPS.

  19. Temperature Mapping of 3D Printed Polymer Plates: Experimental and Numerical Study.

    PubMed

    Kousiatza, Charoula; Chatzidai, Nikoleta; Karalekas, Dimitris

    2017-02-24

    In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), which is a common thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing (AM) method, the polymer model material that is in the form of a flexible filament is heated above its glass transition temperature (Tg) to a semi-molten state in the head's liquefier. The heated material is extruded in a rastering configuration onto the building platform where it rapidly cools and solidifies with the adjoining material. The heating and rapid cooling cycles of the work materials exhibited during the FDM process provoke non-uniform thermal gradients and cause stress build-up that consequently result in part distortions, dimensional inaccuracy and even possible part fabrication failure. Within the purpose of optimizing the FDM technique by eliminating the presence of such undesirable effects, real-time monitoring is essential for the evaluation and control of the final parts' quality. The present work investigates the temperature distributions developed during the FDM building process of multilayered thin plates and on this basis a numerical study is also presented. The recordings of temperature changes were achieved by embedding temperature measuring sensors at various locations into the middle-plane of the printed structures. The experimental results, mapping the temperature variations within the samples, were compared to the corresponding ones obtained by finite element modeling, exhibiting good correlation.

  20. Development and application of a ray-tracing code integrating with 3D equilibrium mapping in LHD ECH experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, T., Ii; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Makino, R.; Seki, R.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Ida, K.; Suzuki, C.; Emoto, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Ejiri, A.; Mutoh, T.

    2015-11-01

    The central electron temperature has successfully reached up to 7.5 keV in large helical device (LHD) plasmas with a central high-ion temperature of 5 keV and a central electron density of 1.3× {{10}19} m-3. This result was obtained by heating with a newly-installed 154 GHz gyrotron and also the optimisation of injection geometry in electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The optimisation was carried out by using the ray-tracing code ‘LHDGauss’, which was upgraded to include the rapid post-processing three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium mapping obtained from experiments. For ray-tracing calculations, LHDGauss can automatically read the relevant data registered in the LHD database after a discharge, such as ECH injection settings (e.g. Gaussian beam parameters, target positions, polarisation and ECH power) and Thomson scattering diagnostic data along with the 3D equilibrium mapping data. The equilibrium map of the electron density and temperature profiles are then extrapolated into the region outside the last closed flux surface. Mode purity, or the ratio between the ordinary mode and the extraordinary mode, is obtained by calculating the 1D full-wave equation along the direction of the rays from the antenna to the absorption target point. Using the virtual magnetic flux surfaces, the effects of the modelled density profiles and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region with a given polarisation are taken into account. Power deposition profiles calculated for each Thomson scattering measurement timing are registered in the LHD database. The adjustment of the injection settings for the desired deposition profile from the feedback provided on a shot-by-shot basis resulted in an effective experimental procedure.

  1. 3D Mapping of calcite and a demonstration of its relevance to permeability evolution in reactive fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.

    2016-09-01

    There is a need to better understand reaction-induced changes in fluid transport in fractured shales, caprocks and reservoirs, especially in the context of emerging energy technologies, including geologic carbon sequestration, unconventional natural gas, and enhanced geothermal systems. We developed a method for 3D calcite mapping in rock specimens. Such information is critical in reactive transport modeling, which relies on information about the locations and accessible surface area of reactive minerals. We focused on calcite because it is a mineral whose dissolution could lead to substantial pathway alteration because of its high solubility, fast reactivity, and abundance in sedimentary rocks. Our approach combines X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and scanning electron microscopy. The method was developed and demonstrated for a fractured limestone core containing about 50% calcite, which was 2.5 cm in diameter and 3.5 cm in length and had been scanned using XCT. The core was subsequently sectioned and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to determine elemental signatures for mineral identification and mapping. Back-scattered electron microscopy was used to identify features for co-location. Finally, image analysis resulted in characteristic grayscale intensities of X-ray attenuation that identify calcite. This attenuation mapping ultimately produced a binary segmented 3D image of the spatial distribution of calcite in the entire core. To demonstrate the value of this information, permeability changes were investigated for hypothetical fractures created by eroding calcite from 2D rock surfaces. Fluid flow was simulated using a 2D steady state model. The resulting increases in permeability were profoundly influenced by the degree to which calcite is contiguous along the flow path. If there are bands of less reactive minerals perpendicular to the direction of flow, fracture permeability may be an order of magnitude smaller than when calcite is contiguous

  2. Prospects of 3D mapping of the Galactic Centre clouds with X-ray polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, F.; Karas, V.; Kunneriath, D.; Muleri, F.

    2014-07-01

    Despite past panchromatic observations of the innermost part of the Milky Way, the overall structure of the Galactic Centre (GC) remains enigmatic in terms of geometry. In this paper, we aim to show how polarimetry can probe the three-dimensional position of the molecular material in the central ˜100 pc of the GC. We investigate a model where the central supermassive black hole Sgr A* is radiatively coupled to a fragmented circumnuclear disc (CND), an elliptical twisted ring representative of the central molecular zone (CMZ), and the two main, bright molecular clouds Sgr B2 and Sgr C. 8-35 keV integrated polarization mapping reveals that Sgr B2 and Sgr C, situated at the two sides of the CMZ, present the highest polarization degrees (66.5 and 47.8 per cent, respectively), both associated with a polarization position angle ψ = 90° (normal to the scattering plane). The CND shows a lower polarization degree, 1.0 per cent with ψ = -20.5°, tracing the inclination of the CND with respect to the Galactic plane. The CMZ polarization is spatially variable. We also consider a range of spatial locations for Sgr A* and the reprocessing media, and investigate how the modelled three-dimensional geometry influences the resulting GC polarization. The two reflection nebulae are found to always produce high polarization degrees (≫10 per cent). We show that a 500 ks observation with a broad-band polarimeter could constrain the location and the morphology of the scattering material with respect to the emitting source, revealing the past activity of Sgr A*.

  3. Mapping the Monoceros Ring in 3D with Pan-STARRS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganson, Eric; Conn, Blair; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth; Dolphin, Andrew; Draper, Peter W.; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Metcalfe, Nigel; Schlafly, Edward F.; Slater, Colin T.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Christopher Z.

    2016-07-01

    Using the Pan-STARRS1 survey, we derive limiting magnitude, spatial completeness, and density maps that we use to probe the three-dimensional structure and estimate the stellar mass of the so-called Monoceros Ring. The Monoceros Ring is an enormous and complex stellar sub-structure in the outer Milky Way disk. It is most visible across the large Galactic Anticenter region, 120^\\circ \\lt l\\lt 240^\\circ , -30^\\circ \\lt b\\lt +40^\\circ . We estimate its stellar mass density profile along every line of sight in 2° × 2° pixels over the entire 30,000 deg2 Pan-STARRS1 survey using the previously developed match software. By parsing this distribution into a radially smooth component and the Monoceros Ring, we obtain its mass and distance from the Sun along each relevant line of sight. The Monoceros Ring is significantly closer to us in the south (6 kpc) than in the north (9 kpc). We also create 2D cross-sections parallel to the Galactic plane that show 135° of the Monoceros Ring in the south and 170° of the Monoceros Ring in the north. We show that the northern and southern structures are also roughly concentric circles, suggesting that they may be waves rippling from a common origin. Excluding the Galactic plane ˜ +/- 4^\\circ , we observe an excess mass of 4× {10}6{M}⊙ across 120^\\circ \\lt l\\lt 240^\\circ . If we interpolate across the Galactic plane, we estimate that this region contains 8× {10}6{M}⊙ . If we assume (somewhat boldly) that the Monoceros Ring is a set of two Galactocentric rings, its total mass is 6× {10}7{M}⊙ . Finally, if we assume that it is a set of two circles centered at a point 4 kpc from the Galactic center in the anti-central direction, as our data suggests, we estimate its mass to be 4× {10}7{M}⊙ .

  4. High Resolution 3d Modeling of the Behaim Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, F.; Rizzi, A.; Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Gruen, A.

    2012-07-01

    The article describes the 3D surveying and modeling of the Behaim globe, the oldest still existing and intact globe of the earth, preserved at the German National Museum of Nuremberg, Germany. The work is primarily performed using high-resolution digital images and automatic photogrammetric techniques. Triangulation-based laser scanning is also employed to fill some gaps in the derived image-based 3D geometry and perform geometric comparisons. Major problems are encountered in texture mapping. The 3D modeling project and the creation of high-resolution map-projections is performed for scientific, conservation, visualization and education purposes.

  5. Mapping the unconventional orbital texture in topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Okada, Yoshinori; Huang, Cheng-Yi; Sankar, R.; Walkup, Daniel; Zhou, Wenwen; Serbyn, Maksym; Chou, Fangcheng; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun; Fu, Liang; Hasan, M. Zahid; Madhavan, Vidya

    2014-03-01

    The newly discovered topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) harbor a complex band structure involving multiple Dirac cones. These materials are potentially highly tunable by external electric field, temperature or strain and could find future applications in field-effect transistors, photodetectors, and nano-mechanical systems. Theoretically, it has been predicted that different Dirac cones, offset in energy and momentum-space, might harbor vastly different orbital character, a unique property which if experimentally realized, would present an ideal platform for accomplishing new spintronic devices. In this study, we unveil the orbital texture in a prototypical TCI Pb1-xSnxSe by using Fourier-transform (FT) scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to measure the interference patterns produced by the scattering of surface state electrons. We discover that the intensity and energy dependences of FTs show distinct characteristics, which can directly be attributed to orbital effects. Our experiments also reveal the complex band topology involving two Lifshitz transitions.

  6. Novel real-time 3D radiological mapping solution for ALARA maximization, D and D assessments and radiological management

    SciTech Connect

    Dubart, Philippe; Hautot, Felix; Morichi, Massimo; Abou-Khalil, Roger

    2015-07-01

    Good management of dismantling and decontamination (D and D) operations and activities is requiring safety, time saving and perfect radiological knowledge of the contaminated environment as well as optimization for personnel dose and minimization of waste volume. In the same time, Fukushima accident has imposed a stretch to the nuclear measurement operational approach requiring in such emergency situation: fast deployment and intervention, quick analysis and fast scenario definition. AREVA, as return of experience from his activities carried out at Fukushima and D and D sites has developed a novel multi-sensor solution as part of his D and D research, approach and method, a system with real-time 3D photo-realistic spatial radiation distribution cartography of contaminated premises. The system may be hand-held or mounted on a mobile device (robot, drone, e.g). In this paper, we will present our current development based on a SLAM technology (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) and integrated sensors and detectors allowing simultaneous topographic and radiological (dose rate and/or spectroscopy) data acquisitions. This enabling technology permits 3D gamma activity cartography in real-time. (authors)

  7. Comprehensive QTL mapping survey dissects the complex fruit texture physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Longhi, Sara; Moretto, Marco; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2012-02-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex physiological process in plants whereby cell wall programmed changes occur mainly to promote seed dispersal. Cell wall modification also directly regulates the textural properties, a fundamental aspect of fruit quality. In this study, two full-sib populations of apple, with 'Fuji' as the common maternal parent, crossed with 'Delearly' and 'Pink Lady', were used to understand the control of fruit texture by QTL mapping and in silico gene mining. Texture was dissected with a novel high resolution phenomics strategy, simultaneously profiling both mechanical and acoustic fruit texture components. In 'Fuji × Delearly' nine linkage groups were associated with QTLs accounting from 15.6% to 49% of the total variance, and a highly significant QTL cluster for both textural components was mapped on chromosome 10 and co-located with Md-PG1, a polygalacturonase gene that, in apple, is known to be involved in cell wall metabolism processes. In addition, other candidate genes related to Md-NOR and Md-RIN transcription factors, Md-Pel (pectate lyase), and Md-ACS1 were mapped within statistical intervals. In 'Fuji × Pink Lady', a smaller set of linkage groups associated with the QTLs identified for fruit texture (15.9-34.6% variance) was observed. The analysis of the phenotypic variance over a two-dimensional PCA plot highlighted a transgressive segregation for this progeny, revealing two QTL sets distinctively related to both mechanical and acoustic texture components. The mining of the apple genome allowed the discovery of the gene inventory underlying each QTL, and functional profile assessment unravelled specific gene expression patterns of these candidate genes.

  8. C2SM: a mobile system for detecting and 3D mapping of chemical, radiological, and nuclear contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiobedzki, Piotr; Ng, Ho-Kong; Bondy, Michel; McDiarmid, C. H.

    2009-05-01

    CBRN Crime Scene Modeler (C2SM) is a prototype mobile CBRN mapping system for First Responders in events where Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear agents where used. The prototype operates on board a small robotic platform, increases situational awareness of the robot operator by providing geo-located images and data, and current robot location. The sensor suite includes stereo and high resolution cameras, a long wave infra red (thermal) camera and gamma and chemical detectors. The system collects and sends geo-located data to a remote command post in near real-time and automatically creates 3D photorealistic model augmented with CBRN measurements. Two prototypes have been successfully tested in field trials and a fully ruggedised commercial version is expected in 2010.

  9. The Derivation of Fault Volumetric Properties from 3D Trace Maps Using Outcrop Constrained Discrete Fracture Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgetts, David; Seers, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Fault systems are important structural elements within many petroleum reservoirs, acting as potential conduits, baffles or barriers to hydrocarbon migration. Large, seismic-scale faults often serve as reservoir bounding seals, forming structural traps which have proved to be prolific plays in many petroleum provinces. Though inconspicuous within most seismic datasets, smaller subsidiary faults, commonly within the damage zones of parent structures, may also play an important role. These smaller faults typically form narrow, tabular low permeability zones which serve to compartmentalize the reservoir, negatively impacting upon hydrocarbon recovery. Though considerable improvements have been made in the visualization field to reservoir-scale fault systems with the advent of 3D seismic surveys, the occlusion of smaller scale faults in such datasets is a source of significant uncertainty during prospect evaluation. The limited capacity of conventional subsurface datasets to probe the spatial distribution of these smaller scale faults has given rise to a large number of outcrop based studies, allowing their intensity, connectivity and size distributions to be explored in detail. Whilst these studies have yielded an improved theoretical understanding of the style and distribution of sub-seismic scale faults, the ability to transform observations from outcrop to quantities that are relatable to reservoir volumes remains elusive. These issues arise from the fact that outcrops essentially offer a pseudo-3D window into the rock volume, making the extrapolation of surficial fault properties such as areal density (fracture length per unit area: P21), to equivalent volumetric measures (i.e. fracture area per unit volume: P32) applicable to fracture modelling extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate an approach which harnesses advances in the extraction of 3D trace maps from surface reconstructions using calibrated image sequences, in combination with a novel semi

  10. 3D geological modelling and geothermal mapping - the first results of the transboundary Polish - Saxon project "TransGeoTherm"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozdrój, Wiesław; Kłonowski, Maciej; Mydłowski, Adam; Ziółkowska-Kozdrój, Małgorzata; Badura, Janusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Russ, Dorota; Zawistowski, Karol; Domańska, Urszula; Karamański, Paweł; Krentz, Ottomar; Hofmann, Karina; Riedel, Peter; Reinhardt, Silke; Bretschneider, Mario

    2014-05-01

    TransGeoTherm is a common project of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute Lower Silesian Branch (Lead Partner) and the Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, co-financed by the European Union (EU) under the framework of the Operational Programme for Transboundary Co-operation Poland-Saxony 2007-2013. It started in October 2012 and will last until June 2014. The main goal of the project is to introduce and establish the use of low temperature geothermal energy as a low emission energy source in the Saxon-Polish transboundary project area. The numerous geological, hydrogeological and geothermal data have been gathered, analysed, combined and interpreted with respect to 3D numerical modelling and subsequently processed with use of the GOCAD software. The resulting geological model covers the transboundary project area exceeding 1.000 km2 and comprises around 70 units up to the depth of about 200 metres (locally deeper) below the terrain. The division of the above units has been based on their litho-stratigraphy as well as geological, hydrogeological and geothermal settings. The model includes two lignite deposits: Berzdorf deposit in Saxony-mined out and already recultivated and Radomierzyce deposit in Poland - documented but still not excavated. At the end of the modelling procedure the raster data sets of the top, bottom and thickness of every unit will be deduced from the 3D geological model with a gridsize of 25 by 25 metres. Based on the geothermal properties of the rocks and their groundwater content a specific value of geothermal conductivity will be allocated to each layer of every borehole. Thereafter for every section of a borehole, belonging to a certain unit of the 3D geological model, a weighted mean value will be calculated. Next the horizontal distribution of these values within every unit will be interpolated. This step / procedure has to be done for all units. As a result of further calculations a series

  11. Development of Inundation Map for Bantayan Island, Cebu Using Delft3D-Flow Storm Surge Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadra, Camille; Suarez, John Kenneth; Biton, Nophi Ian; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Lapidez, John Phillip; Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    On average, 20 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually, making it vulnerable to different storm hazards. Apart from the frequency of tropical cyclones, the archipelagic nature of the country makes it particularly prone to storm surges. On 08 November 2013, Haiyan, a Category 5 Typhoon with maximum one-minute sustained wind speed of 315 kph, hit the central region of the Philippines. In its path, the howler devastated Bantayan Island, a popular tourist destination. The island is located north of Cebu City, the second largest metropolis of the Philippines in terms of populace. Having been directly hit by Typhoon Haiyan, Bantayan Island was severely damaged by strong winds and storm surges, with more than 11,000 houses totally destroyed while 5,000 more suffered minor damage. The adverse impacts of possible future storm surge events in the island can only be mitigated if hazard maps that depict inundation of the coastal areas of Bantayan are generated. To create such maps, Delft3D-Flow, a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate storm surges. These simulations were made over a 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) bathymetry. The results of the coastal inundation model for Typhoon Haiyan's storm surges were validated using data collected from field work and local government reports. The hydrodynamic model of Bantayan was then calibrated using the field data and further simulations were made with varying typhoon tracks. This was done to generate scenarios on the farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. The output of the study is a detailed storm surge inundation map that depicts safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas and for construction of coastal protection structures. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.

  12. Documentation and Visualization of AN As-Built Tunnel by Combining 3d Laser Scanning and Web Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Arditi, D.; Chen, Z.

    2013-08-01

    A new way to document and visualize the as-built condition of an urban tunnel project with high accuracy is described in this paper, based on recent developments of laser scanning technology. In traditional surveying, the components of a tunnel are organized on the basis of the location of stations and offsets along the project alignment specified in the drawings. It is difficult for people without an engineering background to understand the information involved in surveying reports, drawings, and engineering data. However, in the interest of transparency, public agencies that commission construction projects have to make project information available to government officials and to the general public. This paper discusses the combined use of laser scanning technology and web mapping services to improve the documentation and visualization of an urban metro tunnel. Laser scanning technology is introduced to perform the surveyor's task, document the as-built condition, and geo-reference the construction elements. A set of panoramic pictures is generated by laser scanning that allows for taking measurements and extracting 3D coordinates. An XML file that contains geo-reference information is appended to each panoramic picture. Using application programming interface (API), this information is referenced to a web mapping service. A case study of the CTA Red line Tunnel in Chicago, IL demonstrates this method in a real life project.

  13. Reconstructing 3-D maps of the local viscoelastic properties using a finite-amplitude modulated radiation force.

    PubMed

    Giannoula, Alexia; Cobbold, Richard; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2014-02-01

    A modulated acoustic radiation force, produced by two confocal tone-burst ultrasound beams of slightly different frequencies (i.e. 2.0 MHz ± Δf/2, where Δf is the difference frequency), can be used to remotely generate modulated low-frequency (Δf ≤ 500 Hz) shear waves in attenuating media. By appropriately selecting the duration of the two beams, the energy of the generated shear waves can be concentrated around the difference frequency (i.e., Δf ± Δf/2). In this manner, neither their amplitude nor their phase information is distorted by frequency-dependent effects, thereby, enabling a more accurate reconstruction of the viscoelastic properties. Assuming a Voigt viscoelastic model, this paper describes the use of a finite-element-method model to simulate three-dimensional (3-D) shear-wave propagation in viscoelastic media containing a spherical inclusion. Nonlinear propagation is assumed for the two ultrasound beams, so that higher harmonics are developed in the force and shear spectrum. Finally, an inverse reconstruction algorithm is used to extract 3-D maps of the local shear modulus and viscosity from the simulated shear-displacement fields based on the fundamental and second-harmonic component. The quality of the reconstructed maps is evaluated using the contrast between the inclusion and the background and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). It is shown that the shear modulus can be accurately reconstructed based on the fundamental component, such that the observed contrast deviates from the true contrast by a root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of only 0.38 and the CNR is greater than 30 dB. If the second-harmonic component is used, the RMSE becomes 1.54 and the corresponding CNR decreases by approximately 10-15 dB. The reconstructed shear viscosity maps based on the second harmonic are shown to be of higher quality than those based on the fundamental. The effects of noise are also investigated and a fusion operation between the two spectral components is

  14. Field Trial Results of a 14-channel GPR Integrated with a U.S. Program for 3-D Utility Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anspach, James H.

    2013-04-01

    utilities were mostly undetectable. Through a ground-truthing program of test holes to expose utilities, the depth values derived from the enhanced GPR were fairly consistent and within 15 cm of actual depth. The incomplete underground picture determined by the enhanced GPR reinforces previous studies that show that the mapping of existing underground utilities is a multi-tool effort that takes highly trained and skilled field technicians and data interpreters. The addition of a new GPR tool is valuable in determining continuous depth profiles of imaged utilities. A second and significant benefit is the interpretation of other geotechnical data that benefit project designers. This might include showing geometry, location, intensity, and depths of either areas of anomalies, or of known structures, such as paving thickness, substrate thickness, voids, water table, soil lenses, boulders, bedrock, and so forth. The Florida Department of Transportation has decided to take advantage of this new technology and has entered into an experimental contract with Cardno TBE to incorporate several enhanced GPR arrays with traditional utility detection tools. The goal of this contract will be to provide a 3-D model of existing underground utilities for use in automated construction. The GPR 3-D data model will be melded with conventional subsurface utility engineering and mapping practices and will be required to follow the ASCE 38 standard for utility data reliability.

  15. Dynamic deformation measurements of a rotating disc by twin-pulsed 3D digital holography and interpolation of phase maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Lopez, Carlos; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes the application of twin-pulsed 3D digital holography to the measurement of the dynamic deformation of a disc while it rotates. Object rotation produces interferometric fringes that are related to deformations for instance, stress due to the centrifugal forces, out-to plane vibrations, and the object angular displacement. Furthermore an unbalanced disc that rotates may present a characteristic vibration amplitude pattern at a specific frequency. An optical arrangement that illuminates, with a twin pulsed laser, from three different positions the object was used to recover the x, y and z displacement components in a rotating object. The technique is able to distinguish the disc rotation from the displacement along the x-y plane and the out-of-plane z displacement. Two laser pulses are fired in order to take two digital holgrams with a time separation of 20 μs. This is done for each of the three object illumination positions. Triads of twin-pulsed digital holograms taken at different times during object rotation are processed independently, and their optical phase maps retrieved by the conventional Fourier transform method together with the combination of data from the three illumination positions. The phase term related to the deformation is found experimentally where the intrinsic sensitivity vector is related to the rotation via the vector cross product, forming parallel fringes. To recover the rotation and deformation data the unwrapped phase maps were used as 'tilt' phase planes an all three sensitivity vectors in order to recover the in-plane, and out-to plane displacements. An interpolation algorithm was developed to correlate the time depending phase maps, leading to obtain object vibration frequency data. Experimental results are presented, showing in particular that the rotating object has an unbalancing due to the detected vibration frequency.

  16. High-resolution 3-D T1*-mapping and quantitative image analysis of GRAY ZONE in chronic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pop, Mihaela; Ramanan, Venkat; Yang, Franklin; Zhang, Li; Newbigging, Susan; Ghugre, Nilesh R; Wright, Graham A

    2014-12-01

    The substrate of potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmias often resides in the gray zone (GZ), a mixture of viable myocytes and collagen strands found between healthy myocardium and infarct core (IC). The specific aims of this paper are to demonstrate correspondence between regions delineated in T1* (apparent T1) maps and tissue characteristics seen in histopathology and to determine the MR imaging resolution needed to adequately identify GZ-associated substrate in chronic infarct. For this, a novel 3-D multicontrast late enhancement (MCLE) MR method was used to image ex vivo swine hearts with chronic infarction, at high resolution ( 0.6×0.6×1.25 mm). Pixel-wise classified tissue maps were calculated using steady-state and T1* images as input to a fuzzy-clustering algorithm. Quantitative histology based on collagen stains was performed in n = 10 selected slabs and showed very good correlations between histologically-determined areas of heterogeneous and dense fibrosis, and the corresponding GZ ( R2 = 0.96) and IC ( R2 = 0.97 ) in tissue classified maps. Furthermore, in n = 24 slabs, we performed volumetric measurements of GZ and IC, at the original and decreased image resolutions. Our results demonstrated that the IC volume remained relatively unchanged across all resolutions, whereas the GZ volume progressively increased with diminished image resolution, with changes reaching significance at 1×1×5 mm resolution (p < 0.05 ) but not at 1×1×2.5 mm, suggesting that this resolution may be sufficient to adequately identify the GZ from MCLE images, enabling an effective MR probing of remodeled myocardium in late infarct. Future work will focus on translating these findings to optimizing the current in vivo MCLE imaging of the GZ.

  17. A 3D map of the hindlimb motor representation in the lumbar spinal cord in Sprague Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrell, Jordan A.; Frost, Shawn B.; Peterson, Jeremy; Nudo, Randolph J.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological trauma with a prevalence of about 282 000 people living with an SCI in the United States in 2016. Advances in neuromodulatory devices hold promise for restoring function by incorporating the delivery of electrical current directly into the spinal cord grey matter via intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). In such designs, detailed topographic maps of spinal cord outputs are needed to determine ISMS locations for eliciting hindlimb movements. The primary goal of the present study was to derive a topographic map of functional motor outputs in the lumbar spinal cord to hindlimb skeletal muscles as defined by ISMS in a rat model. Approach. Experiments were carried out in nine healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats. After a laminectomy of the T13-L1 vertebrae and removal of the dura mater, a four-shank, 16-channel microelectrode array was inserted along a 3D (200 µm) stimulation grid. Trains of three biphasic current pulses were used to determine evoked movements and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Via fine wire EMG electrodes, stimulus-triggered averaging (StTA) was used on rectified EMG data to determine response latency. Main results. Hindlimb movements were elicited at a median current intensity of 6 µA, and thresholds were significantly lower in ventrolateral sites. Movements typically consisted of whole leg, hip, knee, ankle, toe, and trunk movements. Hip movements dominated rostral to the T13 vertebral segment, knee movements were evoked at the T13-L1 vertebral junction, while ankle and digit movements were found near the rostral L1 vertebra. Whole leg movements spanned the entire rostrocaudal region explored, while trunk movements dominated medially. StTAs of EMG activity demonstrated a latency of ~4 ms. Significance. The derived motor map provides insight into the parameters needed for future neuromodulatory devices.

  18. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate. PMID:26378543

  19. Soil process-oriented modelling of within-field variability based on high-resolution 3D soil type distribution maps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönecke, Eric; Lück, Erika; Gründling, Ralf; Rühlmann, Jörg; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Today, the knowledge of within-field variability is essential for numerous purposes, including practical issues, such as precision and sustainable soil management. Therefore, process-oriented soil models have been applied for a considerable time to answer question of spatial soil nutrient and water dynamics, although, they can only be as consistent as their variation and resolution of soil input data. Traditional approaches, describe distribution of soil types, soil texture or other soil properties for greater soil units through generalised point information, e.g. from classical soil survey maps. Those simplifications are known to be afflicted with large uncertainties. Varying soil, crop or yield conditions are detected even within such homogenised soil units. However, recent advances of non-invasive soil survey and on-the-go monitoring techniques, made it possible to obtain vertical and horizontal dense information (3D) about various soil properties, particularly soil texture distribution which serves as an essential soil key variable affecting various other soil properties. Thus, in this study we based our simulations on detailed 3D soil type distribution (STD) maps (4x4 m) to adjacently built-up sufficient informative soil profiles including various soil physical and chemical properties. Our estimates of spatial STD are based on high-resolution lateral and vertical changes of electrical resistivity (ER), detected by a relatively new multi-sensor on-the-go ER monitoring device. We performed an algorithm including fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) logic and traditional soil classification to estimate STD from those inverted and layer-wise available ER data. STD is then used as key input parameter for our carbon, nitrogen and water transport model. We identified Pedological horizon depths and inferred hydrological soil variables (field capacity, permanent wilting point) from pedotransferfunctions (PTF) for each horizon. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon

  20. 3D-QSAR AND CONTOUR MAP ANALYSIS OF TARIQUIDAR ANALOGUES AS MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE PROTEIN-1 (MRP1) INHIBITORS

    PubMed Central

    Kakarla, Prathusha; Inupakutika, Madhuri; Devireddy, Amith R.; Gunda, Shravan Kumar; Willmon, Thomas Mark; Ranjana, KC; Shrestha, Ugina; Ranaweera, Indrika; Hernandez, Alberto J.; Barr, Sharla; Varela, Manuel F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to the successful chemotherapy towards several cancers is multidrug resistance of human cancer cells to anti-cancer drugs. An important contributor to multidrug resistance is the human multidrug resistance protein-1 transporter (MRP1), which is an efflux pump of the ABC (ATP binding cassette) superfamily. Thus, highly efficacious, third generation MRP1 inhibitors, like tariquidar analogues, are promising inhibitors of multidrug resistance and are under clinical trials. To maximize the efficacy of MRP1 inhibitors and to reduce systemic toxicity, it is important to limit the exposure of MRP1 inhibitors and anticancer drugs to normal tissues and to increase their co-localization with tumor cells. Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) associated with 3D-Quantitiative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed on a series of tariquidar analogues, as selective MDR modulators. Best predictability was obtained with CoMFA model r2(non-cross-validated square of correlation coefficient) = 0.968, F value = 151.768 with five components, standard error of estimate = 0.107 while the CoMSIA yielded r2 = 0.982, F value = 60.628 with six components, and standard error of estimate = 0.154. These results indicate that steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic (lipophilic), and hydrogen bond donor substituents play significant roles in multidrug resistance modulation of tariquidar analogues upon MRP1. The tariquidar analogue and MRP1 binding and stability data generated from CoMFA and CoMSIA based 3D–contour maps may further aid in study and design of tariquidar analogues as novel, potent and selective MDR modulator drug candidates. PMID:26913287

  1. Screening Method for the Discovery of Potential Bioactive Cysteine-Containing Peptides Using 3D Mass Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oosten, Luuk N.; Pieterse, Mervin; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Animal venoms and toxins are a valuable source of bioactive peptides with pharmacologic relevance as potential drug leads. A large subset of biologically active peptides discovered up till now contain disulfide bridges that enhance stability and activity. To discover new members of this class of peptides, we developed a workflow screening specifically for those peptides that contain inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bonds by means of three-dimensional (3D) mass mapping. Two intrinsic properties of the sulfur atom, (1) its relatively large negative mass defect, and (2) its isotopic composition, allow for differentiation between cysteine-containing peptides and peptides lacking sulfur. High sulfur content in a peptide decreases the normalized nominal mass defect (NMD) and increases the normalized isotopic shift (NIS). Hence in a 3D plot of mass, NIS, and NMD, peptides with sulfur appear in this plot with a distinct spatial localization compared with peptides that lack sulfur. In this study we investigated the skin secretion of two frog species; Odorrana schmackeri and Bombina variegata. Peptides from the crude skin secretions were separated by nanoflow LC, and of all eluting peptides high resolution zoom scans were acquired in order to accurately determine both monoisotopic mass and average mass. Both the NMD and the NIS were calculated from the experimental data using an in-house developed MATLAB script. Candidate peptides exhibiting a low NMD and high NIS values were selected for targeted de novo sequencing, and this resulted in the identification of several novel inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bond containing peptides.

  2. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system. PMID:26690174

  3. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-12-09

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system.

  4. Automated Mosaicking of Multiple 3d Point Clouds Generated from a Depth Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Yoon, W.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for automated mosaicking of multiple 3D point clouds generated from a depth camera. A depth camera generates depth data by using ToF (Time of Flight) method and intensity data by using intensity of returned signal. The depth camera used in this paper was a SR4000 from MESA Imaging. This camera generates a depth map and intensity map of 176 x 44 pixels. Generated depth map saves physical depth data with mm of precision. Generated intensity map contains texture data with many noises. We used texture maps for extracting tiepoints and depth maps for assigning z coordinates to tiepoints and point cloud mosaicking. There are four steps in the proposed mosaicking method. In the first step, we acquired multiple 3D point clouds by rotating depth camera and capturing data per rotation. In the second step, we estimated 3D-3D transformation relationships between subsequent point clouds. For this, 2D tiepoints were extracted automatically from the corresponding two intensity maps. They were converted into 3D tiepoints using depth maps. We used a 3D similarity transformation model for estimating the 3D-3D transformation relationships. In the third step, we converted local 3D-3D transformations into a global transformation for all point clouds with respect to a reference one. In the last step, the extent of single depth map mosaic was calculated and depth values per mosaic pixel were determined by a ray tracing method. For experiments, 8 depth maps and intensity maps were used. After the four steps, an output mosaicked depth map of 454x144 was generated. It is expected that the proposed method would be useful for developing an effective 3D indoor mapping method in future.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3D reddening map for stars from 2MASS phot. (Gontcharov, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontcharov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    A three-dimensional reddening map for stars within 1100pc of the Sun are presented. Analysis of the distribution of 70 million stars from the 2MASS catalog with the most accurate photometry on the (J-Ks)-Ks diagram supplemented with Monte Carlo simulations has shown that one of the maxima of this distribution corresponds to F-type dwarfs and subgiants with a mean absolute magnitude MKs=2.5m. The shift of this maximum toward large (J-Ks) with increasing Ks reflects the reddening of these stars with increasing heliocentric distance. The distribution of the sample of stars over Ks, l, and b cells with a statistically significant number of stars in each cell corresponds to their distribution over three-dimensional spatial cells. As a result, the reddening E(J-Ks) has been determined with an accuracy of 0.03m for spatial cells with a side of 100pc. All of the known large absorbing clouds within 1100pc of the Sun have manifested themselves in the results obtained. The absorbing matter of the Gould Belt is shown to manifest itself at latitudes up to 40° and within 600pc of the Sun. The size and influence of the Gould Belt may have been underestimated thus far. The absorbing matter at latitudes up to 60° and within 1100pc of the Sun has been found to be distributed predominantly in the first and second quadrants in the southern hemisphere and in the third and fourth quadrants in the northern hemisphere. Also the data of the Rv (2012AstL...38...12G) and Av (2012AstL...38...87G) 3D maps are added. (1 data file).

  6. Using Lidar-derived 3-D Vegetation Structure Maps to Assist in the Search for the Ivory- billed Woodpecker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofton, M. A.; Blair, J. B.; Rabine, D.; Dubayah, R.; Greim, H.

    2006-12-01

    Averaging about 20 inches in length, the ivory-billed woodpecker is among the world's largest woodpeckers. It once ranged through swampy forests in the southeastern and lower Mississippi valley states, and until recently was believed to have become extinct in the 1940's when commercial logging destroyed its last known habitat. Recent sightings however, may indicate the birds' survival in remaining bottomland hardwood forest adjacent to the Cache and White Rivers in Arkansas. In June-July 2006, NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to map approximately 5000 km2 of the White River National Wildlife Refuge in Arkansas, including sites where recent possible sightings of the bird occurred. LVIS is an airborne, medium- footprint (5- to 25-meter diameter), full waveform-recording, airborne, scanning lidar system which has been used extensively for mapping forest structure, habitat, carbon and natural hazards. The system digitally records the shape of the returning laser echo, or waveform, after its interaction with the various reflecting surfaces of the earth (leaves, branches, ground, etc.), providing a true 3-dimensional record of the surface structure. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces (the return waveform). Experimental metrics such as canopy structure metrics based on energy quartiles, as well as ground energy/canopy cover and waveform complexity metrics will be derived from each waveform. The project is a collaborative effort between the University of Maryland, NASA, USGS, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The LVIS-generated data of the 3- D vegetation structure and underlying terrain will be used as a means to guide local, ground-based search efforts in the upcoming field season as well as identify the remaining areas of habitat suitable for protection should the bird be found.

  7. Texture analysis for mapping Tamarix parviflora using aerial photographs along the Cache Creek, California.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shaokui; Carruthers, Raymond; Gong, Peng; Herrera, Angelica

    2006-03-01

    Natural color photographs were used to detect the coverage of saltcedar, Tamarix parviflora, along a 40 km portion of Cache Creek near Woodland, California. Historical aerial photographs from 2001 were retrospectively evaluated and compared with actual ground-based information to assess accuracy of the assessment process. The color aerial photos were sequentially digitized, georeferenced, classified using color and texture methods, and mosaiced into maps for field use. Eight types of ground cover (Tamarix, agricultural crops, roads, rocks, water bodies, evergreen trees, non-evergreen trees and shrubs (excluding Tamarix)) were selected from the digitized photos for separability analysis and supervised classification. Due to color similarities among the eight cover types, the average separability, based originally only on color, was very low. The separability was improved significantly through the inclusion of texture analysis. Six types of texture measures with various window sizes were evaluated. The best texture was used as an additional feature along with the color, for identifying Tamarix. A total of 29 color photographs were processed to detect Tamarix infestations using a combination of the original digital images and optimal texture features. It was found that the saltcedar covered a total of 3.96 km(2) (396 hectares) within the study area. For the accuracy assessment, 95 classified samples from the resulting map were checked in the field with a global position system (GPS) unit to verify Tamarix presence. The producer's accuracy was 77.89%. In addition, 157 independently located ground sites containing saltcedar were compared with the classified maps, producing a user's accuracy of 71.33%.

  8. Non-twist map bifurcation of drift-lines and drift-island formation in saturated 3D MHD equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefferle, David; Cooper, Wilfred A.; Graves, Jonathan P.

    2015-11-01

    Based on non-canonical perturbation theory, guiding-centre drift equations are identified as perturbed magnetic field-line equations. The topology of passing-particle orbits, called drift-lines, is completely determined by the magnetic configuration. In axisymmetric tokamak fields, drift-lines lie on shifted flux-surfaces, called drift-surfaces. Field-lines and drift-lines are subject to island structures at rational surfaces only when a non-axisymmetric component is added. The picture is different in the case of 3D saturated MHD equilibrium like the helical core associated with a non-resonant internal kink mode. In assuming nested flux-surfaces, these bifurcated states, expected for a reversed q-profile with qmin close yet above unity and conveniently obtained in VMEC, feature integrable field-lines. The helical drift-lines however become resonant with the axisymmetric component in the region of qmin and spontaneously generate drift-islands. Due to the locally reversed sheared q-profile, the drift-island structure follows the bifurcation/reconnection mechanism of non-twist maps. This result provides a theoretical interpretation of NBI fast ion helical hot-spots in Long-Lived Modes as well as snake-like impurity density accumulation in internal MHD activity.

  9. Multigrid mapping and box relaxation for simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Liu, Z.

    1994-12-31

    A new multilevel technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation for the whole process of flow transition in 3-D flat plate boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition on a relatively coarse grid with low CPU cost. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time-marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all employed for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to catch the large eddies and represent main roles of small eddies to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The computation also reproduced the K-type and C-type transition observed by laboratory experiments. The CPU cost for a typical case is around 2-9 CRAY-YMP hours.

  10. Polyphase tertiary fold-and-thrust tectonics in the Belluno Dolomites: new mapping, kinematic analysis, and 3D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistolini, Filippo; Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Consonni, Davide; Cortinovis, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    performed a dip-domain analysis that allowed to categorize the different fold limbs and reduce the uncertainty in the reconstruction of the fault network topology in map view. This enabled us to reconstruct a high-quality, low-uncertainty 3D structural and geological model, which unambiguously proves that deformations with a top-to-WSW Dinaric transport direction propagate farther to the west than previously supposed in this part of the Southern Alps. Our new structural reconstruction of the Vajont valley have also clarified the structural control on the 1963 catastrophic landslide (which caused over 2000 losses). Besides being a challenging natural laboratory for testing analysis and modelling methodologies to be used when reconstructing in 3D this kind of complex interference structures, the Vajont area also provides useful clues on the still-enigmatic structures in the frontal part of the Friuli-Venetian Southern Alps, buried in the Venetian Plain foredeep. These include active seismogenic thrust-faults and, at the same time, represent a growing interest for the oil industry.

  11. NeuroMap: A Spline-Based Interactive Open-Source Software for Spatiotemporal Mapping of 2D and 3D MEA Data.

    PubMed

    Abdoun, Oussama; Joucla, Sébastien; Mazzocco, Claire; Yvert, Blaise

    2011-01-01

    A major characteristic of neural networks is the complexity of their organization at various spatial scales, from microscopic local circuits to macroscopic brain-scale areas. Understanding how neural information is processed thus entails the ability to study them at multiple scales simultaneously. This is made possible using microelectrodes array (MEA) technology. Indeed, high-density MEAs provide large-scale coverage (several square millimeters) of whole neural structures combined with microscopic resolution (about 50 μm) of unit activity. Yet, current options for spatiotemporal representation of MEA-collected data remain limited. Here we present NeuroMap, a new interactive Matlab-based software for spatiotemporal mapping of MEA data. NeuroMap uses thin plate spline interpolation, which provides several assets with respect to conventional mapping methods used currently. First, any MEA design can be considered, including 2D or 3D, regular or irregular, arrangements of electrodes. Second, spline interpolation allows the estimation of activity across the tissue with local extrema not necessarily at recording sites. Finally, this interpolation approach provides a straightforward analytical estimation of the spatial Laplacian for better current sources localization. In this software, coregistration of 2D MEA data on the anatomy of the neural tissue is made possible by fine matching of anatomical data with electrode positions using rigid-deformation-based correction of anatomical pictures. Overall, NeuroMap provides substantial material for detailed spatiotemporal analysis of MEA data. The package is distributed under GNU General Public License and available at http://sites.google.com/site/neuromapsoftware.

  12. Mapping the North Sea base-Quaternary: using 3D seismic to fill a gap in the geological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2014-05-01

    The identification and mapping of the base-Quaternary boundary in the central parts of the North Sea is problematic due to the change from an unconformable transition between Pliocene and Pleistocene deltaic deposits in the southern North Sea to a conformable one further north (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). The best estimates of the transition use seismic reflection data to identify a 'crenulated reflector' (Buckley 2012), or rely on correlating sparse biostratigraphy (Cameron et al 1987). Recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) allows greater confidence in the correlation to a regional 3D seismic dataset and show that the base-Quaternary can be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The mapped horizon is presented here alongside the difference between this new interpretation and the previously interpreted base-Quaternary (Buckley 2012). The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT or approximately 1120 m (assuming average velocity of 1800 m/s) showing an elongate basin shape that follows the underlying structure of the Central Graben. The difference between the revised base-Quaternary and the traditional base-Quaternary reaches a maximum of over 600 ms TWT or approximately 540 m in the south-west with over 300 ms TWT or approximately 270 m at the Josephine well (56° 36.11'N, 2° 27.09'E) in the centre of the basin. Mapping this new base-Quaternary allows for the interpretation of the paleo-envionrment during the earliest Quaternary. Seismic attribute analysis indicates a deep water basin with sediment deposition from multiple deltas and redistribution by deep

  13. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  14. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  15. Probability maps as a way to communicate uncertainty in soil texture classes at landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlins, Barry; Lark, Murray

    2014-05-01

    Soil texture is critical for a range of functions and degradation threats including soil carbon cycling, hydrology and erosion. The texture of a soil at a point in the landscape is often expressed as a class in a soil texture triangle. The boundaries between these classes are based on the proportions of sand, silt and clay-sized particles. Soils are typically attributed to a single class, without considering the uncertainty associated with class membership. We demonstrate an approach for communicating uncertainty in spatial prediction of soil texture classes using a database of 2600 measurements of particle size distribution across part of England. A subset of these measurements included repeated analyses of separate aliquots from the same sample from which we could compute uncertainties associated with analytical and subsampling variance to include in our uncertainty analysis. After appropriate transformation for compositional variables, the spatial variation of the soil particle size classes was modelled geostatistically using robust variogram estimators to produce a validated linear model of coregionalization. This was then used to predict the composition of topsoil at the nodes of a fine grid. The predictions were backtransformed to the original scales of measurement by a Monte Carlo integration over the prediction distribution on the transformed scale. This approach allowed the probability to be computed for each class in the soil texture classification, at each node on the grid. The probability of each class, and derived information such as the class of maximum probability could therefore be mapped. We validated the predictions at a set of randomly sampled locations. We consider this technique has the potential to improve the communication of uncertainty associated with the application of soil texture classifications in soil science.

  16. Accelerated mapping of magnetic susceptibility using 3D planes-on-a-paddlewheel (POP) EPI at ultra-high field strength.

    PubMed

    Stäb, Daniel; Bollmann, Steffen; Langkammer, Christian; Bredies, Kristian; Barth, Markus

    2017-04-01

    With the advent of ultra-high field MRI scanners in clinical research, susceptibility based MRI has recently gained increasing interest because of its potential to assess subtle tissue changes underlying neurological pathologies/disorders. Conventional, but rather slow, three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences are typically employed to assess the susceptibility of tissue. 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) represents a fast alternative but generally comes with echo-time restrictions, geometrical distortions and signal dropouts that can become severe at ultra-high fields. In this work we assess quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) at 7 T using non-Cartesian 3D EPI with a planes-on-a-paddlewheel (POP) trajectory, which is created by rotating a standard EPI readout train around its own phase encoding axis. We show that the threefold accelerated non-Cartesian 3D POP EPI sequence enables very fast, whole brain susceptibility mapping at an isotropic resolution of 1 mm and that the high image quality has sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the phase data for reliable QSM processing. The susceptibility maps obtained were comparable with regard to QSM values and geometric distortions to those calculated from a conventional 4 min 3D GRE scan using the same QSM processing pipeline. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Scalable Multi-Platform Distribution of Spatial 3d Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimke, J.; Hagedorn, B.; Döllner, J.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual 3D city models provide powerful user interfaces for communication of 2D and 3D geoinformation. Providing high quality visualization of massive 3D geoinformation in a scalable, fast, and cost efficient manner is still a challenging task. Especially for mobile and web-based system environments, software and hardware configurations of target systems differ significantly. This makes it hard to provide fast, visually appealing renderings of 3D data throughout a variety of platforms and devices. Current mobile or web-based solutions for 3D visualization usually require raw 3D scene data such as triangle meshes together with textures delivered from server to client, what makes them strongly limited in terms of size and complexity of the models they can handle. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for provisioning of massive, virtual 3D city models on different platforms namely web browsers, smartphones or tablets, by means of an interactive map assembled from artificial oblique image tiles. The key concept is to synthesize such images of a virtual 3D city model by a 3D rendering service in a preprocessing step. This service encapsulates model handling and 3D rendering techniques for high quality visualization of massive 3D models. By generating image tiles using this service, the 3D rendering process is shifted from the client side, which provides major advantages: (a) The complexity of the 3D city model data is decoupled from data transfer complexity (b) the implementation of client applications is simplified significantly as 3D rendering is encapsulated on server side (c) 3D city models can be easily deployed for and used by a large number of concurrent users, leading to a high degree of scalability of the overall approach. All core 3D rendering techniques are performed on a dedicated 3D rendering server, and thin-client applications can be compactly implemented for various devices and platforms.

  18. Characterization of a subwavelength-scale 3D void structure using the FDTD-based confocal laser scanning microscopic image mapping technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyongsik; Chon, James W; Gu, Min; Lee, Byoungho

    2007-08-20

    In this paper, a simple confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) image mapping technique based on the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) calculation has been proposed and evaluated for characterization of a subwavelength-scale three-dimensional (3D) void structure fabricated inside polymer matrix. The FDTD simulation method adopts a focused Gaussian beam incident wave, Berenger's perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition, and the angular spectrum analysis method. Through the well matched simulation and experimental results of the xz-scanned 3D void structure, we first characterize the exact position and the topological shape factor of the subwavelength-scale void structure, which was fabricated by a tightly focused ultrashort pulse laser. The proposed CLSM image mapping technique based on the FDTD can be widely applied from the 3D near-field microscopic imaging, optical trapping, and evanescent wave phenomenon to the state-of-the-art bio- and nanophotonics.

  19. 2D mapping of texture and lattice parameters of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Al-Jawad, Maisoon; Steuwer, Axel; Kilcoyne, Susan H; Shore, Roger C; Cywinski, Robert; Wood, David J

    2007-06-01

    We have used synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the texture and the change in lattice parameter as a function of position in a cross section of human dental enamel. Our study is the first to map changes in preferred orientation and lattice parameter as a function of position within enamel across a whole tooth section with such high resolution. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a micro-focused beam spot was used to collect two-dimensional (2D) diffraction images at 150 microm spatial resolution over the entire tooth crown. Contour maps of the texture and lattice parameter distribution of the hydroxyapatite phase were produced from Rietveld refinement of diffraction patterns generated by azimuthally sectioning and integrating the 2D images. The 002 Debye ring showed the largest variation in intensity. This variation is indicative of preferred orientation. Areas of high crystallite alignment on the tooth cusps match the expected biting surfaces. Additionally we found a large variation in lattice parameter when travelling from the enamel surface to the enamel-dentine junction. We believe this to be due to a change in the chemical composition within the tooth. The results provide a new insight on the texture and lattice parameter profiles within enamel.

  20. Analyzing the texture changes in the quantitative phase maps of adipocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roitshtain, Darina; Sharabani-Yosef, Orna; Gefen, Amit; Shaked, Natan T.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new analysis tool for studying texture changes in the quantitative phase maps of live cells acquired by wide-field interferometry. The sensitivity of wide-field interferometry systems to small changes in refractive index enables visualizing cells and inner cell organelles without the using fluorescent dyes or other cell-invasive approaches, which may affect the measurement and require external labeling. Our label-free texture-analysis tool is based directly on the optical path delay profile of the sample and does not necessitate decoupling refractive index and thickness in the cell quantitative phase profile; thus, relevant parameters can be calculated using a single-frame acquisition. Our experimental system includes low-coherence wide-field interferometer, combined with simultaneous florescence microscopy system for validation. We used this system and analysis tool for studying lipid droplets formation in adipocytes. The latter demonstration is relevant for various cellular functions such as lipid metabolism, protein storage and degradation to viral replication. These processes are functionally linked to several physiological and pathological conditions, including obesity and metabolic diseases. Quantification of these biological phenomena based on the texture changes in the cell phase map has a potential as a new cellular diagnosis tool.

  1. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Soil Chemical Characteristics at Micrometric Scale by Combining 2D SEM-EDX Data and 3D X-Ray CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Hapca, Simona; Baveye, Philippe C.; Wilson, Clare; Lark, Richard Murray; Otten, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a significant need to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes by integrating physical, chemical and biological measurements on soils at microscopic scales to help produce 3D maps of the related properties. Because of technological limitations, most chemical and biological measurements can be carried out only on exposed soil surfaces or 2-dimensional cuts through soil samples. Methods need to be developed to produce 3D maps of soil properties based on spatial sequences of 2D maps. In this general context, the objective of the research described here was to develop a method to generate 3D maps of soil chemical properties at the microscale by combining 2D SEM-EDX data with 3D X-ray computed tomography images. A statistical approach using the regression tree method and ordinary kriging applied to the residuals was developed and applied to predict the 3D spatial distribution of carbon, silicon, iron, and oxygen at the microscale. The spatial correlation between the X-ray grayscale intensities and the chemical maps made it possible to use a regression-tree model as an initial step to predict the 3D chemical composition. For chemical elements, e.g., iron, that are sparsely distributed in a soil sample, the regression-tree model provides a good prediction, explaining as much as 90% of the variability in some of the data. However, for chemical elements that are more homogenously distributed, such as carbon, silicon, or oxygen, the additional kriging of the regression tree residuals improved significantly the prediction with an increase in the R2 value from 0.221 to 0.324 for carbon, 0.312 to 0.423 for silicon, and 0.218 to 0.374 for oxygen, respectively. The present research develops for the first time an integrated experimental and theoretical framework, which combines geostatistical methods with imaging techniques to unveil the 3-D chemical structure of soil at very fine scales. The methodology presented

  2. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Soil Chemical Characteristics at Micrometric Scale by Combining 2D SEM-EDX Data and 3D X-Ray CT Images.

    PubMed

    Hapca, Simona; Baveye, Philippe C; Wilson, Clare; Lark, Richard Murray; Otten, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a significant need to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes by integrating physical, chemical and biological measurements on soils at microscopic scales to help produce 3D maps of the related properties. Because of technological limitations, most chemical and biological measurements can be carried out only on exposed soil surfaces or 2-dimensional cuts through soil samples. Methods need to be developed to produce 3D maps of soil properties based on spatial sequences of 2D maps. In this general context, the objective of the research described here was to develop a method to generate 3D maps of soil chemical properties at the microscale by combining 2D SEM-EDX data with 3D X-ray computed tomography images. A statistical approach using the regression tree method and ordinary kriging applied to the residuals was developed and applied to predict the 3D spatial distribution of carbon, silicon, iron, and oxygen at the microscale. The spatial correlation between the X-ray grayscale intensities and the chemical maps made it possible to use a regression-tree model as an initial step to predict the 3D chemical composition. For chemical elements, e.g., iron, that are sparsely distributed in a soil sample, the regression-tree model provides a good prediction, explaining as much as 90% of the variability in some of the data. However, for chemical elements that are more homogenously distributed, such as carbon, silicon, or oxygen, the additional kriging of the regression tree residuals improved significantly the prediction with an increase in the R2 value from 0.221 to 0.324 for carbon, 0.312 to 0.423 for silicon, and 0.218 to 0.374 for oxygen, respectively. The present research develops for the first time an integrated experimental and theoretical framework, which combines geostatistical methods with imaging techniques to unveil the 3-D chemical structure of soil at very fine scales. The methodology presented

  3. Advances in 3D soil mapping and water content estimation using multi-channel ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar systems have recently become widely available, thereby opening new possibilities for shallow imaging of the subsurface. One advantage of these systems is that they can significantly reduce survey times by simultaneously collecting multiple lines of GPR reflection data. As a result, it is becoming more practical to complete 3D surveys - particularly in situations where the subsurface undergoes rapid changes, e.g., when monitoring infiltration and redistribution of water in soils. While 3D and 4D surveys can provide a degree of clarity that significantly improves interpretation of the subsurface, an even more powerful feature of the new multi-channel systems for hydrologists is their ability to collect data using multiple antenna offsets. Central mid-point (CMP) surveys have been widely used to estimate radar wave velocities, which can be related to water contents, by sequentially increasing the distance, i.e., offset, between the source and receiver antennas. This process is highly labor intensive using single-channel systems and therefore such surveys are often only performed at a few locations at any given site. In contrast, with multi-channel GPR systems it is possible to physically arrange an array of antennas at different offsets, such that a CMP-style survey is performed at every point along a radar transect. It is then possible to process this data to obtain detailed maps of wave velocity with a horizontal resolution on the order of centimeters. In this talk I review concepts underlying multi-channel GPR imaging with an emphasis on multi-offset profiling for water content estimation. Numerical simulations are used to provide examples that illustrate situations where multi-offset GPR profiling is likely to be successful, with an emphasis on considering how issues like noise, soil heterogeneity, vertical variations in water content and weak reflection returns affect algorithms for automated analysis of the data. Overall

  4. Exploring the Impact of Visual Complexity Levels in 3d City Models on the Accuracy of Individuals' Orientation and Cognitive Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenbach, V.; Çöltekin, A.; Coetzee, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report results from a qualitative user experiment (n=107) designed to contribute to understanding the impact of various levels of complexity (mainly based on levels of detail, i.e., LoD) in 3D city models, specifically on the participants' orientation and cognitive (mental) maps. The experiment consisted of a number of tasks motivated by spatial cognition theory where participants (among other things) were given orientation tasks, and in one case also produced sketches of a path they `travelled' in a virtual environment. The experiments were conducted in groups, where individuals provided responses on an answer sheet. The preliminary results based on descriptive statistics and qualitative sketch analyses suggest that very little information (i.e., a low LoD model of a smaller area) might have a negative impact on the accuracy of cognitive maps constructed based on a virtual experience. Building an accurate cognitive map is an inherently desired effect of the visualizations in planning tasks, thus the findings are important for understanding how to develop better-suited 3D visualizations such as 3D city models. In this study, we specifically discuss the suitability of different levels of visual complexity for development planning (urban planning), one of the domains where 3D city models are most relevant.

  5. 3D non-woven polyvinylidene fluoride scaffolds: fibre cross section and texturizing patterns have impact on growth of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Anne; Ross, Robin; Abagnale, Giulio; Joussen, Sylvia; Schuster, Philipp; Arshi, Annahit; Pallua, Norbert; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Gries, Thomas; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Several applications in tissue engineering require transplantation of cells embedded in appropriate biomaterial scaffolds. Such structures may consist of 3D non-woven fibrous materials whereas little is known about the impact of mesh size, pore architecture and fibre morphology on cellular behavior. In this study, we have developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) non-woven scaffolds with round, trilobal, or snowflake fibre cross section and different fibre crimp patterns (10, 16, or 28 needles per inch). Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue were seeded in parallel on these scaffolds and their growth was compared. Initial cell adhesion during the seeding procedure was higher on non-wovens with round fibres than on those with snowflake or trilobal cross sections. All PVDF non-woven fabrics facilitated cell growth over a time course of 15 days. Interestingly, proliferation was significantly higher on non-wovens with round or trilobal fibres as compared to those with snowflake profile. Furthermore, proliferation increased in a wider, less dense network. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the MSCs aligned along the fibres and formed cellular layers spanning over the pores. 3D PVDF non-woven scaffolds support growth of MSCs, however fibre morphology and mesh size are relevant: proliferation is enhanced by round fibre cross sections and in rather wide-meshed scaffolds.

  6. Bas-relief map using texture analysis with application to live enhancement of ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Du, Huarui; Ma, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    For ultrasound imaging, speckle is one of the most important factors in the degradation of contrast resolution because it masks meaningful texture and has the potential to interfere with diagnosis. It is expected that researchers would explore appropriate ways to reduce the speckle noise, to find the edges of structures and enhance weak borders between different organs in ultrasound imaging. Inspired by the principle of differential interference contrast microscopy, a "bas-relief map" is proposed that depicts the texture structure of ultrasound images. Based on a bas-relief map, an adaptive bas-relief filter was developed for ultrafast despeckling. Subsequently, an edge map was introduced to enhance the edges of images in real time. The holistic bas-relief map approach has been used experimentally with synthetic phantoms and digital ultrasound B-scan images of liver, kidney and gallbladder. Based on the visual inspection and the performance metrics of the despeckled images, it was found that the bas-relief map approach is capable of effectively reducing the speckle while significantly enhancing contrast and tissue boundaries for ultrasonic images, and its speckle reduction ability is comparable to that of Kuan, Lee and Frost filters. Meanwhile, the proposed technique could preserve more intra-region details compared with the popular speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion technique and more effectively enhance edges. In addition, the adaptive bas-relief filter was much less time consuming than the Kuan, Lee and Frost filter and speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion techniques. The bas-relief map strategy is effective for speckle reduction and live enhancement of ultrasound images, and can provide a valuable tool for clinical diagnosis.

  7. Lunar textural analysis based on WAC-derived kilometer-scale roughness and entropy maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, XueQiang; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Ling, Zongcheng

    2016-06-01

    In general, textures are thought to be some complicated repeated patterns formed by elements, or primitives which are sorted in certain rules. Lunar surfaces record the interactions between its outside environment and itself, thus, based on high-resolution DEM model or image data, there are some topographic features which have different roughness and entropy values or signatures on lunar surfaces. Textures of lunar surfaces can help us to concentrate on typical topographic and photometric variations and reveal the relationships between obvious features (craters, impact basins, sinuous rilles (SRs) and ridges) with resurfacing processes on the Moon. In this paper, the term surface roughness is an expression of the variability of a topographic or photometric surface at kilometer scale, and the term entropy can characterize the variability inherent in a geological and topographic unit and evaluate the uncertainty of predictions made by a given geological process. We use the statistical moments of gray-level histograms in different-sized neighborhoods (e.g., 3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 pixels) to compute the kilometer-scale roughness and entropy values, using the mosaic image from 70°N to 70°S obtained by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC). Large roughness and entropy signatures were only found in the larger scale maps, while the smallest 3-pixel scale map had more disorderly and unsystematic textures. According to the entropy values in 10-pixel scale entropy map, we made a frequency curve and categorized lunar surfaces into three types, shadow effects, maria and highlands. A 2D scatter plot of entropy versus roughness values was produced and we found that there were two point clusters corresponding to the highlands and maria, respectively. In the last, we compared the topographic and photometric signatures derived from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data and WAC mosaic image. On the lunar surfaces, the ridges have obvious multilevel

  8. Mapping 3D Strains with Ultrasound Speckle Tracking: Method Validation and Initial Results in Porcine Scleral Inflation.

    PubMed

    Cruz Perez, Benjamin; Pavlatos, Elias; Morris, Hugh J; Chen, Hong; Pan, Xueliang; Hart, Richard T; Liu, Jun

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a high frequency ultrasound method for measuring distributive, 3D strains in the sclera during elevations of intraocular pressure. A 3D cross-correlation based speckle-tracking algorithm was implemented to compute the 3D displacement vector and strain tensor at each tracking point. Simulated ultrasound radiofrequency data from a sclera-like structure at undeformed and deformed states with known strains were used to evaluate the accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of strain estimation. An experimental high frequency ultrasound (55 MHz) system was built to acquire 3D scans of porcine eyes inflated from 15 to 17 and then 19 mmHg. Simulations confirmed good strain estimation accuracy and SNR (e.g., the axial strains had less than 4.5% error with SNRs greater than 16.5 for strains from 0.005 to 0.05). Experimental data in porcine eyes showed increasing tensile, compressive, and shear strains in the posterior sclera during inflation, with a volume ratio close to one suggesting near-incompressibility. This study established the feasibility of using high frequency ultrasound speckle tracking for measuring 3D tissue strains and its potential to characterize physiological deformations in the posterior eye.

  9. An Approach to 3d Digital Modeling of Surfaces with Poor Texture by Range Imaging Techniques. `SHAPE from Stereo' VS. `SHAPE from Silhouette' in Digitizing Jorge Oteiza's Sculptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, J.; Álvaro Tordesillas, A.; Barba, S.

    2015-02-01

    Despite eminent development of digital range imaging techniques, difficulties persist in the virtualization of objects with poor radiometric information, in other words, objects consisting of homogeneous colours (totally white, black, etc.), repetitive patterns, translucence, or materials with specular reflection. This is the case for much of the Jorge Oteiza's works, particularly in the sculpture collection of the Museo Fundación Jorge Oteiza (Navarra, Spain). The present study intend to analyse and asses the performance of two digital 3D-modeling methods based on imaging techniques, facing cultural heritage in singular cases, determined by radiometric characteristics as mentioned: Shape from Silhouette and Shape from Stereo. On the other hand, the text proposes the definition of a documentation workflow and presents the results of its application in the collection of sculptures created by Oteiza.

  10. Evaluation of the User Strategy on 2d and 3d City Maps Based on Novel Scanpath Comparison Method and Graph Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezalova, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents' task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc.) or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map).

  11. Mapping the distribution of vesicular textures on silicic lavas using the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrusek, Jaime; Christensen, Philip R.; Fink, Jonathan H.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vesicularity on TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) imagery independent of chemical variations, we studied a large rhyolitic flow of uniform composition but textural heterogeneity. The imagery was recalibrated so that the digital number values for a lake in the scene matched a calculated ideal spectrum for water. TIMS spectra for the lava show useful differences in coarsely and finely vesicular pumice data, particularly in TIMS bands 3 and 4. Images generated by ratioing these bands accurately map out those areas known from field studies to be coarsely vesicular pumice. These texture-related emissivity variations are probably due to the larger vesicles being relatively deeper and separated by smaller septa leaving less smooth glass available to give the characteristic emission of the lava. In studies of inaccessible lava flows (as on Mars) areas of coarsely vesicular pumice must be identified and avoided before chemical variations can be interpreted. Remotely determined distributions of vesicular and glassy textures can also be related to the volatile contents and potential hazards associated with the emplacement of silicic lava flows on Earth.

  12. A Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor Network for Online 3-D Temperature and Neutron Fluence Mapping in a VHTR Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel; Dickerson, Bryan; French, Joseph; McEachern, Donald; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-04-30

    Robust sensing technologies allowing for 3D in-core performance monitoring in real time are of paramount importance for already established LWRs to enhance their reliability and availability per year, and therefore, to further facilitate their economic competitiveness via predictive assessment of the in-core conditions.

  13. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound using rib shadow enhancement and multi-plane cumulative probability enhanced map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Kim, Hannah; Hong, Helen

    2015-03-01

    We propose an automatic segmentation method of chest wall in 3D ABUS images using rib shadow enhancement and multi-planar cumulative probability enhanced map. For the identification of individual dark rib shadows, each rib shadow is enhanced using intensity transfer function and 3D sheet-like enhancement filtering. Then, wrongly enhanced intercostal regions and small fatty tissues are removed using coronal and sagittal cumulative probability enhanced maps. The large fatty tissues with globular and sheet-like shapes at the top of rib shadow are removed using shape and orientation analysis based on moment matrix. Detected chest walls are connected with cubic B-spline interpolation. Experimental results show that the Dice similarity coefficient of proposed method as comparison with two manually outlining results provides over 90% in average.

  14. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  15. Illustrative visualization of 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.

  16. Creating 3D realistic head: from two orthogonal photos to multiview face contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Lin, Qian; Tang, Feng; Tang, Liang; Lim, Sukhwan; Wang, Shengjin

    2011-03-01

    3D Head models have many applications, such as virtual conference, 3D web game, and so on. The existing several web-based face modeling solutions that can create a 3D face model from one or two user uploaded face images, are limited to generating the 3D model of only face region. The accuracy of such reconstruction is very limited for side views, as well as hair regions. The goal of our research is to develop a framework for reconstructing the realistic 3D human head based on two approximate orthogonal views. Our framework takes two images, and goes through segmentation, feature points detection, 3D bald head reconstruction, 3D hair reconstruction and texture mapping to create a 3D head model. The main contribution of the paper is that the processing steps are applies to both the face region as well as the hair region.

  17. Development of Integrated 3D Terrain Maps for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Flight and Mission Control Support System (FMCSS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Direction Finding Payload DTAD Digital Terrain Analysis Data DTED Digital Terrain Elevation Data DTM Digital Terrain Model DVD Digital Video Disk...Environment Research Network (TERN), Silver Fox, Swift, Pointer , Raven, and Dragon Eye. The Hunter and the Shadow, by contrast, are larger and are usually...Available on DVD and on- line Library University of California, Berkley Library access based http://www.maps2any where.com/Maps/map s_index.htm Over

  18. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  19. Web-based 3D digital pathology framework for large-mapping data scanned by FF-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, ChiaKai; Tsai, Chien-Chung; Chien, Meng-Ting; Li, Yu-I.; Shun, Chia-Tung; Huang, Sheng-Lung

    2015-03-01

    Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is a high resolution instrument in 3 dimensional (3D) space, including lateral and longitudinal direction. With FF-OCT, we can perform 3D scanning for excised biopsy or cell culture sample to obtain cellular information. In this work, we have set up a high resolution FF-OCT scanning instrument that can perform cellular resolution tomography scanning of skin tissue for histopathology study. In a scan range of 1cm(x), 1cm(y), 106μm(z), for example, digital data occupies 253 GB capacity. Copying these materials is time consuming, not to mention efficient browsing and analyzing of these data. To solve the problem of information delivery, we have established a network service to browse and analyze the huge volume data.

  20. 3D Mapping of plasma effective areas via detection of cancer cell damage induced by atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Yueing; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, a nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used for irradiation of oral cancer cells. Since cancer cells are very susceptible to plasma treatment, they can be used as a tool for detection of APPJ-effective areas, which extended much further than the visible part of the APPJ. An immunofluorescence assay was used for DNA damage identification, visualization and quantification. Thus, the effective damage area and damage level were determined and plotted as 3D images.

  1. Arctic Research Mapping Application 3D Geobrowser: Accessing and Displaying Arctic Information From the Desktop to the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. W.; Gonzalez, J.; Brady, J. J.; Gaylord, A.; Manley, W. F.; Cody, R.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Garcia-Lavigne, D.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    ARMAP 3D allows users to dynamically interact with information about U.S. federally funded research projects in the Arctic. This virtual globe allows users to explore data maintained in the Arctic Research & Logistics Support System (ARLSS) database providing a very valuable visual tool for science management and logistical planning, ascertaining who is doing what type of research and where. Users can “fly to” study sites, view receding glaciers in 3D and access linked reports about specific projects. Custom “Search” tasks have been developed to query by researcher name, discipline, funding program, place names and year and display results on the globe with links to detailed reports. ARMAP 3D was created with ESRI’s free ArcGIS Explorer (AGX) new build 900 providing an updated application from build 500. AGX applications provide users the ability to integrate their own spatial data on various data layers provided by ArcOnline (http://resources.esri.com/arcgisonlineservices). Users can add many types of data including OGC web services without any special data translators or costly software. ARMAP 3D is part of the ARMAP suite (http://armap.org), a collection of applications that support Arctic science tools for users of various levels of technical ability to explore information about field-based research in the Arctic. ARMAP is funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs Arctic Sciences Division and is a collaborative development effort between the Systems Ecology Lab at the University of Texas at El Paso, Nuna Technologies, the INSTAAR QGIS Laboratory, and CH2M HILL Polar Services.

  2. Exoplanet Atmospheres in High Definition: 3D Eclipse Mapping of HD 209458b and HD 189733b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole; Cowan, Nicolas; Knutson, Heather; de Wit, Julien; Seager, Sara; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Fortney, Jonathan; Showman, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Eclipse mapping is a newly developed technique in the arsenal of observational methods aimed at the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. This technique was first applied to HD189733b using multiple 8 micron secondary eclipse observations to create a high-resolution snapshot of the dayside of the planet. The eclipse map of HD189733b at 8 microns was able to resolve the dayside brightness distribution of the planet both in latitude and longitude giving key insights into the atmospheric circulation of HD189733b. Here we propose to use this eclipse mapping technique to produce dayside brightness maps of the benchmark exoplanets HD189733b and HD209458b at both 3.6 and 4.5 microns. By combining brightness maps at multiple wavelengths, we will create the first three-dimensional maps of an exoplanet atmosphere (latitude, longitude, and pressure). HD209458 and HD189733 are among the brightest (Ks~6) planet harboring system and represent our best opportunity to achieve a high signal-to-noise eclipse maps. Comparisons between the brightness maps of these two planets will highlight key differences in the atmospheric circulation patterns of planets with (HD209458b) and without (HD189733b) thermal inversions in their dayside atmospheres. The atmospheres of HD189733b and HD209458b have been previously probed at wavelengths from the infrared to the ultraviolet through transit, eclipse, and phase-curve observations. With the addition of the three-dimensional eclipse maps proposed here, we will answer many of the outstanding questions about the basic radiative, chemical, and advective processes at work in these key planetary atmospheres. The observations proposed here will allow us to make the first direct comparisons of the observed thermal structure of an exoplanet with the plethora of three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models developed specifically for HD189733b and HD209458b, thus both informing the models and gaining new insights into the complex circulation

  3. Patient specific color texture mapping of CT-based anatomical surface models utilizing cryosection data.

    PubMed

    Knapp, D; Kerr, J P; Sellberg, M

    1997-01-01

    In traditional medical imaging modalities, color and texture information can add considerable information for diagnostics. Presently, multimodal images of a patient are unregistered and referenced independent of each other, or registered and fused into a single hybrid volume. Doctors and other medical professionals need to be able to visualize and interrogate, on a per-patient basis, a wide variety of 2D and 3D data representations that can be created from non-invasive imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT. In addition, any colorization that may be applied to the image data is strictly based on tissue density, radiation emission, or magnetic signature, and not on any physiological foundation. In order for "true-to-life" color information to be incorporated with non-invasive imaging techniques, and for it to be of consistent quality across the entire body, a single whole-body cryosection specimen with associated medical image data is needed. The National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project offers just such a specimen. Using the full-body medical image data along with the cryosection images of the Visible Human subject, a set of color lookup tables for all visually well defined structures and organs can be created. As a result, patient-specific colorization based on real tissue color and characteristics can be incorporated into traditional intensity-based imaging modalities. The primary goal of this work has been to create CT color lookup tables for all visually well-defined structures in the Visible Human male cryosection data set. The subsequent goal has been to develop a method for stripping textures from a volumetric data set for polygonal models and non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) models, also generated from the volumetric data.

  4. Feasibility of CT-based 3D anatomic mapping with a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagowski, Jordan M.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Dunkerley, David A. P.; Speidel, Michael A.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of obtaining CT-derived 3D surfaces from data provided by the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system. Simulated SBDX short-scan acquisitions of a Shepp-Logan and a thorax phantom containing a high contrast spherical volume were generated. 3D reconstructions were performed using a penalized weighted least squares method with total variation regularization (PWLS-TV), as well as a more efficient variant employing gridding of projection data to parallel rays (gPWLS-TV). Voxel noise, edge blurring, and surface accuracy were compared to gridded filtered back projection (gFBP). PWLS reconstruction of a noise-free reduced-size Shepp-Logan phantom had 1.4% rRMSE. In noisy gPWLS-TV reconstructions of a reduced-size thorax phantom, 99% of points on the segmented sphere perimeter were within 0.33, 0.47, and 0.70 mm of the ground truth, respectively, for fluences comparable to imaging through 18.0, 27.2, and 34.6 cm acrylic. Surface accuracies of gFBP and gPWLS-TV were similar at high fluences, while gPWLS-TV offered improvement at the lowest fluence. The gPWLS-TV voxel noise was reduced by 60% relative to gFBP, on average. High-contrast linespread functions measured 1.25 mm and 0.96 mm (FWHM) for gPWLS-TV and gFBP. In a simulation of gated and truncated projection data from a full-sized thorax, gPWLS-TV reconstruction yielded segmented surface points which were within 1.41 mm of ground truth. Results support the feasibility of 3D surface segmentation with SBDX. Further investigation of artifacts caused by data truncation and patient motion is warranted.

  5. Feasibility of CT-based 3D anatomic mapping with a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system.

    PubMed

    Slagowski, Jordan M; Tomkowiak, Michael T; Dunkerley, David A P; Speidel, Michael A

    This study investigates the feasibility of obtaining CT-derived 3D surfaces from data provided by the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system. Simulated SBDX short-scan acquisitions of a Shepp-Logan and a thorax phantom containing a high contrast spherical volume were generated. 3D reconstructions were performed using a penalized weighted least squares method with total variation regularization (PWLS-TV), as well as a more efficient variant employing gridding of projection data to parallel rays (gPWLS-TV). Voxel noise, edge blurring, and surface accuracy were compared to gridded filtered back projection (gFBP). PWLS reconstruction of a noise-free reduced-size Shepp-Logan phantom had 1.4% rRMSE. In noisy gPWLS-TV reconstructions of a reduced-size thorax phantom, 99% of points on the segmented sphere perimeter were within 0.33, 0.47, and 0.70 mm of the ground truth, respectively, for fluences comparable to imaging through 18.0, 27.2, and 34.6 cm acrylic. Surface accuracies of gFBP and gPWLS-TV were similar at high fluences, while gPWLS-TV offered improvement at the lowest fluence. The gPWLS-TV voxel noise was reduced by 60% relative to gFBP, on average. High-contrast linespread functions measured 1.25 mm and 0.96 mm (FWHM) for gPWLS-TV and gFBP. In a simulation of gated and truncated projection data from a full-sized thorax, gPWLS-TV reconstruction yielded segmented surface points which were within 1.41 mm of ground truth. Results support the feasibility of 3D surface segmentation with SBDX. Further investigation of artifacts caused by data truncation and patient motion is warranted.

  6. Mapping the Complement Factor H-Related Protein 1 (CFHR1):C3b/C3d Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Jennifer; Thurman, Joshua M.; Hageman, Gregory S.; Holers, V. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Complement factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR1) is a complement regulator which has been reported to regulate complement by blocking C5 convertase activity and interfering with C5b surface association. CFHR1 also competes with complement factor H (CFH) for binding to C3b, and may act as an antagonist of CFH-directed regulation on cell surfaces. We have employed site-directed mutagenesis in conjunction with ELISA-based and functional assays to isolate the binding interaction that CFHR1 undertakes with complement components C3b and C3d to a single shared interface. The C3b/C3d:CFHR1 interface is identical to that which occurs between the two C-terminal domains (SCR19-20) of CFH and C3b. Moreover, we have been able to corroborate that dimerization of CFHR1 is necessary for this molecule to bind effectively to C3b and C3d, or compete with CFH. Finally, we have established that CFHR1 competes with complement factor H-like protein 1 (CFHL-1) for binding to C3b. CFHL-1 is a CFH gene splice variant, which is almost identical to the N-terminal 7 domains of CFH (SCR1-7). CFHR1, therefore, not only competes with the C-terminus of CFH for binding to C3b, but also sterically blocks the interaction that the N-terminus of CFH undertakes with C3b, and which is required for CFH-regulation. PMID:27814381

  7. Multiple Baseline SAR Tomography's Performance Analysis in Forest 3-D Structure Mapping with long term ALOS L band repeat pass InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Q.; Zebker, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Acquiring accurate measurement of three-dimensional structure of forest globally , is key to improve quantitative understanding of the state and dynamics of ecosystems, particularly global carbon cycle. Moreover, forest contains a large portion of Earth's renewable natural resources. All these require an accurate, timely and cost-effective global forest vertical structure mapping. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) remote sensing is widely acknowledged as a powerful tool to accomplish this task. Within the last decade, a number of experimental demonstrations of 3-D InSAR techniques have suggested the possibility of remotely sensing global 3-D vegetation structure. Among all the 3-D InSAR techniques, Multiple Baseline SAR Tomography( MB Tomo-SAR) is a very promising one. Multiple baseline SAR tomography exploits InSAR images acquired from different baselines and form a synthetic aperture in the vertical direction in order to retrieval vertical structure. Though theoretical predictions and several laboratory experiments show great reconstruction results, applying the method in real world condition still face a lot of challenges, including low acquisition number, irregular sample distribution, atmospheric phase noise and time decorrelation effect. In this article, we use L band ALOS spaceborne SAR data in Hawaii area to test the performance of MB TomoSAR . In the process, advanced Fourier beamforming method, atmospheric phase screen removal algorithm and time decorrelation effect are all applied. In addition, we also utilize the Landsat vegetation index and the result with other 3-D reconstruction methods as comparison to validate its performance.

  8. Digital Mapping as a Tool for Quantification of Textures in Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraud, J.

    2003-12-01

    The quantification of textural parameters in thin sections of rocks is the first step towards understanding the evolution of microstructural fabric and relating it to rock history. However, this essential stage is seriously limited by the time-consuming nature of manual measurements. Computer-aided edge detection is made difficult by the wide variety of grain birefringence and size, as well as defects such as fractures, alteration and twinning. I have successfully applied a range of new filters and segmentation tools from medical imaging science. The resulting raster image can be easily vectorized, and the outcome of this process is a digital map which can be further analyzed using GIS software. Important improvements using this method are better noise reduction, segmentation, and raster to vector conversion, for a multifaceted two-dimensional analysis. Instead of using the basic median filter for noise reduction, I performed an anisotropic diffusion that preserves the sharpness of grain boundaries. Next, detection of grain-edges was achieved by watershed segmentation, which treats an image as a height function, and grain edges as gradient descents between grains. It classifies pixels into regions analogous to catchment basins in a flooded landscape topology. The conversion from segmented raster image to a vectorial format is then performed and even if there is still some cleaning left, the time required to contour the thousands of crystals of a thin section is greatly reduced. Spatial registration and scaling of the polygons using GIS methods allow analyzing the thin section exactly as a digital map. The Matlab toolbox PolyLX (Lexa, 2003) is used to compute various statistical parameters such as shape descriptors (e.g., aspect ratio, compactness, etc.) and crystal size distribution. I can also produce various maps in order to detect any relationship between a grain attribute and its position. This technique will be applied to a range of plutonic and volcanic rocks

  9. Denosumab rapidly increases cortical bone in key locations of the femur: a 3D bone mapping study in women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Kenneth E S; Treece, Graham M; Gee, Andrew H; Brown, Jacques P; McClung, Michael R; Wang, Andrea; Libanati, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Women with osteoporosis treated for 36 months with twice-yearly injections of denosumab sustained fewer hip fractures compared with placebo. Treatment might improve femoral bone at locations where fractures typically occur. To test this hypothesis, we used 3D cortical bone mapping of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis to investigate the timing and precise location of denosumab versus placebo effects in the hips. We analyzed clinical computed tomography scans from 80 female participants in FREEDOM, a randomized trial, wherein half of the study participants received subcutaneous denosumab 60 mg twice yearly and the others received placebo. Cortical 3D bone thickness maps of both hips were created from scans at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months. Cortical mass surface density maps were also created for each visit. After registration of each bone to an average femur shape model followed by statistical parametric mapping, we visualized and quantified statistically significant treatment effects. The technique allowed us to pinpoint systematic differences between denosumab and control and to display the results on a 3D average femur model. Denosumab treatment led to an increase in femoral cortical mass surface density and thickness, already evident by the third injection (12 months). Overall, treatment with denosumab increased femoral cortical mass surface density by 5.4% over 3 years. One-third of the increase came from increasing cortical density, and two-thirds from increasing cortical thickness, relative to placebo. After 36 months, cortical mass surface density and thickness had increased by up to 12% at key locations such as the lateral femoral trochanter versus placebo. Most of the femoral cortex displayed a statistically significant relative difference by 36 months. Osteoporotic cortical bone responds rapidly to denosumab therapy, particularly in the hip trochanteric region. This mechanism may be involved in the robust decrease in hip fractures observed in

  10. Radiomic Texture Analysis Mapping Predicts Areas of True Functional MRI Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Kumar, Ashok J.; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Colen, Rivka R.

    2016-01-01

    Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to predict areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional maps were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a predictive model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623

  11. Textural and Mineralogical Analysis of Volcanic Rocks by µ-XRF Mapping.

    PubMed

    Germinario, Luigi; Cossio, Roberto; Maritan, Lara; Borghi, Alessandro; Mazzoli, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    In this study, µ-XRF was applied as a novel surface technique for quick acquisition of elemental X-ray maps of rocks, image analysis of which provides quantitative information on texture and rock-forming minerals. Bench-top µ-XRF is cost-effective, fast, and non-destructive, can be applied to both large (up to a few tens of cm) and fragile samples, and yields major and trace element analysis with good sensitivity. Here, X-ray mapping was performed with a resolution of 103.5 µm and spot size of 30 µm over sample areas of about 5×4 cm of Euganean trachyte, a volcanic porphyritic rock from the Euganean Hills (NE Italy) traditionally used in cultural heritage. The relative abundance of phenocrysts and groundmass, as well as the size and shape of the various mineral phases, were obtained from image analysis of the elemental maps. The quantified petrographic features allowed identification of various extraction sites, revealing an objective method for archaeometric provenance studies exploiting µ-XRF imaging.

  12. Height-resolved quantification of microstructure and texture in polycrystalline thin films using TEM orientation mapping.

    PubMed

    Aebersold, A Brian; Alexander, Duncan T L; Hébert, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    A method is presented for the quantitative investigation of microstructure and texture evolution in polycrystalline thin films based on in-plane automated crystal orientation mapping in transmission electron microscopy, from the substrate up. To demonstrate the method we apply it to the example of low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposited ZnO layers. First, orientation mapping is applied to standard cross-section and plan-view transmission electron microscopy samples of films, illustrating how plan-view samples both reduce the occurrence of grain overlap that is detrimental to reliable orientation mapping and also improve sampling statistics compared to cross-sections. Motivated by this, orientation mapping has been combined with a double-wedge method for specimen preparation developed by Spiecker et al. (2007) [1], which creates a large area plan-view sample that traverses the film thickness. By measuring >10,000 grains in the film, the resulting data give access to grain size, orientation and misorientation distributions in function of height above the substrate within the film, which are, in turn, the inputs necessary for quantitative assessment of growth models and simulations. The orientation data are directly related to microstructural images, allowing correlation of orientations with in-plane and out-of-plane grain sizes and shapes. The spatial correlation of the entire data set gives insights into previously unnoticed growth mechanisms such as the presence of renucleation or preferred misorientations. Finally, the data set can be used to guide targeted, local studies by other transmission electron microscopy techniques. This is demonstrated by the site-specific application of nano-beam diffraction to validate the presence of coherent [21̄1̄0]/(011̄3) twin boundaries first suggested by the orientation mapping.

  13. About Non-Line-Of-Sight Satellite Detection and Exclusion in a 3D Map-Aided Localization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Peyraud, Sébastien; Bétaille, David; Renault, Stéphane; Ortiz, Miguel; Mougel, Florian; Meizel, Dominique; Peyret, François

    2013-01-01

    Reliable GPS positioning in city environment is a key issue actually, signals are prone to multipath, with poor satellite geometry in many streets. Using a 3D urban model to forecast satellite visibility in urban contexts in order to improve GPS localization is the main topic of the present article. A virtual image processing that detects and eliminates possible faulty measurements is the core of this method. This image is generated using the position estimated a priori by the navigation process itself, under road constraints. This position is then updated by measurements to line-of-sight satellites only. This closed-loop real-time processing has shown very first promising full-scale test results. PMID:23344379

  14. Mapping of the C3d ligand binding site on complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) using nuclear magnetic resonance and chemical shift analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, James M; Hannan, Jonathan P; Eisenmesser, Elan Z; Holers, V Michael

    2009-04-03

    Complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) is a cell membrane protein, with 15 or 16 extracellular short consensus repeats (SCRs), that promotes B lymphocyte responses and bridges innate and acquired immunity. The most distally located SCRs (SCR1-2) mediate the interaction of CR2 with its four known ligands (C3d, Epstein-Barr virus gp350, interferon-alpha, and CD23). Inhibitory monoclonal antibodies against SCR1-2 block binding of all ligands. To develop ligand-specific inhibitors that would also assist in identifying residues unique to each receptor-ligand interaction, phage were selected from randomly generated libraries by panning with recombinant SCR1-2, followed by specific ligand-driven elution. Derived peptides were tested by competition ELISA. One peptide, C3dp1 (APQHLSSQYSRT) exhibited ligand-specific inhibition at midmicromolar IC(50). C3d was titrated into (15)N-labeled SCR1-2, which revealed chemical shift changes indicative of specific intermolecular interactions. With backbone assignments made, the chemical shift changes were mapped onto the crystal structure of SCR1-2. With regard to C3d, the binding surface includes regions of SCR1, SCR2, and the inter-SCR linker, specifically residues Arg(13), Tyr(16), Arg(28), Tyr(29), Ser(32), Thr(34), Lys(48), Asp(56), Lys(57), Tyr(68), Arg(83), Gly(84), Asn(101), Asn(105), and Ser(109). SCR1 and SCR2 demonstrated distinct binding modes. The CR2 binding surface incorporating SCR1 is inconsistent with a previous x-ray CR2-C3d co-crystal analysis but consistent with mutagenesis, x-ray neutron scattering, and inhibitory monoclonal antibody epitope mapping. Titration with C3dp1 yielded chemical shift changes (Arg(13), Tyr(16), Thr(34), Lys(48), Asp(56), Lys(57), Tyr(68), Arg(83), Gly(84), Asn(105), and Ser(109)) overlapping with C3d, indicating that C3dp1 interacts at the same CR2 site as C3d.

  15. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: matching of prior textures by image compression for geological mapping and novelty detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, P. C.; Bonnici, A.; Bruner, K. R.; Gross, C.; Ormö, J.; Smosna, R. A.; Walter, S.; Wendt, L.

    2014-07-01

    We describe an image-comparison technique of Heidemann and Ritter (2008a, b), which uses image compression, and is capable of: (i) detecting novel textures in a series of images, as well as of: (ii) alerting the user to the similarity of a new image to a previously observed texture. This image-comparison technique has been implemented and tested using our Astrobiology Phone-cam system, which employs Bluetooth communication to send images to a local laptop server in the field for the image-compression analysis. We tested the system in a field site displaying a heterogeneous suite of sandstones, limestones, mudstones and coal beds. Some of the rocks are partly covered with lichen. The image-matching procedure of this system performed very well with data obtained through our field test, grouping all images of yellow lichens together and grouping all images of a coal bed together, and giving 91% accuracy for similarity detection. Such similarity detection could be employed to make maps of different geological units. The novelty-detection performance of our system was also rather good (64% accuracy). Such novelty detection may become valuable in searching for new geological units, which could be of astrobiological interest. The current system is not directly intended for mapping and novelty detection of a second field site based on image-compression analysis of an image database from a first field site, although our current system could be further developed towards this end. Furthermore, the image-comparison technique is an unsupervised technique that is not capable of directly classifying an image as containing a particular geological feature; labelling of such geological features is done post facto by human geologists associated with this study, for the purpose of analysing the system's performance. By providing more advanced capabilities for similarity detection and novelty detection, this image-compression technique could be useful in giving more scientific autonomy

  16. Quantitative Mapping of Surface Texture on the Northern Polar Residual Cap of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkovich, S. M.; Byrne, S.; Russell, P. S.

    2010-12-01

    The northern polar residual cap (NPRC) of Mars is a water ice deposit with a rough surface made up of pits, knobs, and linear depressions on scales of tens of meters [1]. This roughness manifests as a series of bright and dark patches in visible images. Spectral data indicate that the surface of the NPRC is composed of large-grained (and therefore old) water ice. Due to the presence of this old ice, it is thought that the NPRC is in a current state of net loss of material [2]. The NPRC provides a link between the current martian climate and the historical climate recorded within the layers of the underlying north polar layered deposits. By characterizing and mapping the variations in surface texture of the NPRC, we seek to understand what factors (distance from the pole, GCM and mesoscale wind direction predictions, etc) are currently at work in resurfacing the deposit, and may have been at work in shaping the layers below. Maps of NPRC texture wavelength and orientation are being produced from HiRISE images. Two-dimensional Fourier analysis is performed upon a 256 meter x 256 meter region (corresponding to 512 x 512 pixels in 0.5 cm/pxl images, or 1024 x 1024 pixels in 0.25 cm/pxl images) within each image analyzed. The dominant wavelength of the resulting peak power spectrum corresponds to the average size of a pit-knob pair in the image, and so is a proxy for the scale of the surface roughness. The orientation of the surface roughness (i.e., the orientation of a chain of pits and mounds) is measured from a narrow range of wavelengths encompassing the dominant wavelength. We will report on how the dominant wavelengths and orientations of this surface texture vary with location and what that implies for the processes currently shaping this landscape. [1] P. C. Thomas et al, Nature 404, 161-164, 2000 [2]Y. Langevin et al, Science 307, 5715, 1581-1584, 2005.

  17. Automated Quantification of DNA Demethylation Effects in Cells via 3D Mapping of Nuclear Signatures and Population Homogeneity Assessment1

    PubMed Central

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Wawrowsky, Kolja A.; Lindsley, Erik; Vishnevsky, Eugene; Farkas, Daniel L.; Tajbakhsh, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Background Today’s advanced microscopic imaging applies to the preclinical stages of drug discovery that employ high-throughput and high-content three-dimensional (3D) analysis of cells to more efficiently screen candidate compounds. Drug efficacy can be assessed by measuring response homogeneity to treatment within a cell population. In this study topologically quantified nuclear patterns of methylated cytosine and global nuclear DNA are utilized as signatures of cellular response to the treatment of cultured cells with the demethylating anti-cancer agents: 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and octreotide (OCT). Methods Mouse pituitary folliculostellate TtT-GF cells treated with 5-AZA and OCT for 48 hours, and untreated populations, were studied by immunofluorescence with a specific antibody against 5-methylcytosine (MeC), and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for delineation of methylated sites and global DNA in nuclei (n=163). Cell images were processed utilizing an automated 3D analysis software that we developed by combining seeded watershed segmentation to extract nuclear shells with measurements of Kullback-Leibler’s (K-L) divergence to analyze cell population homogeneity in the relative nuclear distribution patterns of MeC versus DAPI stained sites. Each cell was assigned to one of the four classes: similar, likely similar, unlikely similar and dissimilar. Results Evaluation of the different cell groups revealed a significantly higher number of cells with similar or likely similar MeC/DAPI patterns among untreated cells (~100%), 5-AZA-treated cells (90%), and a lower degree of same type of cells (64%) in the OCT-treated population. The latter group contained (28%) of unlikely similar or dissimilar (7%) cells. Conclusion Our approach was successful in the assessment of cellular behavior relevant to the biological impact of the applied drugs, i.e. the reorganization of MeC/DAPI distribution by demethylation. In a comparison with other metrics, K-L divergence has

  18. Study of the 3D Geometric Structure and Temperature of a Coronal Cavity Using the Limb Synoptic Map Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, N.; Zhang, J.; Pesnell, W. Dean; Hess Webber, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    We present the three-dimensional geometric structure and thermal properties of a coronal cavity deduced from limb synoptic maps. The observations are extreme ultraviolet images from the Atmospheric Imager Assembly (AIA) and magnetic images from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We describe a limb synoptic-map method used to effectively identify and measure cavities from annuli of radiance above the solar limb. We find that cavities are best seen in the 211, 193, and 171 Å passbands. The prominence associated with each cavity is best seen in the 304 Å synoptic maps. We also estimate the thermal properties of the cavity and surrounding plasma by combining the AIA radiances with a differential emission measure analysis. This paper focuses on one long cavity from a catalog of coronal cavities that we are developing. Cavities in this catalog are designated by a coded name using the Carrington Rotation number and position. Cavity C211347177N was observed during Carrington Rotation 2113 at the northwestern limb of the solar disk with an average latitude of 47° N and a central longitude of 177°. We showed the following. (1) The cavity is a long tube with an elliptical cross-section with ratios of the length to width and the length to height of 11:1 and 7:1, respectively. (2) The cavity is about 1360 Mm long, or 170° in longitude. (3) It is tilted in latitude. (4) And it is slightly hotter than its surroundings.

  19. STUDY OF THE 3D GEOMETRIC STRUCTURE AND TEMPERATURE OF A CORONAL CAVITY USING THE LIMB SYNOPTIC MAP METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Karna, N.; Pesnell, W. Dean; Webber, S. A. Hess; Zhang, J.

    2015-09-10

    We present the three-dimensional geometric structure and thermal properties of a coronal cavity deduced from limb synoptic maps. The observations are extreme ultraviolet images from the Atmospheric Imager Assembly (AIA) and magnetic images from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We describe a limb synoptic-map method used to effectively identify and measure cavities from annuli of radiance above the solar limb. We find that cavities are best seen in the 211, 193, and 171 Å passbands. The prominence associated with each cavity is best seen in the 304 Å synoptic maps. We also estimate the thermal properties of the cavity and surrounding plasma by combining the AIA radiances with a differential emission measure analysis. This paper focuses on one long cavity from a catalog of coronal cavities that we are developing. Cavities in this catalog are designated by a coded name using the Carrington Rotation number and position. Cavity C211347177N was observed during Carrington Rotation 2113 at the northwestern limb of the solar disk with an average latitude of 47° N and a central longitude of 177°. We showed the following. (1) The cavity is a long tube with an elliptical cross-section with ratios of the length to width and the length to height of 11:1 and 7:1, respectively. (2) The cavity is about 1360 Mm long, or 170° in longitude. (3) It is tilted in latitude. (4) And it is slightly hotter than its surroundings.

  20. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Lemos, Jose A.; Koo, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ.

  1. Remote magnetic actuation of micrometric probes for in situ 3D mapping of bacterial biofilm physical properties.

    PubMed

    Galy, Olivier; Zrelli, Kais; Latour-Lambert, Patricia; Kirwan, Lyndsey; Henry, Nelly

    2014-05-02

    Bacterial adhesion and growth on interfaces lead to the formation of three-dimensional heterogeneous structures so-called biofilms. The cells dwelling in these structures are held together by physical interactions mediated by a network of extracellular polymeric substances. Bacterial biofilms impact many human activities and the understanding of their properties is crucial for a better control of their development - maintenance or eradication - depending on their adverse or beneficial outcome. This paper describes a novel methodology aiming to measure in situ the local physical properties of the biofilm that had been, until now, examined only from a macroscopic and homogeneous material perspective. The experiment described here involves introducing magnetic particles into a growing biofilm to seed local probes that can be remotely actuated without disturbing the structural properties of the biofilm. Dedicated magnetic tweezers were developed to exert a defined force on each particle embedded in the biofilm. The setup is mounted on the stage of a microscope to enable the recording of time-lapse images of the particle-pulling period. The particle trajectories are then extracted from the pulling sequence and the local viscoelastic parameters are derived from each particle displacement curve, thereby providing the 3D-spatial distribution of the parameters. Gaining insights into the biofilm mechanical profile is essential from an engineer's point of view for biofilm control purposes but also from a fundamental perspective to clarify the relationship between the architectural properties and the specific biology of these structures.

  2. Remote Magnetic Actuation of Micrometric Probes for in situ 3D Mapping of Bacterial Biofilm Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Galy, Olivier; Zrelli, Kais; Latour-Lambert, Patricia; Kirwan, Lyndsey; Henry, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and growth on interfaces lead to the formation of three-dimensional heterogeneous structures so-called biofilms. The cells dwelling in these structures are held together by physical interactions mediated by a network of extracellular polymeric substances. Bacterial biofilms impact many human activities and the understanding of their properties is crucial for a better control of their development — maintenance or eradication — depending on their adverse or beneficial outcome. This paper describes a novel methodology aiming to measure in situ the local physical properties of the biofilm that had been, until now, examined only from a macroscopic and homogeneous material perspective. The experiment described here involves introducing magnetic particles into a growing biofilm to seed local probes that can be remotely actuated without disturbing the structural properties of the biofilm. Dedicated magnetic tweezers were developed to exert a defined force on each particle embedded in the biofilm. The setup is mounted on the stage of a microscope to enable the recording of time-lapse images of the particle-pulling period. The particle trajectories are then extracted from the pulling sequence and the local viscoelastic parameters are derived from each particle displacement curve, thereby providing the 3D-spatial distribution of the parameters. Gaining insights into the biofilm mechanical profile is essential from an engineer's point of view for biofilm control purposes but also from a fundamental perspective to clarify the relationship between the architectural properties and the specific biology of these structures. PMID:24837001

  3. Reconstruction of 3D Coronal Magnetic Structures from THEMIS/MTR and Hinode/SOT Vector Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Guo, Y.; Aulanier, G.; Démoulin, P.; Török, T.; Bommier, V.; Wiegelmann, T.; Gosain, S.

    2012-08-01

    Coordinated campaigns using THEMIS, Hinode, and other instruments have allowed us to study the magnetic fields of faculae, filaments, and active regions. In a first case, we modelled the 3D magnetic field in a flaring active region with a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation, using magnetic vectors observed by THEMIS/MTR as boundary condition. In order to construct a consistent bottom boundary for the model, we first removed the 180 degree ambiguity of the transverse fields and minimized the force and torque in the observed vector fields. We found a twisted magnetic flux rope, well aligned with the polarity inversion line and a part of an Hα filament, and located where a large flare is initiated about two hours later. In a second case, Hinode/SOT allowed us to detect fine flux concentrations in faculae, while MTR provided us with magnetic information at different levels in the atmosphere. The polarimetry analysis of the MTR and SOT data gave consistent results, using both UNNOFIT and MELANIE inversion codes.

  4. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Lemos, Jose A.; Koo, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ. PMID:27604325

  5. 3D FaceCam: a fast and accurate 3D facial imaging device for biometrics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason; Zhuang, Ping; May, Patrick; Yi, Steven; Tunnell, David

    2004-08-01

    Human faces are fundamentally three-dimensional (3D) objects, and each face has its unique 3D geometric profile. The 3D geometric features of a human face can be used, together with its 2D texture, for rapid and accurate face recognition purposes. Due to the lack of low-cost and robust 3D sensors and effective 3D facial recognition (FR) algorithms, almost all existing FR systems use 2D face images. Genex has developed 3D solutions that overcome the inherent problems in 2D while also addressing limitations in other 3D alternatives. One important aspect of our solution is a unique 3D camera (the 3D FaceCam) that combines multiple imaging sensors within a single compact device to provide instantaneous, ear-to-ear coverage of a human face. This 3D camera uses three high-resolution CCD sensors and a color encoded pattern projection system. The RGB color information from each pixel is used to compute the range data and generate an accurate 3D surface map. The imaging system uses no moving parts and combines multiple 3D views to provide detailed and complete 3D coverage of the entire face. Images are captured within a fraction of a second and full-frame 3D data is produced within a few seconds. This described method provides much better data coverage and accuracy in feature areas with sharp features or details (such as the nose and eyes). Using this 3D data, we have been able to demonstrate that a 3D approach can significantly improve the performance of facial recognition. We have conducted tests in which we have varied the lighting conditions and angle of image acquisition in the "field." These tests have shown that the matching results are significantly improved when enrolling a 3D image rather than a single 2D image. With its 3D solutions, Genex is working toward unlocking the promise of powerful 3D FR and transferring FR from a lab technology into a real-world biometric solution.

  6. The Performance Analysis of a 3d Map Embedded Ins/gps Fusion Algorithm for Seamless Vehicular Navigation in Elevated Highway Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Chiang, K. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a 3D Map Matching (3D MM) algorithm is embedded to current INS/GPS fusion algorithm for enhancing the sustainability and accuracy of INS/GPS integration systems, especially the height component. In addition, this study propose an effective solutions to the limitation of current commercial vehicular navigation systems where they fail to distinguish whether the vehicle is moving on the elevated highway or the road under it because those systems don't have sufficient height resolution. To validate the performance of proposed 3D MM embedded INS/GPS integration algorithms, in the test area, two scenarios were considered, paths under the freeways and streets between tall buildings, where the GPS signal is obstacle or interfered easily. The test platform was mounted on the top of a land vehicle and also systems in the vehicle. The IMUs applied includes SPAN-LCI (0.1 deg/hr gyro bias) from NovAtel, which was used as the reference system, and two MEMS IMUs with different specifications for verifying the performance of proposed algorithm. The preliminary results indicate the proposed algorithms are able to improve the accuracy of positional components in GPS denied environments significantly with the use of INS/GPS integrated systems in SPP mode.

  7. Mapping the 3-D extent of the Northern Lobe of the Bushveld layered mafic intrusion from geophysical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Carol A.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Cole, Janine; Khoza, Tshepo David; Webb, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Geophysical models image the 3D geometry of the mafic portion of the Bushveld Complex north of the Thabazimbi-Murchison Lineament (TML), critical for understanding the origin of the world's largest layered mafic intrusion and platinum group element deposits. The combination of the gravity and magnetic data with recent seismic, MT, borehole and rock property measurements powerfully constrains the models. The intrusion north of the TML is generally shallowly buried (generally <1500 m) with a modeled area of ∼160 km × ∼125 km. The modeled thicknesses are not well constrained but vary from ∼<1000 to >12,000 m, averaging ∼4000 m. A feeder, suggested by a large modeled thickness (>10,000 m) and funnel shape, for Lower Zone magmas could have originated near the intersection of NS and NE trending TML faults under Mokopane. The TML has been thought to be the feeder zone for the entire Bushveld Complex but the identification of local feeders and/or dikes in the TML in the models is complicated by uncertainties on the syn- and post-Bushveld deformation history. However, modeled moderately thick high density material near the intersection of faults within the central and western TML may represent feeders for parts of the Bushveld Complex if deformation was minimal. The correspondence of flat, high resistivity and density regions reflect the sill-like geometry of the Bushveld Complex without evidence for feeders north of Mokopane. Magnetotelluric models indicate that the Transvaal sedimentary basin underlies much of the Bushveld Complex north of the TML, further than previously thought and important because the degree of reaction and assimilation of the Transvaal rocks with the mafic magmas resulted in a variety of mineralization zones.

  8. Leveraging 3D Wheeler Diagrams and relative time mapping in seismic data to improve stratigraphic interpretation: Application, Assumptions, and Sequence Stratigraphic Revelations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggin, L. R.

    2014-12-01

    Our understanding of subsurface stratigraphic relationships is guided by stratigraphic concepts that were developed using many varieties and scales of data including paleontological samples, cuttings and core, outcrop analogs, well logs, and seismic. Subsurface stratigraphic correlations are strongly influenced by the type, density, and distribution of the data available. The exploration geologist typically interprets 2D and 3D seismic reflections to define prospects and plays. In structurally simple areas, he or she often assumes that seismic reflectors mark depositional boundaries that are essentially time-synchronous events represented by a single wavelet character. In reality, seismic reflectors usually display spatial wavelet variability, seldom resolve individual beds and are the product of the amplitude expression of a range of lithologic changes that encompasses a range of geologic time and depositional processes. Our assumption that seismic reflections are time-synchronous can lead to errors in stratigraphic correlation that only become evident when our prediction of well or field performance is unrealized. To mitigate the potential for this correlation error, we must modify how we interpret seismic data. In this presentation we will focus on the concept of defining or approximating time-correlative surfaces in seismic data, leverage concepts of the Wheeler transform to place these seismic reflectors into the relative time domain and then examine the diachronous nature of these time-mapped surfaces in 3D. We will then explore how the 3D mapping of time-correlative surfaces fits sequence stratigraphic concepts and discuss whether this new approach requires us to change our interpretation paradigms.

  9. Phenotypic transition maps of 3D breast acini obtained by imaging-guided agent-based modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jonathan; Enderling, Heiko; Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Pham, Christopher; Polyzos, Aris; Chen, Chen-Yi; Costes, Sylvain V

    2011-02-18

    We introduce an agent-based model of epithelial cell morphogenesis to explore the complex interplay between apoptosis, proliferation, and polarization. By varying the activity levels of these mechanisms we derived phenotypic transition maps of normal and aberrant morphogenesis. These maps identify homeostatic ranges and morphologic stability conditions. The agent-based model was parameterized and validated using novel high-content image analysis of mammary acini morphogenesis in vitro with focus on time-dependent cell densities, proliferation and death rates, as well as acini morphologies. Model simulations reveal apoptosis being necessary and sufficient for initiating lumen formation, but cell polarization being the pivotal mechanism for maintaining physiological epithelium morphology and acini sphericity. Furthermore, simulations highlight that acinus growth arrest in normal acini can be achieved by controlling the fraction of proliferating cells. Interestingly, our simulations reveal a synergism between polarization and apoptosis in enhancing growth arrest. After validating the model with experimental data from a normal human breast line (MCF10A), the system was challenged to predict the growth of MCF10A where AKT-1 was overexpressed, leading to reduced apoptosis. As previously reported, this led to non growth-arrested acini, with very large sizes and partially filled lumen. However, surprisingly, image analysis revealed a much lower nuclear density than observed for normal acini. The growth kinetics indicates that these acini grew faster than the cells comprising it. The in silico model could not replicate this behavior, contradicting the classic paradigm that ductal carcinoma in situ is only the result of high proliferation and low apoptosis. Our simulations suggest that overexpression of AKT-1 must also perturb cell-cell and cell-ECM communication, reminding us that extracellular context can dictate cellular behavior.

  10. Unsupervised partial volume estimation using 3D and statistical priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, Pierre M.

    2001-07-01

    Our main objective is to compute the volume of interest of images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We suggest a method based on maximum a posteriori. Using texture models, we propose a new partial volume determination. We model tissues using generalized gaussian distributions fitted from a mixture of their gray levels and texture information. Texture information relies on estimation errors from multiresolution and multispectral autoregressive models. A uniform distribution solves large estimation errors, when dealing with unknown tissues. An initial segmentation, needed by the multiresolution segmentation deterministic relaxation algorithm, is found using an anatomical atlas. To model the a priori information, we use a full 3-D extension of Markov random fields. Our 3-D extension is straightforward, easily implemented, and includes single label probability. Using initial segmentation map and initial tissues models, iterative updates are made on the segmentation map and tissue models. Updating tissue models remove field inhomogeneities. Partial volumes are computed from final segmentation map and tissue models. Preliminary results are encouraging.

  11. Stroboscobic near-field scanning optical microscopy for 3D mapping of mode profiles of plasmonic nanostructures (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Aykutlu; Ozgur, Erol; Torunoglu, Gamze

    2016-09-01

    We present a dynamic approach to scanning near field optical microscopy that extends the measurement technique to the third dimension, by strobing the illumination in sync with the cantilever oscillation. Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds placed on cantilever tips are used as stable emitters for emission enhancement. Local field enhancement and modulation of optical density states are mapped in three dimensions based on fluorescence intensity and spectrum changes as the tip is scanned over plasmonic nanostructures. The excitation of NV centers is done using a total internal reflection setup. Using a digital phase locked loop to pulse the excitation in various tip sample separations, 2D slices of fluorescence enhancement can be recorded. Alternatively, a conventional SNOM tip can be used to selectively couple wideband excitation to the collection path, with subdiffraction resolution of 60 nm in x and y and 10 nm in z directions. The approach solves the problem of tip-sample separation stabilization over extended periods of measurement time, required to collect data resolved in emission wavelength and three spatial dimensions. The method can provide a unique way of accessing the three dimensional field and mode profiles of nanophotonics structures.

  12. Order parameter re-mapping algorithm for 3D phase field model of grain growth using FEM

    SciTech Connect

    Permann, Cody J.; Tonks, Michael R.; Fromm, Bradley; Gaston, Derek R.

    2016-01-14

    Phase field modeling (PFM) is a well-known technique for simulating microstructural evolution. To model grain growth using PFM, typically each grain is assigned a unique non-conserved order parameter and each order parameter field is evolved in time. Traditional approaches using a one-to-one mapping of grains to order parameters present a challenge when modeling large numbers of grains due to the computational expense of using many order parameters. This problem is exacerbated when using an implicit finite element method (FEM), as the global matrix size is proportional to the number of order parameters. While previous work has developed methods to reduce the number of required variables and thus computational complexity and run time, none of the existing approaches can be applied for an implicit FEM implementation of PFM. Here, we present a modular, dynamic, scalable reassignment algorithm suitable for use in such a system. Polycrystal modeling with grain growth and stress require careful tracking of each grain’s position and orientation which is lost when using a reduced order parameter set. In conclusion, the method presented in this paper maintains a unique ID for each grain even after reassignment, to allow the PFM to be tightly coupled to calculations of the stress throughout the polycrystal. Implementation details and comparative results of our approach are presented.

  13. A high performance biometric signal and image processing method to reveal blood perfusion towards 3D oxygen saturation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imms, Ryan; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Trico, Michaël.; Summers, Ron

    2014-03-01

    Non-contact imaging photoplethysmography (PPG) is a recent development in the field of physiological data acquisition, currently undergoing a large amount of research to characterize and define the range of its capabilities. Contact-based PPG techniques have been broadly used in clinical scenarios for a number of years to obtain direct information about the degree of oxygen saturation for patients. With the advent of imaging techniques, there is strong potential to enable access to additional information such as multi-dimensional blood perfusion and saturation mapping. The further development of effective opto-physiological monitoring techniques is dependent upon novel modelling techniques coupled with improved sensor design and effective signal processing methodologies. The biometric signal and imaging processing platform (bSIPP) provides a comprehensive set of features for extraction and analysis of recorded iPPG data, enabling direct comparison with other biomedical diagnostic tools such as ECG and EEG. Additionally, utilizing information about the nature of tissue structure has enabled the generation of an engineering model describing the behaviour of light during its travel through the biological tissue. This enables the estimation of the relative oxygen saturation and blood perfusion in different layers of the tissue to be calculated, which has the potential to be a useful diagnostic tool.

  14. Order parameter re-mapping algorithm for 3D phase field model of grain growth using FEM

    DOE PAGES

    Permann, Cody J.; Tonks, Michael R.; Fromm, Bradley; ...

    2016-01-14

    Phase field modeling (PFM) is a well-known technique for simulating microstructural evolution. To model grain growth using PFM, typically each grain is assigned a unique non-conserved order parameter and each order parameter field is evolved in time. Traditional approaches using a one-to-one mapping of grains to order parameters present a challenge when modeling large numbers of grains due to the computational expense of using many order parameters. This problem is exacerbated when using an implicit finite element method (FEM), as the global matrix size is proportional to the number of order parameters. While previous work has developed methods to reducemore » the number of required variables and thus computational complexity and run time, none of the existing approaches can be applied for an implicit FEM implementation of PFM. Here, we present a modular, dynamic, scalable reassignment algorithm suitable for use in such a system. Polycrystal modeling with grain growth and stress require careful tracking of each grain’s position and orientation which is lost when using a reduced order parameter set. In conclusion, the method presented in this paper maintains a unique ID for each grain even after reassignment, to allow the PFM to be tightly coupled to calculations of the stress throughout the polycrystal. Implementation details and comparative results of our approach are presented.« less

  15. Three-dimensional (3D) coseismic deformation map produced by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake estimated and modeled by SAR and GPS data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Fernández, José; Palano, Mimmo; Samsonov, Sergey; Stramondo, Salvatore; Zerbini, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a 3D map of coseismic displacements due to the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, California, obtained by integrating displacement information data from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI), Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) and GPS data acquired by both permanent stations and campaigns sites. This seismic event produced significant surface deformation along the 3D components causing several damages to vineyards, roads and houses. The remote sensing results, i.e. InSAR, MAI and POT, were obtained from the pair of SAR images provided by the Sentinel-1 satellite, launched on April 3rd, 2014. They were acquired on August 7th and 31st along descending orbits with an incidence angle of about 23°. The GPS dataset includes measurements from 32 stations belonging to the Bay Area Regional Deformation Network (BARDN), 301 continuous stations available from the UNAVCO and the CDDIS archives, and 13 additional campaign sites from Barnhart et al, 2014 [1]. These data constrain the horizontal and vertical displacement components proving to be helpful for the adopted integration method. We exploit the Bayes theory to search for the 3D coseismic displacement components. In particular, for each point, we construct an energy function and solve the problem to find a global minimum. Experimental results are consistent with a strike-slip fault mechanism with an approximately NW-SE fault plane. Indeed, the 3D displacement map shows a strong North-South (NS) component, peaking at about 15 cm, a few kilometers far from the epicenter. The East-West (EW) displacement component reaches its maximum (~10 cm) south of the city of Napa, whereas the vertical one (UP) is smaller, although a subsidence in the order of 8 cm on the east side of the fault can be observed. A source modelling was performed by inverting the estimated displacement components. The best fitting model is given by a ~N330° E-oriented and ~70° dipping fault with a prevailing

  16. Textures from stereo-based IR imaging for industrial tire inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Linda A.; Legrand, Anne-Claire; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Dumont, Christophe; Abidi, Mongi A.

    2000-08-01

    A conceptual system to produce 3D thermal models of tires for tire inspection and defect characterization is proposed. The system uses registered range and thermal information to build highly detailed 3D models using either a volumetric or mech-based approach. To achieve this goal, two narrow bandpass filters are used in conjunction with two IR cameras to obtain the true temperature of the target body. The thermal information is then translated to texture data and mapped as an overlay onto a 3D model. The textures are realizable through the use of three-component texture maps that include rgb values to specify the texture coordinates in the plane. The objective is to generate a movie loop depicting a tire endurance test so that an operator may analyze potential tire defects through texture characteristics that appear as a thermal signature changing dynamically with time.

  17. Systematic mapping of the subchondral bone 3D microarchitecture in the human tibial plateau: Variations with joint alignment.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bryant C; Thewlis, Dominic; Solomon, Lucian B; Mercer, Graham; Reynolds, Karen J; Perilli, Egon

    2016-11-07

    Tibial subchondral bone plays an important role in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Microarchitectural characterization of subchondral bone plate (SBP), underlying subchondral trabecular bone (STB) and relationships between these compartments, however, is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of SBP thickness, SBP porosity and STB microarchitecture, and relationships among them, in OA tibiae of varying joint alignment. Twenty-five tibial plateaus from end-stage knee-OA patients, with varus (n = 17) or non-varus (n = 8) alignment were micro-CT scanned (17 μm/voxel). SBP and STB microarchitecture was quantified via a systematic mapping in 22 volumes of interest per knee (11 medial, 11 lateral). Significant within-condylar and between-condylar (medial vs. lateral) differences (p < 0.05) were found. In varus, STB bone volume fraction (BV/TV) was consistently high throughout the medial condyle, whereas in non-varus, medially, it was more heterogeneously distributed. Regions of high SBP thickness were co-located with regions of high STB BV/TV underneath. In varus, BV/TV was significantly higher medially than laterally, however, not so in non-varus. Moreover, region-specific significant associations between the SBP thickness and SBP porosity and the underlying STB microarchitecture were detected, which in general were not captured when considering the values averaged for each condyle. As subchondral bone changes reflect responses to local mechanical and biochemical factors within the joint, our results suggest that joint alignment influences both the medial-to-lateral and the within-condyle distribution of force across the tibia, generating corresponding local bony responses (adaptation) of both the subchondral bone plate and underlying subchondral trabecular bone microarchitecture. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  18. Turbulence computations with 3-D small-scale additive turbulent decomposition and data-fitting using chaotic map combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerji, Sudip

    1997-01-01

    Although the equations governing turbulent fluid flow, the Navier-Stokes (N.S.) equations, have been known for well over a century and there is a clear technological necessity in obtaining solutions to these equations, turbulence remains one of the principal unsolved problems in physics today. It is still not possible to make accurate quantitative predictions about turbulent flows without relying heavily on empirical data. In principle, it is possible to obtain turbulent solutions from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the N.-S. equations. The author first provides a brief introduction to the dynamics of turbulent flows. The N.-S. equations which govern fluid flow, are described thereafter. Then he gives a brief overview of DNS calculations and where they stand at present. He next introduces the two most popular approaches for doing turbulent computations currently in use, namely, the Reynolds averaging of the N.-S. equations (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES). Approximations, often ad hoc ones, are present in these methods because use is made of heuristic models for turbulence quantities (the Reynolds stresses) which are otherwise unknown. They then introduce a new computational method called additive turbulent decomposition (ATD), the small-scale version of which is the topic of this research. The rest of the thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 he describes the ATD procedure in greater detail; how dependent variables are split and the decomposition into large- and small-scale sets of equations. In Chapter 3 the spectral projection of the small-scale momentum equations are derived in detail. In Chapter 4 results of the computations with the small-scale ATD equations are presented. In Chapter 5 he describes the data-fitting procedure which can be used to directly specify the parameters of a chaotic-map turbulence model.

  19. Mapping 3D thin shale and permeability pathway within a reservoir system: Case study from the Sleipner Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponfa Bitrus, Roy; Iacopini, David; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Reservoir architecture plays an integral part of seismic reservoir characterization. The characteristics of a reservoir which includes its external and internal geometry are important as they influence the production and development strategy employed in the oil and gas sector. Reservoir architecture is defined by the interpretation of seismic data, thus identifying the basic structural and stratigraphic geometrical framework of a trapping and flow system for hydrocarbon and fluids. One major issue though is the interpretation of thin shales and identification of permeability pathways within the reservoir system. This paper employs a method using attributes to map thin shales and identify permeability pathways or transmissitives that exist within a reservoir taking into consideration the seismic resolution and available data. Case study is the Utsira Formation in the Sleipner field, Norwegian North sea. The Utsira formation presents a classic case of thin beds within a sandstone formation and transmissitives that exist as chimneys within the formation. A total of 10 intra reservoir horizon units of shales where interpreted using complex trace seismic attributes. These interpreted horizons where further analysed through spectral decomposition to reveal possible facies distribution and unit thickness within the horizon. Reservoir transmissitives identified as vertical curvilinear structures were also analysed using unique seismic attributes in other to delineate their extent and characterise their occurrence These interpreted shales and pathway transmissitives illuminate the geometry of the formation, the reservoir heterogeneities on a finer-scale and, in the long term, constrain the migration prediction of reservoir fluids, hydrocarbons and injected CO2 when matched across a 4D seismic data survey. As such, useful insights into the key elements operating within the reservoir can be provided, giving a good indication of the long and short term reservoir performance.

  20. Use of stereoscopic satellite imagery for 3D mapping of bedrock structure in West Antarctica: An example from the northern Ford Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Porter, C.; Gottfried, M.

    2012-12-01

    In coastal West Antarctica, crustal-scale faults have been minimally mapped using traditional ground-based methods but regional scale structures are inferred mainly on the basis of low resolution potential fields data from airborne geophysical surveys (15 km flightline spacing). We use a new approach to detailed mapping of faults, shear zones, and intrusive relationships using panchromatic and multispectral imagery draped upon a digital elevation model (DEM). Our work focuses on the Fosdick Mountains, a culmination of lower middle crustal rocks exhumed at c. 100 Ma by dextral oblique detachment faulting. Ground truth exists for extensive areas visited during field studies in 2005-2011, providing a basis for spectral analysis of 8-band WorldView-02 imagery for detailed mapping of complex granite- migmatite relationships on the north side of the Fosdick range. A primary aim is the creation of a 3D geological map using the results of spectral analysis merged with a DEM computed from a stereographic pair of high resolution panchromatic images (sequential scenes, acquired 45 seconds apart). DEMs were computed using ERDAS Imagine™ LPS eATE, refined by MATLAB-based interpolation scripts to remove artifacts in the terrain model according to procedures developed by the Polar Geospatial Center (U. Minnesota). Orthorectified satellite imagery that covers the area of the DEMs was subjected to principal component analysis in ESRI ArcGIS™ 10.1, then the different rock types were identified using various combinations of spectral bands in order to map the geology of rock exposures that could not be accessed directly from the ground. Renderings in 3D of the satellite scenes draped upon the DEMs were created using Global Mapper™. The 3D perspective views reveal structural and geological features that are not observed in either the DEM nor the satellite imagery alone. The detailed map is crucial for an ongoing petrological / geochemical investigation of Cretaceous crustal

  1. Crystallographic Texture and Elemental Composition Mapped in Bovine Root Dentin at the 200 nm Level

    PubMed Central

    Deymier-Black, A. C.; Veis, A.; Cai, Z.; Stock, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The relationship between the mineralization of peritubular dentin (PTD) and intertubular dentin (ITD) is not well understood. Tubules are quite small, diameter ~2 μm, and this makes the near-tubule region of dentin difficult to study. Here, advanced characterization techniques are applied in a novel way to examine what organic or nanostructural signatures may indicate the end of ITD or the beginning of PTD mineralization. X-ray fluorescence intensity (Ca, P, and Zn) and X-ray diffraction patterns from carbonated apatite (cAp) were mapped around dentintubules at resolutions ten times smaller than the feature size (200 nm pixels), representing a 36% increase in resolution over earlier work. In the near tubule volumes of near-pulp, root dentin, Zn intensity was higher than in ITD remote from the tubules. This increase in Zn2+, as determined by X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis, may indicate the presence of metalloenzymes or transcription factors important to ITD or PTD mineralization. The profiles of the cAp 00.2 X-ray diffraction rings were fitted with a pseudo-Voigt function, and the spatial and azimuthal distribution of these rings’ integrated intensities indicated that the cAp platelets were arranged with their c-axes aligned tangential to the edge of the tubule lumen. This texture was continuous throughout the dentin indicating a lack of structural difference between in the Zn rich near-tubular region and the remote ITD. PMID:23630059

  2. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of São Miguel das Missões

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  3. Texture coarseness responsive neurons and their mapping in layer 2–3 of the rat barrel cortex in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Garion, Liora; Dubin, Uri; Rubin, Yoav; Khateb, Mohamed; Schiller, Yitzhak; Azouz, Rony; Schiller, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Texture discrimination is a fundamental function of somatosensory systems, yet the manner by which texture is coded and spatially represented in the barrel cortex are largely unknown. Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging in the rat barrel cortex during artificial whisking against different surface coarseness or controlled passive whisker vibrations simulating different coarseness, we show that layer 2–3 neurons within barrel boundaries differentially respond to specific texture coarsenesses, while only a minority of neurons responded monotonically with increased or decreased surface coarseness. Neurons with similar preferred texture coarseness were spatially clustered. Multi-contact single unit recordings showed a vertical columnar organization of texture coarseness preference in layer 2–3. These findings indicate that layer 2–3 neurons perform high hierarchical processing of tactile information, with surface coarseness embodied by distinct neuronal subpopulations that are spatially mapped onto the barrel cortex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03405.001 PMID:25233151

  4. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  5. Accurate and Fully Automatic Hippocampus Segmentation Using Subject-Specific 3D Optimal Local Maps Into a Hybrid Active Contour Model

    PubMed Central

    Gkontra, Polyxeni; Daras, Petros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the structural integrity of the hippocampus (HC) is an essential step toward prevention, diagnosis, and follow-up of various brain disorders due to the implication of the structural changes of the HC in those disorders. In this respect, the development of automatic segmentation methods that can accurately, reliably, and reproducibly segment the HC has attracted considerable attention over the past decades. This paper presents an innovative 3-D fully automatic method to be used on top of the multiatlas concept for the HC segmentation. The method is based on a subject-specific set of 3-D optimal local maps (OLMs) that locally control the influence of each energy term of a hybrid active contour model (ACM). The complete set of the OLMs for a set of training images is defined simultaneously via an optimization scheme. At the same time, the optimal ACM parameters are also calculated. Therefore, heuristic parameter fine-tuning is not required. Training OLMs are subsequently combined, by applying an extended multiatlas concept, to produce the OLMs that are anatomically more suitable to the test image. The proposed algorithm was tested on three different and publicly available data sets. Its accuracy was compared with that of state-of-the-art methods demonstrating the efficacy and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:27170866

  6. Combining sedimentological and geophysical data for high-resolution 3-D mapping of fluvial architectural elements in the Quaternary Po plain (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersezio, R.; Giudici, M.; Mele, M.

    2007-11-01

    Current approaches to the reconstruction of the geometry of fluvial sediments of Quaternary alluvial plains and the characterization of their internal architecture are strongly dependent on core data (1-D). Accurate 2-D and 3-D reconstructions and maps of the subsurface are needed in hydrostratigraphy, hydrogeology and geotechnical studies. The present study aims to: 1) improve current methods for geophysical imaging of the subsurface by means of VES, ERGI and GPR data, and calibration with geomorphological and geological reconstructions, 2) optimize the horizontal and vertical resolution of subsurface imaging in order to resolve sedimentary heterogeneity, and 3) check the reliability/uncertainty of the results (maps and architectural reconstructions) by comparison with exposed analogues. The method was applied to shallow (0 to 15 m) aquifers of the fluvial plain of southern Lombardy (Northern Italy). At two sites we studied fluvial sediments of meandering systems of the Last Glacial Maximum and post-glacial historical age. These sediments comprise juxtaposed and superimposed gravel-sand units with fining-upward sequences (channel-bar depositional elements), which are separated by thin and laterally discontinuous silty and sandy clay units (overbank and flood plain deposits). The sedimentary architecture has been studied at different scales in the two areas. At the scale of the depositional system, we reconstructed the subsurface over an area of 4 km 2 to a depth of 18 m (study site 1). Reconstructed sequences based on 10 boreholes and water-well stratigraphic logs were integrated with the interpretation of 10 vertical electrical soundings (VES) with Schlumberger arrays and 1570 m long dipole-dipole electrical resistivity ground imaging profiles (ERGI). In unsaturated sediments, vertical and horizontal transitions between gravel-sand units and fine-grained sediments could be mapped respectively at the meter- to decameter scale after calibration of the VES with

  7. Using a modified 3D-printer for mapping the magnetic field of RF coils designed for fetal and neonatal imaging.

    PubMed

    Vavoulas, Alexander; Vaiopoulos, Nicholas; Hedström, Erik; Xanthis, Christos G; Sandalidis, Harilaos G; Aletras, Anthony H

    2016-08-01

    An experimental setup for characterizing the magnetic field of MRI RF coils was proposed and tested. The setup consisted of a specially configured 3D-printer, a network analyzer and a mid-performance desktop PC. The setup was tested on a single loop RF coil, part of a phased array for fetal imaging. Then, the setup was used for determining the magnetic field characteristics of a high-pass birdcage coil used for neonatal MR imaging with a vertical static field. The scattering parameter S21, converted into power ratio, was used for mapping the B1 magnetic field. The experimental measurements from the loop coil were close to the theoretical results (R=0.924). A high degree of homogeneity was measured for the neonatal birdcage RF coil. The development of MR RF coils is time consuming and resource intensive. The proposed experimental setup provides an alternative method for magnetic field characterization of RF coils used in MRI.

  8. Using a modified 3D-printer for mapping the magnetic field of RF coils designed for fetal and neonatal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavoulas, Alexander; Vaiopoulos, Nicholas; Hedström, Erik; Xanthis, Christos G.; Sandalidis, Harilaos G.; Aletras, Anthony H.

    2016-08-01

    An experimental setup for characterizing the magnetic field of MRI RF coils was proposed and tested. The setup consisted of a specially configured 3D-printer, a network analyzer and a mid-performance desktop PC. The setup was tested on a single loop RF coil, part of a phased array for fetal imaging. Then, the setup was used for determining the magnetic field characteristics of a high-pass birdcage coil used for neonatal MR imaging with a vertical static field. The scattering parameter S21, converted into power ratio, was used for mapping the B1 magnetic field. The experimental measurements from the loop coil were close to the theoretical results (R = 0.924). A high degree of homogeneity was measured for the neonatal birdcage RF coil. The development of MR RF coils is time consuming and resource intensive. The proposed experimental setup provides an alternative method for magnetic field characterization of RF coils used in MRI.

  9. 3D mapping of water in oolithic limestone at atmospheric and vacuum saturation using X-ray micro-CT differential imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, M.A.; De Kock, T.; Bultreys, T.; De Schutter, G.; Vontobel, P.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Cnudde, V.

    2014-11-15

    Determining the distribution of fluids in porous sedimentary rocks is of great importance in many geological fields. However, this is not straightforward, especially in the case of complex sedimentary rocks like limestone, where a multidisciplinary approach is often needed to capture its broad, multimodal pore size distribution and complex pore geometries. This paper focuses on the porosity and fluid distribution in two varieties of Massangis limestone, a widely used natural building stone from the southeast part of the Paris basin (France). The Massangis limestone shows locally varying post-depositional alterations, resulting in different types of pore networks and very different water distributions within the limestone. Traditional techniques for characterizing the porosity and pore size distribution are compared with state-of-the-art neutron radiography and X-ray computed microtomography to visualize the distribution of water inside the limestone at different imbibition conditions. X-ray computed microtomography images have the great advantage to non-destructively visualize and analyze the pore space inside of a rock, but are often limited to the larger macropores in the rock due to resolution limitations. In this paper, differential imaging is successfully applied to the X-ray computed microtomography images to obtain sub-resolution information about fluid occupancy and to map the fluid distribution in three dimensions inside the scanned limestone samples. The detailed study of the pore space with differential imaging allows understanding the difference in the water uptake behavior of the limestone, a primary factor that affects the weathering of the rock. - Highlights: • The water distribution in a limestone was visualized in 3D with micro-CT. • Differential imaging allowed to map both macro and microporous zones in the rock. • The 3D study of the pore space clarified the difference in water uptake behavior. • Trapped air is visualized in the moldic

  10. Pushing the Limits of Geological Mapping Outside the Earth: 3D Modeling of Strike-Slip and Extensional Fault Systems in Meridiani Planum Region, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Royo, O.

    2014-12-01

    GIS and geological modeling software have radically changed the means by which geological mapping is produced, published and visualized. This type of software environment normally requires a spatially aware reference system to position data and interpretation, often referred as georeferenced data (i.e. geographic data referenced on the Earth). However, for this study we coin the term areoreferenced data (i.e. Mars-referenced "geographic" data). Thanks to the wealth of areoreferenced data made available by the NASA and the HiRise at University of Arizona it is now possible to carry out 3D areographic and areologic (i.e. related to the topography and geology of Mars, respectively) reconstructions in great detail. The present work benefits from the availability of software and areographic data, and presents the results of an areologic map and 3D model of the fault systems in the Meridiani Planum of Mars. The work has been carried out in Move™ (developed by Midland Valley Exploration), a geological modeling toolkit that allows for easy data loading in a wide range of formats as well as straightforward 2D/3D model building tools of geological bodies. Initial data consisted of Digital Terrain Model and orthoimages (NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/USGS). From these we have interpreted several structural domains: right-lateral strike-slip systems with associated releasing bends, which gave room to an extensional event causing a horizontal-axis rotation of the bedding. Bedding ranges from subhorizontal in the southern domain where strike-slip prevails to nearly 40º in the central and northern domains, where a more complex interaction between strike-slip and extensional faults is described. The stratigraphic sequence is mainly composed by moderately rounded well laminated basaltic sandstones (Squyres et al., 2004) in which a high component of sulfurs (e.g. sulfate anhydrate, hexahydrite, epsomite, gypsum) and salts (e.g. halite) has been described (Squyres et al., 2004

  11. Seafloor surface processes and subsurface paleo-channel unconformities mapped using multi-channel seismic and multi-beam sonar data from the Galicia 3D seismic experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. C.; Shillington, D. J.; Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Morgan, J. K.; Ranero, C.; Reston, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we use geophysical methods, stratigraphic relationships, and coring/drilling leg results to assess possible controls on deep-sea channel formation in order to further constrain paleo-channel (PC) and associated unconformity timing/source processes. A series of cut and fill PC are mapped in 3D multi-channel seismic (MCS) data and compared with multi-beam (MB) sonar bathymetry/backscatter data collected during the Galicia 3D survey with the R/V Marcus G. Langseth (2013). The MCS data were collected using four 6 km streamers spaced at 200 m resulting in 25 m x 25 m common mid-point bins within the ~67 km x 20 km 3D volume. The MB data were collected at an average depth of ~4900 m with a constrained swath width of 4.5 km resulting in 11.25x overlap while enabling 25-m bathymetry and 10-m backscatter grids. The PC lie below the mouth of a submarine canyon at the edge of the Galicia abyssal plain and cut pre/syn-rift sediments; they are bound by a rift block to the north and paleo-levees to the south (maximum height of ~180m). From drilling results, the most recent PC is late Miocene in age. In this study, four PC are traced into the basin as unconformities. Several of the PC/unconformities are tentatively correlated with previously interpreted Pyrenean orogeny/compressional Miocene/Oligocene tectonic events. However, one PC/unconformity within this interval has not been previously interpreted. In order test the hypothesis that the unconformities are the result of a significant change in base level indicated by a low shale/sand (SS) ratio, we use seismic surface attributes to calculate the SS ratio and trace the horizontal extent of the unconformities. Additionally, the MB/MCS seafloor morphology reveals sedimentary waves outboard of the canyon mouth. We use backscatter data to compare the extent of recent processes (e.g., Pleistocene glaciation/de-glaciation) with the unconformities by mapping the surface/shallow subsurface SS ratio (volume scattering).

  12. Low magnification EBSD mapping of texture distribution in a fine-grained matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Joseph; Mariani, Elisabetta; Wheeler, John

    2016-04-01

    The study of texture (CPO) in rocks is often restricted to individual phases within a given sample or specific area of said sample. Large scale EBSD mapping of the matrix of a greenschist facies albite mylonite has shown that an overall significant CPO within albite grains is strongly domainal, and each domain has a unique CPO that is independent of both common slip systems in plagioclase and the specimen geometry (i.e. foliation and lineation). Observational evidence suggests the metamorphic breakdown of plagioclase to albite (Ab) plus a Ca-bearing phase (clinozoisite, Cz) has produced a two phase mixture in which each phase has a contrasting solubility. New grains of albite are thought to nucleate epitaxially from original plagioclase as a reaction front passes through parent grains. A pseudomorphic region of Ab plus Cz after an original plagioclase crystal, protected from intense deformation by enclosure in a cm-scale augite clast, gives insight into pre-deformation daughter grain distributions. The albite in the region inherits a strong CPO and 180° misorientation peak from a relict twin pattern due to epitaxial growth while clinozoisite is randomly distributed and oriented (despite some grains nucleating from the plagioclase parent twin boundary). In the deformed matrix, daughter Ab is seen to be the more mobile phase, having undergone obvious dissolution, transport and reprecipitation into fractures and pressure shadows, whereas Cz grains are relatively insoluble and rotate into parallelism with the foliation, forming bands that anastamose around Cpx porphyroclasts. Despite this modification, albite in the matrix retains significant CPOs that comprise distinct domains with sharp boundaries. A 180° misorientation peak thought to be a signature of twinning inherited from parent plagioclase is also observed in each domain. Why a CPO should be preserved under these conditions (contrary to our traditional understanding that CPOs are a signature of dislocation

  13. Automated 3D reconstruction of interiors with multiple scan views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Ng, Kia C.; Wolfart, Erik; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Hogg, David C.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents two integrated solutions for realistic 3D model acquisition and reconstruction; an early prototype, in the form of a push trolley, and a later prototype in the form of an autonomous robot. The systems encompass all hardware and software required, from laser and video data acquisition, processing and output of texture-mapped 3D models in VRML format, to batteries for power supply and wireless network communications. The autonomous version is also equipped with a mobile platform and other sensors for the purpose of automatic navigation. The applications for such a system range from real estate and tourism (e.g., showing a 3D computer model of a property to a potential buyer or tenant) or as tool for content creation (e.g., creating 3D models of heritage buildings or producing broadcast quality virtual studios). The system can also be used in industrial environments as a reverse engineering tool to update the design of a plant, or as a 3D photo-archive for insurance purposes. The system is Internet compatible: the photo-realistic models can be accessed via the Internet and manipulated interactively in 3D using a common Web browser with a VRML plug-in. Further information and example reconstructed models are available on- line via the RESOLV web-page at http://www.scs.leeds.ac.uk/resolv/.

  14. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  15. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  16. 3D textural evidence for the formation of ultra-high tenor precious metal bearing sulphide microdroplets in offset reefs: An extreme example from the Platinova Reef, Skaergaard Intrusion, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwell, David A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Le Vaillant, Margaux; Keays, Reid R.; Fisher, Louise A.; Prasser, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The Platinova Reef in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, is an example of a type of layered-intrusion-hosted, precious metal-enriched, stratiform, disseminated sulphide deposit referred to as "offset reefs". These typically show platinum-group element (PGE) enrichment immediately below a major increase in the abundance of Cu-rich sulphides, with a prominent peak in Au enrichment exactly at that transition between the PGE-rich and the Cu-sulphide-rich zones. The reasons for the relative sequence of offsets in metal peaks, and the occasionally very high metal tenors have been subject to great debate. Here we use an integrated approach of high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT), SEM, synchrotron and desktop microbeam XRF mapping, and thin section petrography to comprehensively classify the textural relations of the precious metal-bearing sulphides of the Platinova Reef as an extreme end member example of an exceedingly high tenor offset deposit. Our results show that in the zones of PGE enrichment, precious metal minerals (PMMs) are intimately associated with Cu sulphide globules, mostly located at, or close to, silicate and oxide boundaries. The textures are identical in zones enriched in Pd and Au, and thus we do not see any evidence for different processes forming the different zones. The PMM:Cu sulphide ratio in each globule varies significantly but overall the size of the globules increases from the Pd-rich, through the Au-rich, and into the Cu zone, with a significant corresponding decrease in PM tenor. As such, this records a progression of exceedingly high tenor, microdroplets of sulphide, which progressively get larger up through the section, and decrease in tenor proportionally to their size. Cumulus droplets of Cu sulphide became enriched in metals, and were trapped in situ without significant transport from their point of nucleation. The transition to larger sulphides represents a change from sulphides nucleated and trapped in situ, to

  17. Openwebglobe 2: Visualization of Complex 3D-GEODATA in the (mobile) Webbrowser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, M.

    2016-06-01

    Providing worldwide high resolution data for virtual globes consists of compute and storage intense tasks for processing data. Furthermore, rendering complex 3D-Geodata, such as 3D-City models with an extremely high polygon count and a vast amount of textures at interactive framerates is still a very challenging task, especially on mobile devices. This paper presents an approach for processing, caching and serving massive geospatial data in a cloud-based environment for large scale, out-of-core, highly scalable 3D scene rendering on a web based virtual globe. Cloud computing is used for processing large amounts of geospatial data and also for providing 2D and 3D map data to a large amount of (mobile) web clients. In this paper the approach for processing, rendering and caching very large datasets in the currently developed virtual globe "OpenWebGlobe 2" is shown, which displays 3D-Geodata on nearly every device.

  18. 3D Building Models Segmentation Based on K-Means++ Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Mao, B.

    2016-10-01

    3D mesh model segmentation is drawing increasing attentions from digital geometry processing field in recent years. The original 3D mesh model need to be divided into separate meaningful parts or surface patches based on certain standards to support reconstruction, compressing, texture mapping, model retrieval and etc. Therefore, segmentation is a key problem for 3D mesh model segmentation. In this paper, we propose a method to segment Collada (a type of mesh model) 3D building models into meaningful parts using cluster analysis. Common clustering methods segment 3D mesh models by K-means, whose performance heavily depends on randomized initial seed points (i.e., centroid) and different randomized centroid can get quite different results. Therefore, we improved the existing method and used K-means++ clustering algorithm to solve this problem. Our experiments show that K-means++ improves both the speed and the accuracy of K-means, and achieve good and meaningful results.

  19. Pan-Tropical Forest Mapping by Exploiting Textures of Multi-Temporal High Resolution SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, R.; Eckardt, R.; Richter, N.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-12-01

    radar images were processed using an operational processing chain that includes radiometric transformation, noise reduction, and georeferencing of the SAR data. In places with pronounced topography both satellites were used as single pass interferometer to derive a digital surface model in order to perform an orthorectification followed by a topographic normalization of the SAR backscatter values. As prescribed by the FAO, the final segment-based classification algorithm was fed by multi-temporal backscatter information, a set of textural features, and information on the degree of coherence between the multi-temporal acquisitions. Validation with available high resolution optical imagery suggests that the produced forest maps possess an overall accuracy of 75 percent or higher.

  20. Predicting Novel Antitumor Agents: 3D-Pharmacophore Mapping of β-N-biaryl Ether Sulfonamide-Based Hydroxamates as Potentially MMP-2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Turra, Kely; Pineda Rivelli, Diogo; Berlanga de Moraes Barros, Silvia; Fernanda Mesquita Pasqualoto, Kerly

    2014-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a group of enzymes related to extracelular matrix remodeling. Some types of MMP are overexpressed by malignant tumors, mainly the MMP-2 subtype, and have been associated to cancer invasiveness and metastasis. A receptor-independent (RI) 4D-QSAR formalism was applied, herein, to a set of forty β-N-biaryl ether sulfonamide hydroxamates, previously reported as potent MMP-2 inhibitors, in order to map 3D-pharmacophore models and predict novel antitumor agents. The best RI 4D-QSAR model was statistically significant (N=30, r(2) =0.93, q(2) =0.88, five occupancy descriptors (GCOD), LSE=0.04, LOF=0.11, outliers=0), robust and not obtained by chance. The external predictability was 75 % (test set; N=8). A different orientation (binding mode) in the MMP-2 catalytic site was suggested regarding the most hydrophobic portion (R1 ) of the compounds' structure. Compounds were predicted and their inhibitory activity against MMP-2 was calculated by using the optimum RI 4D-QSAR model. The findings have provided interesting information to drive the designing and synthesis of novel potentially MMP-2 inhibitors against melanoma invasion.

  1. Genetic and comparative genomics mapping reveals that a powdery mildew resistance gene Ml3D232 originating from wild emmer co-segregates with an NBS-LRR analog in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Guan, Haiying; Li, Jingting; Zhu, Jie; Xie, Chaojie; Zhou, Yilin; Duan, Xiayu; Yang, Tsomin; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2010-11-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide and breeding for resistance using diversified disease resistance genes is the most promising approach to prevent outbreaks of powdery mildew. A powdery mildew resistance gene, originating from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) accessions collected from Israel, has been transferred into the hexaploid wheat line 3D232 through crossing and backcrossing. Inoculation results with 21 B. graminis f. sp. tritici races indicated that 3D232 is resistant to all of the powdery mildew isolates tested. Genetic analyses of 3D232 using an F(2) segregating population and F(3) families indicated that a single dominant gene, Ml3D232, confers resistance in the host seedling stage. By applying molecular markers and bulked segregant analysis (BSA), we have identified polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tags (EST) and derived sequence tagged site (STS) markers to determine that the Ml3D232 is located on chromosome 5BL bin 0.59-0.76. Comparative genetic analyses using mapped EST markers and genome sequences of rice and Brachypodium established co-linearity of the Ml3D232 genomic region with a 1.4 Mb genomic region on Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 4, and a 1.2 Mb contig located on the Oryza sativa chromosome 9. Our comparative approach enabled us to develop new EST-STS markers and to delimit the genomic region carrying Ml3D232 to a 0.8 cM segment that is collinear with a 558 kb region on B. distachyon. Eight EST markers, including an NBS-LRR analog, co-segregated with Ml3D232 to provide a target site for fine genetic mapping, chromosome landing and map-based cloning of the powdery mildew resistance gene. This newly developed common wheat germplasm provides broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew and a valuable resource for wheat breeding programs.

  2. From new generation of remote sensing geological maps to 3-D model: the Central Kyzylkum (Western Uzbekistan) is taken as example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    the recognition of linear and ring features. The features of geological interest detected during the interpretation process were digitized using raster based GIS software. As results of collaboration between GIS and RS data analysis the new prospect areas were extracted from the study areas. Were revealed the geological structures in 3-D model, associated with mineralization, lineaments and ring structures. The complex analysis of model allowed proposing new potential ore areas for statement of prospecting work.

  3. 2D mapping of the MV photon fluence and 3D dose reconstruction in real time for quality assurance during radiotherapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrowaili, Z. A.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Carolan, M.; Fuduli, I.; Porumb, C.; Petasecca, M.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2015-09-01

    Summary: the photon irradiation response of a 2D solid state transmission detector array mounted in a linac block tray is used to reconstruct the projected 2D dose map in a homogenous phantom along rays that diverge from the X-ray source and pass through each of the 121 detector elements. A unique diode response-to-dose scaling factor, applied to all detectors, is utilised in the reconstruction to demonstrate that real time QA during radiotherapy treatment is feasible. Purpose: to quantitatively demonstrate reconstruction of the real time radiation dose from the irradiation response of the 11×11 silicon Magic Plate (MP) detector array operated in Transmission Mode (MPTM). Methods and Materials: in transmission mode the MP is positioned in the block tray of a linac so that the central detector of the array lies on the central axis of the radiation beam. This central detector is used to determine the conversion factor from measured irradiation response to reconstructed dose at any point on the central axis within a homogenous solid water phantom. The same unique conversion factor is used for all MP detector elements lying within the irradiation field. Using the two sets of data, the 2D or 3D dose map is able to be reconstructed in the homogenous phantom. The technique we have developed is illustrated here for different depths and irradiation field sizes, (5 × 5 cm2 to 40 × 40 cm2) as well as a highly non uniform irradiation field. Results: we find that the MPTM response is proportional to the projected 2D dose map measured at a specific phantom depth, the "sweet depth". A single factor, for several irradiation field sizes and depths, is derived to reconstruct the dose in the phantom along rays projected from the photon source through each MPTM detector element. We demonstrate that for all field sizes using the above method, the 2D reconstructed and measured doses agree to within ± 2.48% (2 standard deviation) for all in-field MP detector elements. Conclusions: a

  4. Gravitational self-organizing map-based seismic image classification with an adaptive spectral-textural descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yanling; Sun, Genyun

    2016-10-01

    Seismic image classification is of vital importance for extracting damage information and evaluating disaster losses. With the increasing availability of high resolution remote sensing images, automatic image classification offers a unique opportunity to accommodate the rapid damage mapping requirements. However, the diversity of disaster types and the lack of uniform statistical characteristics in seismic images increase the complexity of automated image classification. This paper presents a novel automatic seismic image classification approach by integrating an adaptive spectral-textural descriptor into gravitational self-organizing map (gSOM). In this approach, seismic image is first segmented into several objects based on mean shift (MS) method. These objects are then characterized explicitly by spectral and textural feature quantization histograms. To objectify the image object delineation adapt to various disaster types, an adaptive spectral-textural descriptor is developed by integrating the histograms automatically. Subsequently, these objects as classification units are represented by neurons in a self-organizing map and clustered by adjacency gravitation. By moving the neurons around the gravitational space and merging them according to the gravitation, the object-based gSOM is able to find arbitrary shape and determine the class number automatically. Taking advantage of the diversity of gSOM results, consensus function is then conducted to discover the most suitable classification result. To confirm the validity of the presented approach, three aerial seismic images in Wenchuan covering several disaster types are utilized. The obtained quantitative and qualitative experimental results demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed seismic image classification method.

  5. Textural analysis by statistical parameters and its application to the mapping of flow-structures in wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieczorek, U.

    1977-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977 the application of remote sensing methods in coastal areas and tidal bays and estuaries was investigated on the German coast of the North Sea. Aerial photographs were taken using different films; (1) color, (2) color infrared, and (3) black and white films. Scanner recordings were taken by an 11 channel scanner. Ground truth measurements of radiation and measurements of meteorological elements were carried out. For mapping the morphology in mudflat areas a digital texture analysis was developed, by which measurement of the change of image structures cased by distributing factors, such as changing illumination, is possible.

  6. 3D displacements maps of the L'Aquila earthquake by applying SISTEM method to GPS and ENVISAT and ALOS DInSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmino, Francesco; Anzidei, Marco; Briole, Pierre; de Michele, Marcello; Elias, Panagiotis; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spata, Alessandro

    2010-05-01

    ). We also analyzed ALOS PALSAR interferograms produced with images acquired along two different ascending tracks and relevant to the 3/7/2008 - 21/5/2009 time interval (track 638; tbline = 322 days; Bperp = 665 m ) and 2/3/2007 - 22/4/2009 time interval (track 639; tbline = 782 days; Bperp = 466 m ). In order to derive 3D surface motion maps, we apply the SISTEM method to the available geodetic dataset (both GPS and DInSAR). The SISTEM method performs an integration of GPS and DInSAR data for computing displacements on each point of the studied area. The SISTEM is based on elastic theory, and provides the complete 3D strain and the rigid body rotation tensors in the same solution. To achieve higher accuracy and get better the constraint of the 3D components of the displacements, we improved the standard formulation of SISTEM approach, based on a single DInSAR data, in order to take into account both ascending and descending interferograms and the DInSAR data acquired by different sensors(ALOS and ENVISAT). The SISTEM integration results show a complex kinematics, where the main movements (max westward movement of 165 mm associated with a max lowering of 260 mm) are recorded in the area between the surface evidence of the Paganica fault and Monticchio-fossa fault. These results, which provide both accurate and fine spatial characterization of ground deformation, are hence promising for future studies aimed at improving the knowledge of the kinematic of the Paganica fault and identification of additional faults responsible of the seismic sequence and that have contributed to the observed ground deformation. References. Anzidei, M., P. Baldi, A. Pesci, A. Esposito, A. Galvani, F. Loddo, P. Cristofoletti, A. Massucci, and S. Del Mese (2005), Geodetic deformation across the Central Apennines from GPS data in the time span 1999-2003, Ann. Geophys., 48(2), 259-271. Boschi, E., E. Guidoboni, G. Ferrrari, D. Mariotti, G. Valensise, and P. Gasperini (2000), Catalogue of strong

  7. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  8. Optimization of 384-well Luminex Immunoassays on the FlexMAP 3D System for Routine Analyte Quantitation from Commercial Kits

    PubMed Central

    Pergande, Melissa; Pithadia, Ravi; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Fhied, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Luminex immunobead platform offers the benefits of ELISA-based assays, but also permits higher throughput, increased flexibility, reduced sample volume, and lower cost when evaluation of multiple analytes is necessary. The FlexMap 3D system is a compact, high bead throughput instrument which can read up to 500 different bead regions from a single sample in a 96 or 384-well plate format. Commercially-available kits for the measurement of protein analytes are currently only available in the 96-well plate format. The objective of this study was to adapt and validate the commonly used 96-well plate protocols to the 384-well plate format with equivalent or improved test performance characteristics. METHODS: A laboratory-developed 96-well plate assay protocol for Vimentin autoantibody quantitation was translated and optimized for a 384-well plate format. Assay sensitivity was evaluated by comparing the results from two commercially available kits (Human IGF Binding Proteins 1-7 and Human IGF I/II), first employing the traditional 96-well plate format and subsequently using the newly optimized 384-well plate format. RESULTS: Conversion from the 96 to 384-well plate format for our Vimentin autoantibody assay revealed comparable sensitivity, while consuming only about a quarter of the reagents and specimen. Results from the IGF-I assay revealed approximately equivalent sensitivity (±2.4%), whereas IGF-II showed a significant increase in sensitivity (17.7%), both when the 96 and 384-well plate formats were ran concomitantly. No significant alterations in assay range, recovery or precision were otherwise noted. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have demonstrated that the conversion of a 96 to 384-well plate format was developed and validated successfully. When employing our optimized 384-well plate format, we found that nearly 4 times as many samples can be ran additionally with one commercially available kit, saving in not only cost but also sample size.

  9. Minimising street work disruption by mapping cavities derived from 3D GPR-data: a new sewerage project in Torrente (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valls, Ana; Garcia, Francisco; Ramirez, Manuel; Benlloch, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar is usually employed for non-destructive detection of cavities in karst areas and road maintenance. This paper describes the inspection for cavity detection in a street located in Torrente (Valencia, Spain) where a new sewerage project was planned. Torrente population growth (more than 80,000 inhabitants last year) has caused urban development southwards from its downtown. According to municipality geologic configuration, new urbanized areas are located in mountains composed of limestone with presence of karst systems. During excavation work for a sewerage system installation, a 4 x 2 x 1.5 m shallow cave was found in one planned street. For this reason, digging activities were stopped and a GPR survey was carried out on the street. A 1x1 m grid was collected using a GSSI SIR-3000 equipment. A 400 MHz frequency antenna was used for reaching 2.5 m approx. depth, attending the characteristics of the discovered cave and the excavation project depth. GPR records were calibrated in situ, thanks to the unearthed cavity. The 3D GPR-data interpretation mapped several caves only on one side of the street. The detected cavities coincided with the sewerage system layout. These underground spaces were isolated from each other, as small individual karst caves. The outcomes of this study allowed the modification of the sewerage project. Therefore, the sewerage system layout was moved to the other side of the street where no cavities were detected with the GPR survey. GPR is proved to be an efficient tool to be taken into consideration by civil engineers and architects for designing new infrastructures (e.g. sewerage systems) in urban planning areas. We conclude GPR helps minimising cost, time and inconveniences to neighbourhood during excavation works, especially in cities.

  10. Automated 3D mapping of baseline and 12-month associations between three verbal memory measures and hippocampal atrophy in 490 ADNI subjects.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Liana G; Morra, Jonathan H; Green, Amity E; Hwang, Kristy S; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-05-15

    We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbal memory tests--ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbal memory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbal memory test-the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution.

  11. An easy to use ArcMap based texture analysis program for extraction of flooded areas from TerraSAR-X satellite image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Hagemann, Ulrike; Shafapour Tehrany, Mahyat; Prechtel, Nikolas

    2014-02-01

    Extraction of the flooded areas from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and especially TerraSAR-X data is one of the most challenging tasks in the flood management and planning. SAR data due to its high spatial resolution and its capability of all weather conditions makes a proper choice for tropical countries. Texture is considered as an effective factor in distinguishing the classes especially in SAR imagery which records the backscatters that carry information of kind, direction, heterogeneity and relationship of the features. This paper put forward a computer program for texture analysis for high resolution radar data. Texture analysis program is introduced and discussed using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). To demonstrate the ability and correctness of this program, a test subset of TerraSAR-X imagery from Terengganu area, Malaysia was analyzed and pixel-based and object-based classification were attempted. The thematic maps derived by pixel-based method could not achieve acceptable visual interpretation and for that reason no accuracy assessment was performed on them. The overall accuracy achieved by object-based method was 83.63% with kappa coefficient of 0.8. Results on image texture classification showed that the proposed program is capable for texture analysis in TerraSAR-X image and the obtained textural analysis resulted in high classification accuracy. The proposed texture analysis program can be used in many applications such as land use/cover (LULC) mapping, hazard studies and many other applications.

  12. Texture analysis on the fluence map to evaluate the degree of modulation for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Il Han; Ye, Sung-Joon; Carlson, Joel; and others

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Texture analysis on fluence maps was performed to evaluate the degree of modulation for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. Methods: A total of six textural features including angular second moment, inverse difference moment, contrast, variance, correlation, and entropy were calculated for fluence maps generated from 20 prostate and 20 head and neck VMAT plans. For each of the textural features, particular displacement distances (d) of 1, 5, and 10 were adopted. To investigate the deliverability of each VMAT plan, gamma passing rates of pretreatment quality assurance, and differences in modulating parameters such as multileaf collimator (MLC) positions, gantry angles, and monitor units at each control point between VMAT plans and dynamic log files registered by the Linac control system during delivery were acquired. Furthermore, differences between the original VMAT plan and the plan reconstructed from the dynamic log files were also investigated. To test the performance of the textural features as indicators for the modulation degree of VMAT plans, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (r{sub s}) with the plan deliverability were calculated. For comparison purposes, conventional modulation indices for VMAT including the modulation complexity score for VMAT, leaf travel modulation complexity score, and modulation index supporting station parameter optimized radiation therapy (MI{sub SPORT}) were calculated, and their correlations were analyzed in the same way. Results: There was no particular textural feature which always showed superior correlations with every type of plan deliverability. Considering the results comprehensively, contrast (d = 1) and variance (d = 1) generally showed considerable correlations with every type of plan deliverability. These textural features always showed higher correlations to the plan deliverability than did the conventional modulation indices, except in the case of modulating parameter differences. The r

  13. Mapping motion from 4D-MRI to 3D-CT for use in 4D dose calculations: A technical feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Tony; Knopf, Antje

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Target sites affected by organ motion require a time resolved (4D) dose calculation. Typical 4D dose calculations use 4D-CT as a basis. Unfortunately, 4D-CT images have the disadvantage of being a 'snap-shot' of the motion during acquisition and of assuming regularity of breathing. In addition, 4D-CT acquisitions involve a substantial additional dose burden to the patient making many, repeated 4D-CT acquisitions undesirable. Here the authors test the feasibility of an alternative approach to generate patient specific 4D-CT data sets. Methods: In this approach motion information is extracted from 4D-MRI. Simulated 4D-CT data sets [which the authors call 4D-CT(MRI)] are created by warping extracted deformation fields to a static 3D-CT data set. The employment of 4D-MRI sequences for this has the advantage that no assumptions on breathing regularity are made, irregularities in breathing can be studied and, if necessary, many repeat imaging studies (and consequently simulated 4D-CT data sets) can be performed on patients and/or volunteers. The accuracy of 4D-CT(MRI)s has been validated by 4D proton dose calculations. Our 4D dose algorithm takes into account displacements as well as deformations on the originating 4D-CT/4D-CT(MRI) by calculating the dose of each pencil beam based on an individual time stamp of when that pencil beam is applied. According to corresponding displacement and density-variation-maps the position and the water equivalent range of the dose grid points is adjusted at each time instance. Results: 4D dose distributions, using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets as input were compared to results based on a reference conventional 4D-CT data set capturing similar motion characteristics. Almost identical 4D dose distributions could be achieved, even though scanned proton beams are very sensitive to small differences in the patient geometry. In addition, 4D dose calculations have been performed on the same patient, but using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets based on

  14. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  15. Maps showing textural characteristics of benthic sediments in the Corpus Christi Bay estuarine system, south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.; Stelting, Charles E.; McGowen, Joseph H.

    1981-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay is a heavily used estuary on the south Texas coast in the northwest Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1).  The Bay is stressed by diverse activities which could substantially affect its ecosystem.  Such activities include shipping, resource production (oil, gas, and construction aggregate), commercial and sport fishing, and recreation.  Shipping activities alone have had a substantial impact on the bay.  For example, the past maintenance of navigation channels has required extensive dredging and spoil disposal within the estuarine system.  Numerous subaqueous spoil disposal sites and subaerial spoil banks are present throughout the bay (fig. 1), and the selection of future spoil disposal sites is becoming a critical local problem.  As activities in the bay increase, the need for effective environmental management becomes increasingly important, and effective management necessitates a good understanding of the bay's physical characteristics.  The objective of this study is to provide detailed information about the textural composition of bottom sediments within the estuarine system, information which could be used in making environmental-management decisions.  Visual descriptions of bottom sediments in Corpus Christi Bay and adjacent areas have been presented by McGowen and Morton (1979).  Additionally, a study of the textures of sediments on the Inner Continental Shelf adjacent to the bay has been presented by Shideler and Berryhill (1977).

  16. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  17. In situ 3-D mapping of pore structures and hollow grains of interplanetary dust particles with phase contrast X-ray nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. W.; Winarski, R. P.

    2016-09-01

    Unlocking the 3-D structure and properties of intact chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) in nanoscale detail is challenging, which is also complicated by atmospheric entry heating, but is important for advancing our understanding of the formation and origins of IDPs and planetary bodies as well as dust and ice agglomeration in the outer protoplanetary disk. Here, we show that indigenous pores, pristine grains, and thermal alteration products throughout intact particles can be noninvasively visualized and distinguished morphologically and microstructurally in 3-D detail down to ~10 nm by exploiting phase contrast X-ray nanotomography. We have uncovered the surprisingly intricate, submicron, and nanoscale pore structures of a ~10-μm-long porous IDP, consisting of two types of voids that are interconnected in 3-D space. One is morphologically primitive and mostly submicron-sized intergranular voids that are ubiquitous; the other is morphologically advanced and well-defined intragranular nanoholes that run through the approximate centers of ~0.3 μm or lower submicron hollow grains. The distinct hollow grains exhibit complex 3-D morphologies but in 2-D projections resemble typical organic hollow globules observed by transmission electron microscopy. The particle, with its outer region characterized by rough vesicular structures due to thermal alteration, has turned out to be an inherently fragile and intricately submicron- and nanoporous aggregate of the sub-μm grains or grain clumps that are delicately bound together frequently with little grain-to-grain contact in 3-D space.

  18. Direct Volume Rendering with Shading via Three-Dimensional Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanGelder, Allen; Kim, Kwansik

    1996-01-01

    A new and easy-to-implement method for direct volume rendering that uses 3D texture maps for acceleration, and incorporates directional lighting, is described. The implementation, called Voltx, produces high-quality images at nearly interactive speeds on workstations with hardware support for three-dimensional texture maps. Previously reported methods did not incorporate a light model, and did not address issues of multiple texture maps for large volumes. Our research shows that these extensions impact performance by about a factor of ten. Voltx supports orthographic, perspective, and stereo views. This paper describes the theory and implementation of this technique, and compares it to the shear-warp factorization approach. A rectilinear data set is converted into a three-dimensional texture map containing color and opacity information. Quantized normal vectors and a lookup table provide efficiency. A new tesselation of the sphere is described, which serves as the basis for normal-vector quantization. A new gradient-based shading criterion is described, in which the gradient magnitude is interpreted in the context of the field-data value and the material classification parameters, and not in isolation. In the rendering phase, the texture map is applied to a stack of parallel planes, which effectively cut the texture into many slabs. The slabs are composited to form an image.

  19. Synthesis of image sequences for Korean sign language using 3D shape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Mun-Ho; Choi, Chang-Seok; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeon, Joon-Hyeon

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for offering information and realizing communication to the deaf-mute. The deaf-mute communicates with another person by means of sign language, but most people are unfamiliar with it. This method enables to convert text data into the corresponding image sequences for Korean sign language (KSL). Using a general 3D shape model of the upper body leads to generating the 3D motions of KSL. It is necessary to construct the general 3D shape model considering the anatomical structure of the human body. To obtain a personal 3D shape model, this general model is to adjust to the personal base images. Image synthesis for KSL consists of deforming a personal 3D shape model and texture-mapping the personal images onto the deformed model. The 3D motions for KSL have the facial expressions and the 3D movements of the head, trunk, arms and hands and are parameterized for easily deforming the model. These motion parameters of the upper body are extracted from a skilled signer's motion for each KSL and are stored to the database. Editing the parameters according to the inputs of text data yields to generate the image sequences of 3D motions.

  20. Projecting 2D gene expression data into 3D and 4D space.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Victor E; Katsuyama, Kaori; Snyder, Kevin A; Bowes, Jeff B; Kitayama, Atsushi; Ueno, Naoto; Vize, Peter D

    2007-04-01

    Video games typically generate virtual 3D objects by texture mapping an image onto a 3D polygonal frame. The feeling of movement is then achieved by mathematically simulating camera movement relative to the polygonal frame. We have built customized scripts that adapt video game authoring software to texture mapping images of gene expression data onto b-spline based embryo models. This approach, known as UV mapping, associates two-dimensional (U and V) coordinates within images to the three dimensions (X, Y, and Z) of a b-spline model. B-spline model frameworks were built either from confocal data or de novo extracted from 2D images, once again using video game authoring approaches. This system was then used to build 3D models of 182 genes expressed in developing Xenopus embryos and to implement these in a web-accessible database. Models can be viewed via simple Internet browsers and utilize openGL hardware acceleration via a Shockwave plugin. Not only does this database display static data in a dynamic and scalable manner, the UV mapping system also serves as a method to align different images to a common framework, an approach that may make high-throughput automated comparisons of gene expression patterns possible. Finally, video game systems also have elegant methods for handling movement, allowing biomechanical algorithms to drive the animation of models. With further development, these biomechanical techniques offer practical methods for generating virtual embryos that recapitulate morphogenesis.

  1. Image based cardiac acceleration map using statistical shape and 3D+t myocardial tracking models; in-vitro study on heart phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashaei, Ali; Piella, Gemma; Planes, Xavier; Duchateau, Nicolas; de Caralt, Teresa M.; Sitges, Marta; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2013-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that the acceleration signal has potential to monitor heart function and adaptively optimize Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) systems. In this paper, we propose a non-invasive method for computing myocardial acceleration from 3D echocardiographic sequences. Displacement of the myocardium was estimated using a two-step approach: (1) 3D automatic segmentation of the myocardium at end-diastole using 3D Active Shape Models (ASM); (2) propagation of this segmentation along the sequence using non-rigid 3D+t image registration (temporal di eomorphic free-form-deformation, TDFFD). Acceleration was obtained locally at each point of the myocardium from local displacement. The framework has been tested on images from a realistic physical heart phantom (DHP-01, Shelley Medical Imaging Technologies, London, ON, CA) in which the displacement of some control regions was known. Good correlation has been demonstrated between the estimated displacement function from the algorithms and the phantom setup. Due to the limited temporal resolution, the acceleration signals are sparse and highly noisy. The study suggests a non-invasive technique to measure the cardiac acceleration that may be used to improve the monitoring of cardiac mechanics and optimization of CRT.

  2. Texture Analysis of Chaotic Coupled Map Lattices Based Image Encryption Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq; Batool, Syeda Iram

    2014-09-01

    As of late, data security is key in different enclosures like web correspondence, media frameworks, therapeutic imaging, telemedicine and military correspondence. In any case, a large portion of them confronted with a few issues, for example, the absence of heartiness and security. In this letter, in the wake of exploring the fundamental purposes of the chaotic trigonometric maps and the coupled map lattices, we have presented the algorithm of chaos-based image encryption based on coupled map lattices. The proposed mechanism diminishes intermittent impact of the ergodic dynamical systems in the chaos-based image encryption. To assess the security of the encoded image of this scheme, the association of two nearby pixels and composition peculiarities were performed. This algorithm tries to minimize the problems arises in image encryption.

  3. The National 3-D Geospatial Information Web-Based Service of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. T.; Kim, C. W.; Kang, I. G.

    2013-09-01

    3D geospatial information systems should provide efficient spatial analysis tools and able to use all capabilities of the third dimension, and a visualization. Currently, many human activities make steps toward the third dimension like land use, urban and landscape planning, cadastre, environmental monitoring, transportation monitoring, real estate market, military applications, etc. To reflect this trend, the Korean government has been started to construct the 3D geospatial data and service platform. Since the geospatial information was introduced in Korea, the construction of geospatial information (3D geospatial information, digital maps, aerial photographs, ortho photographs, etc.) has been led by the central government. The purpose of this study is to introduce the Korean government-lead 3D geospatial information web-based service for the people who interested in this industry and we would like to introduce not only the present conditions of constructed 3D geospatial data but methodologies and applications of 3D geospatial information. About 15% (about 3,278.74 km2) of the total urban area's 3D geospatial data have been constructed by the national geographic information institute (NGII) of Korea from 2005 to 2012. Especially in six metropolitan cities and Dokdo (island belongs to Korea) on level of detail (LOD) 4 which is photo-realistic textured 3D models including corresponding ortho photographs were constructed in 2012. In this paper, we represented web-based 3D map service system composition and infrastructure and comparison of V-world with Google Earth service will be presented. We also represented Open API based service cases and discussed about the protection of location privacy when we construct 3D indoor building models. In order to prevent an invasion of privacy, we processed image blurring, elimination and camouflage. The importance of public-private cooperation and advanced geospatial information policy is emphasized in Korea. Thus, the progress of

  4. Format for Interchange and Display of 3D Terrain Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Powell, Mark; Vona, Marsette; Norris, Jeffrey; Morrison, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Visible Scalable Terrain (ViSTa) is a software format for production, interchange, and display of three-dimensional (3D) terrain data acquired by stereoscopic cameras of robotic vision systems. ViSTa is designed to support scalability of data, accuracy of displayed terrain images, and optimal utilization of computational resources. In a ViSTa file, an area of terrain is represented, at one or more levels of detail, by coordinates of isolated points and/or vertices of triangles derived from a texture map that, in turn, is derived from original terrain images. Unlike prior terrain-image software formats, ViSTa includes provisions to ensure accuracy of texture coordinates. Whereas many such formats are based on 2.5-dimensional terrain models and impose additional regularity constraints on data, ViSTa is based on a 3D model without regularity constraints. Whereas many prior formats require external data for specifying image-data coordinate systems, ViSTa provides for the inclusion of coordinate-system data within data files. ViSTa admits highspeed loading and display within a Java program. ViSTa is designed to minimize file sizes and maximize compressibility and to support straightforward reduction of resolution to reduce file size for Internet-based distribution.

  5. Three-dimensional mapping of soil chemical characteristics at micrometric scale: Statistical prediction by combining 2D SEM-EDX data and 3D X-ray computed micro-tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapca, Simona

    2015-04-01

    Many soil properties and functions emerge from interactions of physical, chemical and biological processes at microscopic scales, which can be understood only by integrating techniques that traditionally are developed within separate disciplines. While recent advances in imaging techniques, such as X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), offer the possibility to reconstruct the 3D physical structure at fine resolutions, for the distribution of chemicals in soil, existing methods, based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray detection (EDX), allow for characterization of the chemical composition only on 2D surfaces. At present, direct 3D measurement techniques are still lacking, sequential sectioning of soils, followed by 2D mapping of chemical elements and interpolation to 3D, being an alternative which is explored in this study. Specifically, we develop an integrated experimental and theoretical framework which combines 3D X-ray CT imaging technique with 2D SEM-EDX and use spatial statistics methods to map the chemical composition of soil in 3D. The procedure involves three stages 1) scanning a resin impregnated soil cube by X-ray CT, followed by precision cutting to produce parallel thin slices, the surfaces of which are scanned by SEM-EDX, 2) alignment of the 2D chemical maps within the internal 3D structure of the soil cube, and 3) development, of spatial statistics methods to predict the chemical composition of 3D soil based on the observed 2D chemical and 3D physical data. Specifically, three statistical models consisting of a regression tree, a regression tree kriging and cokriging model were used to predict the 3D spatial distribution of carbon, silicon, iron and oxygen in soil, these chemical elements showing a good spatial agreement between the X-ray grayscale intensities and the corresponding 2D SEM-EDX data. Due to the spatial correlation between the physical and chemical data, the regression-tree model showed a great potential

  6. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  7. 3D palmprint data fast acquisition and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Huang, Shujun; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a fast 3D (Three-Dimension) palmprint capturing system and develops an efficient 3D palmprint feature extraction and recognition method. In order to fast acquire accurate 3D shape and texture of palmprint, a DLP projector triggers a CCD camera to realize synchronization. By generating and projecting green fringe pattern images onto the measured palm surface, 3D palmprint data are calculated from the fringe pattern images. The periodic feature vector can be derived from the calculated 3D palmprint data, so undistorted 3D biometrics is obtained. Using the obtained 3D palmprint data, feature matching test have been carried out by Gabor filter, competition rules and the mean curvature. Experimental results on capturing 3D palmprint show that the proposed acquisition method can fast get 3D shape information of palmprint. Some initial experiments on recognition show the proposed method is efficient by using 3D palmprint data.

  8. Detailed landfill leachate plume mapping using 2D and 3D electrical resistivity tomography - with correlation to ionic strength measured in screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, P. K.; Rønde, V. K.; Fiandaca, G.; Balbarini, N.; Auken, E.; Bjerg, P. L.; Christiansen, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Leaching of organic and inorganic contamination from landfills is a serious environmental problem as surface water and aquifers are affected. In order to assess these risks and investigate the migration of leachate from the landfill, 2D and large scale 3D electrical resistivity tomography were used at a heavily contaminated landfill in Grindsted, Denmark. The inverted 2D profiles describe both the variations along the groundwater flow as well as the plume extension across the flow directions. The 3D inversion model shows the variability in the low resistivity anomaly pattern corresponding to differences in the ionic strength of the landfill leachate. Chemical data from boreholes agree well with the observations indicating a leachate plume which gradually sinks and increases in size while migrating from the landfill in the groundwater flow direction. Overall results show that the resistivity method has been very successful in delineating the landfill leachate plume and that good correlation exists between the resistivity model and leachate ionic strength.

  9. High-resolution 3-D mapping using terrestrial laser scanning as a tool for geomorphological and speleogenetical studies in caves: An example from the Lessini mountains (North Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Stefano; Sauro, Francesco; Santagata, Tommaso; Rossi, Guido; De Waele, Jo

    2017-03-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is increasingly used in geomorphology for the study of medium- to small scale landforms. A light weight, compact and portable TLS device has been used in the Grotta A Cave (Mt. Lessini, N Italy) to make a detailed 3D model of the underground environment. A total of 16 scans were used to survey the about 150 m long cave in < 6 h. The 3D model of the cave walls makes it possible to carry out morphometric measurements on the different cave environments. The TLS data allowed us to calculate cave volumes and distinguish cupola, phreatic conduit and basalt dike volumes. Wall roughness analysis also allowed recognising smaller-scale morphologies such as megascallops, differential corrosion forms and mineral crusts. These observations have enabled us to discern between different karstification processes and speleogenetic phases, highlighting the importance of condensation-corrosion on the cave passage enlargement in a quantitative way.

  10. 2D and 3D visualization methods of endoscopic panoramic bladder images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Alexander; Heisterklaus, Iris; Müller, Yannick; Stehle, Thomas; Gross, Sebastian; Aach, Til

    2011-03-01

    While several mosaicking algorithms have been developed to compose endoscopic images of the internal urinary bladder wall into panoramic images, the quantitative evaluation of these output images in terms of geometrical distortions have often not been discussed. However, the visualization of the distortion level is highly desired for an objective image-based medical diagnosis. Thus, we present in this paper a method to create quality maps from the characteristics of transformation parameters, which were applied to the endoscopic images during the registration process of the mosaicking algorithm. For a global first view impression, the quality maps are laid over the panoramic image and highlight image regions in pseudo-colors according to their local distortions. This illustration supports then surgeons to identify geometrically distorted structures easily in the panoramic image, which allow more objective medical interpretations of tumor tissue in shape and size. Aside from introducing quality maps in 2-D, we also discuss a visualization method to map panoramic images onto a 3-D spherical bladder model. Reference points are manually selected by the surgeon in the panoramic image and the 3-D model. Then the panoramic image is mapped by the Hammer-Aitoff equal-area projection onto the 3-D surface using texture mapping. Finally the textured bladder model can be freely moved in a virtual environment for inspection. Using a two-hemisphere bladder representation, references between panoramic image regions and their corresponding space coordinates within the bladder model are reconstructed. This additional spatial 3-D information thus assists the surgeon in navigation, documentation, as well as surgical planning.

  11. 3D mapping of reinforcement and tendon ducts on pre-stressed concrete bridges by means of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheilakou, E.; Theodorakeas, P.; Koui, M.; Zeris, C.

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluates the potential of GPR for the inspection of pre-stressed concrete bridges and its usefulness to provide non visible information of the interior structural geometry and condition, required for strengthening and rehabilitation purposes. For that purpose, different concrete blocks of varying dimensions with embedded steel reinforcement bars, tendon ducts and fabricated voids, were prepared and tested by means of GPR in a controlled laboratory environment. 2D data acquisition was carried out in reflection mode along single profile lines of the samples in order to locate the internal structural elements. 3D surveys were also performed in a grid format both along horizontal and vertical lines, and the individual profiles collected were interpolated and further processed using a 3D reconstruction software, in order to provide a detailed insight into the concrete structure. The obtained 2D profiles provided the accurate depth and position of the embedded rebars and tendon ducts, verifying the original drawings. 3D data cubes were created enabling the presentation of depth slices and providing additional information such as shape and localization of the internal elements. The results obtained from this work showed the effectiveness and reliability of the GPR technique for pre-stressed concrete bridge investigations.

  12. Computational Vision in Uv-Mapping of Textured Meshes Coming from Photogrammetric Recovery: Unwrapping Frescoed Vaults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robleda, P. G.; Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.

    2016-06-01

    Sometimes it is difficult to represent "on paper" the existing reality of architectonic elements, depending on the complexity of his geometry, but not only in cases with complex geometries: non-relief surfaces, can need a "special planar format" for its graphical representation. Nowadays, there are a lot of methods to obtain tridimensional recovery of our Cultural Heritage with different ranges of the relationship accuracy / costs, even getting high accuracy using "low-cost" recovery methods as digital photogrammetry, which allow us easily to obtain a graphical representation "on paper": ortho-images of different points of view. This can be useful for many purposes but, for others, an orthographic projection is not really very interesting. In non-site restoration tasks of frescoed vaults, a "planar format" representation in needed to see in true magnitude the paintings represented on the intrados vault, because of the general methodology used: gluing the fresco on a fabric, removing the fresco-fabric from the support, moving to laboratory, removing the fresco from the fabric, restoring the fresco, gluing back the restored fresco on another fabric, laying the restored fresco on the original location and removing the fabric. Because of this, many times, an unfolded model is needed, in a similar way a cylinder or cone can be unfolded, but in this case with a texture included: UV unwrapping. Unfold and fold-back processes, can be especially interesting in restoration field of frescoed vaults and domes at: chromatic recovery of paintings, reconstruction of partially missed geometries, transference of paintings on surfaces, etc.

  13. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  14. Texture synthesis and transfer from multiple samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yue; Zhao, Qinping

    2003-09-01

    Texture Mapping plays a very important role in Computer Graphics. Texture Synthesis is one of the main methods to obtain textures, it makes use of sample textures to generate new textures. Texture Transfer is based on Texture Synthesis, it renders objects with textures taken from different objects. Currently, most of Texture Synthesis and Transfer methods use a single sample texture. A method for Texture Synthesis adn Transfer from multi samples was presented. For texture synthesis, the L-shaped neighborhood seaching approach was used. Users specify the proportion of each sample, the number of seed points, and these seed points are scattered randomly according to their samples in horizontal and vertical direction synchronously to synthesize textures. The synthesized textures are very good. For texture transfer, the luminance of the target image and the sample textures are analyzed. This procedure is from coarse to fine, and can produce a visually pleasing result.

  15. 3D Visualization for Phoenix Mars Lander Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Laurence; Keely, Leslie; Lees, David; Stoker, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration missions present considerable operational challenges in the form of substantial communication delays, limited communication windows, and limited communication bandwidth. A 3D visualization software was developed and delivered to the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) mission. The components of the system include an interactive 3D visualization environment called Mercator, terrain reconstruction software called the Ames Stereo Pipeline, and a server providing distributed access to terrain models. The software was successfully utilized during the mission for science analysis, site understanding, and science operations activity planning. A terrain server was implemented that provided distribution of terrain models from a central repository to clients running the Mercator software. The Ames Stereo Pipeline generates accurate, high-resolution, texture-mapped, 3D terrain models from stereo image pairs. These terrain models can then be visualized within the Mercator environment. The central cross-cutting goal for these tools is to provide an easy-to-use, high-quality, full-featured visualization environment that enhances the mission science team s ability to develop low-risk productive science activity plans. In addition, for the Mercator and Viz visualization environments, extensibility and adaptability to different missions and application areas are key design goals.

  16. 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves in a biotite gneiss, measured in oil as the pressure medium: Comparison with velocity measurements in a multi-anvil pressure apparatus and with texture-based calculated data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokajíček, T.; Kern, H.; Svitek, T.; Ivankina, T.

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasonic measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves were performed on a spherical sample of a biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole. Measurements were done at room temperature and pressures up to 400 and 70 MPa, respectively, in a pressure vessel with oil as a pressure medium. A modified transducer/sample assembly and the installation of a new mechanical system allowed simultaneous measurements of P- and S-wave velocities in 132 independent directions of the sphere on a net in steps of 15°. Proper signals for P- and S-waves could be recorded by coating the sample surface with a high-viscosity shear wave gel and by temporal point contacting of the transmitter and receiver transducers with the sample surface during the measurements. The 3D seismic measurements revealed a strong foliation-related directional dependence (anisotropy) of P- and S-wave velocities, which is confirmed by measurements in a multi-anvil apparatus on a cube-shaped specimen of the same rock. Both experimental approaches show a marked pressure sensitivity of P- and S-wave velocities and velocity anisotropies. With increasing pressure, P- and S-wave velocities increase non-linearly due to progressive closure of micro-cracks. The reverse is true for velocity anisotropy. 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction measurements of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals show that the intrinsic bulk anisotropy is basically caused by the CPO of biotite constituting about 23 vol.% of the rock. Including the shape of biotite grains and oriented low-aspect ratio microcracks into the modelling increases bulk anisotropy. An important finding from this study is that the measurements on the sample sphere and on the sample cube displayed distinct differences, particularly in shear wave velocities. It is assumed that the differences are due to the different geometries of the samples and the configuration of the transducer-sample assembly

  17. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  18. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  19. Texture, Carbonate Content, and Preliminary Maps of Surficial Sediments of the Flower Garden Banks Area, Northwestern Gulf of Mexico Outer Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Rozycki, Jill E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release texture and carbonate content analyses of 107 seafloor sediments collected within and near the East and West Flower Garden Banks areas of the Sanctuary and to show relationships between these data and existing bathymetric data. The sediment data, in conjunction with previously collected geological, geophysical and biological data were used to construct a reconnaissance-scale map of the distribution of seafloor sediment types. This map will be useful for resource managers and can be used, with additional data, as a basis for future habitat mapping.

  20. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  1. A perceptual preprocess method for 3D-HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yawen; Wang, Yongfang; Wang, Yubing

    2015-08-01

    A perceptual preprocessing method for 3D-HEVC coding is proposed in the paper. Firstly we proposed a new JND model, which accounts for luminance contrast masking effect, spatial masking effect, and temporal masking effect, saliency characteristic as well as depth information. We utilize spectral residual approach to obtain the saliency map and built a visual saliency factor based on saliency map. In order to distinguish the sensitivity of objects in different depth. We segment each texture frame into foreground and background by a automatic threshold selection algorithm using corresponding depth information, and then built a depth weighting factor. A JND modulation factor is built with a linear combined with visual saliency factor and depth weighting factor to adjust the JND threshold. Then, we applied the proposed JND model to 3D-HEVC for residual filtering and distortion coefficient processing. The filtering process is that the residual value will be set to zero if the JND threshold is greater than residual value, or directly subtract the JND threshold from residual value if JND threshold is less than residual value. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve average bit rate reduction of 15.11%, compared to the original coding scheme with HTM12.1, while maintains the same subjective quality.

  2. Practical issues in automatic 3D reconstruction and navigation applications using man-portable or vehicle-mounted sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chris; Stennett, Carl

    2012-09-01

    The navigation of an autonomous robot vehicle and person localisation in the absence of GPS both rely on using local sensors to build a model of the 3D environment. Accomplishing such capabilities is not straightforward - there are many choices to be made of sensor and processing algorithms. Roke Manor Research has broad experience in this field, gained from building and characterising real-time systems that operate in the real world. This includes developing localization for planetary and indoor rovers, model building of indoor and outdoor environments, and most recently, the building of texture-mapped 3D surface models.

  3. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  4. Mapping of Bare Soil Surface Parameters (Moisture, Roughness, Texture) from one TerraSAR-X Radar Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Gorrab, Azza; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Chabaane, Zohra Lili

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, surface bare soil parameters (moisture, roughness and texture) mapping was carried out in central Tunisia (North Africa) using one TerraSAR-X radar configuration (one incidence angle, one polarization). Firstly, we analyzed statistically the relationships between TerraSAR-X backscattering signals function of soil moisture and different roughness parameters (the root mean square height Hrms, the Zs and the Zg parameters) at 36° and HH polarization. Results have shown a high sensitivity of real radar data to all soil parameters. Then, we proposed an algorithm combing the TerraSAR-X images with different continuous thetaprobe measurements for the retrieval of surface soil moisture. Empirical relationship was established between the mean moisture values retrieved from the SAR images and the percentage of clay over 36 test fields. Validation of the proposed approach was carried out over a second set of 34 fields, showing that highly accurate clay estimations can be achieved. Finally, for spatial and temporal surface roughness estimation, we proposed empirical relationships between radar and soil roughness parameters (Hrms and Zg parameters). The proposed model was calibrated over 39 test fields, and then validated over 40 other plots.

  5. Crystallographic texture and elemental composition mapped in bovine root dentin at the 200 nm level.

    PubMed

    Deymier-Black, A C; Veis, A; Cai, Z; Stock, S R

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the mineralization of peritubular dentin (PTD) and intertubular dentin (ITD) is not well understood. Tubules are quite small, diameter ∼2 µm, and this makes the near-tubule region of dentin difficult to study. Here, advanced characterization techniques are applied in a novel way to examine what organic or nanostructural signatures may indicate th