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Sample records for 3d time-dependent non-isothermal

  1. 3D Finite Element Analysis of Spider Non-isothermal Forging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Kun Xia; Alexandrov, Igor V.; Hu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The differences of effective stress, effective strain, velocity field, and the load-time curves between the spider isothermal and non-isothermal forging processes are investigated by making full use of 3D FEA, and verified by the production experiment of spider forging. Effective stress is mainly concentrated on the pin, and becomes lower closer to the front of the pin. The maximum effective strain in the non-isothermal forging is lower than that in the isothermal. The great majority of strain in the non-isothermal forging process is 1.76, which is larger than the strain of 1.31 in the isothermal forging. The maximum load required in the isothermal forging is higher than that in the non-isothermal. The maximum experimental load and deformation temperature in the spider production are in good agreement with those in the non-isothermal FEA. The results indicate that the non-isothermal 3D FEA results can guide the design of the spider forging process.

  2. 3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of ground deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, R.; Tizzani, P.; Manconi, A.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, S.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.

    2012-04-01

    In active volcanic areas deformation signals are generally characterized by non-linear spatial and temporal variations [Tizzani P. et al., 2007]. This behaviour has been revealed in the last two decades by the so-called advanced DInSAR processing algorithms, developed to analyze surface deformation phenomena [Berardino P. et al., 2002; Ferretti C. et al., 2001]. Notwithstanding, most of the inverse modelling attempts to characterize the evolution of the volcanic sources are based on the assumption that the Earth's crust behaves as a homogeneous linear elastic material. However, the behaviour of the upper lithosphere in thermally anomalous regions (as active volcanoes are) might be well described as a non-Newtonian fluid, where some of the material proprieties of the rocks (i.e., apparent viscosities) can change over time [Pinkerton H. et al., 1995]. In this context, we considered the thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneities of the upper crust in order to develop a new 3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera, Southern Italy. More specifically, according to Tizzani P. et al. (2010), we integrated in a FEM environment geophysical information (gravimetric, seismic, and borehole data) available for the considered area and performed two FEM optimization procedures to constrain the 3D distribution of unknown physical parameters (temperature and viscosity distributions) that might help explaining the data observed at surface (geothermal wells and DInSAR measurements). First, we searched for the heat production, the volume source distribution and surface emissivity parameters providing the best-fit of the geothermal profiles data measured at six boreholes [Agip ESGE, 1986], by solving the Fourier heat equation over time (about 40 kys). The 3D thermal field resulting from this optimization was used to calculate the 3D brittle-ductile transition. This analysis revealed the presence of a ductile region, located beneath the centre of

  3. Advanced in Visualization of 3D Time-Dependent CFD Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, David A.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulations of complex 3D time-dependent (unsteady) flows are becoming increasingly feasible because of the progress in computing systems. Unfortunately, many existing flow visualization systems were developed for time-independent (steady) solutions and do not adequately depict solutions from unsteady flow simulations. Furthermore, most systems only handle one time step of the solutions individually and do not consider the time-dependent nature of the solutions. For example, instantaneous streamlines are computed by tracking the particles using one time step of the solution. However, for streaklines and timelines, particles need to be tracked through all time steps. Streaklines can reveal quite different information about the flow than those revealed by instantaneous streamlines. Comparisons of instantaneous streamlines with dynamic streaklines are shown. For a complex 3D flow simulation, it is common to generate a grid system with several millions of grid points and to have tens of thousands of time steps. The disk requirement for storing the flow data can easily be tens of gigabytes. Visualizing solutions of this magnitude is a challenging problem with today's computer hardware technology. Even interactive visualization of one time step of the flow data can be a problem for some existing flow visualization systems because of the size of the grid. Current approaches for visualizing complex 3D time-dependent CFD solutions are described. The flow visualization system developed at NASA Ames Research Center to compute time-dependent particle traces from unsteady CFD solutions is described. The system computes particle traces (streaklines) by integrating through the time steps. This system has been used by several NASA scientists to visualize their CFD time-dependent solutions. The flow visualization capabilities of this system are described, and visualization results are shown.

  4. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, Mark; CGG Persoon, Lucas; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors. The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation

  5. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Podesta, Mark; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-21

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors.The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation fields

  6. Time-dependent mechanical properties of 3-D braided graphite/PEEK composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, J.N.; Ko, F.K. ); Song, J.W. )

    1992-07-01

    Poly(ether-ether-ketone) or PEEK, was developed as a high performance engineering material. In this study, 3-D braided AS4 graphite /PEEK (graphite/PEEK) composites were preformed and processed to investigate the combined performance of this new system. These manufactured composites were then characterized, using matrix digestion and wide angle x-ray diffraction, to determine their fiber volume fractions and degrees of crystallinity. After physical characterization, the mechanical response of these composites were evaluated at various temperatures. Experimental results from tensile measurements are compared to a fabric geometry model (FGM). This model predicts tensile strength based upon fiber and matrix properties, fiber volume fraction, and braiding angle. The model and experimental results are given here, and are in good agreement with each other. In order to study the time-dependent mechanical properties of these 3-D braided graphite/PEEK composites, their stress relaxation and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. The dynamic mechanical properties of PEEK composites are compared to short fiber and continuous fiber reinforced PEEK composites to determine the effects of fiber geometry.

  7. Intersymbol Interference Investigations Using a 3D Time-Dependent Traveling Wave Tube Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Andro, Monty; Downey, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the first time, a physics based computational model has been used to provide a direct description of the effects of the TWT (Traveling Wave Tube) on modulated digital signals. The TWT model comprehensively takes into account the effects of frequency dependent AM/AM and AM/PM conversion; gain and phase ripple; drive-induced oscillations; harmonic generation; intermodulation products; and backward waves. Thus, signal integrity can be investigated in the presence of these sources of potential distortion as a function of the physical geometry of the high power amplifier and the operational digital signal. This method promises superior predictive fidelity compared to methods using TWT models based on swept amplitude and/or swept frequency data. The fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, TWT interaction model using the electromagnetic code MAFIA is presented. This model is used to investigate assumptions made in TWT black box models used in communication system level simulations. In addition, digital signal performance, including intersymbol interference (ISI), is compared using direct data input into the MAFIA model and using the system level analysis tool, SPW (Signal Processing Worksystem).

  8. Intersymbol Interference Investigations Using a 3D Time-Dependent Traveling Wave Tube Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Andro, Monty

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, a time-dependent, physics-based computational model has been used to provide a direct description of the effects of the traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) on modulated digital signals. The TWT model comprehensively takes into account the effects of frequency dependent AM/AM and AM/PM conversion; gain and phase ripple; drive-induced oscillations; harmonic generation; intermodulation products; and backward waves. Thus, signal integrity can be investigated in the presence of these sources of potential distortion as a function of the physical geometry and operating characteristics of the high power amplifier and the operational digital signal. This method promises superior predictive fidelity compared to methods using TWT models based on swept- amplitude and/or swept-frequency data. First, the TWT model using the three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic code MAFIA is presented. Then, this comprehensive model is used to investigate approximations made in conventional TWT black-box models used in communication system level simulations. To quantitatively demonstrate the effects these approximations have on digital signal performance predictions, including intersymbol interference (ISI), the MAFIA results are compared to the system level analysis tool, Signal Processing Workstation (SPW), using high order modulation schemes including 16 and 64-QAM.

  9. Radiation and Polarization Signatures of the 3D Multizone Time-dependent Hadronic Blazar Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Diltz, Chris; Böttcher, Markus

    2016-10-01

    We present a newly developed time-dependent three-dimensional multizone hadronic blazar emission model. By coupling a Fokker-Planck-based lepto-hadronic particle evolution code, 3DHad, with a polarization-dependent radiation transfer code, 3DPol, we are able to study the time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures of a hadronic blazar model for the first time. Our current code is limited to parameter regimes in which the hadronic γ-ray output is dominated by proton synchrotron emission, neglecting pion production. Our results demonstrate that the time-dependent flux and polarization signatures are generally dominated by the relation between the synchrotron cooling and the light-crossing timescale, which is largely independent of the exact model parameters. We find that unlike the low-energy polarization signatures, which can vary rapidly in time, the high-energy polarization signatures appear stable. As a result, future high-energy polarimeters may be able to distinguish such signatures from the lower and more rapidly variable polarization signatures expected in leptonic models.

  10. Sky3D: Time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Stevenson, P. D.; Umar, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    Written in Fortran 90, Sky3D solves the static or dynamic equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian mesh with isolated or periodic boundary conditions and no further symmetry assumptions. Pairing can be included in the BCS approximation for the static case. The code can be easily modified to include additional physics or special analysis of the results and requires LAPACK and FFTW3.

  11. GATOR: A 3-D time-dependent simulation code for helix TWTs

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidman, E.G.; Freund, H.P.

    1996-12-31

    A 3D nonlinear analysis of helix TWTs is presented. The analysis and simulation code is based upon a spectral decomposition using the vacuum sheath helix modes. The field equations are integrated on a grid and advanced in time using a MacCormack predictor-corrector scheme, and the electron orbit equations are integrated using a fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm. Charge is accumulated on the grid and the field is interpolated to the particle location by a linear map. The effect of dielectric liners on the vacuum sheath helix dispersion is included in the analysis. Several numerical cases are considered. Simulation of the injection of a DC beam and a signal at a single frequency is compared with a linear field theory of the helix TWT interaction, and good agreement is found.

  12. Coupled Neutron-Photon, 3-D, Combinatorial Geometry, Time Dependent, Monte Carlo Transport Code System.

    2013-06-24

    Version 07 TART2012 is a coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code designed to use three-dimensional (3-D) combinatorial geometry. Neutron and/or photon sources as well as neutron induced photon production can be tracked. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART2012 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared tomore » other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART2012 extends the general utility of the code to even more areas of application than available in previous releases by concentrating on improving the physics, particularly with regard to improved treatment of neutron fission, resonance self-shielding, molecular binding, and extending input options used by the code. Several utilities are included for creating input files and displaying TART results and data. TART2012 uses the latest ENDF/B-VI, Release 8, data. New for TART2012 is the use of continuous energy neutron cross sections, in addition to its traditional multigroup cross sections. For neutron interaction, the data are derived using ENDF-ENDL2005 and include both continuous energy cross sections and 700 group neutron data derived using a combination of ENDF/B-VI, Release 8, and ENDL data. The 700 group structure extends from 10-5 eV up to 1 GeV. Presently nuclear data are only available up to 20 MeV, so that only 616 of the groups are currently used. For photon interaction, 701 point photon data were derived using the Livermore EPDL97 file. The new 701 point structure extends from 100 eV up to 1 GeV, and is currently used over this entire energy range. TART2012 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that one use only the most recent version of TART2012 and its data files. Check author’s homepage for related information: http

  13. Lapse-time dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-07-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: firstly, we evaluate the contribution of surface and body wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Secondly, we compare the lapse-time behavior in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  14. Lapse-time-dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-10-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: first, we evaluate the contribution of surface- and body-wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time-dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Second, we compare the lapse-time behaviour in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  15. Influence of cratonic lithosphere on slab geometry and mantle flow: insights from 3D time-dependent modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramón, Jorge M.; Rodríguez-González, Juan; Negredo, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show a clear correlation between the occurrence of flat subduction and the proximity of areas of high elastic/thermal thickness in the overriding plate. A plausible explanation is that cold overriding plates lead to colder mantle wedge, increasing the hydrodynamic suction and decreasing the slab dip. In particular, recent numerical modeling has shown that the presence of cratonic lithosphere in the overriding plate has a significant effect on subducting slabs. In this study we quantify the influence of cratonic areas in the overriding plate on subduction dynamics. We present 3D thermo-mechanical and time-dependent numerical models of buoyancy-driven subduction processes. A non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic rheology is assumed. Different simulations have been performed to quantify the effect of different factors, such as the craton width, thermal thickness and distante to the trench. Modelling results indicate that presence of cratonic lithosphere in the overriding plate produces strong along-trench variations of the slab geometry. These variations are maintained and propagated at great depths as the slab sinks deeper into the mantle. Significant trench-parallel flow in the mantle wedge is generated by time-dependent changes in slab dip. For cases of reduced slab pull, the slab and the base of the craton become coupled, which causes a dramatic reduction of subduction velocity and the formation of a slab gap. The presence of cratons may have an important role on subduction episodicity and provide a new mechanism to explain slab gaps in areas where cratons have been located close to trenches, as is the case of South America and the Cenozoic subduction of North America. We further emphasize that the lithospheric structure of the overriding plate should be taken into account in analysis and modelling studies of subduction zones.

  16. High-performance parallel solver for 3D time-dependent Schrodinger equation for large-scale nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainullin, I. K.; Sonkin, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    A parallelized three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) solver for one-electron systems is presented in this paper. The TDSE Solver is based on the finite-difference method (FDM) in Cartesian coordinates and uses a simple and explicit leap-frog numerical scheme. The simplicity of the numerical method provides very efficient parallelization and high performance of calculations using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). For example, calculation of 106 time-steps on the 1000ṡ1000ṡ1000 numerical grid (109 points) takes only 16 hours on 16 Tesla M2090 GPUs. The TDSE Solver demonstrates scalability (parallel efficiency) close to 100% with some limitations on the problem size. The TDSE Solver is validated by calculation of energy eigenstates of the hydrogen atom (13.55 eV) and affinity level of H- ion (0.75 eV). The comparison with other TDSE solvers shows that a GPU-based TDSE Solver is 3 times faster for the problems of the same size and with the same cost of computational resources. The usage of a non-regular Cartesian grid or problem-specific non-Cartesian coordinates increases this benefit up to 10 times. The TDSE Solver was applied to the calculation of the resonant charge transfer (RCT) in nanosystems, including several related physical problems, such as electron capture during H+-H0 collision and electron tunneling between H- ion and thin metallic island film.

  17. Time-Dependent Effects of Pre-Aging 3D Polymer Scaffolds in Cell Culture Medium on Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Hung, Stevephen; Kumar, Girish; Simon, Carl G

    2012-01-01

    Protein adsorption is known to direct biological response to biomaterials and is important in determining cellular response in tissue scaffolds. In this study we investigated the effect of the duration of protein adsorption to 3D polymer scaffolds on cell attachment and proliferation. 3D macro-porous polymer scaffolds were pre-aged in serum-containing culture medium for 5 min, 1 d or 7 d prior to seeding osteoblasts. The total amount of protein adsorbed was found to increase with pre-ageing time. Cell attachment and proliferation were measured 1 d and 14 d, respectively, after cell seeding. Osteoblast proliferation, but not attachment, increased with scaffold pre-ageing time and amount of adsorbed serum protein. These results demonstrate that the amount of time that scaffolds are exposed to serum-containing medium can affect cell proliferation and suggest that these effects are mediated by differences in the amount of protein adsorption.

  18. Progress in the Simulation of Steady and Time-Dependent Flows with 3D Parallel Unstructured Cartesian Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Murman, S. M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The proposed paper will present recent extensions in the development of an efficient Euler solver for adaptively-refined Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries. The paper will focus on extensions of the basic method to include solution adaptation, time-dependent flow simulation, and arbitrary rigid domain motion. The parallel multilevel method makes use of on-the-fly parallel domain decomposition to achieve extremely good scalability on large numbers of processors, and is coupled with an automatic coarse mesh generation algorithm for efficient processing by a multigrid smoother. Numerical results are presented demonstrating parallel speed-ups of up to 435 on 512 processors. Solution-based adaptation may be keyed off truncation error estimates using tau-extrapolation or a variety of feature detection based refinement parameters. The multigrid method is extended to for time-dependent flows through the use of a dual-time approach. The extension to rigid domain motion uses an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerlarian (ALE) formulation, and results will be presented for a variety of two- and three-dimensional example problems with both simple and complex geometry.

  19. Time-Dependent Distribution Functions in C-Mod Calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA Full-Wave, and DC Lorentz Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W. (Bob); Petrov, Yu. V.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-11-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed ICRF power is made calculating minority hydrogen ion distribution functions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. ICRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code, and RF diffusion coefficients are obtained from these fields using the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, in general agreement with experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these effects on the the NPA synthetic diagnostic time-dependence. The new NPA results give increased agreement with experiment, particularly in the ramp-down time after the ICRF pulse. Funded, through subcontract with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, by USDOE sponsored SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions.

  20. Computer Modeling of Non-Isothermal Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Narayan, K. Lakshmi; Levine, L. E.; Cull, T. C.; Ray, C. S.

    1996-01-01

    A realistic computer model for simulating isothermal and non-isothermal phase transformations proceeding by homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and interface-limited growth is presented. A new treatment for particle size effects on the crystallization kinetics is developed and is incorporated into the numerical model. Time-dependent nucleation rates, size-dependent growth rates, and surface crystallization are also included. Model predictions are compared with experimental measurements of DSC/DTA peak parameters for the crystallization of lithium disilicate glass as a function of particle size, Pt doping levels, and water content. The quantitative agreement that is demonstrated indicates that the numerical model can be used to extract key kinetic data from easily obtained calorimetric data. The model can also be used to probe nucleation and growth behavior in regimes that are otherwise inaccessible. Based on a fit to data, an earlier prediction that the time-dependent nucleation rate in a DSC/DTA scan can rise above the steady-state value at a temperature higher than the peak in the steady-state rate is demonstrated.

  1. Exact Analytical Solution for 3D Time-Dependent Heat Conduction in a Multilayer Sphere with Heat Sources Using Eigenfunction Expansion Method

    PubMed Central

    Dalir, Nemat

    2014-01-01

    An exact analytical solution is obtained for the problem of three-dimensional transient heat conduction in the multilayered sphere. The sphere has multiple layers in the radial direction and, in each layer, time-dependent and spatially nonuniform volumetric internal heat sources are considered. To obtain the temperature distribution, the eigenfunction expansion method is used. An arbitrary combination of homogenous boundary condition of the first or second kind can be applied in the angular and azimuthal directions. Nevertheless, solution is valid for nonhomogeneous boundary conditions of the third kind (convection) in the radial direction. A case study problem for the three-layer quarter-spherical region is solved and the results are discussed. PMID:27433511

  2. CROSS DRIVE: A New Interactive and Immersive Approach for Exploring 3D Time-Dependent Mars Atmospheric Data in Distributed Teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerndt, Andreas M.; Engelke, Wito; Giuranna, Marco; Vandaele, Ann C.; Neary, Lori; Aoki, Shohei; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Garcia, Arturo; Fernando, Terrence; Roberts, David; CROSS DRIVE Team

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric phenomena of Mars can be highly dynamic and have daily and seasonal variations. Planetary-scale wavelike disturbances, for example, are frequently observed in Mars' polar winter atmosphere. Possible sources of the wave activity were suggested to be dynamical instabilities and quasi-stationary planetary waves, i.e. waves that arise predominantly via zonally asymmetric surface properties. For a comprehensive understanding of these phenomena, single layers of altitude have to be analyzed carefully and relations between different atmospheric quantities and interaction with the surface of Mars have to be considered. The CROSS DRIVE project tries to address the presentation of those data with a global view by means of virtual reality techniques. Complex orbiter data from spectrometer and observation data from Earth are combined with global circulation models and high-resolution terrain data and images available from Mars Express or MRO instruments. Scientists can interactively extract features from those dataset and can change visualization parameters in real-time in order to emphasize findings. Stereoscopic views allow for perception of the actual 3D behavior of Mars's atmosphere. A very important feature of the visualization system is the possibility to connect distributed workspaces together. This enables discussions between distributed working groups. The workspace can scale from virtual reality systems to expert desktop applications to web-based project portals. If multiple virtual environments are connected, the 3D position of each individual user is captured and used to depict the scientist as an avatar in the virtual world. The appearance of the avatar can also scale from simple annotations to complex avatars using tele-presence technology to reconstruct the users in 3D. Any change of the feature set (annotations, cutplanes, volume rendering, etc.) within the VR is immediately exchanged between all connected users. This allows that everybody is always

  3. A 3-D coupled ice-ocean model applied to Hudson Bay, Canada: The seasonal cycle and time-dependent climate response to atmospheric forcing and runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucier, FrançOis J.; Dionne, Jacques

    1998-11-01

    A coupled three-dimensional, time-dependent ice-ocean model is developed and applied in order to reproduce the basin-scale ice and mixed-layer physical properties of Hudson Bay and James Bay, Canada. Models for albedo, evaporation, storms, frazil ice production, and radiation are included. Observed monthly means of winds, temperature, precipitation, runoff, and cloudiness are used to force the model and obtain multiyear, steady state, and non-steady state solutions. The seasonal cycle in sea ice thickness, ice concentration, ocean temperature, and salinity is first reproduced. Then we consider a set of five experiments: (1) a strong westerly event from the North Atlantic Oscillation, (2) a year with anomalously high runoff, (3) regulated runoff from hydroelectric development, (4) high autumn winds, and (5) warm conditions. We find that preconditioning of the ocean for winter, controlled by the heat transfer to the atmosphere and freshwater input rates and also related to the mixed-layer depth attained before freezing, has a strong control over the following ice season. The results show that varying runoff has more of an effect on sea-ice production in southeastern Hudson Bay than do temperature changes associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation but that both have a small effect on the ice cover when compared to the observed interannual variability. Regulated runoff produces a positive sea-ice anomaly during the January-April period which is significant (greater than 10 cm or 10%) in the southeastern part of the bay but less than 1 cm (˜1%) on average. We conclude that ˜90% of the excess winter runoff remains liquid. No significant delay is computed for breakup dates (less than 3 days in southeastern Hudson Bay and less than 1 day overall). Other controls from the atmosphere are required to explain the natural interannual variability of the ice cover. Summer and autumn winds, and air temperature (which control heat loss and winter preconditioning), spring

  4. Time-dependent distribution functions and resulting synthetic NPA spectra in C-Mod calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA full-wave, and DC Lorentz codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-12-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed TCRF power is made obtaining minority hydrogen ion distributions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. Cyclotron-resonant TCRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code. The RF diffusion coefficients used in CQL3D are obtained with the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code for perturbed particle trajectories in the combined equilibrium and TCRF electromagnetic fields. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, and this substantially increased the rampup rate of the observed vertically-viewed neutral particle analyzer (NPA) flux, in general agreement with experiment. However, ramp down of the NPA flux after the pulse, remained long compared to the experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these new effects on the the NPA time-dependence.

  5. Numerical Model for Isothermal and Non-Isothermal Crystallization of Liquids and Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.

    1993-01-01

    A new numerical model of isothermal and non-isothermal first order phase transformations, such as the crystallization of liquids and glasses, is presented. This model computes directly the volume fraction transformed, taking into account time-dependent nucleation rates and cluster-size-dependent growth velocities. The model is applied to the crystallization of lithium disilicate glass, using the appropriate kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The model is used (1) to determine the validity of common methods for computing the volume fraction transformed as a function of time in isothermal experiments when a time-dependent nucleation rate is expected, (2) to simulate non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of glass devitrification as a function of scan rate, and (3) to compute the effect of preannealing on the DSC peak parameters. A novel behavior of the nucleation rate with scan rate is predicted, arising because the relaxation of the cluster distribution cannot be described by a single relaxation time. Comparisons of the calculations with experimental data on this glass demonstrate the validity of the model.

  6. Non-isothermal buckling behavior of viscoplastic shell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riff, Richard; Simitses, G. J.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the mathematical model and solution methodologies for analyzing the structural response of thin, metallic elasto-viscoplastic shell structures under large thermomechanical loads and their non-isothermal buckling behavior. Among the system responses associated with these loads and conditions are snap-through, buckling, thermal buckling, and creep buckling. This geometric and material nonlinearities (of high order) can be anticipated and are considered in the model and the numerical treatment.

  7. Non isothermal drying process optimisation - Drying of clay tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2015-11-01

    In our previous studies we have developed a model for determination of the variable effective diffusivity and identification of the exact transition points between possible drying mechanisms. The next goal was to develop a drying regime which could in advance characterize the real non isothermal process of drying clay tiles. In order to do this four isothermal experiments were recorded. Temperature and humidity were maintained at 350C / 75%; 450C / 70%; 450C / 60% and 500C / 60%; respectively in each experiment. All experimentally collected data were analyzed and the exact transition points between possible drying mechanisms were detected. Characteristic drying period (time) for each isothermal drying mechanism was also detected. The real, non-isothermal drying process was approximated by 5 segments. In each of these segments approximately isothermal drying condition were maintained. Temperature and humidity of the drying air, in the first four segments, was maintained on the same level as in recorded isothermal experiments while in the fifth segment, it were maintained at 700C / 40%. The duration of the first four segments were calculated from the diagrams Deff - t respectively for each experiment. The clay tile in experiment five was dried without cracking using the proposed non isothermal drying regime.

  8. RuO2 Non-isothermal Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Giomi, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    The use of a RuO2 resistor in non-isothermal measuring setup is proposed. A calculation is presented to explain the principle for a resistor obeying variable-range-hopping theory and the results are compared to measurements in the range of 11.2-30 mK for a commercial resistor. The thermometer, which measures the electron temperature, does not show overheating effects at 11.2 mK with a measuring power of 10^{-12} W.

  9. The non-isothermal rheology of low viscosity magmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, Stephan; Giordano, Daniele; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate prediction of the run-out distance of lava flows, as well as the understanding of magma migration in shallow dyke systems is hampered by an incomplete understanding of the transient, sub-liquidus rheology of crystallizing melts. This sets significant limits to physical property based modelling of lava flow (especially flow width, length and advancement rate) and magma migration behaviour and the resulting accuracy of volcanic hazard assessment The importance of the dynamic rheology of a lava / magma on its emplacement style becomes especially apparent in towards later stages of flow and dyke emplacement, where the melt builds increasing resistance to flow, entering rheologic regimes that determine the halting of lava flows and sealing of dykes. Thermal gradients between the interior of a melt body and the contact with air or the substratum govern these rheologic transitions that give origin to flow directing or impeding features like levees, tubes and chilled margins. Besides the critical importance of non-isothermal and sub-liquidus processes for the understanding of natural systems, accurate rheologic data at these conditions are scarce and studies capturing the transient rheological evolution of lavas at conditions encountered during emplacement virtually absent. We describe the rheologic evolution of a series of natural, re-melted lava samples during transient and non-equilibrium crystallization conditions characteristic of lava flows and shallow magmatic systems in nature. The sample suite spans from foidites to basalts; the dominant compositions producing low viscosity lava flows. Our data show that all melts undergo one or more change zones in effective viscosity when subjected to sub liquidus temperatures. The apparent viscosity of the liquid-crystal suspension increases drastically from the theoretical temperature-viscosity relationship of a pure liquid once cooled below the liquidus temperature. We find that: 1) Both cooling rate and shear rate

  10. Non isothermal model free kinetics for pyrolysis of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Garima; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2014-10-01

    The kinetics of thermal decomposition of rice straw was studied by thermogravimetry. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data of rice straw decomposition in nitrogen atmosphere at six different heating rates of 5-40 °C/min was used for evaluating kinetics using several model free kinetic methods. The results showed that the decomposition process exhibited two zones of constant apparent activation energies. The values ranged from 142 to 170 kJ/mol (E(avg) = 155.787 kJ/mol), and 170 to 270 kJ/mol (E(avg) = 236.743 kJ/mol) in the conversion range of 5-60% and 61-90% respectively. These values were used to determine the reaction mechanism of process using master plots and compensation parameters. The results show that the reaction mechanism of whole process can be kinetically characterized by two successive reactions, a diffusion reaction followed by a third order rate equation. The kinetic results were validated using isothermal predictions. The results derived are useful for development and optimization of biomass thermochemical conversion systems. PMID:25105267

  11. Non-Isothermal Crystallization of PET/PLA Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huipeng; Pyda, Marek; Cebe, Peggy

    2011-03-01

    Binary blends of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with poly(lactic acid), PET/PLA, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The solution cast blends were miscible in the melt over the entire composition range. We report the non-isothermal crystallization of: a.) PET, with and without presence of PLA crystals, and b.) PLA, with and without presence of PET crystals. PET can crystallize in all blends, regardless of whether PLA is amorphous or crystalline, and crystallinity of PET decreases as PLA content increases. PLA crystallization is strongly affected by the mobility of the PET. When PET is wholly amorphous, PLA can crystallize weakly even in 70/30 blends. When PET is crystalline, PLA cannot crystallize when its own content is below 0.90. The different behaviors may be related to the tendency of each polymer to form constrained chains, i.e., to form rigid amorphous fraction, RAF. PET is capable of forming a large amount of RAF, whereas relatively smaller amount of RAF forms in PLA. Like the crystals, rigid amorphous fraction of one component may inhibit growth of crystals of the other blend partner. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Polymers Program of the Division of Materials Research under DMR-0602473 and the MRI Program under DMR-0520655.

  12. Hysteresis phenomena in shape memory alloys by non-isothermal Ginzburg-Landau models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhote, R. P.; Fabrizio, M.; Melnik, R. N. V.; Zu, J.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose the new one- and three- dimensional models for the description of hysteretic phenomena in shape memory alloys (SMAs). These thermodynamic models are non-isothermal and allow to account for the thermo-mechanical material properties of both austenite and martensite phases based on the local phase value of the order parameter. They are based on the Ginzburg-Landau free energy and the phase field theory. The core of the models is a phase evolution governed by the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation and the conservation balance laws with nonlinear coupling between stress, strain and the phase order parameter. The models account for the gradient energy and have been tested in the study of material properties evolution under harmonic stress loading for all important practical cases. The representative numerical simulations have been carried out here without the gradient energy term. The developed models account for the phase dependent properties based on the compliance tensor as a function of the order parameter and stress. We also compared the results obtained with these models and observed differences in homogeneous and inhomogeneous situations due to the change in compliance. In this way, the description of quasiplastic and pseudoelastic behaviors in SMA specimens is improved and becomes in an agreement with existing experiments.

  13. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  14. Effect of non-isothermal deposition on surface morphology and microstructure of uniform molten aluminum alloy droplets applied to three-dimensional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Han-song; Li, He-jun; Qi, Le-hua; Luo, Jun; Zhong, Song-yi; Wu, Yao-feng

    2015-01-01

    Non-isothermal deposition of uniform molten droplets as basic building blocks has a great influence on the geometric profile and microstructure of metallic components fabricated by the drop-based three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. In this paper, the thermal and dynamic behaviors of molten aluminum droplets during non-isothermal deposition were studied numerically and experimentally. The result shows that local solidification and interfacial re-melting occur during the initial period of non-isothermal deposition. The re-melting in microseconds depends greatly on the impacting droplet temperature, the deposition surface temperature, and the thermal contact resistance. Further, the coupling action of subsequent solidification and oscillation behaviors of aluminum droplet fixed on the target surface was also investigated. It is interesting to find that the formation and distribution of the solidified surface morphology, such as the typical micron-sized ripples, are significantly affected by layer-by-layer solidification and underdamped oscillation in the remaining molten metal. Based on the above research, a semiquantitative relationship between external morphology and internal microstructure was proposed, which was further certified by investigating the piled vertical columns. The works should be helpful for the process optimization and non-destructive detection of drop-based 3D printing techniques.

  15. Modeling isothermal and non-isothermal flows in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni Languri, Ehsan

    2011-12-01

    solutions obtained after applying the stress-continuity and stress-jump boundary conditions are found to work well at low porosities, which is in contradiction with the results achieved earlier by other researchers. The traditional approach of using averaged equations in the regions of sharp gradients in porous media to describe flow and transport is theoretically untenable and perhaps inaccurate. A novel ensemble averaging method is being proposed to test the accuracy of the volume averaged or smoothed description of flows in porous media in the regions of sharp gradients. In the new method, the flow in a certain arrangement of particles (called a realization) is averaged using a small unit cell, much smaller than the REV. Then such an averaged flow variable is further averaged over a whole gamut of randomly-generated particle realizations. First the accuracy of the ensemble averaging method was tested by comparing the permeability of an artificially generated porous medium obtained by the proposed method against the permeability predicted by some established theoretical models of permeability. The proposed method was found to be quite accurate. Later the ensemble average method was applied to the open-channel porous-medium interface region characterized by a sharp gradient in the flow velocities. It was discovered that the volume averaged description of such flows, characterized by the use of the Brinkman equation along with the stress-continuity and stress-jump conditions, is quite accurate for a range of Reynolds numbers. The non-isothermal transport during flow in porous media is examined next. The main focus in this area of research is the thermal dispersion term found in the heat transfer equation for single- and dual-scale porous media. Most of the previous efforts on modeling the heat transfer phenomena in porous media were devoted to isotropic porous media. However, for the anisotropic porous media widely in many industrial applications, not much research on the

  16. Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Wu, Zih-Ying; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-03-01

    Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) CNW-N are studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of S. obliquus CNW-N with increasing temperature is characterized by four-stage decomposition. Depending on the torrefaction temperature, light, mild, and severe torrefaction from the weight loss and the maximum decomposition rate of the microalga can be classified. Under the same average temperature and torrefaction duration, non-isothermal torrefaction gives more severe pretreatment than the isothermal one. Increasing the heating rate of non-isothermal torrefaction also intensifies the pretreatment severity. Therefore, microalgae can be torrefied via non-isothermal torrefaction in a shorter time under the same pretreatment extent. The atomic H/C ratio in the microalga decreases with increasing torrefaction severity, whereas the atomic O/C ratio rises. The analysis suggests that the activation energy of isothermal torrefaction is 57.52×10(3)Jmol(-1), while it is between 40.14×10(3) and 88.41×10(3)Jmol(-1) for non-isothermal torrefaction.

  17. Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ha Myung; Seo, Myung Won; Jeong, Sang Mun; Na, Byung Ki; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Lee, Woon Jae

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM.

  18. Non-Isothermal Calorimetric Studies of the Crystallization of Lithium Disilicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.; Huang, W.; Narayan, K. Lakshmi; Cull, T. S.; Kelton, K. F.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of preannealing treatments on the polymorphic crystallization of lithium disilicate glasses is examined. As expected, glasses heated at different rates through the temperature range where there is significant nucleation develop widely different numbers of nuclei. This can dramatically influence the stability and transformation characteristics of the annealed glass. Non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements are demonstrated to be useful to probe the nucleation behavior. The first systematic investigations of particle size effects on the non-isothermal transformation behavior are presented and discussed. Based on DTA and microscopy experiments, we show that small particles of lithium disilicate glasses crystallize primarily by surface crystallization. The relative importance of surface versus volume crystallization is examined by varying particle size, by introducing nucleating agents and by exposing glasses to atmospheres of different water content. These data are analyzed quantitatively using a numerical model developed in a second paper following in this volume.

  19. Numerical modeling of non-isothermal gas flow and NAPL vapor transport in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pártl, Ondřej; Beneš, Michal; Frolkovič, Peter; Illangasekare, Tissa; Smits, Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a mathematical model for the description of non-isothermal compressible flow of gas mixtures in heterogeneous porous media and we derive an efficient semi-implicit time-stepping numerical scheme for the solution of the governing equations. We experimentally estimate the order of convergence of the scheme in spatial variables and we present several computational studies that demonstrate the ability of the numerical scheme.

  20. Lie-symmetry group and modeling in non-isothermal fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razafindralandy, D.; Hamdouni, A.; Al Sayed, N.

    2012-10-01

    The symmetry group of the non-isothermal Navier-Stokes equations is used to develop physics-preserving turbulence models for the subgrid stress tensor and the subgrid heat flux. The Reynolds analogy is not used. The theoretical properties of the models are investigated. In particular, their compatibility with the scaling laws of the flow is proven. A numerical test, in the configuration of an air flow in a ventilated and differentially heated room is presented.

  1. Non-isothermal elastoviscoplastic snap-through and creep buckling of shallow arches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, G. J.; Riff, R.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of buckling of shallow arches under transient thermomechanical loads is investigated. The analysis is based on nonlinear geometric and constitutive relations, and is expressed in a rate form. The material constitutive equations are capable of reproducing all non-isothermal, elasto-viscoplastic characteristics. The solution scheme is capable of predicting response which includes pre and postbuckling with creep and plastic effects. The solution procedure is demonstrated through several examples which include both creep and snap-through behavior.

  2. Structural characterization and dehydration kinetics of Kirka inderite mineral: Application of non-isothermal models

    SciTech Connect

    Figen, Aysel Kantuerk; Yilmaz, Muege Sari; Piskin, Sabriye

    2010-06-15

    Coats-Redfern, Arrhenius, Ozawa, Kissinger, and Doyle non-isothermal kinetic models were used to calculate the dynamic kinetic parameters for dehydration reaction of Mg-borate mineral, inderite (Kirka - Turkey) based on thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. Dehydration experiments were carried out at different heating rates of 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 deg. C/min in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. Structural and morphological properties have been characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy techniques.

  3. Time dependent view factor methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    View factors have been used for treating radiation transport between opaque surfaces bounding a transparent medium for several decades. However, in recent years they have been applied to problems involving intense bursts of radiation in enclosed volumes such as in the laser fusion hohlraums. In these problems, several aspects require treatment of time dependence.

  4. Isothermal and non-isothermal viscoelastic flow of PTT fluid in lid-driven polar cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercan, Hatice; Atalık, Kunt

    2012-12-01

    The isothermal and non-isothermal viscoelastic flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) fluids is considered in liddriven polar cavity geometry, using a numerical solution method with parameter continuation technique. Thermoelastic effects, in terms of elastic/elongational effects and viscous dissipation, are demonstrated by the changes in vortical structure, temperature/stress distributions and heat transfer characteristics in the curved cavity. Central vortex/maximum temperature location shifts are observed under elastic and elongational (strain hardening and strain softening/shear thinning) effects for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The growth in size and strength of a secondary vortex is denoted in the downstream stationary corner of the cavity for the viscoelastic fluid under strain hardening, which also introduces an increase in stress gradients. Viscous heating is observed with elongational effects near the central vortex in the cavity. Stress components and their gradients decrease under viscous dissipation. The changes in temperature field and heat transfer properties in the cavity are revealed.

  5. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics in melt-drawn PCL/PLA microfibrillar composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kelnar, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the system poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/poly(lactic acid)/clay C15 and related microfibrillar composites has been studied using a simple method based on mathematical treatment of the DSC cumulative crystallization curves in their inflection point. The method provides three kinetic parameters: temperature of start of crystallization, temperature of maximum crystallization rate, and numerical value of the maximum crystallization rate. In the range of cooling rates 5 - 20°C/min, the temperatures of crystallization start and of maximum crystallization rate are determined with standard deviation of 0.3 and 0.4°C, respectively. Average standard deviation of maximum crystallization rate is 1.0 K-1 corresponding to coefficient of variation 5.8 %. Repeatability is slightly better at lower cooling rates. The modified samples show intensive nucleation effect during the non-isothermal crystallization, as demonstrated by their values of temperatures of crystallization start and of maximum crystallization rate that are significantly higher than that of neat PCL. The highest maximum crystallization rate has been found for the blend PCL/PLA 80/20. The proposed method does not refer to any crystallization model and does not require exact determination of the starting point of crystallization. On the other hand, it does not provide any information about dimensionality of crystal growth. The method is particularly useful for characterizing a series of samples derived by modification of the neat polymer.

  6. Finite Element Modeling of a Non-Isothermal Superplastic-Like Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Tan, Ming-Jen; Castagne, Sylvie; Aue-u-lan, Yingyot; Jarfors, Anders E. W.; Fong, Kai-Soon; Bayraktar, Emin

    2011-01-01

    Conventional superplastic forming (SPF) has been modified to increase the productivity and reduce some of the drawbacks, such as high forming temperature and high percentage thinning, to suit the automotive industries. One of the modifications was to combine between the conventional SPF and the use of a mechanical preformed blank to form the non-superplastic grade aluminum alloy (AA5083-O). The requirement of high temperature usually results in microstructural defects during forming process. In this paper, finite element modeling was adopted to investigate the superplastic-like forming process using the non-isothermal heating system. In the simulation, two phases (mechanical pre-forming and gas blow for ming) of the process were conducted under different temperatures, where the material was mechanically drawn into the die cavity at 200° C in the first phase, and it formed with gas pressure applied at a global temperature increasing from 400° C to 500° C. Because of the non-isothermal heating of material, it was found that it had enough ductility to flow more easily in the specific zones (die corners and radius). Additionally, FEM results showed that a better formed part can be obtained by the increasing temperature forming, compared to the stable temperature phase.

  7. Numerical investigation for formability of aluminum 6016 alloy under non-isothermal warm forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P.; Dai, M. H.; Ying, L.; Shi, D. Y.; Zhao, K. M.; Lu, J. D.

    2013-05-01

    The warm forming technology of aluminum alloy has attracted attention from worldwide automotive engineering sector in recent years, with which the complex geometry parts can be realized at elevated temperature. A non-isothermal warm forming process for the heat treatable aluminum can quickly carry out its application on traditional production line by adding a furnace to heat up the aluminum alloy sheet. The 6000 aluminum alloy was investigated by numerical simulation and experiment using the Nakajima test model in this paper. A modified Fields-Backofen model was introduced into numerical simulation process to describe the thermo-mechanical flow behavior of a 6000 series aluminum alloy. The experimental data was obtained by conducting thermal-mechanical uniaxial tensile experiment in temperatures range of 25˜400°C to guarantee the numerical simulation more accurate. The numerical simulation was implemented with LS_DYNA software in terms of coupled dynamic explicit method for investigating the effect of initial forming temperature and the Binder Holder Force (BHF), which are critical process parameters in non-isothermal warm forming. The results showed that the optimal initial forming temperature range was 300°C˜350°C. By means of conducting numerical simulation in deep drawing box model, the forming window of BHF and temperature around the optimal initial forming temperature (275°, 300° and 325°) are investigated, which can provide guidance to actual experiment.

  8. Characteristics of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a non-isothermal jet.

    PubMed

    Westerweel, Jerry; Petracci, Alberto; Delfos, René; Hunt, Julian C R

    2011-02-28

    The turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a jet is characterized by sharp jumps ('discontinuities') in the conditional flow statistics relative to the interface. Experiments were carried out to measure the conditional flow statistics for a non-isothermal jet, i.e. a cooled jet. These experiments are complementary to previous experiments on an isothermal Re=2000 jet, where, in the present experiments on a non-isothermal jet, the thermal diffusivity is intermediate to the diffusivity of momentum and the diffusivity of mass. The experimental method is a combined laser-induced fluorescence/particle image velocimetry method, where a temperature-sensitive fluorescent dye (rhodamine 6G) is used to measure the instantaneous temperature fluctuations. The results show that the cooled jet can be considered to behave like a self-similar jet without any significant buoyancy effects. The detection of the interface is based on the instantaneous temperature, and provides a reliable means to detect the interface. Conditional flow statistics reveal the superlayer jump in the conditional vorticity and in the temperature.

  9. Spike-timing-dependent construction.

    PubMed

    Lightheart, Toby; Grainger, Steven; Lu, Tien-Fu

    2013-10-01

    Spike-timing-dependent construction (STDC) is the production of new spiking neurons and connections in a simulated neural network in response to neuron activity. Following the discovery of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), significant effort has gone into the modeling and simulation of adaptation in spiking neural networks (SNNs). Limitations in computational power imposed by network topology, however, constrain learning capabilities through connection weight modification alone. Constructive algorithms produce new neurons and connections, allowing automatic structural responses for applications of unknown complexity and nonstationary solutions. A conceptual analogy is developed and extended to theoretical conditions for modeling synaptic plasticity as network construction. Generalizing past constructive algorithms, we propose a framework for the design of novel constructive SNNs and demonstrate its application in the development of simulations for the validation of developed theory. Potential directions of future research and applications of STDC for biological modeling and machine learning are also discussed.

  10. Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis

    1999-10-27

    FRANTIC-3 was developed to evaluate system unreliability using time-dependent techniques. The code provides two major options: to evaluate standby system unavailability or, in addition to the unavailability to calculate the total system failure probability by including both the unavailability of the system on demand as well as the probability that it will operate for an arbitrary time period following the demand. The FRANTIC-3 time dependent reliability models provide a large selection of repair and testingmore » policies applicable to standby or continously operating systems consisting of periodically tested, monitored, and non-repairable (non-testable) components. Time-dependent and test frequency dependent failures, as well as demand stress related failure, test-caused degradation and wear-out, test associated human errors, test deficiencies, test override, unscheduled and scheduled maintenance, component renewal and replacement policies, and test strategies can be prescribed. The conditional system unavailabilities associated with the downtimes of the user specified failed component are also evaluated. Optionally, the code can perform a sensitivity study for system unavailability or total failure probability to the failure characteristics of the standby components.« less

  11. Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, Enrico

    1999-10-27

    FRANTIC-3 was developed to evaluate system unreliability using time-dependent techniques. The code provides two major options: to evaluate standby system unavailability or, in addition to the unavailability to calculate the total system failure probability by including both the unavailability of the system on demand as well as the probability that it will operate for an arbitrary time period following the demand. The FRANTIC-3 time dependent reliability models provide a large selection of repair and testing policies applicable to standby or continously operating systems consisting of periodically tested, monitored, and non-repairable (non-testable) components. Time-dependent and test frequency dependent failures, as well as demand stress related failure, test-caused degradation and wear-out, test associated human errors, test deficiencies, test override, unscheduled and scheduled maintenance, component renewal and replacement policies, and test strategies can be prescribed. The conditional system unavailabilities associated with the downtimes of the user specified failed component are also evaluated. Optionally, the code can perform a sensitivity study for system unavailability or total failure probability to the failure characteristics of the standby components.

  12. Time-Dependent Neutral Particle Transport Benchmarks in Two and Three Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Barry D. Ganapol

    2007-10-12

    The main objective of NEER grant was to generate highly accurate 2D and 3D time-dependent neutral particle intensity maps from 3D pulsed wire sources through integration of the analytical representation of a time-dependent point source.

  13. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  14. Numerical solution of non-isothermal non-adiabatic flow of real gases in pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez, Alfredo; López, Xián; Vázquez-Cendón, M. Elena

    2016-10-01

    A finite volume scheme for the numerical solution of a mathematical model for non-isothermal non-adiabatic compressible flow of a real gas in a pipeline is introduced. In order to make an upwind discretization of the flux, the Q-scheme of van Leer is used. Unlike standard Euler equations, the model takes into account wall friction, variable height and heat transfer between the pipe and the environment. Since all these terms are sources, in order to get a well-balanced scheme they are discretized by making a similar upwinding to the one in the flux term. The performance of the overall method has been shown for some usual numerical tests. The final goal, which is beyond the scope of this paper, is to consider a network including several pipelines connected at junctions, as those employed for natural gas transport.

  15. Thermooxidative stability of poppy seeds studied by non-isothermal DSC measurements.

    PubMed

    Cibulková, Zuzana; Čertík, Milan; Dubaj, Tibor

    2014-05-01

    Papaver somniferum L. is an important crop cultivated mostly for seed production. Poppy seeds have a high nutritive value and are used as a food and as a source of edible oil. This oil is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is well known that the unsaturated fatty acids easily undergo oxidation reactions, which lead to the reduction of shelf life, nutritional quality, development of unpleasant tastes and odors. The goal of this study was to develop the methodology for testing the stability of poppy seeds using non-isothermal DSC. For the treatment of the experimental data a method based on non-Arrhenian temperature function has been applied and the values the kinetic parameters have been obtained. In order to assess the durability of the commercial poppy seeds, the lengths of induction periods have been calculated.

  16. Non-Isothermal Experimental Study of the Constrained Vapor Bubble Thermosyphon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karthikeyan, Muthu; Huang, Jianming; Plawsky, Joel; Wayner, Peter, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical techniques to study non-isothermal transport processes in the constrained vapor bubble thermosyphon (CVBT) were developed using a pentane/quartz system. The transport processes can be evaluated by measuring the liquid film profile, which gives the pressure field, and the temperature field. The axial variation in the capillary pressure was measured using an image-analyzing interferometer that is based on computer-enhanced video microscopy of the naturally occurring interference fringes. Thermoelectric coolers were used to control the temperature level in the condensation region and, therefore, the length of the approximately 'adiabatic' surface region which is a function of the temperature difference between the CVBT surface and the surroundings. High values for the axial thermal conductance in the 'adiabatic' surface region were demonstrated under certain conditions.

  17. MHD forced convection flow adjacent to a non-isothermal wedge

    SciTech Connect

    Yih, K.A.

    1999-08-01

    The problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) incompressible viscous flow has many important engineering applications in devices such as MHD power generator and the cooling of reactors. In this analysis, the effects of viscous dissipation and stress work on the MHD forced convection adjacent to a non-isothermal wedge is numerically analyzed. These partial differential equations are transformed into the nonsimilar boundary layer equations and solved by the Keller box method. Numerical results for the local friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented for the pressure gradient parameter m, the magnetic parameter {xi}, the Prandtl number Pr, and the Eckert number Ec. In general, increasing the pressure gradient parameter m or the magnetic parameter {xi} or the Prandtl number Pr or decreasing the Eckert number EC increases the local Nusselt number.

  18. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Spinels in Vanadium Slag with High CaO Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wang; Xie, Bing; Tan, Wen-Feng; Diao, Jiang; Zhang, Xie; Li, Hong-Yi

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigated the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the spinel crystals in vanadium slags containing high CaO content. Experiments were performed in combination with theoretical calculation to address this issue, and statistical analyses based on the Crystal Size Distribution theory. The results indicate that low cooling rate and high CaO content benefit the growth of spinel crystals. The growth mechanism is revealed to be controlled by interface reactions and diffusion at the cooling rates of 5 K/min and 15 K/min, respectively. However, at higher temperatures (>1673 K), the growth of spinel crystals is controlled by nucleation. While the temperature is decreased to 1523 K at the cooling rate of 5 K/min, the mean diameter of spinel crystals could reach 36.44 μm. Experimental results combining with theoretical reveal that low cooling rate benefits spinels growth, especially for the interval of 1523 K-1200 K.

  19. Isothermal and non-isothermal kinetic models of chemical processes in foods governed by competing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Micha; Corradini, Maria G; Normand, Mark D

    2009-08-26

    A process or reaction that peaks at high temperatures but not at low ones indicates competition between synthesis and degradation. A proposed phenomenological model composed of a decay factor superimposed on a growth term can describe both. Temperature elevation shortens the two subprocesses' characteristic times and increases their rates. The degradation's characteristic time relative to the experiment's determines whether a peak is observed. All of the parameters determine the peak's height and shape as can be seen in two interactive Wolfram demonstrations on the Web. Detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is unnecessary for the model's construction, and uniqueness is not a prerequisite either. However, different expressions might be needed for ongoing processes and ones initially undetectable. The model's applicability is demonstrated with published results on very different reactions in foods. In principle, it can be converted into a dynamic rate equation for simulating a process's evolution under non-isothermal conditions.

  20. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  1. The density structure and star formation rate of non-isothermal polytropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federrath, Christoph; Banerjee, Supratik

    2015-04-01

    The interstellar medium of galaxies is governed by supersonic turbulence, which likely controls the star formation rate (SFR) and the initial mass function (IMF). Interstellar turbulence is non-universal, with a wide range of Mach numbers, magnetic fields strengths and driving mechanisms. Although some of these parameters were explored, most previous works assumed that the gas is isothermal. However, we know that cold molecular clouds form out of the warm atomic medium, with the gas passing through chemical and thermodynamic phases that are not isothermal. Here we determine the role of temperature variations by modelling non-isothermal turbulence with a polytropic equation of state (EOS), where pressure and temperature are functions of gas density, P˜ ρ ^Γ, T ˜ ρΓ - 1. We use grid resolutions of 20483 cells and compare polytropic exponents Γ = 0.7 (soft EOS), Γ = 1 (isothermal EOS) and Γ = 5/3 (stiff EOS). We find a complex network of non-isothermal filaments with more small-scale fragmentation occurring for Γ < 1, while Γ > 1 smoothes out density contrasts. The density probability distribution function (PDF) is significantly affected by temperature variations, with a power-law tail developing at low densities for Γ > 1. In contrast, the PDF becomes closer to a lognormal distribution for Γ ≲ 1. We derive and test a new density variance-Mach number relation that takes Γ into account. This new relation is relevant for theoretical models of the SFR and IMF, because it determines the dense gas mass fraction of a cloud, from which stars form. We derive the SFR as a function of Γ and find that it decreases by a factor of ˜5 from Γ = 0.7 to 5/3.

  2. Thermodynamic Model Formulations for Inhomogeneous Solids with Application to Non-isothermal Phase Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkov, Svyatoslav; Kochmann, Julian; Reese, Stefanie; Hütter, Markus; Svendsen, Bob

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current work is the comparison of thermodynamic model formulations for chemically and structurally inhomogeneous solids at finite deformation based on "standard" non-equilibrium thermodynamics [SNET: e. g. S. de Groot and P. Mazur, Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, North Holland, 1962] and the general equation for non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (GENERIC) [H. C. Öttinger, Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics, Wiley Interscience, 2005]. In the process, non-isothermal generalizations of standard isothermal conservative [e. g. J. W. Cahn and J. E. Hilliard, Free energy of a non-uniform system. I. Interfacial energy. J. Chem. Phys. 28 (1958), 258-267] and non-conservative [e. g. S. M. Allen and J. W. Cahn, A macroscopic theory for antiphase boundary motion and its application to antiphase domain coarsening. Acta Metall. 27 (1979), 1085-1095; A. G. Khachaturyan, Theory of Structural Transformations in Solids, Wiley, New York, 1983] diffuse interface or "phase-field" models [e. g. P. C. Hohenberg and B. I. Halperin, Theory of dynamic critical phenomena, Rev. Modern Phys. 49 (1977), 435-479; N. Provatas and K. Elder, Phase Field Methods in Material Science and Engineering, Wiley-VCH, 2010.] for solids are obtained. The current treatment is consistent with, and includes, previous works [e. g. O. Penrose and P. C. Fife, Thermodynamically consistent models of phase-field type for the kinetics of phase transitions, Phys. D 43 (1990), 44-62; O. Penrose and P. C. Fife, On the relation between the standard phase-field model and a "thermodynamically consistent" phase-field model. Phys. D 69 (1993), 107-113] on non-isothermal systems as a special case. In the context of no-flux boundary conditions, the SNET- and GENERIC-based approaches are shown to be completely consistent with each other and result in equivalent temperature evolution relations.

  3. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  4. Network-timing-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B.

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding. PMID:26106298

  5. Non-isothermal infiltration and tracer transport experiments on large soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotkova, Martina; Snehota, Michal; Cejkova, Eva; Tesar, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration experiments were carried out in the laboratory on large undisturbed soil columns (19 cm in diameter, 25 cm high) taken at the experimental catchments Roklan (Sumava Mountains, Czech Republic) and Uhlirska (Jizera Mountains, Czech republic). The aim of the study was twofold. The first goal was to obtain water flow and heat transport data for indirect parameter estimation of thermal and hydraulic properties of soils from two sites by inverse modelling. The second aim was to investigate the extent of impact of the temperature on saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and dispersity of solute transport. The temperature of infiltrating water in isothermal experiment (20 °C) was equal to the initial temperature of the sample. For non-isothermal experiment water temperature was 5°C, while the initial temperature of the sample was 20°C as in previous case. The experiment was started by flooding the sample surface. Then water level was maintained at constant level throughout the infiltration run using the optical sensor and peristaltic pump. Concentration pulse of deuterium was applied at the top of the soil sample, during the steady state flow. Initial pressure head in the sample was close to field capacity. Two tensiometers and two temperature sensors were inserted in the soil sample in two depths (9 and 15 cm below the top of the sample). Two additional temperature sensors monitored the temperature entering and leaving the samples. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of sample by gravity. Inflow and outflow water flux densities, water pressure heads and soil temperatures were monitored continuously during experiments. Effluent was sampled in regular time intervals and samples were analysed for deuterium concentrations by laser spectroscopy to develop breakthrough curves. The outcome of experiments are the series of measured water fluxes, pressure heads and temperatures ready for inverse modelling

  6. Rarefied gas flow in a rectangular enclosure induced by non-isothermal walls

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Manuel; Tatsios, Giorgos; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Stefanov, Stefan

    2014-05-15

    The flow of a rarefied gas in a rectangular enclosure due to the non-isothermal walls with no synergetic contributions from external force fields is investigated. The top and bottom walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and along the lateral walls a linear temperature profile is assumed. Modeling is based on the direct numerical solution of the Shakhov kinetic equation and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Solving the problem both deterministically and stochastically allows a systematic comparison and verification of the results as well as the exploitation of the numerical advantages of each approach in the investigation of the involved flow and heat transfer phenomena. The thermally induced flow is simulated in terms of three dimensionless parameters characterizing the problem, namely, the reference Knudsen number, the temperature ratio of the bottom over the top plates, and the enclosure aspect ratio. Their effect on the flow configuration and bulk quantities is thoroughly examined. Along the side walls, the gas flows at small Knudsen numbers from cold-to-hot, while as the Knudsen number is increased the gas flows from hot-to-cold and the thermally induced flow configuration becomes more complex. These flow patterns with the hot-to-cold flow to be extended to the whole length of the non-isothermal side walls may exist even at small temperature differences and then, they are enhanced as the temperature difference between the top and bottom plates is increased. The cavity aspect ratio also influences this flow configuration and the hot-to-cold flow is becoming more dominant as the depth compared to the width of the cavity is increased. To further analyze the flow patterns a novel solution decomposition into ballistic and collision parts is introduced. This is achieved by accordingly modifying the indexing process of the typical DSMC algorithm. The contribution of each part of the solution is separately examined and a physical

  7. Rarefied gas flow in a rectangular enclosure induced by non-isothermal walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Manuel; Tatsios, Giorgos; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Stefanov, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The flow of a rarefied gas in a rectangular enclosure due to the non-isothermal walls with no synergetic contributions from external force fields is investigated. The top and bottom walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and along the lateral walls a linear temperature profile is assumed. Modeling is based on the direct numerical solution of the Shakhov kinetic equation and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Solving the problem both deterministically and stochastically allows a systematic comparison and verification of the results as well as the exploitation of the numerical advantages of each approach in the investigation of the involved flow and heat transfer phenomena. The thermally induced flow is simulated in terms of three dimensionless parameters characterizing the problem, namely, the reference Knudsen number, the temperature ratio of the bottom over the top plates, and the enclosure aspect ratio. Their effect on the flow configuration and bulk quantities is thoroughly examined. Along the side walls, the gas flows at small Knudsen numbers from cold-to-hot, while as the Knudsen number is increased the gas flows from hot-to-cold and the thermally induced flow configuration becomes more complex. These flow patterns with the hot-to-cold flow to be extended to the whole length of the non-isothermal side walls may exist even at small temperature differences and then, they are enhanced as the temperature difference between the top and bottom plates is increased. The cavity aspect ratio also influences this flow configuration and the hot-to-cold flow is becoming more dominant as the depth compared to the width of the cavity is increased. To further analyze the flow patterns a novel solution decomposition into ballistic and collision parts is introduced. This is achieved by accordingly modifying the indexing process of the typical DSMC algorithm. The contribution of each part of the solution is separately examined and a physical

  8. Non-Isothermic Chemical Kinetics in the Undergraduate Laboratory: Arrhenius Parameters from Experiments with Hyperbolic Temperature Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a method which adapts itself to the characteristics of the kinetics of a chemical reaction in solution, enabling students to determine the Arrhenius parameters with satisfactory accuracy by means of a single non-isothermic experiment. Both activation energy and the preexponential factor values can be obtained by the method. (JN)

  9. Time-dependent seismic tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Of methods for measuring temporal changes in seismic-wave speeds in the Earth, seismic tomography is among those that offer the highest spatial resolution. 3-D tomographic methods are commonly applied in this context by inverting seismic wave arrival time data sets from different epochs independently and assuming that differences in the derived structures represent real temporal variations. This assumption is dangerous because the results of independent inversions would differ even if the structure in the Earth did not change, due to observational errors and differences in the seismic ray distributions. The latter effect may be especially severe when data sets include earthquake swarms or aftershock sequences, and may produce the appearance of correlation between structural changes and seismicity when the wave speeds are actually temporally invariant. A better approach, which makes it possible to assess what changes are truly required by the data, is to invert multiple data sets simultaneously, minimizing the difference between models for different epochs as well as the rms arrival-time residuals. This problem leads, in the case of two epochs, to a system of normal equations whose order is twice as great as for a single epoch. The direct solution of this system would require twice as much memory and four times as much computational effort as would independent inversions. We present an algorithm, tomo4d, that takes advantage of the structure and sparseness of the system to obtain the solution with essentially no more effort than independent inversions require. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.

  10. Electron temperature measurement in Maxwellian non-isothermal beam plasma of an ion thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zun; Tang, Haibin Kong, Mengdi; Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue

    2015-02-15

    Published electron temperature profiles of the beam plasma from ion thrusters reveal many divergences both in magnitude and radial variation. In order to know exactly the radial distributions of electron temperature and understand the beam plasma characteristics, we applied five different experimental approaches to measure the spatial profiles of electron temperature and compared the agreement and disagreement of the electron temperature profiles obtained from these techniques. Experimental results show that the triple Langmuir probe and adiabatic poly-tropic law methods could provide more accurate space-resolved electron temperature of the beam plasma than other techniques. Radial electron temperature profiles indicate that the electrons in the beam plasma are non-isothermal, which is supported by a radial decrease (∼2 eV) of electron temperature as the plume plasma expands outward. Therefore, the adiabatic “poly-tropic law” is more appropriate than the isothermal “barometric law” to be used in electron temperature calculations. Moreover, the calculation results show that the electron temperature profiles derived from the “poly-tropic law” are in better agreement with the experimental data when the specific heat ratio (γ) lies in the range of 1.2-1.4 instead of 5/3.

  11. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of ternary Se90Te10-xPbx glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyia, H. E.; Farid, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Ternary Se90Te10-xPbx with (x=2 and 6 at%) glass compositions have been prepared using a melt quenching technique and performed the non-isothermal kinetics by differential thermal analysis (DTA) at various heating rates. The glassy state of the studied samples has been characterized using x-ray diffraction analysis. The glass transition temperature Tg, the onset temperature of crystallization Tc and the peak temperature of crystallization Tp are found to be composition and heating rate dependent. From heating rate dependence of Tg and Tp, the glass transition activation energies Eg and the crystallization activation energies Ec have been determined according to different methods. The transformation mechanisms have been examined by the values of Avrami exponent n and dimensionality of growth m. Thermal stability and glass formation ability have been monitored through the calculation of the thermal stability S, temperature difference ΔT, Hurby parameter Hr, frequency factor Ko, crystallization rate factor K and fragility index F. The compositional dependence of the above-mentioned parameters indicate that, the stability of the studied glass samples decreases with increasing Pb at% content.

  12. Non-isothermal two-phase flow in low-permeable porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolditz, O.; De Jonge, J.

    In this paper, we consider non-isothermal two-phase flow of two components (air and water) in gaseous and liquid phases in extremely low-permeable porous media through the use of the finite element method (FEM). Interphase mass transfer of the components between any of the phases is evaluated by assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases. Heat transfer occurs by conduction and multiphase advection. General equations of state for phase changes (Clausius-Clapeyron and Henry law) as well as multiphase properties for the low-permeable bentonites are implemented in the code. Additionally we consider the impact of swelling/shrinking processes on porosity and permeability changes. The numerical model is implemented in the context of the simulator RockFlow/RockMech (RF/RM), which is based on object-oriented programming techniques. The finite element formulations are written in terms of dimensionless quantities. This has proved to be advantageous for preconditioning composite system matrices of coupled multi-field problems. Three application examples are presented. The first one examines differences between the Richards' approximation and the multicomponent/multiphase approach, and between two numerical coupling schemes. The second example serves as partial verification against experimental results and to demonstrate coherence between different element types. The last example shows simultaneous desaturation and resaturation in one system.

  13. Dust ion acoustic soliton in pair-ion plasmas with non-isothermal electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, A.; Nasir Khattak, M.; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Qamar, A.

    2012-04-01

    Dust ion acoustic (DIA) solitons in an unmagnetized pair-ion (PI) plasmas with adiabatic pair-ions, non-isothermal electrons, and negatively charged background dust are investigated, using both small and arbitrary amplitude techniques. An energy integral equation involving the Sagdeev potential is derived, and basic properties of the large amplitude solitary structures are investigated. The effects of dust concentration, resonant electrons, and ion temperatures on the profiles of the Sagdeev potential and corresponding solitary waves are studied. The related Schamel-Korteweg-de Vries (S-KdV) equation with mixed-nonlinearity is derived by expanding the Sagdeev potential. Asymptotic solutions for different orders of nonlinearity are discussed for DIA solitary waves. The present work is applicable to understand the wave phenomena and associated nonlinear electrostatic perturbations in the doped pair ion plasmas, not completely filtered e.g., pair ion-electron plasmas, enriched with an extra massive charged component (e.g., dust defects), which may be academic for the moment but might be of interest for forthcoming experiments in laboratory (space) plasmas.

  14. Non-isothermal molding technology research of ultra-precision glass lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Hongbin; Yu, Jiaxin; Zhou, Yingyue; Tao, Bo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to research a unique non-isothermal molding technology (NGMP) which is an attractive and creative manufacturing method of fabricating ultra-precision and high-quality glass components. It has numerous advantages such as high efficiency, low cost and being mass production of glass lenses in industry. This technology is an ultra precision manufacturing process and suitable for multi-scale precision glass lens, lens array and glass micro-structure. This technology overcomes the disadvantages of traditional grinding and polishing technology such as long time production cycle, profligacy of raw materials, single-piece production and difficulty to produce an aspherical lens or arrays. The characteristics of NGMP are studied by comparing with the traditional IGMP. Residual stresses inside the glass lenses are also studied by numerical simulation. Based on the experiments and simulations results, a new compression molding process is proposed. Once the glass lens is fabricated by compression molding, an annealing process can be used to reduce the residual stresses in the glass lens.

  15. A kinetic model for corrosion and precipitation in non-isothermal LBE flow loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, By Xiaoyi; Li, Ning; Mineev, Mark

    2001-08-01

    A kinetic model was developed to estimate the corrosion/precipitation rate in a non-isothermal liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) flow loop. The model was based on solving the mass transport equation with the assumptions that convective transport dominates in the longitudinal flow direction and diffusion dominates in the transverse direction. The species concentration at wall is assumed to be determined either by the solubility of species in LBE in the absence of oxygen or by the reduction reaction of the protective oxide film when active oxygen control is applied. Analyses show that the corrosion/precipitation rate depends on the flow velocity, the species diffusion rate, the oxygen concentration in LBE, as well as the temperature distribution along a loop. Active oxygen control can significantly reduce the corrosion/precipitation of the structural materials. It is shown that the highest corrosion/precipitation does not necessarily locate at places with the highest/lowest temperature. For a material testing loop being constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the highest corrosion occurs at the end of the heater zone, while the highest precipitation occurs in the return flow in the recuperator.

  16. An Inverse Method to Estimate Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Seepage Flow in Non-isothermal Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Tomoki; Takeuchi, Junichiro; Kawachi, Toshihiko; Fujihara, Masayuki

    An inverse method to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in seepage flow from field observations is presented. Considering the water movement in soil significantly affected by the soil temperature, the soil column of interest is assumed to be non-isothermal, and therefore the problem is based on coupled 1D water movement and thermal conduction equations. Since the saturated hydraulic conductivity could be definitely known, the inverse problem associated with the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is reduced to that of identifying the relative hydraulic conductivity (RHC) from the hydro-geological information available. For functional representation of RHC, the free-form parameterized function is employed in lieu of the conventional fixed-form function. Values of the parameters included in the functions are optimally determined according to a simulation-optimization algorithm. For easy application of the method, a utilitarian observation system with simple instrumentation is specially contrived which implements collection of the hydro-geological data relatively easily in-situ available. Validity of the method developed is examined through its practical application to a real soil column in an upland crop field. The results show that the water movement model provides the forward solutions of high reproducibility, when coupled with thermal conduction model and calibrated through identifying the RHC by use of a free-form function.

  17. A Non-linear Temperature-Time Program for Non-isothermal Kinetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Hong Yong

    2016-04-01

    A new temperature-time program for non-isothermal measurements of chemical reaction rates has been developed. The major advantages of the proposed temperature-time function are twofold: Firstly, the analysis of kinetic information in the high temperature range of the measurement is improved over the conventional linear temperature program by slowing the rate of temperature increase in the high temperature range and secondly, the new temperature program greatly facilitates the data analysis by providing a closed-form solution of the temperature integral and allows a convenient way to obtain the kinetic parameters by eliminating the need for the approximate evaluation of the temperature integral. The procedures for applying the new temperature-time program to the analysis of experimental data are demonstrated in terms of the determination of the kinetic parameters based on the selection of a suitable conversion function in the rate equation as well as the direct determination of activation energy at different conversion extents without the need for a conversion function. The rate analysis based on the new temperature program is robust and does not appear to be sensitive to errors in experimental measurements.

  18. Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media

    SciTech Connect

    Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.

  19. Non-isothermal oxidation of aluminum nanopowder coated by hydrocarbons and fluorohydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossi, A.; Duranti, E.; Paravan, C.; DeLuca, L. T.; Vorozhtsov, A. B.; Gromov, A. A.; Pautova, Yu. I.; Lerner, M. I.; Rodkevich, N. G.

    2013-04-01

    Aluminum nanopowder (nAl) obtained by electrical explosion of wires and passivated/coated with hydrocarbons and fluorohydrocarbons is comprehensively characterized. Coatings of different natures (octadecanoic and hexadecanoic acid, (1,1,11) trihydroperfluoro-undecan-1-ol, Fluorel™ + ester from esterification of (1,1,11) trihydroperfluoro-undecan-1-ol with furan-2,5-dione) were applied on the particle surface. The powders were studied by TEM, SEM, DSC-TGA, and BET specific surface area. The active aluminum content was determined by volumetric analyses. Coated nAl particles were compared to non-coated powder by the corresponding reactivity parameters obtained from DSC-TGA. It was found that while fatty acids have a weak effect on the non-isothermal oxidation behavior, fluoroelastomers shift the oxidation onset of nAl to higher temperatures by ˜20 °C for the first oxidation stage and by ˜100 °C for the second oxidation stage.

  20. Non-isothermal spherical Couette flow of Oldroyd-B fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, A. Abu-El; Zidan, M.; Moussa, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with non-isothermal spherical Couette flow of Oldroyd-B fluid in the annular region between two concentric spheres. The inner sphere rotates with a constant angular velocity while the outer sphere is kept at rest. The viscoelasticity of the fluid is assumed to dominate the inertia such that the latter can be neglected in the momentum and energy equations. An approximate analytical solution is obtained through the expansion of the dynamical variable fields in power series of Nahme number. Non-homogeneous, harmonic for axial- velocity and temperature equations and biharmonic for stream function equations, have been solved up to second order approximation. In comparison of the present work with isothermal case; [1,2], two additional terms; a first order velocity and a second order stream function are stem as a result of the interaction between the fluid viscoelasticity and temperature profile. These contributions prove to be the most important results for rheology in this work.

  1. A NON-ISOTHERMAL THEORY FOR INTERPRETING SODIUM LINES IN TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, Kevin; Lavie, Baptiste; Wyttenbach, Aurélien; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe; Sing, David K.

    2015-04-10

    We present a theory for interpreting the sodium lines detected in transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres. Previous analyses employed the isothermal approximation and dealt only with the transit radius. By recognizing the absorption depth and the transit radius as being independent observables, we develop a theory for jointly interpreting both quantities, which allows us to infer the temperatures and number densities associated with the sodium lines. We are able to treat a non-isothermal situation with a constant temperature gradient. Our novel diagnostics take the form of simple-to-use algebraic formulae and require measurements of the transit radii (and their corresponding absorption depths) at line center and in the line wing for both sodium lines. We apply our diagnostics to the HARPS data of HD 189733b, confirm the upper atmospheric heating reported by Huitson et al., derive a temperature gradient of 0.4376 ± 0.0154 K km{sup −1}, and find densities ∼1–10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}.

  2. Electron temperature measurement in Maxwellian non-isothermal beam plasma of an ion thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zun; Tang, Haibin; Kong, Mengdi; Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue

    2015-02-01

    Published electron temperature profiles of the beam plasma from ion thrusters reveal many divergences both in magnitude and radial variation. In order to know exactly the radial distributions of electron temperature and understand the beam plasma characteristics, we applied five different experimental approaches to measure the spatial profiles of electron temperature and compared the agreement and disagreement of the electron temperature profiles obtained from these techniques. Experimental results show that the triple Langmuir probe and adiabatic poly-tropic law methods could provide more accurate space-resolved electron temperature of the beam plasma than other techniques. Radial electron temperature profiles indicate that the electrons in the beam plasma are non-isothermal, which is supported by a radial decrease (˜2 eV) of electron temperature as the plume plasma expands outward. Therefore, the adiabatic "poly-tropic law" is more appropriate than the isothermal "barometric law" to be used in electron temperature calculations. Moreover, the calculation results show that the electron temperature profiles derived from the "poly-tropic law" are in better agreement with the experimental data when the specific heat ratio (γ) lies in the range of 1.2-1.4 instead of 5/3.

  3. Electron temperature measurement in Maxwellian non-isothermal beam plasma of an ion thruster.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zun; Tang, Haibin; Kong, Mengdi; Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue

    2015-02-01

    Published electron temperature profiles of the beam plasma from ion thrusters reveal many divergences both in magnitude and radial variation. In order to know exactly the radial distributions of electron temperature and understand the beam plasma characteristics, we applied five different experimental approaches to measure the spatial profiles of electron temperature and compared the agreement and disagreement of the electron temperature profiles obtained from these techniques. Experimental results show that the triple Langmuir probe and adiabatic poly-tropic law methods could provide more accurate space-resolved electron temperature of the beam plasma than other techniques. Radial electron temperature profiles indicate that the electrons in the beam plasma are non-isothermal, which is supported by a radial decrease (∼2 eV) of electron temperature as the plume plasma expands outward. Therefore, the adiabatic "poly-tropic law" is more appropriate than the isothermal "barometric law" to be used in electron temperature calculations. Moreover, the calculation results show that the electron temperature profiles derived from the "poly-tropic law" are in better agreement with the experimental data when the specific heat ratio (γ) lies in the range of 1.2-1.4 instead of 5/3. PMID:25725841

  4. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  5. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  6. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  7. Pyrolysis of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse: non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ounas, A; Aboulkas, A; El Harfi, K; Bacaoui, A; Yaacoubi, A

    2011-12-01

    Thermal degradation and kinetics for olive residue and sugar cane bagasse have been evaluated under dynamic conditions in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). The effect of heating rate was evaluated in the range of 2-50 K min(-1) providing significant parameters for the fingerprinting of the biomass. The DTG plot for the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse clearly shows that the bagasse begins to degrade at 473 K and exhibits two major peaks. The initial mass-loss was associated with hemicellulose pyrolysis and responsible for the first peak (538-543 K) whereas cellulose pyrolysis was initiated at higher temperatures and responsible for the second peak (600-607 K). The two biomass mainly devolatilized around 473-673 K, with total volatile yield of about 70-75%. The char in final residue was about 19-26%. Mass loss and mass loss rates were strongly affected by heating rate. It was found that an increase in heating rate resulted in a shift of thermograms to higher temperatures. Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were applied to determine apparent activation energy to the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse. Two different steps were detected with apparent activation energies in the 10-40% conversion range have a value of 153-162 kJ mol(-1) and 168-180 kJ mol(-1) for the hemicellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. In the 50-80% conversion range, this value is 204-215 kJ mol(-1) and 231-240 kJ mol(-1) for the cellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively.

  8. Glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a barium borosilicate glass by a non-isothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Soares, Roque S.; Lima, Maria M. A.; Monteiro, Regina C. C.

    2014-01-28

    The glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a glass with a molar composition 60BaO-30B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-10SiO{sub 2} were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions. DSC curves exhibited an endothermic peak associated with the glass transition and two partially overlapped exothermic peaks associated with the crystallization of the glass. The dependence of the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and of the maximum crystallization temperature (T{sub p}) on the heating rate was used to determine the activation energy associated with the glass transition (E{sub g}), the activation energy for crystallization (E{sub c}), and the Avrami exponent (n). X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that barium borate (β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was the first crystalline phase to be formed followed by the formation of barium silicate (Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 8}O{sub 21}). The variations of activation energy for crystallization and of Avrami exponent with the fraction of crystallization (χ) were also examined. When the crystallization fraction (χ) increased from 0.1 to 0.9, the value of local activation energy (E{sub c}(χ)) decreased from 554 to 458 kJ/mol for the first exothermic peak and from 1104 to 831 kJ/mol for the second exothermic peak. The value determined for the Avrami exponent was near 2 indicating a similar one-dimensional crystallization mechanism for both crystalline phases. This was confirmed by the morphological studies performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on glass samples heat-treated at the first and at the second crystallization temperatures.

  9. Non-isothermal kinetic analysis of thermal decomposition of the Ca-bentonite from Santai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-hui; He, Chuan; Wang, Ling; Li, Zhong-quan; Deng, Miao; Liu, Jing; Li, Hong-kui; Feng, Qian

    2015-06-01

    The thermal decompositions of Ca-bentonites (CaB) from Santai, Shichuan Province, China, over the temperature range of 30-1,100 °C were investigated by simultaneous thermal analyzer. Non-isothermal kinetic analysis was employed to study the thermal decomposition mechanism by using Netzsch Thermokinetics software. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Friedman isoconversional methods were used to calculate the activation energy and analyze the reaction steps. The probable mechanism and the corresponding kinetic parameters were determined by multivariate non-linear regression program. The results show that the thermal decomposition process of CaB over the temperature range of 30-800 °C is a kind of six-step, competitive reaction ( F 1 D 3 F n C 1E F n F n model). The dehydration reaction is controlled by two consecutive mechanisms, nucleation and growth, followed by a diffusion-controlled reaction ( F 1 D 3 model), the first step: E = 61.68 kJ mol-1, log A = 6.75 s-1; the second step: E = 50.73 kJ mol-1, log A = 3.11 s-1. The dehydroxylation reaction is controlled by three-step competitive mechanisms, an autocatalytically activated, initial reaction followed by n-order competitive reaction ( C 1E F n F n model), the first step: E = 124.74 kJ mol-1, log A = 5.67 s-1; the second step: E = 245.29 kJ mol-1, log A = 11.69 s-1; the third step : E = 261.73 kJ mol-1, log A = 11.23 s-1. A combination reaction of the dehydration and dehydroxylation is observed, and controlled by one n-order reaction ( F n model), E = 8.99 kJ mol-1, log A = -1.91 s-1.

  10. Weakly nonlinear stability analysis of non-isothermal Poiseuille flow in a vertical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manish K.; Bera, P.

    2015-06-01

    A weakly nonlinear stability theory in terms of Landau equation is developed to analyze the nonlinear saturation of stably stratified non-isothermal Poiseuille flow in a vertical channel. The results are presented with respect to fluids: mercury, gases, liquids, and heavy oils. The weakly nonlinear stability results predict only the supercritical instability, in agreement with the published result [Y. C. Chen and J. N. Chung, "A direct numerical simulation of K and H-type flow transition in heated vertical channel," Comput. Fluids 32, 795-822 (2003)] based on direct numerical simulation. Apart from this, the influence of nonlinear interaction among different superimposed waves on the heat transfer rate, real part of wavespeed, and friction coefficient on the wall is also investigated. A substantial enhancement (reduction) in heat transfer rate (friction coefficient) is found for liquids and heavy oils from the basic state beyond the critical Rayleigh number. The amplitude analysis indicates that the equilibrium amplitude decreases on increasing the value of Reynolds number. However, in the case of mercury, influence of nonlinear interaction on the variation of equilibrium amplitude, heat transfer rate, wavespeed, as well as friction coefficient is complex and subtle. The analysis of the nonlinear energy spectra for the disturbance also supports the supercritical instability at and beyond the critical point. Finally, the effect of superimposed waves on the pattern of secondary flow, based on linear stability theory, is also studied. It has been found that the impact of nonlinear interaction of waves on the pattern of secondary flow for mercury is weak compared to gases, which is the consequence of negligible modification in the buoyant production of disturbance kinetic energy of the mercury.

  11. Isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of PVA + ionic liquid [BDMIM][BF4]-based polymeric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroj, A. L.; Chaurasia, S. K.; Kataria, Shalu; Singh, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM][BF4], on crystallization behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been studied by isothermal and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry techniques. The PVA + IL based polymer electrolyte films have been prepared using solution casting technique. To describe the isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics, several kinetic equations have been employed on PVA + IL based films. There is strong dependence of the peak crystallization temperature (Tc), relative degree of crystallity (Xt), half-time of crystallization (t1/2), crystallization rate constants (Avrami Kt and Tobin AT), and Avrami (n) and Tobin (nT) exponents on the cooling rate and IL loading.

  12. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and characterization of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate-co-neopentyl glycol succinate) copolyesters.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Both biodegradable aliphatic neat poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-neopentyl glycol succinate) (P(BS-co-NPGS)) copolyesters with different 1,4-butanediol/neopentyl glycol ratios were synthesized through a two-step process of transesterification and polycondensation using stannous chloride and 4-Methylbenzenesulfonic acid as the co-catalysts. The structure, non-isothermal crystallization behavior, crystalline morphology and crystal structure of neat PBS and P(BS-co-NPGS) copolyesters were characterized by (1)H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscope (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), respectively. The Avrami equation modified by Jeziorny and Mo's method was employed to describe the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the neat PBS and its copolyesters. The modified Avrami equation could adequately describe the primary stage of non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the neat PBS and its copolyesters. Mo's method provided a fairly satisfactory description of the non-isothermal crystallization of neat PBS and its copolyesters. Interestingly, the values of 1/t1/2, Zc and F(T) obtained by the modified Avrami equation and Mo's method analysis indicated that the crystallization rate increased first and then decreased with an increase of NPGS content compared that of neat PBS, whereas the crystallization mechanism almost kept unchanged. The results of tensile testing showed that the ductility of PBS was largely improved by incorporating NPGS units. The elongation at break increased remarkably with increasing NPGS content. In particular, the sample with 20% NPGS content showed around 548% elongation at break.

  13. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  14. Pre-eruptive magmatic processes re-timed using a non-isothermal approach to magma chamber dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Chiara Maria; Bugatti, Giuseppe; Braschi, Eleonora; Tommasini, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Constraining the timescales of pre-eruptive magmatic processes in active volcanic systems is paramount to understand magma chamber dynamics and the triggers for volcanic eruptions. Temporal information of magmatic processes is locked within the chemical zoning profiles of crystals but can be accessed by means of elemental diffusion chronometry. Mineral compositional zoning testifies to the occurrence of substantial temperature differences within magma chambers, which often bias the estimated timescales in the case of multi-stage zoned minerals. Here we propose a new Non-Isothermal Diffusion Incremental Step model to take into account the non-isothermal nature of pre-eruptive processes, deconstructing the main core-rim diffusion profiles of multi-zoned crystals into different isothermal steps. The Non-Isothermal Diffusion Incremental Step model represents a significant improvement in the reconstruction of crystal lifetime histories. Unravelling stepwise timescales at contrasting temperatures provides a novel approach to constraining pre-eruptive magmatic processes and greatly increases our understanding of magma chamber dynamics.

  15. Material characterization and finite element simulations of aluminum alloy sheets during non-isothermal forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan

    The utilization of more non-ferrous materials is one of the key factors to succeed out of the constantly increasing demand for lightweight vehicles in automotive sector. Aluminum-magnesium alloys have been identified as the most promising substitutions to the conventional steel without significant compromise in structural stiffness and strength. However, the conventional forming methods to deform the aluminum alloy sheets are either costly or insufficient in formability which limit the wide applications of aluminum alloy sheets. A recently proposed non-isothermal hot stamping approach, which is also referred as Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) stamping, aims at fitting the commercial grade aluminum alloy sheets, such as AA5XXX and AA7XXX, into high-volume and cost-effective production for automotive sector. In essence, HB-CD is a mutation of the conventional hot stamping approach for boron steel (22MnB5) which deforms the hot blank within the cold tool set. By elevating the operation temperature, the formability of aluminum alloy sheets can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, heating the blank only and deforming within the cold tool sets allow to reduce the energy and time consumed. This research work aims at conducting a comprehensive investigation of HB-CD with particular focuses on material characterization, constitutive modeling and coupled thermo-mechanical finite element simulations with validation. The material properties of AA5182-O, a popular commercial grade of aluminum alloy sheet in automotive sector, are obtained through isothermal tensile testing at temperatures from 25° to 300°, covering a quasi-static strain-rate range (0.001--0.1s-1). As the state-of-the-art non-contact strain measurement technique, digital image correlation (DIC) system is utilized to evaluate the stress-strain curves as well as to reveal the details of material deformation with full-field and multi-axis strain measurement. Material anisotropy is characterized by extracting the

  16. Spectral methods for time dependent problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, Eitan

    1990-01-01

    Spectral approximations are reviewed for time dependent problems. Some basic ingredients from the spectral Fourier and Chebyshev approximations theory are discussed. A brief survey was made of hyperbolic and parabolic time dependent problems which are dealt with by both the energy method and the related Fourier analysis. The ideas presented above are combined in the study of accuracy stability and convergence of the spectral Fourier approximation to time dependent problems.

  17. Bohr Hamiltonian with time-dependent potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, L.; Hassanabadi, H.; Sobhani, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, Bohr Hamiltonian has been studied with the time-dependent potential. Using the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamical invariant method appropriate dynamical invariant for this Hamiltonian has been constructed and the exact time-dependent wave functions of such a system have been derived due to this dynamical invariant.

  18. Simulating Effects of Non-Isothermal Flow on Reactive Transport of Radionuclides Originating from an Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect

    Carle, S F; Zavarin, M; Shumaker, D E; Tompson, A B; Maxwell, R M; Pawloski, G A

    2006-03-06

    Temperature can significantly affect radionuclide transport behavior. In simulation of radionuclide transport originating from an underground nuclear test, temperature effects from residual test heat include non-isothermal groundwater flow behavior (e.g. convection cells), increased dissolution rates of melt glass containing refractory radionuclides, changes in water chemistry, and, in turn, changes in radionuclide sorption behavior. The low-yield (0.75 kiloton) Cambric underground nuclear test situated in alluvium below the water table offers unique perspectives on radionuclide transport in groundwater. The Cambric test was followed by extensive post-test characterization of the radionuclide source term and a 16-year pumping-induced radionuclide migration experiment that captured more mobile radionuclides in groundwater. Discharge of pumped groundwater caused inadvertent recirculation of radionuclides through a 220-m thick vadose zone to the water table and below, including partial re-capture in the pumping well. Non-isothermal flow simulations indicate test-related heat persists at Cambric for about 10 years and induces limited thermal convection of groundwater. The test heat has relatively little impact on mobilizing radionuclides compared to subsequent pumping effects. However, our reactive transport models indicate test-related heat can raise melt glass dissolution rates up to 10{sup 4} faster than at ambient temperatures depending on pH and species activities. Non-isothermal flow simulations indicate that these elevated glass dissolution rates largely decrease within 1 year. Thermally-induced increases in fluid velocity may also significantly increase rates of melt glass dissolution by changing the fluid chemistry in contact with the dissolving glass.

  19. Deterministic methods for time-dependent stochastic neutron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Randal S

    2009-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for solving the time-dependent survival probability equation in general (lD/2D/3D) geometries using the multi group SNmethod. Although this equation was first formulated by Bell in the early 1960's, it has only been applied to stationary systems (for other than idealized point models) until recently, and detailed descriptions of numerical solution techniques are lacking in the literature. This paper presents such a description and applies it to a dynamic system representative of a figurative criticality accident scenario.

  20. Time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyang

    1999-09-01

    I show that the angular distribution of electrons photoionized from gas phase targets by short light pulses is time-dependent, when the orbital momentum composition of the photocurrent changes with excitation energy so evolves with the time of detection. A theory of time- dependent photoionization is outlined and general formulas of time-dependent photoelectron flux and angular distribution are given. Two general propagator methods suitable to describe the time-dependent photoionization and scattering processes are developed. The photoionization process is viewed as a local excitation followed by a half scattering. The local excitation process is solved theoretically in a small region around the target core. This approach has been generalized to describe the evolution of a wavepacket in an unbound system. An asymptotic propagator theorem is discovered and used to derive analytic expressions for asymptotic propagators. The origin of the time dependence is explored by parameterizing the time delay and orbital momentum coupling in a two channel model. K-shell photoionization of N2 and CO are calculated with this time- dependent photoionization theory, implemented using a multiple scattering model. Numerical results demonstrate that the time dependence of photoelectron angular distributions is a realistic effect.

  1. A cellular automaton model of the steady-state free'' growth of a non-isothermal dendrite

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.G.R.; Williams, T.; Spittle, J.A. . Dept. of Materials Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    A 2D cellular automaton model has been developed to study the steady-state free'' growth of a non-isothermal dendrite. The model incorporates rules to account for heat diffusion, the influence of curvature on the equilibrium freezing temperature and latent heat evolution. The model predicts a V [proportional to] [Delta]T[sup b] growth rate-undercooling relationship for the various dendrite tip growth temperatures selected. The prediction of the values of b accords reasonably with analytical models and reported experimental observations.

  2. Numerical solution of an optimal control problem governed by three-phase non-isothermal flow equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temirbekov, Nurlan M.; Baigereyev, Dossan R.

    2016-08-01

    The paper focuses on the numerical implementation of a model optimal control problem governed by equations of three-phase non-isothermal flow in porous media. The objective is to achieve preassigned temperature distribution along the reservoir at a given time of development by controlling mass flow rate of heat transfer agent on the injection well. The problem of optimal control is formulated, the adjoint problem is presented, and an algorithm for the numerical solution is proposed. Results of computational experiments are presented for a test problem.

  3. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  4. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  5. Birefringence in time-dependent moving media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shirong; Zhang, Ruoyang; Zhai, Yanwang; Wei, Jianye; Zhao, Qing

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic wave propagation in one- and two-dimensional time-dependent moving media is investigated in this paper. We identify another origin of linear birefringence caused by the component of the flow perpendicular to the wave vector. Previously, birefringence is induced by applying external electric and magnetic fields to non-crystalline material. Here it is shown that the time-varying velocity field also contributes to such a phenomenon. Our results indicate that the parallel component, time-dependent or not, will not yield birefringence. Furthermore, the time-dependent flow also results in a frequency shift. One-dimensional simulation is conducted to demonstrate these effects.

  6. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  7. Topic 5: Time-Dependent Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Tanabe, Tada-aki

    1991-12-31

    This chapter is a report of the material presented at the International Workshop on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete, Session 4 -- Time Dependent Behavior, held at Columbia University, New York on June 3--6, 1991. Dr. P.A. Pfeiffer presented recent developments in time-dependent behavior of concrete and Professor T. Tanabe presented a review of research in Japan on time-dependent behavior of concrete. The chapter discusses the recent research of time-dependent behavior of concrete in the past few years in both the USA-European and Japanese communities. The author appreciates the valuable information provided by Zdenek P. Bazant in preparing the USA-European Research section.

  8. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  9. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  10. Time dependent breakdown in silicon dioxide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svensson, C.; Shumka, A.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted regarding the possible existence of a time-dependent breakdown mechanism in thermal oxides of the type used as gate oxide in MOS circuits. Questions of device fabrication are discussed along with details concerning breakdown measurements and the determination of C-V characteristics. A relatively large prebreakdown current observed in one of the cases is related to the time-dependent breakdown.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Isothermal and Non-isothermal Deep Drawing of IS 513 CR3 Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayavan, T.; Karthikeyan, L.; Senthilkumar, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    The present work aims to investigate the effects of the temperature gradient developed within the tool profiles on the formability of IS 513 CR3-grade steel sheets using the cup drawing test. The deformation characteristics of steel sheets were analyzed by comparing the thicknesses in various regions of the formed cup and also the limiting drawing ratios (LDR). Finite element simulations were carried out to predict the behavior of the steel sheets in isothermal and non-isothermal forming using Abaqus/Standard 6.12-1. An analytical model created by Kim was used to validate the experimental and finite element analysis (FEA) results on identical process parameters. Both the FEA and analytical modeling results showed that formability improvement is possible in warm forming; the findings are in good agreement with the experimental results in determining the locations and values of excessive thinning. The results also indicated that formability improvement cannot be achieved by keeping the tooling temperature at the same level. The LDR increased by around 9.5% in isothermal forming and by 19% in non-isothermal forming (with the punch maintained at a lower temperature compared with the die and blank holder). In addition, the fractured surfaces of unsuccessfully formed samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Metallographic investigations confirmed that the fracture mechanism during the forming of IS 513 CR3-grade steel sheets depends on the brittleness, strain hardening value, forming temperature, and magnitude of stresses developed.

  12. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  13. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  14. Time dependence of adiabatic particle number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Robert; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2016-09-01

    We consider quantum field theoretic systems subject to a time-dependent perturbation, and discuss the question of defining a time-dependent particle number not just at asymptotic early and late times, but also during the perturbation. Naïvely, this is not a well-defined notion for such a nonequilibrium process, as the particle number at intermediate times depends on a basis choice of reference states with respect to which particles and antiparticles are defined, even though the final late-time particle number is independent of this basis choice. The basis choice is associated with a particular truncation of the adiabatic expansion. The adiabatic expansion is divergent, and we show that if this divergent expansion is truncated at its optimal order, a universal time dependence is obtained, confirming a general result of Dingle and Berry. This optimally truncated particle number provides a clear picture of quantum interference effects for perturbations with nontrivial temporal substructure. We illustrate these results using several equivalent definitions of adiabatic particle number: the Bogoliubov, Riccati, spectral function and Schrödinger picture approaches. In each approach, the particle number may be expressed in terms of the tiny deviations between the exact and adiabatic solutions of the Ermakov-Milne equation for the associated time-dependent oscillators.

  15. Crystallisation kinetics of some archetypal ionic liquids: isothermal and non-isothermal determination of the Avrami exponent.

    PubMed

    Pas, Steven J; Dargusch, Matthew S; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2011-07-01

    The properties of ionic liquids give rise to applications in diverse technology areas including mechanical engineering, mining, aerospace and defence. The arbitrary physical property that defines an ionic liquid is a melting point below 100 °C, and as such, an understanding of crystallisation phenomena is extremely important. This is the first report dealing with the mechanism of crystallisation in ionic liquids. Assuming crystallisation of the ionic liquids is a thermal or mass diffusion-controlled process, the values of the isothermal Avrami exponent obtained from three different ionic liquids with three different anions and cations all indicate that growth occurs with a decreasing nucleation rate (n=1.8-2.2). For one of the ionic liquids it was possible to avoid crystallisation by fast cooling and then observe a devitrification upon heating through the glass transition. The isothermal Avrami exponent of devitrification suggested growth with an increasing nucleating rate (n=4.1), compared to a decreasing nucleation rate when crystallisation occurs on cooling from the melt (n=2.0). Two non-isothermal methods were employed to determine the Avrami exponent of devitrification. Both non-isothermal Avrami exponents were in agreement with the isothermal case (n=4.0-4.15). The applicability of JMAK theory suggests that the nucleation event in the ionic liquids selected is a random stochastic process in the volume of the material. Agreement between the isothermal and non-isothermal techniques for determining the Avrami exponent of devitrification suggests that the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy are independent of thermal history. The heating rate dependence of the glass transition enabled the calculation of the fragility index, which suggests that the ionic liquid is a "strong" glass former. This suggests that the temperature dependence of the rate constant could be close to Arrhenius, as assumed by JMAK theory. More generally, therefore, it can be

  16. Time-dependent corona models - Scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korevaar, P.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1989-01-01

    Scaling laws are derived for the one-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations that describe the evolution of a spherically symmetric stellar atmosphere. With these scaling laws the results of the time-dependent calculations by Korevaar (1989) obtained for one star are applicable over the whole Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and even to elliptic galaxies. The scaling is exact for stars with the same M/R-ratio and a good approximation for stars with a different M/R-ratio. The global relaxation oscillation found by Korevaar (1989) is scaled to main sequence stars, a solar coronal hole, cool giants and elliptic galaxies.

  17. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  18. Time-Dependent Molecular Reaction Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrn, Yngve

    2007-11-01

    This paper is a brief review of a time-dependent, direct, nonadiabatic theory of molecular processes called Electron Nuclear Dynamics (END). This approach to the study of molecular reaction dynamics is a hierarchical theory that can be applied at various levels of approximation. The simplest level of END uses classical nuclei and represents all electrons by a single, complex, determinantal wave function. The wave function parameters such as average nuclear positions and momenta, and molecular orbital coefcients carry the time dependence and serve as dynamical variables. Examples of application are given of the simplest level of END to ion-atom and ion-molecule reactions.

  19. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  20. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  1. Production and purification of xylooligosaccharides from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre by a non-isothermal process.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ai Ling; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C; Roseiro, Luísa B; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Rastall, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) fibre, a by-product generated from non-woody, tropical perennial oil palm crop was evaluated for xylooligosaccharides (XOS) production. Samples of OPEFB fibre were subjected to non-isothermal autohydrolysis treatment using a temperature range from 150 to 220 °C. The highest XOS concentration, 17.6g/L which relayed from solubilisation of 63 g/100 g xylan was achieved at 210 °C and there was a minimum amount of xylose and furfural being produced. The chromatographic purification which was undertaken to purify the oligosaccharide-rich liquor resulted in a product with 74-78% purity, of which 83-85% was XOS with degree of polymerisation (DP) between 5 and 40.

  2. Production and purification of xylooligosaccharides from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre by a non-isothermal process.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ai Ling; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C; Roseiro, Luísa B; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Rastall, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) fibre, a by-product generated from non-woody, tropical perennial oil palm crop was evaluated for xylooligosaccharides (XOS) production. Samples of OPEFB fibre were subjected to non-isothermal autohydrolysis treatment using a temperature range from 150 to 220 °C. The highest XOS concentration, 17.6g/L which relayed from solubilisation of 63 g/100 g xylan was achieved at 210 °C and there was a minimum amount of xylose and furfural being produced. The chromatographic purification which was undertaken to purify the oligosaccharide-rich liquor resulted in a product with 74-78% purity, of which 83-85% was XOS with degree of polymerisation (DP) between 5 and 40. PMID:24275261

  3. Prediction of as-cast grain size of inoculated aluminum alloys melt solidified under non-isothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qiang; Li, Yanjun

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a multi-scale as-cast grain size prediction model is proposed to predict as-cast grain size of inoculated aluminum alloys melt solidified under non-isothermal condition, i.e., the existence of temperature gradient. Given melt composition, inoculation and heat extraction boundary conditions, the model is able to predict maximum nucleation undercooling, cooling curve, primary phase solidification path and final as-cast grain size of binary alloys. The proposed model has been applied to two Al-Mg alloys, and comparison with laboratory and industrial solidification experimental results have been carried out. The preliminary conclusion is that the proposed model is a promising suitable microscopic model used within the multi-scale casting simulation modelling framework.

  4. Withdrawal and drainage of thin film flow of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid on non-isothermal cylindrical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Saif; Ullah, Arshad; Iqbal, Mohsan

    2015-12-01

    This investigation deals with analytical solutions of thin film flow for withdrawal and drainage of an incompressible generalized Oldroyd-B fluid on a vertical cylinder under the influence of non-isothermal effects. The derived solutions are presented under series form for velocity profile, temperature distribution, volume flux, average film velocity and shear stress in both cases. These solutions satisfy both the governing equations and all imposed initial and boundary conditions. The corresponding exact solutions for Newtonian fluid are also obtained as a special case of our derived solutions. Moreover, solutions for generalized Maxwell fluid and Power Law model, performing the same motion, can be obtained as limiting cases of our general solutions. The influence of pertinent parameters on the fluid motion is also underlined by graphical illustration.

  5. Time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the inner heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J. G.; Lario, D.; Arge, C. N.; Henney, C. J.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results from a simulation study exploring heliospheric consequences of time-dependent changes at the Sun. We selected a 2 month period in the beginning of year 2008 that was characterized by very low solar activity. The heliosphere in the equatorial region was dominated by two coronal holes whose changing structure created temporal variations distorting the classical steady state picture of the heliosphere. We used the Air Force Data Assimilate Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model to obtain daily updated photospheric magnetograms and drive the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model of the corona. This leads to a formulation of a time-dependent boundary condition for our three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, LFM-helio, which is the heliospheric adaptation of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry MHD simulation code. The time-dependent coronal conditions were propagated throughout the inner heliosphere, and the simulation results were compared with the spacecraft located near 1 astronomical unit (AU) heliocentric distance: Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO-A and STEREO-B), and the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft that was in cruise phase measuring the heliospheric magnetic field between 0.35 and 0.6 AU. In addition, during the selected interval MESSENGER and ACE aligned radially allowing minimization of the effects of temporal variation at the Sun versus radial evolution of structures. Our simulations show that time-dependent simulationsreproduce the gross-scale structure of the heliosphere with higher fidelity, while on smaller spatial and faster time scales (e.g., 1 day) they provide important insights for interpretation of the data. The simulations suggest that moving boundaries of slow-fast wind transitions at 0.1 AU may result in the formation of inverted magnetic fields near pseudostreamers which is an intrinsically time-dependent process

  6. Singular boundary method using time-dependent fundamental solution for scalar wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Li, Junpu; Fu, Zhuojia

    2016-11-01

    This study makes the first attempt to extend the meshless boundary-discretization singular boundary method (SBM) with time-dependent fundamental solution to two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar wave equation upon Dirichlet boundary condition. The two empirical formulas are also proposed to determine the source intensity factors. In 2D problems, the fundamental solution integrating along with time is applied. In 3D problems, a time-successive evaluation approach without complicated mathematical transform is proposed. Numerical investigations show that the present SBM methodology produces the accurate results for 2D and 3D time-dependent wave problems with varied velocities c and wave numbers k.

  7. Singular boundary method using time-dependent fundamental solution for scalar wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Li, Junpu; Fu, Zhuojia

    2016-07-01

    This study makes the first attempt to extend the meshless boundary-discretization singular boundary method (SBM) with time-dependent fundamental solution to two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar wave equation upon Dirichlet boundary condition. The two empirical formulas are also proposed to determine the source intensity factors. In 2D problems, the fundamental solution integrating along with time is applied. In 3D problems, a time-successive evaluation approach without complicated mathematical transform is proposed. Numerical investigations show that the present SBM methodology produces the accurate results for 2D and 3D time-dependent wave problems with varied velocities c and wave numbers k.

  8. Wave function for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2013-09-21

    The many-body wave function of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential. PMID:24070284

  9. Morphology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized by solvo-thermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Majeed Khan, M.A.; Kumar, Sushil; Alsalhi, M.S.; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhoshan, Mansour; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Ahamad, Tansir

    2012-03-15

    Nanocrystals of copper indium disulphide (CuInS{sub 2}) were synthesized by a solvo-thermal method. The structure, morphology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetic behavior of samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. Non-isothermal measurements at different heating rates were carried out and the crystallization kinetics of samples were analyzed using the most reliable non-isothermal kinetic methods. The kinetic parameters such as glass transition temperature, thermal stability, activation energy, Avrami exponent etc. were evaluated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals have scientific and technological importance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples have been prepared by solvo-thermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesized samples exhibit excellent morphology and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of solar cell devices.

  10. Time-dependent species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Fox, David R; Billoir, Elise

    2013-02-01

    Time is a central component of toxicity assessments. However, current ecotoxicological practice marginalizes time in concentration-response (C-R) modeling and species sensitivity distribution (SSD) analyses. For C-R models, time is invariably fixed, and toxicity measures are estimated from a function fitted to the data at that time. The estimated toxicity measures are used as inputs to the SSD modeling phase, which similarly avoids explicit recognition of the temporal component. The present study extends some commonly employed probability models for SSDs to derive theoretical results that characterize the time-dependent nature of hazardous concentration (HCx) values. The authors' results show that even from very simple assumptions, more complex patterns in the SSD time dependency can be revealed.

  11. Time-Dependent Erosion of Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E.; Anderson, John R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.

    2008-01-01

    The accurate prediction of thruster life requires time-dependent erosion estimates for the ion optics assembly. Such information is critical to end-of-life mechanisms such as electron backstreaming. CEX2D was recently modified to handle time-dependent erosion, double ions, and multiple throttle conditions in a single run. The modified code is called "CEX2D-t". Comparisons of CEX2D-t results with LDT and ELT post-tests results show good agreement for both screen and accel grid erosion including important erosion features such as chamfering of the downstream end of the accel grid and reduced rate of accel grid aperture enlargement with time.

  12. Landauer Approach to Time-Dependent Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. Y.; Nash, P. L.

    Based upon the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, we present a time-dependent Landauer approach to transport through a mesoscopic system under an ac bias voltage. The system is modeled as an elastic scatterer coupled to large electron reservoirs through perfect conducting wires (leads). The chemical potentials of the reservoirs are driven apart by the bias and, consequently, current flows through the leads from one reservoir to another. We examine the nonequilibrium statistical processes of electrons in the leads. The electronic waves are quantized on the basis of orthonormal wave packets moving along the leads, scattered by the scatterer, and coupled to the reservoirs. The time for an electron to traverse the leads between the source and the drain reservoirs plus the phase delay time caused by the scatterer is found to be the relevant time scale in the time-dependent transport. The frequency dependence of the admittance is fully investigated.

  13. Transformation of time dependence to linear algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menšík, Miroslav

    2005-10-01

    Reduced density matrix and memory function in the Nakajima-Zwanzig equation are expanded in properly chosen basis of special functions. This trick completely transforms time dependence to linear algebra. Then, the master equation for memory function is constructed and expanded in the same basis functions. For the model of a simple harmonic oscillator it is shown that this trick introduces infinite partial summation of the memory function in the system-bath interaction.

  14. Time-dependent oral absorption models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.

  15. Time-dependent nucleation in partitioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kelton, K.F.; Narayan, K.L.

    1998-12-31

    Nucleation in multi-component systems is poorly understood, particularly when the rates of long-range diffusion are comparable with the rates of attachment at the cluster interface. For illustration, measurements of the time-dependent nucleation rates in silicate and metallic glasses are discussed. A new model for nucleation in partitioning systems, which explains many of devitrification microstructural features in bulk metallic glasses, is presented.

  16. Time-dependent projected Hartree-Fock

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-03-28

    Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) has recently emerged as an alternative approach to describing degenerate systems where static correlation is abundant, when the spin-symmetry is projected. Here, we derive a set of linearized time-dependent equations for PHF in order to be able to access excited states. The close connection of such linear-response time-dependent PHF (TDPHF) to the stability condition of a PHF wave function is discussed. Expanding this analysis also makes it possible to give analytical expressions for the projected coupling terms of Hamiltonian and overlaps between excited Slater determinants. TDPHF with spin-projection (TDSUHF) and its Tamm-Dancoff approximation are benchmarked for several electronically degenerate molecules including the dissociating H{sub 2}, F{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at equilibrium, and the distorted ethylene. It is shown that they give consistently better descriptions of excited states than does time-dependent HF (TDHF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that they offer not only singly but also doubly excited states, which naturally arise upon spin-projection. We also address the thermodynamic limit of TDSUHF, using non-interacting He gas. While TDPHF singly excited states tend to converge to those of HF with the size of the system due to the lack of size-extensivity of PHF, doubly excited states remain reasonable even at the thermodynamic limit. We find that the overall performance of our method is systematically better than the regular TDHF in many cases at the same computational scaling.

  17. Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, Chi Yung; Chen, GuanHua

    2013-04-28

    A dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory is developed to treat the transient current through molecular or nanoscopic devices in presence of electron-phonon interaction. The dissipation via phonon is taken into account by introducing a self-energy for the electron-phonon coupling in addition to the self-energy caused by the electrodes. Based on this, a numerical method is proposed. For practical implementation, the lowest order expansion is employed for the weak electron-phonon coupling case and the wide-band limit approximation is adopted for device and electrodes coupling. The corresponding hierarchical equation of motion is derived, which leads to an efficient and accurate time-dependent treatment of inelastic effect on transport for the weak electron-phonon interaction. The resulting method is applied to a one-level model system and a gold wire described by tight-binding model to demonstrate its validity and the importance of electron-phonon interaction for the quantum transport. As it is based on the effective single-electron model, the method can be readily extended to time-dependent density functional theory.

  18. Time Dependent Behavior in the Weissenberg Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, Michael M.; Andereck, C. David

    1997-03-01

    The Weissenberg effect is the climb of a non-Newtonian fluid up a rotating rod. We have found novel transitional effects in the behavior of a particular climbing fluid, STP(STP Oil Treatment distributed by First Brands Corporation.). The first state is a time-independent axisymmetric concave climb. As the rotation rate of the rod is increased, the first transition is to an axisymmetric climb with an ``onion dome'' shape. At higher rotation rates, the flow undergoes a symmetry breaking bifurcation to a time-dependent state. This time-dependent state exhibits an oscillation with a single frequency. Upon further increase of the rod rotation rate, the oscillation becomes modulated by a second frequency. The nature of each transition will be characterized, including the measurement of oscillation amplitudes and the frequency (or frequencies) of the time dependent states. These results will be compared with previous work.(G.S. Beavers, D.D. Joseph, J. Fluid Mech. 69), 475 (1975).(D.D. Joseph, R.L. Fosdick, Arch. Rational Mech. 49), 321 (1973).

  19. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  1. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  2. Time-dependent tomographic reconstruction of the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vibert, D.; Peillon, C.; Lamy, P.; Frazin, R. A.; Wojak, J.

    2016-10-01

    Solar rotational tomography (SRT) applied to white-light coronal images observed at multiple aspect angles has been the preferred approach for determining the three-dimensional (3D) electron density structure of the solar corona. However, it is seriously hampered by the restrictive assumption that the corona is time-invariant which introduces significant errors in the reconstruction. We first explore several methods to mitigate the temporal variation of the corona by decoupling the "fast-varying" inner corona from the "slow-moving" outer corona using multiple masking (either by juxtaposition or recursive combination) and radial weighting. Weighting with a radial exponential profile provides some improvement over a classical reconstruction but only beyond ≈ 3R⊙. We next consider a full time-dependent tomographic reconstruction involving spatio-temporal regularization and further introduce a co-rotating regularization aimed at preventing concentration of reconstructed density in the plane of the sky. Crucial to testing our procedure and properly tuning the regularization parameters is the introduction of a time-dependent MHD model of the corona based on observed magnetograms to build a time-series of synthetic images of the corona. Our procedure, which successfully reproduces the time-varying model corona, is finally applied to a set of 53 LASCO-C2 pB images roughly evenly spaced in time from 15 to 29 March 2009. Our procedure paves the way to a time-dependent tomographic reconstruction of the coronal electron density to the whole set of LASCO-C2 images presently spanning 20 years.

  3. Time-dependent Dyson orbital theory.

    PubMed

    Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2016-08-21

    Although time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has become the tool of choice for real-time propagation of the electron density ρ(N)(t) of N-electron systems, it also encounters problems in this application. The first problem is the neglect of memory effects stemming from the, in TDDFT virtually unavoidable, adiabatic approximation, the second problem is the reliable evaluation of the probabilities P(n)(t) of multiple photoinduced ionization, while the third problem (which TDDFT shares with other approaches) is the reliable description of continuum states of the electrons ejected in the process of ionization. In this paper time-dependent Dyson orbital theory (TDDOT) is proposed. Exact TDDOT equations of motion (EOMs) for time-dependent Dyson orbitals are derived, which are linear differential equations with just static, feasible potentials of the electron-electron interaction. No adiabatic approximation is used, which formally resolves the first TDDFT problem. TDDOT offers formally exact expressions for the complete evolution in time of the wavefunction of the outgoing electron. This leads to the correlated probability of single ionization P(1)(t) as well as the probabilities of no ionization (P(0)(t)) and multiple ionization of n electrons, P(n)(t), which formally solves the second problem of TDDFT. For two-electron systems a proper description of the required continuum states appears to be rather straightforward, and both P(1)(t) and P(2)(t) can be calculated. Because of the exact formulation, TDDOT is expected to reproduce a notorious memory effect, the "knee structure" of the non-sequential double ionization of the He atom. PMID:26987972

  4. Pulsar Electrodynamics: a Time-dependent View

    SciTech Connect

    Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-04-10

    Pulsar spindown forms a reliable yet enigmatic prototype for the energy loss processes in many astrophysical objects including accretion disks and back holes. In this paper we review the physics of pulsar magnetospheres, concentrating on recent developments in force-free modeling of the magnetospheric structure. In particular, we discuss a new method for solving the equations of time-dependent force-free relativistic MHD in application to pulsars. This method allows to dynamically study the formation of the magnetosphere and its response to perturbations, opening a qualitatively new window on pulsar phenomena. Applications of the method to other magnetized rotators, such as magnetars and accretion disks, are also discussed.

  5. The time-dependent Gutzwiller approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizio, Michele

    2015-03-01

    The time-dependent Gutzwiller Approximation (t-GA) is shown to be capable of tracking the off-equilibrium evolution both of coherent quasiparticles and of incoherent Hubbard bands. The method is used to demonstrate that the sharp dynamical crossover observed by time-dependent DMFT in the quench-dynamics of a half-filled Hubbard model can be identified within the t-GA as a genuine dynamical transition separating two distinct physical phases. This result, strictly variational for lattices of infinite coordination number, is intriguing as it actually questions the occurrence of thermalization. Next, we shall present how t-GA works in a multi-band model for V2O3 that displays a first-order Mott transition. We shall show that a physically accessible excitation pathway is able to collapse the Mott gap down and drive off-equilibrium the insulator into a metastable metal phase. Work supported by the European Union, Seventh Framework Programme, under the project GO FAST, Grant Agreement No. 280555.

  6. TOUGHREACT Version 2.0: A simulator for subsurface reactive transport under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianfu; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Zhang, Guoxiang; Zheng, Liange; Pruess, Karsten

    2011-06-01

    TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media, and was developed by introducing reactive chemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2 V2. The first version of TOUGHREACT was released to the public through the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC) in August 2004. It is among the most frequently requested of ESTSC's codes. The code has been widely used for studies in CO 2 geological sequestration, nuclear waste isolation, geothermal energy development, environmental remediation, and increasingly for petroleum applications. Over the past several years, many new capabilities have been developed, which were incorporated into Version 2 of TOUGHREACT. Major additions and improvements in Version 2 are discussed here, and two application examples are presented: (1) long-term fate of injected CO 2 in a storage reservoir and (2) biogeochemical cycling of metals in mining-impacted lake sediments.

  7. Rapid analytical assessment of the mechanical perturbations induced by non-isothermal injection into a subsurface formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesús; María Gómez Castro, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Fluid injection into geological formations is required for several engineering operations, e.g. geothermal energy production, hydrocarbon production and storage, CO2 storage, wastewater disposal, etc. Non-isothermal fluid injection causes alterations of the pressure and temperature fields, which affect the mechanical stability of the reservoir. This coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior has become a matter of special interest because of public concern about induced seismicity. The response is complex and its evaluation often requires numerical modeling. Nevertheless, analytical solutions are useful in improving our understanding of interactions, identifying the controlling parameters, testing codes and in providing a rapid assessment of the system response to an alteration. We present an easy-to-use solution to the transient advection-conduction heat transfer problem for parallel and radial flow. The solution is then applied to derive analytical expressions for hydraulic and thermal driven displacements and stresses. The validity is verified by comparison with numerical simulations and yields fairly accurate results. The solution is then used to illustrate some features of the poroelastic and thermoelastic response and, in particular, the sensitivity to the external mechanical constraints and to the reservoir dimension.

  8. Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: A comparison of Richards' and two-phase flow approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Rutqvist, J.; Gorke, U.-J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Kolditz, O.

    2010-03-15

    The present work compares the performance of two alternative flow models for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic coupled processes in low permeable porous media: non-isothermal Richards and two-phase flow concepts. Both models take vaporization processes into account: however, the Richards model neglects dynamic pressure variations and bulk flow of the gaseous phase. For the comparison of the two approaches first published data from a laboratory experiment is studied involving thermally driven moisture flow in a partially saturated bentonite sample. Then a benchmark test of longer-term thermal-hydraulic behavior in the engineered barrier system of a geological nuclear waste repository is analyzed (DECOVALEX project). It was found that both models can be used to reproduce the vaporization process if the intrinsic permeability is relative high. However, when a thermal-hydraulic coupled problem has the same low intrinsic permeability for both the liquid and the gas phase, only the two-phase flow approach provides reasonable results.

  9. TOUGHREACT Version 2.0: A simulator for subsurface reactive transport under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Sonnenthal, E.; Zhang, G.; Zheng, L.; Pruess, K.

    2010-08-01

    TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media, and was developed by introducing reactive chemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2 V2. The first version of TOUGHREACT was released to the public through the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC) in August 2004. It is among the most frequently requested of ESTSC's codes. The code has been widely used for studies in CO{sub 2} geological sequestration, nuclear waste isolation, geothermal energy development, environmental remediation, and increasingly for petroleum applications. Over the past several years, many new capabilities have been developed, which were incorporated into Version 2 of TOUGHREACT. Major additions and improvements in Version 2 are discussed here, and two application examples are presented: (1) long-term fate of injected CO{sub 2} in a storage reservoir and (2) biogeochemical cycling of metals in mining-impacted lake sediments.

  10. TOURGHREACT: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal MultiphaseReactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated GeologicMedia

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-12-07

    TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The program was written in Fortran 77 and developed by introducing reactive geochemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2. A variety of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under a wide range of conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, ionic strength, and pH and Eh. Interactions between mineral assemblages and fluids can occur under local equilibrium or kinetic rates. The gas phase can be chemically active. Precipitation and dissolution reactions can change formation porosity and permeability. The program can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. Here we present two examples to illustrate applicability of the program: (1) injectivity effects of mineral scaling in a fractured geothermal reservoir and (2) CO2 disposal in a deep saline aquifer.

  11. The deformation and acoustic emission of aluminum-magnesium alloy under non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, S. V.; Plotnikov, V. A. Lysikov, M. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-10-27

    The following study investigates the deformation behavior and acoustic emission in aluminum-magnesium alloy under conditions of non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading. The accumulation of deformation in the alloy, in conditions of change from room temperature to 500°C, occurs in two temperature intervals (I, II), characterized by different rates of deformation. The rate of deformation accumulation is correlated with acoustic emission. With load increasing in cycles from 40 to 200 MPa, the value of the boundary temperature (T{sub b}) between intervals I and II changes non-monotonically. In cycles with load up to 90 MPa, the T{sub b} value increases, while an increase up to 200 MPa makes T{sub b} shift toward lower temperatures. This suggests that the shift of boundaries in the region of low temperatures and the appearance of high-amplitude pulses of acoustic emission characterize the decrease of the magnitude of thermal fluctuations with increasing mechanical load, leading to the rupture of interatomic bonds in an elementary deformation act.

  12. Compositionally Graded Thermal Barrier Coating by Hybrid Thermal Spraying Route and its Non-isothermal Oxidation Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Subhasisa; Manna, Indranil; Dutta Majumdar, Jyotsna

    2013-08-01

    The present study concerns a detailed investigation of the characteristics and oxidation resistance property of a duplex and compositionally graded thermal barrier coating on Inconel 718. The duplex coating consists of a CoNiCrAlY bond coat layer sprayed on to sand-blasted Inconel 718 substrate (by high velocity oxy-fuel spraying) followed by deposition of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat by plasma spraying. The compositionally graded coating consists of several layers deposited by plasma spraying of pre-mixed CoNiCrAlY and YSZ powders in the weight ratios of 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100 varying from the bond coat to the top surface, respectively. A detailed investigation of the microstructure, composition, and phases in the coating and its non-isothermal oxidation behavior from room temperature to 1250°C was performed. Oxidation proceeds by three stages in the as-received Inconel 718 and the compositionally graded coating, but by two stages in the duplex coating with a maximum activation energy for oxidation in the compositionally graded coating at high temperature (stage III). The kinetics and mechanism of oxidation were established.

  13. Time Dependent Simulation of Turbopump Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Williams, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to enhance incompressible flow simulation capability for developing aerospace vehicle components, especially unsteady flow phenomena associated with high speed turbo pumps. Unsteady Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)-rig1 1 1/2 rotations are completed for the 34.3 million grid points model. The moving boundary capability is obtained by using the DCF module. MLP shared memory parallelism has been implemented and benchmarked in INS3D. The scripting capability from CAD geometry to solution is developed. Data compression is applied to reduce data size in post processing and fluid/structure coupling is initiated.

  14. Time-Dependent Simulations of Turbopump Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Unsteady flow simulations for RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) 2nd Generation baseline turbopump for one and half impeller rotations have been completed by using a 34.3 Million grid points model. MLP (Multi-Level Parallelism) shared memory parallelism has been implemented in INS3D, and benchmarked. Code optimization for cash based platforms will be completed by the end of September 2001. Moving boundary capability is obtained by using DCF module. Scripting capability from CAD (computer aided design) geometry to solution has been developed. Data compression is applied to reduce data size in post processing. Fluid/Structure coupling has been initiated.

  15. Pseudospectral time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Chaehyuk; Malick, David K.; Braden, Dale A.; Friesner, Richard A.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2008-03-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is implemented within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) using a pseudospectral approach to evaluate two-electron repulsion integrals. The pseudospectral approximation uses a split representation with both spectral basis functions and a physical space grid to achieve a reduction in the scaling behavior of electronic structure methods. We demonstrate here that exceptionally sparse grids may be used in the excitation energy calculation, following earlier work employing the pseudospectral approximation for determining correlation energies in wavefunction-based methods with similar conclusions. The pseudospectral TDA-TDDFT method is shown to be up to ten times faster than a conventional algorithm for hybrid functionals without sacrificing chemical accuracy.

  16. Time-dependent landslide probability mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Russell H.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Case studies where time of failure is known for rainfall-triggered debris flows can be used to estimate the parameters of a hazard model in which the probability of failure is a function of time. As an example, a time-dependent function for the conditional probability of a soil slip is estimated from independent variables representing hillside morphology, approximations of material properties, and the duration and rate of rainfall. If probabilities are calculated in a GIS (geomorphic information system ) environment, the spatial distribution of the result for any given hour can be displayed on a map. Although the probability levels in this example are uncalibrated, the method offers a potential for evaluating different physical models and different earth-science variables by comparing the map distribution of predicted probabilities with inventory maps for different areas and different storms. If linked with spatial and temporal socio-economic variables, this method could be used for short-term risk assessment.

  17. Time-dependent Benioff strain release diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frid, V.; Goldbaum, J.; Rabinovitch, A.; Bahat, D.

    2011-04-01

    New time-dependent Benioff strain (TDBS) release diagrams were analyzed for acoustic emission during various loading tests and for electromagnetic (EM) radiation emanating during compression and, tension, which end in failure. TDBS diagrams are Benioff diagrams that are built consecutively, each time using a greater number of events (acoustic or EM emissions) using the last event as if it were associated with the 'actual failure'. An examination of such TDBS diagrams shows that at a certain time point (this time point is denoted by the term 'alarm' time), a comparatively short interval prior to actual collapse, their decreasing part is broken by a positive 'bulge'. This 'bulge' is quantified and an algorithm proposed for its assessment. Using the alarm time and other parameters of the failure process (fall, bulge size and escalation factors, bulge slope and slope fall time), a criterion for estimating the time of the actual collapse is developed and shown to agree well with laboratory experimental results.

  18. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive geochemical Transport in Variable Saturated Geologic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-05-24

    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport and chemical reactions can be used for the assessment of mineral alteration in hydrothermal systems, waste disposal sites, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. A comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator, TOUGHREACT, has been developed. A wide range of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. The program can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The model can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can proceed either subject to local equilibrium or kinetic conditions. Changes in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution and precipitation can be considered. Linear adsorption and decay can be included. For the purpose of future extensions, surface complexation by double layer model is coded in the program. Xu and Pruess (1998) developed a first version of a non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport model, TOUGHREACT, by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). Xu, Pruess, and their colleagues have applied the program to a variety of problems such as: (1) supergene copper enrichment (Xu et al, 2001), (2) caprock mineral alteration in a hydrothermal system (Xu and Pruess, 2001a), and (3) mineral trapping for CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline aquifers (Xu et al, 2003b and 2004a). For modeling the coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes during

  19. Comparison of recovery methods for the enumeration of injured Listeria innocua cells under isothermal and non-isothermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Miller, Fátima A; Ramos, Bárbara; Brandão, Teresa R S; Teixeira, Paula; Silva, Cristina L M

    2010-12-01

    This study compares the feature of different media with the combination of selective with non-selective media in a TAL method for recovery of Listeria innocua cells exposed to thermal treatments. Experiments were conducted in broth at constant temperature (52.5 and 65.0 °C) and pH (4.5 and 7.5) conditions, using NaCl or glycerol to adjust water activity to 0.95. Four different media were used in bacterial cell enumeration: (i) a non-selective medium - TSAYE, (ii) two selective media - TSAYE + 5%NaCl and Palcam Agar and (iii) TAL medium (consisting of a layer of Palcam Agar overlaid with one of TSAYE). Two food products were used as case studies aiming at comparison of results obtained on selective and TAL media enumeration. Parsley samples were inoculated with L. innocua and subjected to posterior thermal treatments both under isothermal (52.5, 60.0 and 65.0 °C) and non-isothermal (heating rate of 1.8 °C/min from 20.0 to 65.0 °C) conditions. The recovery capability of TAL method was also studied when a pre-cooked frozen food (i.e. meat pockets) was fried (oil temperature of ∼180 °C). TAL method proved to be better than Palcam Agar in terms of capability to recover injured cells and was effective in L. innocua enumeration when non-sterile samples were analysed.

  20. Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wenchao; Ji, Shouxun; Huang, Lanping; Sheng, Xiaofei; Li, Zhou; Wang, Mingpu

    2014-08-15

    The characterization of precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging had been investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy for an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. It was proposed that the needle-shaped β″ precipitates with a three-dimension coherency strain-field and an increased number density in the Al matrix provided the maximum strengthening effect for the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. Simultaneously, it was also found that the formation and evolution of clusters in the early precipitation were associated with the vacancy binding energy, during which Si atoms played an important role in controlling the numbers density of Mg/Si co-clusters, and the excess Si atoms provided the increased number of nucleation sites for the subsequent precipitates to strengthen and improve the precipitation rate. Finally, based on the experimental observation and theoretical analysis, the precipitation sequence during the early precipitation in the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy was proposed as: supersaturated solid solution → Si-vacancy pairs, Mg-vacancy pairs and Mg clusters → Si clusters, and dissolution of Mg clusters → Mg atoms diffusion into the existing Si clusters → Mg/Si co-clusters → GP zone. - Highlights: • β″ precipitates provide the maximum strengthening effect for the 6005A alloy. • Si atoms play an important role in controlling the numbers of Mg/Si co-clusters. • The early aging sequence is deduced based on the solute-vacancy binding energy.

  1. A comparison of results obtained with two subsurface non-isothermal multiphase reactive transport simulators, FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT

    SciTech Connect

    Juncosa Rivera, Ricardo; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT are codes used to model the non-isothermal multiphase flow with multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. Different flow and reactive transport problems were used to compare the FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT codes. These problems take into account the different cases of multiphase flow with and without heat transport, conservative transport, and reactive transport. Consistent results were obtained from both codes, which use different numerical methods to solve the differential equations resulting from the various physicochemical processes. Here we present the results obtained from both codes for various cases. Some results are slightly different with minor discrepancies, which have been remedied, so that both codes would be able to reproduce the same processes using the same parameters. One of the discrepancies found is related to the different calculation for thermal conductivity in heat transport, which affects the calculation of the temperatures, as well as the pH of the reaction of calcite dissolution problem modeled. Therefore it is possible to affirm that the pH is highly sensitive to temperature. Generally speaking, the comparison was concluded to be highly satisfactory, leading to the complete verification of the FADES-CORE code. However, we must keep in mind that, as there are no analytical solutions available with which to verify the codes, the TOUGHREACT code has been thoroughly corroborated, given that the only possible way to prove that the code simulation is correct, is by comparing the results obtained with both codes for the identical problems, or to validate the simulation results with actual measured data.

  2. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  3. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  4. Instabilities in Time Dependent Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Stephen Robert

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work in this thesis is concerned with instabilities known to occur in boundary layers. The boundary layers considered herein are of a temporal nature; that is they are time dependent. In Chapter 1 a general overview of the subject is given. In Chapter 2, we consider two Stokes layers found to occur on a sphere. Firstly, the case where the sphere oscillates along a radius, referred to as transverse oscillations, and secondly where the sphere oscillates about its axis, referred to as torsional oscillations. We also consider the oscillations to be of such an amplitude and frequency so that the resulting boundary layer is thin compared to the sphere's radius. Chapter 3, is concerned with the development of vortices in a temporally growing boundary layer occurring on an infinite flat plate, the fluid above which is started to move impulsively. Here we take account of the fact that the boundary layer is growing with time, in a similar manner as has been used for the Blasius layer to grow with a downstream coordinate. In Chapter 4, we consider a boundary layer found to occur outside a cylinder, which at a certain instant has a torsional velocity imparted to it, this layer grows with time. The development of vortices in considered in this layer, and certain parameter regimes are investigated namely those appropriate to the right hand branch of the neutral curve, and those appropriate to the development of inviscid Gortler modes.

  5. Time dependent friction in a free gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Cristiano; Sisti, Francesco; Stagno, Gabriele V.

    2016-03-01

    We consider a body moving in a perfect gas, described by the mean-field approximation and interacting elastically with the body, we study the friction exerted by the gas on the body fixed at constant velocities. The time evolution of the body in this setting was studied in Caprino et al. [Math. Phys. 264, 167-189 (2006)], Caprino et al. [Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 17, 1369-1403 (2007)], and Cavallaro [Rend. Mat. Appl. 27, 123-145 (2007)] for object with simple shape; the first study where a simple kind of concavity was considered was in Sisti and Ricciuti [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 46, 3759-3611 (2014)], showing new features in the dynamic but not in the friction term. The case of more general shape of the body was left out for further difficulties, and we believe indeed that there are actually non-trivial issues to be faced for these more general cases. To show this and in the spirit of getting a more realistic perspective in the study of friction problems, in this paper, we focused our attention on the friction term itself, studying its behavior on a body with a more general kind of concavity and fixed at constant velocities. We derive the expression of the friction term for constant velocities, we show how it is time dependent, and we give its exact estimate in time. Finally, we use this result to show the absence of a constant velocity in the actual dynamic of such a body.

  6. Heating liquid dielectrics by time dependent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalife, A.; Pathak, U.; Richert, R.

    2011-10-01

    Steady state and time-resolved dielectric relaxation experiments are performed at high fields on viscous glycerol and the effects of energy absorption from the electric field are studied. Time resolution is obtained by a sinusoidal field whose amplitude is switched from a low to a high level and by recording voltage and current traces with an oscilloscope during this transition. Based on their distinct time and frequency dependences, three sources of modifying the dynamics and dielectric loss via an increase in the effective temperature can be distinguished: electrode temperature, real sample temperature, and configurational temperatures of the modes that absorbed the energy. Isothermal conditions that are desired for focusing on the configurational temperature changes (as in dielectric hole burning and related techniques) are maintained only for very thin samples and for moderate power levels. For high frequencies, say ν > 1 MHz, changes of the real temperature will exceed the effects of configurational temperatures in the case of macroscopic samples. Regarding microwave chemistry, heating via cell phone use, and related situations in which materials are subject to fields involving frequencies beyond the MHz regime, we conclude that changes in the configurational (or fictive) temperatures remain negligible compared with the increase of the real temperature. This simplifies the assessment of how time dependent electric fields modify the properties of materials.

  7. Time-Dependent, Parallel Neutral Particle Transport Code System.

    2009-09-10

    Version 00 PARTISN (PARallel, TIme-Dependent SN) is the evolutionary successor to CCC-547/DANTSYS. The PARTISN code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent or dependent multigroup discrete ordinates form of the Boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, the Solver Module, and themore » Edit Module, respectively. PARTISN is the evolutionary successor to the DANTSYSTM code system package. The Input and Edit Modules in PARTISN are very similar to those in DANTSYS. However, unlike DANTSYS, the Solver Module in PARTISN contains one, two, and three-dimensional solvers in a single module. In addition to the diamond-differencing method, the Solver Module also has Adaptive Weighted Diamond-Differencing (AWDD), Linear Discontinuous (LD), and Exponential Discontinuous (ED) spatial differencing methods. The spatial mesh may consist of either a standard orthogonal mesh or a block adaptive orthogonal mesh. The Solver Module may be run in parallel for two and three dimensional problems. One can now run 1-D problems in parallel using Energy Domain Decomposition (triggered by Block 5 input keyword npeg>0). EDD can also be used in 2-D/3-D with or without our standard Spatial Domain Decomposition. Both the static (fixed source or eigenvalue) and time-dependent forms of the transport equation are solved in forward or adjoint mode. In addition, PARTISN now has a probabilistic mode for Probability of Initiation (static) and Probability of Survival (dynamic) calculations. Vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, or inhomogeneous boundary conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering and inhomogeneous sources are permitted. PARTISN solves the transport equation on orthogonal (single level or block-structured AMR) grids in 1-D

  8. Time dependence of Hawking radiation entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2013-09-01

    If a black hole starts in a pure quantum state and evaporates completely by a unitary process, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation initially increases and then decreases back to zero when the black hole has disappeared. Here numerical results are given for an approximation to the time dependence of the radiation entropy under an assumption of fast scrambling, for large nonrotating black holes that emit essentially only photons and gravitons. The maximum of the von Neumann entropy then occurs after about 53.81% of the evaporation time, when the black hole has lost about 40.25% of its original Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy (an upper bound for its von Neumann entropy) and then has a BH entropy that equals the entropy in the radiation, which is about 59.75% of the original BH entropy 4πM{sub 0}{sup 2}, or about 7.509M{sub 0}{sup 2} ≈ 6.268 × 10{sup 76}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}, using my 1976 calculations that the photon and graviton emission process into empty space gives about 1.4847 times the BH entropy loss of the black hole. Results are also given for black holes in initially impure states. If the black hole starts in a maximally mixed state, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation increases from zero up to a maximum of about 119.51% of the original BH entropy, or about 15.018M{sub 0}{sup 2} ≈ 1.254 × 10{sup 77}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}, and then decreases back down to 4πM{sub 0}{sup 2} = 1.049 × 10{sup 77}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}.

  9. Time-dependence in mixture toxicity prediction

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Douglas A.; Allen, Erin M.G.; Allen, Joshua L.; Baumann, Hannah J.; Bensinger, Heather M.; Genco, Nicole; Guinn, Daphne; Hull, Michael W.; Il'Giovine, Zachary J.; Kaminski, Chelsea M.; Peyton, Jennifer R.; Schultz, T. Wayne; Pöch, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The value of time-dependent toxicity (TDT) data in predicting mixture toxicity was examined. Single chemical (A and B) and mixture (A + B) toxicity tests using Microtox® were conducted with inhibition of bioluminescence (Vibrio fischeri) being quantified after 15, 30 and 45-min of exposure. Single chemical and mixture tests for 25 sham (A1:A2) and 125 true (A:B) combinations had a minimum of seven duplicated concentrations with a duplicated control treatment for each test. Concentration/response (x/y) data were fitted to sigmoid curves using the five-parameter logistic minus one parameter (5PL-1P) function, from which slope, EC25, EC50, EC75, asymmetry, maximum effect, and r2 values were obtained for each chemical and mixture at each exposure duration. Toxicity data were used to calculate percentage-based TDT values for each individual chemical and mixture of each combination. Predicted TDT values for each mixture were calculated by averaging the TDT values of the individual components and regressed against the observed TDT values obtained in testing, resulting in strong correlations for both sham (r2 = 0.989, n = 25) and true mixtures (r2 = 0.944, n = 125). Additionally, regression analyses confirmed that observed mixture TDT values calculated for the 50% effect level were somewhat better correlated with predicted mixture TDT values than at the 25 and 75% effect levels. Single chemical and mixture TDT values were classified into five levels in order to discern trends. The results suggested that the ability to predict mixture TDT by averaging the TDT of the single agents was modestly reduced when one agent of the combination had a positive TDT value and the other had a minimal or negative TDT value. PMID:25446331

  10. Time dependence of Hawking radiation entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Don N.

    2013-09-01

    If a black hole starts in a pure quantum state and evaporates completely by a unitary process, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation initially increases and then decreases back to zero when the black hole has disappeared. Here numerical results are given for an approximation to the time dependence of the radiation entropy under an assumption of fast scrambling, for large nonrotating black holes that emit essentially only photons and gravitons. The maximum of the von Neumann entropy then occurs after about 53.81% of the evaporation time, when the black hole has lost about 40.25% of its original Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy (an upper bound for its von Neumann entropy) and then has a BH entropy that equals the entropy in the radiation, which is about 59.75% of the original BH entropy 4πM02, or about 7.509M02 ≈ 6.268 × 1076(M0/Msolar)2, using my 1976 calculations that the photon and graviton emission process into empty space gives about 1.4847 times the BH entropy loss of the black hole. Results are also given for black holes in initially impure states. If the black hole starts in a maximally mixed state, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation increases from zero up to a maximum of about 119.51% of the original BH entropy, or about 15.018M02 ≈ 1.254 × 1077(M0/Msolar)2, and then decreases back down to 4πM02 = 1.049 × 1077(M0/Msolar)2.

  11. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  12. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  13. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  14. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  15. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  16. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  17. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  18. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  19. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  20. Estimation of Listeria monocytogenes survival during thermoultrasonic treatments in non-isothermal conditions: Effect of ultrasound on temperature and survival profiles.

    PubMed

    Franco-Vega, Avelina; Ramírez-Corona, Nelly; López-Malo, Aurelio; Palou, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of Listeria monocytogenes survival during thermoultrasonic treatments in non-isothermal conditions was determined considering an increment from 45 to 70 °C, assessing the adequacy of predictions through experimental data obtained in laboratory media model systems. In order to characterize the sonication effect on the survival pattern, observed behavior was compared to that obtained when only thermal treatment was applied. A noticeable impact on L. monocytogenes survival in non-isothermal conditions was observed when heat is combined with ultrasound, since the sonication effect modifies not only the temperature profile, but also the dynamic survival pattern. It was observed that both treatments were able to achieve a reduction of 5.5 log cycles of the initial population, although the inactivation temperature and the required time to reach such temperature were lower for thermoultrasonic treatments than for thermal treatments. Furthermore, as the temperature dependent parameters required to estimate the dynamic responses in non-isothermal treatments were initially determined from isothermal conditions, the sonication effect on these parameters and its implications for dynamic estimations, which are closely related to the nonlinearity of the systems, were also addressed; for thermal treatments, obtained isothermal curves were properly described by the Weibull model and first order kinetics, while for thermoultrasonication treatments a clear non-linear behavior was observed and only the Weibullian model was able to adequately describe the inactivation pattern.

  1. Time-Dependent Simulations of Turbopump Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the current effort is to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine, including high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis. This capability is needed to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicles that are likely to involve liquid propulsion systems. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flows are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. An unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available for real-world engineering applications. The present effort will provide developers with information such as transient flow phenomena at start up, impact of non-uniform inflows, system vibration and impact on the structure. In the proposed paper, the progress toward the capability of complete simulation of the turbo-pump for a liquid rocket engine is reported. The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. The relative motion of the grid systems for the rotor-stator interaction was obtained using overset grid techniques. Time-accuracy of the scheme has been evaluated with simple test cases. Unsteady computations for the SSME turbo-pump, which contains 114 zones with 34.5 million grid points, are carried out on Origin 2000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability will be presented along with the performance of parallel versions of the code.

  2. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  3. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  4. Time-dependent, multimode interaction analysis of the gyroklystron amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swati, M. V.; Chauhan, M. S.; Jain, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a time-dependent multimode nonlinear analysis for the gyroklystron amplifier has been developed by extending the analysis of gyrotron oscillators by employing the self-consistent approach. The nonlinear analysis developed here has been validated by taking into account the reported experimental results for a 32.3 GHz, three cavity, second harmonic gyroklystron operating in the TE02 mode. The analysis has been used to estimate the temporal RF growth in the operating mode as well as the nearby competing modes. Device gain and bandwidth have been computed for different drive powers and frequencies. The effect of various beam parameters, such as beam voltage, beam current, and pitch factor, has also been studied. The computational results have estimated the gyroklystron saturated RF power ˜319 kW at 32.3 GHz with efficiency ˜23% and gain ˜26.3 dB with device bandwidth ˜0.027% (8 MHz) for a 70 kV, 20 A electron beam. The computed results are found to be in agreement with the experimental values within 10%.

  5. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  6. Time-Dependent Rate Phenomenon in Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Aiewsakun, Pakorn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Among the most fundamental questions in viral evolutionary biology are how fast viruses evolve and how evolutionary rates differ among viruses and fluctuate through time. Traditionally, viruses are loosely classed into two groups: slow-evolving DNA viruses and fast-evolving RNA viruses. As viral evolutionary rate estimates become more available, it appears that the rates are negatively correlated with the measurement timescales and that the boundary between the rates of DNA and RNA viruses might not be as clear as previously thought. In this study, we collected 396 viral evolutionary rate estimates across almost all viral genome types and replication strategies, and we examined their rate dynamics. We showed that the time-dependent rate phenomenon exists across multiple levels of viral taxonomy, from the Baltimore classification viral groups to genera. We also showed that, by taking the rate decay dynamics into account, a clear division between the rates of DNA and RNA viruses as well as reverse-transcribing viruses could be recovered. Surprisingly, despite large differences in their biology, our analyses suggested that the rate decay speed is independent of viral types and thus might be useful for better estimation of the evolutionary time scale of any virus. To illustrate this, we used our model to reestimate the evolutionary timescales of extant lentiviruses, which were previously suggested to be very young by standard phylogenetic analyses. Our analyses suggested that these viruses are millions of years old, in agreement with paleovirological evidence, and therefore, for the first time, reconciled molecular analyses of ancient and extant viruses. IMPORTANCE This work provides direct evidence that viral evolutionary rate estimates decay with their measurement timescales and that the rate decay speeds do not differ significantly among viruses despite the vast differences in their molecular features. After adjustment for the rate decay dynamics, the

  7. Improvement to Ooty IPS Velocity Maps for Time-Dependent MHD Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropf, D.; Pogorelov, N.; Kim, T. K.; Manoharan, P.; Arge, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) observations can provide informationon the three-dimensional (3-D) solar wind structure. Manoharan et al.(2015) have recently used IPS velocity data from the Ootacommad RadioTelescope in India directly as time-dependent boundary conditions todrive a 3-D heliospheric MHD model. Their results showed consistentlylarger velocities at Earth compared to in situ data, most likely due tothe assumptions of constant velocity when the IPS velocity data in 3-Dspace are mapped onto the boundary surface. Thus, we improve upontheir results by assuming non-constant velocity when we construct theboundary velocity maps. New boundary conditions are then used to perform solarwind propagation outward from the Sun.

  8. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  9. TEMPEST/N33.5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Package For Incompressible, 3D, Time Dependent Pro

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, Dr.D.S.; Eyler, Dr.L.L.

    1991-04-01

    TEMPESTN33.5 provides numerical solutions to general incompressible flow problems with coupled heat transfer in fluids and solids. Turbulence is created with a k-e model and gas, liquid or solid constituents may be included with the bulk flow. Problems may be modeled in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. Limitations include incompressible flow, Boussinesq approximation, and passive constituents. No direct steady state solution is available; steady state is obtained as the limit of a transient.

  10. Unstructured grids in 3D and 4D for a time-dependent interface in front tracking with improved accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.; Grove, J. W.; Li, X. L.; Li, Y.; Xu, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Front tracking traces the dynamic evolution of an interface separating differnt materials or fluid components. In this paper, they describe three types of the grid generation methods used in the front tracking method. One is the unstructured surface grid. The second is a structured grid-based reconstruction method. The third is a time-space grid, also grid based, for a conservative tracking algorithm with improved accuracy.

  11. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  12. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  13. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  14. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  15. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  16. Multitasking the code ARC3D. [for computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, John T.; Hsiung, Christopher C.

    1986-01-01

    The CRAY multitasking system was developed in order to utilize all four processors and sharply reduce the wall clock run time. This paper describes the techniques used to modify the computational fluid dynamics code ARC3D for this run and analyzes the achieved speedup. The ARC3D code solves either the Euler or thin-layer N-S equations using an implicit approximate factorization scheme. Results indicate that multitask processing can be used to achieve wall clock speedup factors of over three times, depending on the nature of the program code being used. Multitasking appears to be particularly advantageous for large-memory problems running on multiple CPU computers.

  17. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  18. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  19. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  20. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  1. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  2. A 3-D nonisothermal flow simulation and pulling force model for injection pultrusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Ibrahim

    1998-12-01

    Injected Pultrusion (IP) is an efficient way of producing high quality, low cost, high volume and constant cross-section polymeric composites. This process has been developed recently, and the efforts to optimize it are still underway. This work is related to the development of a 3-D non-isothermal flow model for the IP processes. The governing equations for transport of mass, momentum and, energy are formulated by using a local volume averaging approach, and the Finite Element/Control Volume method is used to solve the system of equations numerically. The chemical species balance equation is solved in the Lagrangian frame of reference whereas the energy equation is solved using Galerkin, SU (Streamline Upwind), and SUPG (Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin) approaches. By varying degrees of freedom and the flow rates of the resin, it is shown that at high Peclet numbers the SUPG formulation performs better than the SU and the Galerkin methods in all cases. The 3-D model predictions for degree of cure and temperature are compared with a one dimensional analytical solution and the results are found satisfactory. Moreover, by varying the Brinkman Number, it is shown that the effect of viscous dissipation is insignificant. The 3-D flow simulations have been carried out for both thin and thick parts and the results are compared with the 2-D model. It is shown that for thick parts 2-D simulations render erroneous results. The effect of changing permeability on the flow fronts is also addressed. The effect of increasing taper angle on the model prediction is also investigated. A parametric study is conducted to isolate optimum conditions for both isothermal and non-isothermal cases using a straight rectangular die and a die with a tapered inlet. Finally, a simple pulling force model is developed and the pulling force required to pull the carbon-epoxy fiber resin system is estimated for dies of varying tapered inlet.

  3. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  4. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  5. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  6. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  7. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  8. An attempt to model the probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus under non-isothermal conditions in pistachio nuts.

    PubMed

    Aldars-García, Laila; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

    2015-10-01

    Human exposure to aflatoxins in foods is of great concern. The aim of this work was to use predictive mycology as a strategy to mitigate the aflatoxin burden in pistachio nuts postharvest. The probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus, isolated from pistachio nuts, under static and non-isothermal conditions was studied. Four theoretical temperature scenarios, including temperature levels observed in pistachio nuts during shipping and storage, were used. Two types of inoculum were included: a cocktail of 25 A. flavus isolates and a single isolate inoculum. Initial water activity was adjusted to 0.87. Logistic models, with temperature and time as explanatory variables, were fitted to the probability of growth and AFB1 production under a constant temperature. Subsequently, they were used to predict probabilities under non-isothermal scenarios, with levels of concordance from 90 to 100% in most of the cases. Furthermore, the presence of AFB1 in pistachio nuts could be correctly predicted in 70-81 % of the cases from a growth model developed in pistachio nuts, and in 67-81% of the cases from an AFB1 model developed in pistachio agar. The information obtained in the present work could be used by producers and processors to predict the time for AFB1 production by A. flavus on pistachio nuts during transport and storage.

  9. Effect of ZnO nanofillers treated with triethoxy caprylylsilane on the isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization of poly(lactic acid).

    PubMed

    Bussiere, Pierre Olivier; Therias, Sandrine; Gardette, Jean-Luc; Murariu, Marius; Dubois, Philippe; Baba, Mohamed

    2012-09-21

    The crystallization of PLA-silane surface-treated ZnO nanocomposites was investigated by DSC and compared to that of neat PLA. Several modes of crystallization were considered: isothermal and non-isothermal cold crystallization and also isothermal and non-isothermal melt crystallization. The kinetics of cold crystallization were studied using different methods, namely the Avrami and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall models, to calculate activation energies and kinetic constants. In contrast to what is typically observed when the foreign particles are added in a polymer matrix, the silane surface-treated ZnO delayed the crystallization of PLA and made it more difficult to start. The nucleation activity of the ZnO nanoparticles, ϕ, was calculated and found to be greater than 1 (ϕ = 1.7). This indicated that ZnO played an anti-nucleating role in the crystallization of PLA nanocomposites. This effect has been linked mainly to the interactions between the silane groups onto the surface of nanoparticles and PLA macromolecules. These interactions which reduce the mobility of polymer chains have been evidenced by rheological experiments. PMID:22858912

  10. Effects of pH and sugar concentration in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii growth and time for spoilage in concentrated grape juice at isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Rojo, M C; Arroyo López, F N; Lerena, M C; Mercado, L; Torres, A; Combina, M

    2014-04-01

    The effect of pH (1.7-3.2) and sugar concentration (64-68 °Brix) on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii MC9 using response surface methodology was studied. Experiments were carried out in concentrated grape juice inoculated with Z. rouxii at isothermal conditions (23 °C) for 60 days. pH was the variable with the highest effect on growth parameters (potential maximum growth rate and lag phase duration), although the effect of sugar concentration were also significant. In a second experiment, the time for spoilage by this microorganism in concentrated grape juice was evaluated at isothermal (23 °C) and non-isothermal conditions, in an effort to reproduce standard storage and overseas shipping temperature conditions, respectively. Results show that pH was again the environmental factor with the highest impact on delaying the spoilage of the product. Thereby, a pH value below 2.0 was enough to increase the shelf life of the product for more than 60 days in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The information obtained in the present work could be used by producers and buyers to predict the growth and time for spoilage of Z. rouxii in concentrated grape juice.

  11. Deformation Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of As-Cast 42CrMo Alloy in Isothermal and Non-isothermal Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fangcheng; Li, Yongtang; Qi, Huiping; Lv, Zhenhua

    2016-09-01

    The isothermal and non-isothermal multi-pass compression tests of centrifugal casting 42CrMo steel were conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermal simulation machine. The effects of compression passes and finishing temperatures on deformation behavior and microstructure evolution were investigated. It is found that the microstructure is homogeneous with equiaxed grains, and the flow stress does not show significant change with the increase in passes, while the peak softening coefficient increases first and then decreases during inter-pass. Moreover, the dominant mechanisms of controlled temperature and accumulated static recrystallization for grain refinement and its homogeneous distribution are found after 5 passes deformation. As the finishing temperature increases, the flow stress decreases gradually, but the dynamic recrystallization accelerates and softening effect increases, resulting in the larger grain size and homogeneous microstructure. The microhardness decreases sharply because the sufficient softening occurs in microstructure. When the finishing temperature is 890 °C, the carbide particles are precipitated in the vicinity of the grain boundaries, thus inhibiting the dislocation motion. Thus, the higher finishing temperature (≥970 °C) for centrifugal casting 42CrMo alloy should be avoided in non-isothermal multi-pass deformation, which is beneficial to grain refinement and properties improvement.

  12. A time-dependent vector field topology based on streak surfaces.

    PubMed

    Uffinger, Markus; Sadlo, Filip; Ertl, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    It was shown recently how the 2D vector field topology concept, directly applicable to stationary vector fields only, can be generalized to time-dependent vector fields by replacing the role of stream lines by streak lines. The present paper extends this concept to 3D vector fields. In traditional 3D vector field topology separatrices can be obtained by integrating stream lines from 0D seeds corresponding to critical points. We show that in our new concept, in contrast, 1D seeding constructs are required for computing streak-based separatrices. In analogy to the 2D generalization we show that invariant manifolds can be obtained by seeding streak surfaces along distinguished path surfaces emanating from intersection curves between codimension-1 ridges in the forward and reverse finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields. These path surfaces represent a time-dependent generalization of critical points and convey further structure in time-dependent topology of vector fields. Compared to the traditional approach based on FTLE ridges, the resulting streak manifolds ease the analysis of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) with respect to visual quality and computational cost, especially when time series of LCS are computed. We exemplify validity and utility of the new approach using both synthetic examples and computational fluid dynamics results.

  13. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  14. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  15. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  16. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  17. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  18. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  19. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  20. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  1. Time-dependent Radial Transport of Electron Distributions Due to ECCD in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.; Prater, R.; Petty, C. C.

    2007-11-01

    The radial transport modeling capability in the CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck collisional-rf quasilinear code[1] has been greatly improved and the self-consistent time-dependent toroidal electric field added, making the code truly a ``Fokker-Planck-Transport'' code. The time-dependent, coupled 3D Fokker-Planck equation and the Ampere-Faraday Law equation are solved for the electron distribution, f( u,θu,ρ,t ), and the toroidal loop voltage, Vloop( ρ,t ). A fully 3D, time-implicit solution of the FP equation using sparse-matrix methods[2] is coupled to a new iterative toroidal electric field solve. The DIII-D ECH experiment is in an intermediate driven regime with τtransport τslowing[3] for the EC driven electrons. Results will be reported for time-evolution of radial profiles of current density, fast electrons, and toroidal loop voltage due to EC heating and current drive in DIII-D. [1] R.W. Harvey and M.G. McCoy, IAEA TCM on Advances in Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, 1992; USDOC NTIS No. 93002962. [2] Y. Peysson et al., Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, 15th Topical Conference, Moran, Wyoming (2003). [3] R.W. Harvey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 205001 (2002).

  2. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  3. 3D phase field modelling of recrystallization in a low-carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Militzer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Intercritical annealing is a critical processing step to manufacture dual-phase (DP) steels. As part of modelling the microstructure evolution in an intercritical-annealing cycle, a 3D multi-phase field model has been employed to simulate recrystallization during heating of a low-carbon steel that is used to produce commercial DP600 grade. The cold-rolled microstructure obtained from metallographic observations is used as the initial structure in the model. The nucleation conditions and the effective interface mobility are employed as adjustable parameters to fit the experimentally measured kinetics of isothermal recrystallization and then applied to non-isothermal recrystallization. The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental data for recrystallization during continuous heating. The model provides realistic recrystallized microstructures as initial conditions for modelling the subsequent formation and decomposition of austenite.

  4. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  5. The Transient 3-D Transport Coupled Code TORT-TD/ATTICA3D for High-Fidelity Pebble-Bed HTGR Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seubert, Armin; Sureda, Antonio; Lapins, Janis; Bader, Johannes; Laurien, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the 3D discrete ordinates-based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that aims at steady state and transient analyses of pebble-bed high-temperature gas cooled reactors. In view of increasing computing power, the application of time-dependent neutron transport methods becomes feasible for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. The calculation capabilities of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D are presented along with the coupling approach, with focus on the time-dependent neutron transport features of TORT-TD. Results obtained for the OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR-400 benchmark demonstrate the transient capabilities of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D.

  6. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  7. Simulation of warpage induced by non-isothermal crystallization of co-polypropylene during the SLS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, Antonio; Schmid, Manfred; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-05-01

    Polymer processing using Additive Manufacturing Technologies (AM) has experienced a remarkable growth during the last years. The application range has been expanding rapidly, particularly driven by the so-called consumer 3D printing sector. However, for applications demanding higher requirements in terms of thermo-mechanical properties and dimensional accuracy the long established AM technologies such as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) do not depict a comparable development. The higher process complexity hinders the number of materials that can be currently processed and the interactions between the different physics involved have not been fully investigated. In case of thermoplastic materials the crystallization kinetics coupled to the shrinkage strain development strongly influences the stability of the process. Thus, the current investigation presents a transient Finite Element simulation of the warpage effect during the SLS process of a new developed polyolefin (co-polypropylene) coupling the thermal, mechanical and phase change equations that control the process. A thermal characterization of the material was performed by means of DSC, integrating the Nakamura model with the classical Hoffmann-Lauritzen theory. The viscoelastic behavior was measured using a plate-plate rheometer at different degrees of undercooling and a phase change-temperature superposition principle was implemented. Additionally, for validation porpoises the warpage development of the first sintered layers was captured employing an optical device. The simulation results depict a good agreement with experimental measurements of deformation, describing the high sensitivity of the geometrical accuracy of the sintered parts related to the processing conditions.

  8. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  9. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  10. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  11. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  12. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  13. Time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Libisch, Florian; Peng, Qing; Carter, Emily A

    2014-03-28

    We introduce a time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory (TD-PFET), in which atoms are grouped into subsystems. In TD-PFET, subsystems can be propagated by different suitable time-dependent quantum mechanical methods and their interactions can be treated in a seamless, first-principles manner. TD-PFET is formulated based on the time-dependent quantum mechanics variational principle. The action of the total quantum system is written as a functional of the time-dependent embedding potential, i.e., a potential-functional formulation. By exploiting the Runge-Gross theorem, we prove the uniqueness of the time-dependent embedding potential under the constraint that all subsystems share a common embedding potential. We derive the integral equation that such an embedding potential needs to satisfy. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate TD-PFET for a Na4 cluster, in which each Na atom is treated as one subsystem and propagated by time-dependent Kohn-Sham density functional theory (TDDFT) using the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA). Our results agree well with a direct TDDFT calculation on the whole Na4 cluster using ALDA. We envision that TD-PFET will ultimately be useful for studying ultrafast quantum dynamics in condensed matter, where key regions are solved by highly accurate time-dependent quantum mechanics methods, and unimportant regions are solved by faster, less accurate methods.

  14. Time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chen; Libisch, Florian; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-03-28

    We introduce a time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory (TD-PFET), in which atoms are grouped into subsystems. In TD-PFET, subsystems can be propagated by different suitable time-dependent quantum mechanical methods and their interactions can be treated in a seamless, first-principles manner. TD-PFET is formulated based on the time-dependent quantum mechanics variational principle. The action of the total quantum system is written as a functional of the time-dependent embedding potential, i.e., a potential-functional formulation. By exploiting the Runge-Gross theorem, we prove the uniqueness of the time-dependent embedding potential under the constraint that all subsystems share a common embedding potential. We derive the integral equation that such an embedding potential needs to satisfy. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate TD-PFET for a Na{sub 4} cluster, in which each Na atom is treated as one subsystem and propagated by time-dependent Kohn-Sham density functional theory (TDDFT) using the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA). Our results agree well with a direct TDDFT calculation on the whole Na{sub 4} cluster using ALDA. We envision that TD-PFET will ultimately be useful for studying ultrafast quantum dynamics in condensed matter, where key regions are solved by highly accurate time-dependent quantum mechanics methods, and unimportant regions are solved by faster, less accurate methods.

  15. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  16. Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi

    2009-05-01

    3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.

  17. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  18. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  19. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  20. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  1. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  2. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  3. Prediction of an organism's inactivation patterns from three single survival ratios determined at the end of three non-isothermal heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Maria G; Normand, Mark D; Peleg, Micha

    2008-08-15

    Traditionally, an organism's heat resistance parameters have been determined from a set of experimental isothermal survival data. Sometimes, however, even approximating an isothermal profile, and/or obtaining counts at sufficiently short time intervals, is extremely difficult for technical and logistic reasons. The problem would be avoided if the survival parameters could be calculated from the final survival ratios determined at the end of non-isothermal heat treatments with known temperature profiles. Theoretically, if the heat resistance were characterized by three unknown survival parameters, they could be extracted by solving three simultaneous dynamic survival curves' equations. In practice, because of the three equation's complexity - they are themselves the numerical solutions of three differential rate equations - and because the experimental final survival ratios might have a scatter, realistic estimates of the survival parameters require short cut and averaging methods for their calculation. Such a method has been tried with published dynamic inactivation data on Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. The concept was validated by the ability of the Weibullian-Log logistic model, whose three survival parameters had been obtained directly from final experimental survival ratios only, to predict entire non-isothermal survival curves that had not been used in the model's formulation. The methodology need not be restricted to Weibullian and simpler survival patterns but its practicality might be lost if there are more than three survival parameters. In principle, the same procedure can be extended to biochemical processes that occur during heat preservation, especially at very high temperatures. Estimating inactivation kinetic parameters without isothermal data could also facilitate the quantification of microbial survival under realistic processing conditions and in the actual food rather than in a surrogate medium.

  4. Application of the model-free approach to the study of non-isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated and γ-irradiated hydrated gadolinium acetylacetonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R. M.; Ahmed, G. A.-W.; Alshammari, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    The non-isothermal decomposition of unirradiated and γ-irradiated hydrated gadolinium acetylacetone with 102 kGy γ-ray absorbed dose was carried out in air and in nitrogen atmospheres and in the temperature range of 25-1000°C. The results indicate that gadolinium acetylacetonate decomposes through four main decomposition steps leading to the formation of intermediate products whose chemical structure is independent of the gas atmosphere applied and on the investigated absorbed dose. The final product at 820°C was found to be Gd2O3 irrespective of the gas atmosphere and the irradiation conditions. The non-isothermal data were analyzed using linear Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and non-linear Vyazovkin (VYZ) iso-conversional methods. The results of the application of these free models on the present kinetic data showed that the activation energy, Ea is independent of α in a very wide conversion range (0.1-0.9) indicating that the decomposition process is controlled by a unique kinetic model. The results of the model-fitting analysis showed that the decomposition course of the four decomposition steps of hydrated gadolinium acetylacetone was controlled by the D3 Jander diffusion model. Pure phase of Gd2O3 nanoparticles was obtained by thermal oxidation of γ-irradiated GdAcAc.3 H2O at 800°C for 6 h. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were employed for characterization of the as-synthesized nanoparticles. This is the first attempt to prepare Gd2O3 nanoparticles by solid-state thermal decomposition of γ-irradiated hydrated gadolinium acetylacetone.

  5. Reactor transient analyses with KIN3D/PARTISN

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielli, F.; Rineiski, A.; Maschek, W.; Marchetti, M.

    2013-07-01

    Efforts are going on at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to extend the kinetics capability of the PARTISN code in order to run in parallel two- and three-dimensional transient analyses with the quasistatic method, while taking into account delayed neutrons. In the original code version, time-dependent transport problems are solved by employing a semi-implicit direct kinetics option, the delayed neutrons being not taken into account. The PARTISN 5.97 code has been extended and then coupled with KIN3D, a time-dependent model embedded in the ERANOS code system. In the coupled code, PARTISN 5.97 is used as neutron transport solver to perform transient analyses while employing direct and quasi-static kinetics options of KIN3D. The coupled code can be also applied for first-order and exact perturbation theory calculations. In the paper, the PARTISN 5.97 extensions and coupling procedure are described and the performances of the KIN3D/PARTISN coupled code are investigated by analyzing transients induced by a source-jerk in a three-dimensional ADS model driven by an external source. (authors)

  6. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  7. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  8. Functional differentiability in time-dependent quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Penz, Markus Ruggenthaler, Michael

    2015-03-28

    In this work, we investigate the functional differentiability of the time-dependent many-body wave function and of derived quantities with respect to time-dependent potentials. For properly chosen Banach spaces of potentials and wave functions, Fréchet differentiability is proven. From this follows an estimate for the difference of two solutions to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that evolve under the influence of different potentials. Such results can be applied directly to the one-particle density and to bounded operators, and present a rigorous formulation of non-equilibrium linear-response theory where the usual Lehmann representation of the linear-response kernel is not valid. Further, the Fréchet differentiability of the wave function provides a new route towards proving basic properties of time-dependent density-functional theory.

  9. Time-dependent rheological behaviour of bacterial cellulose hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing; Shi, Zhijun; Kuśmierczyk, Piotr; Liu, Changqing; Yang, Guang; Sevostianov, Igor; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on time-dependent rheological behaviour of bacterial cellulose (BC) hydrogel. Due to its ideal biocompatibility, BC hydrogel could be employed in biomedical applications. Considering the complexity of loading conditions in human body environment, time-dependent behaviour under relevant conditions should be understood. BC specimens are produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582 at static-culture conditions. Time-dependent behaviour of specimens at several stress levels is experimentally determined by uniaxial tensile creep tests. We use fraction-exponential operators to model the rheological behaviour. Such a representation allows combination of good accuracy in analytical description of viscoelastic behaviour of real materials and simplicity in solving boundary value problems. The obtained material parameters allow us to identify time-dependent behaviour of BC hydrogel at high stress level with sufficient accuracy. PMID:26478298

  10. On the time-dependent Lagrangian approach in quantum chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Koch, Henrik

    1998-04-01

    We formulate the time-dependent variational principle in the form of the Euler-Lagrange equations, and demonstrate that standard variational as well as nonvariational wave functions may be obtained from these. We also demonstrate how inherently real expectation values of Hermitian operators can be constructed for nonvariational wave functions by using the time-dependent Hellmann-Feynman theorem which, in turn, is a simple consequence of the Euler-Lagrange equations. The procedure is illustrated by derivation of time-dependent Hartree-Fock and of time-dependent coupled cluster theory. Finally we give the fundamental equations for molecular dynamics within semiclassical electron nuclear dynamics (END) with a classical description of the nuclei and coupled cluster description of the electrons.

  11. Time-dependent rheological behaviour of bacterial cellulose hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing; Shi, Zhijun; Kuśmierczyk, Piotr; Liu, Changqing; Yang, Guang; Sevostianov, Igor; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on time-dependent rheological behaviour of bacterial cellulose (BC) hydrogel. Due to its ideal biocompatibility, BC hydrogel could be employed in biomedical applications. Considering the complexity of loading conditions in human body environment, time-dependent behaviour under relevant conditions should be understood. BC specimens are produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582 at static-culture conditions. Time-dependent behaviour of specimens at several stress levels is experimentally determined by uniaxial tensile creep tests. We use fraction-exponential operators to model the rheological behaviour. Such a representation allows combination of good accuracy in analytical description of viscoelastic behaviour of real materials and simplicity in solving boundary value problems. The obtained material parameters allow us to identify time-dependent behaviour of BC hydrogel at high stress level with sufficient accuracy.

  12. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  13. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  14. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

  15. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  16. Cosmological evolution of cosmic strings with time-dependent tension

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2005-08-15

    We discuss the cosmological evolution of cosmic strings with time-dependent tension. We show that, in the case that the tension changes as a power of time, the cosmic string network obeys the scaling solution: the characteristic scale of the string network grows with the time. But due to the time dependence of the tension, the ratio of the energy density of infinite strings to that of the background universe is not necessarily constant.

  17. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  18. Time-dependent {P} {T}-symmetric quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jiangbin; Wang, Qing-hai

    2013-12-01

    The parity-time-reversal ( {P} {T})-symmetric quantum mechanics (QM) (PTQM) has developed into a noteworthy area of research. However, to date, most known studies of PTQM focused on the spectral properties of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian operators. In this work, we propose an axiom in PTQM in order to study general time-dependent problems in PTQM, e.g., those with a time-dependent {P} {T}-symmetric Hamiltonian and with a time-dependent metric. We illuminate our proposal by examining a proper mapping from a time-dependent Schrödinger-like equation of motion for PTQM to the familiar time-dependent Schrödinger equation in conventional QM. The rich structure of the proper mapping hints that time-dependent PTQM can be a fruitful extension of conventional QM. Under our proposed framework, we further study in detail the Berry-phase generation in a class of {P} {T}-symmetric two-level systems. It is found that a closed path in the parameter space of PTQM is often associated with an open path in a properly mapped problem in conventional QM. In one interesting case, we further interpret the Berry phase as the flux of a continuously tunable fictitious magnetic monopole, thus highlighting the difference between PTQM and conventional QM despite the existence of a proper mapping between them.

  19. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  20. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  1. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  2. Lattice percolation approach to 3D modeling of tissue aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, Vyacheslav; Privman, Vladimir; Libert, Sergiy

    2016-11-01

    We describe a 3D percolation-type approach to modeling of the processes of aging and certain other properties of tissues analyzed as systems consisting of interacting cells. Lattice sites are designated as regular (healthy) cells, senescent cells, or vacancies left by dead (apoptotic) cells. The system is then studied dynamically with the ongoing processes including regular cell dividing to fill vacant sites, healthy cells becoming senescent or dying, and senescent cells dying. Statistical-mechanics description can provide patterns of time dependence and snapshots of morphological system properties. The developed theoretical modeling approach is found not only to corroborate recent experimental findings that inhibition of senescence can lead to extended lifespan, but also to confirm that, unlike 2D, in 3D senescent cells can contribute to tissue's connectivity/mechanical stability. The latter effect occurs by senescent cells forming the second infinite cluster in the regime when the regular (healthy) cell's infinite cluster still exists.

  3. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  4. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  5. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  6. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  7. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  8. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  9. Watching excitons move: the time-dependent transition density matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Carsten

    2012-02-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory allows one to calculate excitation energies and the associated transition densities in principle exactly. The transition density matrix (TDM) provides additional information on electron-hole localization and coherence of specific excitations of the many-body system. We have extended the TDM concept into the real-time domain in order to visualize the excited-state dynamics in conjugated molecules. The time-dependent TDM is defined as an implicit density functional, and can be approximately obtained from the time-dependent Kohn-Sham orbitals. The quality of this approximation is assessed in simple model systems. A computational scheme for real molecular systems is presented: the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are solved with the OCTOPUS code and the time-dependent Kohn-Sham TDM is calculated using a spatial partitioning scheme. The method is applied to show in real time how locally created electron-hole pairs spread out over neighboring conjugated molecular chains. The coupling mechanism, electron-hole coherence, and the possibility of charge separation are discussed.

  10. Effect of Time-dependent Rupture on Tsunami Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcas, D.; Kanoglu, U.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Differential GPS data from the recent Chile 2009 and Japan 2011 seismic events have unveiled complex time-dependent ground motion dynamics during seismic rupture. Current tsunami modeling techniques usually ignore this time-dependent behavior in tsunami sources by assuming an instantaneous initial deformation field. Initial attempts to include time-dependent rupture behavior have motivated scientists to simulate this phenomenon as a series of instantaneous changes in the sea-floor. The present study investigates the effect of dynamic ground motion rupture on tsunami generation by including the time-dependent initial conditions in the derivation of the linear shallow-water wave equations. We then study the sensitivity of initial water surface deformation to time-dependent seafloor rupture by performing a parametric study of varying speed and rupture direction, while assuming a monotonic deformation from an initial pre-rupture state to a post-rupture final state. Numerical results for some selected scenarios are validated by comparing with analytical solutions of the non-homogeneous linear shallow-water equations.

  11. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  12. Viscoelastic properties of 3-D braided PEEK/graphite composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian-Ni.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, 3-D braided PEEK/AS4 graphite composites were performed and processed to investigate the viscoelastic behavior of this new system. These manufactured composites were characterized to determine their fiber volume fractions and matrix crystallinity indices using matrix digestion and wide angle x-ray diffraction. After physical characterization, the mechanical response of these composites were evaluated at various temperatures. Experimental results from tensile measurements were compared to an established fabric geometry model (FGM). This model predicts tensile modules based upon fiber and matrix properties, fiber volume fraction, and braiding angle. Model predictions and experimental results are given here, and are in good agreement with each other. In order to study the time-dependent mechanical properties of these 3-D braided composites, their stress relaxation, creep and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. These results were then compared to a new composite model. This model combined a Quasi/linear Viscoelastic Model (QVM) for the viscoelastic behavior of PEEK with the FGM approach to predict the viscoelastic behavior of 3-D PEEK composites. The experimental stress relaxation and creep results are in good agreement with the QVM-FGM analysis. Thus, the QVM-FGM approach was used to accurately correlate these viscoelastic properties of 3-D braided PEEK/graphite composites. Through wider use and testing, this QVM/FGM approach may be used to increase our understanding and perhaps facilitate the design of composite structures.

  13. Time dependent behavior of impact angle in turbulkent pipe flows experience erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Amador; Oyarzun, Diego; Walczak, Magdalena; Aguirre, Javiera

    Erosion-corrosion in pipe systems transporting slurry turbulent flows is of a great importance in industrial and mining applications, where large volumes of suspended solids are sent up to hundreds of kilometers, to be further processed. The slurry is typically sent over large diameter steel pipes, which not always have an anti-abrasion coating. During the transport, the thickness of the pipe diminishes and eventually leaks and breaks, due to the combined effects of wear and corrosion. The processes of pipe degradation are further enhanced by the content of the slurry electrolytes that might switch from neutral to aggressive. The understanding of these processes in terms of operational parameters is critical for anticipating and mitigating a catastrophic outcome. This paper describes turbulent flow numerical simulations in a slurry transporting steel pipe with an emphasis on the correlation between the time dependent impact angle in the vicinity of the steel pipe and the rate of material loss. Full numerical simulations in a 3D long domain by using an Eulerian -Eulerian two phase flow approach coupled to a κ-epsilon turbulent model are performed for different solid particle concentration and flow velocity and compared to existing experimental and numerical results for validation with and without gravity. Time-dependent axisymmetric turbulent flow simulations are performed for determining both the time dependent behavior of the axial and radial velocities near the pipe wall and the impact angle. Finantial support from Conicyt through the Fondecyt proposal 1141107 is acknowledged.

  14. A time-dependent neutron transport method of characteristics formulation with time derivative propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Adam J.; Lee, John C.

    2016-02-01

    A new time-dependent Method of Characteristics (MOC) formulation for nuclear reactor kinetics was developed utilizing angular flux time-derivative propagation. This method avoids the requirement of storing the angular flux at previous points in time to represent a discretized time derivative; instead, an equation for the angular flux time derivative along 1D spatial characteristics is derived and solved concurrently with the 1D transport characteristic equation. This approach allows the angular flux time derivative to be recast principally in terms of the neutron source time derivatives, which are approximated to high-order accuracy using the backward differentiation formula (BDF). This approach, called Source Derivative Propagation (SDP), drastically reduces the memory requirements of time-dependent MOC relative to methods that require storing the angular flux. An SDP method was developed for 2D and 3D applications and implemented in the computer code DeCART in 2D. DeCART was used to model two reactor transient benchmarks: a modified TWIGL problem and a C5G7 transient. The SDP method accurately and efficiently replicated the solution of the conventional time-dependent MOC method using two orders of magnitude less memory.

  15. The computational foundations of time dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, James

    2014-03-01

    The mathematical foundations of TDDFT are established through the formal existence of a fictitious non-interacting system (known as the Kohn-Sham system), which can reproduce the one-electron reduced probability density of the actual system. We build upon these works and show that on the interior of the domain of existence, the Kohn-Sham system can be efficiently obtained given the time-dependent density. Since a quantum computer can efficiently produce such time-dependent densities, we present a polynomial time quantum algorithm to generate the time-dependent Kohn-Sham potential with controllable error bounds. Further, we find that systems do not immediately become non-representable but rather become ill-representable as one approaches this boundary. A representability parameter is defined in our work which quantifies the distance to the boundary of representability and the computational difficulty of finding the Kohn-Sham system.

  16. Computational complexity of time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, J. D.; Yung, M.-H.; Tempel, D. G.; Boixo, S.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.

    2014-08-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is rapidly emerging as a premier method for solving dynamical many-body problems in physics and chemistry. The mathematical foundations of TDDFT are established through the formal existence of a fictitious non-interacting system (known as the Kohn-Sham system), which can reproduce the one-electron reduced probability density of the actual system. We build upon these works and show that on the interior of the domain of existence, the Kohn-Sham system can be efficiently obtained given the time-dependent density. We introduce a V-representability parameter which diverges at the boundary of the existence domain and serves to quantify the numerical difficulty of constructing the Kohn-Sham potential. For bounded values of V-representability, we present a polynomial time quantum algorithm to generate the time-dependent Kohn-Sham potential with controllable error bounds.

  17. Forward ramp in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.

    The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  18. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  19. Numerical modeling of Non-isothermal two-phase two-component flow process with phase change phenomena in the porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Shao, H.; Thullner, M.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    In applications of Deep Geothermal reservoirs, thermal recovery processes, and contaminated groundwater sites, the multiphase multicomponent flow and transport processes are often considered the most important underlying physical process. In particular, the behavior of phase appearance and disappearance is the critical to the performance of many geo-reservoirs, and great interests exit in the scientific community to simulate this coupled process. This work is devoted to the modeling and simulation of two-phase, two components flow and transport in the porous medium, whereas the phase change behavior in non-isothermal conditions is considered. In this work, we have implemented the algorithm developed by Marchand, et al., into the open source scientific software OpenGeoSys. The governing equation is formulated in terms of molar fraction of the light component and mean pressure as the persistent primary variables, which leads to a fully coupled nonlinear PDE system. One of the important advantages of this approach is avoiding the primary variables switching between single phase and two phase zones, so that this uniform system can be applied to describe the behavior of phase change. On the other hand, due to the number of unkown variables closure relationships are also formulated to close the whole equation system by using the approach of complementarity constrains. For the numerical technical scheme: The standard Galerkin Finite element method is applied for space discretization, while a fully implicit scheme for the time discretization, and Newton-Raphson method is utilized for the global linearization, as well as the closure relationship. This model is verified based on one test case developed to simulate the heat pipe problem. This benchmark involves two-phase two-component flow in saturated/unsaturated porous media under non-isothermal condition, including phase change and mineral-water geochemical reactive transport processes. The simulation results will be

  20. Exact response functions within the time-dependent Gutzwiller approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünemann, J.; Wasner, S.; Oelsen, E. v.; Seibold, G.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the applicability of the two existing versions of a time-dependent Gutzwiller approach (TDGA) beyond the frequently used limit of infinite spatial dimensions. To this end, we study the two-particle response functions of a two-site Hubbard model where we can compare the exact results and those derived from the TDGA. It turns out that only the more recently introduced version of the TDGA can be combined with a diagrammatic approach which allows for the evaluation of Gutzwiller wave functions in finite dimensions. For this TDGA method, we derive the time-dependent Lagrangian for general single-band Hubbard models.

  1. Choice of Variables and Preconditioning for Time Dependent Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, Eli; Vatsa, Verr N.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the use of low speed preconditioning for time dependent problems. These are solved using a dual time step approach. We consider the effect of this dual time step on the parameter of the low speed preconditioning. In addition, we compare the use of two sets of variables, conservation and primitive variables, to solve the system. We show the effect of these choices on both the convergence to a steady state and the accuracy of the numerical solutions for low Mach number steady state and time dependent flows.

  2. Time dependent nucleation in a bulk metallic glass forming alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Croat, T.K.; Kelton, K.F.

    1998-12-31

    The effect of composition on the time-dependent nucleation rates in Zr{sub 65}Al{sub 7.5}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 17.5} glasses is investigated to better understand nucleation processes in partitioning systems. As-quenched glasses were annealed to produce a homogeneous dispersion of nanocrystals within the amorphous matrix. The nucleation rates were estimated from the number of crystallites produced as function of annealing time, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results for single and multiple-step annealing treatments are presented. The nucleation results are discussed briefly within the time-dependent model of the classical theory of nucleation.

  3. Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity

    DOE PAGES

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-06-26

    The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. The stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.

  4. Time-Dependent Collective Neutrino Oscillations in Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbar, Sajad; Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-10-01

    Neutrinos can experience self-induced flavor conversion in core-collapse supernovae due to neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. Previously a stationary supernova model, the so called ``neutrino bulb model,'' was used exclusively to study collective neutrino oscillations in the core-collapse supernova. We show that even a small time-dependent perturbation in neutrino fluxes on the surface of the proto-neutron star can lead to fast varying collective oscillations at large radii. This result calls for time-dependent supernova models for the study of collective neutrino oscillations. This work was supported by DOE EPSCoR Grant DE-SC0008142 at UNM.

  5. Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-06-15

    The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. Stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.

  6. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  7. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  8. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  9. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  10. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  11. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  12. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  13. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  14. Time-dependent shock acceleration of particles. Effect of the time-dependent injection, with application to supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruk, O.; Kopytko, B.

    2016-11-01

    Three approaches are considered to solve the equation which describes the time-dependent diffusive shock acceleration of test particles at the non-relativistic shocks. At first, the solution of Drury for the particle distribution function at the shock is generalized to any relation between the acceleration time-scales upstream and downstream and for the time-dependent injection efficiency. Three alternative solutions for the spatial dependence of the distribution function are derived. Then, the two other approaches to solve the time-dependent equation are presented, one of which does not require the Laplace transform. At the end, our more general solution is discussed, with a particular attention to the time-dependent injection in supernova remnants. It is shown that, comparing to the case with the dominant upstream acceleration time-scale, the maximum momentum of accelerated particles shifts towards the smaller momenta with increase of the downstream acceleration time-scale. The time-dependent injection affects the shape of the particle spectrum. In particular, (i) the power-law index is not solely determined by the shock compression, in contrast to the stationary solution; (ii) the larger the injection efficiency during the first decades after the supernova explosion, the harder the particle spectrum around the high-energy cutoff at the later times. This is important, in particular, for interpretation of the radio and gamma-ray observations of supernova remnants, as demonstrated on a number of examples.

  15. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  16. Time dependent solution for acceleration of tau-leaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jin; Wu, Sheng; Petzold, Linda R.

    2013-02-01

    The tau-leaping method is often effective for speeding up discrete stochastic simulation of chemically reacting systems. However, when fast reactions are involved, the speed-up for this method can be quite limited. One way to address this is to apply a stochastic quasi-steady state assumption. However we must be careful when using this assumption. If the fast subsystem cannot reach a steady distribution fast enough, the quasi-steady-state assumption will propagate error into the simulation. To avoid these errors, we propose to use the time dependent solution rather than the quasi-steady-state. Generally speaking, the time dependent solution is not easy to derive for an arbitrary network. However, for some common motifs we do have time dependent solutions. We derive the time dependent solutions for these motifs, and then show how they can be used with tau-leaping to achieve substantial speed-ups, including for a realistic model of blood coagulation. Although the method is complicated, we have automated it.

  17. Time dependent solution for acceleration of tau-leaping

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Jin; Wu, Sheng; Petzold, Linda R.

    2013-02-15

    The tau-leaping method is often effective for speeding up discrete stochastic simulation of chemically reacting systems. However, when fast reactions are involved, the speed-up for this method can be quite limited. One way to address this is to apply a stochastic quasi-steady state assumption. However we must be careful when using this assumption. If the fast subsystem cannot reach a steady distribution fast enough, the quasi-steady-state assumption will propagate error into the simulation. To avoid these errors, we propose to use the time dependent solution rather than the quasi-steady-state. Generally speaking, the time dependent solution is not easy to derive for an arbitrary network. However, for some common motifs we do have time dependent solutions. We derive the time dependent solutions for these motifs, and then show how they can be used with tau-leaping to achieve substantial speed-ups, including for a realistic model of blood coagulation. Although the method is complicated, we have automated it.

  18. Dynamic structure evolution of time-dependent network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Beibei; Zhou, Yadong; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dai; Guan, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we research the long-voided problem of formulating the time-dependent network structure evolution scheme, it focus not only on finding new emerging vertices in evolving communities and new emerging communities over the specified time range but also formulating the complex network structure evolution schematic. Previous approaches basically applied to community detection on time static networks and thus failed to consider the potentially crucial and useful information latently embedded in the dynamic structure evolution process of time-dependent network. To address these problems and to tackle the network non-scalability dilemma, we propose the dynamic hierarchical method for detecting and revealing structure evolution schematic of the time-dependent network. In practice and specificity, we propose an explicit hierarchical network evolution uncovering algorithm framework originated from and widely expanded from time-dependent and dynamic spectral optimization theory. Our method yields preferable results compared with previous approaches on a vast variety of test network data, including both real on-line networks and computer generated complex networks.

  19. Time-Dependent Effects of Cardiovascular Exercise on Memory.

    PubMed

    Roig, Marc; Thomas, Richard; Mang, Cameron S; Snow, Nicholas J; Ostadan, Fatemeh; Boyd, Lara A; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    We present new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory can be regulated in a time-dependent manner. When the exercise stimulus is coupled temporally with specific phases of the memory formation process, a single bout of cardiovascular exercise may be sufficient to improve memory. PMID:26872291

  20. Shoulder pain and time dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion variability.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Moon, Yaejin; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-07-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable repetitive mechanical strain on the upper limbs leading to shoulder injury and pain. While recent research indicates that the amount of variability in wheelchair propulsion and shoulder pain may be related. There has been minimal inquiry into the fluctuation over time (i.e. time-dependent structure) in wheelchair propulsion variability. Consequently the purpose of this investigation was to examine if the time-dependent structure in the wheelchair propulsion parameters are related to shoulder pain. 27 experienced wheelchair users manually propelled their own wheelchair fitted with a SMARTWheel on a roller at 1.1m/s for 3min. Time-dependent structure of cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in contact angle and inter push time interval was quantified using sample entropy (SampEn) and compared between the groups with/without shoulder pain using non-parametric statistics. Overall findings were, (1) variability observed in contact angle fluctuations during manual wheelchair propulsion is structured (Z=3.15;p<0.05), (2) individuals with shoulder pain exhibited higher SampEn magnitude for contact angle during wheelchair propulsion than those without pain (χ(2)(1)=6.12;p<0.05); and (3) SampEn of contact angle correlated significantly with self-reported shoulder pain (rs (WUSPI) =0.41;rs (VAS)=0.56;p<0.05). It was concluded that the time-dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion may provide novel information for tracking and monitoring shoulder pain.

  1. Acceleration in a nonplanar time-dependent billiard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeisi, Sedighe; Eslami, Parvin

    2016-08-01

    We study the dynamical properties of a particle in a nonplanar square billiard. The plane of the billiard has a sinusoidal shape. We consider both the static and time-dependent plane. We study the affect of different parameters that control the geometry of the billiard in this model. We consider variations of different parameters of the model and describe how the particle trajectory is affected by these parameters. We also investigate the dynamical behavior of the system in the static condition using its reduced phase plot and show that the dynamics of the particle inside the billiard may be regular, mixed, or chaotic. Finally, the problem of the particle energy growth is studied in the billiard with the time-dependent plane. We show that when in the static case, the billiard is chaotic, then the particle energy in the time-dependent billiard grows for a small number of collisions, and then it starts to saturate. But when the dynamics of the static case is regular, then the particle average energy in the time-dependent situation stays constant.

  2. Acceleration in a nonplanar time-dependent billiard.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Sedighe; Eslami, Parvin

    2016-08-01

    We study the dynamical properties of a particle in a nonplanar square billiard. The plane of the billiard has a sinusoidal shape. We consider both the static and time-dependent plane. We study the affect of different parameters that control the geometry of the billiard in this model. We consider variations of different parameters of the model and describe how the particle trajectory is affected by these parameters. We also investigate the dynamical behavior of the system in the static condition using its reduced phase plot and show that the dynamics of the particle inside the billiard may be regular, mixed, or chaotic. Finally, the problem of the particle energy growth is studied in the billiard with the time-dependent plane. We show that when in the static case, the billiard is chaotic, then the particle energy in the time-dependent billiard grows for a small number of collisions, and then it starts to saturate. But when the dynamics of the static case is regular, then the particle average energy in the time-dependent situation stays constant. PMID:27627308

  3. Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…

  4. Time-Dependent Interfacial Properties and DNAPL Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, D.M.

    1999-03-10

    Interfacial properties play a major role in governing where and how dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) move in the subsurface. Interfacial tension and contact angle measurements were obtained for a simple, single component DNAPL (tetrachloroethene, PCE), complex laboratory DNAPLs (PCE plus Sudan IV dye), and a field DNAPL from the Savannah River Site (SRS) M-Area DNAPL (PCE, trichloroethene [TCE], and maching oils). Interfacial properties for complex DNAPLs were time-dependent, a phenomenon not observed for PCE alone. Drainage capillary pressure-saturation curves are strongly influenced by interfacial properties. Therefore time-dependence will alter the nature of DNAPL migration and penetration. Results indicate that the time-dependence of PCE with relatively high Sudan IV dye concentrations is comparable to that of the field DNAPL. Previous DNAPL mobility experiments in which the DNAPL was dyed should be reviewed to determine whether time-dependent properties influenced the resutls. Dyes appear to make DNAPL more complex, and therefore a more realistic analog for field DNAPLs than single component DNAPLs.

  5. Solving time-dependent operator equations for nanoscale physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, A. Ravi P.

    2007-08-27

    This is the final technical report on an Office of Basic Energy Sciences Grant, detailing the work accomplished on solving time-dependent operator equations of interest in nanoscale physics. A summary of the results and list of publications is given.

  6. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  7. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  8. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  9. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and glass-forming ability of Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 bulk metallic glass investigated by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Pan; Zhao, Shaofan; Wang, Xin; Yao, Kefu

    2015-07-01

    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and glass-forming ability of Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 glassy alloy were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The activation energies corresponding to the characteristic temperatures have been calculated by Kissinger and Ozawa equations. Based on Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall models, it has been found that the local activation energy is higher at the beginning of the crystallization process for the first exothermic peak. The local Avrami exponent indicates that the first-step crystallization is mainly a high-dimensional nucleation and growth with an increasing nucleation rate. According to the calculated fragility index, Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 alloy can be classified as "strong glass former." The studied alloy also possesses a critical size up to centimeter order, and the high glass-forming ability is probably related to the relatively low Gibbs energy difference between the liquid and crystalline states. The critical cooling rate of Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 glassy alloy has also been determined using Barandiaran-Colmenero's method.

  10. Phase transformation and kinetic study of a Ga5Ge15Te80 chalcogenide glass using the non-isothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, M.; Shakra, A. M.; Sakr, G. B.

    2016-07-01

    The crystallization kinetics for a Ga5Ge15Te80 chalcogenide glass, prepared by melt quenching technique, have been studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA) under non-isothermal condition, with five different heating rates α = 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 ° C/ min . The DTA trace indicates the presence of two crystallization peaks. The glass transition temperature Tg , the crystallization temperature Tc and the melting point temperature Tm were determined. The dependence of Tg , T_{c1} and T_{c2} on the heating rate α , were used for the determination of the activation energy of glass transition Eg and crystallization Ec . The DTA data have been analyzed in terms of activation energy, stability and dimensionality of growth ( m by different models viz. Kissinger's, Mahadeavan, Augis and Bennet's and Matusita's equations. The Avrami exponents ( n and ( m have also been determined; the obtained values of ( n and ( m are 2.959 and 1.959, respectively, indicating bulk nucleation with two-dimensional growth.

  11. Monte Carlo modelling of non-isothermal degradation of two cyanidin-based anthocyanins in aqueous system at high temperatures and its impact on antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiaonan; Zhou, Weibiao

    2014-04-01

    The non-isothermal degradation of two cyanidin-based anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, was investigated in aqueous system within the temperature range from 100 to 165 °C, and the degradation kinetics was modelled using Monte Carlo simulation. The two anthocyanins showed different stability, with cyanidin-3-glucoside exhibiting a higher degradation rate than cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The derived degradation rate at the reference temperature of 132.5 °C and activation energy of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were 0.0047 and 0.0023 s(-1), and 87 and 104 kJ/mol, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the thermally processed anthocyanins solutions was measured by using ABTS and DPPH assays. Results showed that the antioxidant capacity of the samples remained at the same level during the thermal treatment process under various conditions, i.e., there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the antioxidant capacity amongst the samples despite their significantly different contents of the two anthocyanins.

  12. Coupled modeling of non-isothermal multiphase flow, solutetransport and reactive chemistry in porous and fractured media: 1. ModelDevelopment and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    1998-09-01

    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport and chemical reactions can be used for the assessment of acid mine drainage remediation, mineral deposition, waste disposal sites, hydrothermal convection, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. Here they present a numerical simulation model, TOUGHREACT, which considers non-isothermal multi-component chemical transport in both liquid and gas phases. A wide range of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered. The model can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The model can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions is considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, cation exchange, and surface complexation. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can proceed either subject to local equilibrium or kinetic conditions. The coupled model employs a sequential iteration approach with reasonable computing efficiency. The development of the governing equations and numerical approach is presented along with the discussion of the model implementation and capabilities. The model is verified for a wide range of subsurface physical and chemical processes. The model is well suited for flow and reactive transport in variably saturated porous and fractured media. In the second of this two-part paper, three applications covering a variety of problems are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model.

  13. Comparative investigation on non-isothermal kinetics for thermo-degradation of lignocellulosic substrate and its chlorinated derivative in atmospheres with CO2 participation.

    PubMed

    He, Yao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Investigations were launched under atmospheres of different N2/CO2 ratios for thermo-degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its chlorinated derivative that typically contains 10 wt.% poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) over thermogravimetric analysis. Two degradation stages were found where CO2 was inert in stage one but changed to be reactive in stage two. Lignocellulosics were less reactive than their chlorinated derivatives. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data were used for evaluating kinetics using Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods. The values of apparent activation energy in stage one were 200-250 kJ/mol with less variance but varied greatly in stage two for different scenarios concerning CO2 proportion and PVC presence. These values were used to determine the reaction mechanism of each stage by master-plots method. Most processes were kinetically characterized by diffusion and reaction order models. The results afford a theoretical groundwork for the resourceful utilization of lignocellulosics derived from municipal activities and the development of their thermochemical conversion systems.

  14. Experimental Investigation About Stamping Behaviour of 3D Warp Interlock Composite Preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Clément; Wang, Peng; Boussu, François; Soulat, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Forming of continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled prepregs can be performed at room temperature due to its similar textile structure. The "cool" forming stage is better controlled and more economical. The increase of temperature and the resin consolidation phases after the forming can be carried out under the isothermal condition thanks to a closed system. It can avoid the manufacturing defects easily experienced in the non-isothermal thermoforming, in particular the wrinkling [1]. Glass/Polypropylene commingled yarns have been woven inside different three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics and then formed using a double-curved shape stamping tool. The present study investigates the in-plane and through-thickness behaviour of the 3D warp interlock fibrous reinforcements during forming with a hemispherical punch. Experimental data allow analysing the forming behaviour in the warp and weft directions and on the influence of warp interlock architectures. The results point out that the layer to layer warp interlock preform has a better stamping behaviour, in particular no forming defects and good homogeneity in thickness.

  15. Time-dependent density functional theory with twist-averaged boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Time-dependent density functional theory is widely used to describe excitations of many-fermion systems. In its many applications, three-dimensional (3D) coordinate-space representation is used, and infinite-domain calculations are limited to a finite volume represented by a spatial box. For finite quantum systems (atoms, molecules, nuclei, hadrons), the commonly used periodic or reflecting boundary conditions introduce spurious quantization of the continuum states and artificial reflections from boundary; hence, an incorrect treatment of evaporated particles. Purpose: The finite-volume artifacts for finite systems can be practically cured by invoking an absorbing potential in a certain boundary region sufficiently far from the described system. However, such absorption cannot be applied in the calculations of infinite matter (crystal electrons, quantum fluids, neutron star crust), which suffer from unphysical effects stemming from a finite computational box used. Here, twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) have been used successfully to diminish the finite-volume effects. In this work, we extend TABC to time-dependent modes. Method: We use the 3D time-dependent density functional framework with the Skyrme energy density functional. The practical calculations are carried out for small- and large-amplitude electric dipole and quadrupole oscillations of 16O. We apply and compare three kinds of boundary conditions: periodic, absorbing, and twist-averaged. Results: Calculations employing absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) and TABC are superior to those based on periodic boundary conditions. For low-energy excitations, TABC and ABC variants yield very similar results. With only four twist phases per spatial direction in TABC, one obtains an excellent reduction of spurious fluctuations. In the nonlinear regime, one has to deal with evaporated particles. In TABC, the floating nucleon gas remains in the box; the amount of nucleons in the gas is found to be

  16. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  17. Automatic 3D video format detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  18. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  19. Generating time dependent conformally coupled Einstein-scalar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Using the correspondence between a minimally coupled scalar field and an effective stiff perfect fluid with or without a cosmological constant, we present a simple method for generating time dependent Einstein-scalar solutions with a conformally coupled scalar field that has vanishing or non-vanishing potential. This is done by using Bekenstein's transformation on Einstein-scalar solutions with minimally coupled massless scalar fields, and its later generalization by Abreu et al. to massive fields. In particular we obtain two new spherically symmetric time dependent solutions to the coupled system of Einstein's and the conformal scalar field equations, with one of the solutions having a Higgs' type potential for the scalar field, and we study their properties.

  20. Statistical time-dependent model for the interstellar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerola, H.; Kafatos, M.; Mccray, R.

    1974-01-01

    We present models for temperature and ionization structure of low, uniform-density (approximately 0.3 per cu cm) interstellar gas in a galactic disk which is exposed to soft X rays from supernova outbursts occurring randomly in space and time. The structure was calculated by computing the time record of temperature and ionization at a given point by Monte Carlo simulation. The calculation yields probability distribution functions for ionized fraction, temperature, and their various observable moments. These time-dependent models predict a bimodal temperature distribution of the gas that agrees with various observations. Cold regions in the low-density gas may have the appearance of clouds in 21-cm absorption. The time-dependent model, in contrast to the steady-state model, predicts large fluctuations in ionization rate and the existence of cold (approximately 30 K), ionized (ionized fraction equal to about 0.1) regions.

  1. A time-dependent approach to electron-atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, Gavin Douglas

    1997-08-01

    This time-dependent approach utilizes a fully correlated two electron wave function developed by Bottcher, Schultz and Madison. A finite element spline basis is employed with the principle of collocation in order to express the wave function and Hamiltonian numerically. An initial state, composed of a wavepacket for the projectile and an isolated atomic wave function, is evolved in time according to the time-dependent Schrodinger equation. Probabilities for excitation and ionization are computed as a function of time by taking projections onto states and pseudostates of the target atom. The wavepacket approach obviates the need for consideration of three- body boundary conditions and the asymptotic form of the wave function. Cross sections for electron impact excitation and ionization are obtained and compared with results from other theoretical methods.

  2. Boosting thermoelectric efficiency using time-dependent control.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hangbo; Thingna, Juzar; Hänggi, Peter; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of power delivered to the load of a device to the rate of heat flow from the source. Till date, it has been studied in presence of thermodynamic constraints set by the Onsager reciprocal relation and the second law of thermodynamics that severely bottleneck the thermoelectric efficiency. In this study, we propose a pathway to bypass these constraints using a time-dependent control and present a theoretical framework to study dynamic thermoelectric transport in the far from equilibrium regime. The presence of a control yields the sought after substantial efficiency enhancement and importantly a significant amount of power supplied by the control is utilised to convert the wasted-heat energy into useful-electric energy. Our findings are robust against nonlinear interactions and suggest that external time-dependent forcing, which can be incorporated with existing devices, provides a beneficial scheme to boost thermoelectric efficiency.

  3. A time dependent theory of crazing behavior in polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, S. S.; Hsiao, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The development of crazing is not only a function of stress, but also a function of time. Under a simple state of tension, a craze opening displacement is closely associated with the viscoelastic behavior of the original bulk polymer medium in which individual crazes initiate and develop. Within each craze region, molecular orientation takes place when conditions permit, and a new phase of rearranged molecules governs its local behavior. Based upon a time-dependent viscoelastic two-dimensional model, using a computer program the craze opening displacement field has been calculated, time-dependent craze length was also computed by taking into consideration the molecular orientation mechanism and large deformations in the craze region. Examples are given for simple viscoelastic media with simplified stress distributions. It is interesting to find out that the occurrence of crazing may be interpreted in terms of the stability or instability of the constitutive behavior of the bulk polymer.

  4. Sublinear scaling for time-dependent stochastic density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran

    2015-01-21

    A stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory is developed for computing the absorption cross section and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. The core idea of the approach involves time-propagation of a small set of stochastic orbitals which are first projected on the occupied space and then propagated in time according to the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. The evolving electron density is exactly represented when the number of random orbitals is infinite, but even a small number (≈16) of such orbitals is enough to obtain meaningful results for absorption spectrum and the RPA correlation energy per electron. We implement the approach for silicon nanocrystals using real-space grids and find that the overall scaling of the algorithm is sublinear with computational time and memory.

  5. Chromospheric extents predicted by time-dependent acoustic wave models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, Manfred

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical models for chromospheric structures of late-type giant stars are computed, including the time-dependent propagation of acoustic waves. Models with short-period monochromatic shock waves as well as a spectrum of acoustic waves are discussed, and the method is applied to the stars Arcturus, Aldebaran, and Betelgeuse. Chromospheric extent, defined as the monotonic decrease with height of the time-averaged electron densities, are found to be 1.12, 1.13, and 1.22 stellar radii for the three stars, respectively; this corresponds to a time-averaged electron density of 10 to the 7th/cu cm. Predictions of the extended chromospheric obtained using a simple scaling law agree well with those obtained by the time-dependent wave models; thus, the chromospheres of all stars for which the scaling law is valid consist of the same number of pressure scale heights.

  6. Boosting thermoelectric efficiency using time-dependent control.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hangbo; Thingna, Juzar; Hänggi, Peter; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of power delivered to the load of a device to the rate of heat flow from the source. Till date, it has been studied in presence of thermodynamic constraints set by the Onsager reciprocal relation and the second law of thermodynamics that severely bottleneck the thermoelectric efficiency. In this study, we propose a pathway to bypass these constraints using a time-dependent control and present a theoretical framework to study dynamic thermoelectric transport in the far from equilibrium regime. The presence of a control yields the sought after substantial efficiency enhancement and importantly a significant amount of power supplied by the control is utilised to convert the wasted-heat energy into useful-electric energy. Our findings are robust against nonlinear interactions and suggest that external time-dependent forcing, which can be incorporated with existing devices, provides a beneficial scheme to boost thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:26464021

  7. Nonlinear time-dependent simulation of helix traveling wave tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei-Feng; Yang, Zhong-Hai; Hu, Yu-Lu; Li, Jian-Qing; Lu, Qi-Ru; Li, Bin

    2011-07-01

    A one-dimensional nonlinear time-dependent theory for helix traveling wave tubes is studied. A generalized electromagnetic field is applied to the expression of the radio frequency field. To simulate the variations of the high frequency structure, such as the pitch taper and the effect of harmonics, the spatial average over a wavelength is substituted by a time average over a wave period in the equation of the radio frequency field. Under this assumption, the space charge field of the electron beam can be treated by a space charge wave model along with the space charge coefficient. The effects of the radio frequency and the space charge fields on the electrons are presented by the equations of the electron energy and the electron phase. The time-dependent simulation is compared with the frequency-domain simulation for a helix TWT, which validates the availability of this theory.

  8. Boosting thermoelectric efficiency using time-dependent control

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hangbo; Thingna, Juzar; Hänggi, Peter; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of power delivered to the load of a device to the rate of heat flow from the source. Till date, it has been studied in presence of thermodynamic constraints set by the Onsager reciprocal relation and the second law of thermodynamics that severely bottleneck the thermoelectric efficiency. In this study, we propose a pathway to bypass these constraints using a time-dependent control and present a theoretical framework to study dynamic thermoelectric transport in the far from equilibrium regime. The presence of a control yields the sought after substantial efficiency enhancement and importantly a significant amount of power supplied by the control is utilised to convert the wasted-heat energy into useful-electric energy. Our findings are robust against nonlinear interactions and suggest that external time-dependent forcing, which can be incorporated with existing devices, provides a beneficial scheme to boost thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:26464021

  9. Boosting thermoelectric efficiency using time-dependent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hangbo; Thingna, Juzar; Hänggi, Peter; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of power delivered to the load of a device to the rate of heat flow from the source. Till date, it has been studied in presence of thermodynamic constraints set by the Onsager reciprocal relation and the second law of thermodynamics that severely bottleneck the thermoelectric efficiency. In this study, we propose a pathway to bypass these constraints using a time-dependent control and present a theoretical framework to study dynamic thermoelectric transport in the far from equilibrium regime. The presence of a control yields the sought after substantial efficiency enhancement and importantly a significant amount of power supplied by the control is utilised to convert the wasted-heat energy into useful-electric energy. Our findings are robust against nonlinear interactions and suggest that external time-dependent forcing, which can be incorporated with existing devices, provides a beneficial scheme to boost thermoelectric efficiency.

  10. Clean Time-Dependent String Backgrounds from Bubble Baths

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva M

    2002-08-08

    We consider the set of controlled time-dependent backgrounds of general relativity and string theory describing ''bubbles of nothing'', obtained via double analytic continuation of black hole solutions. We analyze their quantum stability, uncover some novel features of their dynamics, identify their causal structure and observables, and compute their particle production spectrum. We present a general relation between squeezed states, such as those arising in cosmological particle creation, and nonlocal theories on the string worldsheet. The bubble backgrounds have various aspects in common with de Sitter space, Rindler space, and moving mirror systems, but constitute controlled solutions of general relativity and string theory with no external forces. They provide a useful theoretical laboratory for studying issues of observables in systems with cosmological horizons, particle creation, and time-dependent string perturbation theory.

  11. Time-dependent response of filamentary composite spherical pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel is modeled as a pseudoisotropic (or transversely isotropic) composite shell, with the effects of the liner and fill tubes omitted. Equations of elasticity, macromechanical and micromechanical formulations, and laminate properties are derived for the application of an internally pressured spherical composite vessel. Viscoelastic properties for the composite matrix are used to characterize time-dependent behavior. Using the maximum strain theory of failure, burst pressure and critical strain equations are formulated, solved in the Laplace domain with an associated elastic solution, and inverted back into the time domain using the method of collocation. Viscoelastic properties of HBFR-55 resin are experimentally determined and a Kevlar/HBFR-55 system is evaluated with a FORTRAN program. The computed reduction in burst pressure with respect to time indicates that the analysis employed may be used to predict the time-dependent response of a filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel.

  12. Time-dependent first-principles approaches to PV materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-10

    Computational scheme for designing photovoltaic (PV) materials is presented. First-principles electron dynamics of photo-excitation and subsequent electron-hole splitting is performed based on the time-dependent density functional theory. Photo-induced enhancement of dipole moment was observed in a polar crystal and a donor-acceptor molecular pair. These experiences will pave a way to design PV material from first-principles simulations.

  13. Time-dependent Brittle Deformation in Darley Dale Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baud, P.; Heap, M. J.; Meredith, P. G.; Bell, A. F.; Main, I. G.

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of time-dependent brittle rock deformation is fundamental to understanding the long- term evolution and dynamics of the Earth's upper crust. The chemical influence of water promotes time- dependent deformation through stress corrosion cracking that allows rocks to deform at stresses far below their short-term failure strength. Here we report results from a study of time-dependent brittle creep in water- saturated samples of Darley Dale sandstone (initial porosity of 13%). Conventional creep experiments (or 'static fatigue' tests) show that time to failure decreases dramatically with the imposed deviatoric stress. They also suggest the existence of a critical level of damage beyond which localized failure develops. Sample variability results however in significant scattering in the experimental data and numerous tests are needed to clearly define a relation between the strain rate and the applied stress. We show here that stress-stepping experiments provide a means to overcome this problem and that it is possible this way to obtain the strain rate dependence on applied stress with a single test. This allows to study in details the impact of various thermodynamical conditions on brittle creep. The influence of effective stress was investigated in stress-stepping experiments with effective confining pressures of 10, 30 and 50 MPa (whilst maintaining a constant pore fluid pressure of 20 MPa). In addition to the expected purely mechanical influence of an elevated effective stress our results also demonstrate that stress corrosion appears to be inhibited at higher effective stresses. The influence of doubling the pore fluid pressure however, whilst maintaining a constant effective stress, is shown to have no effect on the rate of stress corrosion. We then discuss the results in light of acoustic emission hypocentre location data and optical microscope analysis and use our experimental data to validate proposed macroscopic creep laws. Finally, using

  14. Shoulder pain and time dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion variability.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Moon, Yaejin; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-07-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable repetitive mechanical strain on the upper limbs leading to shoulder injury and pain. While recent research indicates that the amount of variability in wheelchair propulsion and shoulder pain may be related. There has been minimal inquiry into the fluctuation over time (i.e. time-dependent structure) in wheelchair propulsion variability. Consequently the purpose of this investigation was to examine if the time-dependent structure in the wheelchair propulsion parameters are related to shoulder pain. 27 experienced wheelchair users manually propelled their own wheelchair fitted with a SMARTWheel on a roller at 1.1m/s for 3min. Time-dependent structure of cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in contact angle and inter push time interval was quantified using sample entropy (SampEn) and compared between the groups with/without shoulder pain using non-parametric statistics. Overall findings were, (1) variability observed in contact angle fluctuations during manual wheelchair propulsion is structured (Z=3.15;p<0.05), (2) individuals with shoulder pain exhibited higher SampEn magnitude for contact angle during wheelchair propulsion than those without pain (χ(2)(1)=6.12;p<0.05); and (3) SampEn of contact angle correlated significantly with self-reported shoulder pain (rs (WUSPI) =0.41;rs (VAS)=0.56;p<0.05). It was concluded that the time-dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion may provide novel information for tracking and monitoring shoulder pain. PMID:27134151

  15. Time-dependent HF approach to SHE dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    We employ the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method to study various aspects of the reactions utilized in searches for superheavy elements. These include capture cross-sections, quasifission, prediction of PCN, and other interesting dynamical quantities. We show that the microscopic TDHF approach provides an important tool to shed some light on the nuclear dynamics leading to the formation of superheavy elements.

  16. Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v(t)=? a(t) dt (1) and x(t)=? v(t) dt. Mobile devices such as…

  17. Autoionization in time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, V.

    2016-06-01

    We compute the exact exchange-correlation potential of the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for the correlated process of autoionization. The potential develops barriers which regulate the autoionization rate. TDDFT employing known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture any autoionization dynamics. Approximate exchange-correlation potentials capturing such dynamics would necessarily require memory effects and are unlikely to be developed, as will be illustrated.

  18. Time dependence of the reaction of water with glass

    SciTech Connect

    Doremus, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Equations for the time-dependence of release of constituents from glass during reaction with water are discussed. Values of linear dissolution rates of different glasses are compared. Models for the reaction of water with glass are discussed. It is concluded that extrapolation of constant dissolution rates for durable glasses such as commercial soda-limes is reliable, but such extrapolation for borosilicate glass for waste disposal is less reliable because the mechanisms involved in their reaction with water are unclear. 25 refs.

  19. Quasinormal modes in a time-dependent black hole background

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Chenggang; Wang Bin; Abdalla, Elcio; Su Rukeng

    2005-02-15

    We have studied the evolution of the massless scalar field propagating in a time-dependent charged Vaidya black hole background. A generalized tortoise coordinate transformation was used to study the evolution of the massless scalar field. It is shown that, for the slowest damped quasinormal modes, the approximate formulas in the stationary Reissner-Nordstroem black hole turn out to be a reasonable prescription, showing that results from quasinormal mode analysis are rather robust.

  20. Quasinormal modes in a time-dependent black hole background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Bin; Abdalla, Elcio; Su, Ru-Keng

    2005-02-01

    We have studied the evolution of the massless scalar field propagating in a time-dependent charged Vaidya black hole background. A generalized tortoise coordinate transformation was used to study the evolution of the massless scalar field. It is shown that, for the slowest damped quasinormal modes, the approximate formulas in the stationary Reissner-Nordström black hole turn out to be a reasonable prescription, showing that results from quasinormal mode analysis are rather robust.

  1. Gamma time-dependency in Blaxter's compartmental model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matis, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A new two-compartment model for the passage of particles through the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants is proposed. In this model, a gamma distribution of lifetimes is introduced in the first compartment; thereby, passage from that compartment becomes time-dependent. This modification is strongly suggested by the physical alteration which certain substances, e.g. hay particles, undergo in the digestive process. The proposed model is applied to experimental data.

  2. Stochastic protein production and time-dependent current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorissen, Mieke; Vanderzande, Carlo

    2011-03-01

    Translation is the cellular process in which ribosomes make proteins from information encoded on messenger RNA. We model this process using driven lattice gases and take into account the finite lifetime of mRNA. The stochastic properties of the translation process can then be determined from the time-dependent current fluctuations of the lattice gas model. We illustrate our ideas with a totally asymmetric exclusion process with extended objects.

  3. Time-Dependent 5D Solutions of the Einstein Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, L. A.

    2010-07-12

    In this work are obtained 5D time-dependent solutions of Einstein equations, one is obtained by means of equiping a cylindrically symmetry solution (JEKK) with a scalar field, then lifting it to a fifth dimension. The other is obtained transforming the Myers-Perry solution via Wick rotation. The two solutions can be interpreted as gravitational waves in some cases. The singularities and C-energy are addressed.

  4. Designing for time-dependent material response in spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Oleksuk, Lynda L. S.; Bowles, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    To study the influence on overall deformations of the time-dependent constitutive properties of fiber-reinforced polymeric matrix composite materials being considered for use in orbiting precision segmented reflectors, simple sandwich beam models are developed. The beam models include layers representing the face sheets, the core, and the adhesive bonding of the face sheets to the core. A three-layer model lumps the adhesive layers with the face sheets or core, while a five-layer model considers the adhesive layers explicitly. The deformation response of the three-layer and five-layer sandwich beam models to a midspan point load is studied. This elementary loading leads to a simple analysis, and it is easy to create this loading in the laboratory. Using the correspondence principle of viscoelasticity, the models representing the elastic behavior of the two beams are transformed into time-dependent models. Representative cases of time-dependent material behavior for the facesheet material, the core material, and the adhesive are used to evaluate the influence of these constituents being time-dependent on the deformations of the beam. As an example of the results presented, if it assumed that, as a worst case, the polymer-dominated shear properties of the core behave as a Maxwell fluid such that under constant shear stress the shear strain increases by a factor of 10 in 20 years, then it is shown that the beam deflection increases by a factor of 1.4 during that time. In addition to quantitative conclusions, several assumptions are discussed which simplify the analyses for use with more complicated material models. Finally, it is shown that the simpler three-layer model suffices in many situations.

  5. Time-dependent MOS breakdown. [of Na contaminated capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. P.; Bates, E. T.; Maserjian, J.

    1976-01-01

    A general model for time-dependent breakdown in metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) structures is developed and related to experimental measurements on samples deliberately contaminated with Na. A statistical method is used for measuring the breakdown probability as a function of log time and applied field. It is shown that three time regions of breakdown can be explained respectively in terms of silicon surface defects, ion emission from the metal interface, and lateral ion diffusion at the silicon interface.

  6. Time-dependent global modeling of the inner heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J.; Arge, C. N.; Lario, D.; Linker, J.; Lionello, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present results of time-dependent modeling of the inner heliosphere using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). Two types of simulations are performed: one concentrates on the background solar wind specification, while the other deals with the propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). For simulations of the first type we coupled the LFM-helio code with the ADAPT-driven WSA model. We present some details of the coupling machinery and then simulate selected periods characterized by very low solar activity with no significant energetic particle events or CMEs. The results of the model are compared with MESSENGER, ACE, STEREO A and B spacecraft to probe both radial and temporal evolution of solar wind structure. The results indicate, in particular, the importance of time-dependent modeling for more accurate prediction of high-speed streams and heliospheric current sheet structure when the spacecraft skim its surface. We will comment on the formation of magnetic field reversals in pseudostreamer regions, which is an intrinsically time-dependent phenomenon, and on the current sheet corrugation caused by solar wind momentum shears. For the second type of time-dependent inner heliosphere simulations we have coupled LFM-helio with the MAS MHD model of the corona. We first present results of idealized coupled MAS/LFM-helio simulations with symmetric solar wind background and no rotation intended to test the interface for seamless propagation of transients from the corona into the inner heliosphere domain. We then simulate an event with a CME propagating through a realistic heliosphere background including corotating interaction regions. We show details of propagation of flux-rope CMEs through the boundary between MAS and LFM-helio and compare the results between the two codes in the heliospheric domain. The results indicate that the coupling works well, although some differences in the solutions are observed probably due to differences in numerical

  7. Quantum anholonomies in time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm rings

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Atushi; Cheon, Taksu

    2010-08-15

    Anholonomies in eigenstates are studied through time-dependent variations of a magnetic flux in an Aharonov-Bohm ring. The anholonomies in the eigenenergy and the expectation values of eigenstates are shown to persist beyond the adiabatic regime. The choice of the gauge of the magnetic flux is shown to be crucial to clarify the relationship of these anholonomies to the eigenspace anholonomy, which is described by a non-Abelian connection in the adiabatic limit.

  8. 3D temperature field reconstruction using ultrasound sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuqian; Ma, Tong; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    3D temperature field reconstruction is of practical interest to the power, transportation and aviation industries and it also opens up opportunities for real time control or optimization of high temperature fluid or combustion process. In our paper, a new distributed optical fiber sensing system consisting of a series of elements will be used to generate and receive acoustic signals. This system is the first active temperature field sensing system that features the advantages of the optical fiber sensors (distributed sensing capability) and the acoustic sensors (non-contact measurement). Signals along multiple paths will be measured simultaneously enabled by a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. Then a proposed Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (GRBF)-based approach can approximate the temperature field as a finite summation of space-dependent basis functions and time-dependent coefficients. The travel time of the acoustic signals depends on the temperature of the media. On this basis, the Gaussian functions are integrated along a number of paths which are determined by the number and distribution of sensors. The inversion problem to estimate the unknown parameters of the Gaussian functions can be solved with the measured times-of-flight (ToF) of acoustic waves and the length of propagation paths using the recursive least square method (RLS). The simulation results show an approximation error less than 2% in 2D and 5% in 3D respectively. It demonstrates the availability and efficiency of our proposed 3D temperature field reconstruction mechanism.

  9. Time dependent turbulence modeling and analytical theories of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, R.

    1993-01-01

    By simplifying the direct interaction approximation (DIA) for turbulent shear flow, time dependent formulas are derived for the Reynolds stresses which can be included in two equation models. The Green's function is treated phenomenologically, however, following Smith and Yakhot, we insist on the short and long time limits required by DIA. For small strain rates, perturbative evaluation of the correlation function yields a time dependent theory which includes normal stress effects in simple shear flows. From this standpoint, the phenomenological Launder-Reece-Rodi model is obtained by replacing the Green's function by its long time limit. Eddy damping corrections to short time behavior initiate too quickly in this model; in contrast, the present theory exhibits strong suppression of eddy damping at short times. A time dependent theory for large strain rates is proposed in which large scales are governed by rapid distortion theory while small scales are governed by Kolmogorov inertial range dynamics. At short times and large strain rates, the theory closely matches rapid distortion theory, but at long times it relaxes to an eddy damping model.

  10. Time-dependent dynamic behavior of light diffraction in ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Min-Feng; Chou, S. E.; Fu, Chao-Ming

    2012-04-01

    The time-dependent dynamic behavior of diffraction patterns induced by external magnetic field in a suspension of nano-sized magnetic particles (Fe3O4) in a water-based magnetic fluid was investigated. It was observed that the diffraction pattern changed with time as the magnetic field was applied. In the absence of applied magnetic field, there was no diffraction pattern in the screen. When the magnetic field was applied, the transmitted light was perpendicular to the magnetic field, and the diffraction pattern was unstable. There were many small lines and points moving with time. After one minute, the diffraction pattern turned stable, and the small lines became longer. This time-dependent behavior helps us to understand the evolution of the forming chains of magnetic nanoparticles. Moreover, we have measured the other diffraction pattern, the transmitted light propagating parallel to the applied field. These time-dependent diffraction patterns give a new point to understand the dynamic three-dimensional structure of magnetic fluid under a dc magnetic field.

  11. The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Manthe, Uwe

    2015-06-28

    The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach facilitates accurate high-dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. In the approach, the wavefunction is expanded in a direct product of self-adapting time-dependent single-particle functions (SPFs). The equations of motion for the expansion coefficients and the SPFs are obtained via the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle. While this derivation yields well-defined differential equations for the motion of occupied SPFs, singularities in the working equations resulting from unoccupied SPFs have to be removed by a regularization procedure. Here, an alternative derivation of the MCTDH equations of motion is presented. It employs an analysis of the time-dependence of the single-particle density matrices up to second order. While the analysis of the first order terms yields the known equations of motion for the occupied SPFs, the analysis of the second order terms provides new equations which allow one to identify optimal choices for the unoccupied SPFs. The effect of the optimal choice of the unoccupied SPFs on the structure of the MCTDH equations of motion and their regularization is discussed. Generalized equations applicable in the multi-layer MCTDH framework are presented. Finally, the effects resulting from the initial choice of the unoccupied SPFs are illustrated by a simple numerical example.

  12. Time-dependent neutron and photon dose-field analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Hasani Omar

    2005-11-01

    A unique tool is developed that allows the user to model physical representations of complicated glovebox facilities in two dimensions and determine neutral-particle flux and ambient dose-equivalent fields throughout that geometry. The code Pandemonium, originally designed to determine flux and dose rates only, has been improved to include realistic glovebox geometries, time-dependent source and detector positions, time-dependent shielding thickness calculations, time-integrated doses, a representative criticality accident scenario based on time-dependent reactor kinetics, and more rigorous photon treatment. The photon model has been significantly enhanced by expanding the energy range to 10 MeV to include fission photons, and by including a set of new buildup factors, the result of an extensive study into the previously unknown "purely-angular effect" on photon buildup. Purely-angular photon buildup factors are determined using discrete ordinates and coupled electron-photon cross sections to account for coherent and incoherent scattering and secondary photon effects of bremsstrahlung and florescence. Improvements to Pandemonium result in significant modeling capabilities for processing facilities using intense neutron and photon sources, and the code obtains comparable results to Monte Carlo calculations but within a fraction of the time required to run such codes as MCNPX.

  13. Eisenhart lifts and symmetries of time-dependent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariglia, M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horváthy, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Certain dissipative systems, such as Caldirola and Kannai's damped simple harmonic oscillator, may be modelled by time-dependent Lagrangian and hence time dependent Hamiltonian systems with n degrees of freedom. In this paper we treat these systems, their projective and conformal symmetries as well as their quantisation from the point of view of the Eisenhart lift to a Bargmann spacetime in n + 2 dimensions, equipped with its covariantly constant null Killing vector field. Reparametrisation of the time variable corresponds to conformal rescalings of the Bargmann metric. We show how the Arnold map lifts to Bargmann spacetime. We contrast the greater generality of the Caldirola-Kannai approach with that of Arnold and Bateman. At the level of quantum mechanics, we are able to show how the relevant Schrödinger equation emerges naturally using the techniques of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, since a covariantly constant null Killing vector field gives rise to well defined one particle Hilbert space. Time-dependent Lagrangians arise naturally also in cosmology and give rise to the phenomenon of Hubble friction. We provide an account of this for Friedmann-Lemaître and Bianchi cosmologies and how it fits in with our previous discussion in the non-relativistic limit.

  14. Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures From Energetic Photon Interrogations

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Norman; J. L. Jones; B. W. Blackburn; S. M. Watson; K. J. Haskell

    2006-08-01

    A pulsed photonuclear interrogation environment is rich with time-dependent, material specific, radiation signatures. Exploitation of these signatures in the delayed time regime (>1us after the photon flash) has been explored through various detection schemes to identify both shielded nuclear material and nitrogen-based explosives. Prompt emission may also be invaluable for these detection methods. Numerical and experimental results, which utilize specially modified neutron and HpGe detectors, are presented which illustrate the efficacy of utilizing these time-dependent signatures. Optimal selection of the appropriate delayed time window is essential to these pulsed inspection systems. For explosive (ANFO surrogate) detection, both numerical models and experimental results illustrate that nearly all 14N(n,y) reactions have occurred within l00 us after the flash. In contrast, however, gamma-ray and neutron signals for nuclear material detection require a delay of several milliseconds after the photon pulse. In this case, any data collected too close to the photon flash results in a spectrum dominated by high energy signals which make it difficult to discern signatures from nuclear material. Specifically, two short-lived, high-energy fission fragments (97Ag(T1/2=5.1 s) and 94Sr(T1/2=75.2 s)) were measured and identified as indicators of the presence of fissionable material. These developments demonstrate that a photon inspection environment can be exploited for time-dependent, material specific signatures through the proper operation of specially modified detectors.

  15. Experimental study of time-dependent dielectric breakdown in tri-gate nanowire transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Kensuke; Tanaka, Chika; Numata, Toshinori; Matsushita, Daisuke; Saitoh, Masumi

    2016-08-01

    We systematically investigate the size dependence of the time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in a tri-gate nanowire transistor (NW Tr.). It is newly found that TDDB reliability is degraded in NW Tr. as compared with that in a planar transistor owing to the locally enhanced electric field at the NW corner. Moreover, in the region with a width (W) less than 40 nm, nanowire width reduction leads to a shorter time to gate dielectric breakdown indicating additional degradation of TDDB reliability in NW Tr. with smaller W. Although TDDB in three-dimensional (3D) MOS structures such as a trench MOS capacitor has already been reported, the size dependence of TDDB in scaled NW Tr. is firstly discussed in this paper since a trench capacitor is different from recent NW Tr. in structure, device size, gate dielectric thickness, and scaling effect on TDDB.

  16. Adjoint-Based Methodology for Time-Dependent Optimal Control (AMTOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, Nail; Diskin, boris; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    During the five years of this project, the AMTOC team developed an adjoint-based methodology for design and optimization of complex time-dependent flows, implemented AMTOC in a testbed environment, directly assisted in implementation of this methodology in the state-of-the-art NASA's unstructured CFD code FUN3D, and successfully demonstrated applications of this methodology to large-scale optimization of several supersonic and other aerodynamic systems, such as fighter jet, subsonic aircraft, rotorcraft, high-lift, wind-turbine, and flapping-wing configurations. In the course of this project, the AMTOC team has published 13 refereed journal articles, 21 refereed conference papers, and 2 NIA reports. The AMTOC team presented the results of this research at 36 international and national conferences, meeting and seminars, including International Conference on CFD, and numerous AIAA conferences and meetings. Selected publications that include the major results of the AMTOC project are enclosed in this report.

  17. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  18. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  19. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  20. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  1. 3D Reconstruction of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) Remote-Sensing Data: Global Solar Wind Boundaries for Driving 3D-MHD Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.-S.; Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Odstrcil, D.; Wu, C.-C.; Davies, J. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.

    2015-09-01

    The University of California, San Diego, time-dependent analyses of the heliosphere provide three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of solar wind velocities and densities from observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS). Using data from the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Japan, these reconstructions provide a real-time prediction of the global solar-wind density and velocity throughout the whole heliosphere with a temporal cadence of about one day (ips.ucsd.edu). Updates to this modeling effort continue: in the present article, near-Sun results extracted from the time-dependent 3D reconstruction are used as inner boundary conditions to drive 3D-MHD models ( e.g. ENLIL and H3D-MHD). This allows us to explore the differences between the IPS kinematic-model data-fitting procedure and current 3D-MHD modeling techniques. The differences in these techniques provide interesting insights into the physical principles governing the expulsion of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Here we detail for the first time several specific CMEs and an induced shock that occurred in September 2011 that demonstrate some of the issues resulting from these analyses.

  2. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  3. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  4. 3D printing meets computational astrophysics: deciphering the structure of η Carinae's inner colliding winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Clementel, N.; Gull, T. R.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Paardekooper, J.-P.

    2015-06-01

    We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (≳120 M⊙), highly eccentric (e ˜ 0.9) binary star system η Carinae. We demonstrate the methodology used to incorporate 3D interactive figures into a PDF (Portable Document Format) journal publication and the benefits of using 3D visualization and 3D printing as tools to analyse data from multidimensional numerical simulations. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (MakerBot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Carinae's inner (r ˜ 110 au) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. The 3D prints and visualizations reveal important, previously unknown `finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ˜ 1.045) that protrude radially outwards from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. thin-shell, Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the fast (3000 km s-1), adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unrecognized physical features highlight the important role 3D printing and interactive graphics can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.

  5. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  6. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  7. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  8. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  9. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  10. Differences in time-dependent mechanical properties between extruded and molded hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ersumo, N; Witherel, C E; Spiller, K L

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of hydrogels used in biomaterials and tissue engineering applications are critical determinants of their functionality. Despite the recent rise of additive manufacturing, and specifically extrusion-based bioprinting, as a prominent biofabrication method, comprehensive studies investigating the mechanical behavior of extruded constructs remain lacking. To address this gap in knowledge, we compared the mechanical properties and swelling properties of crosslinked gelatin-based hydrogels prepared by conventional molding techniques or by 3D bioprinting using a BioBots Beta pneumatic extruder. A preliminary characterization of the impact of bioprinting parameters on construct properties revealed that both Young's modulus and optimal extruding pressure increased with polymer content, and that printing resolution increased with both printing speed and nozzle gauge. High viability (>95%) of encapsulated NIH 3T3 fibroblasts confirmed the cytocompatibility of the construct preparation process. Interestingly, the Young's moduli of extruded and molded constructs were not different, but extruded constructs did show increases in both the rate and extent of time-dependent mechanical behavior observed in creep. Despite similar polymer densities, extruded hydrogels showed greater swelling over time compared to molded hydrogels, suggesting that differences in creep behavior derived from differences in microstructure and fluid flow. Because of the crucial roles of time-dependent mechanical properties, fluid flow, and swelling properties on tissue and cell behavior, these findings highlight the need for greater consideration of the effects of the extrusion process on hydrogel properties. PMID:27550945

  11. Developments in deep brain stimulation using time dependent magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, L. J.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Jiles, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of head model complexity upon the strength of field in different brain regions for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been investigated. Experimental measurements were used to verify the validity of magnetic field calculations and induced electric field calculations for three 3D human head models of varying complexity. Results show the inability for simplified head models to accurately determine the site of high fields that lead to neuronal stimulation and highlight the necessity for realistic head modeling for TMS applications.

  12. Developments in deep brain stimulation using time dependent magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, L.J.; Nlebedim, I.C.; Jiles, D.C.

    2012-03-07

    The effect of head model complexity upon the strength of field in different brain regions for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been investigated. Experimental measurements were used to verify the validity of magnetic field calculations and induced electric field calculations for three 3D human head models of varying complexity. Results show the inability for simplified head models to accurately determine the site of high fields that lead to neuronal stimulation and highlight the necessity for realistic head modeling for TMS applications.

  13. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  14. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  15. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  16. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  17. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  18. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  19. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  20. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  1. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  2. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  3. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  4. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  5. Time-dependent radiation dose estimations during interplanetary space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobynde, M. I.; Shprits, Y.; Drozdov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Time-dependent radiation dose estimations during interplanetary space flights 1,2Dobynde M.I., 2,3Drozdov A.Y., 2,4Shprits Y.Y.1Skolkovo institute of science and technology, Moscow, Russia 2University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA 3Lomonosov Moscow State University Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow, Russia4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USASpace radiation is the main restriction for long-term interplanetary space missions. It induces degradation of external components and propagates inside providing damage to internal environment. Space radiation particles and induced secondary particle showers can lead to variety of damage to astronauts in short- and long- term perspective. Contribution of two main sources of space radiation- Sun and out-of-heliosphere space varies in time in opposite phase due to the solar activity state. Currently the only habituated mission is the international interplanetary station that flights on the low Earth orbit. Besides station shell astronauts are protected with the Earth magnetosphere- a natural shield that prevents significant damage for all humanity. Current progress in space exploration tends to lead humanity out of magnetosphere bounds. With the current study we make estimations of spacecraft parameters and astronauts damage for long-term interplanetary flights. Applying time dependent model of GCR spectra and data on SEP spectra we show the time dependence of the radiation in a human phantom inside the shielding capsule. We pay attention to the shielding capsule design, looking for an optimal geometry parameters and materials. Different types of particles affect differently on the human providing more or less harm to the tissues. Incident particles provide a large amount of secondary particles while propagating through the shielding capsule. We make an attempt to find an optimal combination of shielding capsule parameters, namely material and thickness, that will effectively decrease

  6. Time-Dependent Neutron and Photon Dose-Field Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, Hasani Omar

    2005-08-01

    A unique tool is developed that allows the user to model physical representations of complicated glovebox facilities in two dimensions and determine neutral-particle flux and ambient dose-equivalent fields throughout that geometry. The Pandemonium code, originally designed to determine flux and dose-rates only, is improved to include realistic glovebox geometries, time-dependent source and detector positions, time-dependent shielding thickness calculations, time-integrated doses, a representative criticality accident scenario based on time-dependent reactor kinetics, and more rigorous photon treatment. A primary benefit of this work has been an extensive analysis and improvement of the photon model that is not limited to the application described in this thesis. The photon model has been extended in energy range to 10 MeV to include photons from fission and new photon buildup factors have been included that account for the effects of photon buildup at slant-path thicknesses as a function of angle, where the mean free path thickness has been preserved. The overall system of codes is user-friendly and it is directly applicable to facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where high-intensity neutron and photon emitters are regularly used. The codes may be used to determine a priori doses for given work scenarios in an effort to supply dose information to process models which will in turn assist decision makers on ensuring as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) compliance. In addition, coupling the computational results of these tools with the process model visualization tools will help to increase worker safety and radiological safety awareness.

  7. Recent results on time-dependent Hamiltonian oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robnik, M.

    2016-09-01

    Time-dependent Hamilton systems are important in modeling the nondissipative interaction of the system with its environment. We review some recent results and present some new ones. In time-dependent, parametrically driven, one-dimensional linear oscillator, the complete analysis can be performed (in the sense explained below), also using the linear WKB method. In parametrically driven nonlinear oscillators extensive numerical studies have been performed, and the nonlinear WKB-like method can be applied for homogeneous power law potentials (which e.g. includes the quartic oscillator). The energy in time-dependent Hamilton systems is not conserved, and we are interested in its evolution in time, in particular the evolution of the microcanonical ensemble of initial conditions. In the ideal adiabatic limit (infinitely slow parametric driving) the energy changes according to the conservation of the adiabatic invariant, but has a Dirac delta distribution. However, in the general case the initial Dirac delta distribution of the energy spreads and we follow its evolution, especially in the two limiting cases, the slow variation close to the adiabatic regime, and the fastest possible change - a parametric kick, i.e. discontinuous jump (of a parameter), where some exact analytic results are obtained (the so-called PR property, and ABR property). For the linear oscillator the distribution of the energy is always, rigorously, the arcsine distribution, whose variance can in general be calculated by the linear WKB method, while in nonlinear systems there is no such universality. We calculate the Gibbs entropy for the ensembles of noninteracting nonlinear oscillator, which gives the right equipartition and thermostatic laws even for one degree of freedom.

  8. TIME-DEPENDENT MODELS OF FLARES FROM SAGITTARIUS A*

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds-Eden, Katie; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sharma, Prateek; Quataert, Eliot; Porquet, Delphine

    2010-12-10

    The emission from Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center, shows order of magnitude variability ('flares') a few times a day that is particularly prominent in the near-infrared (NIR) and X-rays. We present a time-dependent model for these flares motivated by the hypothesis that dissipation of magnetic energy powers the flares. We show that episodic magnetic reconnection can occur near the last stable circular orbit in time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black hole accretion-the timescales and energetics of these events are broadly consistent with the flares from Sgr A*. Motivated by these results, we present a spatially one-zone time-dependent model for the electron distribution function in flares, including energy loss due to synchrotron cooling and adiabatic expansion. Synchrotron emission from transiently accelerated particles can explain the NIR/X-ray light curves and spectra of a luminous flare observed on 2007 April 4. A significant decrease in the magnetic field strength during the flare (coincident with the electron acceleration) is required to explain the simultaneity and symmetry of the simultaneous light curves. Our models predict that the NIR and X-ray spectral indices are related by {Delta}{alpha} {approx_equal} 0.5 (where {nu}F{sub {nu}} {proportional_to} {nu}{sup {alpha}}) and that there is only modest variation in the spectral index during flares. We also explore implications of this model for longer wavelength (radio-submillimeter) emission seemingly associated with X-ray and NIR flares; we argue that a few hour decrease in the submillimeter emission is a more generic consequence of large-scale magnetic reconnection than delayed radio emission from adiabatic expansion.

  9. Timing-Dependent Actions of NGF Required for Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jaehoon; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Yu-ichi; Uda, Shinsuke; Kuroda, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    Background Continuous NGF stimulation induces PC12 cell differentiation. However, why continuous NGF stimulation is required for differentiation is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of the timing-dependent requirement of NGF action for cell differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the timing-dependency of the NGF action, we performed a discontinuous stimulation assay consisting of a first transient stimulation followed by an interval and then a second sustained stimulation and quantified the neurite extension level. Consequently, we observed a timing-dependent action of NGF on cell differentiation, and discontinuous NGF stimulation similarly induced differentiation. The first stimulation did not induce neurite extension, whereas the second stimulation induced fast neurite extension; therefore, the first stimulation is likely required as a prerequisite condition. These observations indicate that the action of NGF can be divided into two processes: an initial stimulation-driven latent process and a second stimulation-driven extension process. The latent process appears to require the activities of ERK and transcription, but not PI3K, whereas the extension-process requires the activities of ERK and PI3K, but not transcription. We also found that during the first stimulation, the activity of NGF can be replaced by PACAP, but not by insulin, EGF, bFGF or forskolin; during the second stimulation, however, the activity of NGF cannot be replaced by any of these stimulants. These findings allowed us to identify potential genes specifically involved in the latent process, rather than in other processes, using a microarray. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that NGF induces the differentiation of PC12 cells via mechanically distinct processes: an ERK-driven and transcription-dependent latent process, and an ERK- and PI3K-driven and transcription-independent extension process. PMID:20126402

  10. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  11. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  12. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  13. Time Dependence of Correlation Functions Following a Quantum Quench

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Cardy, John

    2006-04-07

    We show that the time dependence of correlation functions in an extended quantum system in d dimensions, which is prepared in the ground state of some Hamiltonian and then evolves without dissipation according to some other Hamiltonian, may be extracted using methods of boundary critical phenomena in d+1 dimensions. For d=1 particularly powerful results are available using conformal field theory. These are checked against those available from solvable models. They may be explained in terms of a picture, valid more generally, whereby quasiparticles, entangled over regions of the order of the correlation length in the initial state, then propagate classically through the system.

  14. Time dependent modeling of non-LTE plasmas: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    During the period of performance of this contract Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) has aided Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the development of an unclassified modeling tool for studying time evolution of high temperature ionizing and recombining plasmas. This report covers the numerical code developed, (D)ynamic (D)etailed (C)onfiguration (A)ccounting (DDCA), which was written to run on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center (NMFECC) network as well as the classified Livermore Computer Center (OCTOPUS) network. DDCA is a One-Dimensional (1D) time dependent hydrodynamic model which makes use of the non-LTE detailed atomic physics ionization model DCA. 5 refs.

  15. Optimal moving grids for time-dependent partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wathen, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Various adaptive moving grid techniques for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations were proposed. The precise criterion for grid motion varies, but most techniques will attempt to give grids on which the solution of the partial differential equation can be well represented. Moving grids are investigated on which the solutions of the linear heat conduction and viscous Burgers' equation in one space dimension are optimally approximated. Precisely, the results of numerical calculations of optimal moving grids for piecewise linear finite element approximation of partial differential equation solutions in the least squares norm.

  16. Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation: Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Dufty

    2007-04-28

    This is the Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-2ER54677 award “Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation - Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas”. Research has focused on the nonequilibrium dynamics of electrons in the presence of ions, both via basic quantum theory and via semi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In addition, fundamental notions of dissipative dynamics have been explored for models of grains and dust, and for scalar fields (temperature) in turbulent edge plasmas. The specific topics addressed were Quantum Kinetic Theory for Metallic Clusters, Semi-classical MD Simulation of Plasmas , and Effects of Dissipative Dynamics.

  17. Advances in time-dependent current-density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Arjan

    In this work we solve the problem of the gauge dependence of molecular magnetic properties (magnetizabilities, circular dichroism) using time-dependent current-density functional theory [1]. We also present a new functional that accurately describes the optical absorption spectra of insulators, semiconductors and metals [2] N. Raimbault, P.L. de Boeij, P. Romaniello, and J.A. Berger Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 066404 (2015) J.A. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 137402 (2015) This study has been partially supported through the Grant NEXT No. ANR-10-LABX-0037 in the framework of the Programme des Investissements d'Avenir.

  18. Brownian motion of electrons in time-dependent magnetic fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, G. J.; Williams, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of a weakly ionized plasma in slowly varying time-dependent magnetic fields is studied through an extension of Williamson's stochastic theory. In particular, attention is focused on the properties of electron diffusion in the plane perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, when the field strength is large. It is shown that, in the strong field limit, the classical 1/B-squared dependence of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient is obtained for two models in which the field B(t) is monotonic in t and for two models in which B(t) possesses at least one turning point.

  19. Optimal moving grids for time-dependent partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wathen, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Various adaptive moving grid techniques for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations were proposed. The precise criterion for grid motion varies, but most techniques will attempt to give grids on which the solution of the partial differential equation can be well represented. Moving grids are investigated on which the solutions of the linear heat conduction and viscous Burgers' equation in one space dimension are optimally approximated. Precisely, the results of numerical calculations of optimal moving grids for piecewise linear finite element approximation of PDE solutions in the least-squares norm are reported.

  20. The Nonlinear Dynamics of Time Dependent Subcritical Baroclinic Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedlosky, J.; Flierl, G. R.

    2006-12-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of baroclinically unstable waves in a time dependent zonal shear flow is considered in the framework of the two-layer Phillips model on the beta plane. In most cases considered in this study the amplitude of the shear is well below the critical value of the steady shear version of the model. Nevertheless, the time dependent problem in which the shear oscillates periodically is unstable, and the unstable waves grow to substantial amplitudes, in some cases with strongly nonlinear and turbulent characteristics. For very small values of the shear amplitude in the presence of dissipation an analytical, asymptotic theory predicts a self-sustained wave whose amplitude undergoes a nonlinear oscillation whose period is amplitude dependent. There is a sensitive amplitude dependence of the wave on the frequency of the oscillating shear when the shear amplitude is small. This behavior is also found in a truncated model of the dynamics, and that model is used to examine larger shear amplitudes. When there is a mean value of the shear in addition to the oscillating component, but such that the total shear is still subcritical, the resulting nonlinear states exhibit a rectified horizontal buoyancy flux with a nonzero time average as a result of the instability of the oscillating shear. For higher, still subcritical, values of the shear we have detected a symmetry breaking in which a second cross-stream mode is generated through an instability of the unstable wave although this second mode would by itself be stable on the basic time dependent current. For shear values that are substantially subcritical but of order of the critical shear, calculations with a full quasi-geostrophic numerical model reveal a turbulent flow generated by the instability. If the beta effect is disregarded the inviscid, linear problem is formally stable. However, our calculations show that a small degree of nonlinearity is enough to destabilize the flow leading to large amplitude

  1. Perspective: Fundamental aspects of time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Neepa T.

    2016-06-01

    In the thirty-two years since the birth of the foundational theorems, time-dependent density functional theory has had a tremendous impact on calculations of electronic spectra and dynamics in chemistry, biology, solid-state physics, and materials science. Alongside the wide-ranging applications, there has been much progress in understanding fundamental aspects of the functionals and the theory itself. This Perspective looks back to some of these developments, reports on some recent progress and current challenges for functionals, and speculates on future directions to improve the accuracy of approximations used in this relatively young theory.

  2. Time-dependent Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggenthaler, M.; Mackenroth, F.; Bauer, D.

    2011-10-15

    We prove a generalization of the van Leeuwen theorem toward quantum electrodynamics, providing the formal foundations of a time-dependent Kohn-Sham construction for coupled quantized matter and electromagnetic fields. We circumvent the symmetry-causality problems associated with the action-functional approach to Kohn-Sham systems. We show that the effective external four-potential and four-current of the Kohn-Sham system are uniquely defined and that the effective four-current takes a very simple form. Further we rederive the Runge-Gross theorem for quantum electrodynamics.

  3. Efficient auxiliary-mode approach for time-dependent nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Bogdan Stefan; Croy, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    A new scheme for numerically solving the equations arising in the time-dependent non-equilibrium Green's function formalism is developed. It is based on an auxiliary-mode expansion of the self-energies which convert the complicated set of integro-differential equations into a set of ordinary differential equations. In the new scheme all auxiliary matrices are replaced by vectors or scalars. This drastically reduces the computational effort and memory requirements of the method, rendering it applicable to topical problems in electron quantum optics and molecular electronics. As an illustrative example we consider the dynamics of a Leviton wave-packet in a 1D wire.

  4. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  5. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  6. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  7. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  8. An Efficient 3D Stochastic Model for Predicting the Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastac, L.

    2015-06-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) stochastic model for simulating the evolution of dendritic crystals during the solidification of alloys was developed. The model includes time-dependent computations for temperature distribution, solute redistribution in the liquid and solid phases, curvature, and growth anisotropy. The 3D model can run on PCs with reasonable amount of RAM and CPU time. 3D stochastic mesoscopic simulations at the dendrite tip length scale were performed to simulate the evolution of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition in alloy 718. Comparisons between simulated microstructures and segregation patterns obtained with 2D and 3D stochastic models are also presented.

  9. Mesoscopic structure of neuronal tracts from time-dependent diffusion.

    PubMed

    Burcaw, Lauren M; Fieremans, Els; Novikov, Dmitry S

    2015-07-01

    Interpreting brain diffusion MRI measurements in terms of neuronal structure at a micrometer level is an exciting unresolved problem. Here we consider diffusion transverse to a bundle of fibers, and show theoretically, as well as using Monte Carlo simulations and measurements in a phantom made of parallel fibers mimicking axons, that the time dependent diffusion coefficient approaches its macroscopic limit slowly, in a (ln t)/t fashion. The logarithmic singularity arises due to short range disorder in the fiber packing. We identify short range disorder in axonal fibers based on histological data from the splenium, and argue that the time dependent contribution to the overall diffusion coefficient from the extra-axonal water dominates that of the intra-axonal water. This dominance may explain the bias in measuring axon diameters in clinical settings. The short range disorder is also reflected in the asymptotically linear frequency dependence of the diffusion coefficient measured with oscillating gradients, in agreement with recent experiments. Our results relate the measured diffusion to the mesoscopic structure of neuronal tissue, uncovering the sensitivity of diffusion metrics to axonal arrangement within a fiber tract, and providing an alternative interpretation of axonal diameter mapping techniques.

  10. Transient Orthogonality Catastrophe in a Time Dependent Nonequilibrium Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiro, Marco; Mitra, Aditi; 0 Team

    2015-03-01

    We study the response of a highly-excited time dependent quantum many-body state to a sudden local perturbation, a sort of orthogonality catastrophe problem in a transient non-equilibrium environment. To this extent we consider, as key quantity, the overlap between time dependent wave-functions, that we write in terms of a novel two-time correlator generalizing the standard Loschmidt Echo. We discuss its physical meaning, general properties, and its connection with experimentally measurable quantities probed through non-equilibrium Ramsey interferometry schemes. Then we present explicit calculations for a one dimensional interacting Fermi system brought out of equilibrium by a sudden change of the interaction, and perturbed by the switching on of a local static potential. We show that different scattering processes give rise to remarkably different behaviors at long times, quite opposite from the equilibrium situation. In particular, while the forward scattering contribution retains its power law structure even in the presence of a large non-equilibrium perturbation, with an exponent that is strongly affected by the transient nature of the bath, the backscattering term is a source of non-linearity which generates an exponential decay in time of the Loschmidt Echo, reminiscent of

  11. Transient Orthogonality Catastrophe in a Time-Dependent Nonequilibrium Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiró, Marco; Mitra, Aditi

    2014-06-01

    We study the response of a highly excited time-dependent quantum many-body state to a sudden local perturbation, a sort of orthogonality catastrophe problem in a transient nonequilibrium environment. To this extent we consider, as a key quantity, the overlap between time-dependent wave functions, which we write in terms of a novel two-time correlator generalizing the standard Loschmidt echo. We discuss its physical meaning, general properties, and its connection with experimentally measurable quantities probed through nonequilibrium Ramsey interferometry schemes. Then we present explicit calculations for a one-dimensional interacting Fermi system brought out of equilibrium by a sudden change of the interaction, and perturbed by the switching on of a local static potential. We show that different scattering processes give rise to remarkably different behaviors at long times, quite opposite from the equilibrium situation. In particular, while the forward scattering contribution retains its power-law structure even in the presence of a large nonequilibrium perturbation, with an exponent that is strongly affected by the transient nature of the bath, the backscattering term is a source of nonlinearity which generates an exponential decay in time of the Loschmidt Echo, reminiscent of an effective thermal behavior.

  12. Time-dependent behavior of passive skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, T.; Rubin, M. B.; Trimmer, B. A.; Dorfmann, L.

    2016-03-01

    An isotropic three-dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic model is developed to simulate the time-dependent behavior of passive skeletal muscle. The development of the model is stimulated by experimental data that characterize the response during simple uniaxial stress cyclic loading and unloading. Of particular interest is the rate-dependent response, the recovery of muscle properties from the preconditioned to the unconditioned state and stress relaxation at constant stretch during loading and unloading. The model considers the material to be a composite of a nonlinear hyperelastic component in parallel with a nonlinear dissipative component. The strain energy and the corresponding stress measures are separated additively into hyperelastic and dissipative parts. In contrast to standard nonlinear inelastic models, here the dissipative component is modeled using an evolution equation that combines rate-independent and rate-dependent responses smoothly with no finite elastic range. Large deformation evolution equations for the distortional deformations in the elastic and in the dissipative component are presented. A robust, strongly objective numerical integration algorithm is used to model rate-dependent and rate-independent inelastic responses. The constitutive formulation is specialized to simulate the experimental data. The nonlinear viscoelastic model accurately represents the time-dependent passive response of skeletal muscle.

  13. Time-dependent countermeasure considerations in industrial protection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spogen, L.

    1984-05-01

    Protecting industrial capability from nuclear attack may be done by employing various countermeasures intended to accomplish specific protective goals. Many potential countermeasures have previously been recommended without an appropriate consideration of their implementation times. A countermeasure's effectiveness in accomplishing a prescribed goal depends on the times when various actions associated with it are executed, and on the times required for their execution. We must therefore know about any time dependencies in the countermeasures. A countermeasure's effectiveness is also influenced by the level of protection needed by specific industries and the characteristics of those industries. An overview of basic interdependencies allows us to properly characterize the time dependencies existing in countermeasures. Considerations in this report include: dispersal, survivability requirements for critical industries, enhanced recovery measures, the characterization of industries, and the characterization of countermeasures. Based on these considerations, this report also describes a general method for providing a required post-attack industrial capability at a minimum cost. However, the development and collection of detailed information is needed before the method can be applied. 5 refs., 21 figs.

  14. Time Circular Birefringence in Time-Dependent Magnetoelectric Media

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Zhai, Yan-Wang; Lin, Shi-Rong; Zhao, Qing; Wen, Weijia; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Light traveling in time-dependent media has many extraordinary properties which can be utilized to convert frequency, achieve temporal cloaking, and simulate cosmological phenomena. In this paper, we focus on time-dependent axion-type magnetoelectric (ME) media, and prove that light in these media always has two degenerate modes with opposite circular polarizations corresponding to one wave vector , and name this effect “time circular birefringence” (TCB). By interchanging the status of space and time, the pair of TCB modes can appear simultaneously via “time refraction” and “time reflection” of a linear polarized incident wave at a time interface of ME media. The superposition of the two TCB modes causes the “time Faraday effect”, namely the globally unified polarization axes rotate with time. A circularly polarized Gaussian pulse traversing a time interface is also studied. If the wave-vector spectrum of a pulse mainly concentrates in the non-traveling-wave band, the pulse will be trapped with nearly fixed center while its intensity will grow rapidly. In addition, we propose an experimental scheme of using molecular fluid with external time-varying electric and magnetic fields both parallel to the direction of light to realize these phenomena in practice. PMID:26329928

  15. Bayesian latent structure models with space-time-dependent covariates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew B; Hossain, Md Monir; Choi, Jungsoon

    2012-04-01

    Spatial-temporal data requires flexible regression models which can model the dependence of responses on space- and time-dependent covariates. In this paper, we describe a semiparametric space-time model from a Bayesian perspective. Nonlinear time dependence of covariates and the interactions among the covariates are constructed by local linear and piecewise linear models, allowing for more flexible orientation and position of the covariate plane by using time-varying basis functions. Space-varying covariate linkage coefficients are also incorporated to allow for the variation of space structures across the geographical location. The formulation accommodates uncertainty in the number and locations of the piecewise basis functions to characterize the global effects, spatially structured and unstructured random effects in relation to covariates. The proposed approach relies on variable selection-type mixture priors for uncertainty in the number and locations of basis functions and in the space-varying linkage coefficients. A simulation example is presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with the competing models. A real data example is used for illustration.

  16. Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness meridional tendons This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent Upon inflation and pressurization the instantaneous i e linear-elastic strain and stress distributions in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction However over time and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the gore material the em hoop strains increase and the em meridional stresses decrease whereas the em remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature The results show good correlation with a numerical study using the ABAQUS finite-element package that includes a widely used model of

  17. Inverse problem of quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guang-Jie; Meng, Yan; Chang, Hong; Duan, Hui-Zeng; Di, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Using an algebraic approach, it is possible to obtain the temporal evolution wave function for a Gaussian wave-packet obeying the quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonian (QTDH). However, in general, most of the practical cases are not exactly solvable, for we need general solutions of the Riccatti equations which are not generally known. We therefore bypass directly solving for the temporal evolution wave function, and study its inverse problem. We start with a particular evolution of the wave-packet, and get the required Hamiltonian by using the inverse method. The inverse approach opens up a new way to find new exact solutions to the QTDH. Some typical examples are studied in detail. For a specific time-dependent periodic harmonic oscillator, the Berry phase is obtained exactly. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11347171), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province of China (Grant No. A2012108003), and the Key Project of Educational Commission of Hebei Province of China (Grant No. ZD2014052).

  18. Time-dependent deformations on marine clays on submarine slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, A.J.; Brandes, H.; Sadd, M.H.; Tian, W.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Evidence from geological and geophysical records indicates that time-dependent deformations occur on or within many submarine slopes. Laboratory studies on marine clays from the slope/rise and the ocean's basin have shown that these clays are generally quite viscous and therefore can be expected to deform in the field even under such small stresses as those caused by the downslope component of gravity on relatively gentle slopes. The nature and extent of these deformations has important geologic and engineering applications and depends on a number of factors. A research program at the University of Rhode Island is under way to study these factors, make predictions on rates of displacement, and identify environmental conditions that may lead to catastrophic mass failures. A laboratory testing program on the time-dependent characteristics of marine clays has been under way for a number of years. The data include, among others, long-term drained triaxial, one-dimensional, and direct simple shear creep tests. These results along with practical considerations are used to select a constitutive model for inclusion in the numerical code. Sediment deposits encountered on the continental slope and rise can vary substantially both in composition and behavior over relatively short distances. To analyze the integrated behavior of such a continuum, the authors have selected the finite element method. The code being developed will initially include a numerical model proposed by other investigators. With the aid of the developed methodology, creep deformations can be studied for a number of field cases of interest.

  19. Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries in b {yields} s Penguins

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, H.

    2006-07-11

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}(1020)K{sup 0}, {eta}'K{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, f{sub 0}(980)K{sub S}{sup 0}, {omega}(782)K{sub S}{sup 0} and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays based on a sample of 386 x 106BB(bar sign) pairs collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e+e- collider. These decays are dominated by the b {yields} s gluonic penguin transition and are sensitive to new CP-violating phases from physics beyond the standard model. One neutral meson is fully reconstructed in one of the specified decay channels, and the flavor of the accompanying B meson is identified from its decay products. CP-violation parameters are obtained from the asymmetries in the distributions of the proper-time intervals between the two B decays. We also perform measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{gamma} decay that is dominated by the b {yields} s radiative penguin.

  20. Time-dependent response of dissipative electron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, Jean Christophe; Krause, Pascal; Klamroth, Tillmann; Saalfrank, Peter

    2010-06-15

    We present a systematic study of the influence of energy and phase relaxation on dynamic polarizability simulations in the linear response regime. The nonperturbative approach is based on explicit electron dynamics using short laser pulses of low intensities. To include environmental effects on the property calculation, we use the time-dependent configuration-interaction method in its reduced density matrix formulation. Both energy dissipation and nonlocal pure dephasing are included. The explicit treatment of time-resolved electron dynamics gives access to the phase shift between the electric field and the induced dipole moment, which can be used to define a useful uncertainty measure for the dynamic polarizability. The nonperturbative treatment is compared to perturbation theory expressions, as applied to a simple model system, the rigid H{sub 2} molecule. It is shown that both approaches are equivalent for low field intensities, but the time-dependent treatment provides complementary information on the phase of the induced dipole moment, which allows for the definition of an uncertainty associated with the computation of the dynamic polarizability in the linear response regime.

  1. Mesoscopic structure of neuronal tracts from time-dependent diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Burcaw, Lauren M.; Fieremans, Els; Novikov, Dmitry S.

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting brain diffusion MRI measurements in terms of neuronal structure at a micrometer level is an exciting unresolved problem. Here we consider diffusion transverse to a bundle of fibers, and show theoretically, as well as using Monte Carlo simulations and measurements in a phantom made of parallel fibers mimicking axons, that the time dependent diffusion coefficient approaches its macroscopic limit slowly, in a (lnt)/t fashion. The logarithmic singularity arises due to short range disorder in the fiber packing. We identify short range disorder in axonal fibers based on histological data from the splenium, and argue that the time dependent contribution to the overall diffusion coefficient from the extra-axonal water dominates that of the intra-axonal water. This dominance may explain the bias in measuring axon diameters in clinical settings. The short range disorder is also reflected in the linear frequency dependence of the diffusion coefficient measured with oscillating gradients, in agreement with recent experiments. Our results relate the measured diffusion to the mesoscopic structure of neuronal tissue, uncovering the sensitivity of diffusion metrics to axonal arrangement within a fiber tract, and providing an alternative interpretation of axonal diameter mapping techniques. PMID:25837598

  2. Efficient photoheating algorithms in time-dependent photoionization simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Mellema, Garrelt; Lundqvist, Peter

    2016-02-01

    We present an extension to the time-dependent photoionization code C2-RAY to calculate photoheating in an efficient and accurate way. In C2-RAY, the thermal calculation demands relatively small time-steps for accurate results. We describe two novel methods to reduce the computational cost associated with small time-steps, namely, an adaptive time-step algorithm and an asynchronous evolution approach. The adaptive time-step algorithm determines an optimal time-step for the next computational step. It uses a fast ray-tracing scheme to quickly locate the relevant cells for this determination and only use these cells for the calculation of the time-step. Asynchronous evolution allows different cells to evolve with different time-steps. The asynchronized clocks of the cells are synchronized at the times where outputs are produced. By only evolving cells which may require short time-steps with these short time-steps instead of imposing them to the whole grid, the computational cost of the calculation can be substantially reduced. We show that our methods work well for several cosmologically relevant test problems and validate our results by comparing to the results of another time-dependent photoionization code.

  3. Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons, consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness, meridional tendons. This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons. The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation, whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent. Upon inflation and pressurization, the "instantaneous", i.e. linear-elastic strain and stress distribution in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction. However, over time, and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the material, the hoop strains increase and the meridional stresses decrease, whereas the remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged. These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission, both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon. An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter, 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented. The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature. The results show good correlation with a numerical study, using the ABAQUS finite-element package, that includes a widely used model of the visco-elastic response of the gore material:

  4. Time Dependent Relative Risks in Life Insurance Medical Underwriting.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction .- Life insurance medicine focuses on mortality hazards in specified periods. People are free to insure their lives for shorter or longer terms. Because the chosen terms range from 1 year to a life time, life insurers have to take into account the fact that the predictive value of risk indicators can and will change over time. The time a risk indicator keeps its predictive value, will be dependent on its biological effects, volatility, and treatability. For a given applicant this implies that the relative hazard (RH) calculated for his/her medical condition should be dependent on the term of the insurance. The main objective of this study is to determine if some commonly used risk indicators - previously used to study age dependency of relative risks - have a predictive value that increases with the observation period. (1) Methods .- This population-based cohort study uses NHANES-data files from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES Linked Mortality Files 2010. Only participants aged 20 to 69 that were examined in mobile examination centers, without a history of some prevalent high risk diseases were included. The observed mortality was compared to the expected mortality in a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with Poisson error structure with two reference populations, which both can serve as preferred reference for life insurers: The United States Life Tables 2008 (USLT) and the 2008 Valuation Basic Tables (VBT) based on the insured population of 35 US Life insurers. The time dependency of the RHs of the systolic blood pressure (SBP), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin and albuminuria, was assessed, with correction for ethnicity, household income, history of diabetes mellitus, BMI and serum cholesterol. To be able to compare the results with the results of the Age Dependency Study (ADS), the same data, risk indicators, statistical analysis method, and the

  5. Endocannabinoids mediate bidirectional striatal spike-timing-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yihui; Paillé, Vincent; Xu, Hao; Genet, Stéphane; Delord, Bruno; Fino, Elodie; Berry, Hugues; Venance, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Key points Although learning can arise from few or even a single trial, synaptic plasticity is commonly assessed under prolonged activation. Here, we explored the existence of rapid responsiveness of synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal synapses in a major synaptic learning rule, spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). We found that spike-timing-dependent depression (tLTD) progressively disappears when the number of paired stimulations (below 50 pairings) is decreased whereas spike-timing-dependent potentiation (tLTP) displays a biphasic profile: tLTP is observed for 75–100 pairings, is absent for 25–50 pairings and re-emerges for 5–10 pairings. This tLTP induced by low numbers of pairings (5–10) depends on activation of the endocannabinoid system, type-1 cannabinoid receptor and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1. Endocannabinoid-tLTP may represent a physiological mechanism operating during the rapid learning of new associative memories and behavioural rules characterizing the flexible behaviour of mammals or during the initial stages of habit learning. Abstract Synaptic plasticity, a main substrate for learning and memory, is commonly assessed with prolonged stimulations. Since learning can arise from few or even a single trial, synaptic strength is expected to adapt rapidly. However, whether synaptic plasticity occurs in response to limited event occurrences remains elusive. To answer this question, we investigated whether a low number of paired stimulations can induce plasticity in a major synaptic learning rule, spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). It is known that 100 pairings induce bidirectional STDP, i.e. spike-timing-dependent potentiation (tLTP) and depression (tLTD) at most central synapses. In rodent striatum, we found that tLTD progressively disappears when the number of paired stimulations is decreased (below 50 pairings) whereas tLTP displays a biphasic profile: tLTP is observed for 75–100 pairings, absent for 25

  6. Time Dependent Relative Risks in Life Insurance Medical Underwriting.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction .- Life insurance medicine focuses on mortality hazards in specified periods. People are free to insure their lives for shorter or longer terms. Because the chosen terms range from 1 year to a life time, life insurers have to take into account the fact that the predictive value of risk indicators can and will change over time. The time a risk indicator keeps its predictive value, will be dependent on its biological effects, volatility, and treatability. For a given applicant this implies that the relative hazard (RH) calculated for his/her medical condition should be dependent on the term of the insurance. The main objective of this study is to determine if some commonly used risk indicators - previously used to study age dependency of relative risks - have a predictive value that increases with the observation period. (1) Methods .- This population-based cohort study uses NHANES-data files from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES Linked Mortality Files 2010. Only participants aged 20 to 69 that were examined in mobile examination centers, without a history of some prevalent high risk diseases were included. The observed mortality was compared to the expected mortality in a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with Poisson error structure with two reference populations, which both can serve as preferred reference for life insurers: The United States Life Tables 2008 (USLT) and the 2008 Valuation Basic Tables (VBT) based on the insured population of 35 US Life insurers. The time dependency of the RHs of the systolic blood pressure (SBP), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin and albuminuria, was assessed, with correction for ethnicity, household income, history of diabetes mellitus, BMI and serum cholesterol. To be able to compare the results with the results of the Age Dependency Study (ADS), the same data, risk indicators, statistical analysis method, and the

  7. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  8. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  9. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  10. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  11. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  12. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.

  13. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  14. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  15. The 3D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dame, L. T.; Mcknight, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop an analytical tool capable of economically evaluating the cyclic time dependent plasticity which occurs in hot section engine components in areas of strain concentration resulting from the combination of both mechanical and thermal stresses. The techniques developed must be capable of accommodating large excursions in temperatures with the associated variations in material properties including plasticity and creep. The overall objective of this proposed program is to develop advanced 3-D inelastic structural/stress analysis methods and solution strategies for more accurate and yet more cost effective analysis of combustors, turbine blades, and vanes. The approach will be to develop four different theories, one linear and three higher order with increasing complexities including embedded singularities.

  16. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

    2005-11-01

    A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

  5. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  6. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  7. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  8. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  9. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  10. Investigations in massive 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo; Scatena, Eslley

    2011-05-15

    Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

  11. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  12. TOUGHREACT—A simulation program for non-isothermal multiphase reactive geochemical transport in variably saturated geologic media: Applications to geothermal injectivity and CO 2 geological sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2006-03-01

    TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The program was written in Fortran 77 and developed by introducing reactive geochemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2. A variety of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under a wide range of conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, ionic strength, and pH and Eh. Interactions between mineral assemblages and fluids can occur under local equilibrium or kinetic rates. The gas phase can be chemically active. Precipitation and dissolution reactions can change formation porosity and permeability. The program can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic, and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. Here we present two examples to illustrate applicability of the program. The first example deals with injectivity effects of mineral scaling in a fractured geothermal reservoir. A major concern in the development of hot dry rock and hot fractured rock reservoirs is achieving and maintaining adequate injectivity, while avoiding the development of preferential short-circuiting flow paths. Rock-fluid interactions and associated mineral dissolution and precipitation effects could have a major impact on the long-term performance of these reservoirs. We used recent European studies as a starting point to explore chemically induced effects of fluid circulation in the geothermal systems. We examine ways in which the chemical composition of reinjected waters can be modified to improve reservoir performance by maintaining or even enhancing injectivity. The second TOUGHREACT application example is related to CO 2 geologic sequestration in a saline aquifer. We performed numerical simulations for a commonly encountered Gulf Coast sediment

  13. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L.; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-01-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson–Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  14. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  15. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  16. Time-dependent radiation hazard estimations during space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobynde, Mikhail; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander

    Cosmic particle radiation is a limiting factor for the out of magnetosphere crewed flights. The cosmic radiation uncrewed flights inside heliosphere and crewed flights inside of magnetosphere tend to become a routine procedure, whereas there have been only few shot time flights out of it (Apollo missions 1969-1972) with maximum duration less than a month. Long term crewed missions set much higher requirements to the radiation shielding, primarily because of long exposition term. Inside the helosphere there are two main sources of cosmic radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and coronal mass ejections (CME). GCR come from the outside of heliosphere forming a background of overall radiation that affects the spacecraft. The intensity of GCR is varied according to solar activity, increasing with solar activity decrease and backward, with the modulation time (time between nearest maxima) of 11 yeas. CME are shot term events, comparing to GCR modulation time, but are much more energetic. The probability of CME increases with the increase of solar activity. Time dependences of the intensity of these two components encourage looking for a time window of flight, when intensity and affection of CME and GCR would be minimized. Applying time dependent models of GCR spectra [1] and estimations of CME we show the time dependence of the radiation dose in a realistic human phantom [2] inside the shielding capsule. We pay attention to the shielding capsule design, looking for an optimal geometry parameters and materials. Different types of particles affect differently on the human providing more or less harm to the tissues. Incident particles provide a large amount of secondary particles while propagating through the shielding capsule. We make an attempt to find an optimal combination of shielding capsule parameters, namely material and thickness, that will effectively decrease the incident particle energy, at the same time minimizing flow of secondary induced particles and

  17. A Cross-Benchmarking and Validation Initiative for Tokamak 3D Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiman, A.; Turnbull, A.; Evans, T.; Ferraro, N.; Lazarus, E.; Breslau, J.; Cerfon, A.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.; King, J.; Lanctot, M.; Lazerson, S.; Liu, Y.; McFadden, G.; Monticello, D.; Nazikian, R.; Park, J. K.; Sovinec, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Zhu, P.

    2014-10-01

    We are pursuing a cross-benchmarking and validation initiative for tokamak 3D equilibrium calculations, with 11 codes participating: the linearized tokamak equilibrium codes IPEC and MARS-F, the time-dependent extended MHD codes M3D-C1, M3D, and NIMROD, the gyrokinetic code XGC, as well as the stellarator codes VMEC, NSTAB, PIES, HINT and SPEC. Dedicated experiments for the purpose of generating data for validation have been done on the DIII-D tokamak. The data will allow us to do validation simultaneously with cross-benchmarking. Initial cross-benchmarking calculations are finding a disagreement between stellarator and tokamak 3D equilibrium codes. Work supported in part by U.S. DOE under Contracts DE-ACO2-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04E854698, DE-FG02-95E854309 and DE-AC05-000R22725.

  18. Shortcuts to adiabaticity in a time-dependent box

    PubMed Central

    Campo, A. del; Boshier, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed to drive an ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of an ultracold gas trapped in a time-dependent box potential. The resulting state is free from spurious excitations associated with the breakdown of adiabaticity, and preserves the quantum correlations of the initial state up to a scaling factor. The process relies on the existence of an adiabatic invariant and the inversion of the dynamical self-similar scaling law dictated by it. Its physical implementation generally requires the use of an auxiliary expulsive potential. The method is extended to a broad family of interacting many-body systems. As illustrative examples we consider the ultrafast expansion of a Tonks-Girardeau gas and of Bose-Einstein condensates in different dimensions, where the method exhibits an excellent robustness against different regimes of interactions and the features of an experimentally realizable box potential. PMID:22970340

  19. Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2004-07-01

    In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method.

  20. Large blue isocurvature spectral index signals time-dependent mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.

    2016-08-01

    We show that if a spectator linear isocurvature dark matter field degree of freedom has a constant mass through its entire evolution history, the maximum measurable isocurvature spectral index that is consistent with the current tensor-to-scalar ratio bound of about r ≲0.1 is about nI≲2.4 , even if experiments can be sensitive to a 10-6 contamination of the predominantly adiabatic power spectrum with an isocurvature power spectrum at the shortest observable length scales. Hence, any foreseeable future measurement of a blue isocurvature spectral index larger than ˜2.4 may provide nontrivial evidence for dynamical degrees of freedom with time-dependent masses during inflation. The bound is not sensitive to the details of the reheating scenario and can be made mildly smaller if r is better constrained in the future.

  1. Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinser, Jason M.

    2015-04-01

    A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time1, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v (t ) =∫ a (t ) d t (1) and x (t ) =∫ v (t ) dt. Mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets have accelerometers that capture slowly evolving acceleration with respect to time and can deliver those measurements as a CSV file. A recent example measured the oscillations of the elevator as it starts its motion.2 In the application presented here the mobile device is used to estimate the height of the elevator ride. By estimating the functional form of the acceleration of an elevator ride, it is possible to estimate the height of the ride through Eqs. (1) and (2).

  2. Time-dependent reliability analysis and condition assessment of structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Structures generally play a passive role in assurance of safety in nuclear plant operation, but are important if the plant is to withstand the effect of extreme environmental or abnormal events. Relative to mechanical and electrical components, structural systems and components would be difficult and costly to replace. While the performance of steel or reinforced concrete structures in service generally has been very good, their strengths may deteriorate during an extended service life as a result of changes brought on by an aggressive environment, excessive loading, or accidental loading. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures can be developed using time-dependent structural reliability analysis methods. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process.

  3. Light pressure of time-dependent fields in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidler, A.; Schnabl, H.; Mulser, P.

    1985-01-01

    An expression of the light pressure Pi is derived for the case of a nearly monochromatic electromagnetic wave with arbitrarily time-dependent amplitude. Thereby Pi is defined as the time-averaged force density exerted on a plasma by the wave. The resulting equations are valid for both transverse and longitudinal waves. The light pressure turns out to consist of two components: the well-known gradient-type term and a new nonstationary solenoidal term. This is true for warm as well as cold plasmas. The importance of the new term for the generation of static magnetic fields is shown, and a model in which shear forces may result is given. Formulas for the nonstationary light pressure developed previously are discussed.

  4. Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Thomas A. . E-mail: tabrunn@sandia.gov; Holloway, James Paul

    2005-11-20

    A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P{sub 1} equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem.

  5. Time-dependent Corotation Resonance in Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Pfenniger, Daniel; Taam, Ronald E.

    2016-10-01

    The effective potential neighboring the corotation resonance region in barred galaxies is shown to be strongly time-dependent in any rotating frame, due to the competition of nearby perturbations of similar strengths with differing rotation speeds. Contrary to the generally adopted assumption that in the bar rotating frame the corotation region should possess four stationary equilibrium points (Lagrange points), with high quality N-body simulations, we localize the instantaneous equilibrium points (EPs) and find that they circulate or oscillate broadly in azimuth with respect to the pattern speeds of the inner or outer perturbations. This implies that at the particle level the Jacobi integral is not well conserved around the corotation radius. That is, angular momentum exchanges decouple from energy exchanges, enhancing the chaotic diffusion of stars through the corotation region.

  6. Time-dependent variation of composition of SC1 solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Isao; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Ryuta, Jiro; Kishimoto, Mikio; Shingyouji, Takayuki

    1993-09-01

    We investigated the time-dependent variation of composition of NH4OH/H2O2/H2O mixture, the standard cleaning 1 (SC1) solution in the RCA cleaning process. The NH4OH concentration decreased with time and that of H2O2 was almost constant. It was clarified that the decrease rate of NH4OH concentration depended on the temperature and H2O2 concentration in the SC1 solution. As the temperature was raised, the decrease rate accelerated. Conversely, as H2O2 concentration was raised, the rate decelerated. It is concluded that the hydrogen bond between NH3 and H2O2 prevents NH3 evaporation.

  7. Origin of the spike-timing-dependent plasticity rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myoung Won; Choi, M. Y.

    2016-08-01

    A biological synapse changes its efficacy depending on the difference between pre- and post-synaptic spike timings. Formulating spike-timing-dependent interactions in terms of the path integral, we establish a neural-network model, which makes it possible to predict relevant quantities rigorously by means of standard methods in statistical mechanics and field theory. In particular, the biological synaptic plasticity rule is shown to emerge as the optimal form for minimizing the free energy. It is further revealed that maximization of the entropy of neural activities gives rise to the competitive behavior of biological learning. This demonstrates that statistical mechanics helps to understand rigorously key characteristic behaviors of a neural network, thus providing the possibility of physics serving as a useful and relevant framework for probing life.

  8. Measuring time-dependent diffusion in polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Pilli, Siva Prasad; Smith, Lloyd V.; Shutthanandan, V.

    2014-11-01

    Moisture plays a significant role in influencing the mechanical behavior and long-term durability of polymer matrix composites (PMC’s). The common methods used to determine the moisture diffusion coefficients of PMCs are based on the solution of Fickian diffusion in the one-dimensional domain. Fick’s Law assumes that equilibrium between the material surface and the external vapor is established instantaneously. A time dependent boundary condition has been shown to improve correlation with some bulk diffusion measurements, but has not been validated experimentally. The surface moisture content in a Toray 800S/3900-2B toughened quasi-isotropic laminate system, [0/±60]s, was analyzed experimentally using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). It was found that the surface moisture content showed a rapid increase to an intermediate concentration C0, followed by a slow linear increase to the saturation level.

  9. Time dependent electronic transport in chiral edge channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.

    2016-02-01

    We study time dependent electronic transport along the chiral edge channels of the quantum Hall regime, focusing on the role of Coulomb interaction. In the low frequency regime, the a.c. conductance can be derived from a lumped element description of the circuit. At higher frequencies, the propagation equations of the Coulomb coupled edge channels need to be solved. As a consequence of the interchannel coupling, a charge pulse emitted in a given channel fractionalized in several pulses. In particular, Coulomb interaction between channels leads to the fractionalization of a charge pulse emitted in a given channel in several pulses. We finally study how the Coulomb interaction, and in particular the fractionalization process, affects the propagation of a single electron in the circuit. All the above-mentioned topics are illustrated by experimental realizations.

  10. Reprint of : Time dependent electronic transport in chiral edge channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.

    2016-08-01

    We study time dependent electronic transport along the chiral edge channels of the quantum Hall regime, focusing on the role of Coulomb interaction. In the low frequency regime, the a.c. conductance can be derived from a lumped element description of the circuit. At higher frequencies, the propagation equations of the Coulomb coupled edge channels need to be solved. As a consequence of the interchannel coupling, a charge pulse emitted in a given channel fractionalized in several pulses. In particular, Coulomb interaction between channels leads to the fractionalization of a charge pulse emitted in a given channel in several pulses. We finally study how the Coulomb interaction, and in particular the fractionalization process, affects the propagation of a single electron in the circuit. All the above-mentioned topics are illustrated by experimental realizations.

  11. Shortcuts to adiabaticity in a time-dependent box.

    PubMed

    del Campo, A; Boshier, M G

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed to drive an ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of an ultracold gas trapped in a time-dependent box potential. The resulting state is free from spurious excitations associated with the breakdown of adiabaticity, and preserves the quantum correlations of the initial state up to a scaling factor. The process relies on the existence of an adiabatic invariant and the inversion of the dynamical self-similar scaling law dictated by it. Its physical implementation generally requires the use of an auxiliary expulsive potential. The method is extended to a broad family of interacting many-body systems. As illustrative examples we consider the ultrafast expansion of a Tonks-Girardeau gas and of Bose-Einstein condensates in different dimensions, where the method exhibits an excellent robustness against different regimes of interactions and the features of an experimentally realizable box potential.

  12. Shortcuts to adiabaticity in a time-dependent box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Campo, A.; Boshier, M. G.

    2012-09-01

    A method is proposed to drive an ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of an ultracold gas trapped in a time-dependent box potential. The resulting state is free from spurious excitations associated with the breakdown of adiabaticity, and preserves the quantum correlations of the initial state up to a scaling factor. The process relies on the existence of an adiabatic invariant and the inversion of the dynamical self-similar scaling law dictated by it. Its physical implementation generally requires the use of an auxiliary expulsive potential. The method is extended to a broad family of interacting many-body systems. As illustrative examples we consider the ultrafast expansion of a Tonks-Girardeau gas and of Bose-Einstein condensates in different dimensions, where the method exhibits an excellent robustness against different regimes of interactions and the features of an experimentally realizable box potential.

  13. Spin-orbit torque induced spike-timing dependent plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Abhronil Al Azim, Zubair; Fong, Xuanyao; Roy, Kaushik

    2015-03-02

    Nanoelectronic devices that mimic the functionality of synapses are a crucial requirement for performing cortical simulations of the brain. In this work, we propose a ferromagnet-heavy metal heterostructure that employs spin-orbit torque to implement spike-timing dependent plasticity. The proposed device offers the advantage of decoupled spike transmission and programming current paths, thereby leading to reliable operation during online learning. Possible arrangement of such devices in a crosspoint architecture can pave the way for ultra-dense neural networks. Simulation studies indicate that the device has the potential of achieving pico-Joule level energy consumption (maximum 2 pJ per synaptic event) which is comparable to the energy consumption for synaptic events in biological synapses.

  14. String pair production in a time-dependent gravitational field

    SciTech Connect

    Tolley, Andrew J.; Wesley, Daniel H.

    2005-12-15

    We study the pair creation of point particles and strings in a time-dependent, weak gravitational field. We find that, for massive string states, there are surprising and significant differences between the string and point-particle results. Central to our approach is the fact that a weakly curved spacetime can be represented by a coherent state of gravitons, and therefore we employ standard techniques in string perturbation theory. String and point-particle pairs are created through tree-level interactions between the background gravitons. In particular, we focus on the production of excited string states and perform explicit calculations of the production of a set of string states of arbitrary excitation level. The differences between the string and point-particle results may contain important lessons for the pair production of strings in the strong gravitational fields of interest in cosmology and black hole physics.

  15. Time Dependence of Joy's Law for Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios; Zhang, J.; Liu, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Joy's law governs the tilt of Active Regions (ARs) with respect to their absolute heliographic latitude. Together with Hale's law of hemispheric polarity, it is essential in constraining solar dynamo models. However, previous studies on Joy's law show only a weak positive trend between AR tilt angles and latitudes. In this study, we are focusing on the time dependence of Joy's law, for the cases of emerging ARs of Solar Cycle 24. We selected 40 ARs that emerge on the East hemisphere, effectively maximizing the observing time for each AR. Then, by converting the helioprojective maps into heliographic, we determine the geometrical as well as the magnetic-flux-weighted centroids for each emergence case. That way we are able to track the temporal evolution of their physical properties, including locations, fluxes of positive and negative polarities, as well as the tilt angles of these regions in a continuous manner until emergence stops and the ARs assume their final state.

  16. SYMTRAN - A Time-dependent Symmetric Tandem Mirror Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, D; Fowler, T

    2004-06-15

    A time-dependent version of the steady-state radial transport model in symmetric tandem mirrors in Ref. [1] has been coded up and first tests performed. Our code, named SYMTRAN, is an adaptation of the earlier SPHERE code for spheromaks, now modified for tandem mirror physics. Motivated by Post's new concept of kinetic stabilization of symmetric mirrors, it is an extension of the earlier TAMRAC rate-equation code omitting radial transport [2], which successfully accounted for experimental results in TMX. The SYMTRAN code differs from the earlier tandem mirror radial transport code TMT in that our code is focused on axisymmetric tandem mirrors and classical diffusion, whereas TMT emphasized non-ambipolar transport in TMX and MFTF-B due to yin-yang plugs and non-symmetric transitions between the plugs and axisymmetric center cell. Both codes exhibit interesting but different non-linear behavior.

  17. Multiaxial Temperature- and Time-Dependent Failure Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, David; McLennan, Michael; Anderson, Gregory; Macon, David; Batista-Rodriquez, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    A temperature- and time-dependent mathematical model predicts the conditions for failure of a material subjected to multiaxial stress. The model was initially applied to a filled epoxy below its glass-transition temperature, and is expected to be applicable to other materials, at least below their glass-transition temperatures. The model is justified simply by the fact that it closely approximates the experimentally observed failure behavior of this material: The multiaxiality of the model has been confirmed (see figure) and the model has been shown to be applicable at temperatures from -20 to 115 F (-29 to 46 C) and to predict tensile failures of constant-load and constant-load-rate specimens with failure times ranging from minutes to months..

  18. A time dependent anatomically detailed model of cardiac conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxberg, B. E.; Grumbach, M. P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand the determinants of transitions in cardiac electrical activity from normal patterns to dysrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, we are constructing an anatomically and physiologically detailed finite element simulation of myocardial electrical propagation. A healthy human heart embedded in paraffin was sectioned to provide a detailed anatomical substrate for model calculations. The simulation of propagation includes anisotropy in conduction velocity due to fiber orientation as well as gradients in conduction velocities, absolute and relative refractory periods, action potential duration and electrotonic influence of nearest neighbors. The model also includes changes in the behaviour of myocardial tissue as a function of the past local activity. With this model, we can examine the significance of fiber orientation and time dependence of local propagation parameters on dysrhythmogenesis.

  19. A gauge invariant theory for time dependent heat current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; ShangGuan, Minhui; Wang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we develop a general gauge-invariant theory for AC heat current through multi-probe systems. Using the non-equilibrium Green’s function, a general expression for time-dependent electrothermal admittance is obtained where we include the internal potential due to the Coulomb interaction explicitly. We show that the gauge-invariant condition is satisfied for heat current if the self-consistent Coulomb interaction is considered. It is known that the Onsager relation holds for dynamic charge conductance. We show in this work that the Onsager relation for electrothermal admittance is violated, except for a special case of a quantum dot system with a single energy level. We apply our theory to a nano capacitor where the Coulomb interaction plays an essential role. We find that, to the first order in frequency, the heat current is related to the electrochemical capacitance as well as the phase accumulated in the scattering event.

  20. Time-dependent reliability analysis of ceramic engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.

    1993-01-01

    The computer program CARES/LIFE calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/or proof test loading. This program is an extension of the CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. CARES/LIFE accounts for the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth (SCG) by utilizing either the power or Paris law relations. The two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function is used to characterize the variation in component strength. The effects of multiaxial stresses are modeled using either the principle of independent action (PIA), the Weibull normal stress averaging method (NSA), or the Batdorf theory. Inert strength and fatigue parameters are estimated from rupture strength data of naturally flawed specimens loaded in static, dynamic, or cyclic fatigue. Two example problems demonstrating proof testing and fatigue parameter estimation are given.

  1. Equation-free analysis of spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Laing, Carlo R; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2015-12-01

    Spike-timing-dependent plasticity is the process by which the strengths of connections between neurons are modified as a result of the precise timing of the action potentials fired by the neurons. We consider a model consisting of one integrate-and-fire neuron receiving excitatory inputs from a large number-here, 1000-of Poisson neurons whose synapses are plastic. When correlations are introduced between the firing times of these input neurons, the distribution of synaptic strengths shows interesting, and apparently low-dimensional, dynamical behaviour. This behaviour is analysed in two different parameter regimes using equation-free techniques, which bypass the explicit derivation of the relevant low-dimensional dynamical system. We demonstrate both coarse projective integration (which speeds up the time integration of a dynamical system) and the use of recently developed data mining techniques to identify the appropriate low-dimensional description of the complex dynamical systems in our model.

  2. Translation invariant time-dependent solutions to massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, J.; Steer, D.A. E-mail: steer@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2013-12-01

    Homogeneous time-dependent solutions of massive gravity generalise the plane wave solutions of the linearised Fierz-Pauli equations for a massive spin-two particle, as well as the Kasner solutions of General Relativity. We show that they also allow a clear counting of the degrees of freedom and represent a simplified framework to work out the constraints, the equations of motion and the initial value formulation. We work in the vielbein formulation of massive gravity, find the phase space resulting from the constraints and show that several disconnected sectors of solutions exist some of which are unstable. The initial values determine the sector to which a solution belongs. Classically, the theory is not pathological but quantum mechanically the theory may suffer from instabilities. The latter are not due to an extra ghost-like degree of freedom.

  3. Time-dependent behavior of flax/starch composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varna, J.; Spārniņš, E.; Joffe, R.; Nättinen, K.; Lampinen, J.

    2012-02-01

    The time-dependent mechanical response of flax fiber-reinforced thermoplastic starch matrix composite and neat starch is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the response is highly sensitive to the relative humidity (with specific saturation moisture content in the composite) and special effort has to be made to keep it constant. It was found that the accumulation of micro-damage and the resulting reduction of the elastic modulus in this type of composite is limited. The highly nonlinear behavior of composites is related to the nonlinear viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity. These phenomena are accounted for by simple material models, as suggested in this study. The stress-dependent nonlinearity descriptors in these models are determined in creep and strain recovery tests at low as well as by high stresses.

  4. Fermion Mass Renormalization Using Time-dependent Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutnink, Timothy; Santrach, Amelia; Hocket, Sarah; Barcus, Scott; Petridis, Athanasios

    2015-10-01

    The time-dependent electromagnetically self-coupled Dirac equation is solved numerically by means of the staggered-leap-frog algorithm with refcecting boundary conditions. The stability region of the method versus the interaction strength and the spatial-grid size over time-step ratio is established. The expectation values of several dynamic operators are then evaluated as functions of time. These include the fermion and electromagnetic energies and the fermion dynamic mass, as the self-interacting spinors are no longer mass-eigenfunctions. There is a characteristic, non-exponential, oscillatory dependence leading to asymptotic constants of these expectation values. In the case of the fermion mass this amounts to renormalization. The dependence of the expectation values on the spatial-grid size is evaluated in detail. Statistical regularization is proposed to remove the grid-size dependence.

  5. Time-dependent local density measurements in unsteady flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.; Monson, D. J.; Exberger, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence technique for measuring the relative time-dependent density fluctuations in unsteady or turbulent flows is demonstrated. Using a 1.5-W continuous-wave Kr(+) laser, measurements have been obtained in 0.1-mm diameter by 1-mm-long sampling volumes in a Mach 3 flow of N2 seeded with biacetyl vapor. A signal amplitude resolution of 2% was achieved for a detection frequency bandwidth of 10 kHz. The measurement uncertainty was found to be dominated by noise behaving as photon statistical noise. The practical limits of signal-to-noise ratios have been characterized for a wide range of detection frequency bandwidths that encompasses those of interest in supersonic turbulence measurements.

  6. Time-dependent local density measurements in unsteady flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.; Monson, D. J.; Exberger, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence technique for measuring the relative time-dependent density fluctuations in unsteady or turbulent flows is demonstrated. Using a 1.5-W continuous-wave Kr(+) laser, measurements have been obtained in 0.1-mm-diameter by 1-mm-long sampling volumes in a Mach 3 flow of N2 seeded with biacetyl vapor. A signal amplitude resolution of 2% was achieved for a detection frequency bandwidth of 10 kHz. The measurement uncertainty was found to be dominated by noise behaving as photon statistical noise. The practical limits of signal-to-noise ratios have been characterized for a wide range of detection frequency bandwidths that encompasses those of interest in supersonic turbulence measurements.

  7. Retroactive modulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity by dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Brzosko, Zuzanna; Schultz, Wolfram; Paulsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Most reinforcement learning models assume that the reward signal arrives after the activity that led to the reward, placing constraints on the possible underlying cellular mechanisms. Here we show that dopamine, a positive reinforcement signal, can retroactively convert hippocampal timing-dependent synaptic depression into potentiation. This effect requires functional NMDA receptors and is mediated in part through the activation of the cAMP/PKA cascade. Collectively, our results support the idea that reward-related signaling can act on a pre-established synaptic eligibility trace, thereby associating specific experiences with behaviorally distant, rewarding outcomes. This finding identifies a biologically plausible mechanism for solving the ‘distal reward problem’. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09685.001 PMID:26516682

  8. Time-dependent, optically thick accretion onto a black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilden, D. L.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A fully relativistic hydrodynamics code which incorporates diffusive radiation transport is used to study time-dependent, spherically symmetric, optically thick accretion onto a black hole. It is found that matter free-falls into the hole regardless of whether the diffusion time scale is longer or shorter than the dynamical time. Nonadiabatic heating due to magnetic field reconnection is included. The internal energy thus generated affects the flow in a purely relativistic way, again ensuring free-fall collapse of the inflowing matter. Any matter enveloping a black hole will thus be swallowed on a dynamical time scale with relatively small net release of energy. The inclusion of angular momentum will not necessarily affect this conclusion.

  9. 3D Printing Meets Computational Astrophysics: Deciphering the Structure of Eta Carinae’s Colliding Winds Using 3D Prints of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Gull, Theodore R.; Clementel, Nicola; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Kruip, Chael; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Teodoro, Mairan

    2015-01-01

    We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (>120 MSun), highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9) binary Eta Carinae. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of Eta Carinae's inner (r ~110 AU) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. These 3D prints reveal important, previously unknown 'finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ~1.045) that protrude radially outward from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively-cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the hot, adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unknown physical features highlight the important role 3D printing can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.

  10. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  11. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  12. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Ahmad P.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B.; Holz, Jessica D.; Owen, Heather A.; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  13. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  14. An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

  15. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  16. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  17. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  18. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  19. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  20. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...